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Sample records for genesis concentrator target

  1. Recent Optical and SEM Characterization of Genesis Solar Wind Concentrator Diamond on Silicon Collector

    Allton, Judith H.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Burkett, P. J.; Ross, D. K.; Gonzalez, C. P.; McNamara, K. M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the 4 Genesis solar wind concentrator collectors was a silicon substrate coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) in which to capture solar wind. This material was designed for analysis of solar nitrogen and noble gases [1, 2]. This particular collector fractured during landing, but about 80% of the surface was recovered, including a large piece which was subdivided in 2012 [3, 4, 5]. The optical and SEM imaging and analysis described below supports the subdivision and allocation of the diamond-on-silicon (DOS) concentrator collector.

  2. Target concentration intervention: beyond Y2K.

    Holford, N H

    2001-01-01

    Target concentration intervention (TCI) is proposed as an alternative conceptual strategy to therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). It is argued that the idea of a therapeutic range has limited the interpretation of measured drug concentrations and diminished the anticipated clinical benefit to patients by use of an oversimplified pharmacodynamic model. TCI on the other hand embraces pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic concepts and uses the idea of a target effect and associated target concentration to make rational individual dose decisions.

  3. Genesis machines

    Amos, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Silicon chips are out. Today's scientists are using real, wet, squishy, living biology to build the next generation of computers. Cells, gels and DNA strands are the 'wetware' of the twenty-first century. Much smaller and more intelligent, these organic computers open up revolutionary possibilities. Tracing the history of computing and revealing a brave new world to come, Genesis Machines describes how this new technology will change the way we think not just about computers - but about life itself.

  4. Nanostructure sensor of presence and concentration of a target molecule

    Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system (i) to determine when a selected target molecule is present or absent in a fluid, (2) to estimate concentration of the target molecule in the fluid and (3) estimate possible presence of a second (different) target molecule in the fluid, by analyzing differences in resonant frequencies of vibration of a thin beam suspended in the fluid, after the fluid has moved across the beam.

  5. Molecular nuclear imaging of tumoral angio genesis using a rgd-containing tracer, Raft-RGD, targeted at the neo vessel-specific integrin αvβ3

    Sancey, L.

    2006-06-01

    Tumoral neo-angio genesis targeting is currently a major field of research for the diagnostic and treatment of solid tumors. Endothelial cells from neo vessels over express several specific markers such as the α v β 3 integrin, which binds RGD (-Arg-Gly-Asp-)- containing peptides. We evaluated the potential of a novel radiotracer - RAFT-RGD - for the molecular nuclear imaging of neo vessels. In vitro, the coupling of 4 c(RGDfK) to the RAFT platform resulted in an increased cellular uptake of the tracer by α v β 3 positive cells when compared to c(RGDfK). Furthermore, RAFTRGD has a higher affinity than c(RGDfK) and similar properties for angio genesis inhibition. In vivo, both α v β 3 positive and negative tumors were visible by non invasive whole body planar and tomographic imaging from 30 min to 24 h post-injection, using a gamma camera dedicated to small animal imaging. Despite a lack of significant contrast improvement compare with c(RGDfK), RAFT-RGD could represent a promising tracer for tumoral angio genesis since it could provide invaluable information about tumor development and treatment efficacy in Nuclear Medicine departments. Furthermore, thanks to its chemical structure, RAFT-RGD can be labelled with a variety of radioisotopes including γ and β - emitters, allowing interesting therapeutical applications such as internal targeted radiotherapy. (author)

  6. Achieving target voriconazole concentrations more accurately in children and adolescents.

    Neely, Michael; Margol, Ashley; Fu, Xiaowei; van Guilder, Michael; Bayard, David; Schumitzky, Alan; Orbach, Regina; Liu, Siyu; Louie, Stan; Hope, William

    2015-01-01

    Despite the documented benefit of voriconazole therapeutic drug monitoring, nonlinear pharmacokinetics make the timing of steady-state trough sampling and appropriate dose adjustments unpredictable by conventional methods. We developed a nonparametric population model with data from 141 previously richly sampled children and adults. We then used it in our multiple-model Bayesian adaptive control algorithm to predict measured concentrations and doses in a separate cohort of 33 pediatric patients aged 8 months to 17 years who were receiving voriconazole and enrolled in a pharmacokinetic study. Using all available samples to estimate the individual Bayesian posterior parameter values, the median percent prediction bias relative to a measured target trough concentration in the patients was 1.1% (interquartile range, -17.1 to 10%). Compared to the actual dose that resulted in the target concentration, the percent bias of the predicted dose was -0.7% (interquartile range, -7 to 20%). Using only trough concentrations to generate the Bayesian posterior parameter values, the target bias was 6.4% (interquartile range, -1.4 to 14.7%; P = 0.16 versus the full posterior parameter value) and the dose bias was -6.7% (interquartile range, -18.7 to 2.4%; P = 0.15). Use of a sample collected at an optimal time of 4 h after a dose, in addition to the trough concentration, resulted in a nonsignificantly improved target bias of 3.8% (interquartile range, -13.1 to 18%; P = 0.32) and a dose bias of -3.5% (interquartile range, -18 to 14%; P = 0.33). With the nonparametric population model and trough concentrations, our control algorithm can accurately manage voriconazole therapy in children independently of steady-state conditions, and it is generalizable to any drug with a nonparametric pharmacokinetic model. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01976078.). Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. The feasibility of low concentration targets: An application of FUND

    Tol, Richard S.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of stringent targets for stabilizing ambient greenhouse gas concentrations using the FUND model. 170,000 policy scenarios were run, systematically varying the price of carbon, participation in climate policy, the strength of the climate feedback on the terrestrial carbon cycle, the no policy scenario, and the abatement costs. The results reveal the following. Climate policy has diminishing returns, and there is therefore a maximum to what can be achieved. The success of climate policy is hampered if, as is likely, the terrestrial biosphere turns from a carbon sink to a carbon source because of climate change. All major countries have to reduce their emissions in order to meet the more ambitious stabilization targets. The cost of climate policy would be lower if the stabilization target can be exceeded in the interim. The EU target of 2 deg. C warming above pre-industrial is infeasible under almost all assumptions. A cost-benefit analysis would endorse a target of 4.5 W m -2 (but not much stricter than that) if all major emitters engage in abatement. Under the same condition, the median US voter would support a 3.7 W m -2 target (but not much stricter than that). International permit trade would encourage large developing countries to reduce their emissions, but the trade flows would be substantial relative to product trade and much larger than official development aid.

  8. Genesis Science Team Report on Mission Status

    Burnett, D. S.

    2005-12-01

    The Genesis Discovery Mission exposed pure materials to the solar wind at the L1 Lagrangian point for 27 months between December 2001 and April 2004. These were returned for analysis in terrestrial laboratories in Sept 2004. The general science objectives for Genesis are: (1) measure solar isotopic abundance ratios to the precision required for planetary science problems, (2) improve the accuracy of photospheric elemental abundances by a least a factor of three, (3) provide independent analyses of the 3 major solar wind regimes and (4) provide a reservoir of solar matter for subsequent studies. Based on these general objectives, we are working towards a list of 18 specific prioritized measurement objectives, the first 5 of which are isotopic measurements. The two highest priority objectives are the isotopic compositions of O and N; to obtain a higher signal to background ratio for these elements, a concentrator (focusing ion telescope) was built at LANL to provide a factor of 20 fluence enhancement for elements lighter than P on a 30 mm radius target. The concentrator performed well in flight. A variety of other collector materials, tailored to specific analytical approaches, were mounted in 5 arrays of 55 hexagons, 4 cm point to point. Three of the arrays were used to provide the independent regime (coronal hole, low speed interstream, and coronal mass ejection) samples. The solar wind regime was measured by LANL Solar Wind Monitors on the Genesis spacecraft and the appropriate array exposed while the inappropriate array remained shielded. Array switchouts were carried out flawlessly during flight. Sample analyses have been slowed considerably by a parachute deployment failure which caused a crash of the sample return capsule upon reentry and by the presence of an in-flight contamination film, affectionately referred to as the brown stain. The crash has led to major loss of collector materials, along with significant pitting and scratching of the surviving

  9. A magnetic method to concentrate and trap biological targets

    Li, Fuquan

    2012-11-01

    Magnetoresistive sensors in combination with magnetic particles have been used in biological applications due to, e.g., their small size and high sensitivity. A growing interest is to integrate magnetoresistive sensors with microchannels and electronics to fabricate devices that can perform complex analyses. A major task in such systems is to immobilize magnetic particles on top of the sensor surface, which is required to detect the particles\\' stray field. In the presented work, a bead concentrator, consisting of gold microstructures, at the bottom of a microchannel, is used to attract and move magnetic particles into a trap. The trap is made of a chamber with a gold microstructure underneath and is used to attract and immobilize a defined number of magnetic beads. In order to detect targets, two kinds of solutions were prepared; one containing only superparamagnetic particles, the other one containing beads with the protein Bovine serum albumin as the target and fluorescent markers. Due to the size difference between bare beads and beads with target, less magnetic beads were immobilized inside the volume chamber in case of magnetic beads with target as compared to bare magnetic beads. © 1965-2012 IEEE.

  10. New Results from the Flare Genesis Experiment

    Rust, D. M.; Bernasconi, P. N.; Eaton, H. A.; Keller, C.; Murphy, G. A.; Schmieder, B.

    2000-05-01

    From January 10 to 27, 2000, the Flare Genesis solar telescope observed the Sun while suspended from a balloon in the stratosphere above Antarctica. The goal of the mission was to acquire long time series of high-resolution images and vector magnetograms of the solar photosphere and chromosphere. Images were obtained in the magnetically sensitive Ca I line at 6122 Angstroms and at H-alpha (6563 Angstroms). The FGE data were obtained in the context of Max Millennium Observing Campaign #004, the objective of which was to study the ``Genesis of Solar Flares and Active Filaments/Sigmoids." Flare Genesis obtained about 26,000 usable images on the 8 targeted active regions. A preliminary examination reveals a good sequence on an emerging flux region and data on the M1 flare on January 22, as well as a number of sequences on active filaments. We will present the results of our first analysis efforts. Flare Genesis was supported by NASA grants NAG5-4955, NAG5-5139, and NAG5-8331 and by NSF grant OPP-9615073. The Air Force Office of Scientific Research and the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization supported early development of the Flare Genesis Experiment.

  11. Lean Management Genesis

    Parkes Aneta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lean Management is a philosophy and management concept, based on reduction of the waste and resources used in the process of producing goods and providing services. Lean Management genesis dates back to scientific management in America (for example concepts of H. Ford and F.W. Taylor and quality management, including development of TQM concept. Japanese Toyota Production System has been inspired by chosen elements of these concepts, and then it evolved towards global concept called Toyota Way (which connects production rules with values and work attitude.

  12. Fullerene genesis by ion beams

    Gamaly, E.G.; Chadderton, L.T.; Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Lindfield, NSW

    1995-01-01

    Clearly detectable quantities of molecular fullerene (C 60 ), the most recently discovered allotrope of carbon, have been observed in graphite following irradiation with heavy projectile ions at energies of about 1 GeV using high pressure chromatography. Similar experiments using lower ion energies gave no corresponding signal, indicating an absence of fullerene. This clear difference suggests that there exists an energy threshold for fullerene genesis. Beginning with a microscopic description of deposition and transfer of energy from the ion to the target, a theoretical model is developed for interpretation of these and similar experiments. An important consequence is a description of the formation of large carbon clusters in the hot dense 'primeval soup' of single carbon atoms by means of random 'sticky' collisions. The ion energy threshold is seen as arising, physically, from a balance in the competition between the rate of primary energy deposition and the rate of system cooling. Rate equations for the basic clustering process allow calculations of the time-dependent number densities for the different carbon clusters produced. An important consequence of the theory is that it is established that the region for the specific phase transition from graphite to fullerene lies in the same pressure regime on the phase diagram as does the corresponding transition for graphite to diamond. (author)

  13. Achieving Target Voriconazole Concentrations More Accurately in Children and Adolescents

    Neely, Michael; Margol, Ashley; Fu, Xiaowei; van Guilder, Michael; Bayard, David; Schumitzky, Alan; Orbach, Regina; Liu, Siyu; Louie, Stan; Hope, William

    2015-01-01

    Despite the documented benefit of voriconazole therapeutic drug monitoring, nonlinear pharmacokinetics make the timing of steady-state trough sampling and appropriate dose adjustments unpredictable by conventional methods. We developed a nonparametric population model with data from 141 previously richly sampled children and adults. We then used it in our multiple-model Bayesian adaptive control algorithm to predict measured concentrations and doses in a separate cohort of 33 pediatric patien...

  14. A 15N-poor isotopic composition for the solar system as shown by Genesis solar wind samples.

    Marty, B; Chaussidon, M; Wiens, R C; Jurewicz, A J G; Burnett, D S

    2011-06-24

    The Genesis mission sampled solar wind ions to document the elemental and isotopic compositions of the Sun and, by inference, of the protosolar nebula. Nitrogen was a key target element because the extent and origin of its isotopic variations in solar system materials remain unknown. Isotopic analysis of a Genesis Solar Wind Concentrator target material shows that implanted solar wind nitrogen has a (15)N/(14)N ratio of 2.18 ± 0.02 × 10(-3) (that is, ≈40% poorer in (15)N relative to terrestrial atmosphere). The (15)N/(14)N ratio of the protosolar nebula was 2.27 ± 0.03 × 10(-3), which is the lowest (15)N/(14)N ratio known for solar system objects. This result demonstrates the extreme nitrogen isotopic heterogeneity of the nascent solar system and accounts for the (15)N-depleted components observed in solar system reservoirs.

  15. Genesis nature of financial strategy

    O.V. Pashchenko

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the study of the origin and history of the interpretation of the genesis of «strategy», «financial strategy», its elements and composite types. Scientists studied different views on the concept of strategy. Several specific positions founders of different approaches to define the strategy of schools operating strategies involved in the formulation and implementation of the concept of «strategy». Evaluation of different schools of strategies that deepened understandin...

  16. The genesis of ores

    Brimhall, G.

    1991-01-01

    Human history and technology have been shaped by metals. How did they become concentrated in minable deposits located so conveniently near the earth's surface? The author explains the mechanisms of fluid transport-by magma, water and even air and wind-responsible for the chemical and physical interactions that created bodies of metallic ores throughout geologic history. From their formation to their modification at the surface of the earth, ore deposits are geologically transitory and reflect dynamic processes within the earth as well as atmospheric and climatic influences on hydrologic systems. As highly reactive supracrustal systems, they then serve as geochemical sensors providing a powerful record and set of tracer elements for deducing the history, transport paths and forces operative in the crust

  17. Improved OAM-Based Radar Targets Detection Using Uniform Concentric Circular Arrays

    Mingtuan Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Without any relative moves or beam scanning, the novel Orbital-Angular-Momentum- (OAM- based radar targets detection technique using uniform concentric circular arrays (UCCAs shows the azimuthal estimation ability, which provides new perspective for radar system design. However, the main estimation method, that is, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, under this scheme suffers from low resolution. As a solution, this paper rebuilds the OAM-based radar targets detection model and introduces the multiple signal classification (MUSIC algorithm to improve the resolution for detecting targets within the main lobes. The spatial smoothing technique is proposed to tackle the coherent problem brought by the proposed model. Analytical study and simulation demonstrate the superresolution estimation capacity the MUSIC algorithm can achieve for detecting targets within the main lobes. The performance of the MUSIC algorithm to detect targets not illuminated by the main lobes is further evaluated. Despite the fact that MUSIC algorithm loses the resolution advantage under this case, its estimation is more robust than that of the FFT method. Overall, the proposed MUSIC algorithm for the OAM-based radar system demonstrates the superresolution ability for detecting targets within the main lobes and good robustness for targets out of the main lobes.

  18. Mitomycin C dissolved in a reversible thermosetting gel: target tissue concentrations in the rabbit eye.

    Ichien, K; Yamamoto, T; Kitazawa, Y; Oguri, A; Ando, H; Kondo, Y

    1997-01-01

    To determine whether a new, reversible thermosetting gel enhances mitomycin C transfer to target ocular tissues in the rabbit eye. A 0.1 ml solution of mitomycin C containing 0.22 microgram, 2.9 micrograms, or 28 micrograms of the agent dissolved in a reversible thermosetting gel consisting of methylcellulose, citric acid, and polyethylene glycol was injected subconjunctivally in 30 New Zealand albino rabbits. Scleral and conjunctival tissues were excised at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, or 24 hours after the injection and mitomycin C concentrations in these tissues were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The concentration over time was approximated to a single exponential curve, and initial mitomycin C concentrations, time constants, and half life values were determined. Finally, the areas under the curves (AUCs) between 0.5 and 24 hours were calculated. The mitomycin C concentrations in the target tissues were dose dependent and decreased rapidly over 24 hours. Both the initial mitomycin C concentrations as well as AUCs in these eyes treated with mitomycin C, dissolved in a reversible thermosetting gel, were higher than those in eyes treated similarly in a previous study in which the gel was not used. Applied subconjunctivally in the rabbit eye, mitomycin C dissolved in the reversible thermosetting gel enhanced transfer of the agent to the sclera and the conjunctiva.

  19. A Concentric Tube Continuum Robot with Piezoelectric Actuation for MRI-Guided Closed-Loop Targeting

    Su, Hao; Li, Gang; Rucker, D. Caleb; Webster, Robert J.; Fischer, Gregory S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design, modeling and experimental evaluation of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible concentric tube continuum robotic system. This system enables MRI-guided deployment of a precurved and steerable concentric tube continuum mechanism, and is suitable for clinical applications where a curved trajectory is needed. This compact 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) robotic system is piezoelectrically-actuated, and allows simultaneous robot motion and imaging with no visually observable image artifact. The targeting accuracy is evaluated with optical tracking system and gelatin phantom under live MRI-guidance with Root Mean Square (RMS) errors of 1.94 and 2.17 mm respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the robot has kinematic redundancy to reach the same target through different paths. This was evaluated in both free space and MRI-guided gelatin phantom trails, with RMS errors of 0.48 and 0.59 mm respectively. As the first of its kind, MRI-guided targeted concentric tube needle placements with ex vivo porcine liver are demonstrated with 4.64 mm RMS error through closed-loop control of the piezoelectrically-actuated robot. PMID:26983842

  20. Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria in Pregnancy: Optimization of Target Concentrations of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine.

    Savic, Rada M; Jagannathan, Prasanna; Kajubi, Richard; Huang, Liusheng; Zhang, Nan; Were, Moses; Kakuru, Abel; Muhindo, Mary K; Mwebaza, Norah; Wallender, Erika; Clark, Tamara D; Opira, Bishop; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane V; Rosenthal, Philip J; Dorsey, Grant; Aweeka, Francesca T

    2018-03-14

    Dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine is highly efficacious as intermittent preventive therapy for malaria during pregnancy (IPTp). Determining associations between piperaquine exposure, malaria risk, and adverse birth outcomes informs optimal dosing strategies. HIV-uninfected pregnant women were enrolled in a placebo-controlled trial of IPTp at 12-20 weeks gestation and randomized to: sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine every 8 weeks (n=106), dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine every 8 weeks (n=94), or dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine every 4 weeks (n=100) during pregnancy. Pharmacokinetic sampling for piperaquine was performed every 4 weeks, and an intensive pharmacokinetic sub-study was performed in 30 women at 28 weeks gestation. Concentration-effect relationships were assessed between exposure to piperaquine; the prevalence of P. falciparum infection during pregnancy; outcomes at delivery including placental malaria, low birthweight, and preterm birth; and risks for toxicity. Simulations of new dosing scenarios were performed. Model-defined piperaquine target venous plasma concentrations of 13.9 ng/ml provided 99% protection from P. falciparum infection during pregnancy. Each 10 day increase in time>target piperaquine concentrations was associated with reduced odds of placental parasitemia (0∙67, P<0.0001), preterm birth (0.74, P<0.01), and low birthweight (0.74, P<0.05), though increases in piperaquine concentrations were associated with QTc prolongation (5 msec increase per 100 ng/ml). Modeling suggests that daily or weekly administration of lower dosages of piperaquine, compared to standard dosing, will maintain piperaquine trough levels above target concentrations with reduced piperaquine peak levels, potentially limiting toxicity. The protective efficacy of IPTp with dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine was strongly associated with higher drug exposure. Studies of the efficacy and safety of alternative dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine IPTp dosing strategies are warranted. NCT02163447.

  1. PROFESSIONALISM: GENESIS AND CATEGORICAL ANALYSES

    Ирина Олеговна Авдеева

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the theoretical-methodological analysis of the concept of «professional», describes the genesis and key aspects of its content and structure. In addition, this publication discusses some of the approaches to the definition of the studied concepts, including: system (professional it seems as multipart strictly organized education of consciousness and psyche of the individual; professional graphic (from a position of objective (professional description and subjective (mental graph the parties; integrative (as property, process, and status of the person; acmeological (as the dialectical the unity of the personality and activity components; in terms of motivation and operating parties and other Stresses the importance of personal (theoretical knowledge, professional qualities, value orientations, motivational orientation of others and specific features of labour employee (practical skills, professional experience and other, determining the effectiveness of its activities.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-12

  2. Molecular nuclear imaging of tumoral angio genesis using a rgd-containing tracer, Raft-RGD, targeted at the neo vessel-specific integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}; Evaluation d'un radioligand de l'integrine {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} (RAFT-RGD) pour l'imagerie moleculaire de l'angiogenese tumorale

    Sancey, L

    2006-06-15

    Tumoral neo-angio genesis targeting is currently a major field of research for the diagnostic and treatment of solid tumors. Endothelial cells from neo vessels over express several specific markers such as the {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} integrin, which binds RGD (-Arg-Gly-Asp-)- containing peptides. We evaluated the potential of a novel radiotracer - RAFT-RGD - for the molecular nuclear imaging of neo vessels. In vitro, the coupling of 4 c(RGDfK) to the RAFT platform resulted in an increased cellular uptake of the tracer by {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} positive cells when compared to c(RGDfK). Furthermore, RAFTRGD has a higher affinity than c(RGDfK) and similar properties for angio genesis inhibition. In vivo, both {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} positive and negative tumors were visible by non invasive whole body planar and tomographic imaging from 30 min to 24 h post-injection, using a gamma camera dedicated to small animal imaging. Despite a lack of significant contrast improvement compare with c(RGDfK), RAFT-RGD could represent a promising tracer for tumoral angio genesis since it could provide invaluable information about tumor development and treatment efficacy in Nuclear Medicine departments. Furthermore, thanks to its chemical structure, RAFT-RGD can be labelled with a variety of radioisotopes including {gamma} and {beta}{sup -} emitters, allowing interesting therapeutical applications such as internal targeted radiotherapy. (author)

  3. G3 : GENESIS software envrionment update

    Castagné, Nicolas; Cadoz, Claude; Allaoui, Ali; Tache, Olivier Michel

    2009-01-01

    GENESIS3 is the new version of the GENESIS software environment for musical creation by means of mass-interaction physics network modeling. It was designed, and developed from scratch, in hindsight of more than 10 years working on and using the previous version. We take the opportunity of this birth to provide in this article (1) an analysis of the peculiarities in GENESIS, aiming at highlighting its core ?software paradigm?; and (2) an update on the features of the new version as compared to...

  4. Genesis / Juta Kivimäe

    Kivimäe, Juta, 1952-

    2003-01-01

    Poola skulptori Magdalena Schmidt-G̤ra installatsioonid "Genesis I, II" rahvusraamatukogu fuajees ja peanäitusesaalis, kus oli samal ajal eksponeeritud eesti nahakunstnike Luule Maari ja Ruuda Maarandi köitenäitus

  5. Genesis and Development of Consolidated Financial Statements

    Kostyantyn Bezverkhiy

    2015-01-01

    In the context of economy globalization it is the mission of consolidated financial statements to meet demands of users for financial information about activities of a company group as one company. The article is devoted to study of genesis and development of consolidated financial statements of companies. Historical prerequisites of genesis of consolidated financial statements are shown as well as factors which conduced to their spreading. The approaches are elucidated to preparation of cons...

  6. Control of sulfate concentration by miR395-targeted APS genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Qin Ai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur nutrition is crucial for plant growth and development, as well as crop yield and quality. Inorganic sulfate in the soil is the major sulfur source for plants. After uptake, sulfate is activated by ATP sulfurylase, and then gets assimilated into sulfur-containing metabolites. However, the mechanism of regulation of sulfate levels by ATP sulfurylase is unclear. Here, we investigated the control of sulfate levels by miR395-mediated regulation of APS1/3/4. Sulfate was over-accumulated in the shoots of miR395 over-expression plants in which the expression of the APS1, APS3, and APS4 genes was suppressed. Accordingly, reduced expression of miR395 caused a decline of sulfate concentration. In agreement with these results, over-expression of the APS1, APS3, and APS4 genes led to the reduction of sulfate levels. Differential expression of these three APS genes in response to sulfate starvation implied that they have different functions. Further investigation revealed that the regulation of sulfate levels mediated by miR395 depends on the repression of its APS targets. Unlike the APS1, APS3, and APS4 genes, which encode plastid-localized ATP sulfurylases, the APS2 gene encodes a cytosolic version of ATP sulfurylase. Genetic analysis indicated that APS2 has no significant effect on sulfate levels. Our data suggest that miR395-targeted APS genes are key regulators of sulfate concentration in leaves.

  7. Time-dependent radiolytic product concentrations in the water flow of a spinning wheel target

    Burns, W.G.; Goodall, J.A.B.

    1989-01-01

    Using the Harwell Facsimile computer simulation package, values of water radiolytic product concentrations, for both transient radicals and stable molecules were calculated for a single revolution of the cooling water at 75 0 C in a spallation neutron source target wheel irradiated with 1000 MeV protons and consequential secondary radiation. The radiation was pulsed except for part of the γ radiation, which was continuous. The stable product concentrations at first rose and eventually came to steady values before the end of the revolution. Comparison with results for steady radiation suggested that with the mixed radiation molecular products from the more densely ionizing radiation were largely destroyed by the radicals from the more lightly ionizing radiation. The distribution of the dose rate in time and space also tended to give a lower extent of radiolysis than calculated for uniform irradiation at the arithmetic mean dose rate. The effect of a second revolution on the diluted products showed a smaller increase in product concentrations than for the first revolution. The Authors consider that the extent of radiolysis should be manageable. (author)

  8. Genesis nature of financial strategy

    O.V. Pashchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the origin and history of the interpretation of the genesis of «strategy», «financial strategy», its elements and composite types. Scientists studied different views on the concept of strategy. Several specific positions founders of different approaches to define the strategy of schools operating strategies involved in the formulation and implementation of the concept of «strategy». Evaluation of different schools of strategies that deepened understanding of the industry and its strategy in the early stages of formation. Based on the works of various scholars studied by the author actually proposed interpretation of the concept strategy. The general industry and functional strategies which include the following strategies: innovation, resource, financial, production, marketing and human resources. Allocated financial strategy and its significant impact on other strategies. Author developed financial sector strategy and financial strategy of competitive enterprise. The importance of financial strategies under conditions of companies and the industry as a whole, as well as components of development of financial strategy. Deals with the factors that must be considered in the development and implementation of financial strategies. The systems analysis strategies and the impact on financial results, the estimation of their attractiveness and risk. Considered classification on the basis of financial strategies and sectoral orientation of the financial sector strategy based on company size, its form and noted the importance of this trait in systematizing strategies. The expediency of the financial strategy. Defined competitive advantage and efficiency of business and industry through the implementation of various financial strategies.

  9. Can micro-PIXE measurements help to determine ore genesis ?

    Ahmed, M.; Al-Ohali, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This study is an attempt to demonstrate how the nuclear micro-PIXE technique can be utilized to investigate ore genesis of geological deposits. Elemental concentrations and distribution profiles in single mineral grains and matrices in a present-day ore deposit on land were measured using the scanning proton microprobe on the 3 MV Tandetron accelerator at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals. Comparing the distribution profiles of some of the trace elements detected it was possible to suggest an organic, sea origin of these deposits. (Author)

  10. Cosmological bounce and Genesis beyond Horndeski

    Kolevatov, R.; Mironov, S.; Volkova, V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary Prospect, 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sukhov, N., E-mail: kolevatov@ms2.inr.ac.ru, E-mail: sa.mironov_1@physics.msu.ru, E-mail: nd.sukhov@physics.msu.ru, E-mail: volkova.viktoriya@physics.msu.ru [Department of Particle Physics and Cosmology, Physics Faculty, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Vorobjevy Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-08-01

    We study 'classical' bouncing and Genesis models in beyond Horndeski theory. We give an example of spatially flat bouncing solution that is non-singular and stable throughout the whole evolution. We also provide an example of stable geodesically complete Genesis with similar features. The model is arranged in such a way that the scalar field driving the cosmological evolution initially behaves like full-fledged beyond Horndeski, whereas at late times it becomes a massless scalar field minimally coupled to gravity.

  11. Convection in molten pool created by a concentrated energy flux on a solid metal target

    Dikshit, B.; Zende, G. R.; Bhatia, M. S.; Suri, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    During surface evaporation of metals by use of a concentrated energy flux such as electron beam or lasers, a liquid metal pool having a very high temperature gradient is formed around the hot zone created by the beam. Due to temperature dependence of surface tension, density, and depression of the evaporating surface caused by back pressure of the emitted vapor in this molten pool, a strong convective current sets in the molten pool. A proposition is made that this convection may pass through three different stages during increase in the electron beam power depending upon dominance of the various driving forces. To confirm this, convective heat transfer is quantified in terms of dimensionless Nusselt number and its evolution with power is studied in an experiment using aluminum, copper, and zirconium as targets. These experimentally determined values are also compared to the theoretical values predicted by earlier researchers to test the validity of their assumptions and to know about the type of flow in the melt pool. Thus, conclusion about the physical characteristics of flow in the molten pool of metals could be drawn by considering the roles of surface tension and curvature of the evaporating surface on the evolution of convective heat transfer.

  12. Generalized Galileons: instabilities of bouncing and Genesis cosmologies and modified Genesis

    Libanov, M. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences,60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,Institutskii per. 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Mironov, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences,60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Rubakov, V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences,60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Particle Physics and Cosmology, Physics Faculty,M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University,Vorobjevy Gory, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-18

    We study spatially flat bouncing cosmologies and models with the early-time Genesis epoch in a popular class of generalized Galileon theories. We ask whether there exist solutions of these types which are free of gradient and ghost instabilities. We find that irrespectively of the forms of the Lagrangian functions, the bouncing models either are plagued with these instabilities or have singularities. The same result holds for the original Genesis model and its variants in which the scale factor tends to a constant as t→−∞. The result remains valid in theories with additional matter that obeys the Null Energy Condition and interacts with the Galileon only gravitationally. We propose a modified Genesis model which evades our no-go argument and give an explicit example of healthy cosmology that connects the modified Genesis epoch with kination (the epoch still driven by the Galileon field, which is a conventional massless scalar field at that stage).

  13. Finding the Genesis for a Thesis

    Caroll, Joyce Armstrong

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a prewriting heuristics strategy that can help students find the genesis of their thesis. The 3 functions of the heuristic procedure are that it aids in retrieving relevant information stored in the mind; draws attention to important information that can be further researched or accessed; and prepares the mind for the…

  14. Photovoltaic technologies and the genesis project

    Kuwano, Y.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the author first presents briefly global environmental problems and energy problems, as well as recent trends in representative types of solar cell. Next, he gives examples of applications for these solar cells, and finally discusses future prospects for solar cells in the form of the GENESIS project. (TEC). 12 figs., 4 refs

  15. ABRAHAM IN GALATIANS AND IN GENESIS1

    In Genesis 12-25, attention is paid to the promise of land and on Abraham as a blessing to ... It is a truism to claim that Abraham serves as an important figure in both the ..... them rest (Jos 21:43), became the ground for hope for the people who.

  16. 76 FR 54454 - Issuance of Loan Guarantee to Genesis Solar, LLC, for the Genesis Solar Energy Project

    2011-09-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Issuance of Loan Guarantee to Genesis Solar, LLC, for the Genesis Solar... Energy Project (GSEP), a 250-megawatt (MW) nominal capacity solar power generating facility on.../Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Genesis Solar Energy Project, Riverside County, California...

  17. Origins, transformations and key foci in instrumental genesis

    Tamborg, Andreas Lindenskov

    This paper investigates the origins of the instrumental genesis and instrumental orchestrations frameworks. This is done by reviewing instrumented activity situations, instrumental genesis, and instrumental orchestrations with the purpose of identifying their epistemological assumptions, what the...... and instrumental orchestrations have potential shortcomings since the technologies that currently exist in school contexts are rather different from the technologies instrumental genesis was originally developed to study.......This paper investigates the origins of the instrumental genesis and instrumental orchestrations frameworks. This is done by reviewing instrumented activity situations, instrumental genesis, and instrumental orchestrations with the purpose of identifying their epistemological assumptions, what...

  18. An On-Target Desalting and Concentration Sample Preparation Protocol for MALDI-MS and MS/MS Analysis

    Zhang, Xumin; Wang, Quanhui; Lou, Xiaomin

    2012-01-01

    2DE coupled with MALDI-MS is one of the most widely used and powerful analytic technologies in proteomics study. The MALDI sample preparation method has been developed and optimized towards the combination of simplicity, sample-cleaning, and sample concentration since its introduction. Here we...... present a protocol of the so-called Sample loading, Matrix loading, and on-target Wash (SMW) method which fulfills the three criteria by taking advantage of the AnchorChip™ targets. Our method is extremely simple and no pre-desalting or concentration is needed when dealing with samples prepared from 2DE...

  19. Genesis Solar Wind Science Canister Components Curated as Potential Solar Wind Collectors and Reference Contamination Sources

    Allton, J. H.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allums, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Genesis mission collected solar wind for 27 months at Earth-Sun L1 on both passive and active collectors carried inside of a Science Canister, which was cleaned and assembled in an ISO Class 4 cleanroom prior to launch. The primary passive collectors, 271 individual hexagons and 30 half-hexagons of semiconductor materials, are described in. Since the hard landing reduced the 301 passive collectors to many thousand smaller fragments, characterization and posting in the online catalog remains a work in progress, with about 19% of the total area characterized to date. Other passive collectors, surfaces of opportunity, have been added to the online catalog. For species needing to be concentrated for precise measurement (e.g. oxygen and nitrogen isotopes) an energy-independent parabolic ion mirror focused ions onto a 6.2 cm diameter target. The target materials, as recovered after landing, are described in. The online catalog of these solar wind collectors, a work in progress, can be found at: http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/gencatalog/index.cfm This paper describes the next step, the cataloging of pieces of the Science Canister, which were surfaces exposed to the solar wind or component materials adjacent to solar wind collectors which may have contributed contamination.

  20. Osteoarthritis: the genesis of pain.

    Fu, Kai; Robbins, Sarah R; McDougall, Jason J

    2018-05-01

    OA is a painful joint disease that predominantly affects the elderly. Pain is the primary symptom of OA, and it can present as either intermittent or constant. OA pain mechanisms are complex and have only recently been determined. Both peripheral and central processes are involved in creating the OA pain experience, making targeted therapy problematic. Nociceptive, inflammatory and neuropathic pains are all known to occur in OA, but to varying degrees in a patient- and time-specific manner. A better understanding of these multifactorial components of OA pain will lead to the development of more effective and safer pain treatments.

  1. A Generic Multi-Compartmental CNS Distribution Model Structure for 9 Drugs Allows Prediction of Human Brain Target Site Concentrations

    Yamamoto, Yumi; Valitalo, Pyry A.; van den Berg, Dirk-Jan; Hartman, Robin; van den Brink, Willem; Wong, Yin Cheong; Huntjens, Dymphy R.; Proost, Johannes H.; Vermeulen, An; Krauwinkel, Walter; Bakshi, Suruchi; Aranzana-Climent, Vincent; Marchand, Sandrine; Dahyot-Fizelier, Claire; Couet, William; Danhof, Meindert; van Hasselt, Johan G. C.; de lange, Elizabeth C. M.

    Purpose Predicting target site drug concentration in the brain is of key importance for the successful development of drugs acting on the central nervous system. We propose a generic mathematical model to describe the pharmacokinetics in brain compartments, and apply this model to predict human

  2. Slip rate and tremor genesis in Cascadia

    Wech, Aaron G.; Bartlow, Noel M.

    2014-01-01

    At many plate boundaries, conditions in the transition zone between seismogenic and stable slip produce slow earthquakes. In the Cascadia subduction zone, these events are consistently observed as slow, aseismic slip on the plate interface accompanied by persistent tectonic tremor. However, not all slow slip at other plate boundaries coincides spatially and temporally with tremor, leaving the physics of tremor genesis poorly understood. Here we analyze seismic, geodetic, and strainmeter data in Cascadia to observe for the first time a large, tremor-generating slow earthquake change from tremor-genic to silent and back again. The tremor falls silent at reduced slip speeds when the migrating slip front pauses as it loads the stronger adjacent fault segment to failure. The finding suggests that rheology and slip-speed-regulated stressing rate control tremor genesis, and the same section of fault can slip both with and without detectable tremor, limiting tremor's use as a proxy for slip.

  3. A Concentric Tube Continuum Robot with Piezoelectric Actuation for MRI-Guided Closed-Loop Targeting

    Su, Hao; Li, Gang; Rucker, D. Caleb; Webster, Robert J.; Fischer, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design, modeling and experimental evaluation of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible concentric tube continuum robotic system. This system enables MRI-guided deployment of a precurved and steerable concentric tube continuum mechanism, and is suitable for clinical applications where a curved trajectory is needed. This compact 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) robotic system is piezoelectrically-actuated, and allows simultaneous robot motion and imaging with no visually...

  4. Plant-Scale Concentration Column Designs for SHINE Target Solution Utilizing AG 1 Anion Exchange Resin

    Stepinski, Dominique C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, G. F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Argonne is assisting SHINE Medical Technologies (SHINE) in their efforts to develop SHINE, an accelerator-driven process that will utilize a uranyl-sulfate solution for the production of fission product Mo-99. An integral part of the process is the development of a column for the separation and recovery of Mo-99, followed by a concentration column to reduce the product volume from 15-25 L to <1 L. Argonne has collected data from batch studies and breakthrough column experiments to utilize the VERSE (Versatile Reaction Separation) simulation program (Purdue University) to design plant-scale product recovery and concentration processes.

  5. Evaluation of Watershed-Scale Simulations of In-Stream Pesticide Concentrations from Off-Target Spray Drift.

    Winchell, Michael F; Pai, Naresh; Brayden, Benjamin H; Stone, Chris; Whatling, Paul; Hanzas, John P; Stryker, Jody J

    2018-01-01

    The estimation of pesticide concentrations in surface water bodies is a critical component of the environmental risk assessment process required by regulatory agencies in North America, the European Union, and elsewhere. Pesticide transport to surface waters via deposition from off-field spray drift can be an important route of potential contamination. The spatial orientation of treated fields relative to receiving water bodies make prediction of off-target pesticide spray drift deposition and resulting aquatic estimated environmental concentrations (EECs) challenging at the watershed scale. The variability in wind conditions further complicates the simulation of the environmental processes leading to pesticide spray drift contributions to surface water. This study investigates the use of the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for predicting concentrations of malathion (O,O-deimethyl thiophosphate of diethyl mercaptosuccinate) in a flowing water body when exposure is a result of off-target spray drift, and assesses the model's performance using a parameterization typical of a screening-level regulatory assessment. Six SWAT parameterizations, each including incrementally more site-specific data, are then evaluated to quantify changes in model performance. Results indicate that the SWAT model is an appropriate tool for simulating watershed scale concentrations of pesticides resulting from off-target spray drift deposition. The model predictions are significantly more accurate when the inputs and assumptions accurately reflect application practices and environmental conditions. Inclusion of detailed wind data had the most significant impact on improving model-predicted EECs in comparison to observed concentrations. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Targeting higher ferritin concentrations with intravenous iron dextran lowers erythropoietin requirement in hemodialysis patients.

    DeVita, M V; Frumkin, D; Mittal, S; Kamran, A; Fishbane, S; Michelis, M F

    2003-11-01

    Although clinical use of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) since 1989 has improved anemia in most end-stage renal disease patients, there are still many hemodialysis patients unable to maintain an adequate hematocrit (HCT) without large doses of rHuEPO. This suggests that anemia is not solely a consequence of rHuEPO deficiency, but may be due to other factors including functional iron deficiency. Since the optimal prescription for iron replacement is not yet known, we evaluated the effect of intravenous iron dextran (IVFe) infusion on serum ferritin (SFer) concentration and rHuEPO dose. Our objective was to raise and maintain serum ferritin concentrations to 2 different levels above the National Kidney Foundation Dialysis Outcome Quality Initiative standard of 100 ng/ml to determine whether, and by what degree rHuEPO dose could be lowered. HD patients on i.v. rHuEPO with a SFer concentration > or = 70 ng/ml and an HCT of requirements.

  7. The genesis of collective health in Brazil.

    Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria; Pinell, Patrice

    2014-03-01

    During the 1970s in Brazil a social space directed towards health problems on the population level, called collective health, was created and institutionalised. To what extent did this Brazilian invention correspond to a specific socio-historical practice? The works published on this topic have considered social medicine as a homogeneous phenomenon without empirically studying the specificities of national experiences. To bridge this gap, a historical study on the genesis of collective health in Brazil was carried out based on Bourdieu's field theory. The interaction between the paths of the founders and the conditions of historical possibilities were researched through documentary and bibliographical sources, as well as through in-depth interviews of the founders. This social space originated from a meeting of agents with different social backgrounds but who interconnected, creating a structure that was independent of each agent considered individually. One of the components of this establishment was the joining of theoretical production and the implementation of health reforms that resulted in the organisation of a universal health system. This study attempts to show how the international political situation and the contradictions of the national crisis created a universe of possibilities, allowing for the genesis of this sui generis space in Brazil. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Genesis Eco Systems, Inc. soil washing process

    Cena, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Genesis soil washing system is an integrated system of modular design allowing for maximum material handling capabilities, with optimized use of space for site mobility. The Surfactant Activated Bio-enhanced Remediation Equipment-Generation 1 (SABRE-1, Patent Applied For) modification was developed specifically for removing petroleum byproducts from contaminated soils. Scientifically formulated surfactants, introduced by high pressure spray nozzles, displace the contaminant from the surface of the soil particles into the process solution. Once the contaminant is dispersed into the liquid fraction of the process, it is either mechanically removed, chemically oxidized, or biologically oxidized. The contaminated process water is pumped through the Genesis Biosep (Patent Applied For) filtration system where the fines portion is flocculated, and the contaminant-rich liquid portion is combined with an activated mixture of nutrients and carefully selected bacteria to decompose the hydrocarbon fraction. The treated soil and dewatered fines are transferred to a bermed stockpile where bioremediation continues during drying. The process water is reclaimed, filtered, and recycled within the system

  9. Genesis of cluster associations of enterprises

    Pulina Tetyana V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is the study of genesis of creation of cluster associations of enterprises. It considers genesis of cluster definitions. It shows and analyses components that define the “cluster” concept. Researchers from many countries offer a significant number of definitions of the “cluster” term specifically in the economic direction, but there is no single generally accepted definition as of today. This fact is the result of a significant diversity of cluster structures. The article conducts a comparative analysis of classifications of cluster associations of enterprises. It identifies advantages and shortcomings of the cluster approach both from the position of an enterprise and from the position of a regional economy administration. The article marks out specific features of the life cycle of cluster associations of enterprises, which consists of the preparatory stage and stage of commercialisation. Majority of studies consider the preparatory stage and the stage of commercialisation, which consists of the following stages: entering market with a common brand, growth, maturity and crisis – is, practically, not considered. Taking into account the fact that the main result of cluster activity is the synergetic effect from mutually beneficial co-operation and activity results facilitate ensuring competitiveness of cluster enterprises, regional and national economies, the author gives own definition of a cluster.

  10. Meeting the Radiative Forcing Targets of the Representative Concentration Pathways with Agricultural Climate Impacts

    Kyle, P.; Müller, C.; Calvin, K. V.; Thomson, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) have formed the basis for much of the current scientific understanding of future climate change impacts and mitigation. However, the emissions scenarios underlying the RCPs were produced by integrated assessment models that did not include impacts of future climate change on the modeled evolution of the agricultural and energy systems. Given the prominent role of bioenergy in greenhouse gas emissions mitigation, and given the importance of land-use-related emissions in determining future atmospheric CO2 concentrations, it is possible that agricultural climate impacts may cause significant changes to the means and costs of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. This study builds on several international modeling exercises aimed at improving understanding of climate change impacts--CMIP-5 and ISI-MIP--that have generated global gridded climate impacts on yields of major agricultural crops in each of the four RCPs. We use the climate outcomes from the HadGEM2-ES climate model, and the agricultural yield outcomes from the LPJmL crop growth model to inform inputs to the GCAM integrated assessment model, allowing analysis of how agricultural climate impacts may affect the long-term global and regional strategies for achieving the greenhouse gas concentration pathways of the RCPs. Our results indicate that for this combination of models and emissions scenarios, strongly negative climate impacts on several major commodity classes--prominently cereals and oil seeds, and particularly in the high-radiative-forcing RCPs--lead to a long-term increase in cropland and therefore land-use-related CO2 emissions. All else equal, this increases the emissions mitigation burden on the rest of the system, and therefore increases total net costs of emissions mitigation. However, the future climate change impacts on C4 bioenergy crops tend to be positive, limiting the shock of agricultural climate impacts on the modeled energy supply and

  11. Discussion on the genesis of Zhongchuan uranium deposit

    Zhang Yulong; Zhang Chengzhong

    2008-01-01

    Through elaborating the geological setting, deposit and orebody geological charactors and hydrological features, the ore controlling factors are analysed and the genesis of Zhongchuan uranium deposit is discussed in the way of deposit occurrence, mineral asembleage and matalization ages. It is believed that uranium deposit was formed under the regional uplifting background with the exogenous mechanism and its genesis belongs to surface leaching. (authors)

  12. Multi-element RIMS Analysis of Genesis Solar Wind Collectors

    Veryovkin, I. V.; Tripa, C. E.; Zinovev, A. V.; King, B. V.; Pellin, M. J.; Burnett, D. S.

    2009-12-01

    The samples of Solar Wind (SW) delivered by the NASA Genesis mission, present significant challenges for surface analytical techniques, in part due to severe terrestrial contamination of the samples on reentry, in part due to the ultra-shallow and diffused ion implants in the SW collector materials. We are performing measurements of metallic elements in the Genesis collectors using Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS), an ultra-sensitive analytical method capable of detecting SW in samples with lateral dimensions of only a few mm and at concentrations from above one ppm to below one ppt. Since our last report at 2008 AGU Fall Meeting, we have (a) developed and tested new resonance ionization schemes permitting simultaneous measurements of up to three (Ca, Cr, and Mg) elements, and (b) improved reproducibility and accuracy of our RIMS analyses for SW-like samples (i.e. shallow ion implants) by developing and implementing an optimized set of new analytical protocols. This is important since the quality of scientific results from the Genesis mission critically depends on the accuracy of analytical techniques. In this work, we report on simultaneous RIMS measurements of Ca and Cr performed on two silicon SW collector samples, (#60179 and #60476). First, we have conducted test experiments with 3×1013 at/cm2 52Cr and 44Ca implants in silicon to evaluate the accuracy of our quantitative analyses. Implant fluencies were measured by RIMS to be 2.73×1013 and 2.71×1013 at/cm2 for 52Cr and 44Ca, respectively, which corresponds to an accuracy of ≈10%. Using the same implanted wafer as a reference, we conducted RIMS analyses of the Genesis samples: 3 spots on #60179 and 4 spots on #60476. The elemental SW fluencies expected for Cr and Ca are 2.95×1010 and 1.33×1011 at/cm2 , respectively. Our measurements of 52Cr yielded 3.0±0.6×1011 at/cm2 and 5.1±4.1×1010 at/cm2 for #60179 and #60476, respectively. For 40Ca, SW fluencies of 1.39±0.70×1011 at/cm2 in #60179

  13. GENESI-DR Portal: a scientific gateway to distributed repositories

    Goncalves, Pedro; Brito, Fabrice; D'Andria, Fabio; Cossu, Roberto; Fusco, Luigi

    2010-05-01

    information as a loosely connected federation of nodes. This network had however to be resilient to node failures and able to scale with the growing addition of new information about data and services. The GENESI-DR scientific portal is still evolving as the project deploys the different components amongst the different partners, but the aim is to provide the connection to information, establish rights, access it and in some cases apply algorithms using the computer power available on the infrastructure with simple interfaces. As information is discovered in the network, it can be further exploited, filtered or enhanced according to the user goals. To implement this vision two specialized graphical interfaces were designed on the portal. The first, concentrates on the text-based search of information, while the second is a command and control of submission and order status on a distributed processing environment. The text search uses natural language features that extract the spatial temporal components from the user query. This is then propagated to the nodes by mapping them to OpenSearch extensions, and then returned to the user as an aggregated list of the resources. These can either be access points to dataset series or services that can be further analysed and processed. At this stage, the user is presented with dedicated interfaces that correspond to context of the action that is performing. Be it a bulk data download, data processing or data mining, the different services offer specialized interfaces that are integrated on the portal. In the overall, the GENESI-DR project identifies best practices and supporting context for the use of a minimal abstract model to loosely connect a federation of Digital Repositories. Surpassing the apparent lack of cost effectiveness of the Spatial Data Infrastructures effort in developing "catalogue services" is achieved by trimming the use cases to the most common and relevant. The GENESI-DR scientific portal is, as such, the visible

  14. REE geochemistry and genesis of Daxin uranium deposit

    Li Zhixing; Qi Fucheng; He Zhongbo; Zhang Zilong

    2011-01-01

    Through the analysis on typical REE parameters,chondrite-normalized REE patterns and hierarchical cluster analysis of rocks in the structural-geochemical zonation in Daxin uranium deposit, the paper discusses the uranium source and genesis. The study shows that the uranium source mainly came from Cambrian System. The Devonian System is maily as the favorable room for saving ores in addition to pre-concentrated room for uranium. Underground water resulted from early and late Yanshanian movement and the heating of volcanic rock was turned into geothermal water and it was moved upward by the force of tectonic movement. The geothermal water mainly extracted active uranium from the Cambrian rocks, then moved upward along main regional fault (F2) connecting the Cambrian rocks and the Devonian rocks until it arrived in structural fracture zone which was controlled by secondary faults (F13, F23, F33). At last, the uranium element in geothermal water was precipitated and concentrated into the uranium deposit in reducing environment of enriched organic material and pyrite. (authors)

  15. The genesis and evolution of the African Field Epidemiology Network

    The genesis and evolution of the African Field Epidemiology Network. David Mukanga, Mufuta Tshimanga, Frederick Wurapa, David Serwada, George Pariyo, Fred Wabwire-Mangen, Sheba Gitta, Stella Chungong, Murray Trostle, Peter Nsubuga ...

  16. 192 RE-INTERPRETING GENESIS 34 IN THE LIGHT OF ...

    User

    notoriety as one of the prime security challenges confronting the country. Genesis .... thing has been done to them by Shechem. ... The use of the word חַטֶבּ which means security ..... students and internet writers; and the polylectic approach.

  17. Genesis of natural cokes: Some Indian examples

    Singh, Ashok K.; Sharma, Mamta [Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research, Dhanbad, PIN-828108 (India); Singh, Mahendra P. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, PIN-221005 (India)

    2008-06-13

    In Indian coalfields huge amounts of natural coke have been produced due to magmatic intrusions. Jharia Coalfield in eastern part of India alone contains approximately 2000 Mt of baked coking coal as a consequence of these intrusions in the form of discordant and concordant bodies. This paper is an effort to investigate the effect of carbonization in two intrusion affected coal seams of Ena (seam XIII) and Alkusa (seam XIV) collieries of Jharia Coalfield. Natural coke is derived from coking coal under in-situ conditions due to intense magmatic induced heat and overburden pressure. Natural coke is characterized by the presence of low volatile matter and high ash contents and organic constituents showing isotropy and anisotropy. Through physical, petrographic and chemical properties of natural coke or 'jhama' as determined by various methods it has been established that the reactives in the unaltered coals (vitrinite, liptinite, pseudovitrinite, reactive semifusinite, etc.) are < 25.0 vol.%, moisture < 2.5%, volatile matter < 15.0% and hydrogen < 4.0%. The temperatures attained in the coal seams have been deciphered using some standard models, which indicate that a temperature {proportional_to} 1000 C was attained. This produced huge amount of anisotropic and deposited carbons. An attempt has been made to understand the factors that influence the genesis of natural coke and heat altered maceral products in coals in Indian coalfields. (author)

  18. Comparative study of angio genesis radiopharmaceuticals for melanoma detection

    Oliveira, Erica Aparecida de

    2011-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of melanoma, a cutaneous tumor with a serious prognosis, is extremely important for optimal clinical outcome. Phage display peptide libraries are a useful screening resource for identifying bioactive peptides that interact with cancer targets. The aim of this study was the evaluation of two technetium-99m tracers for angio genesis detection in melanoma model, using cyclic peguilated pentapeptide with RGD and NGR motifs conjugated with bifunctional chelator MAG3. The conjugated peptides (10 μL of a μg/μL solution) were labeled with technetium-99m using a sodium tartrate buffer. Radiochemical evaluation was done by ITLC and confirmed by HPLC. Partition coefficient was determined and internalization assays were performed in two melanoma cells (B16F10 and SKMEL28). Biodistribution evaluation of the tracers was done in healthy animals at different times and also in mice bearing the tumor cells at 120 min post injection. Blocking studies were also conducted by co-injection of cold peptides. The conjugated showed the same profile in many evaluations. They were radiolabeled with high radiochemical purity (>97%). Both were hydrophilic, with preferential renal excretion. Tumor uptake was higher for human melanoma cells than for murinic melanoma cells, specially for 99m Tc-MAG3-PEG 8 -c(RGDyK) (7.85±±2.34 %ID/g) at 120 min post injection. The performance of 99m Tc-MAG 3 -PEG 8 -c(RGDyk) was much better than NGR tracer concerning human melanoma uptake and might be considered in future investigations focusing radiotracers for melanoma diagnosis. (author)

  19. Splenocytes cultured in low concentrations of IL-2 generate NK cell specificities toward syngenic and allogenic targets

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Jeppesen, M; Claesson, M H

    2000-01-01

    Splenocytes cultured in the presence of 30-60 units/ml IL-2 for 5 days develop natural killer activity toward syngeneic and allogeneic tumor cell targets. The IL-2 activated splenocytes, themselves, are partially resistant, whereas concanavalin A-activated T blast cells are completely resistant...... to killing. Surprisingly, major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I-negative target cells are also resistant to natural killer (NK)-cell-mediated killing. Cells resistant to killing were unable to block NK-cell-mediated killing of sensitive targets as judged from cold target cell inhibition experiments......, and one type of target cells sensitive to killing did generally not cross-block killing of other killing-sensitive target cell types. Alloantigen exposure of splenocytes, i.e., one-way mixed lymphocyte cultures, partially prevents the development of NK-cell activity. Our data suggest that target...

  20. Genesis and Evolution of Interfaces in Product Architecture

    Donmez, Mehmet; Hsuan, Juliana

    Interfaces are elements of the product architecture that facilitates innovation and enables an organization to leverage the trade-off between cost and performance of its products. Despite the importance of interfaces for organizations, little is known about their genesis and evolution. In this st......Interfaces are elements of the product architecture that facilitates innovation and enables an organization to leverage the trade-off between cost and performance of its products. Despite the importance of interfaces for organizations, little is known about their genesis and evolution...

  1. On the genesis of the uraniferous deposits I

    Mingarro, E.

    1964-01-01

    The main problems of the genesis of uranium deposits as hydro thermals are objectively considered here under three aspects: uranium source transport and deposition. The transport of uranium can be effected under a tetravalent form, or as complex ions of hexavalent uranium: as uranyl ion (UO 2 ) 2 + or under complex carbonic or sulfuric forms, such as UO 2 (XO n ) 2 2 - or UO 2 (XO n ) 3 4 -. These three ways of transport correspond to the three basic geochemical para genesis of uranium: uranium-titanium, uranium-cobalt, uranium. Deposition is currently made by reduction and in some way is no dependent of mineralogical association. (Author) 61 refs

  2. The effect of antibiotics and diet on enterolactone concentration and metabolome studied by targeted and non-targeted LC-MS metabolomics

    Bolvig, Anne Katrine; Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2017-01-01

    with lower levels of ENL. Here, we investigate the link between antibiotic use and lignan metabolism in pigs using LC-MS/MS. The effect of lignan intake and antibiotic use on the gut microbial community and the pig metabolome is studied by 16S rRNA sequencing and non-targeted LC-MS. Treatment...

  3. Pristine Igneous Rocks and the Genesis of Early Planetary Crusts

    Warren, Paul H.; Lindstrom, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Our studies are highly interdisciplinary, but are focused on the processes and products of early planetary and asteroidal differentiation, especially the genesis of the ancient lunar crust. The compositional diversity that we explore is the residue of process diversity, which has strong relevance for comparative planetology.

  4. Tropical Cyclone Genesis Efficiency: Mid-Level Versus Bottom Vortex

    2011-12-16

    storm strength). Figure 4b shows the time evolutions of the corresponding maximum surface wind speed from the four experiments. Based on the definition...Pacific during summer. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 2245–2266. Chen, S. S. and W. M. Frank, 1993: A numerical study of the genesis of extratropical convective

  5. Nursing perspective on the Genesis account of creation.

    Geary, Heidi D; Cone, Pamela H

    2012-01-01

    Biblical accounts of creation tell the origin of the world and the beginning of God's relationship with humankind. Azusa Pacific University assigns graduate nursing students a faith integration project analyzing Creation accounts through the eyes of a nurse researcher. This report integrates eight students' investigations of Genesis 1 and 2, offering deep, rich insight into nursing practice.

  6. Python as a federation tool for GENESIS 3.0.

    Hugo Cornelis

    Full Text Available The GENESIS simulation platform was one of the first broad-scale modeling systems in computational biology to encourage modelers to develop and share model features and components. Supported by a large developer community, it participated in innovative simulator technologies such as benchmarking, parallelization, and declarative model specification and was the first neural simulator to define bindings for the Python scripting language. An important feature of the latest version of GENESIS is that it decomposes into self-contained software components complying with the Computational Biology Initiative federated software architecture. This architecture allows separate scripting bindings to be defined for different necessary components of the simulator, e.g., the mathematical solvers and graphical user interface. Python is a scripting language that provides rich sets of freely available open source libraries. With clean dynamic object-oriented designs, they produce highly readable code and are widely employed in specialized areas of software component integration. We employ a simplified wrapper and interface generator to examine an application programming interface and make it available to a given scripting language. This allows independent software components to be 'glued' together and connected to external libraries and applications from user-defined Python or Perl scripts. We illustrate our approach with three examples of Python scripting. (1 Generate and run a simple single-compartment model neuron connected to a stand-alone mathematical solver. (2 Interface a mathematical solver with GENESIS 3.0 to explore a neuron morphology from either an interactive command-line or graphical user interface. (3 Apply scripting bindings to connect the GENESIS 3.0 simulator to external graphical libraries and an open source three dimensional content creation suite that supports visualization of models based on electron microscopy and their conversion to

  7. Python as a federation tool for GENESIS 3.0.

    Cornelis, Hugo; Rodriguez, Armando L; Coop, Allan D; Bower, James M

    2012-01-01

    The GENESIS simulation platform was one of the first broad-scale modeling systems in computational biology to encourage modelers to develop and share model features and components. Supported by a large developer community, it participated in innovative simulator technologies such as benchmarking, parallelization, and declarative model specification and was the first neural simulator to define bindings for the Python scripting language. An important feature of the latest version of GENESIS is that it decomposes into self-contained software components complying with the Computational Biology Initiative federated software architecture. This architecture allows separate scripting bindings to be defined for different necessary components of the simulator, e.g., the mathematical solvers and graphical user interface. Python is a scripting language that provides rich sets of freely available open source libraries. With clean dynamic object-oriented designs, they produce highly readable code and are widely employed in specialized areas of software component integration. We employ a simplified wrapper and interface generator to examine an application programming interface and make it available to a given scripting language. This allows independent software components to be 'glued' together and connected to external libraries and applications from user-defined Python or Perl scripts. We illustrate our approach with three examples of Python scripting. (1) Generate and run a simple single-compartment model neuron connected to a stand-alone mathematical solver. (2) Interface a mathematical solver with GENESIS 3.0 to explore a neuron morphology from either an interactive command-line or graphical user interface. (3) Apply scripting bindings to connect the GENESIS 3.0 simulator to external graphical libraries and an open source three dimensional content creation suite that supports visualization of models based on electron microscopy and their conversion to computational models

  8. Effect of Antibiotics and Diet on Enterolactone Concentration and Metabolome Studied by Targeted and Nontargeted LC-MS Metabolomics.

    Bolvig, Anne K; Nørskov, Natalja P; Hedemann, Mette S; Foldager, Leslie; McCarthy-Sinclair, Brendan; Marco, Maria L; Lærke, Helle N; Bach Knudsen, Knud E

    2017-06-02

    High plant lignan intake is associated with a number of health benefits, possibly induced by the lignan metabolite enterolactone (ENL). The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in converting dietary lignans into ENL, and epidemiological studies have shown that use of antibiotics is associated with lower levels of ENL. Here we investigate the link between antibiotic use and lignan metabolism in pigs using LC-MS/MS. The effect of lignan intake and antibiotic use on the gut microbial community and the pig metabolome is studied by 16S rRNA sequencing and nontargeted LC-MS. Treatment with antibiotics resulted in substantially lower concentrations of ENL compared with concentrations detected in untreated animals, whereas the plasma concentrations of plant lignans were unchanged. Both diet and antibiotic treatment affected the clustering of urinary metabolites and significantly altered the proportions of taxa in the gut microbiota. Diet, but not antibiotic treatment, affected the plasma lipid profile, and a lower concentration of LDL cholesterol was observed in the pigs fed a high lignan diet. This study provides solid support for the associations between ENL concentrations and use of antibiotics found in humans and indicates that the lower ENL concentration may be a consequence of the ecological changes in the microbiota.

  9. Area-under-the-curve monitoring of cyclosporine therapy: Performance of different assay methods and their target concentrations

    Grevel, J.; Napoli, K.L.; Gibbons, S.; Kahan, B.D.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of areas under the concentration-time curve (AUC) was recently introduced as an alternative to trough level monitoring of cyclosporine therapy. The AUC is divided by the oral dosing interval to calculate an average concentration. All measurements are performed at clinical steady state. The initial evaluation of AUC monitoring showed advantages over trough level monitoring with concentrations of cyclosporine measured in serum by the polyclonal radioimmunoassay of Sandoz. This assay technique is no longer available and the following assays were performed in parallel during up to 173 AUC determinations in 51 consecutive renal transplant patients: polyclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay of Abbott in serum, specific and nonspecific monoclonal radioimmunoassays using 3 H and 125 I tracers in serum and whole blood, and high performance liquid chromatography in whole blood. Both trough levels and average concentrations at steady state measured by those different techniques were significantly correlated with the oral dose. The best correlation (r2 = 0.54) was shown by average concentrations measured in whole blood by the specific monoclonal radioimmunoassay of Sandoz ( 3 H tracer). This monitoring technique was also associated with the smallest absolute error between repeated observations in the same patient while the oral dose rate remained the same or was changed. Both allegedly specific monoclonal radioimmunoassays (with 3 H and 125 I tracer) measured significantly higher concentrations than the liquid chromatography

  10. Folk narratives structures in Genesis 2, 4 -3, 24

    Magdalena Flores Ferres

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to demonstrate that Genesis 2.4 to 3.24, can be considered, from the perspective of the structure, a traditional folk story, since it contains the morphologic elements of this type of literature. To that end, in this paper we focus on the study of the structure of the folk tale. The structure of the action sequence of such tales is interesting from differente disciplines, due to its remarkable stability. To that end, we will review the postulates proposed by Vladimir Propp in his book “Morphology of the Folktale” (1928. From these theoretical foundations, we conducted a contrastive analysis of the Genesis 2.4 to 3.24, in paralell to the russian folktale “The Cat, the Rooster and the Fox” (Afanasiev, 1981, after which it was found that both tales have the same narrative structure.

  11. Safety analysis of a pool Genesis II irradiator

    Rodrigues Junior, Ary de A.

    2011-01-01

    The Genesis II Irradiator manufactured by GRAT * STAR Inc. (USA) is a category III gamma irradiator in which the sealed source is contained in a water filled storage pool and is shielded permanently, i.e. the material has to move down to the source. Even though the pool is 5.6 m deep, what would happen if the water level lowered? There are a series of safety devices that will avoid this situation and calculations show that the water level has to be very low in order to deliver a significant dose; moreover, only in case a person remains at the border of the pool for a long time this would be risky. In conclusion, it is practically impossible for someone to be exposed to radiation from a Genesis II Irradiator source. (author)

  12. Augustine on redemption in Genesis 1�3

    Edward L. Smither

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many theologians, including those concerned with theology of mission, frame the dramaof God�s story and mission (missio Dei through the three major acts of creation, fall andredemption. Others add that the new creation ought to be regarded as a fourth act. Althoughthis framework describes the entire biblical narrative, creation, fall and the hope of redemptionare, of course, quite present in the first three chapters of Genesis. In this article, I endeavouredto engage with the commentaries of the African church father Augustine of Hippo (354�430 CE to grasp his thoughts on redemption in Genesis 1�3. In his Genesis works, Augustinewas primarily concerned with clarifying the doctrine of creation and, relatively speaking, hadfar less to say about redemption. That said, Augustine was, quite interested with Scripture�sstory of redemption in his magnum opus De Civitate Dei [City of God]. Thus, in this article, Iexplored two major questions: firstly, why did Augustine pay so little attention to redemptionin Genesis 1�3? Secondly, how did he articulate and relate redemption in these chapters? Itwas shown that whilst his primary focus was to articulate creation, his thoughts on redemptionwere probably limited some because of the insufficiency of his Old Latin Bible translation andperhaps because of other distractions in ministry. Furthermore, it was argued that Augustine�sdoctrine of redemption was a subset of his discussion on creation � specifically, that the secondAdam (Christ brought new life to God�s image bearers affected by the fall of the first Adam.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: My aim was to establish Augustine�sthoughts on redemption as a point of dialogue for theologians of mission endeavouring toclarify a theology of mission. As most mission theologians do not consult Augustine in theirwork and as most early Christian scholars do not read Augustine missionally, this studyoffered fresh insights for

  13. Education in the Knowledge Society: Genesis of Concept and Reality

    Karpov, Alexander O.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to define the content of theoretical ideas about education in the knowledge society in terms of the birth of its social reality. It is shown that the genesis of the concept of education in the knowledge society goes back to the period of 1950-1960s and is due to the emergence of new qualities of an industrial worker that…

  14. GENESIS OF METHODOLOGY OF MANAGEMENT BY DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIZATIONS

    Z.N. Varlamova

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In clause the genesis of methodology of management of development of organizations as sets of the used methodological approaches and methods is investigated. The results of the comparative analysis of the methodological approaches to management of organizational development are submitted. The traditional methodological approaches are complemented strategic experiment and methodology case studies. The approaches to formation of new methodology and technique of research of sources of competitive advantages of organization are considered.

  15. Evolution of the marketing theory: genesis, conception, periodization

    M.A. Oklander; T.O. Oklander

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article. The article deals with evolution of the marketing theory in it genesis context, modern conception, periodization. Mercantilism, classical and neoclassical political economy, marginalism, institutionalism are distinguished as scientific sources of marketing. One defines that modern marketing conception is a socially responsible marketing form, based on mass individualization, the highest customer value supply, consumer’s problems effective solving. The marketing theory...

  16. Effect of fentanyl target-controlled infusions on isoflurane minimum anaesthetic concentration and cardiovascular function in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Pavez, Juan C; Hawkins, Michelle G; Pascoe, Peter J; Knych, Heather K DiMaio; Kass, Philip H

    2011-07-01

    To determine the impact of three different target plasma concentrations of fentanyl on the minimum anaesthetic concentration (MAC) for isoflurane in the red-tailed hawk and the effects on the haemodynamic profile. Experimental study. Six healthy adult red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) of unknown sex with body weights (mean ± SD) of 1.21 ± 0.15 kg. This study was undertaken in two phases. In the first phase anaesthesia was induced with isoflurane in oxygen via facemask and maintained with isoflurane delivered in oxygen via a Bain circuit. Following instrumentation baseline determination of the MAC for isoflurane was made for each animal using the bracketing method and a supramaximal electrical stimulus. End-tidal isoflurane concentration (E'Iso) was then set at 0.75 × MAC and after an appropriate equilibration period a bolus of fentanyl (20 μg kg(-1)) was administered intravenously (IV) in order to determine the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl in the isoflurane-anaesthetized red-tailed hawk. During the second phase anaesthesia was induced in a similar manner and E'Iso was set at 0.75 × MAC for each individual. Fentanyl was infused IV to achieve target plasma concentrations between 8 and 32 ng mL(-1). At each fentanyl plasma concentration, the MAC for isoflurane and cardiovascular variables were determined. Data were analyzed by use of repeated-measures anova. Mean ± SD fentanyl plasma concentrations and isoflurane MACs were 0 ± 0, 8.51 ± 4, 14.85 ± 4.82 and 29.25 ± 11.52 ng mL(-1), and 2.05 ± 0.45%, 1.42 ± 0.53%, 1.14 ± 0.31% and 0.93 ± 0.32% for the target concentrations of 0, 8, 16 and 32 ng mL(-1), respectively. At these concentrations fentanyl significantly (p = 0.0016) decreased isoflurane MAC by 31%, 44% and 55%, respectively. Dose had no significant effect on heart rate, systolic, diastolic or mean arterial blood pressure. Fentanyl produced a dose-related decrease of isoflurane MAC with minimal effects on measured cardiovascular parameters in

  17. The understanding of co-owners' rights in the context of the genesis of environmental rights

    Kudeikina I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental rights obtain a special importance in the context of real distribution of joint property. The common practice, where the building regulations are applied to legal relationships when carrying out the real distribution of a joint property, is associated with the genesis of environmental rights, but cannot be supported by the doctrine of absolutism of the property rights. In this Article, the author analyzes the legal reasoning and legal consequences of applicability of environmental rights. The essence of real distribution of joint property is the termination of the joint property as a legal act without a target of environmental transformation. The real distribution of joint property is not an action leaving any environmental impacts. The author concludes that the application of the environmental rights to the real distribution of the joint property unreasonably limits the property rights of co-owners.

  18. On the genesis of the uraniferous deposits I; Consideraciones sobre la genesis de los yacimientos uraniferos. I.

    Mingarro, E

    1964-07-01

    The main problems of the genesis of uranium deposits as hydro thermals are objectively considered here under three aspects: uranium source transport and deposition. The transport of uranium can be effected under a tetravalent form, or as complex ions of hexavalent uranium: as uranyl ion (UO{sub 2}){sup 2}+ or under complex carbonic or sulfuric forms, such as UO{sub 2}(XO{sub n}){sub 2}{sup 2}- or UO{sub 2}(XO{sub n}){sub 3}{sup 4}-. These three ways of transport correspond to the three basic geochemical para genesis of uranium: uranium-titanium, uranium-cobalt, uranium. Deposition is currently made by reduction and in some way is no dependent of mineralogical association. (Author) 61 refs.

  19. Quantification of susceptibility change at high-concentrated SPIO-labeled target by characteristic phase gradient recognition.

    Zhu, Haitao; Nie, Binbin; Liu, Hua; Guo, Hua; Demachi, Kazuyuki; Sekino, Masaki; Shan, Baoci

    2016-05-01

    Phase map cross-correlation detection and quantification may produce highlighted signal at superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, and distinguish them from other hypointensities. The method may quantify susceptibility change by performing least squares analysis between a theoretically generated magnetic field template and an experimentally scanned phase image. Because characteristic phase recognition requires the removal of phase wrap and phase background, additional steps of phase unwrapping and filtering may increase the chance of computing error and enlarge the inconsistence among algorithms. To solve problem, phase gradient cross-correlation and quantification method is developed by recognizing characteristic phase gradient pattern instead of phase image because phase gradient operation inherently includes unwrapping and filtering functions. However, few studies have mentioned the detectable limit of currently used phase gradient calculation algorithms. The limit may lead to an underestimation of large magnetic susceptibility change caused by high-concentrated iron accumulation. In this study, mathematical derivation points out the value of maximum detectable phase gradient calculated by differential chain algorithm in both spatial and Fourier domain. To break through the limit, a modified quantification method is proposed by using unwrapped forward differentiation for phase gradient generation. The method enlarges the detectable range of phase gradient measurement and avoids the underestimation of magnetic susceptibility. Simulation and phantom experiments were used to quantitatively compare different methods. In vivo application performs MRI scanning on nude mice implanted by iron-labeled human cancer cells. Results validate the limit of detectable phase gradient and the consequent susceptibility underestimation. Results also demonstrate the advantage of unwrapped forward differentiation compared with differential chain algorithms for susceptibility

  20. Helium, neon, and argon composition of the solar wind as recorded in gold and other Genesis collector materials

    Pepin, Robert O.; Schlutter, Dennis J.; Becker, Richard H.; Reisenfeld, Daniel B.

    2012-07-01

    We report compositions and fluxes of light noble gases in the solar wind (SW), extracted by stepped pyrolysis and amalgamation from gold collector materials carried on the Genesis Solar Wind Sample Return Mission. Results are compared with data from other laboratories on SW-He, Ne and Ar distributions implanted in Genesis aluminum, carbon, and silicon collectors and extracted by laser ablation. Corrections for mass-dependent losses (“backscatter”) of impinging SW ions due to scattering from the collector material are substantially larger for gold than for these lower atomic weight targets. We assess such losses by SRIM simulation calculations of SW backscatter from gold which are applied to the measurements to recover the composition of the incident SW. Averaged results of integrated stepped pyrolysis and single-step amalgamation measurements, with 1σ errors, are as follows: for SW-Ne and Ar isotope ratios (3He/4He was not measured), 20Ne/22Ne = 14.001 ± 0.042, 21Ne/22Ne = 0.03361 ± 0.00018, 36Ar/38Ar = 5.501 ± 0.014; for SW element ratios, 4He/20Ne = 641 ± 15, 20Ne/36Ar = 51.6 ± 0.5; and for SW fluxes in atoms cm-2 s-1 at the Genesis L1 station, 4He = 1.14 ± 0.04 × 107, 20Ne = 1.80 ± 0.06 × 104, 36Ar = 3.58 ± 0.11 × 102. Except for the 21Ne/22Ne and 20Ne/36Ar ratios, these values are in reasonable accord (within ∼1-3σ) with measurements on different collector materials reported by one or both of two other Genesis noble gas research groups. We further find, in three stepped pyrolysis experiments on gold foil, that He, Ne and Ar are released at increasing temperatures without elemental fractionation, in contrast to a pyrolytic extraction of a single non-gold collector (Al) where the release patterns point to mass-dependent thermal diffusion. The pyrolyzed gold foils exhibit enhancements, relative to sample totals, in 20Ne/22Ne and 21Ne/22Ne ratios evolved at low temperatures. The absence of elemental fractionation in pyrolytic release from gold

  1. Mice with targeted disruption of the acyl-CoA binding protein display attenuated urine concentrating ability and diminished renal aquaporin-3 abundance

    Langaa, Stine; Bloksgaard, Maria; Bek, Signe

    2012-01-01

    epithelial cells. Here we show that ACBP is widely expressed in human and mouse kidney epithelium with the highest expression in the proximal convoluted tubules. To elucidate the role of ACBP in the renal epithelium, mice with targeted disruption of the ACBP gene (ACBP(-/-)) were used to study water and Na......Cl balance as well as urine concentrating ability in metabolic cages. Food intake and urinary excretion of Na(+) and K(+) did not differ between ACBP(-/-) and (+/+) mice. Water intake and diuresis were significantly higher at baseline in ACBP(-/-) mice compared to that of (+/+) mice. Subsequent to 20h water...... deprivation, ACBP(-/-) mice exhibited increased diuresis, reduced urine osmolality, elevated hematocrit and higher relative weight loss compared to (+/+) mice. There were no significant differences in plasma concentrations of renin, corticosterone and aldosterone between mice of the two genotypes. At baseline...

  2. Towards a Statistical Model of Tropical Cyclone Genesis

    Fernandez, A.; Kashinath, K.; McAuliffe, J.; Prabhat, M.; Stark, P. B.; Wehner, M. F.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical Cyclones (TCs) are important extreme weather phenomena that have a strong impact on humans. TC forecasts are largely based on global numerical models that produce TC-like features. Aspects of Tropical Cyclones such as their formation/genesis, evolution, intensification and dissipation over land are important and challenging problems in climate science. This study investigates the environmental conditions associated with Tropical Cyclone Genesis (TCG) by testing how accurately a statistical model can predict TCG in the CAM5.1 climate model. TCG events are defined using TECA software @inproceedings{Prabhat2015teca, title={TECA: Petascale Pattern Recognition for Climate Science}, author={Prabhat and Byna, Surendra and Vishwanath, Venkatram and Dart, Eli and Wehner, Michael and Collins, William D}, booktitle={Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns}, pages={426-436}, year={2015}, organization={Springer}} to extract TC trajectories from CAM5.1. L1-regularized logistic regression (L1LR) is applied to the CAM5.1 output. The predictions have nearly perfect accuracy for data not associated with TC tracks and high accuracy differentiating between high vorticity and low vorticity systems. The model's active variables largely correspond to current hypotheses about important factors for TCG, such as wind field patterns and local pressure minima, and suggests new routes for investigation. Furthermore, our model's predictions of TC activity are competitive with the output of an instantaneous version of Emanuel and Nolan's Genesis Potential Index (GPI) @inproceedings{eman04, title = "Tropical cyclone activity and the global climate system", author = "Kerry Emanuel and Nolan, {David S.}", year = "2004", pages = "240-241", booktitle = "26th Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology"}.

  3. Luther's Lectures on Genesis 1:26-2:3

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2017-01-01

    This is a revised translation of Luther's Lectures on Genesis 1:26-2:3 (1535), drawn from Luther's Works, vol. 1, 55-82, but based on the Latin version of WA 42, 41-62. This revised translation is done with regard to inclusive language, and in this respect much closer to the Latin origin than...... to the English of the LW. I have added completely new annotations to explain Luther's theology as well as contetualize it, and chiefly new footnotes to explain the language and translations made....

  4. Determination of fluorine in copper concentrate via high-resolution graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis - Comparison of three target molecules.

    Cadorim, Heloisa R; de Gois, Jefferson S; Borges, Aline R; Vale, Maria Goreti R; Welz, Bernhard; Gleisner, Heike; Ott, Christina

    2018-01-01

    The chemical composition of complex inorganic materials, such as copper concentrate, may influence the economics of their further processing because most smelters, and particularly the producers of high-purity electrolyte copper, have strict limitations for the permissible concentration of impurities. These components might be harmful to the quality of the products, impair the production process and be hazardous to the environment. The goal of the present work is the development of a method for the determination of fluorine in copper concentrate using high-resolution graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis. The molecular absorption of the diatomic molecule CaF was measured at 606.440nm. The molecule CaF was generated by the addition of 200µg Ca as the molecule-forming reagent; the optimized pyrolysis and vaporization temperatures were 900°C and 2400°C, respectively. The characteristic mass and limit of detection were 0.5ng and 3ng, respectively. Calibration curves were established using aqueous standard solutions containing the major components Cu, Fe, S and the minor component Ag in optimized concentrations. The accuracy of the method was verified using certified reference materials. Fourteen copper concentrate samples from Chile and Australia were analyzed to confirm the applicability of the method to real samples; the concentration of fluorine ranged from 34 to 5676mgkg -1 . The samples were also analyzed independently at Analytik Jena by different operators, using the same equipment, but different target molecules, InF and GaF, and different operating conditions; but with a few exceptions, the results agreed quite well. The results obtained at Analytik Jena using the GaF molecule and our results obtained with CaF, with one exception, were also in agreement with the values informed by the supplier of the samples, which were obtained using ion selective electrode potentiometry after alkaline fusion. A comparison will

  5. Elemental Redistribution at the Onset of Soil Genesis from Basalt as Measured in a Soil Lysimeter System

    Wang, Y.; Umanzor, M.; Alves Meira Neto, A.; Sengupta, A.; Amistadi, M. K.; Root, R.; Troch, P.; Chorover, J.

    2017-12-01

    Elemental translocation, resulting in enrichment or depletion relative to parent rock, is a consequence of mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions of soil genesis. Accurate measurement of translocation in natural systems is complicated by factors such as parent material heterogeneity and dust deposition. In the present work, a fully controlled and monitored 10° sloping soil lysimeter with known homogeneous initial conditions, was utilized to investigate initial stages of soil genesis from 1 m3 of crushed basalt. Throughout the two-year experiment, periodic irrigation coupled with sensor measurements enabled monitoring of changes in internal moisture states. A total 15-meter water influx resulted in distinct efflux patterns, wetting and drying cycles, as well as high volume water storage. Biological changes, such as algal and grass emergence, were visible on the soil surface, and microbial colonization throughout the profile was measured in a companion study, suggesting that biogeochemical hotspots may have formed. Forensic excavation and sampling of 324 voxels captured the final state heterogeneity of the lysimeter with respect to length and depth. Total elemental concentrations and a five-step sequential extraction (SE) scheme quantified elemental redistributions into operationally-defined pools including exchangeable, poorly-crystalline (hydr)oxides, and crystalline (hydr)oxides. Data were correlated to water flux and storage that was determined from sensor and tracer data over the two years of rock-water interaction; then used to map 2D cross-sections and identify geochemical hotspots. Total and SE Fe concentrations were used to establish a governing mass balance equation, and sub mass balance equations with unique partitioning coefficients of Fe were developed for each SE pool, respectively. The results help to explain elemental (e.g., Fe) lability and redistribution due to physical and geochemical weathering during the initial stages of soil genesis.

  6. Lectures on Genesis 1:26-2:3 and 2:21-25

    Stjerna, Kirsi; Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2017-01-01

    This introduction to parts of Luther's lectures on Genesis (1535-45), namely his lectures on Genesis 1:26-2:3 and 2:21-25, discusses the reformer's grappling with the text in its historical and theological context. Not least is the question of gender taken under scrutiny, as the two authors, Kirsi...

  7. Concentrations of Selected Metals In Some Ready-To-Eat-Foods Consumed in Southern Nigeria: Estimation of Dietary Intakes and Target Hazard Quotients

    Chukwujindu Maxwell Iwegbue

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of selected metals (Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr and Co in some ready-to-eat-foods consumed in Nigeria were investigated with a view providing information on the risk associated with the consumption of these products. The concentrations of metals (mg.kg-1 in these ready-to-eat-foods are in the ranges of 2.4 – 5.2 for Cu; 0.1– 0.8 for Cd; 0.7 – 4.0 for Ni; 8.1 – 53.7 for Fe; 8.9 – 20.0 for Zn; 0.1 – 3.8 for Pb; 5.1 – 14.4 for Mn; 0.83 – 21.4 for Cr and 0.20 – 1.32 for Co. The concentrations and estimated intakes of Cd, Ni and Pb in some of these food types exceeded the permissible limits and tolerable daily intake respectively. The target hazard quotients (THQ for the individual metals indicate levels of concern for Ni, Cd, and Co in some of the ready-to-eat-foods. The combined THQ values for the metals in the examined samples ranged from 1.7 to 10 with significant contributions from Cd, Ni and Co.

  8. 75 FR 69458 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Genesis Solar Energy Project and...

    2010-11-12

    ..., LVRWB09B2520] Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Genesis Solar Energy Project [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Genesis Solar, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of NextEra Energy Resources, filed right-of-way (ROW) application CACA-048880 for the proposed Genesis Solar Energy...

  9. Genesis of the Brazilian nuclear power plants program

    Syllus, G.; Lepecki, W.

    1996-01-01

    The genesis of the Brazilian Nuclear Power Program is described by the authors - who participated in the events - from the beginning of the sixties, until the definition and the start of the implementation in 1975 of the Reference Nuclear Power Program. A description is made of the main events, studies and decisions that contributed to the evolution of the Program: the GTRP (Nuclear Power Plant Working Group); the Thorium Group; the Lane Group; the decision about Angra 1; CNEN's analyses about the reactor line and, finally, the creation of CBTN (Nuclear Technology Brazilian Company), which elaborated the studies that resulted in the final definition of the Program and led to the Brazilian German Agreement and the establishment of NUCLEBRAS. (author)

  10. Characteristics and genesis of porphyroclastic lava rock in Xiangshan

    Zhou Xiaohua; Wang Zhuning

    2012-01-01

    Due to the transitional characteristics of porphyroclastic lava rock in Xiangshan of Jiangxi province, there are a variety of views on its genesis, petrographic attribution. This is because the marginal facies of the porphyroclastic lava is with ignimbrite and tuff characteristics, its transition phase has the characteristics of lava, and its intermediate phase has the feature of sub-volcanic rocks, further more, different texture of the rocks bears transition relationship. By the study of mineral composition, REE pattern, trace elements, isotopes, we put forward that the porphyroclastic lava is formed by the remelting of basement metamorphic rocks. The rocks was believed to be formed in the environment similar to volcanics and subvolcanics, and quite different to plutonic rocks due to the features of low-structure of potassium feldspar phenocrysts and solution mechanism, because the porphyroclastic lava phenocrysts occurs as fragments and maybe related to cryptoexplosion. Therefore the rocks was believed to belong to the volcano extrusive facies. (authors)

  11. A theory of the genesis of breast duct papilloma.

    WHANG, J

    1960-03-01

    While it is not the intent to argue that papilloma never develops in the conventionally accepted manner (proliferative growth from the wall of a pre-existing cavity) a new, perhaps alternative, genesis is suggested. The concept is that, beginning with the usual lobular structure of the breast, first by hyperplasia and then by coalescence of alveoli, seen earliest at the periphery of the lobule, spaces appear between the content of the lobule and the wall. By confluence of these spaces a larger cystic cavity is formed. Coalescence of alveoli through the body of the central mass, in the same way as at the periphery, develops the familiar pattern of "papilloma." Following the earlier hyperplasia, regressive changes appear and may go on to complete disintegration of the papillary mass, leaving a smooth-walled cavity.

  12. Microstructure and geochemical evidences for genesis of the Gol-Gohar iron deposit

    Shahryar Mahmoudi

    2017-11-01

    analyses (XRF, four sample from two ore types and metamorphic host rock were examined by EPMA. The analytical examination were carried out in the Iranian Mineral Processing Research Center (IMPRC using PW2404 Philips XRF and Cameca X-100 EPMA. Discussion Based on microstructural observations of the metamorphic host rocks of the Gol-Gohar deposit, two main deformation phases were recognized which caused two distinctive foliations, S1 and S2. S1 is a continuous foliation with N18W to N24W general trend and average of 45 to 60 degrees slope toward the East. S2 is with 15-30 ° deviation from S1 and N9E to N17E general trend overprinted on the S1. Granite emplacement has caused deformation phases and magnetite crystals (Which Type just oriented within the first deformation phase (S1. The second deformation phase (S2 is recognized by fish shapes and pressure shadows around the minerals. The preferred orientation of magnetite in S1 and growth with biotite and garnet in the biotite, garnet and staurolite zones suggests that the early stage of mineralization in Gol-Gohar is contemporaneous with progressive metamorphism. Type1 magnetite does not show any margin thermal reactions. EPMA analysis of type 2 magnetite indicates a distinctive enrichment of high mobile elements. The distribution and frequency diagram (Celine and Beaudoin, 2011; Tong et al., 2011 shows that skarnisation is the main process in the genesis of the Gol-Gohar iron ore. Also, a comparison of the chemical composition of type 1 and 2 magnetite shows similar values of Ti, Cu, Si and Mg while metamorphic magnetite (type2 specifically show higher concentrations of Al and Mg. The metamorphism-related deformation history of the study area based on magnetite fabrics, mineralogy and metamorphic evolution implies a new model for the Gol-Gohar mineralization. Penetrative NS- to NW/SE dipping fabric is represented by S1 foliation hosted type1 magnetite, which was formed in the prevailing NW–SE shortening event during the

  13. [Effect of ear point embedding on plasma and effect site concentrations of propofol-remifentanil in elderly patients after target-controlled induction].

    Zheng, Xiaochun; Wan, Liling; Gao, Fei; Chen, Jianghu; Tu, Wenshao

    2017-08-12

    To observe the clinical effect of ear point embedding on plasma and effect site concentrations of propofol-remifentanil in elderly patients who underwent abdominal external hernia surgery at the time of consciousness and pain disappearing by target-controlled infusion (TCI) and bispectral index (BIS). Fifty patients who underwent elective abdominal hernia surgery were randomly assigned into an observation group and a control group, 25 cases in each one. In the observation group, 30 minutes before anesthesia induction, Fugugou (Extra), Gan (CO 12 ), Pizhixia (AT 4 ), and Shenmen (TF 4 ) were embedded by auricular needles until the end of surgery, 10 times of counter press each point. In the control group, the same amount of auricular tape was applied until the end of surgery at the same points without stimulation 30 minutes before anesthesia induction. Patients in the two groups were given total intravenous anesthesia, and BIS was monitored by BIS anesthesia depth monitor. Propofol was infused by TCI at a beginning concentration of 1.5μg/L and increased by 0.3μg/L every 30s until the patients lost their consciousness. After that, remifentanil was infused by TCI at a beginning concentration of 2.0μg/L and increased by 0.3μg/L every 30s until the patients had no body reaction to pain stimulation (orbital reflex). Indices were recorded, including mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and the BIS values, at the time of T 0 (entering into the operation room), T 1 (losing consciousness) and T 2 (pain relief), the plasma and effect site concentrations of propofol at T 1 , the plasma and effect site concentrations of remifentanil at T 2 . After surgery we recorded the total amounts of propofol and remifentanil, surgery time and anesthesia time. At T 1 and T 2 , MAP and HR of the observation group were higher than those of the control group ( P effect site concentrations of propofol in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group

  14. A Region-Based GeneSIS Segmentation Algorithm for the Classification of Remotely Sensed Images

    Stelios K. Mylonas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an object-based segmentation/classification scheme for remotely sensed images, based on a novel variant of the recently proposed Genetic Sequential Image Segmentation (GeneSIS algorithm. GeneSIS segments the image in an iterative manner, whereby at each iteration a single object is extracted via a genetic-based object extraction algorithm. Contrary to the previous pixel-based GeneSIS where the candidate objects to be extracted were evaluated through the fuzzy content of their included pixels, in the newly developed region-based GeneSIS algorithm, a watershed-driven fine segmentation map is initially obtained from the original image, which serves as the basis for the forthcoming GeneSIS segmentation. Furthermore, in order to enhance the spatial search capabilities, we introduce a more descriptive encoding scheme in the object extraction algorithm, where the structural search modules are represented by polygonal shapes. Our objectives in the new framework are posed as follows: enhance the flexibility of the algorithm in extracting more flexible object shapes, assure high level classification accuracies, and reduce the execution time of the segmentation, while at the same time preserving all the inherent attributes of the GeneSIS approach. Finally, exploiting the inherent attribute of GeneSIS to produce multiple segmentations, we also propose two segmentation fusion schemes that operate on the ensemble of segmentations generated by GeneSIS. Our approaches are tested on an urban and two agricultural images. The results show that region-based GeneSIS has considerably lower computational demands compared to the pixel-based one. Furthermore, the suggested methods achieve higher classification accuracies and good segmentation maps compared to a series of existing algorithms.

  15. [Autism and epigenetics. A model of explanation for the understanding of the genesis in autism spectrum disorders].

    Arberas, Claudia; Ruggieri, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterized by impairment of social integration and language development and restricted interests. Autism spectrum disorders manifest during childhood and may have a varying clinical expression over the years related to different therapeutic approaches, behavior-modifying drugs, and environmental factors, among others. So far, the genetic alterations identified are not sufficient to explain the genesis of all these processes, as many of the mutations found are also present in unaffected individuals. Findings on the underlying biological and pathophysiological mechanisms of entities strongly associated with autism spectrum disorders, such as Rett, fragile X, Angelman, and fetal alcohol syndromes, point to the role of epigenetic changes in disorders of neurodevelopment. Epigenetic phenomena are normal biological processes necessary for cell and thus human life, especially related to embryonic development. Different phenomena that affect epigenetic processes (changes that change operation or expression of a gene, without modifying the DNA structure) have also been shown to be important in the genesis of neurodevelopmental disorders. Alterations in the epigenetic mechanism may be reversible, which may explain the variation in the autism phenotype over time. Here we analyze the normal epigenetic mechanisms, autism spectrum disorders, their association with specific entities associated with altered epigenetic mechanisms, and possible therapeutic approaches targeting these alterations.

  16. The geochemistry of marine sediments, island arc magma genesis, and crust-mantle recycling

    Ben Othman, D.; Paris-6 Univ., 75; White, W.M.; Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY; Patchett, J.; Arizona Univ., Tucson

    1989-01-01

    To assess the role of sediment subduction and recycling in island arc magma genesis and mantle evolution, we have determined Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope ratios and the concentrations of K, Rb, Cs, Ba, Sr, U, Th, Pb and rare earth elements in 36 modern marine sediments, including Mn nodules, biogenic oozes, and pelagic and hemipelagic clays from the Pacific, Antlantic and Indian Oceans. Sr and Nd isotope ratios and the Sr/Nd concentration ratios in sediments are such that mixing between subducted sediment on the one hand and depleted mantle or subducted oceanic crust on the other can produce mixing arrays which may pass either through or outside of the oceanic basalt Sr-Nd isotope 'mantle array'. Thus whether isotope compositions of island arc volcanics (IAV) plot inside our outside of the mantle array is not a good indication of whether or not their sources contain a subducted sediment component. The presence of subducted sediment in the sources of IAV should lead to Cs/Rb and Pb/Ce ratios which are higher than those in oceanic basalts, and Ba/Rb ratios which may be either higher or lower than oceanic basalts. Simple mixing calculations suggest that as little as a percent or so sediment in island arc magma sources can account for the observed Cs/Rb, Pb/Ce, and Ba/Rb ratios in IAV. However, it does not appear that high Ba/La ratios and negative Ce anomalies in IAV are inherited from sediment in IAV magma sources. It is more likely these features reflect fractionation of alkalis and alkaline earths from rare earths during slab dehydration and metasomatism. Pb isotope ratios in sediments from the Warton Basin south of the Sunda Arc are collinear in 208 Pb/ 204 Pb- 207 Pb/ 204 Pb- 206 Bp/ 204 Pb space with volcanics from West Sunda, but not with volcanics from the East Sunda. This collinearity is consistent with the hypothesis that sediments similar to these are being subducted to the magma genesis zone of the West Sunda Arc. (orig./WB)

  17. GENESIS: a hybrid-parallel and multi-scale molecular dynamics simulator with enhanced sampling algorithms for biomolecular and cellular simulations.

    Jung, Jaewoon; Mori, Takaharu; Kobayashi, Chigusa; Matsunaga, Yasuhiro; Yoda, Takao; Feig, Michael; Sugita, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    GENESIS (Generalized-Ensemble Simulation System) is a new software package for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of macromolecules. It has two MD simulators, called ATDYN and SPDYN. ATDYN is parallelized based on an atomic decomposition algorithm for the simulations of all-atom force-field models as well as coarse-grained Go-like models. SPDYN is highly parallelized based on a domain decomposition scheme, allowing large-scale MD simulations on supercomputers. Hybrid schemes combining OpenMP and MPI are used in both simulators to target modern multicore computer architectures. Key advantages of GENESIS are (1) the highly parallel performance of SPDYN for very large biological systems consisting of more than one million atoms and (2) the availability of various REMD algorithms (T-REMD, REUS, multi-dimensional REMD for both all-atom and Go-like models under the NVT, NPT, NPAT, and NPγT ensembles). The former is achieved by a combination of the midpoint cell method and the efficient three-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform algorithm, where the domain decomposition space is shared in real-space and reciprocal-space calculations. Other features in SPDYN, such as avoiding concurrent memory access, reducing communication times, and usage of parallel input/output files, also contribute to the performance. We show the REMD simulation results of a mixed (POPC/DMPC) lipid bilayer as a real application using GENESIS. GENESIS is released as free software under the GPLv2 licence and can be easily modified for the development of new algorithms and molecular models. WIREs Comput Mol Sci 2015, 5:310-323. doi: 10.1002/wcms.1220.

  18. Shallow gas charged sediments off the Indian west coast: Genesis and distribution

    Mazumdar, A.; Peketi, A.; Dewangan, P.; Badesab, F.K.; Ramprasad, T; Ramana, M.V.; Patil, D.J.; Dayal, A.M.

    Geophysical and geochemical surveys were carried out off Goa, central west coast of India, to understand the genesis and distribution of shallow gases in marine sediments. Shallow gas charged sediments within the water depths of approx. 15 to 40 m...

  19. Post-Disaster Image Processing for Damage Analysis Using GENESI-DR, WPS and Grid Computing

    Bielski, Conrad; Gentilini, Simone; Pappalardo, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the two year Ground European Network for Earth Science Interoperations-Digital Repositories (GENESI-DR) project was to build an open and seamless access service to Earth science digital repositories for European and world-wide science users. In order to showcase GENESI-DR, one of the developed technology demonstrators focused on fast search, discovery, and access to remotely sensed imagery in the context of post-disaster building damage assessment. This paper descri...

  20. Characteristics and genesis of Rare Earth Element (REE) in western Indonesia

    Handoko, A. D.; Sanjaya, E.

    2018-02-01

    Rare Earth Element (REE) has unique properties that have been used in many hightech applications. The demand of REE increased recently in the world due to its special properties. Although REE concentration in the crust is higher than gold, economically viable deposits are still rare. Reduction of REE exports by China cause increased prices of REE. Due to this condition, exploration of potential REE mines emerged. Indonesia also participates in this phenomenon, and explore the possibility of REE mines in its area. This review will discuss the characteristics and genesis of REE and its occurrence in western Indonesia; focused in Sumatera, Tin Island, and Kalimantan. The review is done based on literature research from several resources about characteristics of rare earth element in general and in the given area. The research shows that the potential REE mines can be found in several different locations in Indonesia, such as Tin Island, Sumatera, and Kalimantan. Most of them are composed of monazite, zircon, and xenotime as rare earth minerals. Monazite iss known for its elevated number of radioactive elements, so study about radioactive content and more environment friendly ore processing becomes compulsory.

  1. Maternal perceptions of their child's weight status: the GENESIS study.

    Manios, Yannis; Kondaki, Katerina; Kourlaba, Georgia; Vasilopoulou, Emilia; Grammatikaki, Evangelia

    2009-08-01

    The objective of the present work was to quantify mothers' misclassification of pre-school children's weight status and to determine factors associated with the maternal misperception. A representative sample of 2287 children aged 2-5 years was examined (GENESIS study). Mothers' perceptions of their child's weight status and the children's and mothers' anthropometric and other characteristics (sociodemographic and lifestyle) were recorded. Almost 38 % of mothers underestimated their child's weight status. The frequency of underestimation was much higher among 'at risk of being overweight' and 'overweight' children (88.3 % and 54.5 %, respectively) compared with 'underweight/normal-weight' children (18.0 %, P engaging in physical activity for less than 3 h/week and in children whose mothers had low education status, compared with their counterparts. Moreover, the higher the BMI-for-age Z-score, the greater the odds that the mother would underestimate her child's weight status. The current study demonstrated that more than one-third of mothers misclassify their children's weight status as being lower than the actual. Given that mother's weight perception might be an important determinant of child's body weight development, clinicians and health professionals should help mothers correctly classify their children's weight status, which could potentially help in the early prevention of overweight and obesity.

  2. GENESIS - The GENEric SImulation System for Modelling State Transitions.

    Gillman, Matthew S

    2017-09-20

    This software implements a discrete time Markov chain model, used to model transitions between states when the transition probabilities are known a priori . It is highly configurable; the user supplies two text files, a "state transition table" and a "config file", to the Perl script genesis.pl. Given the content of these files, the script generates a set of C++ classes based on the State design pattern, and a main program, which can then be compiled and run. The C++ code generated is based on the specification in the text files. Both multiple branching and bi-directional transitions are allowed. The software has been used to model the natural histories of colorectal cancer in Mexico. Although written primarily to model such disease processes, it can be used in any process which depends on discrete states with known transition probabilities between those states. One suitable area may be in environmental modelling. A test suite is supplied with the distribution. Due to its high degree of configurability and flexibility, this software has good re-use potential. It is stored on the Figshare repository.

  3. The genesis of WiFi and its applications

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    In 1985 changes to US regulations caused a paradigm shift by permitting the use of radio spectrum for devices that did not need to have an end-user license. After a few years, products appeared on the market and a group developed a standard for broadband wireless communications among computers. The presentation will explain how the standard developed and was adopted by the Wi-Fi Alliance, as well as the global harmonization and expansion of the available radio spectrum to over half a GHz. The success of Wi-Fi and user innovation and initiatives makes it a vehicle to bring broadband internet to rural areas both in developing as well as in developed countries. Vic Hayes is a Senior Research Fellow at the Delft University of Technology and is writing a book titled "The genesis of Wi-Fi and the road toward global success". He holds a BSEE and joined NCR in the Netherlands in 1974. He co-established and chaired the IEEE 802.11 Standards Working Group for Wireless Local Area Networks and became known as the "Fathe...

  4. GENESIS CONTRADICTIONS OF GENDER APPROACH IN EDUCATION OF CHILDREN

    Zh. N. Dyuldina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to consider genesis contradictions of gender approach in modern education and training of children and possibilities of its application in an educational system during the newest period of the society development.Methods, results and scientific novelty. The retrospective analysis of the sources has shown that gender approach isn’t new and not studied: on the contrary, separate education and training of boys and girls in the past was a norm and a duty of parents and teachers. However, the reflection of social processes shows the demolition of traditional system of gender stratification; weakening of women’s and men’s polarization of social roles; change of cultural stereotypes of masculinity and femininity; objective changes in the matrimonial relations. Everything listed above brings into focus an investigative search of new approaches to gender education. The essence of the terms «gender», «gender approach» is specified. Despite very long history of gender education (which was cultivated since the most ancient eras of existence of a mankind, insufficient study of this problem is stated now. Special importance of gender aspect in family education is emphasized. The different points of view in understanding of gender approach in modern science are revealed; the main perspective directions of researches on this subject are noted.Practical significance. The materials of the present article can be used in teaching history of pedagogics, gender psychology and gender pedagogics.

  5. The genesis of fluid mechanics, 1640-1780

    Calero, Julián Simón

    2008-01-01

    Fluid Mechanics, as a scientific discipline in a modern sense, was established between the last third of the 17th century and the first half of the 18th one. This book analyses its genesis, following its evolution along two basic lines of research, which have been named the "problem of resistance" and the "problem of discharge". This approach highlights the existence of a remarkable experimental aspect in the aforementioned research lines, together with their link with problems of a practical nature, such as ballistics, hydraulics, fluid-using machines or naval theory. On the other hand, although previous studies usually present fluid mechanics from the point of view of mathematics, this is complemented here by an engineering viewpoint; gathering attempts made in the beginnings of fluid mechanics to see if the theory was capable of productive application in practical terms. This is nothing unusual in a time where the quality of knowledge and skill is measured largely by its usefulness. (c) Universidad Naciona...

  6. Genesis of the gossan at the Las Cruces Ore Deposit (SW Spain). Groundwater-Rock Interaction.

    Scheiber, L.; Ayora, C.; Vázquez-Suñé, E.; Soler, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Las Cruces deposit has sparked an interest in the scientific community due to the exceptional genesis and mineralogical composition. The original gossan formed by goethite and hematite has been replaced by siderite and galena rock. The current gossan composition is as the result of the interaction of groundwater that circulates through the Niebla-Posadas aquifer and a gossan formed by Fe-oxyhydroxides. The groundwater conditions promoted the reductive dissolution of Pb-bearing goethite by the organic matter degradation and the formation of siderite and galena. Hydrochemical and isotopic characteristics of groundwater endorses this hypothesis. Thus, negative Eh values, the existence of H2S and the tendency to light sulfate isotope values show the reducing conditions of groundwater. The key role of the organic matter degradation is marked by the high ammonium, boron and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations together the light δ13C values, both in groundwater and siderite. The siderite precipitation is confirmed by the high pH values (up to 10), the low amount of Fe (<10ppb) and the thermodynamic calculations. The Fe-oxyhydroxides are a high adsorption capacity which is capable of absorbing metals as arsenic, lead and antimony. The reductive dissolution of these minerals involves the release of these metal to groundwater. Then, the groundwater rich in sulfur and an excess of lead produce the galena precipitation. The likeness between the δ34S values, both the gossan and groundwater, reveals that the sulfur of the galena come from the currently groundwater. A reactive transport model confirm that the present day groundwater flux and composition is able to form the siderite rock in less than 1Ma, with no external supply of reactants. The limiting factor of the process is the Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) concentration in groundwater, i.e., higher concentrations would decrease the formation time, whereas the result is not sensitive to flow conditions.

  7. Genesis of petroduric and petrocalcic horizons in Latinamerica volcanic soils

    Quantin, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Introduction. In Latinamerica, from Mexico to Chile, there are indurated volcanic soils horizons, named 'tepetate' in Mexico or cangahua in the Andes Mountains. Apart from original volcanic tuffs, these horizons were produced by pedogenesis: either through a former weathering of volcanic ash layers into fragic and later to petrocalcic horizons; or after a former soil formation through a second process of transformation from clayey volcanic soils to silicified petroduric horizons. This oral presentation will briefly deal with the formation of petroduric horizons in Mexico and petrocalcic horizon in Ecuador. Petroduric horizon genesis in Mexico. A soil climato-toposequence, near to Veracruz (Rossignol & Quantin, 1997), shows downwards an evolution from a ferralic Nitisol to a petroduric Durisol. A Durisol profile comports these successive horizons: at the top A and Eg, then columnar Btg-sim, laminar Bt-sim , prismatic Bsim, plinthite Cg, over andesite lava flow. Among its main features are especially recorded: clay mineralogy, microscopy and HRTEM. These data show: an increase in cristobalite at the expenses of 0.7 nm halloysite in Egsiltans, laminar Bt-sim, around or inside the columns or prisms of Btg-sim and Bsimhorizons. HRTEM (Elsass & al 2000) on ultra thin sections reveals an 'epigenesis' of clay sheets by amorphous silica, to form successively A-opal, Ct-opal and microcrystalline cristobalite. From these data and some groundwater chemical analyses, a scenario of duripan formation from a past clayey Nitisol is inferred: clay eluviation-illuviation process? alternate redoximorphy? clay degradation, Al leaching and Si accumulation, to form successively A-opal, Ct-opal and cristobalite. Petrocalcic horizon genesis in Ecuador. A soil climato-toposequence on pyroclastic flows, near to Bolivar in Ecuador (Quantin & Zebrowski, 1997), shows downwards the evolution from fragic-eutric-vitric Cambisols to petrocalcic-vitric Phaeozems, at the piedmont under semi

  8. Functional MRI: Genesis, State of the art and the Sequel

    Bharath, Rose Dawn

    2014-01-01

    The last 25 years have seen functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) grow from an interesting experimental imaging technique in the hands of some to a primary investigation of choice in the localization and lateralization of brain function prior to surgery. Developments in the field of computational neurosciences have transformed fMRI analysis from classical subtractive type analysis to dynamic casual modeling, and now to graph theory analysis. This has widened the scope of fMRI, and is therefore finding applications in understanding neural correlates of diseases like autism and Alzheimer's disease, prognostication of diseases like traumatic brain injury, and has the potential to direct therapy. It is unfortunately true that this widened ambit has not received the clinical attention it deserves, probably because fMRI is susceptible to artifacts from skull base and blood products and has reduced sensitivity in patients with vascular malformations, or because a change in medical practice usually lags behind the technological and scientific developments that make it possible. This review focuses on the developmental chronology of fMRI image analysis in the last 25 years with highlights on major milestones like developments in the field of paradigms, analysis methods, resting state fMRI, and functional connectivity. To make the statistical images of brain at work more colorful, the article starts with genesis of fMRI and ends with the hope of a promising bright future. Many inputs for this article are obtained from a series of 103 review articles edited by Bandettini et al., compiling personal experiences of pioneers in this field. Interested readers are encouraged to refer to these for a more complete overview.

  9. The genesis solar-wind sample return mission

    Wiens, Roger C.

    2009-01-01

    different solar isotopic composition and each invoking a different early solar-system process to produce the heterogeneity. Other volatiles such as C, N, and H may also have experienced similar effects, but with only two isotopes it is often impossible to distinguish with these elements between mass-dependent fractionation and other effects such as mixing or mass-independent fractionation. Table 1 provides a summary of the major measurement objectives of the Genesis mission. Determining the solar oxygen isotopic composition is at the top of the list. Volatile element and isotope ratios constitute six of the top seven priorities. A number of disciplines stand to gain from information from the Genesis mission, as will be discussed later. Based on the Apollo solar-wind foil experiment, the Genesis mission was designed to capture solar wind over orders of magnitude longer duration and in a potentially much cleaner environment than the lunar surface.

  10. Magnetite as the indicator of ore genesis for the Huangshaping polymetallic deposit, southern Hunan Province, China

    Ding, T.; Ma, D.; Lu, J.; Zhang, R.

    2017-12-01

    Huangshaping polymetallic deposit, located in southern Hunan Province, China, hosts abundant W-Mo-Pb-Zn mineralization which linked with the skarn system located between late Mesozoic high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic granitoids and the Carboniferous carbonate in this deposit. In this study, concentrations of trace and minor elements of the magnetites from different skarn stages are obtained by in situ LA-ICP-MS analysis, in order to further understand the polymetallic mineralization processes within this deposit. The generally high concentrations of spinel elements, including Mg, Al, Ti, Mn, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Ga, Ge, and Sn, in all magnetites from this deposit suggest that these elements are incorporated into magnetite lattice by substituting Fe3+ and/or Fe2+. However, the various concentrations of Na, Si, K, Ca, and W elements in magnetites, combining the abnormal time-resolved analytical signals of LA-ICP-MS analyses, suggest that these elements are significantly affected by the fluid inclusions in magnetites. Two groups of magnetites can be further distinguished based on their trace and minor elements concentrations: Group-1 magnetites, including those in medium grain garnets and calcite, have obvious lower Na, Si, K, Ca, Sn, W, but higher Mg, Al, Ti, V, Co, Ni, Zn concentrations compared with Group-2 magnetites, which including those in coarse grain garnets, tremolite, and bulk magnetite ores. This suggests that the hydrothermal fluids where Group-2 magnetites precipitated are evolved magmatic fluids which have undergone the crystal fractionation during the early skarn stages (eg. Garnet and tremolite), the high Na, Si, K, and Ca in the hydrothermal fluids probably result from the dissolution of the host rocks, such as limestone, sandstone, and evaporite horizons in this deposit. However, the Group-1 magnetites probably precipitated in the hydrothermal fluids with low salinity, which result the low Na, Si, K, and Ca in these magnitites. Furthermore, these

  11. Tropical cyclone genesis in the Southern Hemisphere and its relationship with the ENSO

    Kuleshov, Y.; Qi, L. [Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). National Climate Centre; Chane Ming, F.; Chouaibou, I.; Hoareau, C. [UMR CNRS-Meteo-France-Univ. de la Reunion, La Reunion (France). Lab. de l' Atmosphere et des Cyclones; Roux, F. [Paul Sabatier Univ., CNRS, Toulouse (France). Lab. d' Aerologie

    2009-07-01

    Tropical cyclogenesis climatology over the South Indian and South Pacific Oceans has been developed using a new tropical cyclone (TC) archive for the Southern Hemisphere, and changes in geographical distribution of areas favourable for TC genesis related to changes in the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phases have been investigated. To explain these changes, large-scale environmental variables which influence TC genesis and development such as sea surface temperatures (SSTs), relative humidity in mid-troposphere, vertical wind shear and lower tropospheric vorticity have been examined. In the South Indian Ocean, reduction of TC genesis in the western part of the basin and its increase in the eastern part as well as displacement of the area favourable for TC genesis further away from the equator during La Nina events compared to El Nino events can be explained by changes in geographical distribution of relative humidity and vorticity across the basin as primary contributors; positive anomalies of SSTs observed during La Nina seasons in the eastern part of the basin additionally contribute to enhanced cyclogenesis near the Western Australia. In the South Pacific Ocean, changes in geographical distribution of relative humidity and vorticity appear to be the key large-scale environmental factors responsible for enhanced TC genesis in the eastern (western) part of the basin as well as for the northeast (southwest) shift of points of cyclogenesis during El Nino (La Nina) events, with vertical wind shear and SSTs as additional contributing large-scale environmental variables. (orig.)

  12. Decrease of tropical cyclone genesis frequency in the western North Pacific since 1960s

    Hu, Feng; Li, Tim; Liu, Jia; Bi, Mingyu; Peng, Melinda

    2018-03-01

    Tropical cyclone (TC) genesis frequency in the western North Pacific (WNP) during 1960-2014 shows a step-by-step decrease on interdecadal timescale, in accordance to the phase of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). The environmental parameters responsible for the interdecadal change of TC genesis frequency were investigated. It was found that vertical wind shear especially the zonal wind shear plays a critical role, while other parameters such as sea surface temperature (SST), vertical velocity, divergence, humidity and maximum potential intensity cannot explain the step-by-step decrease of TC genesis frequency. A further diagnosis shows that the interdecadal change of vertical wind shear is caused by SST and associated rainfall pattern changes across the Indo-Pacific Ocean. A stronger warming in the Indian Ocean/western Pacific from 1960-1976 to 1977-1998 led to enhanced convection over the Maritime Continent and thus strengthened vertical shear over the key TC genesis region in the WNP. A La Nina-like SST pattern change from 1977-1998 to 1999-2014 led to a strengthened Walker circulation in the tropical Pacific, which further enhanced the vertical shear and decreased TC genesis frequency in the WNP.

  13. Prediction of brain target site concentrations on the basis of CSF PK : impact of mechanisms of blood-to-brain transport and within brain distribution

    Westerhout, J.

    2014-01-01

    In the development of drugs for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders, the prediction of human CNS drug action is a big challenge. Direct measurement of brain extracellular fluid (brainECF) concentrations is highly restricted in human. Therefore, unbound drug concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are used as a surrogate for human brainECF concentrations. Due to qualitative and quantitative differences in processes that govern the pharmacokinetics (PK) of drugs in...

  14. Sex differences in cell genesis, hippocampal volume and behavioral outcomes in a rat model of neonatal HI.

    Waddell, Jaylyn; Hanscom, Marie; Shalon Edwards, N; McKenna, Mary C; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) of the brain in near-term and term infants is a leading cause of infant mortality and lifelong disability but current therapeutic approaches remain limited. Males consistently display greater vulnerability to the deleterious consequences of HI in both humans and animal models. Neurogenesis increases after neonatal HI and offers a potential therapeutic target for recovery. The steroid hormone estradiol has been extensively explored as a neuroprotectant in adult models of stroke but with mixed results. Less consideration has been afforded to this naturally occurring agent in the developing brain, which has unique challenges from the adult. Using a model of term HI in the rat we have explored the impact of this insult on cell genesis in the hippocampus of males and females and the ability of estradiol treatment immediately after insult to restore function. Both short-term (3 days) and long-term (7 days) post-injury were assessed and revealed that only females had markedly increased cell genesis on the short-term but both sexes were increased long-term. A battery of behavioral tests revealed motor impairment in males and compromised episodic memory while both sexes were modestly impaired in spatial memory. Juvenile social play was also depressed in both sexes after HI. Estradiol therapy improved behavioral performance in both sexes but did not reverse a deficit in hippocampal volume ipsilateral to the insult. Thus the effects of estradiol do not appear to be via cell death or proliferation but rather involve other components of neural functioning. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Sex differences in cell genesis, hippocampal volume and behavioral outcomes in a rat model of neonatal HI

    Waddell, Jaylyn; Hanscom, Marie; Edwards, N. Shalon; McKenna, Mary C.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia ischemia (HI) of the brain in near-term and term infants is a leading cause of infant mortality and lifelong disability but current therapeutic approaches remain limited. Males consistently display greater vulnerability to the deleterious consequences of HI in both humans and animal models. Neurogenesis increases after neonatal HI and offers a potential therapeutic target for recovery. The steroid hormone estradiol has been extensively explored as a neuroprotectant in adult models of stroke but with mixed results. Less consideration has been afforded to this naturally occurring agent in the developing brain, which has unique challenges from the adult. Using a model of term HI in the rat we have explored the impact of this insult on cell genesis in the hippocampus of males and females and the ability of estradiol treatment immediately after insult to restore function. Both short-term (3 days) and long-term (7 days) post-injury were assessed and revealed that only females had markedly increased cell genesis on the short-term but both sexes were increased long-term. A battery of behavioral tests revealed motor impairment in males and compromised episodic memory while both sexes were modestly impaired in spatial memory. Juvenile social play was also depressed in both sexes after HI. Estradiol therapy improved behavioral performance in both sexes but did not reverse a deficit in hippocampal volume ipsilateral to the insult. Thus the effects of estradiol do not appear to be via cell death or proliferation but rather involve other components of neural functioning. PMID:26376217

  16. Magma genesis at Gale Crater: Evidence for Pervasive Mantle Metasomatism

    Filiberto, J.

    2017-12-01

    Basaltic rocks have been analyzed at Gale Crater with a larger range in bulk chemistry than at any other landing site [1]. Therefore, the rocks may have experienced significantly different formation conditions than those experienced by magmas at Gusev Crater or Meridiani Planum. Specifically, the rocks at Gale Crater have higher potassium than other Martian rocks, with a potential analog of the Nakhlite parental magma, and are consistent with forming from a metasomatized mantle source [2-4]. Mantle metasomatism would not only affect the bulk chemistry but mantle melting conditions, as metasomatism fluxes fluids into the source region. Here I will combine differences in bulk chemistry between Martian basalts to calculate formation conditions in the interior and investigate if the rocks at Gale Crater experienced magma genesis conditions consistent with metasomatism - lower temperatures and pressures of formation. To calculate average formation conditions, I rely on experimental results, where available, and silica-activity and Mg-exchange thermometry calculations for all other compositions following [5, 6]. The results show that there is a direct correlation between the calculated mantle potential temperature and the K/Ti ratio of Gale Crater rocks. This is consistent with fluid fluxed metasomatism introducing fluids to the system, which depressed the melting temperature and fluxed K but not Ti to the system. Therefore, all basalts at Gale Crater are consistent with forming from a metasomatized mantle source, which affected not only the chemistry of the basalts but also the formation conditions. References: [1] Cousin A. et al. (2017) Icarus. 288: 265-283. [2] Treiman A.H. et al. (2016) Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. 121: 75-106. [3] Treiman A.H. and Medard E. (2016) Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 48: doi: 10.1130/abs/2016AM-285851. [4] Schmidt M.E. et al. (2016) Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 48: doi: 10

  17. Genesis Contingency Planning and Mishap Recovery: The Sample Curation View

    Stansbery, E. K.; Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.; McNamara, K. M.; Calaway, M.; Rodriques, M. C.

    2007-01-01

    Planning for sample preservation and curation was part of mission design from the beginning. One of the scientific objectives for Genesis included collecting samples of three regimes of the solar wind in addition to collecting bulk solar wind during the mission. Collectors were fabricated in different thicknesses for each regime of the solar wind and attached to separate frames exposed to the solar wind during specific periods of solar activity associated with each regime. The original plan to determine the solar regime sampled for specific collectors was to identify to which frame the collector was attached. However, the collectors were dislodged during the hard landing making identification by frame attachment impossible. Because regimes were also identified by thickness of the collector, the regime sampled is identified by measuring fragment thickness. A variety of collector materials and thin films applied to substrates were selected and qualified for flight. This diversity provided elemental measurement in more than one material, mitigating effects of diffusion rates and/or radiation damage. It also mitigated against different material and substrate strengths resulting in differing effects of the hard landing. For example, silicon crystal substrates broke into smaller fragments than sapphire-based substrates and diamond surfaces were more resilient to flying debris damage than gold. The primary responsibility of the curation team for recovery was process documentation. Contingency planning for the recovery phase expanded this responsibility to include not only equipment to document, but also gather, contain and identify samples from the landing area and the recovered spacecraft. The team developed contingency plans for various scenarios as part of mission planning that included topographic maps to aid in site recovery and identification of different modes of transport and purge capability depending on damage. A clean tent, set-up at Utah Test & Training Range

  18. Prediction of brain target site concentrations on the basis of CSF PK : impact of mechanisms of blood-to-brain transport and within brain distribution

    Westerhout, J.

    2014-01-01

    In the development of drugs for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders, the prediction of human CNS drug action is a big challenge. Direct measurement of brain extracellular fluid (brainECF) concentrations is highly restricted in human. Therefore, unbound drug concentrations in

  19. Vascular targeting with peptide libraries

    Pasqualini, R. [La Jolla Cancer Research Center The Burnham Inst., La Jolla CA (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The authors have developed an 'in vivo' selection system in which phage capable of selective homing to different tissues are recovered from a phage display peptide library following intravenous administration. Using this strategy, they have isolate several organ and tumor-homing peptides. They have shown that each of those peptides binds of different receptors that are selectively expressed on the vasculature of the target tissue. The tumor-homing peptides bind to receptors that are up regulated in tumor angiogenic vasculature. Targeted delivery of doxorubicin to angiogenic vasculature using these peptides in animals models decrease toxicity and increased the therapeutic efficacy of the drug. Vascular targeting may facilitate the development of other treatment strategies that rely on inhibition of angio genesis and lead to advances to extend the potential for targeting of drugs, genes and radionuclides in the context of many diseases.

  20. Gap Junctions Contribute to Ictal/Interictal Genesis in Human Hypothalamic Hamartomas

    Jie Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human hypothalamic hamartoma (HH is a rare subcortical lesion associated with treatment-resistant epilepsy. Cellular mechanisms responsible for epileptogenesis are unknown. We hypothesized that neuronal gap junctions contribute to epileptogenesis through synchronous activity within the neuron networks in HH tissue. We studied surgically resected HH tissue with Western-blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, biocytin microinjection of recorded HH neurons, and microelectrode patch clamp recordings with and without pharmacological blockade of gap junctions. Normal human hypothalamus tissue was used as a control. Western blots showed increased expression of both connexin-36 (Cx36 and connexin-43 (Cx43 in HH tissue compared with normal human mammillary body tissue. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that Cx36 and Cx43 are expressed in HH tissue, but Cx36 was mainly expressed within neuron clusters while Cx43 was mainly expressed outside of neuron clusters. Gap-junction profiles were observed between small HH neurons with electron microscopy. Biocytin injection into single recorded small HH neurons showed labeling of adjacent neurons, which was not observed in the presence of a neuronal gap-junction blocker, mefloquine. Microelectrode field recordings from freshly resected HH slices demonstrated spontaneous ictal/interictal-like discharges in most slices. Bath-application of gap-junction blockers significantly reduced ictal/interictal-like discharges in a concentration-dependent manner, while not affecting the action-potential firing of small gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA neurons observed with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from the same patient's HH tissue. These results suggest that neuronal gap junctions between small GABAergic HH neurons participate in the genesis of epileptic-like discharges. Blockade of gap junctions may be a new therapeutic strategy for controlling seizure activity in HH patients.

  1. Kollig op Genesis 1-3: 'n verslag van verskuiwende denke en geloof

    Spangenberg, Sakkie

    2014-01-01

    The author narrates how his views concerning Gen 1-3 have changed over the past forty years. He enrolled for theological training at the University of Stellenbosch during the seventies of the previous century and had to study the book Hoe lezen wij Genesis 2 en 3? ("How should we read Genesis 2 and 3?"). The book had been written by B. J. Oosterhoff, a Dutch scholar who argued a case for a symbolic reading of the text. Since then the author has become acquainted with the paradigm change in th...

  2. Delimitation Markers, Chapter Division, Syntax and Literary Structure: the Case of Genesis 37:1–2

    van Peursen, W.T.; Korpel, Marjo; Sanders, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Many modern Bible translations insert a heading between the end of Genesis 36 and the beginning of Genesis 37 such as ‘Joseph and his brothers’ or ‘Joseph’s dreams’. This suggests (1) that a new section starts at 37:1 and (2) that this section contains the Joseph story. That 37:1 marks a new start

  3. OUTCOMES REVIEW OF TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT WITH GENESIS II TOTAL KNEE SYSTEM: AUSTRALIAN ORTHOPAEDIC ASSOCIATION NATIONAL JOINT REPLACEMENT REGISTRY DATA

    N. L. Logvinov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The goal of the article was to review Genesis II Total Knee System use according to AoA NJRR report. Genesis II has been widely used in Russian Federation since 1996. The AoA NJRR report was studied in order to learn connection between number of revision procedures and surgeon’s skills or type of the System, adequate choice among cemented, cementless and hybrid fixation, number of surgeries using Genesis II Total Knee System annually, average revision rate for Genesis II and early cumulative revision rate.CONCLUSION. The systematic study of AoA NJRR allows us to make a conclusion that cemented fixation of Genesis II Total Knee System is mostly effective, and this fact is confirmed by domestic experience. 

  4. Weathering and genesis of Soils from Ellsworth Mountains, East Antarctica

    Karoline Delpupo Souza, Katia; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto; Michel, Roberto; Monari, Julia; Machado, Vania

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge on Antarctic soils from the Ellsworth Mountains (EM) are patchy comparatively with Dry Valleys soils from the Transantartic Mountains, and could help understand the genesis of cryogenic soils under extreme dry, cold desert conditions. The EM are a slightly arcuate 350-km-long north-northwest-trending mountain chain is bordered on the west by the polar plateau of West Antarctica and on the east by Ronne Ice Shelf. The range is as much as 90 km wide and constitutes one of the largest areas of exposed bedrock in West Antarctica. The stratigraphic succession in the EM includes strata from Cambriam to Permian in age. The objective of this study is to analyze the properties of soils from EM in order to identify the main factors and processes involved in soil formation under cold desert conditions in Antarctica. The sampling design aimed to represent the different geological substrates (marble-clast conglomerate, graywacke, argillite, conglomerate, black shale, marble and quartzite) as well as altitudinal levels and landforms within the same substrate. We characterized soils from EM regarding their morphological, physics and chemical properties. Soil samples were air dried and passed through 2 mm sieves. After removal of water soluble salts, the samples were submitted to chemical and physical analyses such as: pH in water, potential acidity (H + Al), exchangeable bases, total organic carbon, electric conductivity, soil texture and color. The soils classify, for the most part, in weathering stages 1 to 2. Only in the upper parts of ridges were there traces of soils at weathering stage 3. This indicates that much of the present icefree topography has been overridden by ice within the last few hundred thousand years. Cryoturbation is a widespread phenomenon in this area resulting in intense cryoclastic weathering and patterned ground, forming sorted circles, stripes and gelifluxion lobes. The soil show low horizontation, discrete patches of salt on the surface, and

  5. 76 FR 21403 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Genesis Project...

    2011-04-15

    ...: (1) The cumulative impacts of mining and related actions on affected resources, for example water... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLNV010000.L19900000.EX0000 241A; 11-08807... the Genesis Project, Eureka County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  6. Landscape formation and soil genesis in volcanic parent materials in humid tropical lowlands of Costa Rica

    Nieuwenhuyse, A.

    1996-01-01


    The influence of volcanism on landscape genesis, and formation of soils on volcanic parent material was studied in the Atlantic lowland of Costs Rica. This lowland is a subduction basin of tectonic origin, in which thick alluvial and marine sediments are accumulated. At its southwestern

  7. The Instrumental Genesis Process in Future Primary Teachers Using Dynamic Geometry Software

    Ruiz-López, Natalia

    2018-01-01

    This paper, which describes a study undertaken with pairs of future primary teachers using GeoGebra software to solve geometry problems, includes a brief literature review, the theoretical framework and methodology used. An analysis of the instrumental genesis process for a pair participating in the case study is also provided. This analysis…

  8. Basement to surface expressions and critical factors in the genesis of unconformity-related deposits

    Potter, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Two subprojects: 1) Basement to surface expressions of deep mineralization and refinement of critical factors leading to the genesis of unconformity-related uranium deposits; and 2) Recognition of uranium ore system alteration signatures in complex terranes: IOCG vs albite-hosted uranium vs volcanic-hosted uranium.

  9. Genesis 2–3 and Alcibiades's speech in Plato's Symposium : A ...

    Genesis 2–3 and Alcibiades's speech in Plato's Symposium : A cultural critical reading. ... Abstract. The purpose of this article is to discuss some basic problems and methodological steps concerning the encounter between Hebrews and Greeks in the Classical period and its impact on the Hellenistic era. The relationship ...

  10. About estimation of the contamination of territorial-administrative regions of the Chernobyl genesis radionuclides

    Berezhnoj, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    It is recommended to realize the matching territorial-administrative regions on degree of the contamination their of the Chernobyl genesis radionuclides to size generalised index gravity of the radionuclide soiling region. The methodology of the calculation indexes is offered. The results executed estimation are briefly stated. (authors)

  11. Taking an Instrumental Genesis Lens: New Insights into Collaborative Mobile Learning

    Cerratto Pargman, Teresa; Nouri, Jalal; Milrad, Marcelo

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that in order to gain a deeper understanding of collaborative mobile learning in schools, it is important to know not only how mobile devices affect collaborative learning but also how collaborative learning emerges and is mediated by these devices. We develop our argument by applying the instrumental genesis theory and the…

  12. Genesis of iron-apatite ores in Posht-e-Badam Block (Central Iran ...

    Central Iran; iron-apatite ore; Kiruna-type; Posht-e-Badam Block; REE geochemistry. J. Earth Syst ... ferent ore genesis models have been proposed for ...... volatile-rich magma systems stress the important .... Laco magnetite flow deposits, northern Chile: An up-to- ... economic report on iron ore prevision of the Esfahan steel.

  13. Re-interpreting Genesis 34 in the Light of Religious Violence in ...

    Religion plays significant roles in social harmony, yet it also serves as a motivation for violence. In Nigeria, religion has been at the centre of most violent conflicts, thereby gaining notoriety as one of the prime security challenges confronting the country. Genesis 34 is an important chapter in the Old Testament Bible.

  14. NONINVASIVE NASAL MUCOSA EXPOSURE TO TREAT AND PREVENT RHINITIS AND RHINOSINUSITIS OF VARIOUS GENESIS

    E. Yu. Radtsig

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation of the nasal mucosa in health and in different abnormalities. It describes the possibilities of using drugs of different groups to relieve symptoms in nasal mucosal and paranasal sinus abnormalities of different genesis, as well as the preventive effect of some of these drugs.

  15. Cellulose Acetate Replica Cleaning Study of Genesis Non-Flight Sample 3CZ00327

    Kuhlman, K. R.; Schmeling, M.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allton, J. H.; Burnett, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Genesis mission collected solar wind and brought it back to Earth in order to provide precise knowledge of solar isotopic and elemental compositions. The ions in the solar wind were stopped in the collectors at depths on the order of 10 to a few hundred nanometers. This shallow implantation layer is critical for scientific analysis of the composition of the solar wind and must be preserved throughout sample handling, cleaning, processing, distribution, preparation and analysis. We are working interactively with the community of scientists analyzing Genesis samples, using our unique laboratory facilities -- and, where needed, our unique cleaning techniques -- to significantly enhance the science return from the Genesis mission. This work is motivated by the need to understand the submicron contamination on the collectors in the Genesis payload as recovered from the crash site in the Utah desert, and -- perhaps more importantly -- how to remove it. That is, we are evaluating the effectiveness of the wet-chemical "cleaning" steps used by various investigators, to enable them to design improved methods of stripping terrestrial contamination from surfaces while still leaving the solar-wind signal intact.

  16. PSYCHOANALYTIC INTERPRETATION OF JUSTICE IN CONTEXT OF PROBLEMS OF TECHNO-GENESIS (Part II

    N. I. Mushinskij

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carl Gustav Jung, Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, Jacques Lacan, Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari continue to develop a psychoanalytic theory of Freud under modern conditions. They investigate archetypes of unconscious which are linked with up-to-date conception of Justice. Ethics of psychoanalysis interprets the category of Justice from humanistic positions in the context of the techno-genesis processes.

  17. Elevated atmospheric ozone increases concentration of insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac protein in Bt Brassica napus and reduces feeding of a Bt target herbivore on the non-transgenic parent

    Himanen, Sari J.; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Nissinen, Anne; Stewart, C. Neal; Poppy, Guy M.; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2009-01-01

    Sustained cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crops requires stable transgene expression under variable abiotic conditions. We studied the interactions of Bt toxin production and chronic ozone exposure in Bt cry1Ac-transgenic oilseed rape and found that the insect resistance trait is robust under ozone elevations. Bt Cry1Ac concentrations were higher in the leaves of Bt oilseed rape grown under elevated ozone compared to control treatment, measured either per leaf fresh weight or per total soluble protein of leaves. The mean relative growth rate of a Bt target herbivore, Plutella xylostella L. larvae was negative on Bt plants in all ozone treatments. On the non-transgenic plants, larval feeding damage was reduced under elevated ozone. Our results indicate the need for monitoring fluctuations in Bt toxin concentrations to reveal the potential of ozone exposure for altering dosing of Bt proteins to target and non-target herbivores in field environments experiencing increasing ozone pollution. - Elevated atmospheric ozone can induce fluctuations in insecticidal protein concentrations in transgenic plants

  18. Elevated atmospheric ozone increases concentration of insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac protein in Bt Brassica napus and reduces feeding of a Bt target herbivore on the non-transgenic parent

    Himanen, Sari J. [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: sari.himanen@uku.fi; Nerg, Anne-Marja [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Nissinen, Anne [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Protection, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Stewart, C. Neal [University of Tennessee, Department of Plant Sciences, Knoxville, TN 37996-4561 (United States); Poppy, Guy M. [University of Southampton, School of Biological Sciences, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom); Holopainen, Jarmo K. [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    Sustained cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crops requires stable transgene expression under variable abiotic conditions. We studied the interactions of Bt toxin production and chronic ozone exposure in Bt cry1Ac-transgenic oilseed rape and found that the insect resistance trait is robust under ozone elevations. Bt Cry1Ac concentrations were higher in the leaves of Bt oilseed rape grown under elevated ozone compared to control treatment, measured either per leaf fresh weight or per total soluble protein of leaves. The mean relative growth rate of a Bt target herbivore, Plutella xylostella L. larvae was negative on Bt plants in all ozone treatments. On the non-transgenic plants, larval feeding damage was reduced under elevated ozone. Our results indicate the need for monitoring fluctuations in Bt toxin concentrations to reveal the potential of ozone exposure for altering dosing of Bt proteins to target and non-target herbivores in field environments experiencing increasing ozone pollution. - Elevated atmospheric ozone can induce fluctuations in insecticidal protein concentrations in transgenic plants.

  19. Tropical cyclone genesis in the Southern Hemisphere and its relationship with the ENSO

    Y. Kuleshov

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tropical cyclogenesis climatology over the South Indian and South Pacific Oceans has been developed using a new tropical cyclone (TC archive for the Southern Hemisphere, and changes in geographical distribution of areas favourable for TC genesis related to changes in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO phases have been investigated. To explain these changes, large-scale environmental variables which influence TC genesis and development such as sea surface temperatures (SSTs, relative humidity in mid-troposphere, vertical wind shear and lower tropospheric vorticity have been examined. In the South Indian Ocean, reduction of TC genesis in the western part of the basin and its increase in the eastern part as well as displacement of the area favourable for TC genesis further away from the equator during La Niña events compared to El Niño events can be explained by changes in geographical distribution of relative humidity and vorticity across the basin as primary contributors; positive anomalies of SSTs observed during La Niña seasons in the eastern part of the basin additionally contribute to enhanced cyclogenesis near the Western Australia. In the South Pacific Ocean, changes in geographical distribution of relative humidity and vorticity appear to be the key large-scale environmental factors responsible for enhanced TC genesis in the eastern (western part of the basin as well as for the northeast (southwest shift of points of cyclogenesis during El Niño (La Niña events, with vertical wind shear and SSTs as additional contributing large-scale environmental variables.

  20. [Double-ambient CO2 concentration affects the growth, development and sucking behavior of non-target brown plant hopper Nilaparvata lugens fed on transgenic Bt rice.

    Lu, Yong Qing; Dai, Yang; Yu, Xiu Ying; Yu, Fu-Lan; Jiang, Shou Lin; Zhou, Zong Yuan; Chen, Fa Jun

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, the two issues of climate change including elevated CO 2 etc., and resistance of transgenic Bt crops against non-target insect pests have received widespread attention. Elevated CO 2 can affect the herbivorous insects. To date, there is no consensus about the effect of elevated CO 2 on the suck-feeding insect pests (non-target insect pests of transgenic Bt crops). Its effects on the suck-feeding behavior have rarely been reported. In this study, CO 2 levels were set up in artificial climate chamber to examined the effects of ambient (400 μL·L -1 ) and double-ambient (800 μL·L -1 ) CO 2 levels on the suck-feeding behavior, growth, development, and reproduction of the non-target insect pest of transgenic Bt rice, brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. The results showed that CO 2 level significantly affected the egg and nymph duration, longevity and body mass of adults, and feeding behavior of the 4th and 5th instar nymphs, while had no effect on the fecundity of N. lugens. The duration of eggs and nymphs, and the longevity of female adults were significantly shortened by 4.0%, 4.2% and 6.6% respectively, the proportion of the macropterous adults was significantly increased by 11.6%, and the body mass of newly hatched female adults was significantly decreased by 2.2% by elevated CO 2 . In addition, elevated CO 2 significantly enhanced the stylet puncturing efficiency of the 4th and 5th instar nymphs of N. lugens. The duration ofphloem ingestion of the N4b waveform was significantly prolonged by 60.0% and 50.1%, and the frequency significantly was increased by 230.0% and 155.9% for the 4th and 5th instar nymphs of N. lugens by elevated CO 2 , respectively. It was concluded that double-ambient CO 2 could promote the growth and development of N. lugens through enhancing its suck-feeding, shorten the generation life-span and increase the macropertous adults' proportion of N. lugens. Thus, it could result in the occurrence of non-target rice

  1. Is the poleward migration of tropical cyclone maximum intensity associated with a poleward migration of tropical cyclone genesis?

    Daloz, Anne Sophie; Camargo, Suzana J.

    2018-01-01

    A recent study showed that the global average latitude where tropical cyclones achieve their lifetime-maximum intensity has been migrating poleward at a rate of about one-half degree of latitude per decade over the last 30 years in each hemisphere. However, it does not answer a critical question: is the poleward migration of tropical cyclone lifetime-maximum intensity associated with a poleward migration of tropical cyclone genesis? In this study we will examine this question. First we analyze changes in the environmental variables associated with tropical cyclone genesis, namely entropy deficit, potential intensity, vertical wind shear, vorticity, skin temperature and specific humidity at 500 hPa in reanalysis datasets between 1980 and 2013. Then, a selection of these variables is combined into two tropical cyclone genesis indices that empirically relate tropical cyclone genesis to large-scale variables. We find a shift toward greater (smaller) average potential number of genesis at higher (lower) latitudes over most regions of the Pacific Ocean, which is consistent with a migration of tropical cyclone genesis towards higher latitudes. We then examine the global best track archive and find coherent and significant poleward shifts in mean genesis position over the Pacific Ocean basins.

  2. Contributions to the Genesis and Progress of ICF

    Nuckolls, J H

    2006-02-15

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has progressed from the detonation of large-scale fusion explosions initiated by atomic bombs in the early 1950s to final preparations for initiating small-scale fusion explosions with giant lasers. The next major step after ignition will be development of high performance targets that can be initiated with much smaller, lower cost lasers. In the 21st century and beyond, ICF's grand challenge is to develop practical power plants that generate low cost, clean, inexhaustible fusion energy. In this chapter, I first describe the origin in 1960-61 of ICF target concepts, early speculations on laser driven 'Thermonuclear Engines' for power production and rocket propulsion, and encouraging large-scale nuclear explosive experiments conducted in 1962. Next, I recall the 40-year, multi-billion dollar ignition campaign - to develop a matched combination of sufficiently high-performance implosion lasers and sufficiently stable targets capable of igniting small fusion explosions. I conclude with brief comments on the NIF ignition campaign and very high-performance targets, and speculations on ICF's potential in a centuries-long Darwinian competition of future energy systems. My perspectives in this chapter are those of a nuclear explosive designer, optimistic proponent of ICF energy, and Livermore Laboratory leader. The perspectives of Livermore's post 1970 laser experts and builders, and laser fusion experimentalists are provided in a chapter written by John Holzrichter, a leading scientist and leader in Livermore's second generation laser fusion program. In a third chapter, Ray Kidder, a theoretical physicist and early laser fusion pioneer, provides his perspectives including the history of the first generation laser fusion program he led from 1962-1972.

  3. Contributions to the Genesis and Progress of ICF

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has progressed from the detonation of large-scale fusion explosions initiated by atomic bombs in the early 1950s to final preparations for initiating small-scale fusion explosions with giant lasers. The next major step after ignition will be development of high performance targets that can be initiated with much smaller, lower cost lasers. In the 21st century and beyond, ICF's grand challenge is to develop practical power plants that generate low cost, clean, inexhaustible fusion energy. In this chapter, I first describe the origin in 1960-61 of ICF target concepts, early speculations on laser driven 'Thermonuclear Engines' for power production and rocket propulsion, and encouraging large-scale nuclear explosive experiments conducted in 1962. Next, I recall the 40-year, multi-billion dollar ignition campaign - to develop a matched combination of sufficiently high-performance implosion lasers and sufficiently stable targets capable of igniting small fusion explosions. I conclude with brief comments on the NIF ignition campaign and very high-performance targets, and speculations on ICF's potential in a centuries-long Darwinian competition of future energy systems. My perspectives in this chapter are those of a nuclear explosive designer, optimistic proponent of ICF energy, and Livermore Laboratory leader. The perspectives of Livermore's post 1970 laser experts and builders, and laser fusion experimentalists are provided in a chapter written by John Holzrichter, a leading scientist and leader in Livermore's second generation laser fusion program. In a third chapter, Ray Kidder, a theoretical physicist and early laser fusion pioneer, provides his perspectives including the history of the first generation laser fusion program he led from 1962-1972.

  4. Petrography, alteration and genesis of iron mineralization in Roshtkhar

    Habib Biabangard

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Iron mineralization in Roshtkhar is located in 48 Km east of the city of Roshtkhar and south of the Khorasan Razavi province. It is geologically located in the north east of the Lut block and the Khaf-Bardeskan volcano-plutonic belt. The Khaf-Bardeskan belt is an important metallogenic province since it is a host of valuable ore deposits such as the Kuh-e-Zar Au-Spicularite, the Tanourcheh and the Khaf Iron ore deposits (Karimpour and Malekzadeh Shafaroudi, 2007. Iron and Copper mineralization in this belt are known as the hydrothermal, skarn and IOCG types (Karimpour and Malekzadeh Shafaroudi, 2007. IOCG deposits are a new type of magmatic to hydrothermal mineralization in the continental crust (Hitzman et al., 1992. Precambrian marble, Lower Paleozoic schist and metavolcanics are the oldest rocks of the area. The younger units are Oligocene conglomerate, shale and sandstone, Miocene marl and Quaternary deposits. Iron oxides and Cu sulfides are associated with igneous rocks. Fe and Cu mineralization in Roshtkhar has been subject of a few studies such as Yousefi Surani (2006. This study describes the petrography of the host rocks, ore paragenesis, alteration types, geochemistry, genesis and other features of the Fe and Cu mineralization in the Roshtkhar iron. Methods After detailed field studies and sampling, 30 thin sections and 20 polished sections that were prepared from host rocks and ores were studied by conventional petrographic and mineraloghraphic methods in the geology department of the University of Sistan and Baluchestan. 5 samples from the alteration zones were examined by XRD in the Yamagata University in Japan, and 8 samples from the less altered ones were analyzed by XRF and ICP-OES in the Kharazmi University and the Iranian mineral processing research center (IMPRC in Karaj, respectively. The XRF and ICP-OES data are presented in Table 1. Result and discussion The host rocks of the Roshtkhar Iron deposit are diorite

  5. Applications of linking PBPK and PD models to predict the impact of genotypic variability, formulation differences, differences in target binding capacity and target site drug concentrations on drug responses and variability.

    Manoranjenni eChetty

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to demonstrate the added value of integrating prior in vitro data and knowledge-rich physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK models with pharmacodynamics (PD models. Four distinct applications that were developed and tested are presented here. PBPK models were developed for metoprolol using different CYP2D6 genotypes based on in vitro data. Application of the models for prediction of phenotypic differences in the pharmacokinetics (PK and PD compared favourably with clinical data, demonstrating that these differences can be predicted prior to the availability of such data from clinical trials. In the second case, PK and PD data for an immediate release formulation of nifedipine together with in vitro dissolution data for a controlled release formulation (CR were used to predict the PK and PD of the CR. This approach can be useful to pharmaceutical scientists during formulation development. The operational model of agonism was used in the third application to describe the hypnotic effects of triazolam, and this was successfully extrapolated to zolpidem by changing only the drug related parameters from in vitro experiments. This PBPK modelling approach can be useful to developmental scientists who which to compare several drug candidates in the same therapeutic class. Finally, differences in QTc prolongation due to quinidine in Caucasian and Korean females were successfully predicted by the model using free heart concentrations as an input to the PD models. This PBPK linked PD model was used to demonstrate a higher sensitivity to free heart concentrations of quinidine in Caucasian females, thereby providing a mechanistic understanding of a clinical observation. In general, permutations of certain conditions which potentially change PK and hence PD may not be amenable to the conduct of clinical studies but linking PBPK with PD provides an alternative method of investigating the potential impact of PK changes on PD.

  6. Applications of linking PBPK and PD models to predict the impact of genotypic variability, formulation differences, differences in target binding capacity and target site drug concentrations on drug responses and variability.

    Chetty, Manoranjenni; Rose, Rachel H; Abduljalil, Khaled; Patel, Nikunjkumar; Lu, Gaohua; Cain, Theresa; Jamei, Masoud; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate the added value of integrating prior in vitro data and knowledge-rich physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models with pharmacodynamics (PDs) models. Four distinct applications that were developed and tested are presented here. PBPK models were developed for metoprolol using different CYP2D6 genotypes based on in vitro data. Application of the models for prediction of phenotypic differences in the pharmacokinetics (PKs) and PD compared favorably with clinical data, demonstrating that these differences can be predicted prior to the availability of such data from clinical trials. In the second case, PK and PD data for an immediate release formulation of nifedipine together with in vitro dissolution data for a controlled release (CR) formulation were used to predict the PK and PD of the CR. This approach can be useful to pharmaceutical scientists during formulation development. The operational model of agonism was used in the third application to describe the hypnotic effects of triazolam, and this was successfully extrapolated to zolpidem by changing only the drug related parameters from in vitro experiments. This PBPK modeling approach can be useful to developmental scientists who which to compare several drug candidates in the same therapeutic class. Finally, differences in QTc prolongation due to quinidine in Caucasian and Korean females were successfully predicted by the model using free heart concentrations as an input to the PD models. This PBPK linked PD model was used to demonstrate a higher sensitivity to free heart concentrations of quinidine in Caucasian females, thereby providing a mechanistic understanding of a clinical observation. In general, permutations of certain conditions which potentially change PK and hence PD may not be amenable to the conduct of clinical studies but linking PBPK with PD provides an alternative method of investigating the potential impact of PK changes on PD.

  7. Effect of vitamin D3, other drugs altering serum calcium or phosphorus concentrations, and desoxycorticosterone on the distribution of Tc-99m pyrophosphate between target and nontarget tissues

    Carr, E.A. Jr.; Carroll, M.; Montes, M.

    1981-01-01

    Radioactive imaging agents are chemically designed for selective distribution. Another approach to selectivity is to find stable compounds that favorably influence this distribution. Using a rat model of myocardial necrosis, we studied effects of various stable compounds (as a single, large dose or fractionated into short series) on the ratio, uptake of Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PPi) by the target lesion/uptake by the principal nontarget, bone (L/B). Vitamin D3s ability to increase L/B was mediated by the hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia that it caused. The hypercalcemia was accompanied by increased [Ca] in the lesion. In contrast, pulse doses of desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) at 7 and 6 hr before killing increased uptake by lesion, increasing L/B from 0.19 +/- 0.03 to 0.45 +/- 0.08 (p less than 0.01), with no change in serum [Ca] and minimal changes in serum [P], [Na], and [K]. DOCA also increased the lesion-to-blood ratio from 6.5 +/- 0.07 to 15.4 +/- 3.9 (p less than 0.05). These results encourage further study of DOCA's effect and investigation of other stable drugs that may influence distribution of other imaging agents

  8. The neural stem cell fate determinant TLX promotes tumorigenesis and genesis of cells resembling glioma stem cells.

    Park, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Jun-Kyum; Jeon, Hye-Min; Oh, Se-Yeong; Kim, Sung-Hak; Nam, Do-Hyun; Kim, Hyunggee

    2010-11-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that deregulation of stem cell fate determinants is a hallmark of many types of malignancies. The neural stem cell fate determinant TLX plays a pivotal role in neurogenesis in the adult brain by maintaining neural stem cells. Here, we report a tumorigenic role of TLX in brain tumor initiation and progression. Increased TLX expression was observed in a number of glioma cells and glioma stem cells, and correlated with poor survival of patients with gliomas. Ectopic expression of TLX in the U87MG glioma cell line and Ink4a/Arf-deficient mouse astrocytes (Ink4a/Arf(-/-) astrocytes) induced cell proliferation with a concomitant increase in cyclin D expression, and accelerated foci formation in soft agar and tumor formation in in vivo transplantation assays. Furthermore, overexpression of TLX in Ink4a/Arf(-/-) astrocytes inhibited cell migration and invasion and promoted neurosphere formation and Nestin expression, which are hallmark characteristics of glioma stem cells, under stem cell culture conditions. Our results indicate that TLX is involved in glioma stem cell genesis and represents a potential therapeutic target for this type of malignancy.

  9. Cleaning Genesis Mission Payload for Flight with Ultra-Pure Water and Assembly in ISO Class 4 Environment

    Allton, Judith H.

    2012-01-01

    Genesis mission to capture and return to Earth solar wind samples had very stringent contamination control requirements in order to distinguish the solar atoms from terrestrial ones. Genesis mission goals were to measure solar composition for most of the periodic table, so great care was taken to avoid particulate contamination. Since the number 1 and 2 science goals were to determine the oxygen and nitrogen isotopic composition, organic contamination was minimized by tightly controlling offgassing. The total amount of solar material captured in two years is about 400 micrograms spread across one sq m. The contamination limit requirement for each of C, N, and O was <1015 atoms/sq cm. For carbon, this is equivalent to 10 ng/cm2. Extreme vigilance was used in pre-paring Genesis collectors and cleaning hardware for flight. Surface contamination on polished silicon wafers, measured in Genesis laboratory is approximately 10 ng/sq cm.

  10. Cell wall targeted in planta iron accumulation enhances biomass conversion and seed iron concentration in Arabidopsis and rice

    Yang, Haibing [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Wei, Hui [Biosciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Ma, Guojie [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Antunes, Mauricio S. [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Vogt, Stefan [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL USA; Cox, Joseph [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Zhang, Xiao [Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Liu, Xiping [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Bu, Lintao [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Gleber, S. Charlotte [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL USA; Carpita, Nicholas C. [Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Makowski, Lee [Department of Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston MA USA; Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Northeastern University, Boston MA USA; Himmel, Michael E. [Biosciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Tucker, Melvin P. [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL USA; McCann, Maureen C. [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Murphy, Angus S. [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland, College Park MD USA; Peer, Wendy A. [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland, College Park MD USA; Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park MD USA

    2016-04-07

    Conversion of nongrain biomass into liquid fuel is a sustainable approach to energy demands as global population increases. Previously, we showed that iron can act as a catalyst to enhance the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production. However, direct addition of iron catalysts to biomass pretreatment is diffusion-limited, would increase the cost and complexity of biorefinery unit operations and may have deleterious environmental impacts. Here, we show a new strategy for in planta accumulation of iron throughout the volume of the cell wall where iron acts as a catalyst in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. We engineered CBM-IBP fusion polypeptides composed of a carbohydrate-binding module family 11 (CBM11) and an iron-binding peptide (IBP) for secretion into Arabidopsis and rice cell walls. CBM-IBP transformed Arabidopsis and rice plants show significant increases in iron accumulation and biomass conversion compared to respective controls. Further, CBM-IBP rice shows a 35% increase in seed iron concentration and a 40% increase in seed yield in greenhouse experiments. CBM-IBP rice potentially could be used to address iron deficiency, the most common and widespread nutritional disorder according to the World Health Organization.

  11. The instrumental genesis process in future primary teachers using Dynamic Geometry Software

    Ruiz-López, Natalia

    2018-05-01

    This paper, which describes a study undertaken with pairs of future primary teachers using GeoGebra software to solve geometry problems, includes a brief literature review, the theoretical framework and methodology used. An analysis of the instrumental genesis process for a pair participating in the case study is also provided. This analysis addresses the techniques and types of dragging used, the obstacles to learning encountered, a description of the interaction between the pair and their interaction with the teacher, and the type of language used. Based on this analysis, possibilities and limitations of the instrumental genesis process are identified for the development of geometric competencies such as conjecture creation, property checking and problem researching. It is also suggested that the methodology used in the analysis of the problem solving process may be useful for those teachers and researchers who want to integrate Dynamic Geometry Software (DGS) in their classrooms.

  12. Three Proposed Compendia for Genesis Solar Wind Samples: Science Results, Collector Materials Characterization and Cleaning Techniques

    Allton, J. H.; Calaway, M. J.; Nyquist, L. E.; Jurewicz, A. J. G.; Burnett, D. S.

    2018-01-01

    Final Paper and not the abstract is attached. Introduction: Planetary material and cosmochemistry research using Genesis solar wind samples (including the development and implementation of cleaning and analytical techniques) has matured sufficiently that compilations on several topics, if made publically accessible, would be beneficial for researchers and reviewers. We propose here three compendia based on content, organization and source of documents (e.g. published peer-reviewed, published, internal memos, archives). For planning purposes, suggestions are solicited from potential users of Genesis solar wind samples for the type of science content and/or organizational style that would be most useful to them. These compendia are proposed as living documents, periodically updated. Similar to the existing compendia described below, the curation compendia are like library or archival finding aids, they are guides to published or archival documents and should not be cited as primary sources.

  13. GENESI-DR: Discovery, Access and on-Demand Processing in Federated Repositories

    Cossu, Roberto; Pacini, Fabrizio; Parrini, Andrea; Santi, Eliana Li; Fusco, Luigi

    2010-05-01

    GENESI-DR (Ground European Network for Earth Science Interoperations - Digital Repositories) is a European Commission (EC)-funded project, kicked-off early 2008 lead by ESA; partners include Space Agencies (DLR, ASI, CNES), both space and no-space data providers such as ENEA (I), Infoterra (UK), K-SAT (N), NILU (N), JRC (EU) and industry as Elsag Datamat (I), CS (F) and TERRADUE (I). GENESI-DR intends to meet the challenge of facilitating "time to science" from different Earth Science disciplines in discovery, access and use (combining, integrating, processing, …) of historical and recent Earth-related data from space, airborne and in-situ sensors, which are archived in large distributed repositories. In fact, a common dedicated infrastructure such as the GENESI-DR one permits the Earth Science communities to derive objective information and to share knowledge in all environmental sensitive domains over a continuum of time and a variety of geographical scales so addressing urgent challenges such as Global Change. GENESI-DR federates data, information and knowledge for the management of our fragile planet in line with one of the major goals of the many international environmental programmes such as GMES, GEO/GEOSS. As of today, 12 different Digital Repositories hosting more than 60 heterogeneous dataset series are federated in GENESI-DR. Series include satellite data, in situ data, images acquired by airborne sensors, digital elevation models and model outputs. ESA has started providing access to: Category-1 data systematically available on Internet; level 3 data (e.g., GlobCover map, MERIS Global Vegetation Index); ASAR products available in ESA Virtual Archive and related to the Supersites initiatives. In all cases, existing data policies and security constraints are fully respected. GENESI-DR also gives access to Grid and Cloud computing resources allowing authorized users to run a number of different processing services on the available data. The GENESI

  14. Visual Representation in GENESIS as a tool for Physical Modeling, Sound Synthesis and Musical Composition

    Villeneuve, Jérôme; Cadoz, Claude; Castagné, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The motivation of this paper is to highlight the importance of visual representations for artists when modeling and simulating mass-interaction physical networks in the context of sound synthesis and musical composition. GENESIS is a musician-oriented software environment for sound synthesis and musical composition. However, despite this orientation, a substantial amount of effort has been put into building a rich variety of tools based on static or dynamic visual representations of models an...

  15. Geochemical geochronology and genesis of granite from Coronel Murta, Northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Soares, A.C.P.; Siga Junior, O.

    1987-01-01

    Geological, petrographic, geochemical (including rare-earth elements) and geochronological data of the Coronel Murta (Northeast Minas Gerais State) post-tectonic intrusive alkalic granites were summarized in order to discuss their genesis. This paper shows that Coronel Murta granites were generated by anatexis of dominantly metasedimentary rocks, in an ensialic environment, as the late results of an intraplate A-type subduction during the Brazilian Cycle. (author) [pt

  16. Potential Vorticity Streamers as Precursors to Tropical Cyclone Genesis in the Western Pacific

    2012-03-01

    study a developing system with an extratropical precursor (TCS-037) developing into Tropical Storm 16W (TS 16W)” (Schönenberger 2010). This subsection...tropopause maps), the TC genesis event is termed a tropical transition (TT) case. If no such extratropical feature 38 is present, the storm in... extratropical origin is deemed to play an important role in the dynamical evolution leading to tropical cyclogenesis. In contrast, non-TT storms

  17. Dynamics and Predictability of Tropical Cyclone Genesis, Structure and Intensity Change

    2012-09-30

    analyses and forecasts of tropical cyclones, including genesis, intensity change, and extratropical transition. A secondary objective is to understand... storm -centered assimilation algorithm. Basic research in Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the...COMPLETED For the four storms consider (Nuri, Jangmi, Sinlaku, and Hagupit), an 80-member EnKF has been cycled on observations (surface, rawinsondes, GPS

  18. On the genesis of pyrite-polymetallic deposits of the Rudnyi Altai

    Puchkov, E.V.; Najdenov, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Results of lead isotope composition measurements in pyrite-polymetallic deposits of the Rudnyi Altai are presented. Porphyr dating by zirconium has shown isochronous age of 552 million years. Lead of galenites of various generations and galenite form of lead of pyrit provide similar lead-isotope values with model age of 370 million years. The isotopic-geochemical data obtained are interpreted as applied to the deposit genesis

  19. NR2A contributes to genesis and propagation of cortical spreading depression in rats.

    Bu, Fan; Du, Ruoxing; Li, Yi; Quinn, John P; Wang, Minyan

    2016-03-22

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a transient propagating excitation of synaptic activity followed by depression, which is implicated in migraine. Increasing evidence points to an essential role of NR2A-containing NMDA receptors in CSD propagation in vitro; however, whether these receptors mediate CSD genesis in vivo requires clarification and the role of NR2A on CSD propagation is still under debate. Using in vivo CSD in rats with electrophysiology and in vitro CSD in chick retina with intrinsic optical imaging, we addressed the role of NR2A in CSD. We demonstrated that NVP-AAM077, a potent antagonist for NR2A-containing receptors, perfused through microdialysis probes, markedly reduced cortex susceptibility to CSD, but also reduced magnitude of CSD genesis in rats. Additionally, NVP-AAM077 at 0.3 nmol perfused into the contralateral ventricle, considerably suppressed the magnitude of CSD propagation wave and propagation rate in rats. This reduction in CSD propagation was also observed with TCN-201, a negative allosteric modulator selective for NR2A, at 3 μM, in the chick retina. Our data provides strong evidence that NR2A subunit contributes to CSD genesis and propagation, suggesting drugs selectively antagonizing NR2A-containing receptors might constitute a highly specific strategy treating CSD associated migraine with a likely better safety profile.

  20. Molecular Contamination on Anodized Aluminum Components of the Genesis Science Canister

    Burnett, D. S.; McNamara, K. M.; Jurewicz, A.; Woolum, D.

    2005-01-01

    Inspection of the interior of the Genesis science canister after recovery in Utah, and subsequently at JSC, revealed a darkening on the aluminum canister shield and other canister components. There has been no such observation of film contamination on the collector surfaces, and preliminary spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements support the theory that the films observed on the anodized aluminum components do not appear on the collectors to any significant extent. The Genesis Science Team has made an effort to characterize the thickness and composition of the brown stain and to determine if it is associated with molecular outgassing.Detailed examination of the surfaces within the Genesis science canister reveals that the brown contamination is observed to varying degrees, but only on surfaces exposed in space to the Sun and solar wind hydrogen. In addition, the materials affected are primarily composed of anodized aluminum. A sharp line separating the sun and shaded portion of the thermal closeout panel is shown. This piece was removed from a location near the gold foil collector within the canister. Future plans include a reassembly of the canister components to look for large-scale patterns of contamination within the canister to aid in revealing the root cause.

  1. Genesis of sandstone-type uranium deposits in the Sierra Pintada district, Mendoza, Argentina: a Moessbauer study

    Labenski, F.; Saragovi-Badler, C.

    1982-01-01

    The genesis of sandstone-type uranium deposits in the Cochico Group (Permo-Triassic) of the Sierra Pintada district, San Rafael, Mendoza, has been studied. This is the most important uranium district in Argentina. Uranium sources, uranium transport and precipitation are discussed. Uraninite and brannerite, the main uranium minerals, occur within the matrix of sandstone. Several phenomena can be deduced regarding the depositional environment. Where oxygen was available, precipitation of hydrated ferric oxides occurred; γFe 2 O 3 .nH 2 O varieties (identified by Moessbauer spectroscopy) precipitated in the upper levels of the aquifer, where CO 2 partial pressure was lower, giving reddish or reddish-brown beds. The CO 2 partial pressure also determines the distribution of biogenic agents such as bacteria. Bacteria thus find a more favourable environment for their development and action in upper levels of an aquifer. In the corresponding horizons local reduction occurred where UO 2 precipitated; therefore the highest uranium concentrations correspond to sandstone levels with reddish or reddish-brown pigment. These pigments have been identified by Moessbauer spectroscopy. (Auth.)

  2. Genesis of the North German basin - a metamorphosis model; Die Entstehung des Norddeutschen Beckens - ein Metamorphose-Modell

    Brink, H.J. [ExxonMobil Production Deutschland GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    In an integrative analysis, metamorphosis processes in the aggregated crust, potential field anomalies, the temperature field and the subsidence history are combined into a model of the genesis of the North German Basin. The model takes account of phenomena like high nitrogen concentrations in natural gases of permian sandstone and the structure of the crust and combines them with theoretical considerations. The new model for explaining geonsynclinals, in which geochemical and petrophysical processes in the lower crust have a decisive role, appears to be globally applicable. It can provide an intrinsic variant of the application of existing tectonic expansion models for explaining the subsidence of sediment basins. [German] In einer integrativen Analyse werden Metamorphoseprozesse in der aggregierten Kruste, Potentialfeldanomalien, Temperaturfeld sowie die Subsidenzgeschichte zu einem Modell fuer die Entstehung des Norddeutschen Beckens zusammengefasst, das beobachtete Phaenomene wie Stickstoffreichtum in Erdgasen permischer Sandsteine und die Struktur der Kruste mit theoretischen Ableitungen verknuepft. Das so entstandene neue Modell zur Erklaerung von Geosynklinalen, bei dem geochemisch/petrophysikalische Prozesse in der Unterkruste eine entscheidende Rolle spielen, scheint global anwendbar zu sein. Es kann die Anwendung existierender tektonischer Dehnungsmodelle zur Erklaerung der Subsidenz von Sedimentbecken um eine intrinsische Variante ergaenzen. (orig.)

  3. Geology and genesis of NORM industrial links and depositional processes

    Wilson, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) has now been found to be associated with many industrial activities that extends far beyond oil and gas production. There are approximately 59 naturally occurring radionuclides that might end up in a train of NORM contamination, which could impact at least 13 industries. It is appropriate and indeed necessary to examine the geological roots of NORM and its concentration in various industries. Impacted NORM industries and their associated problems are presented. Some plant and environmental managers may not even suspect they have NORM problems, because one cannot ''sense'' NORM without instrumentation, until it might be too late for the health and safety of the effected employees and surrounding community. Others want to ''see no evil, hear no evil or speak any evil'' until they are forced into ''reactive'' environmental management, rather than ''proactive'' management. It has been the experience of many that reactive management is far more costly than proactive management

  4. Genesis, visual attributes and contemporary communication features of the alphabet

    Filip Cvitić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Throughout 5,000 years of human literacy, the alphabet system has developed from pictograms and ideograms to the contemporary system of Latin letters. The simplification of primary pictograms and their transformation to ideograms followed the major goal of written communication – to transmit thoughts and ideas. Besides, written communication has enabled preservation of knowledge, and that has generated the expansion of information and its availability today. The high speed of gathering written information, as well as its superabundance, calls for rethinking of semiotic features of Latin letters as the basic units of written communication in the Western world, especially in terms of marketing communication and its effectiveness. The written expression is the major tool of branding and getting closer to target market segments. Social development influences the development of communication, which is visible through numerous brands and signs, i.e. symbols that make products and companies recognizable in the market. The distinct sign forms of the alphabet are used to suggest the story of a brand, product or service. A constituent element of its comprehension is conscious or unconscious knowledge drawn from different sources in the environment. The history of human literacy, the development of each particular letter, the communication rules of the contemporary marketplace, the impact of brands and information superabundance make up the basis for further research into communication features of the alphabet, semantics of written forms and their redefinition in the context of effective marketing communication.

  5. Rare-earth elements in granites: concentration and distribution pattern

    Galindo, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    The geochemistry of rare earth elements in granites is studied. The rare earth element (REE) distribution pattern in granites is characterized by a smooth curve with decreasing concentrations from La to Lu, and frequently a marked Eu negative anomaly. It seems to exist relationship between granite genesis and its REE pattern, in that bodies of primary (magmatic differentiation) origin always show this negative Eu anomaly, while those bodies generated by crustal anatexis do not show this anomaly. (E.G.) [pt

  6. Glycolytic overload and the genesis of breast cancer.

    Robson, J R

    1984-03-01

    It is suggested that the development of breast cancer is due to overloading of the glycolytic pathways. An excess of substrates or an excessive delivery rate of substrates to the Krebs Cycle is believed to result in the formation of acetyl CoA. Feedback mechanisms controlling the conversion of acetyl CoA to cholesterol may be overcome; the resulting high concentration of cholesterol induces the formation of pregnenolone which may then be converted into androgens, estrogens and progesterone. These steroids are in addition to those produced by gonads and adrenal glands. Glycolytic overload is also associated with an increase in fat stores which have been shown to be the site of interconversion of sex hormones. Excess sex hormones or abnormal sex hormones are believed to be the cause of breast cancer. The hypothesis presented links glycolytic overload with clinical biochemical phenomena and explains some of the anomalies observed in breast cancer experience in different ethnic groups. Changes in dietary habits during the history of man resulting in " gorging " and the consumption of highly refined sugars are possible causes of glycolytic overload. So, also, is impaired thermogenesis due to Brown Fat deficits in certain ethnic groups.

  7. CERN: Fixed target targets

    Anon.

    1993-03-15

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become visible for the first

  8. Dissolution of targets for the production of Mo-99: Part 1. Influence of NaOH concentration and the addition of NaNO3 and NaNO2 on the dissolution time

    Camilo, Ruth L.; Araujo, Izilda da C.; Mindrisz, Ana C.; Forbicini, Christina A.L.G. de O.

    2011-01-01

    Faced with global crisis in the production of radioisotope 99 Mo, which product of decay, 99 mTc, is the tracer element most often used in nuclear medicine and accounts for about 80% of all diagnostic procedures in vivo, since September 2008 Brazil is developing the project called Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB). Within the Brazilian Nuclear Program (PNB) the construction of the RMB, is seen as a long term solution to meet all domestic demand relative to the supply of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. In the process to be studied to obtain 99 Mo from irradiated UA1 x -A1 LEU targets employing alkaline dissolution, processing time should be minimized, considering the short half life of 99 Mo and 99 mTc, about 66 h and 6 h, respectively. That makes dissolution time a significant factor in the development of the process. This paper presents the results of alkaline dissolution of scraps of Al, used to simulate the dissolution process of UA1 x -A1 targets. Al corresponds to about 79% of the total weight of the UA1 x -A1 target. The effect of NaOH concentration on dissolution time for the interval of 1 to 3.5 mol.L-1 was studied, keeping the molar ratio in 1Al:2.16NaOH and the initial temperature of 88 degree C. The influence of reagent composition over dissolution time was studied using three different solutions: a) 3 mol.L -1 NaOH, b) 3 mol.L -1 NaOH/NaNO 3 and c) 3 mol.L -1 NaOH/NaNO 2 , keeping the same molar ratio and temperature. The results showed that the dissolution time decreases with increasing NaOH concentration and the addition of NaNO 3 or NaNO 2 in the NaOH solution reduces both dissolution time and volume of gases released. (author)

  9. Genesis of Cenozoic intraplate high Mg# andesites in Northeast China

    Liu, J. Q.; Chen, L. H.; Zhong, Y.; Wang, X. J.

    2017-12-01

    High-Mg# andesites (HMAs) are usually generated in the converged plate boundary and have genetic relationships with slab subduction. However, it still remained controversial about the origin of those HMAs erupted in the intra-plate setting. Here we present major, trace element, and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions for the Cenozoic intra-plate HMAs from Northeast China to constrain their origin and formation process. Cenozoic Xunke volcanic rocks are located in the northern Lesser Khingan Range, covering an area of about 3, 000 km2. These volcanic rocks are mainly basaltic andesite and basaltic trachyandesite, with only several classified as trachyandesite and andesites. They have high SiO2 contents (54.3-57.4 wt%) and Mg# (49.6-57.8), falling into the scope of high Mg# andesites. The Xunke HMAs are enriched in large ion lithophile elements but depleted in high field strength elements, with positive Ba, K, Sr and negative Zr-Hf, and Ti anomalies. Their trace element absolute concentrations are between those of potassic basalts and Wuchagou HMAs. The Xunke HMAs have relatively enriched Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes (87Sr/86Sr = 0.705398-0.705764, ɛNd=-8.8-3.8, ɛHf=0.5-11.7), and low radiogenic Pb isotopes (206Pb/204Pb = 16.701-17.198), towards to the EM1 end-member, which indicates that they are ultimately derived from ancient, recycled crustal components. Primitive silica-rich melts were generated from higher degrees of partial melting of recycled crustal materials (relative to potassic basalts) and then interacted with the peridotite to produce the Xunke HMAs.

  10. The paradoxical genesis of too-big-to-fail

    Thomas S. Umlauft

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available At least since the Global Financial Crisis of 2007-2009, the problem of too-big-to-fail (TBTF has received widespread attention. The research conducted in this context has, however, generally focused on the econometric aspect and the contribution of the TBTF doctrine to the financial crisis of 2007-2009, while the economic historical approach has been confined to tracing the doctrine to its first appearance. This paper attempts to fill this gap in the academic literature by offering an explanation for why, as opposed to how, the TBTF doctrine has developed. This paper identifies the US population’s distrust and at times hostility against the prospect of concentration of power in large financial institutions as the causal factor leading to the TBTF phenomenon. The resulting socially non-optimal regulation favoured a fragmented and fragile banking system based on small unit banks at the cost of more diversified branch banks. The Great Depression impressively highlighted the deep structural flaws of the US banking system. At the same time, however, it caused a shift in the public opinion, which had generally been opposed to deposit insurance, and thereby aligned the public interest with that of small banks, which would profit most from deposit insurance. The newly acquired public and political support enabled weak unit banks to lobby successfully against reforming the banking structure and instead for the adaption of federal deposit insurance. However, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC only addressed the symptoms of the weak banking industry but not its causes. Moreover, the strongly biased FDIC policies have generally favoured creditors at large banks, which ultimately led to the TBTF doctrine which, in turn, provided banks with a non-technical incentive to grow in size in order to gain TBTF protection. Initially aimed at preserving the US financial landscape based on small unit banks, the FDIC as the main conduit for TBTF rescues

  11. Modelling the genesis of equatorial podzols: age and implications for carbon fluxes

    Doupoux, Cédric; Merdy, Patricia; Régina Montes, Célia; Nunan, Naoise; José Melfi, Adolpho; José Ribeiro Pereira, Osvaldo; Lucas, Yves

    2017-05-01

    Amazonian podzols store huge amounts of carbon and play a key role in transferring organic matter to the Amazon River. In order to better understand their C dynamics, we modelled the formation of representative Amazonian podzol profiles by constraining both total carbon and radiocarbon. We determined the relationships between total carbon and radiocarbon in organic C pools numerically by setting constant C and 14C inputs over time. The model was an effective tool for determining the order of magnitude of the carbon fluxes and the time of genesis of the main carbon-containing horizons, i.e. the topsoil and deep Bh. We performed retrocalculations to take into account the bomb carbon in the young topsoil horizons (calculated apparent 14C age from 62 to 109 years). We modelled four profiles representative of Amazonian podzols, two profiles with an old Bh (calculated apparent 14C age 6.8 × 103 and 8.4 × 103 years) and two profiles with a very old Bh (calculated apparent 14C age 23.2 × 103 and 25.1 × 103 years). The calculated fluxes from the topsoil to the perched water table indicate that the most waterlogged zones of the podzolized areas are the main source of dissolved organic matter found in the river network. It was necessary to consider two Bh carbon pools to accurately represent the carbon fluxes leaving the Bh as observed in previous studies. We found that the genesis time of the studied soils was necessarily longer than 15 × 103 and 130 × 103 years for the two younger and two older Bhs, respectively, and that the genesis time calculated considering the more likely settings runs to around 15 × 103-25 × 103 and 150 × 103-250 × 103 years, respectively.

  12. A climatological model of North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone genesis, tracks and landfall

    Wahiduzzaman, Mohammad; Oliver, Eric C. J.; Wotherspoon, Simon J.; Holbrook, Neil J.

    2017-10-01

    Extensive damage and loss of life can be caused by tropical cyclones (TCs) that make landfall. Modelling of TC landfall probability is beneficial to insurance/re-insurance companies, decision makers, government policy and planning, and residents in coastal areas. In this study, we develop a climatological model of tropical cyclone genesis, tracks and landfall for North Indian Ocean (NIO) rim countries based on kernel density estimation, a generalised additive model (GAM) including an Euler integration step, and landfall detection using a country mask approach. Using a 35-year record (1979-2013) of tropical cyclone track observations from the Joint Typhoon Warning Centre (part of the International Best Track Archive Climate Stewardship Version 6), the GAM is fitted to the observed cyclone track velocities as a smooth function of location in each season. The distribution of cyclone genesis points is approximated by kernel density estimation. The model simulated TCs are randomly selected from the fitted kernel (TC genesis), and the cyclone paths (TC tracks), represented by the GAM together with the application of stochastic innovations at each step, are simulated to generate a suite of NIO rim landfall statistics. Three hindcast validation methods are applied to evaluate the integrity of the model. First, leave-one-out cross validation is applied whereby the country of landfall is determined by the majority vote (considering the location by only highest percentage of landfall) from the simulated tracks. Second, the probability distribution of simulated landfall is evaluated against the observed landfall. Third, the distances between the point of observed landfall and simulated landfall are compared and quantified. Overall, the model shows very good cross-validated hindcast skill of modelled landfalling cyclones against observations in each of the NIO tropical cyclone seasons and for most NIO rim countries, with only a relatively small difference in the percentage of

  13. CERN: Fixed target targets

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become

  14. The Old English Genesis and Milton’s Paradise Lost: the characterisation of Satan

    Elisa Ramazzina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine whether and to what extent the English poet John Milton may have been influenced in the composition of Paradise Lost by the Old English poem known as Genesis B. The paper will examine similarities and dif-ferences in the characterisation of Satan and of the temptation of Adam and Eve in both poems. The comparison between two of the illuminations of the Junius 11 ms. and the corresponding passages in Paradise Lost will be part of the analysis.

  15. The Old English Genesis and Milton's Paradise Lost: the characterisation of Satan

    Ramazzina, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether and to what extent the English poet John Milton may have been influenced in the composition of Paradise Lost by the Old English poem known as Genesis B. The paper will examine similarities and dif-ferences in the characterisation of Satan and of the temptation of Adam and Eve in both poems. The comparison between two of the illuminations of the Junius 11 ms. and the corresponding passages in Paradise Lost will be part of the analysis.

  16. Development of Chemical and Mechanical Cleaning Procedures for Genesis Solar Wind Samples

    Schmeling, M.; Jurewicz, A. J. G.; Gonzalez, C.; Allums, K. K.; Allton, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    The Genesis mission was the only mission returning pristine solar material to Earth since the Apollo program. Unfortunately, the return of the spacecraft on September 8, 2004 resulted in a crash landing shattering the solar wind collectors into smaller fragments and exposing them to desert soil and other debris. Thorough surface cleaning is required for almost all fragments to allow for subsequent analysis of solar wind material embedded within. However, each collector fragment calls for an individual cleaning approach, as contamination not only varies by collector material but also by sample itself.

  17. Research on petrologic, geochemical characteristics and genesis of volcanic rocks in Dachangsha basin

    Wei Sanyuan

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of research on petrologic, geochemical characteristics and isotope composition of volcanic rocks in Dachangsha basin, the author concludes that the volcanic rocks formed from magma of different genesis and depth are double-cycle effusive. It is proposed that the magma forming the intermediate-basic volcanics of the first cycle comes from the mixing of the partial melting of the deep crust and mantle, and the intermediate-acidic volcanics of the secondary cycle are derived from the remelting of the upper crust

  18. On the genesis of spatio-temporal self-organized structures in plasma devices

    Talasman, S.J.; Sanduloviciu, M.

    1995-01-01

    The genesis of luminous sharply defined nearly spherical space charges structures formed in an Argon plasma column was experimental investigated. The results reveal spatio-temporal characteristics proper to systems resulting after a self-organization process. Their phenomenology involves electrical charges separation produced by symmetry breaking and spatial separation of the excitation and ionization cross sections functions in a region where electrons are accelerated and, as a result, the appearance of electrostatic forces that, acting as long range correlations, assures, together with dissipative effects, its stability. (Author) 8 Figs., 31 Refs

  19. Seismo-tectonic model regarding the genesis and occurrence of Vrancea (Romania) earthquakes

    Enescu, D.; Enescu, B.D.

    1998-01-01

    The first part of this paper contains a very short description of some previous attempts in seismo-tectonic modeling of Vrancea zone. The seismo-tectonic model developed by the authors of this work is presented in the second part of the paper. This model is based on the spatial distribution of hypo-centers and focal mechanism characteristics. Lithosphere structure and tectonics of the directly implied zones represent very important characteristics of the seismo-tectonic model. Some two-dimensional and three-dimensional sketches of the model, which satisfy all the above mentioned characteristics and give realistic explanations regarding the genesis and occurrence of Vrancea earthquakes are presented. (authors)

  20. Comparative study of angio genesis radiopharmaceuticals for melanoma detection; Estudo comparativo de radiofarmacos para angiogenese na deteccao de melanoma

    Oliveira, Erica Aparecida de

    2011-07-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of melanoma, a cutaneous tumor with a serious prognosis, is extremely important for optimal clinical outcome. Phage display peptide libraries are a useful screening resource for identifying bioactive peptides that interact with cancer targets. The aim of this study was the evaluation of two technetium-99m tracers for angio genesis detection in melanoma model, using cyclic peguilated pentapeptide with RGD and NGR motifs conjugated with bifunctional chelator MAG3. The conjugated peptides (10 {mu}L of a {mu}g/{mu}L solution) were labeled with technetium-99m using a sodium tartrate buffer. Radiochemical evaluation was done by ITLC and confirmed by HPLC. Partition coefficient was determined and internalization assays were performed in two melanoma cells (B16F10 and SKMEL28). Biodistribution evaluation of the tracers was done in healthy animals at different times and also in mice bearing the tumor cells at 120 min post injection. Blocking studies were also conducted by co-injection of cold peptides. The conjugated showed the same profile in many evaluations. They were radiolabeled with high radiochemical purity (>97%). Both were hydrophilic, with preferential renal excretion. Tumor uptake was higher for human melanoma cells than for murinic melanoma cells, specially for {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3-PEG{sub 8}-c(RGDyK) (7.85{+-}{+-}2.34 %ID/g) at 120 min post injection. The performance of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3}-PEG{sub 8}-c(RGDyk) was much better than NGR tracer concerning human melanoma uptake and might be considered in future investigations focusing radiotracers for melanoma diagnosis. (author)

  1. ISOTOPIC MASS FRACTIONATION OF SOLAR WIND: EVIDENCE FROM FAST AND SLOW SOLAR WIND COLLECTED BY THE GENESIS MISSION

    Heber, Veronika S.; Baur, Heinrich; Wieler, Rainer; Bochsler, Peter; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Neugebauer, Marcia; Reisenfeld, Daniel B.; Wiens, Roger C.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Genesis space mission returned samples of solar wind collected over ∼2.3 years. We present elemental and isotopic compositions of He, Ne, and Ar analyzed in diamond-like carbon targets from the slow and fast solar wind collectors to investigate isotopic fractionation processes during solar wind formation. The solar wind provides information on the isotopic composition for most volatile elements for the solar atmosphere, the bulk Sun and hence, on the solar nebula from which it formed 4.6 Ga ago. Our data reveal a heavy isotope depletion in the slow solar wind compared to the fast wind composition by 63.1 ± 2.1 per mille for He, 4.2 ± 0.5 per mille amu –1 for Ne and 2.6 ± 0.5 per mille amu –1 for Ar. The three Ne isotopes suggest that isotopic fractionation processes between fast and slow solar wind are mass dependent. The He/H ratios of the collected slow and fast solar wind samples are 0.0344 and 0.0406, respectively. The inefficient Coulomb drag model reproduces the measured isotopic fractionation between fast and slow wind. Therefore, we apply this model to infer the photospheric isotopic composition of He, Ne, and Ar from our solar wind data. We also compare the isotopic composition of oxygen and nitrogen measured in the solar wind with values of early solar system condensates, probably representing solar nebula composition. We interpret the differences between these samples as being due to isotopic fractionation during solar wind formation. For both elements, the magnitude and sign of the observed differences are in good agreement with the values predicted by the inefficient Coulomb drag model.

  2. Caspase-1 is involved in the genesis of inflammatory hypernociception by contributing to peripheral IL-1β maturation

    Zamboni Dario S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caspase-1 is a cysteine protease responsible for the processing and secretion of IL-1β and IL-18, which are closely related to the induction of inflammation. However, limited evidence addresses the participation of caspase-1 in inflammatory pain. Here, we investigated the role of caspase-1 in inflammatory hypernociception (a decrease in the nociceptive threshold using caspase-1 deficient mice (casp1-/-. Results Mechanical inflammatory hypernociception was evaluated using an electronic version of the von Frey test. The production of cytokines, PGE2 and neutrophil migration were evaluated by ELISA, radioimmunoassay and myeloperoxidase activity, respectively. The interleukin (IL-1β and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 protein expression were evaluated by western blotting. The mechanical hypernociception induced by intraplantar injection of carrageenin, tumour necrosis factor (TNFα and CXCL1/KC was reduced in casp1-/- mice compared with WT mice. However, the hypernociception induced by IL-1β and PGE2 did not differ in WT and casp1-/- mice. Carrageenin-induced TNF-α and CXCL1/KC production and neutrophil recruitment in the paws of WT mice were not different from casp1-/- mice, while the maturation of IL-1β was reduced in casp1-/- mice. Furthermore, carrageenin induced an increase in the expression of COX-2 and PGE2 production in the paw of WT mice, but was reduced in casp1-/- mice. Conclusion These results suggest that caspase-1 plays a critical role in the cascade of events involved in the genesis of inflammatory hypernociception by promoting IL-1β maturation. Because caspase-1 is involved in the induction of COX-2 expression and PGE2 production, our data support the assertion that caspase-1 is a key target to control inflammatory pain.

  3. ISOTOPIC MASS FRACTIONATION OF SOLAR WIND: EVIDENCE FROM FAST AND SLOW SOLAR WIND COLLECTED BY THE GENESIS MISSION

    Heber, Veronika S.; Baur, Heinrich; Wieler, Rainer [Institute for Geochemistry and Petrology, ETH Zurich, Clausiusstrasse 25, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Bochsler, Peter [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bern, Sidlerstasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); McKeegan, Kevin D. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Box 951567, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Neugebauer, Marcia [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Reisenfeld, Daniel B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812 (United States); Wiens, Roger C., E-mail: heber@ess.ucla.edu [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    NASA's Genesis space mission returned samples of solar wind collected over {approx}2.3 years. We present elemental and isotopic compositions of He, Ne, and Ar analyzed in diamond-like carbon targets from the slow and fast solar wind collectors to investigate isotopic fractionation processes during solar wind formation. The solar wind provides information on the isotopic composition for most volatile elements for the solar atmosphere, the bulk Sun and hence, on the solar nebula from which it formed 4.6 Ga ago. Our data reveal a heavy isotope depletion in the slow solar wind compared to the fast wind composition by 63.1 {+-} 2.1 per mille for He, 4.2 {+-} 0.5 per mille amu{sup -1} for Ne and 2.6 {+-} 0.5 per mille amu{sup -1} for Ar. The three Ne isotopes suggest that isotopic fractionation processes between fast and slow solar wind are mass dependent. The He/H ratios of the collected slow and fast solar wind samples are 0.0344 and 0.0406, respectively. The inefficient Coulomb drag model reproduces the measured isotopic fractionation between fast and slow wind. Therefore, we apply this model to infer the photospheric isotopic composition of He, Ne, and Ar from our solar wind data. We also compare the isotopic composition of oxygen and nitrogen measured in the solar wind with values of early solar system condensates, probably representing solar nebula composition. We interpret the differences between these samples as being due to isotopic fractionation during solar wind formation. For both elements, the magnitude and sign of the observed differences are in good agreement with the values predicted by the inefficient Coulomb drag model.

  4. Dissolution of targets for the production of Mo-99: Part 1. Influence of NaOH concentration and the addition of NaNO{sub 3} and NaNO{sub 2} on the dissolution time

    Camilo, Ruth L.; Araujo, Izilda da C.; Mindrisz, Ana C.; Forbicini, Christina A.L.G. de O., E-mail: rcamilo@ipen.br, E-mail: icaraujo@ipen.br, E-mail: acmindri@ipen.br, E-mail: cforbici@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Faced with global crisis in the production of radioisotope {sup 99}Mo, which product of decay, {sup 99}mTc, is the tracer element most often used in nuclear medicine and accounts for about 80% of all diagnostic procedures in vivo, since September 2008 Brazil is developing the project called Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB). Within the Brazilian Nuclear Program (PNB) the construction of the RMB, is seen as a long term solution to meet all domestic demand relative to the supply of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. In the process to be studied to obtain {sup 99}Mo from irradiated UA1{sub x}-A1 LEU targets employing alkaline dissolution, processing time should be minimized, considering the short half life of {sup 99}Mo and {sup 99}mTc, about 66 h and 6 h, respectively. That makes dissolution time a significant factor in the development of the process. This paper presents the results of alkaline dissolution of scraps of Al, used to simulate the dissolution process of UA1{sub x}-A1 targets. Al corresponds to about 79% of the total weight of the UA1{sub x}-A1 target. The effect of NaOH concentration on dissolution time for the interval of 1 to 3.5 mol.L-1 was studied, keeping the molar ratio in 1Al:2.16NaOH and the initial temperature of 88 degree C. The influence of reagent composition over dissolution time was studied using three different solutions: a) 3 mol.L{sup -1} NaOH, b) 3 mol.L{sup -1} NaOH/NaNO{sub 3} and c) 3 mol.L{sup -1} NaOH/NaNO{sub 2}, keeping the same molar ratio and temperature. The results showed that the dissolution time decreases with increasing NaOH concentration and the addition of NaNO{sub 3} or NaNO{sub 2} in the NaOH solution reduces both dissolution time and volume of gases released. (author)

  5. Tumour genesis syndrome: severe hypophosphatemia and hypokalemia may be ominous presenting findings in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Chan, Winnie Ky; Chang, Kai On; Lau, Wing Hung

    2017-08-01

    We report a 16-year-old girl who was diagnosed with acute leukaemia and a marked leucocytosis >200 × 10 9 /L. She presented with marked hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, acute renal failure and acute respiratory failure. These electrolytes disturbances may indicate rapid tumour genesis. These ominous findings required urgent treatment to halt the crises of rapid leukemic cell proliferation. Mark hypophosphatemia and hypokalemia may be presenting electrolyte abnormalities in a patient with acute leukaemia, and these may be indicators of aggressive tumour genesis. What is known: • Mild electrolyte disturbances are common in oncology patients • Tumour lysis syndrome is well recognized by paediatriaticians What is new: • Life-threatening hypophosphatemia is an uncommon presentation • These electrolytes disorders may indicate an aggressive tumour genesis process even at presentation and require urgent treatment.

  6. ENSO Effect on East Asian Tropical Cyclone Landfall via Changes in Tracks and Genesis in a Statistical Model

    Yonekura, Emmi; Hall, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Improvements on a statistical tropical cyclone (TC) track model in the western North Pacific Ocean are described. The goal of the model is to study the effect of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on East Asian TC landfall. The model is based on the International Best-Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) database of TC observations for 1945-2007 and employs local regression of TC formation rates and track increments on the Nino-3.4 index and seasonally varying climate parameters. The main improvements are the inclusion of ENSO dependence in the track propagation and accounting for seasonality in both genesis and tracks. A comparison of simulations of the 1945-2007 period with observations concludes that the model updates improve the skill of this model in simulating TCs. Changes in TC genesis and tracks are analyzed separately and cumulatively in simulations of stationary extreme ENSO states. ENSO effects on regional (100-km scale) landfall are attributed to changes in genesis and tracks. The effect of ENSO on genesis is predominantly a shift in genesis location from the southeast in El Nino years to the northwest in La Nina years, resulting in higher landfall rates for the East Asian coast during La Nina. The effect of ENSO on track propagation varies seasonally and spatially. In the peak activity season (July-October), there are significant changes in mean tracks with ENSO. Landfall-rate changes from genesis- and track-ENSO effects in the Philippines cancel out, while coastal segments of Vietnam, China, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan show enhanced La Nina-year increases.

  7. Discrimination and quantification of implanted solar wind in Genesis collector shards using grazing incidence synchrotron x-ray techniques: New detector initial results

    Kitts, K.; Choi, Y.; Sutton, S.R.; Ghose, S.; Burnett, D.; Eng, P.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the composition of the Sun provides a baseline, which allows an understanding of how the solar system has evolved over time and how solar processes and solar wind mechanics behave. Unfortunately, the errors in photospheric abundances are too large for many planetary science problems and this hampers our understanding of these different processes. Analyses of solar wind implanted in meteorites or lunar soils have provided more precise data [e.g. 1 and references therein] but the extent to which alteration processes on these bodies complicate such information is only now being determined. Therefore, in order to obtain pristine solar wind samples, NASA developed and launched the Genesis Discovery Mission. Unfortunately, the probe crash-landed shattering the 300 collector plates into 15,000+ pieces complicating the analysis and necessitating the development of new analytical techniques and equipment. Thus, shards from the Genesis collector array and their appropriate flight spares are currently being characterized via grazing-incidence synchrotron x-ray techniques at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. The goals are (1) determine solar wind fluences of the elements Ca-Ge by grazing-incidence angle-resolved x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and x-ray reflectivity, (2) improve data reduction via the development of XRF spectral deconvolution routines and develop modeling algorithms for reflectivity and fluorescence yield analysis in order to determine element specific depth profiles from which absolute concentration may be extracted and (3) designing and developing a new multi-element silicon multi-channel (SMCD) detector system. These improvements will increase our sensitivity by a factor of three or more, reduce measurement time at a given sensitivity to one-eighth and the minimum detection limit would be reduced by a factor of 3 to ∼3 x 10 8 atoms/cm 2 .

  8. Petrography, Geochemistry and Proposed Genesis of Ordovician Oolitic Iron Formation Members of the Lashkarak Formation, Eastern Alborz

    Maghsoudloo Mahalli, M.; Shafiei Bafti, B.

    2016-01-01

    Mineralogical characteristics combined with geochemical data show that anomalous values of Fe in studied carbonate argillite formations with respect to common sedimentary rocks are related to the abundance of iron-bearing oolites as oxides such as hematite and goethite, and the clay mineral chamosite. Based on Fe, Mg and Ca concentrations, oolitic iron formations can be divided into low-grade and high-grade iron formations. The former is characterized by chamosite and calcite, whereas the latter consists ofhematite and calcite. This research, along with available paleo-geographic and sedimentological information suggests that the iron for the formation of iron oolites was available from normal sea water and Fe could be carried as clastic particles along with clays or coating of clay particles derived from weathering and erosion of shales from adjacent land. High contents of K and Si in oolitic iron horizons, the presence of detrital zircon, quartz and clay minerals within oolites and also in the matrix of these rocks confirm the proposed model and show the important role of Fe-bearing clay minerals in the genesis of the primary chamositic oolites in an environment with p H=5-9 and medium-weak redox conditions (Maynard, 1983; Maynard, 1986). The abundance of hematite relative to goethite in the Fe-oolites, dense and elliptical oolites as well as the frequent occurrence of calcite veinlets cutting oolite beds has been attributed to diagenetic processes and the modification of chamosite and goethite to hematite. Our findings indicate that the studied members can be classified as low-grade oolitic iron formation (average 21 wt.% Fe) which do not have economic importance at present.

  9. The impact of Saharan Dust on the genesis and evolution of Hurricane Earl (2010)

    Pan, B.; Wang, Y.; Hsieh, J. S.; Lin, Y.; Hu, J.; Zhang, R.

    2017-12-01

    Dust, one of the most abundant natural aerosols, can exert substantial radiative and microphysical effects on the regional climate and has potential impacts on the genesis and intensification of tropical cyclones (TCs). A Weather Research and Forecasting Model and the Regional Oceanic Modeling System coupled model (WRF-ROMS) is used to simulate the evolution of Hurricane Earl (2010), of which Earl was interfered by Saharan dust at the TC genesis stage. A new dust module has been implemented to the TAMU two-moment microphysics scheme in the WRF model. It accounts for both dust as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) and Ice Nuclei (IN). The hurricane track, intensity and precipitation have been compared to the best track data and TRMM precipitation, respectively. The influences of Saharan dust on Hurricane Earl are investigated with dust-CCN, dust-IN, and dust-free scenarios. The analysis shows that Saharan dust changes the latent heat and moisture distribution, invigorates the convections in the hurricane's eyewall, and suppresses the development of Earl. This finding addresses the importance of accounting dust microphysics effect on hurricane predictions.

  10. [Spatial organization of bioelectrical brain activity in epilepsy and amenorrhea of central genesis].

    Avakian, G N; Oleĭnikova, O M; Nerobkova, L N; Dovletkhanova, E R; Mitrofanov, A A; Gusev, E I

    2002-01-01

    The study aimed at modification of co-herent analysis (CA), as a mathematical method for EEG data processing for objective evaluation of bioelectric brain activity spatial organization in women with epilepsy and secondary amenorrhea of central genesis. One hundred sixty one women (30 with epilepsy, 116 with amenorrhea and 115 controls aged 15 to 41 years) have been examined. Characteristic changes of cortico-cortical inter- and intra-hemisphere relations for patients with catamenial (CTM) and noncatamenial (NCTM) epilepsy in different menstrual cycle terms were found. The most distinct changes were detected in theta-activity analysis. In the beginning of menstrual cycle, the patients with CTM epilepsy exhibited higher CA indices in theta-rhythm range in all right hemisphere pairs studied. On the contrary, patients with NCTM epilepsy exhibited lower CA indices mainly in the right brain hemisphere. alpha-rhythm spatial organization analysis in the same patients showed similar correlations, but they were better expressed in alpha-rhythm generation zone: in the beginning of menstrual cycle CA indices were high in patients with CTM epilepsy and low in those with NCTM epilepsy. Comparing to controls, patients with secondary amenorrhea of central genesis showed most distinct changes in theta-activity towards the CA indices increase in the majority of the leads. In patients with epilepsy and amenorrhea, CA indices of right brain hemisphere and intra-central temporal lead pairs were lower than in patients with amenorrhea without epilepsy by both alpha- and theta-rhythms.

  11. Some aspects of the genesis of heavy mineral assemblages in Lower Proterozoic uranium-gold conglomerates

    Clemmey, H.

    1982-01-01

    Some genetic models for Lower Proterozoic gold- and uranium-bearing pyritic conglomerates favour a modified placer origin in which low levels of atmospheric oxygen are used to account for the survival of uraninite and pyrite. There are many difficulties with such models. New evidence concerning the genesis of the deposits is derived from a clast of ferric iron clay thought to represent a precursor sediment of the Witwatersrand Basin. Reworking of such clays and transport of a magnetite and ferric clay assemblage with subsequent sulphidation, could account for the porous pyrites, the absence of magnetite and the lack of hydraulic equivalence of the mineral grains in the conglomerates. The presence of oxygen, as indicated by the ferric iron clasts, would account for the evidence of mobility of uranium and of gold and would enhance their extraction from source rocks; particularly the release of gold from a precursor auriferous iron formation source. It is suggested that some aspects of the genesis of uranium deposits of the Witwatersrand and Elliott Lake may be similar to those of the Phanerozoic 'Roll Front' ores involving interaction between oxidizing uraniferous groundwaters and previously sulphidized and reduzate facies sediments. (author)

  12. Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) study to investigate the genesis of Mujil hill

    Rahmania, Suryanto, Wiwit

    2017-07-01

    Gunung Mujil is an isolated hill located near Pondoworejo village, Kalibawang sub-district, Kulon Progo district, and Special Province of Yogyakarta. The hill is part of the eastern Kulon Progo mountain range extended relatively in the North-South direction. The lithology of the hill consists of andesite breccia and it's similar with the Old Andesite Formation that built the Kulon Progo Mountains. There are at least two hypothesis about the genesis and the formation mechanism of this hill, (1) it was formed by debris mass from Kulon Progo Mountains, and (2) ) it was formed by an intrusion. Our study intended to determine the subsurface resistivity below the hill and to relating those results to with the scenario of the genesis of the Mujil hill. We conducted Audio-magnetotellurics (AMT) measurements along two lines survey crossing the Mujil hill consisting of 20 measurements. Since the measurements are located near the villages, most of the data has a fair to bad quality and only one station yielded an excellent data. A 1D Forward modeling was then applied to find best-fit model of the AMT data. The results shows that the Mujil hill was built by debris mass of the Old Andesite Formation from Kulon Progo mountain which is represented by a lower resistivity value under the Mujil hill.

  13. A mouse model for monitoring islet cell genesis and developing therapies for diabetes

    Yoshinori Shimajiri

    2011-03-01

    Transient expression of the transcription factor neurogenin-3 marks progenitor cells in the pancreas as they differentiate into islet cells. We developed a transgenic mouse line in which the surrogate markers secreted alkaline phosphatase (SeAP and enhanced green florescent protein (EGFP can be used to monitor neurogenin-3 expression, and thus islet cell genesis. In transgenic embryos, cells expressing EGFP lined the pancreatic ducts. SeAP was readily detectable in embryos, in the media of cultured embryonic pancreases and in the serum of adult animals. Treatment with the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT, which blocks Notch signaling, enhanced SeAP secretion rates and increased the number of EGFP-expressing cells as assayed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS and immunohistochemistry in cultured pancreases from embryos at embryonic day 11.5, but not in pancreases harvested 1 day later. By contrast, treatment with growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11 reduced SeAP secretion rates. In adult mice, partial pancreatectomy decreased, whereas duct ligation increased, circulating SeAP levels. This model will be useful for studying signals involved in islet cell genesis in vivo and developing therapies that induce this process.

  14. The Genesis of Romanian Football. Social Factors and Processes behind the Game

    PÉTER, László

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with those social and economic factors that contributed to the genesis of Romanian soccer at the turn of the previous century. The author argues that football was imported from abroad via peregrination and schools, but certain social processes, such as urbanization, capitalization and the appearance of massive working classes, are the reasons why this beautiful game became socially embedded in the local environments. The different circumstances in Banat and Transylvania and in the old Romanian Kingdom marked the social history and trajectory “travelled” by the ball. While in the western part of the country, football arrived in a fertile ground because of the already existing bourgeois sport associations and the rapidly emerging local working classes, the role of foreign companies and expats in implementing football was more significant in the southern regions. This difference in the genesis of the game produced two distinct styles of playing football. These two styles clearly reflect the historical and social background specific to the different regions.

  15. Interdecadal Change of Tropical Cyclone Genesis Controlling Parameter in Western North Pacific

    Li, T.

    2017-12-01

    The main environmental parameter controlling tropical cyclone (TC) genesis in the western North Pacific (WNP) changed in different interdecadal periods. The interannual variability of TC genesis frequency was primarily control by specific humidity in 1950-1976, sea surface temperature (SST) in 1977-1998, and vorticity in 1999-2014. A further diagnosis shows that the change of environmental specific humidity during 1950-1976 was attributed to anomalous advection of mean moisture during ENSO developing summer. The SST change during 1977-1998 was associated with circulation change during ENSO decaying summer. The change of environment vorticity was primarily related to CP-type El Niño during 1999-2014. The ultimate cause of the controlling parameter change is attributed to the change of ENSO behavior. Compared to the first period, a stronger EP-type ENSO variability in the second period leads to a stronger circulation/SST response during ENSO decaying phase. The occurrence of more frequent CP type El Niño in the third period was responsible for greater vorticity controlling in the WNP.

  16. Enhanced Cleaning of Genesis Solar Wind Sample 61348 for Film Residue Removal

    Allums, K. K.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Kuhlman, K. R.; Allton, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    The Genesis mission returned to Earth on September 8, 2004, experiencing a nonnominal reentry. During the recovery of the collector materials from the capsule, many of the collector fragments were placed on the adhesive protion of post-it notes to prevent the fragments from moving during transport back to Johnson Space Center. This unknowingly provided an additional contaminate that would prove difficult to remove with the limited chemistries allowed in the Genesis Curation Laboratory. Generally when collector material samples are prepared for allocation to PIs, the samples are cleaned front side only with Ultra-Pure Water (UPW) via megasonic dispersion to the collector surface to remove crash debris and contamination. While this cleaning method works well on samples that were not placed on post-its during recovery, it has caused movement of the residue on the back of the sample to be deposited on the front in at least two examples. Therefore, samples placed on the adhesive portion on post-it note, require enhanced cleaning methods since post-it residue has proved resistant to UPW cleaning.

  17. MINING LAKES OF THE AGHIREŞ AREA: GENESIS, EVOLUTION AND MORPHOMETRIC ASPECTS

    V. MĂCICĂŞAN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mining lakes of the Aghireş area: Genesis, evolution and morphometric aspects. Mining activities are heavily influencing and destroying the landscape worldwide. In Aghireş mining perimeter, exploitation workings have led to extreme and irreversible environmental damages, especially regarding the geomorphologic and hydrological situation. After cessation of underground mining and initiation of quarry exploitation, certain mining galleries collapsed and were afterwards flooded by precipitation and re-ascending groundwater, leading to the formation of lacustrine units. Later, the abandoned quarries have undergone the same flooding process. In this paper, we report on the genesis, evolution and the current characteristics of these bodies of water, referred to as mining lakes. In addition, using the GIS technology, the morphometry of the mining lakes is presented in this paper. Due to their predominant current use, as for recreational purposes, the sustainable management of the mining lakes is an important ecological and socio-economical factor for the Aghireş area. For the majority of mining lakes, restoration measures may be necessary due to the demands of the European legislation as well as to the demands of a specific socio-economic use in the future (e.g. bathing lakes or fishing lakes. These aspects of investigation will constitute a prerequisite for effective environmental management and rehabilitation strategies.

  18. Vrou as beeld van God, Deel 1: 'n Historiese ondersoek - Vanaf Genesis tot die Middeleeue

    Yolanda Dreyer

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Woman created in the image of God, Part 1: a historical investigation - from Genesis to the Middle Ages. This study indicates that the traditions in the Pentateuch, especially the creation traditions, implied the egalitarian status of man and woman as image of God. The context of this traditions, however, was patriarchal and thus opened the possibility of the exploitation of women. Though Genesis 1:27 does not specifically attest to the asymmetry between man and woman in patriarchal society, the fate of women in general was bound up with the presentation of God as a male creator. The implications of this presentation can be clearly seen in texts of the intertestamental period. The study points out the degree to which Philo's view of a hierarchy concerning man and woman as immanent to God's order of creation, strongly influenced Christian thought on the place of women. Since the "fall of woman" necessitates a "soteriology", women in general are portrayed negatively in patristic texts. Mary is seen as the positive counterpart of Eve. The image of women then becomes that of submission on account of their alienation from God. The article concludes with the view of Thomas Aquinas that the subservience of slaves is less than that of women, because in their case it is not an order of creation.

  19. Implication of neuro-genesis during brain development in behavior disorders caused by depleted uranium

    Legrand, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Humans are continuously exposed to neurotoxic compounds in the environment. The developing brain is more susceptible to neurotoxic compounds and modifications in its growth could lead to disorders in adulthood. Uranium (U) is an environmental heavy metal and induces behavioral disorders as well as affects neurochemistry. The aim of my thesis was to investigate whether depleted uranium (DU) exposure affects neuro-genesis processes, which are implicated in brain development and in synaptic plasticity in adults. While DU increased cell proliferation in the hippocampal neuro-epithelium and decreased cell death at prenatal stages, DU lead to opposite effects in the dentate gyrus at postnatal stages. Moreover, DU had an inhibitory effect on the transition toward neuronal differentiation pathway during development. At adult stage, DU induced a decrease in neuronal differentiation but has no impact in cell proliferation. Finally, DU exposure during brain development caused depressive like behavior at late postnatal and adult stage, and decreased spatial memory at adult stage. Consequently, DU exposure during brain development caused modification in neuro-genesis processes associated to cognitive and emotional disorders at adult age. U could present a threat to human health, especially in pregnant women and children. (author)

  20. Die teologies-polemiese gerigtheid van Genesis 1-3: implikasies vir die gereformeerde leer oor die erfsonde

    N. Vorster

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The theological polemic purpose of Genesis 1-3: implications for the reformed doctrine on original sin This article focuses on the polemic nature of Genesis 1-3 and the implications thereof on the reformed doctrine regarding original sin. In the first place the views of the creation narratives as historical-literal and mythological material are discussed. Thereafter the article proposes that the creation narratives must be treated as theological material with a polemic and prophetic purpose. The implications of this for the reformed doctrine on original sin are subsequently discussed.

  1. Paulus als Schriftuitlegger Paulus’ vertolking van Genesis 15:5b-6 in Romeinen 4:3

    Pieter K. Baaij

    2005-07-01

      In this article the author illustrates that Paul in Romans 4:3 accurately renders what is written in Genesis 15:5b and 6. Paul teaches us to understand the Hebrew text better by indicating where the emphasis lies in the Hebrew text and how we must interpret the Hebrew terms used. For this reason Paul’s interpretation of Genesis 15:5b and 6 in Romans 4:3 is of great importance in the continually more topical debate on how we must translate the Bible.

  2. Concentrated Ownership

    Rose, Caspar

    2014-01-01

    This entry summarizes the main theoretical contributions and empirical findings in relation to concentrated ownership from a law and economics perspective. The various forms of concentrated ownership are described as well as analyzed from the perspective of the legal protection of investors......, especially minority shareholders. Concentrated ownership is associated with benefits and costs. Concentrated ownership may reduce agency costs by increased monitoring of top management. However, concentrated ownership may also provide dominating owners with private benefits of control....

  3. Elliptical concentrators.

    Garcia-Botella, Angel; Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2006-10-10

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used to produce optical devices, including the use of reflective and refractive components or inverse engineering techniques. However, many of these optical components are based on translational symmetries, rotational symmetries, or free-form surfaces. We study a new family of nonimaging concentrators called elliptical concentrators. This new family of concentrators provides new capabilities and can have different configurations, either homofocal or nonhomofocal. Translational and rotational concentrators can be considered as particular cases of elliptical concentrators.

  4. Magma genesis and slab-wedge interaction across an island arc-continent collision zone, East Sunda Arc, Indonesia

    Hoogewerff, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of a detailed trace element and isotope geochemistry study into the magma-genesis ofvolcanoes in the Adonara-Pantar Section (APS) ofthe East Sunda Arc in Indonesia, a setting where an oceanic island arc is colliding with a passive continental margin. Sr, Nd, Pb, Ra,

  5. Magma genesis and slab-wedge interaction across an island arc-continent collision zone, East Sunda Arc, Indonesia

    Hoogewerff, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of a detailed trace element and isotope geochemistry study into the magma-genesis ofvolcanoes in the Adonara-Pantar Section (APS) ofthe East Sunda Arc in Indonesia, a setting where an oceanic island arc is colliding with a passive continental margin. Sr, Nd, Pb,

  6. 75 FR 52966 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Genesis Solar, LLC...

    2010-08-30

    ... following Web site: http://www.blm.gov/ca/st/en/fo/palmsprings/Solar_Projects/Genesis_Ford_Dry_Lake.html.... Construction and operation of the Proposed Action would disturb a total of about 1,800 acres within the site... facilities for storm water flow and discharge. 6. Temporary construction laydown area(s) within the larger...

  7. Genealogies and spiritualities in Genesis 4:17-22, 4:25-26, 5:1-32 ...

    The three genealogies in Genesis 4:17-22, 4:25-26 en 5:1-32 show different intentions: the first wants (amongst other purposes) to give an aetiology of the trades; the second wants to stress the importance of a new beginning; the third wants to relate Adam to Noah. Each of these approaches to genealogy has a different ...

  8. Improvement of orthopedic dental treatment of patients suffering post-surgery defects of the maxilla of cancer genesis

    A. S. Arutyunov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comprehensive study identifying the key issuesand giving the mathematical, and clinical and microbiological substantiation of modern principles of providing orthopedic dental care to patients with acquired defects of the upper jaw of cancer genesis.

  9. Concentration risk

    Matić Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration risk has been gaining a special dimension in the contemporary financial and economic environment. Financial institutions are exposed to this risk mainly in the field of lending, mostly through their credit activities and concentration of credit portfolios. This refers to the concentration of different exposures within a single risk category (credit risk, market risk, operational risk, liquidity risk.

  10. Between normal and pathological: Ludwik Fleck, Georges Canguilhem and the genesis of historical epistemology

    Mauro Lucio Leitão Condé

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to address, starting from some aspects of the thought of Ludwik Fleck and Georges Canguilhem, the genesis of historical epistemology in the history of science. Specifically, it seeks the contribution of the biological matrix, or the life sciences, presented by these authors, as a central framework in the constitution of historical epistemology. In other words, more than a search of similarities between Fleck and Canguilhem, the main goal is to show how, in formulating independently their ideas of history of science – especially the history of medicine – these authors contributed decisively to the basis of a historical epistemology that will be, throughout the twentieth century, a new thought style for understanding the history of science.

  11. The genesis of the Brazilian nation in XIX century’s iconography

    Verediana C. da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to understand the genesis of the idea of Brazilian nation through the nineteenth century’s iconography, approaching the study of images and deepening into the analysis of four artworks: Engenho da cachoeira. Corte de cana-de-açúcar by Hércule Florence, Primeira Missa no Brasil by Victor Meirelles, O Grito do Ipiranga by Pedro Américo and Evangelho das Selvas by Benedito Calixto. Besides the pictures we paid attention to the texts belonging to the same period, mainly those produced by the cultural elite related to the Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro (IHGB, to the travel reports as text-images, as well as to the emergence of the Instituto and of the Academia Imperial de Belas Artes (AIBA in a context of pursuit of homogeneity in the promising Brazilian nation.

  12. The genesis of period-adding bursting without bursting-chaos in the Chay model

    Yang Zhuoqin; Lu Qishao; Li Li

    2006-01-01

    According to the period-adding firing patterns without chaos observed in neuronal experiments, the genesis of the period-adding 'fold/homoclinic' bursting sequence without bursting-chaos is explored by numerical simulation, fast/slow dynamics and bifurcation analysis of limit cycle in the neuronal Chay model. It is found that each periodic bursting, from period-1 to period-7, is separately generated by the corresponding periodic spiking pattern through two period-doubling bifurcations, except for the period-1 bursting occurring via a Hopf bifurcation. Consequently, it can be revealed that this period-adding bursting bifurcation without chaos has a compound bifurcation structure with transitions from spiking to bursting, which is closely related to period-doubling bifurcations of periodic spiking in essence

  13. Beyond the hypothesis: Theory's role in the genesis, opposition, and pursuit of the Higgs boson

    Wells, James D.

    2018-05-01

    The centrally recognized theoretical achievement that enabled the Higgs boson discovery in 2012 was the hypothesis of its existence, made by Peter Higgs in 1964. Nevertheless, there is a significant body of comparably important theoretical work prior to and after the Higgs boson hypothesis. In this article we present an additional perspective of how crucial theory work was to the genesis of the Higgs boson hypothesis, especially emphasizing its roots in Landau's theory of phase transitions and subsequent theoretical work on superconductivity. A detailed description is then given of the opposition to the Higgs boson hypothesis by many researchers, giving evidence to its speculative nature. And finally, it is discussed the importance of theory work in the decades after the hypothesis in order to make possible the experimental discovery of the Higgs boson.

  14. Geological characteristics and genesis of Niangnianggong gold-silver deposit in Liaoning Province, China

    Hou Zhenyuan

    2013-01-01

    Based on the analysis of geological characteristics and genesis of Niangnianggong deposit, this paper suggested that the deposit is controlled by the EW direction faults and belongs to quartz vein type. Average value of δ 34 S of the ore is 2.19‰, and the variation ranges from 1.6‰ to 4.9‰, which shows the feature of hydrothermal sulfur. The result of lead isotope is fall into original lead zone, which shows the feature of primeval lead system. The result of H-O isotope is close to meteoric line, which means the participation of precipitations. Rb-Sr age of ore is 186.6 Ma, which is similar to the age of diorite dike. Multi-disciplinary analysis concludes that the deposit is a quartz vein type deposit with composite hydrothermal origin. (author)

  15. The genesis of victimization surveys and of the realist-constructionist divide.

    de Castelbajac, Matthieu

    2017-09-01

    The invention of victimization surveys is often presented as a synthesis of the two theoretical attitudes that, supposedly, dominated the 1960s debate over official crime statistics: realism and social constructionism. This paper turns this genesis story on its head. Using original archives, I argue that victimization surveys responded to organizational opportunities in the field of applied research. It was only after the fact that two of their architects seized the debate on crime measurement to broadcast their invention. In so doing they strategically recast the terms of this debate into a binary division between two antithetical social ontologies. This case is used to discuss how social scientists come to reinterpret and misunderstand their history. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Genesis and evolution of the Skyrme model from 1954 to the present

    Sanyuk, V.I.

    1994-01-01

    Not widely known facts on the genesis of the Skyrme model are presented in a historical survey, based on Skyrme's earliest papers and on his own published remembrance. We consider the evolution of Skyrme's model description of nuclear matter from the ''Mesonic Fluid'' model up to its final version, known as the baryon model. We pay special tribute to some well-known ideas in contemporary particle physics which one can find in Skyrme's earlier papers, such as: Nuclear Democracy, the Solitonic Mechanism, the Nonlinear Realization of Chiral Symmetry, Topological Charges, Fermi-Bose Transmutation, etc. It is curious to note in the final version of the Skyrme model gleams of Kelvin's ''Vortex Atoms'' theory. In conclusion we make a brief analysis of the validity of Skyrme's conjectures in view of recent results and pinpoint some questions which still remain. (author). 93 refs, 4 figs

  17. Sun-genesis 21: Empowering the global village in the digital age and the solar century

    Hamasaki, Les [Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Sun-Genesis 21 is a global economic development plan for creating an environmentally sustainable future in the developing world. Its premise is that the solution to the survival of civil stability and democracy in developing countries in the Information Age is to slow the migration of the rural poor into the urban centers as well as dispersing some of the residents of the already impacted cities into new agro-communities. This strategy envisions empowering the 25 million coffee farmers located in the poorest countries in the world to control their own economic destiny by marketing their products directly to the international marketplace over the World Wide Web (Coffee Belt Plan 2020). The plan also envisions creating a network of new agricultural communities called World Farm Solar Telecommunities that utilizes telecommunications and environmental technologies to disperse the impacted urban population. Proven profitable commodities such as industrial hemp, aloe vera, and aquacultural farming will be the economic foundation of these agro-communities. The goal is to empower rural agro-entrepreneurs to become an economic engine for job creation and be able to afford the Coffee Solar Televillages that include distant learning centers, telemedicine clinics, food processing centers, e-commerce centers, and solar crop-drying centers. The Genesis 21 program includes creative financing strategies to deal with these massive problems of poverty and hunger through the concept of trade, not aid, including the use of barter in a proposed Green Technology for Green Coffee program. [Spanish] Sun-Genesis 21 es un plan global de desarrollo economico para crear un futuro ambiental sustentable en el mundo en desarrollo. La premisa del plan es que la solucion para la supervivencia de la estabilidad civil y la democracia en paises en desarrollo dentro de la Era de la Informacion es desacelerar la migracion de la gente pobre de las areas rurales hacia los centros urbanos, asi como

  18. GENESIS OF INTERPLANETARY INTERMITTENT TURBULENCE: A CASE STUDY OF ROPE–ROPE MAGNETIC RECONNECTION

    Chian, Abraham C.-L.; Loew, Murray H. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Feng, Heng Q. [Institute of Space Physics, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang (China); Hu, Qiang [Department of Space Science and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Miranda, Rodrigo A. [UnB-Gama Campus, and Plasma Physics Laboratory, Institute of Physics, University of Brasília (UnB), Brasília DF 70910-900 (Brazil); Muñoz, Pablo R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of La Serena, Av. Juan Cisternas 1200, La Serena (Chile); Sibeck, David G. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wu, De J., E-mail: abraham.chian@gmail.com [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2016-12-01

    In a recent paper, the relation between current sheet, magnetic reconnection, and turbulence at the leading edge of an interplanetary coronal mass ejection was studied. We report here the observation of magnetic reconnection at the interface region of two interplanetary magnetic flux ropes. The front and rear boundary layers of three interplanetary magnetic flux ropes are identified, and the structures of magnetic flux ropes are reconstructed by the Grad–Shafranov method. A quantitative analysis of the reconnection condition and the degree of intermittency reveals that rope–rope magnetic reconnection is the most likely site for genesis of interplanetary intermittency turbulence in this event. The dynamic pressure pulse resulting from this reconnection triggers the onset of a geomagnetic storm.

  19. On gravity's role in the genesis of rest masses of classical fields

    Szabados, László B.

    2018-03-01

    It is shown that in the Einstein-conformally coupled Higgs-Maxwell system with Friedman-Robertson-Walker symmetries the energy density of the Higgs field has stable local minimum only if the mean curvature of the t=const hypersurfaces is less than a finite critical value χ _c, while for greater mean curvature the energy density is not bounded from below. Therefore, there are extreme gravitational situations in which even quasi-locally defined instantaneous vacuum states of the Higgs sector cannot exist, and hence one cannot at all define the rest mass of all the classical fields. On hypersurfaces with mean curvature less than χ _c the energy density has the `wine bottle' (rather than the familiar `Mexican hat') shape, and the gauge field can get rest mass via the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism. The spacelike hypersurface with the critical mean curvature represents the moment of `genesis' of rest masses.

  20. Endothelial Progenitor Cell Dysfunction in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Implications for The Genesis of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Yu-Hsun Kao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, the most common endocrine disorder affecting women ofreproductive age, is characterized by hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. Women withPCOS have a higher risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs and endothelial dysfunction. Themechanisms underlying these risks are unclear. Human peripheral blood contains circulatingendothelial progenitor cells (EPCs derived from bone marrow that have the ability to proliferate anddifferentiate into mature endothelial cells, which may contribute to vessel homeostasis and repair.PCOS is associated with insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia, which may resultin EPC dysfunction. In this review, we summarize the potential mechanisms of EPC dysfunction inPCOS, which possibly result in a higher genesis of CVDs in PCOS-affected subjects.

  1. Scale genesis and gravitational wave in a classically scale invariant extension of the standard model

    Kubo, Jisuke [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kanazawa University,Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Yamada, Masatoshi [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg,Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-12-01

    We assume that the origin of the electroweak (EW) scale is a gauge-invariant scalar-bilinear condensation in a strongly interacting non-abelian gauge sector, which is connected to the standard model via a Higgs portal coupling. The dynamical scale genesis appears as a phase transition at finite temperature, and it can produce a gravitational wave (GW) background in the early Universe. We find that the critical temperature of the scale phase transition lies above that of the EW phase transition and below few O(100) GeV and it is strongly first-order. We calculate the spectrum of the GW background and find the scale phase transition is strong enough that the GW background can be observed by DECIGO.

  2. Electron microscope study of the genesis of strain-induced martensite embryos

    Staudhammer, K.P.; Hecker, S.S.; Murr, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    Previous work of Olson and Cohen and Murr, et al., is used to describe the genesis of martensite embryos which form at the intersection of microscopic shear bands in deformed type 304 stainless steel. It is shown that the intersection volume included within intersecting shear bands contains irregular and smaller dispersed volume segments forming α' martensite (bcc). These correspond to the satisfaction of specific intersections of stacking faults or partial dislocations on approximately every second (111)/sub fcc/ plane in one direction, and every third (111)/sub fcc/ plane in the other (conjugate) direction. The requisite stacking fault or partial dislocation arrangements are produced in an irregular fashion resulting in α' martensite embryos nucleating in an incomplete and irregular fashion within the intersection volume. 9 references, 2 figures

  3. Large-Scale Influences on the Genesis of Tropical Cyclone Karl (2010)

    Griffin, K.; Bosart, L. F.

    2012-12-01

    The events leading up to the genesis of Tropical Cyclone (TC) Karl (2010) provides a unique opportunity to examine the continuing problem of understanding tropical cyclogenesis. The PRE-Depression Investigation of Cloud-systems in the Tropics (PREDICT) field campaign allowed for detailed investigation of the tropical disturbance that served as the precursor to TC Karl as it progressed westward through the Caribbean Sea. The purpose of this presentation is to examine the evolution of the pre-Karl disturbance using both common synoptic-scale analyses as well as statistically-based equatorial wave analyses, focusing on where these analyses complement and enhance each other. One of the major factors in the initial spin-up of the pre-Karl tropical disturbance is a surge of southerly and westerly winds from northern South America on 8-10 September 2010. As the surge entered the Caribbean on 9 September, it aided in the formation of a nearly closed earth-relative cyclonic circulation near the southern Leeward Islands. This circulation weakened late on 10 September and remained weak through 13 September before increased organization led to TC genesis on 14 September. This southerly wind surge can be traced to a well-defined surge of anomalously cold air and enhanced southerly winds originating in the lee of the Argentinian Andes over a week prior. While the temperature anomalies wash out prior to reaching the equator, anomalous low-level winds progress into Colombia and Venezuela, where topography aids in turning the southerly winds eastward. An investigation of the pre-Karl environment utilizing wavenumber-frequency filtering techniques also suggests that the initial spin-up of pre-Karl can be associated with the active phase of a convectively coupled Kelvin wave (CCKW). The observed formation of the nearly closed cyclonic circulation on 10 September is well timed with the passage of anomalous westerly winds along and behind the convectively active phase of a CCKW. These

  4. The genesis of period-adding bursting without bursting-chaos in the Chay model

    Yang Zhuoqin; Lu Qishao; Li Li

    2006-01-01

    According to the period-adding firing patterns without chaos observed in neuronal experiments, the genesis of the period-adding 'fold/homoclinic' bursting sequence without bursting-chaos is explored by numerical simulation, fast/slow dynamics and bifurcation analysis of limit cycle in the neuronal Chay model. It is found that each periodic bursting, from period-1 to 7, is separately generated by the corresponding periodic spiking pattern through two period-doubling bifurcations, except for the period-1 bursting occurring via a Hopf bifurcation. Consequently, it can be revealed that this period-adding bursting bifurcation without chaos has a compound bifurcation structure with transitions from spiking to bursting, which is closely related to period-doubling bifurcations of periodic spiking in essence

  5. Concentrator Photovoltaics

    Luque, Antonio L

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar-energy conversion is one of the most promising technologies for generating renewable energy, and conversion of concentrated sunlight can lead to reduced cost for solar electricity. In fact, photovoltaic conversion of concentrated sunlight insures an efficient and cost-effective sustainable power resource. This book gives an overview of all components, e.g. cells, concentrators, modules and systems, for systems of concentrator photovoltaics. The authors report on significant results related to design, technology, and applications, and also cover the fundamental physics and market considerations. Specific contributions include: theory and practice of sunlight concentrators; an overview of concentrator PV activities; a description of concentrator solar cells; design and technology of modules and systems; manufacturing aspects; and a market study.

  6. Extraction of Solar Wind Nitrogen and Noble Gases From the Genesis Gold Foil Collector

    Schlutter, D. J.; Pepin, R. O.

    2005-12-01

    The Genesis gold foil is a bulk solar wind collector, integrating fluences from all three of the wind regimes. Pyrolytic extraction of small foil samples at Minnesota yielded He fluences, corrected for backscatter, in good agreement with measurements by on-board spacecraft instruments, and He/Ne elemental ratios close to those implanted in collector foils deployed on the lunar surface during the Apollo missions. Isotopic distributions of He, Ne and Ar are under study. Pyrolysis to temperatures above the gold melting point generates nitrogen blanks large enough to obscure the solar-wind nitrogen component. An alternative technique for nitrogen and noble gas extraction, by room-temperature amalgamation of the gold foil surface, will be discussed. Ne and Ar releases in preliminary tests of this technique on small foil samples were close to 100% of the amounts expected from the high-temperature pyrolysis yields, indicating that amalgamation quantitatively liberates gases from several hundred angstroms deep in the gold, beyond the implantation depth of most of the solar wind. Present work is focused on two problems currently interfering with accurate nitrogen measurements at the required picogram to sub-picogram levels: a higher than expected blank likely due to tiny air bubbles rolled into the gold sheet during fabrication, and the presence of a refractory hydrocarbon film on Genesis collector surfaces (the "brown stain") that, if left in place on the foil, shields the underlying gold from mercury attack. We have found, however, that the film is efficiently removed within tens of seconds by oxygen plasma ashing. Potential nitrogen contaminants introduced during the crash of the sample return canister are inert in amalgamation, and so are not hazards to the measurements.

  7. Genesis Solar Wind Collector Cleaning Assessment: Update on 60336 Sample Case Study

    Goreva, Y. S.; Allums, K. K.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Jurewicz, A. J.; Burnett, D. S.; Allton, J. H.; Kuhlman, K. R.; Woolum, D.

    2015-01-01

    To maximize the scientific return of Genesis Solar Wind return mission it is necessary to characterize and remove a crash-derived particle and thin film surface contamination. A small subset of Genesis mission collector fragments are being subjected to extensive study via various techniques. Here we present an update on the sample 60336, a Czochralski silicon (Si-CZ) based wafer from the bulk array (B/C). This sample has undergone multiple cleaning steps (see the table below): UPW spin wash, aggressive chemical cleanings (including aqua regia, hot xylene and RCA1), as well as optical and chemical (EDS, ToF-SIMS) imaging. Contamination appeared on the surface of 60336 after the initial 2007 UPW cleaning. Aqua regia and hot xylene treatment (8/13/2013) did little to remove contaminants. The sample was UPW cleaned for the third time and imaged (9/16/13). The UPW removed the dark stains that were visible on the sample. However, some features, like "the Flounder" (a large, 100 micron feature in Fig. 1b) appeared largely intact, resisting all previous cleaning efforts. These features were likely from mobilized adhesive, derived from the Post-It notes used to stabilize samples for transport from Utah after the hard landing. To remove this contamination, an RCA step 1 organic cleaning (RCA1) was employed. Although we are still uncertain on the nature of the Flounder and why it is resistant to UPW and aqua regia/hot xylene treatment, we have found RCA1 to be suitable for its removal. It is likely that the glue from sticky pads used during collector recovery may have been a source for resistant organic contamination [9]; however [8] shows that UPW reaction with crash-derived organic contamination does not make particle removal more difficult.

  8. Genesis of the concept "mergers and acquisitions" in the world scientific knowledge

    T. V. Reshetnikova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors examine the genesis of the concepts of "merger" and "acquisition" in terms of their essence, the need for implementation in the modern economy, the role in the restructuring of the company or business as a whole, the forms of manifestation in the market of corporate control. The authors compare the classical approaches to the examination of essential characteristics in the foreign economic literature with those available in Russian economic literature and used in Russian practice. Both foreign and Russian literature have two clearly distinguished, fundamentally different positions of scientists on the considered definition. Herewith, the first group of researchers separates the terms "merger" and "acquisition", understanding by merging such a transaction between companies in which only one of the involved parties survives, usually the initiator of the transaction. The rest of the companies leave the markets (financial and commodity. This researches consider acquisition as such a process, after which the absorbed company continues to be present in the markets as a subsidiary of the company initiating the transaction. The authors justify new challenges in the M&A market, and reveal the reasons for their appearance. The article presents the genesis of the concepts of mergers and acquisitions from the point of view of their classification by essential characteristics, and reveals common features that practically all foreign and Russian researchers in this field of knowledge identify. The article also shows the distinctive features noted by scientists that expand the possibilities for business restructuring taking into account the processes of corporate control market. The authors study the classification of mergers and acquisitions with the substantiation own position on the sufficiency/insufficiency of the criterion for classifying the studied concepts to different groups; substantiate appearance of definition "transboundary mergers and

  9. Features of lipid metabolism in chronic heart failure of different genesis with concomitant overweight and obesity

    Р. P. Bidzilya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently clinical studies demonstrated reciprocal association between traditional cardiovascular risk factors, in particular, hyperlipidemia and obesity, with worse clinical outcomes in CHF. Unlike ischemic heart disease (IHD, where high levels of atherogenic and low of antiatherogenic lipids fraction traditionally associated with worsening of prognosis and course of disease, in conditions of the CHF proven negative impact of the reduction of lipid levels and body mass index. Demonstrated the phenomena called "cholesterol paradox" and "obesity paradox". Aim. To study the features of lipid metabolism in CHF of different genesis with concomitant overweight and obesity. Materials and methods. 240 patients with I–III functional class (FC of the disease with concomitant overweight and abdominal obesity I–III degree were examined. FC of the disease was established according to the classification of New York Heart Association (NYHA.Normal, overweight and the degree of abdominal obesity was identified by calculating the body mass index. Etiologic factors of CHF were chronic forms of IHD, arterial hypertension, and/or a combination of both. With the help of biochemical blood tests lipid metabolism were assessed. Results. The maximum values as atherogenic and antiatherogenic lipid indicators are investigated in non-ischemic (hypertensive CHF. Patients with CHF of ischemic genesis are characterized by minimal values of atherogenic fractions of lipids. Patients with combined etiology of CHF occupy the intermediate position of atherogenic fractions content, while they demonstrate the minimum value in the antiatherogenic HDL-cholesterol. Conclusion. Changes of lipid metabolism are varied depending on the etiology of CHF in patients with concomitant overweight and obesity and the most unfavorable in ischemic form of the disease.

  10. Divergent responses of tropical cyclone genesis factors to strong volcanic eruptions at different latitudes

    Yan, Qing; Zhang, Zhongshi; Wang, Huijun

    2018-03-01

    To understand the behaviors of tropical cyclones (TCs), it is very important to explore how TCs respond to anthropogenic greenhouse gases and natural forcings. Volcanic eruptions are a major natural forcing mechanism because they inject sulphate aerosols into the stratosphere, which modulate the global climate by absorbing and scattering solar radiation. The number of Atlantic hurricanes is thought to be reduced following strong tropical eruptions, but whether the response of TCs varies with the locations of the volcanoes and the different ocean basins remains unknown. Here, we use the Community Earth System Model-Last Millennium Ensemble to investigate the response of the large-scale environmental factors that spawn TCs to strong volcanic eruptions at different latitudes. A composite analysis indicates that tropical and northern hemisphere volcanic eruptions lead to significantly unfavorable conditions for TC genesis over the whole Pacific basin and the North Atlantic during the 3 years post-eruption, relative to the preceding 3 years. Southern hemisphere volcanic eruptions result in obviously unfavorable conditions for TC formation over the southwestern Pacific, but more favorable conditions over the North Atlantic. The mean response over the Indian Ocean is generally muted and insignificant. It should be noted that volcanic eruptions impact on environmental conditions through both the direct effect (i.e. on radiative forcing) and the indirect effect (i.e. on El Niño-Southern Oscillation), which is not differentiated in this study. In addition, the spread of the TC genesis response is considerably large for each category of eruptions over each ocean basin, which is also seen in the observational/proxy-based records. This large spread is attributed to the differences in stratospheric aerosol distributions, initial states and eruption intensities, and makes the short-term forecast of TC activity following the next large eruption challenging.

  11. SOME CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING THE ROLE OF COSMIC ENVIRONMENT IN SOIL GENESIS AND EVOLUTION

    I. Munteanu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present day concept of soil is strongly connected to the terrestrial environment. Among the cosmic factors of soil genesis the energy (as light and heat provided by the Sun is by far the most important. The other outer space possible agents e.g. meteorites, comets, cosmic radiation and cosmic dust, are usually neglected or scarcely mentioned. The advancing of cosmic exploration spurred soil scientists to extend their interest upon the extraterrestrial regoliths of Earth-like planets (Mars, Venus and Moon. The concept of “Universal soil” in whose genesis the biotic factor and water are not mandatory, has been recently advanced. The first papers about “lunar soils” are already quoted in soil science literature; some also speak about “Martian soil” or “Venusian soil”. Although these seem to be mere regoliths quite different from the “terrestrial soil” (by absence of life and water one believes that they may give information about impact upon lithological material of severe environment of these planets. This paper tries to outline the cosmic destiny of the soil, to enlarge its meaning and to reveal the hidden connections that the soil has with some planetary and cosmic parameters. In cosmic vision the “soil” – either “lunar”, “martian”, or “terrestrial” – can be viewed as the interface of energy and matter exchange between the land masses of these celestial body and their cosmic environment. The role of the solar activity, extragalactic events, distance from the Sun, obliquity (tilt of Earth’s rotation axis and Earth’s orbit circularity are analyzed in connection with Quaternary glaciations and their influences upon the development of terrestrial soils. The influence of Moon is emphasized as being very important in shaping the zonal geography of the terrestrial soils.

  12. A triple axes multiple target holder assembly

    Tribedi, L.C.; Narvekar, S.D.; Pillay, R.G.; Tandon, P.N.

    1993-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated a rotatable target holder assembly capable of accommodating 27 targets. The target foils are mounted along two concentric circles on a ss wheel. On the outer circle 18 targets can be mounted each 20deg apart, and on the inner circle the remaining targets are positioned each 40deg apart. The self supporting or carbon backed targets are mounted on thin frames and are placed concentrically at the targets are mounted on thin frames and are placed concentrically at the target position on the wheel. Three degrees of freedom are provided to the target holder assembly. (author). 1 fig

  13. Genesis of iron-apatite ores in Posht-e-Badam Block (Central Iran) using REE geochemistry

    Mokhtari, Mir Ali Asghar; Zadeh, Ghader Hossein; Emami, Mohamad Hashem

    2013-06-01

    Rare earth elements in apatites of different ore types show characteristic patterns which are related to different modes of formation of the ores. Most of the apatite-bearing iron ores are associated with alkaline magmas with LREE/HREE fractionation varying from moderate to steep. Iron-apatite deposits in Posht-e-Badam Block (Central Iran) have a high concentration of REE (more than 1000 ppm up to 2.5%), and show a strong LREE/HREE ratio with a pronounced negative Eu anomaly. This REE pattern is typical of magmatic apatite and quiet distinct from sedimentary apatites (phosphorites) which have a low REE contents and Ce negative anomalies. On the other hand, they are comparable to the REE patterns of apatites in Kiruna-type iron ores in different parts of the world. The REE patterns of apatites, iron-apatite ores and iron ores are similar and only have different REE contents. This similarity indicates a genetic relation for these rocks. Most of the iron-apatite deposits in Central Iran have similar REE patterns too, which in turn show a genetic relation for all of these deposits. This similarity indicates a similar origin and processes in their genesis. There are some small intrusions around some of the iron-apatite deposits that are petrographically identified as syenite and gabbro. These intrusions also have REE patterns similar to that of iron-apatite ores. This demonstrates a genetic relation between these intrusions and iron-apatite ores. The REE patterns of apatites in different deposits of Posht-e-Badam Block iron-apatite ores show an affinity to alkaline to sub-alkaline magmas and rifting environment. The alkaline host rocks of Central Iran iron-apatite ores are clearly related to an extensional setting where rifting was important (SSE-NNW fault lines). A probable source for this large scale ore forming processes is relatively low partial melting of mantle rocks. The ores have originated by magmatic differentiation as a late phase in the volcanic cycle

  14. Concentrating Radioactivity

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  15. DETERMINING THE ELEMENTAL AND ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF THE PRESOLAR NEBULA FROM GENESIS DATA ANALYSIS: THE CASE OF OXYGEN.

    Laming, J Martin; Heber, V S; Burnett, D S; Guan, Y; Hervig, R; Huss, G R; Jurewicz, A J G; Koeman-Shields, E C; McKeegan, K D; Nittler, L; Reisenfeld, D B; Rieck, K D; Wang, J; Wiens, R C; Woolum, D S

    2017-12-10

    We compare element and isotopic fractionations measured in solar wind samples collected by NASA's Genesis mission with those predicted from models incorporating both the ponderomotive force in the chromosphere and conservation of the first adiabatic invariant in the low corona. Generally good agreement is found, suggesting that these factors are consistent with the process of solar wind fractionation. Based on bulk wind measurements, we also consider in more detail the isotopic and elemental abundances of O. We find mild support for an O abundance in the range 8.75 - 8.83, with a value as low as 8.69 disfavored. A stronger conclusion must await solar wind regime specific measurements from the Genesis samples.

  16. The impact of summertime north Indian Ocean SST on tropical cyclone genesis over the western North Pacific

    Zheng, Jiayu; Wu, Qiaoyan; Guo, Yipeng; Zhao, Sen

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we investigate the impact of interannual variability of boreal summertime (June-September) north Indian Ocean (NIO) sea surface temperature (SST) on the distribution of tropical cyclone (TC) genesis over the western North Pacific (WNP) using observational datasets. In the boreal summers with warm (cold) SST in the NIO, fewer (more) than normal TCs form over the entire WNP, with fewer (more) TCs forming north of 10°N and more (fewer) TCs forming south of 10°N. The warm (cold) SST in the NIO induces anomalous anticyclonic (cyclonic) vorticity north of 10°N and cyclonic (anticyclonic) vorticity south of 10°N, which contributes to the meridional seesaw-like distribution of WNP TC genesis. This study provides a new perspective to understand TC activities over the WNP and may help seasonal TC prediction.

  17. Target laboratory

    Ephraim, D.C.; Pednekar, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    A target laboratory to make stripper foils for the accelerator and various targets for use in the experiments is set up in the pelletron accelerator facility. The facilities available in the laboratory are: (1) D.C. glow discharge setup, (2) carbon arc set up, and (3) vacuum evaporation set up (resistance heating), electron beam source, rolling mill - all for target preparation. They are described. Centrifugal deposition technique is used for target preparation. (author). 3 figs

  18. Effect of X-ray contrast agents on hemostasis and its role in the genesis of adverse reactions

    Sviridov, N.K.; Napolov, Yu.K.

    2001-01-01

    Based on available data, the effect of X-ray contrast agents (XCA) on homeostasis and its role in side reactions genesis are discussed. It is shown that the contrast agent type used can essentially affect the thrombocytes. Nonionic XCA are able to increase the thrombocytes degranulation in case of coronarography and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplastics with release of procoagulants in vessel gap. This effect can to lead to acute thromboses and be the start of restenosis [ru

  19. Ice targets

    Pacheco, C.; Stark, C.; Tanaka, N.; Hodgkins, D.; Barnhart, J.; Kosty, J.

    1979-12-01

    This report presents a description of ice targets that were constructed for research work at the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) and at the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer (EPICS). Reasons for using these ice targets and the instructions for their construction are given. Results of research using ice targets will be published at a later date

  20. Design and descriptive results of the "Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study In preSchoolers": The GENESIS Study

    Manios Yannis

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS attempts to evaluate the food and nutrient intakes, as well as growth and development of a representative sample of Greek toddlers and preschool children. In the current work the study design, data collection procedures and some preliminary data of the GENESIS study are presented. Methods From April 2003 to July 2004, 1218 males and 1156 females 1 to 5 years old, stratified by parental educational level (Census 1999, were examined from 105 nurseries in five counties. Approximately 300 demographic, lifestyle, physical activity, dietary, anthropometrical and DNA variables have been recorded from the study population (children and parents. Results Regarding anthropometrical indices, boys were found to be taller than girls at all ages (P Conclusion The prevalence of overweight in the current preschool population is considerably high. Future but more extensive analyses of the GENESIS data will be able to reveal the interactions of the parameters leading to this phenomenon.

  1. GENESIS 1.1: A hybrid-parallel molecular dynamics simulator with enhanced sampling algorithms on multiple computational platforms.

    Kobayashi, Chigusa; Jung, Jaewoon; Matsunaga, Yasuhiro; Mori, Takaharu; Ando, Tadashi; Tamura, Koichi; Kamiya, Motoshi; Sugita, Yuji

    2017-09-30

    GENeralized-Ensemble SImulation System (GENESIS) is a software package for molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of biological systems. It is designed to extend limitations in system size and accessible time scale by adopting highly parallelized schemes and enhanced conformational sampling algorithms. In this new version, GENESIS 1.1, new functions and advanced algorithms have been added. The all-atom and coarse-grained potential energy functions used in AMBER and GROMACS packages now become available in addition to CHARMM energy functions. The performance of MD simulations has been greatly improved by further optimization, multiple time-step integration, and hybrid (CPU + GPU) computing. The string method and replica-exchange umbrella sampling with flexible collective variable choice are used for finding the minimum free-energy pathway and obtaining free-energy profiles for conformational changes of a macromolecule. These new features increase the usefulness and power of GENESIS for modeling and simulation in biological research. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A pre-burial adsorption model for the genesis of gold in the Witwatersrand

    Davidson, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    The chemistry related to the adsorption of gold and uranium onto algal biomass (activated carbon) is related to the genesis of the Witwatersrand. Detrital gold, together with cyanide solubilized as the stable aurocyanide complex. With the subsequent decomposition of the algal deposits, it is surmized that carbon-rich layers having adsorptive properties formed in the conglomerates. Under these conditions, gold (silver) in solution would be adsorbed selectively as the cyanide complex, together with uranium as the carbonate complex. The subsequent burial and compression of the gold-rich conglomerate with temperatures rising to about 400 degrees C would then have reduced the adsorbed gold to the metal in a single segregated gold-silver metal phase. An adsorption model would explain the very consistent trends in the gold-to-silver ratios of individual reefs in the Witwatersrand, which suggest an extensive hydrothermal system approaching isothermal equilibrium. Also, as gold grades increase, so silver grades generally decrease, indicating the sequential displacement of silver by gold as classically obtained with activated carbon. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  3. Hydrogeochemistry and Genesis Analysis of Thermal and Mineral Springs in Arxan, Northeastern China

    Xiaomin Gu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the hydrogeochemistry and environmental isotopic compositions of thermal and mineral springs in Arxan, northeastern China, were used to assess the genesis of the thermal system hosted by deep-seated faults. The reservoir temperature was calculated using the mineral saturation index and geothermometers. According to isotopic analysis, the spring water was of meteoric origin. Sixteen springs in the Arxan geothermal system with outlet temperatures ranging from 10.9 to 41.0 °C were investigated. The water samples can be classified into four groups by using a Piper diagram. The aquifer in which the Group I and Group III samples were obtained was a shallow cold aquifer of the Jurassic system, which is related to the local groundwater system and contains HCO3–Ca·Na groundwater. The Group II and Group IV samples were recharged by deeply circulating meteoric water with HCO3–Na and HCO3·SO4–Na·Ca groundwater, respectively. The springs rise from the deep basement faults. The estimated thermal reservoir temperature is 50.9–68.8 °C, and the proportion of shallow cold water ranges from 54% to 87%. A conceptual flow model based on hydrogeochemical results and hydrogeological features is given to describe the geothermal system of the Arxan springs.

  4. A numerical study of the role of the vertical structure of vorticity during tropical cyclone genesis

    Venkatesh, T N; Mathew, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    An eight-level axisymmetric model with simple parameterizations for clouds and the atmospheric boundary layer was developed to examine the evolution of vortices that are precursors to tropical cyclones. The effect of vertical distributions of vorticity, especially that arising from a merger of mid-level vortices, was studied by us to provide support for a new vortex-merger theory of tropical cyclone genesis. The basic model was validated with the analytical results available for the spin-down of axisymmetric vortices. With the inclusion of the cloud and boundary layer parameterizations, the evolution of deep vortices into hurricanes and the subsequent decay are simulated quite well. The effects of several parameters such as the initial vortex strength, radius of maximum winds, sea-surface temperature and latitude (Coriolis parameter) on the evolution were examined. A new finding is the manner in which mid-level vortices of the same strength decay and how, on simulated merger of these mid-level vortices, the resulting vortex amplifies to hurricane strength in a realistic time frame. The importance of sea-surface temperature on the evolution of full vortices was studied and explained. Also it was found that the strength of the surface vortex determines the time taken by the deep vortex to amplify to hurricane strength.

  5. Hebb and Cattell: The Genesis of the Theory of Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

    Brown, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Raymond B. Cattell is credited with the development of the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence. The genesis of this theory is, however, vague. Cattell, in different papers, stated that it was developed in 1940, 1941 or 1942. Carroll (1984, Multivariate Behavioral Research, 19, 300-306) noted the similarity of Cattell's theory to “Hebb's notion of two types of intelligence,” which was presented at the 1941 APA meeting, but the matter has been left at that. Correspondence between Cattell, Donald Hebb and George Humphrey of Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, however, indicates that Cattell adopted Hebb's ideas of intelligence A and B and renamed them. This paper describes Hebb's two types of intelligence, and shows how Cattell used them to develop his ideas of crystallized and fluid intelligence. Hebb and Cattell exchanged a number of letters before Cattell's paper was rewritten in such a way that everyone was satisfied. This paper examines the work of Hebb and Cattell on intelligence, their correspondence, the development of the ideas of fluid and crystallized intelligence, and why Cattell (1943, p. 179) wrote that “Hebb has independently stated very clearly what constitutes two thirds of the present theory.” PMID:28018191

  6. The genesis, stratigraphy and age of Finnish peat deposits. Soiden syntvy, rakenne ja ikae Suomessa

    Glueckert, G [Turun yliopisto (Finland). Maaperaegeologian osasto

    1986-01-01

    The genesis, stratigraphy and age of Finnish peat deposits are briefly described. Finnish peats are classified according to their botanical composition to Sphagnum, sedge (Carex) and wood peats. They form complex types of peat land: the ombrotrophic raised bogs in southern Finland and the minerotrophic open sedge (aapa) bogs in northern Finland. The structural bog types in the geological classification are mainly composed of Sphagnum and Carex peats. The raised bogs are predominantly built up of Sphagnum peat, the aapa bogs of Carex peat. The bogs are formed by paludification of lakes, of rising coasts or of low-lying forests. The thickness of peat varies from 3 to 8 m in southern Finland and from 1 to 3 m in northern Finland. The age of the bogs varies according to the uplift of land and the altitude of the bog gasin above sea level. The oldest bogs are 9500-10000 years old and formed in southern and eastern Finland on high-lying upland tracts just after the retreat of the ice at the end of the last glaciation. The geological and palaeontological development of bogs and the history of climate and vegetation can be studied and dated pollenanalytically and with the radiocarbon method.

  7. Factors associated with television viewing time in toddlers and preschoolers in Greece: the GENESIS study.

    Kourlaba, Georgia; Kondaki, Katerina; Liarigkovinos, Thodoris; Manios, Yannis

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this work was to describe the television (TV) viewing time of preschoolers and to examine factors that may be associated with it. A representative sample of 2374 Greek children aged 1-5 years was examined (GENESIS study). Several anthropometric, socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics were recorded. The mean value of children's TV viewing time was 1.32 h/day. Twenty six percent of participants spent > or =2 h/day in TV viewing. The percentage of children whose TV viewing time was longer than 2 h/day was higher in children aged 3-5 years (32.2%) than in those aged 1-2 years (11.1%). Multiple logistic regression revealed that the time parents spent viewing TV and the region of residence were significantly associated with child's TV viewing time among children aged 3-5 years. Among children aged 1-2 years, the maternal educational status, the region of residence and the maternal TV viewing time were found to be related to child's TV viewing time. The current findings suggest that almost one third of Greek preschoolers exceed the limit of 2 h/day TV viewing and that parental TV viewing time may be the most important determinant of children's TV viewing time.

  8. Obesity and television watching in preschoolers in Greece: the GENESIS study.

    Manios, Yannis; Kourlaba, Georgia; Kondaki, Katerina; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Anastasiadou, Anastasia; Roma-Giannikou, Eleytheria

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the current work was to evaluate the effect of preschoolers' television (TV) watching time on the prevalence of obesity even after controlling for their total energy intake and their physical activity status. A representative sample of 2,374 Greek children aged 1-5 years was examined ("Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers", GENESIS study). Children's TV watching time on a usual weekday and at a usual weekend was recorded. The overall mean of children's TV viewing time was 1.32 h/day. The majority of participants (74.0%) spent 4 h/day in front of a TV set. Overall, 65.2% of participants were normal weight, 17.2% were overweight, and the rest 17.6% were obese. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among those with TV viewing time >or=2 h/day (21.7%) compared to those watching TV characteristics and physical activity status) only among children aged 3-5 years. However, further adjusting for children's total energy intake revealed that the association between the TV viewing time and the probability of being obese was no longer statistically significant. On the other hand, physical activity status continued to be an independent factor of being obese. The current findings support the hypothesis that the effect of TV viewing time on childhood obesity is independent of physical activity status and may be attributed to the increased total energy intake during TV watching.

  9. A minimal model of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability: its genesis and predictability

    Ou, Hsien-Wang [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Palisades, NY (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Through a box model of the subpolar North Atlantic, we examine the genesis and predictability of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV), posited as a linear perturbation sustained by the stochastic atmosphere. Postulating a density-dependent thermohaline circulation (THC), the latter would strongly differentiate the thermal and saline damping, and facilitate a negative feedback between the two fields. This negative feedback preferentially suppresses the low-frequency thermal variance to render a broad multidecadal peak bounded by the thermal and saline damping time. We offer this ''differential variance suppression'' as an alternative paradigm of the AMV in place of the ''damped oscillation'' - the latter generally not allowed by the deterministic dynamics and in any event bears no relation to the thermal peak. With the validated dynamics, we then assess the AMV predictability based on the relative entropy - a difference of the forecast and climatological probability distributions, which decays through both error growth and dynamical damping. Since the stochastic forcing is mainly in the surface heat flux, the thermal noise grows rapidly and together with its climatological variance limited by the THC-aided thermal damping, they strongly curtail the thermal predictability. The latter may be prolonged if the initial thermal and saline anomalies are of the same sign, but even rare events of less than 1% chance of occurrence yield a predictable time that is well short of a decade; we contend therefore that the AMV is in effect unpredictable. (orig.)

  10. Genesis of the "Critical-Acceleration of MOND" and Its Role in "Formation of Structures"

    Tank H. K.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As an attempt to explain the “flattening of galaxies rotation-curves”, Milgrom proposed a Modification of Newtonian Dynamics MOND, in which he needed a new constant of nature a 0 , termed as “critical-acceleration-of MOND”, in his best-fit empirical formula. But so far it has been an ad-hoc introduction of a new constant. Whereas this article pro- poses: (i a genesis of this constant; (ii explains its recurrences in various physical sit- uations; and (iii its role in determining the size and radii of various structures, like: the electron, the proton, the nucleus-of-atom, the globular-clusters, the spiral-galaxies, the galactic-clusters and the whole universe. In this process we get a new interpretation of “the cosmological-red-shift”, that the linear part of the cosmological-red-shift may not be due to “metric-expansion-of-space”; and even the currently-believed “accelerated- expansion” may be slowing down with time.

  11. ‘Protodesign’: The genesis of design, or a few things that changed the world

    L Yu Bronzino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept ‘design’ that has recently become popular in everyday discourse and among social scientists has not received an unambiguous interpretation. The ambiguity of the concept is due primarily to the complexity of the interpretation of very diverse social practices, the history of which can be traced to the earliest cultural practices of the humankind. This gives the design a universal character and exceptional significance: through the prism of this concept, we can trace the evolution of human culture as a whole. Thus, the study of the concept ‘design’ in the article is based on this theoretical background and emphasizes its basic feature - projectivity genetically related to the project thinking as an essential attribute of human activity. The logic of the article corresponds to the sequence of the main historical stages of the project thinking formation marked by specific inventions. Such an approach allows us to trace the evolution of the design revealing its genesis in the connection with the key moments of the industrial development and scientific and technological revolution as well as the most important social events that contributed to the development of the modern society urban environment and predetermined its social structure.

  12. Hebb and Cattell: The Genesis of the Theory of Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence.

    Brown, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Raymond B. Cattell is credited with the development of the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence. The genesis of this theory is, however, vague. Cattell, in different papers, stated that it was developed in 1940, 1941 or 1942. Carroll (1984, Multivariate Behavioral Research, 19, 300-306) noted the similarity of Cattell's theory to "Hebb's notion of two types of intelligence," which was presented at the 1941 APA meeting, but the matter has been left at that. Correspondence between Cattell, Donald Hebb and George Humphrey of Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, however, indicates that Cattell adopted Hebb's ideas of intelligence A and B and renamed them. This paper describes Hebb's two types of intelligence, and shows how Cattell used them to develop his ideas of crystallized and fluid intelligence. Hebb and Cattell exchanged a number of letters before Cattell's paper was rewritten in such a way that everyone was satisfied. This paper examines the work of Hebb and Cattell on intelligence, their correspondence, the development of the ideas of fluid and crystallized intelligence, and why Cattell (1943, p. 179) wrote that "Hebb has independently stated very clearly what constitutes two thirds of the present theory."

  13. THE SOMEŞAN PLATEAU LAKES: GENESIS, EVOLUTION AND TERRITORIAL REPARTITION

    Victor SOROCOVSCHI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyzes the genesis of the lake depressions in the Someşan Plateau and the way they evolved in time and space, as well as the morphometric elements characteristic of the different genetic types of lakes. The natural lakes in this region are few and their dimensions are small; they generally appear solitarily and only rarely as lake complexes. In this category have been included the valley lakes, the lakes formed in abandoned meanders and the lakes formed in areas with landslides. The artificial lakes are more numerous and include several genetic types. The most representative are the remnant lakes formed in the depressions resulted from the exploitation of different construction materials (kaolin sands, lime stones and the anthropic salty lakes lakes formed in abandoned salt mines from the diapir area of the Hills of Dej. The rapid evolution of these types of lakes has been highlighted through the comparative analysis of the morphometric elements obtained on the basis of topometric and bathymetric measurements. The lakes arranged for pisciculture include several subtypes (ponds, fish ponds that have been identified and characterized for the fist time, their morphometric elements being determined using digital data bases, satellite images and detailed topometric maps.

  14. Genesis of Microstructures in Friction Stir Welding of Ti-6Al-4V

    Tchein, Gnofam Jacques; Jacquin, Dimitri; Coupard, Dominique; Lacoste, Eric; Girot Mata, Franck

    2018-03-01

    This paper is focused on the genesis of microstructures in friction stir welding (FSW) of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Several titanium joints, initially prepared with four different preheat treatments, were processed by FSW. Detailed microstructural analyses were performed in order to investigate change in the microstructure during the process. In this work, the FSW processing allows a controlled and stable microstructure to be produced in the stirring zone, regardless of the initial heat treatment or the welding conditions. The welded material undergoes a severe thermomechanical treatment which can be divided into two steps. First, the friction in the shoulder and the plastic strain give rise to the necessary conditions to allow a continuous dynamic recrystallization of the β phase. This operation produces a fine and equiaxed β grain structure. Second, once the pin has moved away, the temperature decreases, and the material undergoes a heat treatment equivalent to air quenching. The material thus exhibits a β → β + α transformation with germination of a fine intergranular Widmanstätten phase within the ex-fully-recrystallized-β grains.

  15. Vanadium-rich ruby and sapphire within Mogok Gemfield, Myanmar: implications for gem color and genesis

    Zaw, Khin; Sutherland, Lin; Yui, Tzen-Fu; Meffre, Sebastien; Thu, Kyaw

    2015-01-01

    Rubies and sapphires are of both scientific and commercial interest. These gemstones are corundum colored by transition elements within the alumina crystal lattice: Cr3+ yields red in ruby and Fe2+, Fe3+, and Ti4+ ionic interactions color sapphires. A minor ion, V3+ induces slate to purple colors and color change in some sapphires, but its role in coloring rubies remains enigmatic. Trace element and oxygen isotope composition provide genetic signatures for natural corundum and assist geographic typing. Here, we show that V can dominate chromophore contents in Mogok ruby suites. This raises implications for their color quality, enhancement treatments, geographic origin, exploration and exploitation and their comparison with rubies elsewhere. Precise LA-ICP-MS analysis of ruby and sapphire from Mogok placer and in situ deposits reveal that V can exceed 5,000 ppm, giving V/Cr, V/Fe and V/Ti ratios up to 26, 78, and 97 respectively. Such values significantly exceed those found elsewhere suggesting a localized geological control on V-rich ruby distribution. Our results demonstrate that detailed geochemical studies of ruby suites reveal that V is a potential ruby tracer, encourage comparisons of V/Cr-variation between ruby suites and widen the scope for geographic typing and genesis of ruby. This will allow more precise comparison of Asian and other ruby fields and assist confirmation of Mogok sources for rubies in historical and contemporary gems and jewelry.

  16. Vertical transfer of radionuclides in soils of different genesis after Chernobyl NPP accident

    Bakarykava, Zh.; Shagalova, E.; Zhukova, O.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a vertical transfer of radionuclides in soils of different genesis after Chernobyl NPP accident was studied. Analysis of obtained data revealed that the main content of cesium-137 is located in 0-5 cm layer of turf-podsolic, sandy-loam and loamy soil provided the lack of their humidification, and of light un-bogged (automorphous) soil as well. Cesium-137 penetration into light un-bogged soils with that sings of surplus humidification is approximately 10 cm deep. Strontium-90 as global birth so Chernobyl origin migrates more rapidly than cesium-137 because of less strong bond with soil absorbing complex. Cesium-137 migration coefficients amounted (0.03-0.46)·10 -7 cm 2 /s for a slow component, and for the fast one (0.39-0.67)·10 -7 cm 2 /s. Strontium-90 migration coefficients in the experimented sites, amounted (0.07-0.58)·10 -7 cm 2 /s for a slow component, and for the fast one (0.64-1.28)·10 -7 cm 2 /s. (authors)

  17. The Genesis of Participatory Democracy in Brazil: a Scientific (ReConstruction

    Marie-Hélène Sa Vilas Boas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The rise of participatory democracy has often been explained by the renewal of collective action in Europe and Latin America. This review essay questions the 'movement-based' genesis of Brazilian participatory democracy by analyzing the idea of the state upon which it rests. It argues that the focus on social movements falls short of explaining the spread of participatory experiments, and that it rests on a simplified understanding of the dynamics of the Brazilian State prior to the 1980s. The argument is developed along three axes. First, the essay analyses how the 'classics' of Brazilian political sociology framed the early studies on participatory democracy. Second, it shows that even if the unifying notion of the state has been challenged, progress has focussed on the study of the democratic period. Third, it presents evidence that participation, as a practical category, was an integral part of the military regime's discourse and practice. Finally, the essay defines lines of investigation to reconsider the origins of participatory democracy in Brazil.

  18. Genesis of Microstructures in Friction Stir Welding of Ti-6Al-4V

    Tchein, Gnofam Jacques; Jacquin, Dimitri; Coupard, Dominique; Lacoste, Eric; Girot Mata, Franck

    2018-06-01

    This paper is focused on the genesis of microstructures in friction stir welding (FSW) of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Several titanium joints, initially prepared with four different preheat treatments, were processed by FSW. Detailed microstructural analyses were performed in order to investigate change in the microstructure during the process. In this work, the FSW processing allows a controlled and stable microstructure to be produced in the stirring zone, regardless of the initial heat treatment or the welding conditions. The welded material undergoes a severe thermomechanical treatment which can be divided into two steps. First, the friction in the shoulder and the plastic strain give rise to the necessary conditions to allow a continuous dynamic recrystallization of the β phase. This operation produces a fine and equiaxed β grain structure. Second, once the pin has moved away, the temperature decreases, and the material undergoes a heat treatment equivalent to air quenching. The material thus exhibits a β → β + α transformation with germination of a fine intergranular Widmanstätten phase within the ex-fully-recrystallized- β grains.

  19. Building an outpatient imaging center: A case study at genesis healthcare system, part 2.

    Yanci, Jim

    2006-01-01

    In the second of 2 parts, this article will focus on process improvement projects utilizing a case study at Genesis HealthCare System located in Zanesville, OH. Operational efficiency is a key step in developing a freestanding diagnostic imaging center. The process improvement projects began with an Expert Improvement Session (EIS) on the scheduling process. An EIS session is a facilitated meeting that can last anywhere from 3 hours to 2 days. Its intention is to take a group of people involved with the problem or operational process and work to understand current failures or breakdowns in the process. Recommendations are jointly developed to overcome any current deficiencies, and a work plan is structured to create ownership over the changes. A total of 11 EIS sessions occurred over the course of this project, covering 5 sections: Scheduling/telephone call process, Pre-registration, Verification/pre-certification, MRI throughput, CT throughput. Following is a single example of a project focused on the process improvement efforts. All of the process improvement projects utilized a quasi methodology of "DMAIC" (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control).

  20. Geoprospective study of a nuclear waste repository: salt domes; Bibliographic study of their genesis

    Billaux, D.; Robelin, C.

    1985-01-01

    This report appraises, from the results of a bibliographical study, the possibility of beginning of a domal rise from the salt layer in which or above which would have been placed a repository. The physical mecanisms of salt creep are first screened, together with the factors determining their intensity and relative importance. These factors are primarily the temperature and the state of stress. Semi empirical laws are given for some mecanisms. Present knowledge about the state of the salt in the ground are then examined: we are not able to satisfactorily calculate ''in situ'' stresses, or to explain the existence of an important shear stress, that has been pointed out by most of the stress measurements. The retrospective study of the genesis of existing domes brings an insight into their correlation with sedimentary and tectonic phases. Model studies help us to interpret the distances between domes, and to explain the scale of this phenomenon. After recapitulating the various factors of some importance, we find that the probability of a dome rise from a previously static layer is low, in the time lap we are interested in (100 000 years). Such a rise would have to be triggered by important changes in the sedimentation, erosion or tectonic activity on the site

  1. Genesis of Hurricane Sandy (2012) Simulated with a Global Mesoscale Model

    Shen, Bo-Wen; DeMaria, Mark; Li, J.-L. F.; Cheung, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the formation predictability of Hurricane Sandy (2012) with a global mesoscale model. We first present five track and intensity forecasts of Sandy initialized at 00Z 22-26 October 2012, realistically producing its movement with a northwestward turn prior to its landfall. We then show that three experiments initialized at 00Z 16-18 October captured the genesis of Sandy with a lead time of up to 6 days and simulated reasonable evolution of Sandy's track and intensity in the next 2 day period of 18Z 21-23 October. Results suggest that the extended lead time of formation prediction is achieved by realistic simulations of multiscale processes, including (1) the interaction between an easterly wave and a low-level westerly wind belt (WWB) and (2) the appearance of the upper-level trough at 200 hPa to Sandy's northwest. The low-level WWB and upper-level trough are likely associated with a Madden-Julian Oscillation.

  2. Genesis and Maintenance of Attentional Biases: The Role of the Locus Coeruleus-Noradrenaline System

    Mana R. Ehlers

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotionally arousing events are typically better remembered than mundane ones, in part because emotionally relevant aspects of our environment are prioritized in attention. Such biased attentional tuning is itself the result of associative processes through which we learn affective and motivational relevance of cues. We propose that the locus coeruleus-noradrenaline (LC-NA system plays an important role in the genesis of attentional biases through associative learning processes as well as their maintenance. We further propose that individual differences in and disruptions of the LC-NA system underlie the development of maladaptive biases linked to psychopathology. We provide support for the proposed role of the LC-NA system by first reviewing work on attentional biases in development and its link to psychopathology in relation to alterations and individual differences in NA availability. We focus on pharmacological manipulations to demonstrate the effect of a disrupted system as well as the ADRA2b polymorphism as a tool to investigate naturally occurring differences in NA availability. We next review associative learning processes that—modulated by the LC-NA system—result in such implicit attentional biases. Further, we demonstrate how NA may influence aversive and appetitive conditioning linked to anxiety disorders as well as addiction and depression.

  3. Composition, characteristics and genesis of the ferromanganese crusts and nodules from the Indian and Pacific oceans

    Chen, S.; Peng, X.

    2017-12-01

    Ferromanganese crusts and nodules are considered to be one of the most important players in the geochemical cycling of the oceans. However, the lack of integrated studies affects our explicit understanding of the mineralization, characteristics and genesis of the crusts and nodules. In this study, the mineralogy, geochemistry and molecular biology in ferromanganese crusts and nodules obtained from various oceans were explored. The crusts/nodules are composed predominantly of vernadite (δ-MnO2) and amorphous Fe oxides/hydroxides. The shale normalized negative Ce-anomalies, characteristic of hydrothermal oxides, are retained in JL and TVG6. In hydrogenous oxides, the positive Ce-anomalies were found in 21V-S7 and DY119-4. The iron isotopic compositions range between -0.543 and -0.002‰ in δ56Fe IRMM14. Using molecular 16S rRNA gene techniques (clone libraries, real-time PCR) we show that nodules (JL-B and TVG6) provide a suitable habitat for prokaryotes with an abundant and diverse prokaryotic community dominated by Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria (Pseudomonas putida GB-1). These bacteria were not detected in the crust samples (21V-S7 and DY119-4). The results suggest that a biologically driven Manganese cycle inside the nodule that may be relevant to their formation.

  4. The molecular basis of the genesis of basal tone in internal anal sphincter

    Zhang, Cheng-Hai; Wang, Pei; Liu, Dong-Hai; Chen, Cai-Ping; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Xin; Chen, Chen; He, Wei-Qi; Qiao, Yan-Ning; Tao, Tao; Sun, Jie; Peng, Ya-Jing; Lu, Ping; Zheng, Kaizhi; Craige, Siobhan M.; Lifshitz, Lawrence M.; Keaney Jr, John F.; Fogarty, Kevin E.; ZhuGe, Ronghua; Zhu, Min-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Smooth muscle sphincters exhibit basal tone and control passage of contents through organs such as the gastrointestinal tract; loss of this tone leads to disorders such as faecal incontinence. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this tone remain unknown. Here, we show that deletion of myosin light-chain kinases (MLCK) in the smooth muscle cells from internal anal sphincter (IAS-SMCs) abolishes basal tone, impairing defecation. Pharmacological regulation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs), L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs) or TMEM16A Ca2+-activated Cl− channels significantly changes global cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and the tone. TMEM16A deletion in IAS-SMCs abolishes the effects of modulators for TMEM16A or VDCCs on a RyR-mediated rise in global [Ca2+]i and impairs the tone and defecation. Hence, MLCK activation in IAS-SMCs caused by a global rise in [Ca2+]i via a RyR-TMEM16A-VDCC signalling module sets the basal tone. Targeting this module may lead to new treatments for diseases like faecal incontinence. PMID:27101932

  5. Petrography, Geochemistry and Proposed Genesis of Ordovician Oolitic Iron Formation Members of the Lashkarak Formation, Eastern Alborz

    Mansoore Maghsoudloo Mahalli

    2016-07-01

    SiO2 from 11 to 37 %. Based on TFeO % content, oolitic iron formation horizons are divided into two geochemical groups: 1: Low-grade iron formations ( the Abarsej section (8 with TFeO Discussion Mineralogical characteristics combined with geochemical data show that anomalous values of Fe in studied carbonate argillite formations with respect to common sedimentary rocks are related to the abundance of iron-bearing oolites as oxides such as hematite and goethite, and the clay mineral chamosite. Based on Fe, Mg and Ca concentrations, oolitic iron formations can be divided into low-grade and high-grade iron formations. The former is characterized by chamosite and calcite, whereas the latter consists ofhematite and calcite. This research, along with available paleo-geographic and sedimentological information suggests that the iron for the formation of iron oolites was available from normal sea water and Fe could be carried as clastic particles along with clays or coating of clay particles derived from weathering and erosion of shales from adjacent land. High contents of K and Si in oolitic iron horizons, the presence of detrital zircon, quartz and clay minerals within oolites and also in the matrix of these rocks confirm the proposed model and show the important role of Fe-bearing clay minerals in the genesis of the primary chamositic oolites in an environment with pH=5-9 and medium-weak redox conditions (Maynard, 1983; Maynard, 1986. The abundance of hematite relative to goethite in the Fe-oolites, dense and elliptical oolites as well as the frequent occurrence of calcite veinlets cutting oolite beds has been attributed to diagenetic processes and the modification of chamosite and goethite to hematite. Our findings indicate that the studied members can be classified as low-grade oolitic iron formation (average 21 wt.% Fe which do not have economic importance at present. Acknowledgements This study is part of the senior author's M.Sc thesis at Golestan University, Gorgan

  6. In vivo tissue engineering: Part I. Concept genesis and guidelines for its realization.

    Zdrahala, R J; Zdrahala, I J

    1999-10-01

    A loss of function of an organ often represents a life-threatening situation. Transplantations are successful, but "replacement" availability, its compatibility with the host, and subsequent healing often pose serious questions. Tissue engineering, where a carefully prepared scaffold is populated, in vitro, by cells to form an artificial organ, addresses some of the problems mentioned above. Trauma associated with the implant introduction to the host often complicates the process. The novel concept of in vivo tissue engineering which is designed to mediate the healing and tissue regeneration process by providing an in vitro formed porous, microcellular scaffold is proposed. The scaffold (part or entire organ) is then populated by cells either spontaneously (the surrounding cells will spread and populate to inhabit the scaffold) or by cellular augmentation (encapsulated cells are delivered to this in statu nascendi scaffold). Minimally traumatic arthroscopic surgery combined with a unique polymer delivery system is envisioned for the introduction of this implant to a site to be repaired. Such an approach will require the formation of polymer in-situ, in a reasonable time. The scaffold-forming polymers will be, in principle, biodegradable. We propose to utilize biodegradable polyurethane systems for in vivo tissue engineering. Diversity of their structure/property relationships, relative "ease" of their preparation, and excellent biocompatibility predetermine polyurethanes to be the materials of choice. This paper describes the genesis of this concept and potentials for its realization. It is intended to initiate and stimulate discussion among the related scientific disciplines to form a basis for this field. The synthesis, application, and biodegradation of selected polyurethanes and variety of its medical utilization will be discussed in upcoming papers.

  7. Clinical study on role of life events in genesis of neurotic disorders and depression

    Deepanjali Medhi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to know about the role of life events in genesis of neurotic disorders and depression in four groups of patients with dissociative disorder, somatisation disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, and depression. It was conducted in the Department of Psychiatry, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati, Assam, India. Methods and materials: It was a case control study with 100 cases of neurotic disorders and depression (25 cases in each group attending indoor and outdoor, and diagnosed using research diagnostic criteria of the tenth revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10. The groups were compared with similar number of matched controls, in respect to number, scoring, and type of life events occurring within one year prior to the onset of illness using the Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale (PSLES. Variables related to socio-demographic characteristics were also seen between cases and controls. Result and conclusion: Number of life events was significantly higher in depressive and generalized anxiety groups than control group. Total life events scores were significantly higher in depressive and generalized anxiety group than control group. Undesirable events were significantly higher in all groups. Personal events were significantly higher in depressives than control. Events related to interpersonal relation were significantly higher in depressive, dissociative, and GAD groups than control. Bereavement was closely associated with depression and GAD. Events related to health, finance, and education were higher in dissociative group than control. Events related to move were found significantly higher in GAD group than control. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  8. Automated calibration of TECAN genesis liquid handling workstation utilizing an online balance and density meter.

    Xie, Iris H; Wang, Michael H; Carpenter, Richard; Wu, Henry Y

    2004-02-01

    With robotics widely used in bioanalytical assays, accurate system performance is essential to ensure the quality and productivity of the robotics. In our lab, an automated calibration procedure has been developed to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the TECAN (Research Triangle Park, NC, U.S.A.) Genesis liquid handling system in a bioanalytical laboratory setting. The calibrations were performed by transferring and weighing the solvents automatically on a microbalance controlled by a Gemini program. From the data acquired, calibration reports were generated using a template. The novel aspect of this approach is the use of an on-line balance and a density meter, both of which combine to make the calibration process simple, efficient, and precise. For quantitative bioanalysis, a variety of solvents, including methanol, water, mixed solvents, and plasma, are typically used to prepare standards and unknown samples. Density information is usually unknown for the mixed solvents, and the density of plasma can vary from species to species. However, with the use of a universal density meter, the density could be obtained in seconds. The issue of solvent evaporation during the calibration process was also addressed. Calibration curves were set up for various liquid classes. Pipetting volumes ranged from 10 microL to 900 microL. Precision and accuracy results obtained from the semiannual performance evaluations showed this procedure to be reliable and user-friendly. Using the automated calibration procedure, the calibration and performance evaluation of the robotic system is considerably more efficient, and the incidence of unacceptable precision and accuracy is greatly reduced.

  9. Israel state implementation and the genesis of conflict Israeli/arab

    Luciano Kneip Zucchi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to demonstrate mainly through historical analysis and international politics, the genesis of the conflict in the middle east between jews and arabs, is embedded within a global context and has its heart in imperialist interests and also the bipolarity emerged after world war ii world, and not in rivalry or hatred between secular people, although the ethnic/religious discourse has often succeeded mask the reality of this antagonism, originating in the twentieth century, which entered the xxi no prospect of resolution. history shows that, on the one hand, jews and arabs had some "conflicting interinsti'', especially at the dawn of islam, on the other hand, lived peacefully and productively for centuries, as the umayyad caliphate in spain and elsewhere. History shows that, on the one hand, Jews and Arabs had some "conflicting Interinsti'', especially at the dawn of Islam, on the other hand, lived peacefully and productively for centuries, as the Umayyad Caliphate in Spain and elsewhere. The proclamation of the State of Israel in 1948, although it had set up a compromise solution to the problem anti/Semitic in Europe, redound, however, and paradoxically, a new strangeness and new conflicts now between Jewish and Arab inhabitants of Palestine and throughout the Middle East. The European powers, in this context, flow into a contradiction that your in the same motion that reiterated their prejudices, transporting them to the Middle East and, worsening noticeably with the Cold War and the confrontation between the United States and Soviet Union, which will make region – rich in essential energy resources to the West – the scene of their confrontation, making worse a situation was already desperate in the extreme.

  10. Role of anxiety and depressive disorders in the genesis of psychosomatic disorders

    Aleksandr Anatolyevich Shatenshtein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients and methods. The results of clinical and psychodiagnostic examination using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI were analyzed in 210 therapeutic inpatients from 4 groups of psychosomatic diseases (coronary heart disease, hypertensive disease, duodenal ulcer disease, asthma, and bronchitis with an asthmatic component and 3 groups of diseases in whose genesis the psychosomatic mechanisms (pneumonia, gastritis, renal diseases played a lesser role. Healthy individuals (n=38 served as a control group. The correlation coefficients between the first scale reflecting the number of somatic complaints and the magnitude of their hypochondriacal fixation and the second one characterizing the degree of anxiety and depressive disorders were calculated within each disease group. Results. In psychosomatic diseases, the correlation coefficients between the first and second MMPI scales proved to be insignificant and substantially lower than those in the healthy individuals. This suggests that in such patients, a larger number of somatic complaints and their enhanced hypochondriacal fixation alleviate anxiety and depressive disorders, which may be regarded as an indication that there is psychosomatic defense that lessens anxiety due to a somatic disease. In somatic diseases that are not referring to as psychosomatic ones, the correlation coefficient between the first and second scales is highly significant and considerably higher than that in the healthy individuals and particularly higher than in the group of psychosomatic diseases. In the patients of these groups, an increase in anxiety and depression aggravates autonomic dysregulation reflecting in the larger number of hypochondriacal complaints. This direct relationship between autonomic functions and the level of anxiety and depression may be a risk factor for developing these disorders.

  11. The genesis of cerebellar GABAergic neurons: fate potential and specification mechanisms

    Ketty eLeto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The variety of neuronal phenotypes that populate the cerebellum derives from progenitors that proliferate in two germinal neuroepithelia: the ventricular zone generates GABAergic neurons, whereas the rhombic lip is the origin of glutamatergic types. Progenitors of the ventricular zone produce GABAergic projection neurons (Purkinje cells and nucleo-olivary neurons at the onset of cerebellar neurogenesis. Later on, however, these progenitors migrate into the prospective white matter, where they continue to divide up to postnatal development and generate different categories of inhibitory interneurons, according to precise spatio-temporal schedules. Projection neurons derive from discrete progenitor pools located in distinct microdomains of the ventricular zone, whereas interneurons originate from a single population of precursors, distinguished by the expression of the transcription factor Pax-2. Heterotopic/heterochronic transplantation experiments indicate that interneuron progenitors maintain full developmental potentialities up to the end of cerebellar development and acquire mature phenotypes under the influence of environmental cues present in the prospective white matter. Furthermore, the final fate choice occurs in postmitotic cells, rather than dividing progenitors. Extracerebellar cells grafted to the postnatal cerebellum are not responsive to local neurogenic cues and fail to adopt clear cerebellar identities. On the other hand, cerebellar cells grafted to extracerebellar regions retain typical phenotypes of cerebellar GABAergic interneurons, but acquire specific traits under the influence of local cues. These findings indicate that interneuron progenitors are multipotent and sensitive to spatio-temporally patterned environmental signals that regulate the genesis of different categories of interneurons, in precise quantities and at defined times and places.

  12. The genesis of the AIDS policy and AIDS Space in Brazil (1981-1989)

    de Barros, Sandra Garrido; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the genesis of the policy for controlling AIDS in Brazil. METHODS Socio-historical study (1981-1989), based on Bordieu’s genetic sociology, by document analysis, bibliographical review, and in-depth interviews. It consisted of a connection between the analysis of the paths of 33 agents involved in the creation of a social space focusing on AIDS-related issues and the historical possibility conditions of the drafting of a specific policy. RESULTS AIDS Space is a gathering point for the paths of agents from several social fields (medical, scientific, political, and bureaucratic fields). A specific space for relationships, which enabled the drafting of a policy for controlling the AIDS epidemic, but also a place where the authority to talk about the meaning of the disease, the methods to prevent and treat it was under dispute. The analysis showed how the various structures (democratic administrations in Sao Paulo and at the national level, with public health officers taking important positions) and the lack of a specific therapy contributed to social agents of different ranks and backgrounds to initially set prevention as a priority. CONCLUSIONS The rise of the sanitary movement, the organization of SUS, and the dominance of the medical field at the AIDS Space contributed to foster treatment as a part of the measures to control the epidemic. These conditions allowed drafting a policy based on the integrality of care, by linking prevention and treatment in the following decade, with important participation from state bureaucracy and researchers. PMID:27463255

  13. Genesis of textural contrasts in subsurface soil horizons in the Northern Pantanal-Brazil

    Alexandre Ferreira do Nascimento

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pantanal region can be characterized as a quaternary floodplain with predominant sedimentation in the form of alluvial fans. In the geomorphologic and sedimentary evolution, the avulsion process is inherent to this depositional system and its dynamics, together with surface water floods, influence soil sedimentation on this plain. The knowledge and differentiation of these two events can contribute to a better understanding of the variability of soil properties and distribution under the influence of these sedimentation processes. Therefore, this study investigated the genesis of soils in the Northern Pantanal with textural contrasts in deeper horizons and their relationship with the depositional system dynamics. We analyzed four soil profiles in the region of Barão de Melgaço, Mato Grosso State, Brazil (RPPN SESC Pantanal. Two profiles were sampled near the Rio Cuiabá (AP1 and AP4 and two near the Rio São Lourenço (AP10 and AP11. In AP11, the horizons contrast in particle size between the profile basis and the surface. In AP1, AP4 and AP10, the horizons overlaying the sand layer have similar particle size properties, mainly in terms of sand distribution. In the first case, floods (surface water seem to have originated the horizons and layers with contrasting texture. In the second case, avulsion is the most pronounced process. Therefore, the two modes can form soils with contrasting texture that are discriminable by soil morphology, based on the distinct features associated to the specific sedimentation processes.

  14. Genesis of mammalian prions: from non-infectious amyloid fibrils to a transmissible prion disease.

    Natallia Makarava

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The transmissible agent of prion disease consists of a prion protein in its abnormal, β-sheet rich state (PrP(Sc, which is capable of replicating itself according to the template-assisted mechanism. This mechanism postulates that the folding pattern of a newly recruited polypeptide chain accurately reproduces that of a PrP(Sc template. Here we report that authentic PrP(Sc and transmissible prion disease can be generated de novo in wild type animals by recombinant PrP (rPrP amyloid fibrils, which are structurally different from PrP(Sc and lack any detectable PrP(Sc particles. When induced by rPrP fibrils, a long silent stage that involved two serial passages preceded development of the clinical disease. Once emerged, the prion disease was characterized by unique clinical, neuropathological, and biochemical features. The long silent stage to the disease was accompanied by significant transformation in neuropathological properties and biochemical features of the proteinase K-resistant PrP material (PrPres before authentic PrP(Sc evolved. The current work illustrates that transmissible prion diseases can be induced by PrP structures different from that of authentic PrP(Sc and suggests that a new mechanism different from the classical templating exists. This new mechanism designated as "deformed templating" postulates that a change in the PrP folding pattern from the one present in rPrP fibrils to an alternative specific for PrP(Sc can occur. The current work provides important new insight into the mechanisms underlying genesis of the transmissible protein states and has numerous implications for understanding the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Elucidating the phenomenon of HESC-derived RPE: anatomy of cell genesis, expansion and retinal transplantation.

    Vugler, Anthony; Carr, Amanda-Jayne; Lawrence, Jean; Chen, Li Li; Burrell, Kelly; Wright, Andrew; Lundh, Peter; Semo, Ma'ayan; Ahmado, Ahmad; Gias, Carlos; da Cruz, Lyndon; Moore, Harry; Andrews, Peter; Walsh, James; Coffey, Peter

    2008-12-01

    Healthy Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) cells are required for proper visual function and the phenomenon of RPE derivation from Human Embryonic Stem Cells (HESC) holds great potential for the treatment of retinal diseases. However, little is known about formation, expansion and expression profile of RPE-like cells derived from HESC (HESC-RPE). By studying the genesis of pigmented foci we identified OTX1/2-positive cell types as potential HESC-RPE precursors. When pigmented foci were excised from culture, HESC-RPE expanded to form extensive monolayers, with pigmented cells at the leading edge assuming a precursor role: de-pigmenting, proliferating, expressing keratin 8 and subsequently re-differentiating. As they expanded and differentiated in vitro, HESC-RPE expressed markers of both developing and mature RPE cells which included OTX1/2, Pax6, PMEL17 and at low levels, RPE65. In vitro, without signals from a developing retinal environment, HESC-RPE could produce regular, polarised monolayers with developmentally important apical and basal features. Following transplantation of HESC-RPE into the degenerating retinal environment of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) dystrophic rats, the cells survived in the subretinal space, where they maintained low levels of RPE65 expression and remained out of the cell cycle. The HESC-RPE cells responded to the in vivo environment by downregulating Pax6, while maintaining expression of other markers. The presence of rhodopsin-positive material within grafted HESC-RPE indicates that in the future, homogenous transplants of this cell type may be capable of supporting visual function following retinal dystrophy.

  16. Phylogenetic detection of horizontal gene transfer during the step-wise genesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Turenne Christine

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past decade, the availability of complete genome sequence data has greatly facilitated comparative genomic research aimed at addressing genetic variability within species. More recently, analysis across species has become feasible, especially in genera where genome sequencing projects of multiple species have been initiated. To understand the genesis of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis within a genus where the majority of species are harmless environmental organisms, we have used genome sequence data from 16 mycobacteria to look for evidence of horizontal gene transfer (HGT associated with the emergence of pathogenesis. First, using multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA of 20 housekeeping genes across these species, we derived a phylogeny that serves as the basis for HGT assignments. Next, we performed alignment searches for the 3989 proteins of M. tuberculosis H37Rv against 15 other mycobacterial genomes, generating a matrix of 59835 comparisons, to look for genetic elements that were uniquely found in M. tuberculosis and closely-related pathogenic mycobacteria. To assign when foreign genes were likely acquired, we designed a bioinformatic program called mycoHIT (mycobacterial homologue investigation tool to analyze these data in conjunction with the MLSA-based phylogeny. Results The bioinformatic screen predicted that 137 genes had been acquired by HGT at different phylogenetic strata; these included genes coding for metabolic functions and modification of mycobacterial lipids. For the majority of these genes, corroborating evidence of HGT was obtained, such as presence of phage or plasmid, and an aberrant GC%. Conclusion M. tuberculosis emerged through vertical inheritance along with the step-wise addition of genes acquired via HGT events, a process that may more generally describe the evolution of other pathogens.

  17. The genesis of the AIDS policy and AIDS Space in Brazil (1981-1989

    Sandra Garrido de Barros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the genesis of the policy for controlling AIDS in Brazil. METHODS Socio-historical study (1981-1989, based on Bordieu’s genetic sociology, by document analysis, bibliographical review, and in-depth interviews. It consisted of a connection between the analysis of the paths of 33 agents involved in the creation of a social space focusing on AIDS-related issues and the historical possibility conditions of the drafting of a specific policy. RESULTS AIDS Space is a gathering point for the paths of agents from several social fields (medical, scientific, political, and bureaucratic fields. A specific space for relationships, which enabled the drafting of a policy for controlling the AIDS epidemic, but also a place where the authority to talk about the meaning of the disease, the methods to prevent and treat it was under dispute. The analysis showed how the various structures (democratic administrations in Sao Paulo and at the national level, with public health officers taking important positions and the lack of a specific therapy contributed to social agents of different ranks and backgrounds to initially set prevention as a priority. CONCLUSIONS The rise of the sanitary movement, the organization of SUS, and the dominance of the medical field at the AIDS Space contributed to foster treatment as a part of the measures to control the epidemic. These conditions allowed drafting a policy based on the integrality of care, by linking prevention and treatment in the following decade, with important participation from state bureaucracy and researchers.

  18. Genesis of Josephitism and functioning the opposition in “anti-Sergius” movement

    Kamila Pawełczyk-Dura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The crisis in the Russian Orthodox Church, connected with the Patriarch Tikhon’s death, initiated the deep divisions between hierarchs. Deputies of Tikhon, including dignity as a result of the nomination – which was a precedent in the canonical order of the Orthodox Church authorities – were not able to maintain the monolith community, destructed by internal divisions and persecuted by the communist state. Nomination of metropolitan of Nizhny Novogorod on the Guardian of the Patriarchal Throne and publication of The Letter (declaration of the deputy of the Guardian of the Patriarchal Throne Metropolitan Sergius (Stragorodsky of Nizhny Novgorod and the Temporary Saint Synod about the attitude of Russian Orthodox Church to the state authorities underlined differences between the faithful and the clergy. On opposite sides were followers and opponents of the Sergius’ “political line”. Activity of the last ones, manifesting in not-exchanging name of Sergius during liturgy, in moments, when words of the prayer for the superior of the local Church are being said, took the non-institutional forms of movement, definite as not-recalling. This formation, which was essentially the conglomeration of different groups of the clergy and faithful, dominated Josephites – the strongest and most active adherents of the archbishop of Leningrad Joseph (Petrovykh. Genesis those movement as a kind of symbol of opposition to the policy of servility and compromises metropolitan Sergius has been the subject of analysis of this text.

  19. Nonimaging solar concentrator with uniform irradiance

    Winston, Roland; O'Gallagher, Joseph J.; Gee, Randy C.

    2004-09-01

    We report results of a study our group has undertaken under NREL/DOE auspices to design a solar concentrator with uniform irradiance on a planar target. This attribute is especially important for photovoltaic concentrators.

  20. Antiproton Target

    1980-01-01

    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  1. Pdgfrb-Cre targets lymphatic endothelial cells of both venous and non-venous origins.

    Ulvmar, Maria H; Martinez-Corral, Ines; Stanczuk, Lukas; Mäkinen, Taija

    2016-06-01

    The Pdgfrb-Cre line has been used as a tool to specifically target pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. Recent studies showed additional targeting of cardiac and mesenteric lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) by the Pdgfrb-Cre transgene. In the heart, this was suggested to provide evidence for a previously unknown nonvenous source of LECs originating from yolk sac (YS) hemogenic endothelium (HemEC). Here we show that Pdgfrb-Cre does not, however, target YS HemEC or YS-derived erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs). Instead, a high proportion of ECs in embryonic blood vessels of multiple organs, as well as venous-derived LECs were targeted. Assessment of temporal Cre activity using the R26-mTmG double reporter suggested recent occurrence of Pdgfrb-Cre recombination in both blood and lymphatic ECs. It thus cannot be excluded that Pdgfrb-Cre mediated targeting of LECs is due to de novo expression of the Pdgfrb-Cre transgene or their previously established venous endothelial origin. Importantly, Pdgfrb-Cre targeting of LECs does not provide evidence for YS HemEC origin of the lymphatic vasculature. Our results highlight the need for careful interpretation of lineage tracing using constitutive Cre lines that cannot discriminate active from historical expression. The early vascular targeting by the Pdgfrb-Cre also warrants consideration for its use in studies of mural cells. genesis 54:350-358, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Genesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Genesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Role of upper ocean parameters in the genesis, intensification and tracks of cyclones over the Bay of Bengal

    Maneesha, K.; Sadhuram, Y.; Prasad, K.V.S.R.

    of high heat potential (>90 kj/cm2) in the western Gulf of Mexico (Goni et al. 2003, 2009; Shay et al. 2000). Further, Hurricanes Igor (tropical Atlantic) and Celia (Eastern North Pacific), Typhoon Megi (Western North Pacific) and Cyclone Phet (Arabian Sea... 2009/10 in the Gulf of Mexico and the southwestern Pacific Ocean, while there was an increase in the western Pacific Ocean, Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. All the above studies emphasize the importance of the UOHC in the genesis and intensification...

  3. Dynamical peculiarities of nucleo-genesis of light nuclei on the early stage of the Universe development

    Takibaev, N.Zh.; Spanova, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    The item of the L group chemical elements nuclei generation on the early stage of the Universe development has been studied. At this stage the thermodynamical equilibrium inside of nucleus, the electromagnetic and the neutrino component are passing at adiabatic matter expand condition. Description of hot hadron substance and light nuclei nucleo-genesis process are considered in the conditions of matter thermodynamical equilibrium. The approach of thermodynamical potential and state equation were used for analysis. The reactions balance in subsystems, including isotope group and neutron medium (for example, reactions in the hydrogen group) is studied. The assessments for disintegration channel influence are given

  4. ToF-SIMS Investigation of the Effectiveness of Acid-Cleaning procedures for Genesis Solar Wind Collectors

    Goreva, Y. S.; Humanyun, M.; Burnett, D. S.; Jurewicz, A. J.; Gonzalez, C. P.

    2014-01-01

    ToF-SIMS images of Genesis sample surfaces contain an incredible amount of important information, but they also show that the crash-derived surface contamination has many components, presenting a challenge to cleaning. Within the variability, we have shown that there are some samples which appear to be clean to begin with, e.g. 60471, and some are more contaminated. Samples 60493 and 60500 are a part of a focused study of the effectiveness of aqua regia and/or sulfuric acid cleaning of small flight Si implanted with Li-6 using ToF-SIMS.

  5. Time path of marginal cost for measures against global warming toward the greenhouse gas concentration target. Analytic solution and case study of the electric power sector; Onshitsu koka gas nodo mokuhyoka deno ondanka taisaku genkai hiyo no jikan keiro. Kaisekikai to denryoku bumon no case study

    Nagano, K.; Sugiyama, H.; Takahashi, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-30

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is studied from the viewpoint of implementing costs. As far as the global warming issue is concerned, the factor to affect the environment is not the emitted volume but the concentration in the air. The ultimate target is the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentration at a level not to impose serious artificial damage on the ecosystem. Accordingly, various time paths are considered, including one in which much emission is allowed at the beginning and suppression is enforced acceleratedly in the later stage. In this study, a path demanding but the minimal cost in the period up to the target time point is discussed, using as the tool the marginal cost for measure implementation. In a reasonable emission control strategy, the emission control marginal cost follows a time path that is dependent upon an increase function to be determined by the discount rate and survival rate (time constant) in the atmosphere. In the industrial branch, instead of imposing short-term and rigid emission volume control limits, a longer-term target may be set for reduction in the loads responsible for concentration acceleration, concrete emission controls under the given conditions may be implemented at the discretion of the implementing organizations, and reduction in cost may be realized by time distribution with the environmental impacts kept at approximately equal levels. 5 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Interannual variability of the South Pacific Convergence Zone and implications for tropical cyclone genesis

    Vincent, Emmanuel M. [IRD/UPMC/CNRS/MNHN, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat: Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Paris (France); UPMC, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Lengaigne, Matthieu [IRD/UPMC/CNRS/MNHN, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat: Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Paris (France); National Institute of Oceanography, Goa (India); Menkes, Christophe E. [IRD/UPMC/CNRS/MNHN, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat: Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Paris (France); Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, Noumea (New Caledonia); Jourdain, Nicolas C. [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, Noumea (New Caledonia); Marchesiello, Patrick [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, Noumea (New Caledonia); CNES/CNRS/UPS/IRD, Laboratoire d' Etudes en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiale (LEGOS), Toulouse (France); Madec, Gurvan [IRD/UPMC/CNRS/MNHN, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat: Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Paris (France); National Oceanographic Centre, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    The interannual variability of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) and its influence on tropical cyclone (TC) genesis in the South Pacific are investigated using observations and ERA40 reanalysis over the 1979-2002 period. In austral summer, the SPCZ displays four typical structures at interannual timescales. The first three are characterized by a diagonal orientation of the SPCZ and account for 85% of the summer seasons. One is close to climatology and the other two exhibit a 3 northward or southward departure from the SPCZ climatological position. In contrast, the fourth one, that only encompasses three austral summer seasons (the extreme 1982/1983 and 1997/1998 El Nino events and the moderate 1991/1992 El Nino event), displays very peculiar behaviour where the SPCZ largely departs from its climatological position and is zonally oriented. Variability of the western/central Pacific equatorial sea surface temperature (SST) is shown to modulate moisture transport south of the equator, thereby strongly constraining the location of the SPCZ. The SPCZ location is also shown to strongly modulate the atmospheric circulation variability in the South Pacific with specific patterns for each class. However, independently of its wide year-to-year excursions, the SPCZ is always collocated with the zero relative vorticity at low levels while the maximum vorticity axis lies 6 to the south of the SPCZ position. This coherent atmospheric organisation in the SPCZ region is shown to constrain tropical cyclogenesis to occur preferentially within 10 south of the SPCZ location as this region combines all the large-scale atmospheric conditions that favour the breeding of TCs. This analysis also reveals that cyclogenesis in the central Pacific (in the vicinity of French Polynesia) only occurs when the SPCZ displays a zonal orientation while this observation was previously attributed to El Nino years in general. Different characteristics of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO

  7. The giant Bayan Obo REE-Nb-Fe deposit, China: Controversy and ore genesis

    Hong-Rui Fan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bayan Obo ore deposit is the largest rare-earth element (REE resource, and the second largest niobium (Nb resource in the world. Due to the complicated element/mineral compositions and involving several geological events, the REE enrichment mechanism and genesis of this giant deposit still remains intense debated. The deposit is hosted in the massive dolomite, and nearly one hundred carbonatite dykes occur in the vicinity of the deposit. The carbonatite dykes can be divided into three types from early to late: dolomite, co-existing dolomite-calcite and calcite type, corresponding to different evolutionary stages of carbonatite magmatism based on the REE and trace element data. The latter always has higher REE content. The origin of the ore-hosting dolomite at Bayan Obo has been addressed in various models, ranging from a normal sedimentary carbonate rocks to volcano-sedimentary sequence, and a large carbonatitic intrusion. More geochemical evidences show that the coarse-grained dolomite represents a Mesoproterozoic carbonatite pluton and the fine-grained dolomite resulted from the extensive REE mineralization and modification of the coarse-grained variety. The ore bodies, distributed along an E–W striking belt, occur as large lenses and underwent more intense fluoritization and fenitization. The first episode mineralization is characterized by disseminated mineralization in the dolomite. The second or main-episode is banded and/or massive mineralization, cut by the third episode consisting of aegirine-rich veins. Various dating methods gave different mineralization ages at Bayan Obo, resulting in long and hot debates. Compilation of available data suggests that the mineralization is rather variable with two peaks at ∼1400 and 440 Ma. The early mineralization peak closes in time to the intrusion of the carbonatite dykes. A significant thermal event at ca. 440 Ma resulted in the formation of late-stage veins with coarse crystals of REE

  8. WATER RESOURCES IN THE ROMANIAN CARPATHIANS – GENESIS, TERRITORIAL DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT

    P. GÂȘTESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Water resources in Romanian Carpathians-genesis, territorial distribution, management. Discussing water resources in Romania implies a twofold approach: water as a sine qua non of life itself and water as an important factor for the development of the contemporary society. Lying in a temperate zone, Romania’s water resources are rather modest compared with other countries in Europe. Inland rivers span 78,905 km (referred only to the 4,864 codified watercourses at an average density: 0.38 km/km2 and an annual volume: 40.6 billion m3, which means 1,765 m3/capita. To knowledge ground waters are put at 9.62 billion m3/year, of which 6 billion can be used in optimal technological and economic conditions. According to a recent UN statistical report, Romania lists at position 21 among the 34 European. Natural lakes are replenished from precipitation and springs water every year and the reserves are estimated at around 1 billion m3/year and are of local importance for water management schemes. The Black Sea (in the Romanian sector could become a major source if sea water desalting could be economical.The water resources of the drainage network were calculated on the basis of the mean liquid flow map (scale 1: 500,000 releves picture of river-water resources in the major relief units: the Carpathian, which occupies only 27.9% of the Romanian territory, 65.3% (26.48 billion mc from a total of 40.61 billion m3 of the water is formed and regenerated every year; the hill unit, which includes the Subcarpathians, the tablelands and the piedmont hills, and occupies 42.4% of Romania’s territory, only 28.0% of the water volume is formed (11.38 billion m3, of which 8.7% (3.51 billion m3 in the Subcarpathians and 19.4% (7.87 billion m3 in the other two units; the plain unit, which covers 29.7% of the country’s territory, the water volume formed there is small (6.7%

  9. Studies on the Roles of PDGFRA and EGFR in the Classification and Identification of Therapeutic Targets for Human Gliomas

    Chen, Dongfeng

    2013-01-01

    Glioma is the most common type of primary tumor in the adult central nervous system (CNS). However, the current classification of gliomas is highly subjective and even inaccurate in some cases, which leads to clinical confusion and hinders the development of targeted therapies. EGFR and PDGFRA play crucial roles in glia development and glioma pathogenesis. In this thesis we aim to establish a glial genesis-guided molecular classification scheme for gliomas based on the genes co-expressed with...

  10. Repliek op Van der Watt se artikel oor ‘Intertekstualiteit en oorinterpretasie: Verwysings na Genesis 28:12 in Johannes 1:51?’

    Hennie F. Stander

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A response to Van der Watt’s article on ‘Intertextuality and over-interpretation: References to Genesis 28:12 in John 1:51?’ This article is a response to an article of Van der Watt titled ‘Intertextuality and over-interpretation: References to Genesis 28:12 in John 1:51?’ (2016. He states in this article that his aim is ‘to illustrate the dangers of over-interpretation when dealing with intertextual relations between texts, especially when allusion is assumed’. He then gives a brief survey of different interpretations of John 1:51. Van der Watt shows in his article how theologians use themes from Genesis 28:12 (like the ladder, Jacob or Bethel, which are not mentioned in John 1:51 in their expositions of John 1:51. Van der Watt regards some of these expositions as examples of over-interpretation. The aim of my article is to show how Church Fathers interpreted Genesis 28:12 and John 1:51. I show in my article that the Church Fathers saw several parallels between these two sections from the Bible. Furthermore, I suggest that the early theologians’ interpretations formed a tradition that probably influenced modern interpreters of the Bible. I also discuss the role of typology in the history of interpretation, specifically also in the case of Genesis 28:12 and John 1:51. I then argue that it is perhaps not so far-fetched to see an intertextual relation between Genesis 28:12 and John 1:51.

  11. The added value of biomarker analysis to the genesis of Plaggic Anthrosols.

    van Mourik, Jan; Jansen, Boris

    2015-04-01

    Coversands (chemical poor Late-glacial aeolian sand deposits) dominate the surface geology of an extensive area in northwestern Europe. Plaggic Anthrosols occur in cultural landscapes, developed on coversands. They are the characteristic soils that developed on ancient fertilized arable fields. Plaggic Anthrosols have a complex genesis. They are records of aspects environmental and agricultural history. In previous studies information of the soil records was unlocked by application of pollen analysis, 14C and OSL dating. In this study we applied biomarker analysis to unlock additional information about the applied organic sources in the production of plaggic manure. Radiocarbon dating suggested the start of sedentary agriculture (after a period, characterized by shifting cultivation and Celtic fields) between 3000 and 2000 BP. In previous studies is assumed that farmers applied organic sods, dug on forest soils and heath to produce organic stable manure to fertilize the fields. The mineral fraction of the sods was supposed to be responsible for the development of the plaggic horizon and the raise of the land surface. Optically stimulated Luminescence dating however suggested that plaggic deposition on the fields started relatively late, in the 18th century. The use of ectorganic matter from the forest soils must have been ended in the 10th-12th century, due to commercial forest clear cuttings as recorded in archived documents. These deforestations resulted in the first extension of sand drifting and famers had to protect the valuable heath against this ' environmental catastrophe' . The use of heath for sheep grazing and other purposes as honey production could continue till the 18th century, as recorded in archived documents. In the course of the 18th century, the population growth resulted in increasing demand for food. The deep stable economy was introduced and the booming demand for manure resulted in intensive sod digging on the heath. This caused heath

  12. Diagenesis of amorphous organic matter as an essential aspect of genesis and alteration of tabular-type uranium-vanadium deposits, Colorado Plateau

    Spirakis, C.S.; Hansley, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    Organic matter was the key to the initial concentration of uranium and vanadium (during the sulfate reduction stage of early diagenesis) in all sandstone-hosted, tabular deposits in the Morrison Formation, Colorado Plateau. In deposits rich in amorphous organic matter, as are many in the Grants uranium region (GUR), diagenesis did not proceed beyond sulfate reduction. In contrast, in organic-poor, chlorite deposits of the Henry Mountains district, 13 C- and 18 O-enriched dolomites preserve evidence of a subsequent methanogenic stage. In these and similar organic-poor deposits in the Slick Rock district and in parts of the GUR, aluminosilicate dissolution (including a distinctive, organic-acid-induced etching of garnets) and growth of coarse-grained coffinite, albite, ankerite, and chlorite suggest diagenesis reached the organic acid stage. Temperature and thermal maturation indicators (vitrinite reflectance, type IIb chlorite, ordered illite/smectite, and fluid inclusion data) are consistent with temperatures of organic-acid stage diagenesis (∼ 100 0 C). The localization of these alterations in and around organic-poor, clay-rich ore; the similarities in type and sequence of these alterations to the normal alteration of organic-bearing sediments; the alteration of iron-titanium oxides (attributed to the action of soluble organic complexes) around both organic-rich and organic-poor deposits; and the gradation from organic-rich to organic-poor, chlorite-rich deposits (in GUR) suggest that (1) amorphous organic matter was involved in the genesis of all of these deposits and (2) differences among deposits may reflect varying degrees of diagenesis of the organic matter

  13. Organizational and technological genesis as a tool for strategic planning of large-scale real estate development projects

    Gusakova Elena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual planning and implementation of large-scale real estate development projects is one of the most difficult tasks in the organization of construction. In the Russian practice, a large experience of development, complex reorganization and redevelopment of large development areas is accumulated. The methodological basis for solving similar problems is the organizational and technological genesis, which considers the development of the project during the full life cycle. An analysis of this experience allows us to talk about the formation of new and effective approaches and methods within the organizational and technological genesis. Among them, the most significant and universal approaches should be highlighted: The concept of real estate development, which explains the reasons and objective needs for project transformations during its life cycle, as well as to increase the adaptive capabilities of design decisions and the project's suitability for the most likely future changes; Development project of joint action, which is based on the balance of interests of project participants; Master planning of the life cycle stages of the project and subprojects, based on the rethinking of the theory and methods of the construction organization, and allowing rationally localized construction sites and related subprojects, while retaining the remaining development and development area beyond of the negative effect of construction for comfortable living and work.

  14. Influence of Different Patellofemoral Design Variations Based on Genesis II Total Knee Endoprosthesis on Patellofemoral Pressure and Kinematics.

    Leichtle, Ulf G; Lange, Barbara; Herzog, Yvonne; Schnauffer, Peter; Leichtle, Carmen I; Wülker, Nikolaus; Lorenz, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    In total knee arthroplasty (TKA), patellofemoral groove design varies greatly and likely has a distinct influence on patellofemoral biomechanics. To analyse the selective influence, five patellofemoral design variations were developed based on Genesis II total knee endoprosthesis (original design, being completely flat, being laterally elevated, being medially elevated, and both sides elevated) and made from polyamide using rapid prototyping. Muscle-loaded knee flexion was simulated on 10 human knee specimens using a custom-made knee simulator, measuring the patellofemoral pressure distribution and tibiofemoral and patellofemoral kinematics. The measurements were carried out in the native knee as well as after TKA with the 5 design prototypes. The overall influence of the different designs on the patellofemoral kinematics was small, but we found detectable effects for mediolateral tilt ( p patellofemoral pressures, major interindividual differences were seen between the designs, which, on average, largely cancelled each other out. These results suggest that the elevation of the lateral margin of the patellofemoral groove is essential for providing mediolateral guidance, but smooth contouring as with original Genesis II design seems to be sufficient. The pronounced interindividual differences identify a need for more patellofemoral design options in TKA.

  15. Golden Genesis and the Teotonio Vilela Foundation: commercializing PV residential electrification with a not-for-profit partner

    D' Addario, P.J. [International Fund for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency, New York, NY (United States)

    2000-11-01

    This article presents a case study of a project which provides photovoltaic-based rural electrification in the state of Alagoas in northeastern Brazil. The project, the Luz do Sol Programme (LdS), was initiated in mid-1996 by the Golden Genesis Company (Golden) and the Fundacao Teotonio Vilela (FTV). The article emphasizes some noteworthy characteristics of the project: the partnership between US commercial and Brazilian philanthropic interests; the financial aspect, a dedicated line of credit requiring only the equipment itself as security; and the local ownership and management of system operations, collections, and routine maintenance. In 1996, the Golden Genesis Company had developed a central battery charging system to bring the price of electrification within the range of the rural poor; it financed the US content of the systems, with the Bank of the Northeast of Brazil (BN) financing the Brazilian content. The article traces the long and arduous path to establish the programme, including both bureaucratic and technical challenges. These difficulties brought the project to an impasse in August of 1998, and Golden withdrew. FTV then re-negotiated the agreement with BN, changing the technical approach to individual solar home systems. This improved the situation, and the project has since enjoyed 100% loan repayment rates from the entrepreneurs. In June 1999, BP/Solarex became FTV's new commercial partner. The project currently shows promise of becoming the commercially viable programme originally envisaged by Golden, with commercial and technical decision-making at the local level. (author)

  16. Targeted Learning

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  17. Target preparation

    Hinn, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    A few of the more interesting of the 210 targets prepared in the Laboratory last year are listed. In addition the author continues to use powdered silver mixed with /sup 9,10/BeO to produce sources for accelerator radio dating of Alaskan and South Polar snow. Currently, he is trying to increase production by multiple sample processing. Also the author routinely makes 3 μg/cm 2 cracked slacked carbon stripper foils and is continuing research with some degree of success in making enriched 28 Si targets starting with the oxide

  18. Magnetic biosensor system to detect biological targets

    Li, Fuquan; Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2012-01-01

    magnetic concentration, magnetic as well as mechanical trapping and magnetic sensing. Target detection is based on the size difference between bare magnetic beads and magnetic beads with targets attached. This method remedies the need for a coating layer

  19. Evaluation of clinical efficacy of a combined analgetic drug "Fanigan" for symptomatic treatment of patients with pain syndrome of various genesis

    Mamchur V.Y.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied the efficacy of combined drug Fanigan (paracetamol 500 mg and diclofenac sodium 50 mg (production of "Kusum Pharm" (Ukraine or "Kusum Heltker PVT. LTD" (India in tablets for symptomatic treatment of patients with pain syndrome. A pronounced clinical efficiency of its application in patients with pain syndrome of various genesis in a daily dose from 2 to 3 tablets for 3 to 7 days was established. The obtained data on the clinical efficacy of the drug. Fanigan in the treatment of patients with pain syndrome of various genesis allow to recommend it for application in wide clinical practice.

  20. Magma genesis, storage and eruption processes at Aluto volcano, Ethiopia: lessons from remote sensing, gas emissions and geochemistry

    Hutchison, William; Biggs, Juliet; Mather, Tamsin; Pyle, David; Gleeson, Matthew; Lewi, Elias; Yirgu, Gezahgen; Caliro, Stefano; Chiodini, Giovanni; Fischer, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    One of the most intriguing aspects of magmatism during the transition from continental rifting to sea-floor spreading is that large silicic magmatic systems develop within the rift zone. In the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) these silicic volcanoes not only pose a significant hazard to local populations but they also sustain major geothermal resources. Understanding the journey magma takes from source to surface beneath these volcanoes is vital for determining its eruption style and for better evaluating the geothermal resources that these complexes host. We investigate Aluto, a restless silicic volcano in the MER, and combine a wide range of geochemical and geophysical techniques to constrain magma genesis, storage and eruption processes and shed light on magmatic-hydrothermal-tectonic interactions. Magma genesis and storage processes at Aluto were evaluated using new whole-rock geochemical data from recent eruptive products. Geochemical modelling confirms that Aluto's peralkaline rhyolites, that constitute the bulk of recent erupted products, are generated from protracted fractionation (>80 %) of basalt that is compositionally similar to rift-related basalts found on the margins of the complex. Crustal melting did not play a significant role in rhyolite genesis and melt storage depths of ~5 km can reproduce almost all aspects of their geochemistry. InSAR methods were then used to investigate magma storage and fluid movement at Aluto during an episode of ground deformation that took place between 2008 and 2010. Combining new SAR imagery from different viewing geometries we identified an accelerating uplift pulse and found that source models support depths of magmatic and/or fluid intrusion at ~5 km for the uplift and shallower depths of ~4 km for the subsidence. Finally, gas samples collected on Aluto in 2014 were used to evaluate magma and fluid transport processes. Our results show that gases are predominantly emanating from major fault zones on Aluto and that they

  1. BASIC LAWS OF DISTRIBUTION AND GENESIS OF PSAMMOPHILOUS COLEOPTERA OF PONTO-CASPIAN REGION IN THE CASE OF TENEBRIONIDAE AND SCARABAEOIDEA (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA

    M. V. Nabozhenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deal with migration ways of psammophilous Tenebrionidae and Scarabaeoidea of Ponto-Caspian region since the Pliocene. Reconstruction of genesis of the fauna is made after analyses of contemporary distribution. Zoogeographical analyses of fauna showed the share of species with different distribution in 3 zoogeographical big regions and bassins of Caspian sea, Sea of Azov and Black sea.

  2. BASIC LAWS OF DISTRIBUTION AND GENESIS OF PSAMMOPHILOUS COLEOPTERA OF PONTO-CASPIAN REGION IN THE CASE OF TENEBRIONIDAE AND SCARABAEOIDEA (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA)

    M. V. Nabozhenko; I. V. Shokhin; G. M. Abdurahmanov; A. M. Klicheva; A. V. Morakhonich; D. I. Oleinik

    2012-01-01

    The paper deal with migration ways of psammophilous Tenebrionidae and Scarabaeoidea of Ponto-Caspian region since the Pliocene. Reconstruction of genesis of the fauna is made after analyses of contemporary distribution. Zoogeographical analyses of fauna showed the share of species with different distribution in 3 zoogeographical big regions and bassins of Caspian sea, Sea of Azov and Black sea.

  3. Response of the Karst Phreatic Zone to Flood Events in a Major River (Bohemian Karst, Czech Republic) and its Implication for Cave Genesis

    Vysoká, H.; Bruthans, J.; Žák, Karel; Mls, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 1 (2012), s. 65-81 ISSN 1090-6924 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/10/1760 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : karst * cave genesis * Bohemian Karst Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.474, year: 2012

  4. Genesis of Karl Popper's EPR-like experiment and its resonance amongst the physics community in the 1980s

    Del Santo, Flavio

    2018-05-01

    I present the reconstruction of the involvement of Karl Popper in the community of physicists concerned with foundations of quantum mechanics, in the 1980s. At that time Popper gave active contribution to the research in physics, of which the most significant is a new version of the EPR thought experiment, alleged to test different interpretations of quantum mechanics. The genesis of such an experiment is reconstructed in detail, and an unpublished letter by Popper is reproduced in the present paper to show that he formulated his thought experiment already two years before its first publication in 1982. The debate stimulated by the proposed experiment as well as Popper's role in the physics community throughout 1980s is here analysed in detail by means of personal correspondence and publications.

  5. Impact of global warming on tropical cyclone genesis in coupled and forced simulations: role of SST spatial anomalies

    Royer, Jean-François; Chauvin, Fabrice; Daloz, Anne-Sophie

    2010-05-01

    The response of tropical cyclones (TC) activity to global warming has not yet reached a clear consensus in the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) or in the recent scientific literature. Observed series are neither long nor reliable enough for a statistically significant detection and attribution of past TC trends, and coupled climate models give widely divergent results for the future evolution of TC activity in the different ocean basins. The potential importance of the spatial structure of the future SST warming has been pointed out by Chauvin et al. (2006) in simulations performed at CNRM with the ARPEGE-Climat GCM. The current presentation describes a new set of simulations that have been performed with the ARPEGE-Climat model to try to understand the possible role of SST patterns in the TC cyclogenesis response in 15 CMIP3 coupled simulations analysed by Royer et al (2009). The new simulations have been performed with the atmospheric component of the ARPEGE-Climat GCM forced in 10 year simulations by the SST patterns from each of 15 CMIP3 simulations with different climate model at the end of the 21st century according to scenario A2. The TC analysis is based on the computation of a Convective Yearly Genesis Parameter (CYGP) and the Genesis Potential Index (GPI). The computed genesis indices for each of the ARPEGE-Climat forced simulations is compared with the indices computed directly from the initial coupled simulation. The influence of SST patterns can then be more easily assessed since all the ARPEGE-Climat simulations are performed with the same atmospheric model, whereas the original simulations used models with different parameterization and resolutions. The analysis shows that CYGP or GPI anomalies obtained with ARPEGE are as variable between each other as those obtained originally by the different IPCC models. The variety of SST patterns used to force ARPEGE explains a large part of

  6. [The impact of germ theory in the genesis of cancer. Consequences for surgical treatment in the victorian era].

    Pereira Poza, A

    1998-01-01

    We use texts by preeminent figures in Victorian surgery at the end of the nineteenth century and information about their role in disseminating the germ theory to analyse the impact of this new etiologic element in the genesis of cancer. We trace the career of William Watson Cheyne (1852-1932), a disciple of Lister, and of many other surgeons of his generation, to outline the changes in the approach to treatment for cancer, the theoretical basis for these changes, and the role of a new conceptualization of cancer in the light of the microbial theory. This theory, among many other better-known factors, helped establish the foundation for radical surgery which became widespread in oncological treatment during the final decade of the nineteenth century.

  7. Just emotions: Reading the Sarah and Hagar narrative (Genesis 16, 21 through the lens of human dignity

    Juliana Claassens

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article seeked to read the interconnected narratives of Sarah and Hagar (Genesis 16, 21 in terms of the hermeneutical lens of human dignity. For the purpose of this article, recent studies on the performative nature of emotions, which considered the central role of emotions such as pain, disgust and hatred in shaping the lives of individuals as well as the ways in which people relate to one another, were helpful in contemplating the situations of dehumanisation faced by both Sarah and Hagar as well as the broader question regarding upholding human worth in a context of indignity. This article furthermore considered the role of emotions in a conversation on ethics and particularly the way in which the narrative offered a fruitful avenue for considering Israel�s relationship to their neighbours � a line of interpretation that holds potential for reflecting on complex interracial and interethnic relationships in today�s global context.

  8. Genesis and identity of «ACN de JP»’s foundational group (1904-1909

    Pablo Sánchez Garrido

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to study the genesis of the historical «Asociación Católico-Nacional de Jóvenes Propagandistas» (later, «ACN de P» from its previous gestation and preparation in the congregation of «Luises» in Madrid, between 1904 and 1909. So the article focuses on its action throughout the organ of expression –Hojas Sueltas– and others public meetings. Likewise, this essay has brought to light the identity of all the members of the foundational group of the ACN de JP, because the complete names and biographic notes of these cofounder members was unknown. Finally, the text points out some considerations about the ideological identity of the group.

  9. On the genesis of spike-wave oscillations in a mean-field model of human thalamic and corticothalamic dynamics

    Rodrigues, Serafim; Terry, John R.; Breakspear, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter, the genesis of spike-wave activity-a hallmark of many generalized epileptic seizures-is investigated in a reduced mean-field model of human neural activity. Drawing upon brain modelling and dynamical systems theory, we demonstrate that the thalamic circuitry of the system is crucial for the generation of these abnormal rhythms, observing that the combination of inhibition from reticular nuclei and excitation from the cortical signal, interplay to generate the spike-wave oscillation. The mechanism revealed provides an explanation of why approaches based on linear stability and Heaviside approximations to the activation function have failed to explain the phenomena of spike-wave behaviour in mean-field models. A mathematical understanding of this transition is a crucial step towards relating spiking network models and mean-field approaches to human brain modelling

  10. ["Directed perception", "mood", "social reinforcement". Sketches towards the historical semantics of Ludwik Fleck's Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact].

    Bauer, Julian

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses three basic concepts of Ludwik Fleck's Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact. It shows first that Fleck's notion of "directed perception" is closely linked to Jakob von Uexküll's writings on the "Umwelt" of animals and humans. The article then proposes to regard the epistemological debates surrounding parapsychology as an important testing ground for the Fleckian concept of „mood“ and his concomitant hypotheses about „the tenacity of systems of opinion and the harmony of illusions". It finally argues that Fleck's modification of Wilhelm Jerusalem's idea of the "social consolidation" of knowledge helps us to understand the indebtedness of Fleck towards early functionalist sociology as well as his strong belief in "specific historical laws governing the development of ideas"The historical semantics of Fleck's works hence proves that his insights are neither marginal nor revolutionary but rather deeply rooted within scientific traditions from the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

  11. GENESIS OF KHARKOV MUSIC CULTURE IN THE HIGHLIGHT OF THE CITY’S EDUCATION AND CONCERT LIFE FORMATION

    Olena Kononova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the genesis of Kharkov musical culture from the late 18th to the first half of the 19th century, studying it in terms of two aspects, the formation of education and the emergence of the city’s concert life.The relevance of the research subject chosen by the author is determined by the wish to give the fullest description of the multi-layered process of formation of Kharkov musical culture which played one of the leading roles in the history of Ukrainian culture, and to acquaint the Western public with the most interesting facts of the formation and development of a reputable East-European centre. The main range of issues discussed in the article covers the period of the innitial foundation of artistic education, and its influence on the expansion and perception of music in different social circles, presenting the structures and forms of the nascent musical life of Kharkov. The section "Specific features of the Ukrainian system of education" brings out the facts which indicate the progressive tendencies in education, especially, on the territory of Sloboda Ukraine. The formation of artistic education in the religious schools of the city is covered in the section "Genesis of musical education in Kharkov". One of the most productive periods of the city’s cultivation of concert life associated with the functioning of the University is analyzed in the section "The impact of the University music activities on the city's concert going." The Conclusion emphasizes the interaction of traditional and nontraditional in the musical culture of Kharkov that was clearly manifested in the concert activities of the University, in particular, in popularization of oratorios. Furthermore, it discusses the factors which participated in the development in the field of compositional achievement as well as the performing arts and opened new perspectives in the dynamics of the artistic life of the Ukrainian city.

  12. Genesis and Development of Soils along Different Geomorphic Surfaces in Kouh Birk Area, Mehrestan City

    Mohammad Akbar Bahoorzahi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The optimum and sustainable use of soil is only possible with correct and complete understanding of its properties. The objectives of the present research were to study 1 genesis and development of soils related to different geomorphic surfaces in Kouh Birk Area (Mehrestan City, 2 Soil classification according to Soil Taxonomy (2014 and WRB (2014 systems, and 3 physicochemical properties, clay mineralogy and micromorphology of soils. Materials and Methods: Mean annual rainfall and soil temperature in the selected location are 153.46 mm and 19.6 oC, respectively. From geological point of view, the studied area is a part of west and south west zones and Flysch zone of east Iran. Soil temperature and moisture regimes of this part are thermic and aridic, respectively. Eight representative pedons on different surfaces including rock pediment, mantled pediment, Alluvial fan and Upper terraces were selected, sampled, and described. Routine physicochemical analyses, clay mineralogy, and micromorphological observations performed on soil samples. Soil reaction, texture, electrical conductivity, calcium carbonate, and gypsum were identified. Four samples including Bt horizon of pedon 1, Bk1 horizon of pedon 4, By2 horizon of pedon 5 and Bk1 horizon of pedon 7 were selected for clay mineralogy investigations. Four slides including Mg saturated, Mg saturated treated with ethylene glycol, K saturated, and K saturated heated up to 550 oC were analyzed. A Brucker X-Ray diffractometer at 40 kV and 30 mA was used for XRD analyses. Undisturbed soil samples from Bt horizon of pedon 1, Bk2 horizon of pedon 2, Btn horizon of pedon 3, By2 horizon of pedon 5, Bk1 horizon of pedon 7, and By1 horizon of pedon 8 were selected for micromorphological observations. A vestapol resin with stearic acid and cobalt as hardener was used for soil impregnation. Bk-Pol petrographic microscope was used for micromorphology investigations. Results and Discussion: Due to

  13. The genesis of the AIDS policy and AIDS Space in Brazil (1981-1989).

    Barros, Sandra Garrido de; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2016-07-21

    To analyze the genesis of the policy for controlling AIDS in Brazil. Socio-historical study (1981-1989), based on Bordieu's genetic sociology, by document analysis, bibliographical review, and in-depth interviews. It consisted of a connection between the analysis of the paths of 33 agents involved in the creation of a social space focusing on AIDS-related issues and the historical possibility conditions of the drafting of a specific policy. AIDS Space is a gathering point for the paths of agents from several social fields (medical, scientific, political, and bureaucratic fields). A specific space for relationships, which enabled the drafting of a policy for controlling the AIDS epidemic, but also a place where the authority to talk about the meaning of the disease, the methods to prevent and treat it was under dispute. The analysis showed how the various structures (democratic administrations in Sao Paulo and at the national level, with public health officers taking important positions) and the lack of a specific therapy contributed to social agents of different ranks and backgrounds to initially set prevention as a priority. The rise of the sanitary movement, the organization of SUS, and the dominance of the medical field at the AIDS Space contributed to foster treatment as a part of the measures to control the epidemic. These conditions allowed drafting a policy based on the integrality of care, by linking prevention and treatment in the following decade, with important participation from state bureaucracy and researchers. Analisar a gênese da política de controle da aids no Brasil. Estudo sócio-histórico (1981-1989), orientado pela sociologia genética de Bourdieu, por meio de análise documental, revisão bibliográfica e entrevistas em profundidade. Consistiu na articulação entre a análise das trajetórias de 33 agentes envolvidos na criação de um espaço social voltado para as questões relativas à aids e as condições históricas de possibilidade

  14. Mineralogy, chemistry of magnetite and genesis of Korkora-1 iron deposit, east of Takab, NW Iran

    Mohammad Maanijou

    2014-10-01

    , respectively. Therefore, it fits in the skarn ore deposit domain in Ni/(Cr + Mn versus Ti + V and Ca + Al + Mn versus Ti + V discrimination diagrams of iron ore deposits (Beaudoin et al., 2007. High Mn in the rock samples of Korkora-1 can be resulted from substitution of Fe+2 by Mn+2 in magnetite structure that can be a sign of hydrothermal skarn. Titanium, Mn, V and Zn show a positive correlation and Al, Cu, Mg, P, Si, Ca, Ni and Cr show a negative correlation with Fe. According to the chemistry of magnetite and plotting them on V2O5 versus TiO2 and V2O5 versus Cr2O3 diagrams, it can be recognized that the samples of Korkora-1 deposit resemble exoskarn magnetite of Goto deposit. The analysis of goethite of Korkora-1 show the amount of 2.5 to 4 wt % SiO2, 76 wt % Fe, and Ni (110 ppm without Ti and Cr in its structure. Mineralographical and geochemical evidence from ore, occurrence of iron in contact with carbonates and skarn mineralogy such as garnet, pyroxene, secondary calcite, epidote and chlorite suggest iron skarn genesis for Korkora-1 deposit. Fluids generated from intrusive bodies like diorite and quartz-diorite with variations in physicochemical conditions, produced skarn in contact with carbonates and volcanic rocks. The heat from intrusive bodies caused recrystallization of carbonates and formed marbles in the footwall of the deposit. Meteoric water has also less important contribution in the ore-forming fluids. Fluid inclusion studies show existing of two types of fluids, a low salinity (10 wt % NaCl equiv. and a medium salinity (25 to 30 wt % NaCl equiv. fluid. Mixing magmatic and meteoric waters makes decreasing in the temperatures and deposition of ore fluids. The Korkora-1 deposit formed in four stages: 1 intruding the intrusive bodies, 2 entering Fe and SiO2 into Qom carbonates and forming calc-silicates, 3 mixing magmatic and meteoric fluids, hydrolysis of calc-silicates, consuming H+, instability of Fe complexes and deposition of iron oxides, 4 retrograde

  15. Thermodynamic efficiency of nonimaging concentrators

    Shatz, Narkis; Bortz, John; Winston, Roland

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of a nonimaging concentrator is to transfer maximal flux from the phase space of a source to that of a target. A concentrator's performance can be expressed relative to a thermodynamic reference. We discuss consequences of Fermat's principle of geometrical optics. We review étendue dilution and optical loss mechanisms associated with nonimaging concentrators, especially for the photovoltaic (PV) role. We introduce the concept of optical thermodynamic efficiency which is a performance metric combining the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The optical thermodynamic efficiency is a comprehensive metric that takes into account all loss mechanisms associated with transferring flux from the source to the target phase space, which may include losses due to inadequate design, non-ideal materials, fabrication errors, and less than maximal concentration. As such, this metric is a gold standard for evaluating the performance of nonimaging concentrators. Examples are provided to illustrate the use of this new metric. In particular we discuss concentrating PV systems for solar power applications.

  16. The study of major, trace and rare earth elements geochemistry in Shahrestanak Mn deposit, south of Qom: Implications for genesis

    Mohammad Maanijou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Shahrestanak Mn deposit is located in southern Qom province, 12 km southwest of the city of Kahak. Based on geological-structural divisions of Iran, the deposit belongs to central volcanic belt or Urumieh-Dokhtar zone. The Venarch deposit is one the most important known manganese deposits in Iran. The Sharestanak and Venarch deposits are spatially and temporally related to each other, and have similar geology, mineral texture and structure, host rocks, relationships with faults, and depositional environment. So, their magmatism and deposition conditions can be related to each other. Since no systematic study on the Shahrestanak deposit had been performed before discussing its geological and geochemical characteristics, here it is being attempted to study the geology, petrography, geochemistry of major, minor and trace elements, and Rare Earth Elements (REE of ore, to distinguish the depositional environments and genesis of this deposit and to compare REE of ore in this deposit with other deposits. Sampling and method of study Fourteen samples of manganese ore were selected for geochemical study and analyzing of major, minor, trace elements and REE by ICP-AES and ICP-MS and were sent to SGS Co., Toronto. Detection limits for major elements and trace elements are 0.01% and 0.05ppm, respectively. Result and discussion The deposit is characterized by various lithology and stratigraphy units, consist of: 1 Middle to -Upper Eocene volcano-sedimentary rocks, 2 Oligocene lower red conglomerate and sandstone, 3 Oligo-Miocene limestone and marl (Qom Formation, and 4 Eocene and Lower Miocene basic to intermediate dykes. The most abundant minerals of the deposit are braunite, hausmannite, pyrolusite, and manganite. Evidences such as high Mn/Fe (11.33 and Si/Al (4.86 ratios, low contents of trace elements specially Co (11.40 ppm, Ni (24 ppm, Cu (81.85 ppm, and Ce, with high amounts of SiO2, Mn, Fe, Ba, Zn, As and Sr, all represent

  17. Development and characterization of a hydrogen peroxide-resistant cholangiocyte cell line: A novel model of oxidative stress-related cholangiocarcinoma genesis

    Thanan, Raynoo [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Techasen, Anchalee [Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Faculty of Associated Medical Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Hou, Bo [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Jamnongkan, Wassana; Armartmuntree, Napat [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Yongvanit, Puangrat, E-mail: puangrat@kku.ac.th [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Murata, Mariko, E-mail: mmurata@doc.medic.mie-u.ac.jp [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan)

    2015-08-14

    Oxidative stress is a cause of inflammation–related diseases, including cancers. Cholangiocarcinoma is a liver cancer with bile duct epithelial cell phenotypes. Our previous studies in animal and human models indicated that oxidative stress is a major cause of cholangiocarcinoma development. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) can generate hydroxyl radicals, which damage lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, leading to cell death. However, some cells can survive by adapting to oxidative stress conditions, and selective clonal expansion of these resistant cells would be involved in oxidative stress-related carcinogenesis. The present study aimed to establish H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant cell line from an immortal cholangiocyte cell line (MMNK1) by chronic treatment with low-concentration H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (25 μM). After 72 days of induction, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant cell lines (ox-MMNK1-L) were obtained. The ox-MMNK1-L cell line showed H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant properties, increasing the expression of the anti-oxidant genes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2), and superoxide dismutase-3 (SOD3) and the enzyme activities of CAT and intracellular SODs. Furthermore, the resistant cells showed increased expression levels of an epigenetics-related gene, DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1), when compared to the parental cells. Interestingly, the ox-MMNK1-L cell line had a significantly higher cell proliferation rate than the MMNK1 normal cell line. Moreover, ox-MMNK1-L cells showed pseudopodia formation and the loss of cell-to-cell adhesion (multi-layers) under additional oxidative stress (100 μM H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). These findings suggest that H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant cells can be used as a model of oxidative stress-related cholangiocarcinoma genesis through molecular changes such as alteration of gene expression and epigenetic changes. - Highlights: • An H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant ox-MMNK1-L cells was established from

  18. Thermodynamic efficiency of solar concentrators.

    Shatz, Narkis; Bortz, John; Winston, Roland

    2010-04-26

    The optical thermodynamic efficiency is a comprehensive metric that takes into account all loss mechanisms associated with transferring flux from the source to the target phase space, which may include losses due to inadequate design, non-ideal materials, fabrication errors, and less than maximal concentration. We discuss consequences of Fermat's principle of geometrical optics and review étendue dilution and optical loss mechanisms associated with nonimaging concentrators. We develop an expression for the optical thermodynamic efficiency which combines the first and second laws of thermodynamics. As such, this metric is a gold standard for evaluating the performance of nonimaging concentrators. We provide examples illustrating the use of this new metric for concentrating photovoltaic systems for solar power applications, and in particular show how skewness mismatch limits the attainable optical thermodynamic efficiency.

  19. Genesis of apocarbonatitic titanium metasomatites of the Petyayan-vara rare-earth occurrence (Vuoriyarvi, the Kola Region

    Kozlov E. N.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objects of the study are apocarbonatitic titanium metasomatites ("titanium carbonatites" associated with the rare earth carbonatites of the Petyayan-Vara area of the Vuoriyarvi complex (the Kola region. In this paper, the following mechanism for the formation of these rocks has been substantiated based on the agreed results of mineralogical and geochemical studies. Prior to the onset of carbonatite genesis, a fluorine-enriched fluid phase originated in the lower horizons of the complex passed along the deep-permeating fracture system of several hundred meters length up to the level of the modern erosion surface. It transported Al, Fe2+, Mg, Ti, P into the pyroxenites and Si, Ca and Na out of them, as a result of which the pyroxenites were transformed into giant-grained phlogopite rocks – glimmerites. The most probable source of this fluid is alkaline aluminosilicate magma. Then carbonate melts intruded along the same fractures. In the course of carbonatite genesis, F-fluid caused a local migration of K, Al, Si, Fe, P, Ti, Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf and HREE out of glimmerites into igneous dolomite carbonatites, which led to the formation of apocarbonatitic titanium metasomatites. They represent several paragenetic associations superimposed on each other, the mineral composition and the formation sequence of which correspond to the metasomatic column zones directly observed within the contact "carbonatite – altered pyroxenite". The separation of HFSE and REE is controlled by the same metasomatic column: Ti, Nb and Ta were accumulated in titanium carbonatites, i. e. in associations of the frontal and intermediate zones, and Zr, Hf and HREE – in apatitized fields corresponding to the rear zone of the column. Accordingly, the fractionation of these elements occurred due to the "fluid – rock" interaction. Subsequently, the same long-lived fractures served as a channel for REE-Sr-Ba-S fluids, but the recrystallization caused by K

  20. A magnetic method to concentrate and trap biological targets

    Li, Fuquan; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2012-01-01

    Magnetoresistive sensors in combination with magnetic particles have been used in biological applications due to, e.g., their small size and high sensitivity. A growing interest is to integrate magnetoresistive sensors with microchannels

  1. Diagnostic Genesis Features of Au-Ag Selenide-Telluride Mineralization of Western Java Deposits

    Euis Tintin Yuningsih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.3.1.67-76The ore mineralogy of the westernmost part of West Java such as Pongkor, Cibaliung, Cikidang, Cikotok, and Cirotan are characterized by the dominance of silver-arsenic-antimony sulfosalt with silver selenides and rarely tellurides over the argentite, whereas the eastern part of West Java including Arinem and Cineam deposits are dominated by silver-gold tellurides. Mineralogy of Se-type deposits at Pongkor, Cikidang, Cibaliung, Cisungsang, and Cirotan and Te-type deposits at Arinem and Cineam shows their different geochemical characteristics. Mineralogical and geochemical differences can be explained by variation of physico-chemical conditions that existed during gold-silver deposition by applying the phase relation among sulfide, telluride, and selenide mineral association in the deposits. The relative values of ƒSe2(g, ƒTe(g, and ƒS2(g control the actual presence of selenide or telluride minerals within the West Java deposits, which also depend on their concentrations in the hydrothermal fluid. Even though the concentration of selenium in the hydrothermal fluid of Te-type deposits might have been similar or even higher than that in the Se-type, early substitution of selenium in the sulfide minerals prevents its concentration in the hydrothermal fluid to the levels for precipitating selenide minerals. Therefore, early sulfide mineral deposition from reduction fluids will not increase the ƒSe2(g/ƒS2(g ratio to form selenide minerals in Te-type deposits of Arinem and Cineam, other than selenium-bearing sulfide mineral such as Se-bearing galena or Se-bearing pyrargyrite-proustite.

  2. GENESIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF A “NONPARTISAN” POLITICAL ACTOR: The Formation of the Jama’ah Islah Malaysia (JIM and its Roots in Western Europe

    Sophie Lemiere

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the genesis and development of the Jama’ah Islah Malaysia (JIM, a modernist-reformist Islamist organisation that today has played a vital and visible role in the political landscape of Malaysian politics. Little is known about the early genesis of JIM, and how it began in the 1970s and 1980s as a student-based cadre organisation, created by Malaysian Muslim students studying abroad in Europe and North America. JIM’s roots therefore lie in the Islamic Representative Council (IRC that was a semi-underground student-cadre movement that was created outside Malaysia, and which aimed to bring about the Islamisation of Malaysian society through the process of social and political mobilisation. Working through the archives of JIM today and interviewing the foundermembers of JIM and the IRC, this paper is the first historical account of the formation and development of IRC and JIM to be published. 

  3. Marguerite Duras/Claude Régy: L’Amante Anglaise, the genesis of a text, the gestation of a theatre

    Almuth Grésillon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the genesis of the first staging of Margerite Duras’s L’Amante Anglaise, by Claude Régy, a well succeeded genesis, carried out based on the interplay between dramaturgy and the stage. Without any satisfying answer, we are facing an important theoretical issue of genetic criticism applied to theatre: is the work a dramatic text or a spectacle? Depending on the stress on the first or on the second answer, the organizing axis of the genetic dossier can be the author’s writing and all stagings of L’Amante Anglaise,forming a theoretically unified set; or the director’s notes and all of his creations. This study explores a third possibility, stipulating the indispensable intersection between both hypotheses.

  4. Conditioned of process of water removal product radioactive and non-radioactive genesis

    Shevchenko, O.L.

    2011-01-01

    The analysis mode of soluble organic matter in natural humic water drainage channels left bank of Pripyat and its dependence on the hydrodynamic and hydrological factors. Proved the existence of the concentration of 90 Sr in the water on the content of fulvic acid in it. Quantified removal of humic acids of groundwater and surface runoff. Emphasizes the primary role in the removal of humic substances and significant - in the mobilization of 90 Sr processes of secondary swamping of the surface watershed and eutrophication of waterways, which have acquired extensive development on the alienation of the territory for 25 years after the Chernobyl disaster.

  5. Wheezing exacerbations in early childhood: evaluation, treatment, and recent advances relevant to the genesis of asthma

    Miller, E. Kathryn; Avila, Pedro C.; Khan, Yasmin W.; Word, Carolyn R.; Pelz, Barry J.; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Peebles, R. Stokes; Heymann, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Children who begin wheezing during early childhood are seen frequently by health care providers in primary care, in hospitals and emergency departments, and by allergists and pulmonologists. When young children, like the 2 year-old case presented here, are evaluated for wheezing, a frequent challenge for clinicians is to determine whether the symptoms represent transient, viral-induced wheezing, or whether sufficient risk factors are present to suspect that the child may experience recurrent wheezing and develop asthma. Most factors influencing prognosis are not mutually exclusive, are interrelated (i.e., cofactors), and often represent gene-environment interactions. Many of these risk factors have been, and continue to be, investigated in prospective studies in order to decipher their relative importance with the goal of developing new therapies and interventions in the future. The etiologies of wheezing in young children, diagnostic methods, treatment, prognostic factors, and potential targets for prevention of the development of asthma are discussed. PMID:25213046

  6. Geology and genesis of uranium deposits in sedimentary and metamorphic formation

    Danchev, V.I.; Belevtsev, Ya.N.

    1980-01-01

    Main genetic types of uranium deposits in sedimentary cover are described. Their genetic classification is based on the principle of conjugation of ore-forming process with the stages of lithogenesis of ore-enclosing rocks. Examples of poligeneity of uranium mineralization are presented. Texture-structural peculiarities of ores and types of ore-controlling zonality are considered as criteria of definite deposits belonging to various genetic classes. The analysis is given of main regularities of location of exogenous and poligenic uranium deposits. Processes of uranium ore-formation under the conditions of low and high degrees of metamorphism are considered. On the basis of separate types of deposits shown is the possibility of mobilization, transfer and concentration of ore substance, its transformation from primary to secondary forms. Metamorphous and ultrametamorphous deposits are formed as a result of ore element translocation within considerable distances under the effect of endogenous solutions and their concentration in favourable structures. Conclusions on the effect of lithogenesis and metamorphism processes on the ore formation are substantiated by field observations, analyses (including methods of isotopic geochemistry) as well as by experiments

  7. Variations in large-scale tropical cyclone genesis factors over the western North Pacific in the PMIP3 last millennium simulations

    Yan, Qing; Wei, Ting; Zhang, Zhongshi

    2017-02-01

    Investigation of past tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the Western North Pacific (WNP) is potentially helpful to enable better understanding of future TC behaviors. In this study, we examine variations in large-scale environmental factors important to TC genesis in the last millennium simulations from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (PMIP3). The results show that potential intensity, a theoretical prediction of the maximum TC intensity, is increased relative to the last millennium in the north part of the WNP in the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 950-1200 AD) while it is decreased in the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1600-1850 AD). Vertical wind shear that generally inhibits TC genesis is enhanced (reduced) to the south of 20°N and is reduced (enhanced) to the north in the MCA (LIA). Relative humidity (at 600 hPa) that measures the mid-tropospheric moisture content broadly shows an increase (decrease) in the MCA (LIA). A genesis potential index indicates that conditions are generally favorable (unfavorable) for TC formation in the WNP in the MCA (LIA), especially in the northern part. Taking changes in steering flows into account, there may be an increasing (decreasing) favorability for storm strikes in East Asia in the MCA (LIA). The estimated TC activity is consistent with the geological proxies in Japan, but contradicts with the typhoon records in southern China and Taiwan. This model-data discrepancy is attributed to the limitations in both simulations and reconstructions.

  8. Genesis 2 en 3 in 1 Timoteus 2: ’n motivering vir gedrag in die erediens, die gewone lewe of die huwelik?

    Douw G. Breed

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Genesis 2 and 3 in 1 Timothy 2: a rationale for conduct in public worship, ordinary life, or marriage? In his exegesis of 1 Timothy 2:1-12, Breed (2006:247-261 shows that Paul does not give any indications in this text itself of whether the instructions in verses 8-12 were aimed at regulating conduct during public worship, in ordinary life or marriage. Paul supports the instructions he gives in 1 Timothy 2:11-12 in verses 13-15 by referring to Genesis 2 and 3. This article investigates whether there is any indication in Paul’s rationale of the context in which these instructions should be read. The study focuses on Paul’s reference to the order of creation (v. 13, Eve’s temptation (v. 14a, the state of transgression in which woman finds herself and her salvation by giving birth (v. 14b-15. This study concludes that in his references to Genesis 2 and 3, Paul does not give any indications of whether this instructions in 1 Timothy 2:8-15 deals with instructions for public worship, ordinary life or marriage.

  9. Changes of Retina Are Not Involved in the Genesis of Visual Hallucinations in Parkinson’s Disease

    Aleš Kopal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms. Nonmotor symptoms include primarily visual hallucinations (VH. The aim of our study was to establish whether patients with PD and visual hallucinations (PDH+ have structural changes of retina detected by an optical coherence tomography (OCT in comparison with PD patients without visual hallucinations (PDH−. We examined 52 PD patients (18 with VH, 34 without VH and 15 age and sex matched healthy controls. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness and macular thickness and volume were assessed by OCT. Functional impairment of retina was assessed using 2.5% contrast sensitivity test. For OCT outcomes we analyzed 15 PDH+ and 15 PDH− subjects matched for age, gender, and PD duration. For contrast sensitivity we analyzed 8 pairs of patients matched for age, gender, and visual acuity. There was no significant difference in RNFL thickness and macular thickness and macular volume between 15 PDH+ and 15 PDH− subjects, and also between a group of 44 PD patients (both PDH+ and PDH− and 15 age and gender matched healthy controls. No significant difference was found for 2.5% contrast sensitivity test values between PDH+ and PDH− subjects. Therefore we conclude that functional and structural changes in retina play no role in genesis of VH in PD.

  10. Remarkable Women in a Remarkable Age. On the Genesis of the English Public Sphere, 1642-1752

    Eleonora Cappuccilli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During the era of the English Revolutions and shortly after that, some spaces, albeit limited, of female visibility open up. Thanks to the window of opportunity caused by the collapse of censorship, the participation in the radical sects and in the Civil war, some remarkable women succeed in introducing themselves in the public sphere, shaping it since its very genesis. Moreover, analysing law institutions as jointure and feoffment, the attempt is to reconstruct some fragments of juridical female autonomy, which belie the total pervasiveness of coverture in the XVII century. As in private law, in public law women, in the role of queens, gain centrality: the principle of female authority, while safeguards the holding of the monarchical regime, destabilizes its patriarchal structure. Going through the works of Katherine Chidley, Margaret Cavendish, Damaris Masham and Mary Astell, the essay aims at reconstructing women's public voice, a voice which upsets the consolidated frames and subverts the established positions, questioning the same social hierarchies.

  11. Isotopic and trace element constraints on the genesis of a boninitic sequence in the Thetford Mines ophiolitic complex, Quebec, Canada

    Olive, V.; Hebert, R.; Loubet, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Mont Ham Massif (part of the Thetford Mines ophiolite, south Quebec) represents a magmatic sequence made up of tholeiitic and boninitic derived products. A geochemical study confirms the multicomponent mixing models that have been classically advanced for the source of boninites, with slab-derived components added to the main refractory harzburgitic peridotite. An isochron diagram of the boninitic rocks is interpreted as a mixing trend between two components: (i) a light rare earth element (LREE) enriched component (A), interpreted as slab-derived fluid-melts equilibrated with sedimentary materials (ε Nd = -3, 147 Sm/ 144 Nd = 0.140), and (ii) a LREE-depleted component (B) (0.21 147 Sm/ 144 Nd Nd = 9). A multicomponent source is also necessary to explain the Nd-isotope and trace element composition of the tholeiites, which are explained by the melting of a more fertile, Iherzolitic mantle and (or) mid-ocean ridge basalt source (component C), characterized by a large-ion lithophile element depicted pattern and an lapetus mantle Nd isotopic composition (ε Nd = 9), mixed in adequate proportions with the two previously infered slab-derived components (A and B). The genesis of the boninites of Mont Ham is not significantly different from those of boninites located in the Pacific. An intraoceanic subduction zone appears to be an appropriate geodynamic environment for the Mont Ham ophiolitic sequence. (author)

  12. Cadet Education in the Imperial Russia: Genesis, Dialectics and the Role in Social Structure of the Society

    Alexander P. Abramov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article, using historic and sociological material, presents genesis, dialectics and the role of cadet education of the imperial Russia in the social structure of the society, its weak and strong aspects, determines major stratified features of its graduates. The author notes that the realization of the practice of professional socialization in cadet corps in certain historical period is determined by the social conditions and the factors of the development of the society, its structure and environment, reproducing the modal personality of the future officer. The professional environment of the cadet education in the imperial Russia is defined as closed, line, self-organizing system. Such environment provided the graduates with high social status and prestige in different fields, defined by generic characteristics (affiliation to nobility. Along with high educational and cultural level, modal personality of the graduate is characterized by aloofness from the juniors and subordinates, individualism and careerism, certain closedness towards one’s nation and other social groups.

  13. Target selection for direct marketing.

    Bult, Jan Roelf

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis we concentrated on the use ol direct mail for targeting potential buyers. The major characteristics that influences the success of a plomotional direct mail campaign are the of-fbr,the communication elements, the timing or sequence of these communication elements, and the list of

  14. Discussion on distribution characteristics of calcareous sandstone in Shihongtan uranium deposit and its genesis

    Zhu Huanqiao; Qiao Haiming; Jia Heng; Xu Gaozhong

    2007-01-01

    Based on the observation and statistics on the calcareous sandstone in the ore host layer in Shihongtan uranium deposit, this paper finds that the calcareous sandstone occurs on and off near the top or wash surface of the sandbody as beads-strings lens along the layer and concentrates in the area where the ore bodies are rich. In lithology, the calcareous sandstone is of coarse grain and fairly well sorted. According to the analysis on the lithogeochemical features and the carbon and oxygen isotopes of calcareous sandstones, it is realized that there some genetic relation between the formation of calcareous sandstone and uranium mineralization in the oxidation-deoxidation transitional belt, that is the precipitation and enrichment of uranium is accompanied by the deposition of carbonate and formation of calcareous sandstone. (authors)

  15. Social mechanisms of media institutions: The genesis of recipient’s preferences

    V L Mouzykant

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of sociology of media the author explains the behavior of target audiences in the nowadays media environment, analyzes the changing nature of the relationship between the sender and the recipient of the message. The article considers the social mechanisms of the contemporary media institutions and changes in media consumption preferences of different social strata under the growing influence of communication technologies. The author believes that the digitalization determines the audience’s need for explanation instead of just information. The virtual reality as a new communication platform becomes a common practice, and the audience becomes its passive participant demanding new ways of real-time access to information. The print media audience is gradually moving from constant reading of one or two mass editions to the study of a large number of specialized media. There is the same trend of the declining share of main television channels in advertising budgets due to the increasing share of specialized network channels. At the same time, advertising budgets are transferred to the mobile platforms for there is a growing need in ‘big data’ in real time due to the fast development of mobile electronic devices. Tablets and smartphones are attributes of the emerging media ecology that are gradually replacing television for digital generations prefer to watch the same TV content ‘outside’ the traditional TV environment.

  16. Retrotransposon-Encoded Reverse Transcriptase in the Genesis, Progression and Cellular Plasticity of Human Cancer

    Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Paola; Matteucci, Claudia; Spadafora, Corrado

    2011-01-01

    LINE-1 (Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements) and HERVs (Human Endogenous Retroviruses) are two families of autonomously replicating retrotransposons that together account for about 28% of the human genome. Genes harbored within LINE-1 and HERV retrotransposons, particularly those encoding the reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme, are generally expressed at low levels in differentiated cells, but their expression is upregulated in transformed cells and embryonic tissues. Here we discuss a recently discovered RT-dependent mechanism that operates in tumorigenesis and reversibly modulates phenotypic and functional variations associated with tumor progression. Downregulation of active LINE-1 elements drastically reduces the tumorigenic potential of cancer cells, paralleled by reduced proliferation and increased differentiation. Pharmacological RT inhibitors (e.g., nevirapine and efavirenz) exert similar effects on tumorigenic cell lines, both in culture and in animal models. The HERV-K family play a distinct complementary role in stress-dependent transition of melanoma cells from an adherent, non-aggressive, to a non-adherent, highly malignant, growth phenotype. In synthesis, the retrotransposon-encoded RT is increasingly emerging as a key regulator of tumor progression and a promising target in a novel anti-cancer therapy

  17. HAIR HEAVY METAL AND ESSENTIAL TRACE ELEMENT CONCENTRATION IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER.

    Tabatadze, T; Zhorzholiani, L; Kherkheulidze, M; Kandelaki, E; Ivanashvili, T

    2015-11-01

    Our study aims evaluation of level of essential trace elements and heavy metals in the hair samples of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and identification of changes that are associated with autistic spectrum disorders. Case-control study was conducted at Child Development Center of Iashvili Children's Central Hospital (LD).We studied 60 children aged from 4 to 5 years old. The concentrations of 28 elements among (Ca,Zn, K, Fe, Cu, Se, Mn, Cr, S, Br, Cl, Co, Ag, V, Ni, Rb, Mo, Sr, Ti, Ba, Pb, As, Hg, Cd, Sb, Zr, Sn, Bi) them trace elements and toxic metals) were determined in scalp hair samples of children (n=30) with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and from control group of healthy children (n=30) with matched sex and age. Micro-elemental status was detected in the hair, with roentgen-fluorescence spectrometer method (Method MBИ 081/12-4502-000, Apparatus ALVAX- CIP, USA - UKRAIN) .To achieve the similarity of study and control groups, pre and postnatal as well as family and social history were assessed and similar groups were selected. Children with genetic problems, malnourished children, children from families with social problems were excluded from the study. The diagnosis of ASD were performed by pediatrician and psychologist (using M-CHAT and ADOS) according to DSM IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders from the American Psychiatric association) criteria. The study was statistically analyzed using computer program SPSS 19. Deficiencies of essential trace microelements revealed in both group, but there was significant difference between control and studied groups. The most deficient element was zinc (92% in target and 20% in control), then - manganese (55% and 8%) and selenium (38% and 4%). In case of cooper study revealed excess concentration of this element only in target group in 50% of cases. The contaminations to heavy metals were detected in case of lead (78% and 16), mercury (43% and 10%) and cadmium (38% and 8%). The

  18. Age, genesis and exploration for mineral deposits: the possibilities offered by lead isotopes

    Marcoux, E.; Calvez, J.Y.

    1985-01-01

    After a brief theoretical survey of the subject, the paper discusses the assistance that lead isotopes can bring to solving problems of metallogenesis and mineral exploration. Lead isotopes act as a true geologic clock when radioactive decay of lead takes place in a closed U-Th-Pb system, or when these conditions have been recreated by homogenization of a large crustal segment. The lead clock is thus reliable for deposits whose process of formation was part of a hydrothermal event that affected a significant part of the crust, most importantly in island-arc volcanosedimentary deposits, much less so for deposits formed by spatially restricted hydrothermal activity such as the emplacement of veins. Very interesting possibilities are also to be found in the capacity of lead isotopes to act as geochemical tracers. In conjunction with paragenetic and gitologic studies, determination of the isotopic composition of lead allows the sources of metals to be identified and permits an approach to the understanding of inheritance phenomena in a mineral deposit or province. This information also assists in unravelling the successive metallogenic processes in a region, thus contributing to refinement of the concept of a metallogenic province. Lastly lead isotopes provide an additional factor in assessing the economic potential of a deposit undergoing exploration. The method is based on a comparison of the isotopic signature of the deposit with that of economic mineralization occuring elsewhere in the circa. Examples of stratiform deposits and the gold-bearing veins of Limousin are described. The application of this method to gossans can provide additional information to standard geochemistry and thus assist in grading of targets [fr

  19. The genesis and isotopic composition of carbonates associated with some Permian Australian coals

    Gould, K.W.; Smith, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    Siderite and calcite are the two forms of carbonate commonly associated with Permian Australian coals. The former occurs as disseminated spherulites and is a product of the early post-depositional environment. Isotopic measurements show that the CO 2 fixed as siderite did not result from the direct oxidation of photosynthetically derived materials, but rather from the anaerobic fermentation of these. The higher concentrations of calcite are generally found towards the roofs of coal seams and are characterized by isotopic enrichments to delta 13 C values of +25% PDB. Isotopic exchange between CO 2 and CH 4 within the coal seam is postulated as the mechanism which leads to the formation of isotopically heavy CO 2 . At sites along the seam margins where the CO 2 escapes, interaction with circulating metal ions or preexisting calcite results in the deposition of ''heavy'' calcite. With increasing alteration of coal by thermal metamorphism, the 13 C content of calcites and finally siderites decreases so that it more nearly approaches that of the associated coal. (Auth.)

  20. Genesis idea of the superman in european philosophy: concept Friedrich Nietzsche

    A. Y. Somov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the concept of Nietzsche superman in the context of development of the idea of European philosophy superman. Based on a study of scientific literature it was proved that Nietzsche was the first in European philosophy who has attempted to move away from its classical forms, creating a special type of superman, the values of which were creative, spiritual self, the victory over himself and the will to develop and adopt values, that multiply the power of life. It can be stated that superman Friedrich Nietzsche – a man who does not exist yet, and when it appears – is unknown. Initial characterization of superman Nietzsche is the power and the will who oppose «reasonableness» that seeks to bring originality to all acts of consciousness and identity. In superman should be personal development, their personal view of the world and its way. The main feature of the superman must be spiritual creativity, the total concentration of the will to power, that is able to completely control the superman himself: to know precisely aspiration, desire and how he organizes his way to the goal.

  1. Geological and geochemical implications of the genesis of the Qolqoleh orogenic gold mineralisation, Kurdistan Province (Iran

    Taghipour Batoul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Qolqoleh gold deposit is located in the northwestern part of the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (SSZ, within the NE-SW trending Qolqoleh shear zone. Oligocene granitoids, Cretaceous meta-limestones, schists and metavolcanics are the main lithological units. Chondrite-normalised REE patterns of the ore-hosting metavolcanics indicate REE enrichment relative to hanging wall (chlorite-sericite schist and footwall (meta-limestone rocks. The pattern also reflects an enrichment in LREE relative to HREE. It seems that the LREE enrichment is related to the circulation of SO42- and CO2-bearing fluids and regional metamorphism in the Qolqoleh shear zone. Both positive and negative Eu anomalies are observed in shear-zone metavolcanics. These anomalies are related to the degree of plagioclase alteration during gold mineralisation and hydrothermal alteration. In progressing from a metavolcanic protomylonite to an ultramylonite, significant changes occurred in the major/trace element and REE concentration. Utilising an Al-Fe-Ti isocon for the ore-hosting metavolcanics shows that Sc, Y, K, U, P, and M-HREE (except Eu are relatively unchanged; S, As, Ag, Au, Ca, LOI, Rb and LREE are enriched, and Sr, Ba, Eu, Cr, Co and Ni decrease with an increasing degree of deformation. Based on geochemical features and comparison with other well-known shear zones in the world, the study area is best classified as an Isovolume-Gain (IVG type shear zone and orogenic type gold mineralisation.

  2. Review of uranium in the Jordanian phosphorites: distribution genesis and industry

    Abed, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorites are well-known, world wide, to accommodate a substantial amount of U relative to other sedimentary rocks. This is due a great extent to the crystal structure of apatite (carbonate flour apatite, flacitran) where U substitutes Ca phosphor ties from in shallow marine environments through the accumulation of planktonic follies debris on the sea floor in areas characterized by upwelling currents. Once the organic-rich sediments are buried below the sea floor and the organic matter is decomposed PO 4 is released to the interstitial solutions. These PO 4 -rich solutions either precipitate phosphorites directly (authigenic) or the solution react with pre existing sediments and tran form them to phosphorites (early decanting). The Jordanian deposits are dominantly of the former type. Consequently, phosphorites are also well known to be associated with high percentage of organic matter which makes them a good source rock for petroleum. In Jordan, phosphorites are wide spread from its extreme N W to the Se. Uranium contents are not the same in each locality. It is not also the same in each bed in the same locality. In Al-Kora Basin N W Jordan, U ranges between 60-379 ppm (parts per million or g/ton) with an average of 153 ppm. In Ruseifa, just east of Amman, the range is 132-195 ppm and average of 123 ppm.Central Jordan phosphorites (Al-Abiad and Al-Hasa) have a lower U%. The range is 34-190 ppm with average of 105 ppm. Eshidiyya Basin has a much less U. concentration. The range is 7-125 ppm with an average of 70 ppm. However, a recent work on the uppermost phosphorite horizon, the Ao, in Eshidiyya Basin proved the presence of a 3 m thick bed with 242 ppm U. furthermore, certain phosphorite horizons are known to have much more than the average U in that locality; e.g. in Al-kora Basin, the average U is 153 ppm while certain horizons have up to 379 ppm U, the uppermost bed in Ruseifa has up to 195 ppm while the average is 123 ppm, and in Eshidiyya the Ao has 242

  3. Genesis of the hydrothermal gold deposits in the Canan area, Lepaguare District, Honduras

    Mattioli, Michele; Menichetti, Marco; Renzulli, Alberto; Toscani, Lorenzo; Salvioli-Mariani, Emma; Suarez, Pedro; Murroni, Alessandro

    2014-04-01

    The Canan area (Honduras) is characterized by a gold-bearing ore deposit that is associated with quartz-veined shear zones. Gold mineralization occurs in low-to medium-grade metamorphic host-rocks (graphitic and sericitic schists). Hydrothermal fluids, which are associated with the emplacement of Cretaceous-Tertiary granodioritic intrusions, are responsible for the formation of quartz veins and the hydrothermal alteration of wall-rocks. Three main altered zones have been detected in the wall-rocks as far as 150 cm from the quartz veins. The distal zone (up to 50-cm thick) contains quartz, chlorite and illite. The intermediate zone is the thickest (up to 80 cm) and is marked by quartz, muscovite, sulphides, kaolinite and native elements such as Au and Ag. The proximal zone, which is close to the quartz veins, is rather thin (up to 25 cm) and contains clay minerals, Al-oxides-hydroxides and sulphides. The transition from the distal to the proximal zone is accompanied by the enrichment of SiO2 and the depletion of all other major elements, except for Fe2O3(tot). Precious metals occur in the highest concentrations in the intermediate zone (Au up to 7.6 ppm and Ag up to 11 ppm). We suggest that gold was transported as a reduced sulphur complex and was precipitated from the hydrothermal solution by the reaction of the sulphur complexes with Fe2+ from the alteration of the mafic minerals of the host-rock. Fluid-wall-rock interactions seem to be the main cause of gold mineralization. Genetic relationships with a strike-slip fault system, hydrothermal alteration zones within the metamorphic wall-rocks, and an entire set of geochemical anomalies are consistent with orogenic-type gold deposits of the epizonal class.

  4. Gas target neutron generator studies

    Chatoorgoon, V.

    1978-01-01

    The need for an intense neutron source for the study of radiation damage on materials has resulted in the proposal of various solid, liquid, and gas targets. Among the gas targets proposed have been the transonic gas target, two types of hypersonic gas target, and the subsonic gas target (SGT). It has been suggested that heat deposition in a subsonic channel might create a gas density step which would constitute an attractive gas target type. The first part of the present study examines this aspect of the SGT and shows that gas density gradients are indeed formed by heat deposition in subsonic flow. The variation of beam voltage, gas density, gas pressure, and gas temperature within the channel have been calculated as functions of the system parameters: beam voltage, beam current, channel diameter, stagnation tank temperature and pressure. The analysis is applicable to any beam particle and target gas. For the case of T + on D 2 , which is relevant to the fusion application, the 14 MeV neutron profiles are presented as a function of system parameters. It is found that the SGT is compatible with concentrated intense source operation. The possibility of instability was investigated in detail using a non-linear analysis which made it possible to follow the complete time development of the SGT. It was found that the SGT is stable against all small perturbations and certain types of large perturbations. It appears that the SGT is the most advantageous type of gas target, operating at a lower mass flow and less severe stagnation tank conditions than the other types. The second part of the thesis examines a problem associated with the straight hypersonic target, the deuterium spill into the tritium port. The regime of practical operation for this target is established. (auth)

  5. From an Enclosure to the Corraleja. An Analysis of the Genesis of an Ephemeral and Vernacular Colombian Architecture

    Massimo Leserri

    2018-03-01

    suggests that, from long time ago, many examples of tectonic building (a set of finite or pseudo-finite elements such as branches, trunks, etc. have been nomadic, self-constructed, anonymous and with an emergency appearance which have become stable, just after many constructions, by losing all ephemeral characteristics. Likewise, to understand the Corralejas’ genesis, observing the history of European architecture has been necessary due to the several old associated experiences of transitory constructions, e.g., with recreational spaces, religious or civil celebrations. This study is based on different research methodologies such as drawings of existing cases and bibliographic and iconographic analyzes. This has also been developed through a compulsory contrast with the ancient architecture of bullfighting shows, to formulate morphological reflections and analogies and analyze their ephemeral condition. Today, the Corraleja survives in Colombia, representing an architectural oddity that must be safeguarded not only for its vernacular essence but also for its limited temporal condition. In fact, tectonics, the art of montage, reconfirms the connection allowing its existence and representing a surprising and unique set of values that must be defended and treated as an architectural heritage. After the analysis on the Corralejas genesis, the study will continue through several forms of survey to explore and define constructive aspects in a different scale of detail.

  6. GENESIS SciFlo: Choreographing Interoperable Web Services on the Grid using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Xing, Z.

    2007-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of Web Services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-stratosphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we have developed a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo leverages remote Web Services, called via Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) or REST (one-line) URLs, and the Grid Computing standards (WS-* & Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi- instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable Web Services and native executables into a distributed computing flow (tree of operators). The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. In particular, SciFlo exploits the wealth of datasets accessible by OpenGIS Consortium (OGC) Web Mapping Servers & Web Coverage Servers (WMS/WCS), and by Open Data

  7. Prediction of cesarean delivery in the term nulliparous woman: results from the prospective, multicenter Genesis study.

    Burke, Naomi; Burke, Gerard; Breathnach, Fionnuala; McAuliffe, Fionnuala; Morrison, John J; Turner, Michael; Dornan, Samina; Higgins, John R; Cotter, Amanda; Geary, Michael; McParland, Peter; Daly, Sean; Cody, Fiona; Dicker, Pat; Tully, Elizabeth; Malone, Fergal D

    2017-06-01

    In contemporary practice many nulliparous women require intervention during childbirth such as operative vaginal delivery or cesarean delivery (CD). Despite the knowledge that the increasing rate of CD is associated with increasing maternal age, obesity and larger infant birthweight, we lack a reliable method to predict the requirement for such potentially hazardous obstetric procedures during labor and delivery. This issue is important, as there are greater rates of morbidity and mortality associated with unplanned CD performed in labor compared with scheduled CDs. A prediction algorithm to identify women at risk of an unplanned CD could help reduced labor associated morbidity. In this primary analysis of the Genesis study, our objective was to prospectively assess the use of prenatally determined, maternal and fetal, anthropomorphic, clinical, and ultrasound features to develop a predictive tool for unplanned CD in the term nulliparous woman, before the onset of labor. The Genesis study recruited 2336 nulliparous women with a vertex presentation between 39+0 and 40+6 weeks' gestation in a prospective multicenter national study to examine predictors of CD. At recruitment, a detailed clinical evaluation and ultrasound assessment were performed. To reduce bias from knowledge of these data potentially influencing mode of delivery, women, midwives, and obstetricians were blinded to the ultrasound data. All hypothetical prenatal risk factors for unplanned CD were assessed as a composite. Multiple logistic regression analysis and mathematical modeling was used to develop a risk evaluation tool for CD in nulliparous women. Continuous predictors were standardized using z scores. From a total enrolled cohort of 2336 nulliparous participants, 491 (21%) had an unplanned CD. Five parameters were determined to be the best combined predictors of CD. These were advancing maternal age (odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 1.34), shorter maternal height (OR

  8. Genesis and transport of hexavalent chromium in the system ophiolitic rocks - groundwater

    Shchegolikhina, Anastasia; Guadagnini, Laura; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Our study aims at contributing to the quantification and characterization of chromium transport processes from host rocks and soil matrices to groundwater. We focus on dissolved hexavalent chromium detected in groundwaters of geological regions with ophiolitic rocks (ophiolites and serpentinites) inclusions due to its critical ecological impact. (Oze et al., 2004). Despite the large number of analyses on the occurrence of high concentrations of hazardous hexavalent chromium ions in natural waters, only few studies were performed with the objective of identifying and investigating the geochemical reactions which could occur in the natural system rock - groundwater - dissolved chromium (Fantoni et al., 2002, Stephen and James, 2004, Lelli et al., 2013). In this context, there is a need for integration of results obtained from diverse studies in various regions and settings to improve our knowledge repository. Our theoretical analyses are grounded and driven by practical scenarios detected in subsurface reservoirs exploited for civil and industrial use located in the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy). Available experimental datasets are complemented with data from other international regional-scale settings (Altay mountains region, Russia). Modeling of chromium transformation and migration particularly includes characterization of the multispecies geochemical system. A key aspect of our study is the analysis of the complex competitive sorption processes governing heavy metal evolution in groundwater. The results of the research allow assessing the critical qualitative features of the mechanisms of hexavalent chromium ion mobilization from host rocks and soils and the ensuing transformation and migration to groundwater under the influence of diverse environmental factors. The study is then complemented by the quantification of the main sources of uncertainty associated with prediction of heavy metal contamination levels in the groundwater system explored. Fantoni, D

  9. Preliminary data concern the ravenation processes genesis in some sedimentation structures of The Moldavian Tableland

    Maria BUCUREȘTEANU

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available  The goal of the study is to establish the contribution of geochemical systems, from sedimentary structures of southern MoldavianPlateau, in triggering and evolution of gully processes. In this purpose, a case study has beencarried out on Ivesti gully, in which, the textural and geochemical properties of originalsubsurface structures had been analyzed. The site is 650 meters long and approximately 35meters wide located east to Ivesti village along the DN11A road. The analyses where basedon 32 samples taken from along the gully and from four control section in order to ensure abetter cover. The contribution of geochemical processes in gully formation it refers toalteration of hydrophisycal and mechanical properties of subsurface deposits, when asalinization process is taking place and those deposits contain over 10% sodium ions incationic exchange capacity. These characteristics lead to a water holding pressure in clayminerals over 140 atm., which determine the beginning of deposits mobility. In this case, thesalinization process is not present; the soluble salts concentration is between 17 and 116mg/100g soil and 205 – 217 salts mg/100g soil along median line of right bluff, downstreamfrom active gully processes. None of the control section contains deposits in saline class. Thegeneral ionic formula of soluble salts contained in surface deposits is Ca-Mg-Na-K-NH4,respectively SO4-HCO3-Cl-NO3 alternating with HCO3-SO4-Cl-NO3. The preliminary dataregarding the chemistry of sodium, potassium, chlorine, sulfates and hydrogencarbonatesshows that in actual deposits, the salts of these ions do not reach the values to start thechemical suffusion processes. In this gully, the most important factor is the nature of thebedrock - a weak cohesive material which allows breaking of the kinetic equilibrium of theslopes (7,5-8°. The process is amplified by the hydrological characteristics of the region. Inthese conditions, the viscosity of the bedrock

  10. The genesis of Jan Steens painting 'As the old ones sing, so the young ones pipe' from the Gemaeldegalerie Berlin

    Denker, A.; Kleinert, K.; Laurenze-Landsberg, C.; Reimelt, M.; Schroeder-Smeibidl, B.

    2011-01-01

    In collaboration with the research reactor of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, the Gemaeldegalerie Berlin is the only institute worldwide, which systematically employs the method of Neutron-Activation-Autoradiography to analyze paintings and painting techniques. To date more than 70 paintings were investigated with this effective, non-destructive, and exceptional method. It allows the visualization of structures and layers beneath the top surface and, in addition, enables the identification of elements contained in the pigments. The instrument B8 at the research reactor BER II is dedicated to this research. Jan Steen is one of the prolific artists from the 17th century. Like other artists from that time he produced several versions of one specific topic during life-time. The topic 'As the old ones sing, so the young ones pipe' was painted by Jan Steen in 13 versions. The painting from the Gemaeldegalerie is an exception in this series as it differs in style and content from the other oeuvres. The question arises: why did the artist deviate from his usual scheme? The possible answer is provided by X-ray images and neutron autoradiographs made of the painting, allowing insight into hidden paint layers and, therefore, in the genesis of the painting. Jan Steen did not simply change the composition of the room and the figures. He originally intended an altogether different topic. Assumedly it was supposed to be a so-called merry company, located in a generous, stately room. Many pieces of this sophisticated ambiance have been eliminated from the version visible today; others were modified and integrated into the composition of the new painting. Thus, Jan Steen commenced the topic 'As the old ones sing, so the young ones pipe' from a different context.

  11. The Genesis of the Urban Culture of the Steppe of the Volga Region and Sociocultural Development of the Region

    Nadezhda V. Dulina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of the genesis of socio-historical processes of urban culture of the steppe of the Volga region, is based on historical documents, materials of scientific expeditions conducted in the lower Volga region encyclopedic scientists from the second half of the XVIII century, and the results of archaeological research here settlement sites. Based on the fact that the whole history of mankind is the history of the reference person of its economy, the authors believe that the analysis of the spaces of the modern city must be waged simultaneously in multiple coordinate systems – involving knowledge of scientific disciplines such as history and archeology, sociology, Economics etc. Attention is focused on the events in the Volga steppes of socio-economic and cultural-historical transformation, reflected in the distinctive dynamics of sociocultural development of the medieval (Khazar, the Golden Horde, Russian and modern cities in the region. The authors come to the following conclusions: the city created (and covered by most throughout the centuries (and even millennia by many generations, carry a spatial-temporal characteristics and the variety of creative ideas that make them diverse, aesthetically balanced. The growth of these cities, like all living things, inevitably threatens the time, which naturally destroys some of their historical (and in fact – "root" part to "make room" for new construction. To the relentless dynamism of our era was not able to destroy formed for many generations the idea that is subordinated to the formation and development of each particular city, you should each time from a separate historical parts of the city (or temporal-spatial "fragments" to try to reproduce it in its entirety, as the unity and integrity, while maintaining its inherent identity.

  12. Genesis Solar Wind Sample 61422: Experiment in Variation of Sequence of Cleaning Solvent for Removing Carbon-Bearing Contamination

    Allton, J. H.; Kuhlman, K. R.; Allums, K. K.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Jurewicz, A. J. G.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    The recovered Genesis collector fragments are heavily contaminated with crash-derived particulate debris. However, megasonic treatment with ultra-pure-water (UPW; resistivity (is) greater than18 meg-ohm-cm) removes essentially all particulate contamination greater than 5 microns in size [e.g.1] and is thus of considerable importance. Optical imaging of Si sample 60336 revealed the presence of a large C-rich particle after UPW treatment that was not present prior to UPW. Such handling contamination is occasionally observed, but such contaminants are normally easily removed by UPW cleaning. The 60336 particle was exceptional in that, surprisingly, it was not removed by additional UPW or by hot xylene or by aqua regia treatment. It was eventually removed by treatment with NH3-H2O2. Our best interpretation of the origin of the 60336 particle was that it was adhesive from the Post-It notes used to stabilize samples for transport from Utah after the hard landing. It is possible that the insoluble nature of the 60336 particle comes from interaction of the Post-It adhesive with UPW. An occasional bit of Post-It adhesive is not a major concern, but C particulate contamination also occurs from the heat shield of the Sample Return Capsule (SRC) and this is mixed with inorganic contamination from the SRC and the Utah landing site. If UPW exposure also produced an insoluble residue from SRC C, this would be a major problem in chemical treatments to produce clean surfaces for analysis. This paper reports experiments to test whether particulate contamination was removed more easily if UPW treatment was not used.

  13. Genesis of Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag Deposits within Permian Carboniferous-Carbonate Rocks in Madina Regency, North Sumatra

    Bhakti Hamonangan Harahap

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.3.167-184Strong mineralized carbonate rock-bearing Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag-(Au ores are well exposed on the Latong River area, Madina Regency, North Sumatra Province. The ore deposit is hosted within the carbonate rocks of the Permian to Carboniferous Tapanuli Group. It is mainly accumulated in hollows replacing limestone in the forms of lensoidal, colloform, veins, veinlets, cavity filling, breccia, and dissemination. The ores dominantly consist of galena (126 000 ppm Pb and sphalerite (2347 ppm Zn. The other minerals are silver, azurite, covellite, pyrite, marcasite, and chalcopyrite. This deposit was formed by at least three phases of mineralization, i.e. pyrite and then galena replaced pyrite, sphalerite replaced galena, and pyrite. The last phase is the deposition of chalcopyrite that replaced sphalerite. The Latong sulfide ore deposits posses Pb isotope ratio of 206Pb/204Pb = 19.16 - 20.72, 207Pb/204Pb = 16.16 - 17.29, and 208Pb/204Pb = 42.92 - 40.78. The characteristic feature of the deposit indicates that it is formed by a sedimentary process rather than an igneous activity in origin. This leads to an interpretation that the Latong deposit belongs to the Sedimentary Hosted Massive Sulfide (SHMS of Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT. The presence of SHMS in the island arc such as Sumatra has become controversial. For a long time, ore deposits in the Indonesian Island Arc are always identical with the porphyry and hydrothermal processes related to arc magmatism. This paper is dealing with the geology of Latong and its base metal deposits. This work is also to interpret their genesis as well as general relationship to the regional geology and tectonic setting of Sumatra.

  14. A formational model for the polygonal terrains of Mars: Taking a crack at the genesis of the Martian polygons

    Wenrich, M. L.; Christensen, P. R.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanism for the genesis of the polygonal terrains in Acidalia and Utopia Planitia has long been sought: however, no completely satisfying model was put forth that characterizes the evolution of these complexly patterned terrains. The polygons are roughly hexagonal but some are not entirely enclosed by fractures. These polygonal features range in widths from approximately 5 to 20 km. Several origins were proposed that describe the polygon borders as desiccation cracks, columnar jointing in a cooled lava, or frost-wedge features. These tension-induced cracking hypotheses were addressed by Pechmann, who convincingly disputes these mechanisms of formation based on scale magnitude difficulties and morphology. Pechmann suggests instead that the cracks delineating the 5-20-km-wide polygons on the northern plains of Mars are graben resulting from deep-seated, uniform, horizontal tension. The difficulty with this hypothesis is that no analogous polygonal forms are known to have originated by tectonism on Earth. McGill and Hills propose that the polygonal terrains on Mars resulted from either rapid desiccation of sediments or cooling of volcanics coupled with differential compaction of the material over a buried irregular topographic surface. They suggest that fracturing was enhanced over the areas of positive relief and was suppressed above the topographic lows. McGill and Hills suggest that the spacing of the topographic highs primarily controls the size of the Martian polygons and the physics of the shrinkage process is a secondary concern. Ray et. al. conducted a terrestrial study of patterned ground in periglacial areas of the U.S. to determine the process responsible for polygonal ground formation. They developed a model for polygon formation in which convection of seasonal melt water above a permafrost layer, driven by an unstable density stratification, differentially melts the permafrost interface, causing it to become undulatory.

  15. Heavy-ion targets

    Adair, H.L.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter examines the characteristics of targets required in heavy-ion accelerator physics experiments. The effects of target parameters on heavy-ion experimental results are reviewed. The target fabrication and characterization techniques used to minimize experimental problems during heavy-ion bombardment are described. Topics considered include target thickness and uniformity, target lifetime, target purity, substrate materials, Doppler shift effects, metal preparations, and target preparation methods

  16. Geological and geochemical implications of the genesis of the Qolqoleh orogenic gold mineralisation, Kurdistan Province (Iran)

    Taghipour, Batoul; Ahmadnejad, Farhad

    2015-03-01

    The Qolqoleh gold deposit is located in the northwestern part of the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (SSZ), within the NE-SW trending Qolqoleh shear zone. Oligocene granitoids, Cretaceous meta-limestones, schists and metavolcanics are the main lithological units. Chondrite-normalised REE patterns of the ore-hosting metavolcanics indicate REE enrichment relative to hanging wall (chlorite-sericite schist) and footwall (meta-limestone) rocks. The pattern also reflects an enrichment in LREE relative to HREE. It seems that the LREE enrichment is related to the circulation of SO42- and CO2-bearing fluids and regional metamorphism in the Qolqoleh shear zone. Both positive and negative Eu anomalies are observed in shear-zone metavolcanics. These anomalies are related to the degree of plagioclase alteration during gold mineralisation and hydrothermal alteration. In progressing from a metavolcanic protomylonite to an ultramylonite, significant changes occurred in the major/trace element and REE concentration. Utilising an Al-Fe-Ti isocon for the ore-hosting metavolcanics shows that Sc, Y, K, U, P, and M-HREE (except Eu) are relatively unchanged; S, As, Ag, Au, Ca, LOI, Rb and LREE are enriched, and Sr, Ba, Eu, Cr, Co and Ni decrease with an increasing degree of deformation. Based on geochemical features and comparison with other well-known shear zones in the world, the study area is best classified as an Isovolume-Gain (IVG) type shear zone and orogenic type gold mineralisation. Based on the number of phases observed at room temperature and their microthermometric behaviour, three fluid inclusion types have been recognised in quartz-sulphide and quartz-calcite veins: Type I monophase aqueous inclusions, Type II two-phase liquid-vapour (L-V) inclusions which are subdivided into two groups based on the homogenisation temperature (Th): a) L-V inclusions with Th from 205 to 255°C and melting temperature of last ice (Tm) from -3 to -9°C. b) L-V inclusions with higher Th from 335 to 385

  17. The History of Target-Controlled Infusion

    Struys, Michel M. R. F.; De Smet, Tom; Glen, John (Iain) B.; Vereecke, Hugo E. M.; Absalom, Anthony R.; Schnider, Thomas W.

    Target-controlled infusion (TCI) is a technique of infusing IV drugs to achieve a user-defined predicted (target) drug concentration in a specific body compartment or tissue of interest. In this review, we describe the pharmacokinetic principles of TCI, the development of TCI systems, and technical

  18. Two-layer targets for the D-D reaction

    Dekhtyar, M.I.; Primenko, G.I.; Strizhak, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron concentration and neutron output from twolayer loading target during deuteron beam braking in first layer of target is studied theoretically. Struggling effect on neutron output is discussed [ru

  19. Adam. Příběh prvního člověka v knize Genesis a v Koránu

    Mlada Mikulicová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In both books Adam is presented as a prototypical man created from physical elements and endowed with divine inspiration that makes him capable of rational actions. While Genesis narrates the story of Adam from his creation to his death, stressing chronology and future development in history, the Qur’an’s rendering is fragmentary. Of vast underlying popular traditions on Adam and Eve, Genesis previews the history of God’s covenant and salvific action towards humankind while the Qur’an persists on the theme of human disobedience and God’s absolute governance. Despite common themes as the createdness of man, his superiority over the rest of the creation, the complementary nature of human being as man and woman, the loss of happiness through disobedience to God’s law, the two stories differ in interpretation. While the acceptance of evil into human heart is reflected as voluntary in Genesis, the Qur’an finds excuse in the revolt of Satan who is shown in a more active role than man. Eliminating the notions of man as the image of God, and the final abolishment of evil, the Qur’an uses Adam’s story to demonstrate the principal axioms of Islamic doctrine: God must be obeyed and Satan’s lures avoided else man will not attain the Garden; Adam is a prototypal prophet, informing of these truths. Adam and Eve, according to the narration of the Book of Genesis, represent human existence in the drama of knowing evil and distress, hiding from God, and hearing his promise of future salvation that begins to unroll in their progeny. V biblicke knize Genesis i v Koranu je Adam představen jako prototyp člověka stvořeneho z fyzickych prvků a „Božiho vdechnuti“ racionality. Biblicke vypravěni je chronologicky přiběh, Koran zmiňuje pouze některe časti sparsatim v deseti různych surach. Genesis jakožto prolog k biblickemu celku vybira tradični latky k dokumentaci Božich dějin spasy, zatimco Koran eliminuje všechno, co nesouvisi

  20. O papel dos hormônios leptina e grelina na gênese da obesidade The role of leptin and ghrelin on the genesis of obesity

    Carla Eduarda Machado Romero

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência da obesidade está aumentando e estudos prospectivos mostram que, em 2025, o Brasil será o quinto país do mundo a apresentar problemas de obesidade em sua população. A etiologia da obesidade não é de fácil identificação, uma vez que a mesma é caracterizada como uma doença multifatorial, ou seja, diversos fatores estão envolvidos em sua gênese, incluindo fatores genéticos, psicológicos, metabólicos e ambientais. Pesquisas recentes na área de metabolismo mostram que o adipócito é capaz de sintetizar várias substâncias e, diferentemente do que se supunha anteriormente, o tecido adiposo não é apenas um sítio de armazenamento de triglicérides, é hoje considerado um órgão endócrino. Dentre as diversas substâncias sintetizadas pelo adipócito, destacam-se a adiponectina, a angiotensina e a leptina. A leptina é um petídeo que desempenha importante papel na regulação da ingestão alimentar e no gasto energético, gerando um aumento na queima de energia e diminuindo a ingestão alimentar. Além dos avanços no estudo da célula adiposa, um novo hormôrnio relacionado ao metabolismo foi descoberto recentemente, a grelina. A grelina é um peptídeo produzido nas células do estômago, e está diretamente envolvida na regulação do balanço energético a curto prazo. Assim, este artigo abordará o papel da leptina e da grelina no controle do peso corporal e as limitações que ainda existem para tratar a obesidade em humanos.The prevalence of obesity is rising around the world and prospective studies show that in 2025, Brazil will be the fifth country in the world to have obesity problems. Multifactorial factors are involved in the genesis of obesity including genetic, psychological, metabolic and environmental factors. Recently, adipocytes have been considered an endocrine tissue capable of producing several substances, including adiponectin, angiotensin and leptin. Leptin is the main peptide produced by

  1. The role of liquid-liquid immiscibility and crystal fractionation in the genesis of carbonatite magmas: insights from Kerimasi melt inclusions

    Guzmics, Tibor; Zajacz, Zoltán; Mitchell, Roger H.; Szabó, Csaba; Wälle, Markus

    2015-02-01

    We have reconstructed the compositional evolution of the silicate and carbonate melt, and various crystalline phases in the subvolcanic reservoir of Kerimasi Volcano in the East African Rift. Trace element concentrations of silicate and carbonate melt inclusions trapped in nepheline, apatite and magnetite from plutonic afrikandite (clinopyroxene-nepheline-perovskite-magnetite-melilite rock) and calciocarbonatite (calcite-apatite-magnetite-perovskite-monticellite-phlogopite rock) show that liquid immiscibility occurred during the generation of carbonatite magmas from a CO2-rich melilite-nephelinite magma formed at relatively high temperatures (1,100 °C). This carbonatite magma is notably more calcic and less alkaline than that occurring at Oldoinyo Lengai. The CaO-rich (32-41 wt%) nature and alkali-"poor" (at least 7-10 wt% Na2O + K2O) nature of these high-temperature (>1,000 °C) carbonate melts result from strong partitioning of Ca (relative to Mg, Fe and Mn) in the immiscible carbonate and the CaO-rich nature (12-17 wt%) of its silicate parent (e.g., melilite-nephelinite). Evolution of the Kerimasi carbonate magma can result in the formation of natrocarbonatite melts with similar composition to those of Oldoinyo Lengai, but with pronounced depletion in REE and HFSE elements. We suggest that this compositional difference results from the different initial parental magmas, e.g., melilite-nephelinite at Kerimasi and a nephelinite at Oldoinyo Lengai. The difference in parental magma composition led to a significant difference in the fractionating mineral phase assemblage and the element partitioning systematics upon silicate-carbonate melt immiscibility. LA-ICP-MS analysis of coeval silicate and carbonate melt inclusions provides an opportunity to infer carbonate melt/silicate melt partition coefficients for a wide range of elements. These data show that Li, Na, Pb, Ca, Sr, Ba, B, all REE (except Sc), U, V, Nb, Ta, P, Mo, W and S are partitioned into the carbonate

  2. The influence of drug distribution and drug-target binding on target occupancy : The rate-limiting step approximation

    Witte, de W.E.A.; Vauquelin, G.; Graaf, van der P.H.; Lange, de E.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of drug-target binding kinetics on target occupancy can be influenced by drug distribution and diffusion around the target, often referred to as "rebinding" or "diffusion-limited binding". This gives rise to a decreased decline of the drug-target complex concentration as a result of a

  3. Discrimination and quantification of contamination and implanted solar wind in Genesis collector shards using grazing incidence synchrotron x-ray techniques: Initial results

    Kitts, K.; Sutton, S.; Eng, P.; Ghose, S.; Burnett, D.

    2006-01-01

    Grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence is a non-destructive technique that can differentiate the embedded solar wind component from surface contamination and collector background in the Genesis shards. Initial solar Fe abundance in D30554 is 8 x 10 12 /cm 2 . Accurate knowledge of the composition of the Sun provides a baseline, which allows an understanding of how the solar system has evolved over time and how solar processes and solar wind mechanics behave. Unfortunately, the errors in photospheric abundances are too large for many planetary science problems and this hampers our understanding of these different processes. Analyses of solar wind implanted in meteorites or lunar soils have provided more precise data but alteration processes on these bodies may complicate such information. In response to this need for pristine solar wind samples, NASA developed and launched the Genesis Probe. Unfortunately, the probe smashed into the Utah desert shattering the 300 collector plates into 15,000+ pieces all of which are now coated in a both a fine terrestrial dust and Si and Ge powder from the disrupted collectors themselves. The solar wind penetration depth is 100-200 nm and the superposed contamination layers are typically 40-50 nm. Stringent cleaning regimes have the potential of removing the solar wind itself. The best solution is to have sufficient spatial resolution to separately analyze the surface contamination and penetrated solar wind. To that end, three Genesis collector array shards and their appropriate flight spares were characterized via grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence and x-ray reflectivity. The goals were (1) to evaluate the various cleaning methods used to eliminate contamination, (2) to identify the collector substrates most suited for this technique, (3) to determine whether the solar wind signature could be deconvolved from the collector background signature, and (4) to measure the relative abundances of Ca to Ge in the embedded solar wind.

  4. Preliminary discussion on possible genesis of crustal rotation, its impact on geotectonic evolution and its relation to large-scale metallogeny in Hunan province and adjacent regions

    Shu Xiaojing

    2005-01-01

    Hunan province and adjacent regions show ring-form distribution features both on surface geologic structure and geophysical field. Such features might result from the rotation movement of the earth crust and exert serious impact on the geotectonic evolution and large-scale metallogeny in Hunan province and adjacent regions. This paper makes a preliminary discussion on the possible genesis of such rotation movement, as well as the associated series of geologic processes and its relation to large-scale metallogeny in Hunan province and adjacent regions. (authors)

  5. Glucose-regulated protein 78 regulates the expression of mitochondrial genesis proteins in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma: a clinical analysis

    LI Yaping

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78 in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-HCC and its association with clinicopathological features, as well as its regulatory effect on mitochondrial genesis proteins in hepatoma cells, and to provide a basis for new strategies for the prevention and treatment of HCC. MethodsTissue samples were collected from 54 patients with HBV-HCC, and immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to measure the expression of GRP78, Lon, TFAM, and cytochrome C oxidase Ⅳ (COXⅣ. The expression of GRP78 in hepatoma cells was interfered by siRNA, and then the expression of GRP78, Lon, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM, and COX Ⅳ was measured. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure the level of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA in clinical specimens and HCC cells after GRP78 expression was interfered with. A statistical analysis was performed for clinical and experimental data. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, the Fisher′s exact test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups, and the Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis. Results Compared with the adjacent tissues, HBV-HCC tissues had significantly higher expression of GRP78 and Lon (t=9.135 and 5523, both P<0.0001 and significantly lower expression of the mitochondrial genesis proteins TFAM and COX Ⅳ and mtDNA level (t=2.765, 4260, and 12.280, P=0.011, <0.001, and <0.001. There were significant increases in the expression of the mitochondrial genesis proteins TFAM and COX Ⅳ and mtDNA level after the interference with GRP78 expression in hepatoma cells (all P<0.05. There were significant differences in the expression of GRP78 between patients with different numbers of tumors, patients with and without portal vein tumor thrombus, and patients with different tumor stages (P=0.016, 0.003, and 0.045. The patients with low GRP78

  6. 浙江省观赏石成因和分布规律%Distribution, Genesis and Regional Geological Background of View Stones in Zhejiang Province

    陈美君; 王杜涛; 王加恩

    2012-01-01

    By the research and evaluation on the view stones in Zhejiang, it proves that there are plenty of various resources of view stones; 30 types and 63 localities of view stones have been found. Now the paper describes the main several stones' distribution and genesis in detail, especially researches from the regional geological background.%浙江省内观赏石资源丰富、类型齐全,目前已查明观赏石产地63处。本文初步探讨了浙江观赏石成因和分布规律。

  7. Ultra flat ideal concentrators of high concentration

    Chaves, Julio [IST, Physics Dept., Lisboa (Portugal); INETI-DER, Lisboa (Portugal); Collares-Pereira, Manuel [INETI-DER, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2000-07-01

    A new method for the design of nonimaging devices is presented. Its application to the design of ultra flat compact concentrators is analysed. These new concentrators are based on a combination of two stages: the first one is composed of a large number of small structures placed side by side and the second one is a very compact single device concentrating the radiation to the limit. These devices are ideal for 2D. These compact designs are much more compact than the traditional ones like lens-mirror combinations or parabolic primaries with nonimaging secondaries. Besides, they can be designed for any acceptance angle, while the traditional ones are limited to small acceptance angles. (Author)

  8. Highly concentrating Fresnel lenses

    Kritchman, E.M.; Friesem, A.A.; Yekutieli, G.

    1979-01-01

    A new type of concave Fresnel lens capable of concentrating solar radiation very near the ultimate concentration limit is considered. The differential equations that describe the lens are solved to provide computed solutions which are then checked by ray tracing techniques. The performance (efficiency and concentration) of the lens is investigated and compared to that of a flat Fresnel lens, showing that the new lens is preferable for concentrating solar radiation. (author)

  9. Genesis and classification of soils developed on gabbro in the high reliefs of Maroua region, North Cameroon

    Désiré Tsozué

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to examine the genesis, properties and classification of soils resulting from the weathering of gabbro rock in the high reliefs of Maroua in the Far North Region of Cameroon. The studied soils were ~ 2 m thick, made of four horizons which consisted of coarse saprolite, fine saprolite, loose loamy clayey horizon and humiferous horizon. From petrographical view point, at the bottom of the soil profile, the preservation of the bedrock structure was marked by numerous remnants of altered plagioclases shapes. The groundmass was characterized by a double spaced fine, ranging to equal, enaulic c/f related distribution pattern. It was yellowish, characterized by weakly separated granular microstructure in the fine saprolite and had a speckled and cloudy limpidity in the loose loamy clayey horizon. Secondary minerals consisted of montmorilonite, kaolinite, goethite, quartz, gibbsite, lepidocrocite, sepiolite, feldspar and calcite. Globally, Si/Al ratio ranged between 2.85 and 3.24. The chemical index of alteration ranged from 50.95 to 55.27 % while the mineralogical index of alteration values were between 1.90 and 10.54 %. Physicochemically, soil pH varied from slightly acidic to slightly above neutral. Soil organic carbon contents were low to very low. Exchangeable bases contents were high, mostly represented by Ca2+ and Mg2+. The CEC of soils and the CEC of clay were also high, ranging respectively between 53.68 and 82.88 cmol(+.kg-1, and 116.80 and 181.38 cmol(+.kg-1. The studied soils were classified as dystric haplustepts clayey isohyperthermic. They were developed in situ by the collapse of primary mineral structures from the bottom of the coarse saprolite, due to leaching as a result of bisiallitisation and monosiallitisation. This is accompanied by a progressive ferruginization of materials, confirmed by the densification under the microscope of goethitic brown veil from the base to the loamy clay horizon and the

  10. Subduction-like fluids in the genesis of Mt. Etna magmas: evidence from boron isotopes and fluid mobile elements

    Tonarini, Sonia; Armienti, Pietro; D'Orazio, Massimo; Innocenti, Fabrizio

    2001-11-01

    New whole-rock B, Sr, Nd isotope ratios and 87Sr/ 86Sr on clinopyroxenes have been collected to study the enrichment of fluid mobile elements (FMEs) observed in Mt. Etna volcanics. Etna volcano, one of the most active in the world, is located in an extremely complex tectonic context at the boundary between colliding African and European plates. The analytical work focuses on current (1974-1998) and historic (1851-1971) eruptive activity, including some key prehistoric lavas, in order to interpret the secular shift of its geochemical signature to more alkaline compositions. Boron is used as a tool to unravel the role of fluids in the genesis of magmas, revealing far-reaching consequences, beyond the case study of Mt. Etna. Small variations are observed in δ 11B (-3.5 to -8.0‰), 87Sr/ 86Sr (0.70323-0.70370), and 143Nd/ 144Nd (0.51293-0.51287). Moreover, temporal evolution to higher δ 11B and 87Sr/ 86Sr, and to lower 143Nd/ 144Nd, is observed in the current activity, defining a regular trend. Sr isotopic equilibrium between whole-rock and clinopyroxene pairs indicates the successive introduction of three distinct magma types into the Etna plumbing system over time; these are characterized by differing degrees of FME enrichment. In addition, certain lavas exhibit evidence for country rock assimilation, magma-fluid interaction, or magma mixing in the shallow feeding system; at times these processes apparently lowered magmatic δ 11B and/or induced Sr isotopic disequilibrium between whole rock and clinopyroxene. The regular increase of δ 11B values is correlated with Nb/FME and 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios; these correlations are consistent with simple mixing between the mantle source and aqueous fluids derived from nearby Ionian slab. The best fit of Mt. Etna data is obtained using an enriched-MORB mantle source and a fluid phase with δ 11B of about -2‰ and 87Sr/ 86Sr of 0.708. We argue that the slab window generated by differential roll-back of subducting Ionian

  11. Geochemical constraints on genesis of Paleoproterozoic A-type granite in the south margin of North China Craton

    Xue, Shuo; Xu, Yang; Ling, Ming-Xing; Kang, Qing-Qing; Jiang, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Sai-Jun; Wu, Kai; Zhang, Zhe-Kun; Luo, Ze-Bin; Liu, Yu-Long; Sun, Weidong

    2018-04-01

    Paleoproterozoic A-type granites are widely outcropped in the North China Craton (NCC), particularly in the Trans-North China Orogen. However, their genesis and tectonic significance remain obscure. Here we report systematic studies on geochronology and geochemical characteristics of A-type granite in Huayangchuan, south margin of the NCC. The samples are enriched in total alkali (K2O + Na2O > 8.97 wt%), and depleted in MgO (0.84-0.93 wt%), CaO (1.28-1.90 wt%) and P2O5 (0.18-0.20 wt%), with high FeOT/MgO (5.69-6.67). They are characterized by high Zr + Y + Nb + Ce values (1293-1392 ppm) and 10,000 × Ga/Al ratios (3.14-3.35), which are typical characteristics of A-type granite. The Huayangchuan A-type granite can be further classified as A1-type subgroup based on particular geochemical features, e.g., low Y/Nb (0.87-1.00) and Yb/Ta (0.88-1.10). High precision zircon U-Pb dating of the A-type granite by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) yields Paleoproterozoic 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1829.5 ± 2.5 Ma. The low zircon ɛHf(t) values (-6.97 to -10.45), along with zircon Hf model age of 2.7-2.9 Ga, indicate that the Huayangchuan A-type granite was derived from partial melting of the ancient continental crust with contribution of enriched mantle components. The low zircon δ18O composition (4.00 to 6.78‰) indicates that the zircons were crystallized from low δ18O magmas, which derived from the crust metasomatized by low δ18O mantle fluids or melts. The E-W trend A1-type granitic plutons in the NCC are generally outcropped in a rift tectonic regime, which is consistent with the development of the mantle plume in the Xiong'er district. The large volume of basaltic magmas, generated by mantle plume head, underplated the lower continental crust and formed the Huayangchuan A-type granite.

  12. Genesis and formation attribute of military authorities of the Ukrainian сossacks in the XVI – XVIII centuries

    Nadiya V. Babkova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Here are considered the historical roots of formation and genesis of bunchuks as a part of the whole kleinod complex of Kosh Otamans and Hetmans of the Ukrainian Cossacks. Turkic lexeme «bunchuk» over time has transformed into modern term that is common in Ukrainian culture. Traditionally, the first recorded case of bunchuks’ use by military is associated with the name of the Arab Caliph Abu Bakr and his military battles on the territory of Syria in the 7th century. During the active cross-cultural contacts in the early 13th century, firstly bunchuks became known among the Mongols and later among the Turks. Early Ottomans used them not only as a military sign, but also as a ranking marker of the court official, status present, which raised the social status of a person. From Turks bunchuks were taken by the representatives of the Commonwealth of Poland and at the beginning gave them a meaning of the important symbol of Quarter Army Hetman military power and later, from the middle of the XVII century, of the Polish king. Historical tradition linked the use of bunchuks by Ukrainian Cossacks with the military reforms of Polish monarch Stefan Batory. But modern scientists, studying military history of the Cossacks in the first quarter of the XVII century and using the materials of Polish archives denied this statement and stressed the attention of the Turkish-Tatar vector. For Zaporozhian Cossacks bunchuks were among the attributes of legitimacy or legality of certain actions. In the external design dominated red and black color schemes. National Symbols of early modern Ukrainian state in the middle of the 17th – 18th c., which basis was formed of the attributes of power Zaporozhian Cossacks, recorded bunchuks as personal banners of Hetmans. In order to make the distinction from Zaporozhian Cossacks, Hetmans started using white bunchuks. Historical records kept information about these signs is in the arsenal of Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Petro

  13. Nanoscale Study of Clausthalite-Bearing Symplectites in Cu-Au-(U Ores: Implications for Ore Genesis

    Nicholas D. Owen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Symplectites comprising clausthalite (PbSe and host Cu-(Fe-sulphides (chalcocite, bornite, and chalcopyrite are instructive for constraining the genesis of Cu-Au-(U ores if adequately addressed at the nanoscale. The present study is carried out on samples representative of all three Cu-(Fe-sulphides displaying clausthalite inclusions that vary in size, from a few µm down to the nm-scale (<5 nm, as well as in morphology and inclusion density. A Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM study was undertaken on foils prepared by Focussed Ion Beam and included atom-scale High-Angle Annular Dark-Field Scanning TEM (HAADF-STEM imaging. Emphasis is placed on phase relationships and their changes in speciation during cooling, as well as on boundaries between inclusions and host sulphide. Three species from the chalcocite group (Cu2–xS are identified as 6a digenite superstructure, monoclinic chalcocite, and djurleite. Bornite is represented by superstructures, of which 2a and 4a are discussed here, placing constraints for ore formation at T > 265 °C. A minimum temperature of 165 °C is considered for clausthalite-bearing symplectites from the relationships with antiphase boundaries in 6a digenite. The results show that alongside rods, blebs, and needle-like grains of clausthalite within the chalcocite that likely formed via exsolution, a second, overprinting set of replacement textures, extending down to the nanoscale, occurs and affects the primary symplectites. In addition, other reactions between pre-existing Se, present in solid solution within the Cu-(Fe-sulphides, and Pb, transported within a fluid phase, account for the formation of composite, commonly pore-attached PbSe and Bi-bearing nanoparticles within the chalcopyrite. The inferred reorganisation of PbSe nanoparticles into larger tetragonal superlattices represents a link between the solid solution and the symplectite formation and represents the first such example in natural materials

  14. Solar cell concentrating system

    Garg, H.P.; Sharma, V.K.; Agarwal, R.K.

    1986-11-01

    This study reviews fabrication techniques and testing facilities for different solar cells under concentration which have been developed and tested. It is also aimed to examine solar energy concentrators which are prospective candidates for photovoltaic concentrator systems. This may provide an impetus to the scientists working in the area of solar cell technology

  15. Rheology of concentrated biomass

    J.R. Samaniuk; J. Wang; T.W. Root; C.T. Scott; D.J. Klingenberg

    2011-01-01

    Economic processing of lignocellulosic biomass requires handling the biomass at high solids concentration. This creates challenges because concentrated biomass behaves as a Bingham-like material with large yield stresses. Here we employ torque rheometry to measure the rheological properties of concentrated lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover). Yield stresses obtained...

  16. Sticking efficiency of nanoparticles in high-velocity collisions with various target materials

    Reissaus, Philipp; Waldemarsson, Tomas; Blum, Juergen; Clement, Dominik; Llamas, Isabel; Mutschke, Harald; Giovane, Frank

    2006-01-01

    In order to find reliable collector surfaces for the Mesospheric Aerosol - Genesis, Interaction and Composition (MAGIC) sounding rocket experiment, intended to collect atmospheric nanoparticles, the sticking efficiency of nanoparticles was measured on several targets of different materials. The nanoparticles were generated by a molecular beam apparatus in Jena, Germany, by laser ablation (Al 2 O 3 particles, diameter 5-50 nm) and by laser pyrolysis (carbon particles, diameter 10-20 nm). In a vacuum environment (>10 -5 mbar) the particles condensed from the gas phase, formed a particle beam, and were accelerated to ∼∼1 km/s. The sticking efficiency on the target materials carbon, gold and grease was measured by a microbalance. Results demonstrate moderate to high sticking probabilities. Thus, the capture and retrieval of atmospheric nanoparticles was found to be quantitatively feasible

  17. The Genesis of Capitalism

    Li, Xing

    2004-01-01

     This paper aims to offer a framework of interpreting the “evolution” of capitalism that is reaching every corner of the world and has achieved greater legitimacy than at any time in human history. It covers an interdisciplinary discussion on the development of market capitalism that has been...... characterized by a dual process: unanticipated origin (cultural and historical) and anticipated progress (political economy). The point of departure of this paper is that although the advancement of market capitalism is a process of societal development involving historical, cultural and religious causes...... (historical, divine, spiritual, miraculous), the establishment of capitalism is less the result of a force for cultural and economic dynamism than the realization of a political project. In other words, from being an enterprise within defined geographical boundaries to becoming a global project is first...

  18. Genesis of social entrepreneurship

    Kulothungan, Gladius

    of institutions and internal, in terms of motivations and drive in a combination propel the social entrepreneur or the group to create social enterprises. The aim of the investigation is to explore and explain how and why certain individuals/groups create/generate innovative responses/ solutions - understood...... – grants, donations and revenue streams generated by business activities and 4/ they seldom act alone but work within an organizational context. GK has done a number of English and Danish empirical case studies of different social enterprises and beginning the analyses of these....

  19. Factors Affecting Tocopherol Concentrations in Soybean Seeds.

    Carrera, Constanza S; Seguin, Philippe

    2016-12-21

    Soybean seeds contain several health-beneficial compounds, including tocopherols, which are used by the nutraceutical and functional food industries. Soybean tocopherol concentrations are, however, highly variable. Large differences observed in tocopherol concentrations among soybean genotypes together with the relatively simple biosynthetic pathway involving few genes support the feasibility of selecting for high-tocopherol soybean. Tocopherol concentrations are also highly influenced by environmental factors and field management. Temperature during seed filling and soil moisture appear to be the main factors affecting tocopherol concentrations; other factors such as soil fertility and solar radiation also affect concentrations and composition. Field management decisions including seeding date, row spacing, irrigation, and fertilization also affect tocopherols. Knowledge of factors affecting soybean tocopherols is essential to develop management strategies that will lead to the production of seeds with consistent target concentrations that will meet the needs of the nutraceutical and functional food industries.

  20. Importance of No. 21 chromosome in translocation t(8:21) in acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) to the genesis of the disease

    Ishihara, T; Minamihisamatsu, M

    1986-05-01

    The results are reported of the chromosome analysis of 17 cases of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), mostly belonging to M2 of the FAB classification, especially on the translocation t(8:21) and its variant translocations. The presence of two cases with simple variant translocation not involving No. 8 chromosome seems to suggest that No. 21 chromosome is more important to the genesis of AML than the No. 8 chromosome. This assumption appears to be supported by findings on cases with complex translocation: In two cases with complex translocation, the portion translocated from No. 21 chromosome onto No. 8 was firmly maintained in the specific site (q21) on No. 8 whereas the portion translocated from No. 8 chromosome onto No. 21 was involved in further translocation with another chromosome, onto which it was re-translocated. The results of the present cytogenetic study indicate that the analysis of variant translocations in various specific chromosome translocations in leukemia and other malignant disorders is very useful to elucidate the problem as to whether the genesis of such disorders lies in either one or both of the pair of chromosomes involved in the specific translocations of the respective diseases.

  1. The genesis of the ore hosting 'dolomitic marble' in the Bayan Obo deposit, Inner Mongolia, China: constrained by isotopic results

    Ding Tiping; Tian Shihong; Wang Defang; Jiang Shaoyong; Bai Ruimei

    2003-01-01

    The Bayan Obo Fe-REE-Nb ore deposit, Inner Mongolia, China is a super large REE deposit. This deposit attracts attentions of many geologists and geochemists for its unique geological characters and geotectonic background. However, there are quite a number of controversies on various aspects of its genesis, such as when the ore deposit was formed, where the ore forming materials came from and what conditions and geotectonic environment the deposit was formed. Among them, the genesis of ore bearing 'dolomitic marble' is a focus point of debating. isotopic methods are important tools for study on ore deposits. Therefore, supplemental stable isotope investigation was undertaken in this study to reach more information on the forming conditions of 'dolomitic marble'. The high contents of REE and Nb, the REE distribution pattern, the low initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio and low δ 30 Si values of trace silica in 'dolomitic marble' all indicate its magmatic origin. The high δ 18 O values of carbonate and silicate minerals, and the relatively high δ 34 S values indicate that this rock had experienced isotopic exchange with sea water, implying their submarine volcanic origin. The δ 13 C values observed in carbonate and silicate minerals can also be explained by carbonatite assimilated by oceanic carbonate. Therefore, based on its isotopic characters, the 'dolomitic marble' is more likely of volcanic carbonatite rock formed during middle Proterozoic era. (authors)

  2. COMPOSITION, CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENVIRONMENT, CHOROLOGY AND GENESIS OF SNOUT BEETLES OF PTOCHUS SCHOENH GENUS AND CREATION OF MAPS OF THEIR AREAS IN THE REPUBLIC OF DAGHESTAN

    Asiyat M. Mukhtarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. The aim of the work was to study the characteristics of the ecology, the chorology and genesis of thesnout beetles of Ptochus genus in Dagestan, as well as designing the maps of their ranges. Materials and methods. The work was based on the materials of expedition and ecology-faunistic studies conducted from 1999 to 2017 in various regions of Dagestan using the basic entomological methods. For mapping were used the following source materials: the database created by the authors for the study group, the map of the Republic of Dagestan taken fromthe National Atlas of Russia, topographic maps from MapInfo 15.2 and maps made in Adobe Illustrator CreativeCloud. Results. The characteristics of the ecology and geographic distribution of the snout beetles of Ptochus genus in Dagestan have been studied; the following maps are created: "The areas of the snout beetles of Ptochus genus of Dagestan" and "The areas of the snout beetles of Ptochus genus of the Botlikh trench of Dagestan". Conclusion. In the fauna of Dagestan, 7 species of Ptochus snout beetles, associated with arid steppe and semidesert landscapes,ed distribution maps and bioecological features, a hypothesis was put forward on the genesis of the study group in the territory of Dagestan.

  3. Experimental approbation of a new ultrosound contrast agent based on sulfur geksafluoride in diagnostics of focal liver lesions of inflammatory genesis

    S. V. Fomina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study. Experimental approbation of a new domestic ultrasound contrast agent (UCA based on sulfur hexafluoride in the diagnosis of focal liver lesions of inflammatory genesis.Materials and methods. The investigated ultrasound contrast agent (UCA was a heterogeneous gas-liquid system consisting of micro bubbles of a sparingly soluble gas of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 surrounded by a flexible mobile membrane of surfactants. Experimental work was carried out on rabbits. The study group included rabbits of males and females with focal liver lesion of inflammatory genesis (n = 12 weighing 1500- 1700 g. UCA was administered to animals in the ear vein. Focal lesions of the liver in animals were created in the experimental laboratory conditions. 14 days after the operation, all animals were subjected to ultrasound examination of the surgical intervention zones by using the Toshiba Aplio 400 scanners (Japan with a 3,5–8 MHz convection sensor. In a natural study, the size, structure and echogenicity of the focus were assessed, the degree of vascularization, the evenness and clarity of the contours were determined. When performing post contrast ultrasound, the time of the onset of contrast enhancement, the total duration of contrast, the changes in the contrast enhancement of the focus in different phases of the study were measured, the dimensions of the focus were measured, and the evenness and acuity of contours were measured. For histological examination, liver fragments and lungs were used. 

  4. Organelle targeting: third level of drug targeting

    Sakhrani NM

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Niraj M Sakhrani, Harish PadhDepartment of Cell and Molecular Biology, BV Patel Pharmaceutical Education and Research Development (PERD Centre, Gujarat, IndiaAbstract: Drug discovery and drug delivery are two main aspects for treatment of a variety of disorders. However, the real bottleneck associated with systemic drug administration is the lack of target-specific affinity toward a pathological site, resulting in systemic toxicity and innumerable other side effects as well as higher dosage requirement for efficacy. An attractive strategy to increase the therapeutic index of a drug is to specifically deliver the therapeutic molecule in its active form, not only into target tissue, nor even to target cells, but more importantly, into the targeted organelle, ie, to its intracellular therapeutic active site. This would ensure improved efficacy and minimize toxicity. Cancer chemotherapy today faces the major challenge of delivering chemotherapeutic drugs exclusively to tumor cells, while sparing normal proliferating cells. Nanoparticles play a crucial role by acting as a vehicle for delivery of drugs to target sites inside tumor cells. In this review, we spotlight active and passive targeting, followed by discussion of the importance of targeting to specific cell organelles and the potential role of cell-penetrating peptides. Finally, the discussion will address the strategies for drug/DNA targeting to lysosomes, mitochondria, nuclei and Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum.Keywords: intracellular drug delivery, cancer chemotherapy, therapeutic index, cell penetrating peptides

  5. NF-κB-IKKβ pathway as a target for drug development: realities, challenges and perspectives.

    Freitas, Rosana H C N; Fraga, Carlos A M

    2018-02-19

    Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) comprises a family of proteins that act as transcription factors promoting the expression of many genes. Activation of NF-κB biochemical cascades is associated with the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses and inflammation, among other physiological responses. However, genetic abnormalities and continuous stimulation of the NF-κB-IKKβ pathway are directly related to many types of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as to the genesis and survival of tumor cells. Inhibition of the NF-κB-IKKβ cascade can be considered an attractive therapeutic method for the genesis of new prototypes to combat these chronic multifactorial diseases. This review describes some prototypes and drugs that act to inhibit the NF-κB-IKKβ pathway, highlighting the realities, challenges and perspectives for therapeutic use. Although only proteasome inhibitors, such as bortezomib and carfilzomib, are a reality as therapeutically useful drugs among the known modulators of possible targets in the NF-κB-IKKβ pathway, some other prototypes described as IKKβ inhibitors have entered clinical stages as drug candidates for the control of inflammatory diseases. It is important to note that some classical drugs available on the pharmaceutical market, such as acetylsalicylic acid, were also described more recently as NF-κB pathway modulators as IKKβ inhibitors. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Drug-Target Kinetics in Drug Discovery.

    Tonge, Peter J

    2018-01-17

    The development of therapies for the treatment of neurological cancer faces a number of major challenges including the synthesis of small molecule agents that can penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Given the likelihood that in many cases drug exposure will be lower in the CNS than in systemic circulation, it follows that strategies should be employed that can sustain target engagement at low drug concentration. Time dependent target occupancy is a function of both the drug and target concentration as well as the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters that describe the binding reaction coordinate, and sustained target occupancy can be achieved through structural modifications that increase target (re)binding and/or that decrease the rate of drug dissociation. The discovery and deployment of compounds with optimized kinetic effects requires information on the structure-kinetic relationships that modulate the kinetics of binding, and the molecular factors that control the translation of drug-target kinetics to time-dependent drug activity in the disease state. This Review first introduces the potential benefits of drug-target kinetics, such as the ability to delineate both thermodynamic and kinetic selectivity, and then describes factors, such as target vulnerability, that impact the utility of kinetic selectivity. The Review concludes with a description of a mechanistic PK/PD model that integrates drug-target kinetics into predictions of drug activity.

  7. Assessment of Concentration in the Economy of Ukraine

    Khaustova Viktoriia Ye.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the generalization of theoretical aspects of economic concentration and assessment of concentration in Ukraine’s economy. It is proved that in the world there is a stable trend towards the spread of concentration processes both at the level of economies in general and individual industries and business entities, and it occurs predominantly within TNCs. The main stages of the development of TNCs are considered, and it is shown that modern TNCs are large corporations that are the main players in the market. The genesis of the theory of concentration in economy is considered. The views of scientists on the interpretation of the concept “concentration” are studied. It is proved that it is used in different meanings and with respect to different levels of economy and objects of consideration, and there is a wide diversity of basic criteria that determine the essential signs of this concept. The interpretation of the concept “concentration of the country’s economy” is proposed. The existing approaches to assessment of concentration in economy are analyzed. The trends in the development of concentration processes in Ukraine’s economy and the factors that are determined by them are analyzed. There investigated the distribution of industries of Ukraine’s economy in terms of net income of the largest corporations, dynamics of net income of the largest corporations, dynamics of distribution of industries of Ukraine’s economy in terms of profits of large companies, dynamics of net profit of the largest corporations of the top 10 industries of Ukraine’s economy, dynamics of the GDP of Ukraine and main indicators of the largest national corporations. The concentration of Ukraine’s economy is assessed, and it is determined that the most highly concentrated spheres are production of electronics and computers, the automotive industry, media, production of personal goods and software, provision of business

  8. Deuterium pass through target

    Alger, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    A neutron emitting target is described for use in neutron generating apparatus including a deuteron source and an accelerator vacuum chamber. The target consists of a tritium-containing target layer, a deuteron accumulation layer, and a target support containing passages providing communication between the accumulation layer and portions of the surface of the support exposed to the accelerator vacuum chamber. With this arrangement, deuterons passing through the target layer and implanting in and diffusing through the accumulation layer, diffuse into the communicating passages and are returned to the accelerator vacuum chamber. The invention allows the continuous removal of deuterons from the target in conventional water cooled neutron generating apparatus. Preferably, the target is provided with thin barrier layers to prevent undesirable tritium diffusion out of the target layer, as well as deuteron diffusion into the target layer

  9. Molecular Targets for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Mather, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular targeted radionuclide cancer therapy is becoming of increasing importance, especially for disseminated diseases. Systemic chemotherapies often lack selectivity while targeted radionuclide therapy has important advantages as the radioactive cytotoxic unit of the targeting vector is specifically directed to the cancer, sparing normal tissues. The principle strategy to improve cancer selectivity is to couple therapeutic agents to tumour-targeting vectors. In targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT), the cytotoxic portion of the conjugates normally contains a therapeutic radiometal immobilised by a bifunctional chelator. The aim is therefore to use as ligand-targeted therapeutics vectors coupled to Auger-, alpha- and/or beta-emitting radionuclides. An advantage of using radiation instead of chemotherapeutics as the cytotoxic agent is the so called 'crossfire effect'. This allows sterilisation of tumour cells that are not directly targeted due to heterogeneity in target molecule expression or inhomogeneous vector delivery. However, before the targeting ligands can be selected, the target molecule on the tumour has to be selected. It should be uniquely expressed, or at least highly overexpressed, on or in the target cells relative to normal tissues. The target should be easily accessible for ligand delivery and should not be shed or down- regulated after ligand binding. An important property of a receptor (or antigen) is its potential to be internalized upon binding of the ligand. This provides an active uptake mechanism and allows the therapeutic agent to be trapped within the tumour cells. Molecular targets of current interest include: Receptors: G-protein coupled receptors are overexpressed on many major human tumours. The prototype of these receptors are somatostatin receptors which show very high density in neuroendocrine tumours, but there are many other most interesting receptors to be applied for TRT. The targeting ligands for these receptors are

  10. Space based lidar shot pattern targeting strategies for small targets such as streams

    Spiers, Gary D.

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of the effectiveness of four different types of lidar shot distribution is conducted to determine which is best for concentrating shots in a given location. A simple preemptive targeting strategy is found to work as adequately as a more involved dynamic strategy for most target sizes considered.

  11. Monitoring production target thickness

    Oothoudt, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Pion and muon production targets at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility consist of rotating graphite wheels. The previous target thickness monitoring Procedure scanned the target across a reduced intensity beam to determine beam center. The fractional loss in current across the centered target gave a measure of target thickness. This procedure, however, required interruption of beam delivery to experiments and frequently indicated a different fractional loss than at normal beam currents. The new monitoring Procedure compares integrated ups and downs toroid current monitor readings. The current monitors are read once per minute and the integral of readings are logged once per eight-hour shift. Changes in the upstream to downstream fractional difference provide a nonintrusive continuous measurement of target thickness under nominal operational conditions. Target scans are now done only when new targets are installed or when unexplained changes in the current monitor data are observed

  12. Prolonged oxidative stress down-regulates Early B cell factor 1 with inhibition of its tumor suppressive function against cholangiocarcinoma genesis

    Napat Armartmuntree

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Early B cell factor 1 (EBF1 is a transcription factor involved in the differentiation of several stem cell lineages and it is a negative regulator of estrogen receptors. EBF1 is down-regulated in many tumors, and is believed to play suppressive roles in cancer promotion and progression. However, the functional roles of EBF1 in carcinogenesis are unclear. Liver fluke-infection-associated cholangiocarcinoma (CCA is an oxidative stress-driven cancer of bile duct epithelium. In this study, we investigated EBF1 expression in tissues from CCA patients, CCA cell lines (KKU-213, KKU-214 and KKU-156, cholangiocyte (MMNK1 and its oxidative stress-resistant (ox-MMNK1-L cell lines. The formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG was used as an oxidative stress marker. Our results revealed that EBF1 expression was suppressed in cancer cells compared with the individual normal bile duct cells at tumor adjacent areas of CCA tissues. CCA patients with low EBF1 expression and high formation of 8-oxodG were shown to correlate with poor survival. Moreover, EBF1 was suppressed in the oxidative stress-resistant cell line and all of CCA cell lines compared to the cholangiocyte cell line. This suggests that prolonged oxidative stress suppressed EBF1 expression and the reduced EBF1 level may facilitate CCA genesis. To elucidate the significance of EBF1 suppression in CCA genesis, EBF1 expression of the MMNK1 cell line was down-regulated by siRNA technique, and its effects on stem cell properties (CD133 and Oct3/4 expressions, tumorigenic properties (cell proliferation, wound healing and cell migration, estrogen responsive gene (TFF1, estrogen-stimulated wound healing, and cell migration were examined. The results showed that CD133, Oct3/4 and TFF1 expression levels, wound healing, and cell migration of EBF1 knockdown-MMNK1 cells were significantly increased. Also, cell migration of EBF1-knockdown cells was significantly enhanced after 17

  13. Charged particle fusion targets

    Bangerter, R.O.; Meeker, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    The power, voltage, energy and other requirements of electron and ion beam fusion targets are reviewed. Single shell, multiple shell and magnetically insulated target designs are discussed. Questions of stability are also considered. In particular, it is shown that ion beam targets are stabilized by an energy spread in the ion beam

  14. Liquid helium target

    Fujii, Y.; Kitami, T.; Torikoshi, M.

    1984-12-01

    A liquid helium target system has been built and used for the experiment on the reaction 4 He(γ, p). The target system has worked satisfactorily; the consumption rate of liquid helium is 360 ml/h and the cryogenic system retains liquid helium for about ten hours. The structure, operation and performance of the target system are reported. (author)

  15. Graphite targets at LAMPF

    Brown, R.D.; Grisham, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Rotating polycrystalline and stationary pyrolytic graphite target designs for the LAMPF experimental area are described. Examples of finite element calculations of temperatures and stresses are presented. Some results of a metallographic investigation of irradiated pyrolytic graphite target plates are included, together with a brief description of high temperature bearings for the rotating targets

  16. Underscreening in concentrated electrolytes.

    Lee, Alpha A; Perez-Martinez, Carla S; Smith, Alexander M; Perkin, Susan

    2017-07-01

    Screening of a surface charge by an electrolyte and the resulting interaction energy between charged objects is of fundamental importance in scenarios from bio-molecular interactions to energy storage. The conventional wisdom is that the interaction energy decays exponentially with object separation and the decay length is a decreasing function of ion concentration; the interaction is thus negligible in a concentrated electrolyte. Contrary to this conventional wisdom, we have shown by surface force measurements that the decay length is an increasing function of ion concentration and Bjerrum length for concentrated electrolytes. In this paper we report surface force measurements to test directly the scaling of the screening length with Bjerrum length. Furthermore, we identify a relationship between the concentration dependence of this screening length and empirical measurements of activity coefficient and differential capacitance. The dependence of the screening length on the ion concentration and the Bjerrum length can be explained by a simple scaling conjecture based on the physical intuition that solvent molecules, rather than ions, are charge carriers in a concentrated electrolyte.

  17. Preparation of rhodium target for cyclone-30 accelerator

    Deng Xuesong; Li Dakang; Xie Xiangqian; Li Chao

    2002-01-01

    The rhodium target for Cyclone-30 accelerator is prepared by pulse electroplating method. The effects of pulse parameters, rhodium concentration, acidity and temperature on the properties of the target layer are studied, and the optimal process is determined. The rhodium target, mass thickness is more than 150 mg/cm 2 , adapts to producing 103 Pd on Cyclone-30 accelerator

  18. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  19. Targeting phenotypically tolerant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Gold, Ben; Nathan, Carl

    2016-01-01

    While the immune system is credited with averting tuberculosis in billions of individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the immune system is also culpable for tempering the ability of antibiotics to deliver swift and durable cure of disease. In individuals afflicted with tuberculosis, host immunity produces diverse microenvironmental niches that support suboptimal growth, or complete growth arrest, of M. tuberculosis. The physiological state of nonreplication in bacteria is associated with phenotypic drug tolerance. Many of these host microenvironments, when modeled in vitro by carbon starvation, complete nutrient starvation, stationary phase, acidic pH, reactive nitrogen intermediates, hypoxia, biofilms, and withholding streptomycin from the streptomycin-addicted strain SS18b, render M. tuberculosis profoundly tolerant to many of the antibiotics that are given to tuberculosis patients in a clinical setting. Targeting nonreplicating persisters is anticipated to reduce the duration of antibiotic treatment and rate of post-treatment relapse. Some promising drugs to treat tuberculosis, such as rifampicin and bedaquiline, only kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis in vitro at concentrations far greater than their minimal inhibitory concentrations against replicating bacilli. There is an urgent demand to identify which of the currently used antibiotics, and which of the molecules in academic and corporate screening collections, have potent bactericidal action on nonreplicating M. tuberculosis. With this goal, we review methods of high throughput screening to target nonreplicating M. tuberculosis and methods to progress candidate molecules. A classification based on structures and putative targets of molecules that have been reported to kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis revealed a rich diversity in pharmacophores. However, few of these compounds were tested under conditions that would exclude the impact of adsorbed compound acting during the recovery phase of

  20. Photovoltaic static concentrator analysis

    Almonacid, G.; Luque, A.; Molledo, A. G.

    1984-12-01

    Ray tracing is the basis of the present analysis of truncated bifacial compound parabolic concentrators filled with a dielectric substance, which are of interest in photovoltaic applications where the bifacial cells allow higher static concentrations to be achieved. Among the figures of merit for this type of concentrator, the directional intercept factor plays a major role and is defined as the ratio of the power of the collector to that at the entry aperture, in a lossless concentrator illuminated by light arriving from a given direction. A procedure for measuring outdoor, full size panels has been developed, and a correction method for avoiding the effect of unwanted diffuse radiation during the measurements is presented.

  1. CMAQ predicted concentration files

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — model predicted concentrations. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Muñiz-Unamunzaga, M., R. Borge, G. Sarwar, B. Gantt, D. de la Paz, C....

  2. Vaginal oxytetracycline concentrations.

    Thin, R N; Al Rawi, Z H; Simmons, P D; Treharne, J; Tabaqchali, S

    1979-01-01

    Although tetracycline preparations are widely used in departments of genitourinary medicine, or sexually transmitted diseases clinics, little is known of the concentrations of these preparations in genital secretions. For this reason a microbiological method was used for estimating oxytetracycline concentrations in vaginal secretions. These concentrations varied from 0.6 to 6.5 microgram/ml in 19 women who had had sexual contact with a man with non-specific urethritis and who were taking oxytetracycline dihydrate 250 mg four times daily. They were well in excess of the minimum inhibitory concentration of oxytetracycline (0.2 microgram/ml) for the strains of Chlamydia trachomatis isolated from the patients with positive culture results. Thus, oxytetracycline 250 mg four times daily appears to be a satisfactory regimen for the treatment of chlamydial genital infection in women. PMID:509190

  3. Concentrations of Indicator Organisms

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — It is a compilation of organism concentrations of 16 sampling events conducted between July 2015 and February 2016. It also includes statistical analysis such as...

  4. Concentrated Differential Privacy

    Dwork, Cynthia; Rothblum, Guy N.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Concentrated Differential Privacy, a relaxation of Differential Privacy enjoying better accuracy than both pure differential privacy and its popular "(epsilon,delta)" relaxation without compromising on cumulative privacy loss over multiple computations.

  5. Wake Shield Target Protection

    Valmianski, Emanuil I.; Petzoldt, Ronald W.; Alexander, Neil B.

    2003-01-01

    The heat flux from both gas convection and chamber radiation on a direct drive target must be limited to avoid target damage from excessive D-T temperature increase. One of the possibilities of protecting the target is a wake shield flying in front of the target. A shield will also reduce drag force on the target, thereby facilitating target tracking and position prediction. A Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code was used to calculate convection heat loads as boundary conditions input into ANSYS thermal calculations. These were used for studying the quality of target protection depending on various shapes of shields, target-shield distance, and protective properties of the shield moving relative to the target. The results show that the shield can reduce the convective heat flux by a factor of 2 to 5 depending on pressure, temperature, and velocity. The protective effect of a shield moving relative to the target is greater than the protective properties of a fixed shield. However, the protective effect of a shield moving under the drag force is not sufficient for bringing the heat load on the target down to the necessary limit. Some other ways of diminishing heat flux using a protective shield are discussed

  6. Development of distributed target

    Yu Hai Jun; Li Qin; Zhou Fu Xin; Shi Jin Shui; Ma Bing; Chen Nan; Jing Xiao Bing

    2002-01-01

    Linear introduction accelerator is expected to generate small diameter X-ray spots with high intensity. The interaction of the electron beam with plasmas generated at the X-ray converter will make the spot on target increase with time and debase the X-ray dose and the imaging resolving power. A distributed target is developed which has about 24 pieces of thin 0.05 mm tantalum films distributed over 1 cm. due to the structure adoption, the distributed target material over a large volume decreases the energy deposition per unit volume and hence reduces the temperature of target surface, then reduces the initial plasma formalizing and its expansion velocity. The comparison and analysis with two kinds of target structures are presented using numerical calculation and experiments, the results show the X-ray dose and normalized angle distribution of the two is basically the same, while the surface of the distributed target is not destroyed like the previous block target

  7. Polarized targets and beams

    Meyer, W.

    1985-01-01

    First the experimental situation of the single-pion photoproduction and the photodisintegration of the deuteron is briefly discussed. Then a description of the Bonn polarization facilities is given. The point of main effort is put on the polarized target which plays a vital role in the program. A facility for photon induced double polarization experiments at ELSA will be presented in section 4. Properties of a tensor polarized deuteron target are discussed in section 5. The development in the field of polarized targets, especially on new target materials, enables a new generation of polarized target experiments with (polarized) electrons. Some comments on the use of a polarized target in combination with electron beams will be discussed in section 6. Electron deuteron scattering from a tensor polarized deuteron target is considered and compared with other experimental possibilities. (orig./HSI)

  8. Industrialisation et concentration urbaine

    Kamal , Abdelhak

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the determinants of the urban concentration and their effect at different levels of development. The empirical analysis focuses on the developing countries over the period 1950-2000 grouped by level of per capita income. The results confirm the existence of specific trajectories of urbanization rate and urban primacy which differs meaningfully according to the stage of development considered. Certain factors encourage urbanization and its concentration in ...

  9. Solar concentrators. Concentradores solares

    Almanza, R.; Valdes, A.; Lopez, S.

    1981-06-01

    This paper presents different types of geometries used in concentrators. Some comments are made on the theoretical and experimental analysis necessary to evaluate the geometries and on the type of laboratory equipment needed to obtain experimental data. At the end of the report a description of how to build parabolic trough mirrors is made. The experience gained by the authors, who have been working in this subject for the past five years, is summarized, showing some of the problems related with such concentrators.

  10. Concentration factors for fish

    Feldt, W.; Lauer, R.; Melzer, M.; Siebert, W.

    1978-01-01

    Concentration factors are defined as operators allowing to calculate the specific activity of fish meat from a given concentration of an element in the water. This parameter depends among others from the content of stable isotopes and homologues in the different waters. If this parameter is reasonably to be used for model calculations it must be referred to water with all of its content substances, these calculations also being based on this type of 'water'. (orig.) [de

  11. FK concentrator outdoor measurements

    Hernández Sanz, Maikel; Vilaplana, J., J.; Benitez Gimenez, Pablo; Mohedano,, Rubén; Zamora Herranz, Pablo; Miñano Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Mendes Lopes, Joao

    2013-01-01

    The FK is a two-stage optical concentrator for CPV, composed by a Fresnel lens working as POE and a refractive element working as SOE. Both elements perform Köhler integration, for uniform irradiance purposes. The FK has demonstrated that compares very well with other Fresnel-based concentrator optics. Recent on-sun measurements carried out on an FK mono-module prototype have already shown outstanding results, achieving electrical efficiencies over 34%. Further optimization of optical design ...

  12. Delayed onset of changes in soma action potential genesis in nociceptive A-beta DRG neurons in vivo in a rat model of osteoarthritis

    Henry James L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical data on osteoarthritis (OA suggest widespread changes in sensory function that vary during the progression of OA. In previous studies on a surgically-induced animal model of OA we have observed that changes in structure and gene expression follow a variable trajectory over the initial days and weeks. To investigate mechanisms underlying changes in sensory function in this model, the present electrophysiological study compared properties of primary sensory nociceptive neurons at one and two months after model induction with properties in naïve control animals. Pilot data indicated no difference in C- or Aδ-fiber associated neurons and therefore the focus is on Aβ-fiber nociceptive neurons. Results At one month after unilateral derangement of the knee by cutting the anterior cruciate ligament and removing the medial meniscus, the only changes observed in Aβ-fiber dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons were in nociceptor-like unresponsive neurons bearing a hump on the repolarization phase; these changes consisted of longer half width, reflecting slowed dynamics of AP genesis, a depolarized Vm and an increased AP amplitude. At two months, changes observed were in Aβ-fiber high threshold mechanoreceptors, which exhibited shorter AP duration at base and half width, shorter rise time and fall time, and faster maximum rising rate/maximum falling rate, reflecting accelerated dynamics of AP genesis. Conclusion These data indicate that Aβ nociceptive neurons undergo significant changes that vary in time and occur later than changes in structure and in nociceptive scores in this surgically induced OA model. Thus, if changes in Aβ-fiber nociceptive neurons in this model reflect a role in OA pain, they may relate to mechanisms underlying pain associated with advanced OA.

  13. Nova target experiments

    Drake, R.P.

    1985-11-01

    The Nova laser, at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, provides unique opportunities for target experiments. It has unprecedented energy on target and significant flexibility. The paper presented by John Hunt described the capabilities and the status of Nova. This paper discusses plans for future experiments using Nova, and the present status of target experiments. We plan to perform high-quality physics experiments that exploit the unique capabilities of Nova. Because this is our goal, we are fielding an extensive array of well-characterized target diagnostics to measure the emissions from the target. The first section of this paper discusses the basic target diagnostics. We are also taking care to quantify the performance of the laser

  14. Targeting and Persuasive Advertising

    Egli, Alain (Autor/in)

    2015-01-01

    Firms face a prisoner's dilemma when advertising in a competitive environment. In a Hotelling framework with persuasive advertisingfirms counteract this prisoner's dilemma with targeting. The firms even solve the prisoner's problem if targeted advertising is effective enough. Advertising turns from wasteful competition into profits. This is in contrast to wasteful competition as argument for regulations. A further result is maximum advertising differentiation: thefirms target their advertisin...

  15. The ISOLDE target robots

    Maximilein Brice

    2002-01-01

    ISOLDE targets need to be changed frequently, around 80 times per year. The high radiation levels do not permit this to be done by human hands and the target changes are effected by 2 industrial robots (picture _01). On the left, in the distance, the front-end of the GPS (General Purpose Separator) is seen, while the HRS (High Resolution Separator) is at the right. Also seen are the doors to the irradiated-target storage.

  16. Deuterium high pressure target

    Perevozchikov, V.V.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Vinogradov, Yu.I.

    2001-01-01

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm 3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system

  17. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2016-03-15

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  18. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    David Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  19. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Ersahin, Devrim, E-mail: devrimersahin@yahoo.com; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2011-10-11

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  20. Target Assembly Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  1. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Ersahin, Devrim; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David

    2011-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose

  2. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  3. Concentrated loads on concrete

    Lorenzen, Karen Grøndahl; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas are devel......This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas...

  4. RX: a nonimaging concentrator.

    Miñano, J C; Benítez, P; González, J C

    1995-05-01

    A detailed description of the design procedure for a new concentrator, RX, and some examples of it's use are given. The method of design is basically the same as that used in the design of two other concentrators: the RR and the XR [Appl. Opt. 31, 3051 (1992)]. The RX is ideal in two-dimensional geometry. The performance of the rotational RX is good when the average angular spread of the input bundle is small: up to 95% of the power of the input bundle can be transferred to the output bundle (with the assumption of a constant radiance for the rays of the input bundle).

  5. Study of genesis in Qahr-Abad fluorite deposit using fluid inclusion, southeast of Saqqez, the Kurdistan province

    Mehrdad Barati

    2017-07-01

    . Discussion Thermometric investigations indicate that homogenization temperatures for primary and pseudo secondary fluid inclusions in all fluorite types range from 155 to 245°C with an average of 187°C. Gas phase changes to liquid phase in the homogenization processes. The degree of fillings in most inclusions are more than 90%. -23 to -18 °C with an average of -20.7°C. There are eutectic temperatures in the freezing method and calculated salinity is 30.8 wt% NaCl equivalents in terms of the H2O-CO2-NaCl system. The Bernoulli Effect has occurred in this resource (Barnes, 1998. Isothermal mixing, boiling, surface fluid dilution and depressurization are four processes that have effects on the mineralization in this resource (Wilkinson, 2001. Finally we think, Qahr -abad fluorite deposit has been prepared by hydrothermal to epithermal processes and fluids have basin origin (fossil waters (Tajoddyn, et al, 2010 and the orebody has precipitated from this fluid, when it was mixed with cold surface waters. References Barnes, H.L., 1998. Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits. John Wiley & Sons, Malaysia, 972 pp. Kholghi Khasraghi, M.H., 1999. Geological map of Irankhah. Scale 1:100,000. Geological Survey of Iran. Moslehi, M., 2013. The study of fluid inclusion and geochemistry of Qahr-Abad Soliman deposit in Kurdistan province. M.Sc. Thesis, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran, 142 pp. (in Persian with English abstract Tajoddyn, H., Rastad, A., Yaghobpour, A. and Mohajel, M., 2010. The genesis of Barica Gold massive sulfide deposit, east of Sardasht, NW of metamorphic Sanandaj –Sirjan zone base on structure, texture and micro thermometric studies. Journal of Economic Geology, 2(1: 97-118. (in Persian Talaii, B., 2010. The study of mineralogy and geochemistry of Qahr-Abad fluorite deposit, SE of Sagez city, Kurdistan province. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Uromieh, Uromieh, Iran, 119 pp. (in Persian with English abstract Wilkinson, J.J., 2001. Fluid inclusions in

  6. Parabolic solar concentrator

    Tecpoyotl-Torres, M.; Campos-Alvarez, J.; Tellez-Alanis, F.; Sánchez-Mondragón, J.

    2006-08-01

    In this work we present the basis of the solar concentrator design, which has is located at Temixco, Morelos, Mexico. For this purpose, this place is ideal due to its geographic and climatic conditions, and in addition, because it accounts with the greatest constant illumination in Mexico. For the construction of the concentrator we use a recycled parabolic plate of a telecommunications satellite dish (NEC). This plate was totally covered with Aluminum. The opening diameter is of 332 cm, the focal length is of 83 cm and the opening angle is of 90°. The geometry of the plate guaranties that the incident beams, will be collected at the focus. The mechanical treatment of the plate produces an average reflectance of 75% in the visible region of the solar spectrum, and of 92% for wavelengths up to 3μm in the infrared region. We obtain up to 2000°C of temperature concentration with this setup. The reflectance can be greatly improved, but did not consider it as typical practical use. The energy obtained can be applied to conditions that require of those high calorific energies. In order to optimize the operation of the concentrator we use a control circuit designed to track the apparent sun position.

  7. A Microfluidic Cell Concentrator

    Warrick, Jay; Casavant, Ben; Frisk, Megan; Beebe, David

    2010-01-01

    Cell concentration via centrifugation is a ubiquitous step in many cell culture procedures. At the macroscale, centrifugation suffers from a number of limitations particularly when dealing with small numbers of cells (e.g., less than 50,000). On the other hand, typical microscale methods for cell concentration can affect cell physiology and bias readouts of cell behavior and function. In this paper, we present a microfluidic concentrator device that utilizes the effects of gravity to allow cells to gently settle out of a suspension into a collection region without the use of specific adhesion ligands. Dimensional analysis was performed to compare different device designs and was verified with flow modeling to optimize operational parameters. We are able to concentrate low-density cell suspensions in a microfluidic chamber, achieving a cell loss of only 1.1 ± 0.6% (SD, n=7) with no observed loss during a subsequent cell staining protocol which incorporates ~36 complete device volume replacements. This method provides a much needed interface between rare cell samples and microfluidic culture assays. PMID:20843010

  8. Aluminum concentration in hydrangeas

    Yanagawa, M.; Haruyama, Y.; Saito, M.

    2008-01-01

    We have been trying to measure concentration of aluminum in Ajisai, Hydrangea macrophylla for these days. But due to bad luck, we have encountered detector trouble for two years in a low. Thus, we have few data to analyze and obtained quite limited results. (author)

  9. Theory of Concentrated Vortices

    Alekseenko, Sergey; Kuibin, Pavel; Okulov, Valery

    This book presents comprehensive and authoritative coverage of the wide field of concentrated vortices observed in nature and technique. The methods for research of their kinematics and dynamics are considered. Special attention is paid to the flows with helical symmetry. The authors have describ...

  10. Target reactor development problems

    Lathrop, K.D.; Vigil, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Target-blanket design studies are discussed for an accelerator-breeder concept employing a linear accelerator in conjunction with a modified conventional power reactor to produce both fissile fuel and power. The following problems in target and blanket system design are discussed: radiation damage, heat removal, neutronic design, and economics

  11. The CNGS target

    Patrice Loïez

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) target ‘magazine’ of five target units. Each unit contains a series of 10-cm long graphite rods distributed over a length of 2 m. It is designed to maximize the number of secondary particles produced and hence the number of neutrinos. One unit is used at a time to prevent over heating.

  12. Targeted radionuclide therapy

    target for which a speci c treatment/drug is intended (Fig. 1). eranostics .... Using an anti-CD20 antibody as a delivery device to target the follicular ... systems combine diagnostic imaging (Ga-68-DOTATATE PET/CT) .... Intra-articular injected ...

  13. Modelling Recycling Targets

    hill, amanda; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits Møller

    2014-01-01

    % for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...

  14. Strategic Targeted Advertising

    A. Galeotti; J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit

  15. Seedling root targets

    Diane L. Haase

    2011-01-01

    Roots are critical to seedling performance after outplanting. Although root quality is not as quick and simple to measure as shoot quality, target root characteristics should be included in any seedling quality assessment program. This paper provides a brief review of root characteristics most commonly targeted for operational seedling production. These are: root mass...

  16. Internal targets for LEAR

    Kilian, K.; Gspann, J.; Mohl, D.; Poth, H.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter considers the use of thin internal targets in conjunction with phase-space cooling at the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). Topics considered include the merits of internal target operation; the most efficient use of antiprotons and of proton synchrotron (PS) protons, highest center-of-mass (c.m.) energy resolution; highest angular resolution and access to extreme angles; the transparent environment for all reaction products; a windowless source and pure targets; highest luminosity and count rates; access to lowest energies with increasing resolution; internal target thickness and vacuum requirements; required cooling performance; and modes of operation. It is demonstrated that an internal target in conjunction with phase-space cooling has the potential of better performance in terms of the economic use of antiprotons and consequently of PS protons; energy resolution; angular resolution; maximum reaction rate capability (statistical precision); efficient parasitic operation; transparency of the target for reaction products; access to low energies; and the ease of polarized target experiments. It is concluded that all p - experiments which need high statistics and high p - flux, such as studies of rare channels or broad, weak resonance structures, would profit from internal targets

  17. Fusion target design

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1978-01-01

    Most detailed fusion target design is done by numerical simulation using large computers. Although numerical simulation is briefly discussed, this lecture deals primarily with the way in which basic physical arguments, driver technology considerations and economical power production requirements are used to guide and augment the simulations. Physics topics discussed include target energetics, preheat, stability and symmetry. A specific design example is discussed

  18. Electron beam fusion targets

    Clauser, M.J.; Sweeney, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    R The behavior of the DT filled gold shells when irradiated by a variety of pulse shapes was studied. In these pulses the power (and beam current) was varied, but the voltage was kept constant at 1 MeV. In general the performance of the target, for a given peak power, was not significantly affected by the pulse shape. Pulses with rise times of up to half the implosion time do not significantly degrade the target performance. The use of the ''optimal pulse'' of laser fusion with a fixed peak power does not appear to improve the performance of these targets. The main function of the ''optimal pulse'' is to produce a large rho r of the target during the thermonuclear burn. In e-beam targets a total rho r of 5--10 g/cm 2 can be obtained without pulse shaping; the problem here is one of achieving high enough temperatures to ignite the DT. (U.S.)

  19. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Giebink, Noel C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the

  20. In-situ U-Pb, Hf and Re-Os isotopic analyses of the Xiangshan Ni-Cu-Co deposit in Eastern Tianshan (Xinjiang), Central Asia Orogenic Belt: Constraints on the timing and genesis of the mineralization

    Han, Chunming; Xiao, Wenjiao; Zhao, Guochun; Ao, Songjian; Zhang, Jien; Qu, Wenjun; Du, Andao

    2010-12-01

    The timing and genesis of the major Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposit in the Xiangshan intrusion have been studied based on newly obtained in-situ U-Pb, Hf and Re-Os isotopic analyses. The SIMS U-Pb zircon ages of the gabbro hosting the Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposit indicate that the Xiangshan intrusion was emplaced at 279.6 ± 1.1 Ma (95% confidence level, MSWD = 1.30, n = 15). On the basis of combined geological and geochronological evidence, we suggest that the Xiangshan and other adjacent Ni-Cu deposits were formed in the same period. Sulphides have low common Os concentrations and high Re/Os ratios, similar to sulphide ores from the Duluth, Sally Malay and Voisey Bay complexes. The Re-Os isotopic data from the disseminated and massive ores from the Xiangshan intrusion do not form a single isochron, as they have different initial Os ratios. The Hf and Os isotopic data suggest that the Xiangshan intrusion and associated Ni-Cu-Co mineralization were derived from crustally contaminated mantle melts. The geochemical data show a tholeiitic affinity and a strong suprasubduction zone signature with negative Nb, Sr, and Ti anomalies similar to N-MORB and E-MORB. We suggest that the mafic-ultramafic rocks and associated Ni-Cu mineralization of the Eastern Tianshan orogen formed in an Alaska-type subduction zone-arc setting. Some diagnostic features of ridge-trench interaction are present in the Chinese East Tianshan orogen (e.g. granites, adakites, high-Mg andesites, near-trench magmatism, Alaskan-type mafic-ultramafic complexes, high-temperature metamorphic belts that prograde rapidly from low-grade belts, and orogenic gold deposits). The above distinctive rock groups are probably related to the same thermal event, ridge subduction, as in the Cenozoic orogen of Alaska. We suggest that ridge subduction is the most plausible mechanism to provide the necessary heat. Ridge subduction provides an important promising model for understanding many aspects of the evolution of the Chinese

  1. Target system materials and engineering problems

    Fischer, W.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the common problems of target design. As a model for the discussion, the author considers a spallation source which is fed by a high power proton beam of the order of one megawatt. The materials used for the target station and particularly for the spallation target itself depend on whether the source is built for pulsed, modulated or continuous operation. The difference of materials used is mainly determined by the neutronics considerations. Depending on the choice of materials for the target systems, the characters of material problems met, are of somewhat different nature. It is recognized that for each target version quite specific difficulties have to be overcome. On the other hand, there is a whole set of problems which is common to all target versions. These are: heat load in region of proton beam interactions; thermal stress and cycling; and radiation damage. It is shown that solutions to the whole package of problems up to a beam power of 0 (1MW) have been found. The whole effort concentrates onto the region of the first few centimeters of beam penetration. Two solutions have been proposed: (1) Keep the power of proton beam limited and produce neutrons elsewhere in the target. and (2) Dilute the power by moving mechanically the target and the window. 8 refs., 11 figs

  2. Fixed target flammable gas upgrades

    Schmitt, R.; Squires, B.; Gasteyer, T.; Richardson, R.

    1996-12-01

    In the past, fixed target flammable gas systems were not supported in an organized fashion. The Research Division, Mechanical Support Department began to support these gas systems for the 1995 run. This technical memo describes the new approach being used to supply chamber gasses to fixed target experiments at Fermilab. It describes the engineering design features, system safety, system documentation and performance results. Gas mixtures provide the medium for electron detection in proportional and drift chambers. Usually a mixture of a noble gas and a polyatomic quenching gas is used. Sometimes a small amount of electronegative gas is added as well. The mixture required is a function of the specific chamber design, including working voltage, gain requirements, high rate capability, aging and others. For the 1995 fixed target run all the experiments requested once through gas systems. We obtained a summary of problems from the 1990 fixed target run and made a summary of the operations logbook entries from the 1991 run. These summaries primarily include problems involving flammable gas alarms, but also include incidents where Operations was involved or informed. Usually contamination issues were dealt with by the experimenters. The summaries are attached. We discussed past operational issues with the experimenters involved. There were numerous incidents of drift chamber failure where contaminated gas was suspect. However analyses of the gas at the time usually did not show any particular problems. This could have been because the analysis did not look for the troublesome component, the contaminant was concentrated in the gas over the liquid and vented before the sample was taken, or that contaminants were drawn into the chambers directly through leaks or sub-atmospheric pressures. After some study we were unable to determine specific causes of past contamination problems, although in argon-ethane systems the problems were due to the ethane only

  3. Illumination uniformity issue explored via two-stage solar concentrator system based on Fresnel lens and compound flat concentrator

    Yeh, Naichia

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates details about the solar radiation distribution on the target of a two-stage solar concentrator that combines the Fresnel lens (FL) and the compound flat concentrator (CFC). The paper starts with a review of some FL development milestones such as the two-stage systems and the comparisons of flat vs. curved lenses in addition to the most noteworthy FL-based solar energy application, concentration photovoltaic (CPV). Through the review of the FL based CPV and two-stage concentrators, this study leads to the development of an algorithm to explore the spectrum distribution insight on the receiver of a two-stage (FL plus CFC) solar concentration system. It established the potential for using a correctly positioned 2nd stage reflector of right dimension to selectively redirect the desired spectrum on the target area so as to enhance the concentration flux intensity and uniformity at the same time. The study also helped to chart out the approximate locations of certain spectrum segments on the FL's target area, which is useful for exploring the spectrum control mechanism via the Fresnel lenses. - Highlights: • Map out the approximate locations of spectrum segments on FL's focal area. • Use the 2nd stage reflector to selectively reflect the desired spectrum on target. • Explore the spectrum distribution insight on FL solar concentrators' target area.

  4. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  5. Tritium concentration monitor

    Shono, Kosuke.

    1991-01-01

    A device for measuring the concentration of tritium in gaseous wastes in a power plant and a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is reduced in the size and improved in performance. The device of the present invention pressurizes a sampling gas and cools it to a dew point. Water content in the sampling gas cooled to the dew point is condensated and recovered to a fine tube-like water content recovering container. The concentration of the recovered condensates is measured by a tritium density analyzer. With such procedures, since the specimen is pressurized, the dew point can be elevated. Accordingly, the size of the cooling device can be decreased, enabling to contribute to the reduction of the size of the entire device. Further, since the water content recovering device is formed as a fine tube, the area of contact between the specimen gas and the liquid condensated water can be reduced. Accordingly, evaporation of the liquid condensates can be prevented. (I.S.)

  6. Zirconia concentrate chlorination

    Costa, N.G.; Albuquerque Brocchi, E. de

    1990-01-01

    Chlorination experiments were conducted in order to study the kinetics of gasification of the zirconium oxide present in the zirconia concentrate. The variables studied are temperature (1173 to 1373 K), percentage of reducing agent (12 to 36%) and porosity (22 to 30%). The results indicated a greater influence of temperature and percentage of reducing agent as well as allowed the conclusion that a balance between the levels of these variables is an important factor in the appropriate chlorination conditions. (author)

  7. Thermodynamically efficient solar concentrators

    Winston, Roland

    2012-10-01

    Non-imaging Optics is the theory of thermodynamically efficient optics and as such depends more on thermodynamics than on optics. Hence in this paper a condition for the "best" design is proposed based on purely thermodynamic arguments, which we believe has profound consequences for design of thermal and even photovoltaic systems. This new way of looking at the problem of efficient concentration depends on probabilities, the ingredients of entropy and information theory while "optics" in the conventional sense recedes into the background.

  8. Electrolyte Concentrates Treat Dehydration

    2009-01-01

    Wellness Brands Inc. of Boulder, Colorado, exclusively licensed a unique electrolyte concentrate formula developed by Ames Research Center to treat and prevent dehydration in astronauts returning to Earth. Marketed as The Right Stuff, the company's NASA-derived formula is an ideal measure for athletes looking to combat dehydration and boost performance. Wellness Brands also plans to expand with products that make use of the formula's effective hydration properties to help treat conditions including heat stroke, altitude sickness, jet lag, and disease.

  9. Chlorination of zirconyte concentrate

    Costa, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    Chlorination experiments with zirconyte concentrate were carried out in order to study the effects of temperature, percentage of reducing agent and porosity on the gasification of ZrO 2 for 10 and 20 minutes of reaction. Factorial analysis was applied and the results indicated that temperature and percentage of reducing agent were the two only variables effecting the ZrO 2 gasification. (author) [pt

  10. MULTIMEDIA CONCENTRATIONS OF PAH IN SEVERAL DAY CARE CENTERS

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in nine day care centers in the spring of 1997. Indoor and outdoor air, food and beverages, indoor dust, and outdoor play area soil were sampled. The mean sums of 20 target PAH concentrations were 265 and 199 ng...

  11. AA antiproton production target

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing of stainless steel. At the entrance to the target assembly was a scintillator screen, imprinted with circles every 5 mm in radius, which allowed to precisely aim the 26 GeV high-intensity proton beam from the PS onto the centre of the target rod. The scintillator screen was a 1 mm thick plate of Cr-doped alumina. See also 7903034 and 7905091.

  12. Shiva target irradiation facility

    Manes, K.R.; Ahlstrom, H.G.; Coleman, L.W.; Storm, E.K.; Glaze, J.A.; Hurley, C.A.; Rienecker, F.; O'Neal, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    The first laser/plasma studies performed with the Shiva laser system will be two sided irradiations extending the data obtained by other LLL lasers to higher powers. The twenty approximately 1 TW laser pulses will reach the target simultaneously from above and below in nested pentagonal clusters. The upper and lower clusters of ten beams each are radially polarized so that they strike the target in p-polarization and maximize absorption. This geometry introduces laser system isolation problems which will be briefly discussed. The layout and types of target diagnostics will be described and a brief status report on the facility given

  13. STANFORD: Internal targets

    Riordan, Michael

    1989-05-15

    Of burgeoning interest to many nuclear and particle physicists is a storage ring technique for fixed target experiments. It hinges on the use of gas-jet targets, shooting a narrow stream of atoms through a circulating beam of electrons or protons. Pioneered at CERN and the Soviet Novosibirsk Laboratory, more such 'internal targets' are being built or contemplated for storage rings in Europe, the Soviet Union, and the United States. From 9-12 January, physicists from around the world met at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to discuss prospects and problems in this expanding field.

  14. TARGET Research Goals

    TARGET researchers use various sequencing and array-based methods to examine the genomes, transcriptomes, and for some diseases epigenomes of select childhood cancers. This “multi-omic” approach generates a comprehensive profile of molecular alterations for each cancer type. Alterations are changes in DNA or RNA, such as rearrangements in chromosome structure or variations in gene expression, respectively. Through computational analyses and assays to validate biological function, TARGET researchers predict which alterations disrupt the function of a gene or pathway and promote cancer growth, progression, and/or survival. Researchers identify candidate therapeutic targets and/or prognostic markers from the cancer-associated alterations.

  15. Climatology of summer midtropospheric perturbations in the US northern plains. Part II: large-scale effects of the Rocky Mountains on genesis

    Wang, Shih-Yu. [Iowa State University, Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Ames, IA (United States); Utah State University, Utah Climate Center, Logan, UT (United States); Chen, Tsing-Chang [Iowa State University, Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Ames, IA (United States); Takle, Eugene S. [Iowa State University, Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Ames, IA (United States); Iowa State University, Department of Agronomy, Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Propagating convective storms across the US northern plains are often coupled with preexisting midtropospheric perturbations (MPs) initiated over the Rocky Mountains. A companion study (Part I) notes that such MPs occur most commonly at 12 UTC (early morning) and 00 UTC (late afternoon). Using a regional reanalysis and a general circulation model (GCM), this study investigates how such a bimodal distribution of the MP frequency is formed. The results point to two possible mechanisms working together while each has a different timing in terms of maximum effect. The diurnal evolutions between the midtropospheric flows over the Rockies and over the Great Plains are nearly out-of-phase due to inertial oscillation. During the nighttime, the westerly flows at 700-500 mb over the Rockies intensify while flows at the same level over the Great Plains turn easterly. These two flows converge over the eastern Rockies and induce cyclonic vorticity through vortex stretching. After sunrise, the convergence dissipates and the cyclonic vorticity is redistributed by horizontal vorticity advection, moving it downstream. This process creates a climatological zonally propagating vorticity signal which, in turn, facilitates the early-morning MP genesis at 12 UTC. The analysis also reveals marked dynamic instability conducive to subsynoptic-scale disturbances in the midtroposphere over the Rockies. Strong meridional temperature gradients appear over the north-facing slopes of the Rockies due to terrain heating to the south and the presence of cooler air to the north. This feature, along with persistent vertical shear, creates a Charney-Stern type of instability (i.e. sign changes of the meridional potential vorticity gradient). Meanwhile, the development of terrain boundary layer reduces the Rossby deformation radius which, subsequently, enhances the likelihood for baroclinic short waves. Such effects are most pronounced in the late afternoon and therefore are supportive to the MP

  16. Magnetic biosensor system to detect biological targets

    Li, Fuquan

    2012-09-01

    Magneto-resistive sensors in combination with magnetic beads provide sensing platforms, which are small in size and highly sensitive. These platforms can be fully integrated with microchannels and electronics to enable devices capable of performing complex tasks. Commonly, a sandwich method is used that requires a specific coating of the sensor\\'s surface to immobilize magnetic beads and biological targets on top of the sensor. This paper concerns a micro device to detect biological targets using magnetic concentration, magnetic as well as mechanical trapping and magnetic sensing. Target detection is based on the size difference between bare magnetic beads and magnetic beads with targets attached. This method remedies the need for a coating layer and reduces the number of steps required to run an experiment. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. Genesis of a mottled horizon by Fe-depletion within a laterite cover in the Amazon Basin.

    Rosolen , Vania; Lamotte , Mathieu; Boulet , René; Trichet , Jean; Rouer , Olivier; José Melfi , Adolpho

    2002-01-01

    A mottled horizon in a laterite cover (without any duricrust) was studied by microscopy and quantitative chemical microanalysis. Apart from the voids, light red spots consisting of Fe-rich particles (≈2 μm) are set in clayey plasma. Dark red spots consisted of concentrations of Fe-rich particles. These patterns are inherited. On the border of structural or biological voids, where Fe-depletion features are systematic, gray or yellow spots result from dissolution of the Fe-rich particles and im...

  18. Structured cylindrical targets

    Arnold, R.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of experimental concepts using high-energy heavy-ion beams in cylindrical targets have been studied through numerical simulation. With an accelerator planned for GSl, plasma temperatures of 100 eV can be reached by cylindrical compression, using inhomogeneous hollow-shell targets. Magnetic insulation, using external fields, has been explored as an aid in reaching high core temperatures. Experiments on collision-pumped x-ray laser physics are also discussed. (ii) Two-dimensional PlC code simulations of homogeneous solid targets show hydrodynamic effects not found in previous 1-D calculations. (iii) Preliminary ideas for an experiment on non-equilibrium heavy-ion charge-states using an existing accelerator and a pre-formed plasma target are outlined. (author)

  19. Structured cylindrical targets

    Arnold, R.; Lackner-Russo, D.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Hoffmann, I.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of experimental concepts using high-energy heavy-ion beams in cylindrical targets have been studied through numerical simulation. With an accelerator planned for GSl, plasma temperatures of 100 eV can be reached by cylindrical compression, using inhomogenous hollow-shell targets. Magnetic insulation, using external fields, has been explored as an aid in reaching high core temperatures. Experiments on collision-pumped x-ray laser physics are also discussed. (ii) Two-dimensional PlC code simulations of homogeneous solid targets show hydrodynamic effects not found in previous l-D calculations. (iii) Preliminary ideas for an experiment on non-equilibrium heavy-ion charge-states using an existing accelerator and a pre-formed plasma target are outlined. (author)

  20. Target Price Accuracy

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.

  1. Autonomous Target Ranging Techniques

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz

    2003-01-01

    of this telescope, a fast determination of the range to and the motion of the detected targets are important. This is needed in order to prepare the future observation strategy for each target, i.e. when is the closest approach where imaging will be optimal. In order to quickly obtain such a determination two...... ranging strategies are presented. One is an improved laser ranger with an effective range with non-cooperative targets of at least 10,000 km, demonstrated in ground tests. The accuracy of the laser ranging will be approximately 1 m. The laser ranger may furthermore be used for trajectory determination...... of nano-gravity probes, which will perform direct mass measurements of selected targets. The other is triangulation from two spacecraft. For this method it is important to distinguish between detection and tracking range, which will be different for Bering since different instruments are used...

  2. Targeted Cancer Therapies

    ... are sometimes referred to as the product of "rational" drug design.) One approach to identify potential targets ... molecules that stimulate new blood vessel growth. Immunotherapies trigger the immune system to destroy cancer cells. Some ...

  3. Targeting radiation to tumours

    Wheldon, T.E.; Greater Glasgow Health Board, Glasgow

    1994-01-01

    Biologically targeted radiotherapy entails the preferential delivery of radiation to solid tumours or individual tumour cells by means of tumour-seeking delivery vehicles to which radionuclides can be conjugated. Monoclonal antibodies have attracted attention for some years as potentially selective targeting agents, but advances in tumour and molecular biology are now providing a much wider choice of molecular species. General radiobiological principles may be derived which are applicable to most forms of targeted radiotherapy. These principles provide guidelines for the appropriate choice of radionuclide in specific treatment situations and its optimal combination with other treatment modalities. In future, the availability of gene targeting agents will focus attention on the use of Auger electron emitters whose high potency and short range selectivity makes them attractive choices for specific killing of cancer cells whose genetic peculiarities are known. (author)

  4. Strategic Targeted Advertising

    Andrea Galeotti; Jose Luis Moraga

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit random advertising --to induce an unequal distribution of information in the market-- and random pricing --to obtain profits from badly informed buyers--. We characterize a positive profits equilibrium...

  5. Targets and teamwork

    Skinner, Timothy C.; Lange, Karin S.; Hoey, Hilary

    2017-01-01

    differences in mean HbA1c between centers ranging from 7.3±0.8% (53mmol/mol±8.7) to 8.9±1.1% (74mmol/mol±12.0). Centers with lower mean HbA1c had (1) parents who reported lower targets for their children, (2) health-care professionals that reported lower targets and more frequent testing, and (3) teams...

  6. Targets and special materials

    Blanc, R.; Bouriant, M.; Richaud, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The target preparation group supplied a large number of samples to nuclear physicists for experiments using SARA and also other accelerators throughout the world. Particular preparation and projects include: 208 Pb, 116 Cd, 6 LiF, 123 Sb, In and Ta targets, strippers for SARA and GANIL, optical silicone disks for POLDER and GRAAL experiments, active participations for the AMS project and finally filament preparation for the GENEPI project. (authors)

  7. The ISIS target

    Carne, A.; Broome, T.A.; Hogston, J.R.; Holding, M.

    1989-01-01

    This presentation discusses the two target failures that have occurred, gives the understanding of the causes and indicates the steps being taken to alleviate the problems. At the outset of the design it was understood that the target would have a finite lifetime, due to radiation damage effects, exacerbated by mechanical damage due to thermal cycling and fatigue. Estimates of target lifetime at full intensity are about 2 years for radiation damage swelling and about 10E4 gross thermal excursions. The latter number is the one which gives uncertainty in defining the life of the target, since it is dependent on the reliability of the accelerator and quality of the proton beam. The commissioning of an accelerator system and bringing it up to high beam intensities have their own special problems. There must be protection of components against uncontrolled beam loss, which produces thermal damage, prompt radiation and induced activity. Fast beam trips for beam loss protection, or equipment failures, result in quenches from high temperature in the target which get bigger with increasing beam intensity. But the target itself is a difficult device to make, taking about 12 months to manufacture. Further, changing one is a complex and time consuming task, not without its hazards. There is thus something of a balancing act to bring the accelerator towards specification before the target fails due to thermal cycling fatigue. In the early days of ISIS beam loss protection was the dominant consideration and the target was regarded somewhat as a sacrificial lamb to the goddess of machine reliability. 2 refs., 6 figs

  8. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    Chen, Gang [MIT; Ren, Zhifeng [University of Houston

    2015-07-09

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate in the lab that solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) can exceed 10% solar-to-electricity efficiency, and STEGs can be integrated with phase-change materials (PCM) for thermal storage, providing operation beyond daylight hours. This project achieved significant progress in many tasks necessary to achieving the overall project goals. An accurate Themoelectric Generator (TEG) model was developed, which included realistic treatment of contact materials, contact resistances and radiative losses. In terms of fabricating physical TEGs, high performance contact materials for skutterudite TE segments were developed, along with brazing and soldering methods to assemble segmented TEGs. Accurate measurement systems for determining device performance (in addition to just TE material performance) were built for this project and used to characterize our TEGs. From the optical components’ side, a spectrally selective cermet surface was developed with high solar absorptance and low thermal emittance, with thermal stability at high temperature. A measurement technique was also developed to determine absorptance and total hemispherical emittance at high temperature, and was used to characterize the fabricated spectrally selective surfaces. In addition, a novel reflective cavity was designed to reduce radiative absorber losses and achieve high receiver efficiency at low concentration ratios. A prototype cavity demonstrated that large reductions in radiative losses were possible through this technique. For the overall concentrating STEG system, a number of devices were fabricated and tested in a custom built test platform to characterize their efficiency performance. Additionally, testing was performed with integration of PCM thermal storage, and the storage time of the lab scale system was evaluated. Our latest testing results showed a STEG efficiency of 9.6%, indicating promising potential for high performance concentrated STEGs.

  9. Censored correlated cytokine concentrations

    Andersen, Andreas; Benn, Christine Stabell; Jørgensen, Mathias J

    2013-01-01

    ) can be used to describe the relative concentration between two cytokines, and the GMR ratio (GMRR) can be used to compare two groups. The problem is how to estimate GMRRs from censored distributions.We evaluated methods, including simple deletion and substitution, in simulated and real data. One...... stacking method that uses clustered variance-covariance estimation allowing homogeneous (Stackc) or inhomogeneous (Stackh) variances. We compare it with direct estimation of the bivariate Tobit likelihood function (Bitobit) and multiple imputation. We assess sensitivity to inhomogeneity and non...

  10. Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    Pitz-Paal, R.

    2017-07-01

    Development of Concentrating Solar Power Systems has started about 40 years ago. A first commercial implementation was performed between 1985 and 1991 in California. However, a drop in gas prices caused a longer period without further deployment. It was overcome in 2007 when new incentive schemes for renewables in Spain and the US enabled a commercial restart. In 2016, almost 100 commercial CSP plants with more than 5GW are installed worldwide. This paper describes the physical background of CSP technology, its technical characteristics and concepts. Furthermore, it discusses system performances, cost structures and the expected advancement.

  11. Uranium concentration in fossils

    Okano, J.; Uyeda, C.

    1988-01-01

    Recently it is known that fossil bones tend to accumulate uranium. The uranium concentration, C u in fossils has been measured so far by γ ray spectroscopy or by fission track method. The authors applied secondary ion mass spectrometry, SIMS, to detect the uranium in fossil samples. The purpose of this work is to investigate the possibility of semi-quantitative analyses of uranium in fossils, and to study the correlation between C u and the age of fossil bones. The further purpose of this work is to apply SIMS to measure the distribution of C u in fossil teeth

  12. Theory of Concentrated Vortices

    Alekseenko, Sergey; Kuibin, Pavel; Okulov, Valery

    This book presents comprehensive and authoritative coverage of the wide field of concentrated vortices observed in nature and technique. The methods for research of their kinematics and dynamics are considered. Special attention is paid to the flows with helical symmetry. The authors have describ...... models of vortex structures used for interpretation of experimental data which serve as a ground for development of theoretical and numerical approaches to vortex investigation. Achievements in the fields of stability analysis, waves on vortices and vortex breakdown are also presented....

  13. An ISOLDE target unit

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    A good dozen different targets are available for ISOLDE, made of different materials and equipped with different kinds of ion-sources, according to the needs of the experiments. Each separator (GPS: general purpose; HRS: high resolution) has its own target. Because of the high radiation levels, robots effect the target changes, about 80 times per year. In the standard unit shown in picture _01, the target is the cylindrical object in the front. It contains uranium-carbide kept at a temperature of 2200 deg C, necessary for the isotopes to be able to escape. At either end, one sees the heater current leads, carrying 700 A. The Booster beam, some 3E13 protons per pulse, enters the target from left. The evaporated isotope atoms enter a hot-plasma ion source (the black object behind the target). The whole unit sits at 60 kV potential (pulsed in synchronism with the arrival of the Booster beam) which accelerates the ions (away from the viewer) towards one of the 2 separators.

  14. Laser targets: introduction

    Rosen, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The laser target design group was engaged in three main tasks in 1984: (1) analyzing Novette implosion and hohlraum-scaling data, (2) planning for the first experiments on Nova, and (3) designing laboratory x-ray laser targets and experiments. The Novette implosion and hohlraum scaling data are mostly classified and are therefore not discussed in detail here. The authors achieved average final/initial pusher pr ratios of about 50, some 3 times higher than the value achieved in the best Shiva shots. These pr values imply a fuel compression to 100 times liquid density, although this figure and other aspects of the experiments are subject to further interpretation because of detailed questions of target symmetry and stability. Their main long-term goal for Nova is to produce a so-called hydrodynamically equivalent target (HET) - that is, a target whose hydrodynamic behavior (implosion velocity, convergence ratio, symmetry and stability requirements, etc.) is very much like that of a high-gain target, but one that is scaled down in size to match the energy available from Nova and is too small to achieve enough hot-spot pr to ignite the cold, near-Fermi-degenerate fuel around it. Their goal for Nova's first year is to do experiments that will teach them how to achieve the symmetry and stability conditions required by an HET

  15. Argus target chamber

    Rienecker, F. Jr.; Glaros, S.S.; Kobierecki, M.

    1975-01-01

    A target chamber for application in the laser fusion program must satisfy some very basic requirements. (1) Provide a vacuum on the order of 10 -6 torr. (2) Support a microscopically small target in a fixed point in space and verify its location within 5 micrometers. (3) Contain an adjustable beam focusing system capable of delivering a number of laser beams onto the target simultaneously, both in time and space. (4) Provide access for diagnostics to evaluate the results of target irradiation. (5) Have flexibility to allow changes in targets, focusing optics and number of beams. The ARGUS laser which is now under construction at LLL will have a target chamber which meets these requirements in a simple economic manner. The chamber and auxiliary equipment are described, with reference to two double beam focusing systems; namely, lenses and ellipsoidal mirrors. Provision is made for future operation with four beams, using ellipsoidal mirrors for two-sided illumination and lens systems for tetragonal and tetrahedral irradiation

  16. Colloid Genesis/Transport and Flow Pathway Alterations Resulting From Interactions of Reactive Waste Solutions and Hanford Vadose Zone Sediments

    Wan, Jiamin; Tokunaga, Tetsu K.

    2001-01-01

    Leakage of underground tanks containing high-level nuclear waste solutions has been identified at various DOE facilities. The Hanford Site is one the main facilities of concern, with about 2,300 to 3,400 m3 of leaked waste liquids. Radionuclides and other contaminants have been found in elevated concentrations in the vadose zone and groundwater underneath single shell tank farms. We do not currently know the mechanisms responsible for the unexpected deep migration of some contaminants through the vadose zone, and such understanding is urgently needed for planning remediation. Due to the extreme chemical conditions of the tank waste solutions (very high pH, aluminum concentration, and ionic strength), interactions between the highly reactive waste solutions and sediments underneath the tanks can result in dissolution of primary minerals of the sediments and precipitation of secondary phases including colloidal particles. Contaminants can sorb onto and/or co-precipitate with the secondary phases. Therefore transport of strongly associated contaminants on mobile colloids can be substantially greater than without colloids. The overall objective of this research is to improve our understanding on the effects of interactions between the tank waste solution and sediments on deep contaminant migration under Hanford Site conditions. This objective will be achieved through the following four tasks: (1) colloid generation and transport studies, (2) studies on sediment permeability and chemical composition alterations, (3) quantifying associations of contaminants with secondary colloids, and (4) studies on the combined effects of the aforementioned processes on deep contaminant migration

  17. Complex concentrate pretreatment

    Lokken, R.O.; Scheele, R.D.; Strachan, D.M.; Toste, A.P.

    1991-03-01

    After removal of the transuranics (TRU) by the TRUEX process, complex concentrate waste will be grouted for final storage. The purpose of this project, conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is to support a future decision to grout the complexant waste without destruction of the organic contents. It has been demonstrated that grouts with acceptable parameters for the Transportable Grout Facility can be made using actual waste. The acceptability of these grouts from a regulatory view seems to be less of a problem than previously. None of the organics found in the waste have been found on the EPA hazardous chemicals list. Two potential problems with the processing of the complex concentrate wastes were identified during the use of the TRUEX process on samples of several milliliters. One was the amount of foam that is generated during acid addition to the alkaline waste. Some of this foam appears to be of a waxy nature but does redissolve when the waste is strongly acid. The second potential problem is that noticeable amounts of NO x gases are generated. No quantitative measure of the NO x gas generation was made. The problem relates to processing the waste in B-plant where there are no facilities to handle NO x gases. 5 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Dual temperature concentration system

    Spevack, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    In a dual temperature isotope exchange system--exemplified by exchange of deuterium and protium between water and hydrogen sulfide gas in hot and cold towers, in which the feed stream (water) containing the desired isotope is passed through a pair of towers maintained at different temperatures wherein it effects isotope exchange with countercurrently circulated auxiliary fluid (H 2 S) and is impoverished in said isotope and then disposed of, e.g. discharged to waste,--the flow of isotope enriched auxiliary fluid between said towers (hot H 2 S saturated with water vapor) is divided and a part thereof is adjusted in its temperature (to cold tower conditions) and then passed to the auxiliary fluid impoverishing (cold) tower, while the remainder of the divided flow of such enriched auxiliary fluid is passed through a subsequent isotope concentration treatment to produce a product more highly enriched in the desired isotope and wherein it is also adjusted in its temperature and is impoverished in said isotope during said subsequent treatment before it is delivered to the said auxiliary fluid impoverishing (cold) tower. Certain provisions are made for returning to the hot tower liquid carried as vapor by the remainder of the divided flow to the subsequent isotope concentration treatment, for recovering sensible and latent heat, and for reducing passage of auxiliary fluid to waste

  19. Luminescent solar concentrator

    Tugce Tosun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Luminescent solar concentrator (LSC is a device that has luminescent molecules embedding or topping polymeric or glass waveguide to generate electricity from sunlight with a photovoltaic cell attachment. LSCs can be employed both in small and large scale projects, independent on the direction or angle of the surface with respect to the sun, promising more freedom for integration in urban environments compared to the traditional PV systems. The aim of the SEB&C PDEng project is to investigate the applicability of this innovative technology in the built environment and to bridge the gap of knowledge linking societal, design and technological aspects. The final goal is to exhibit potential application concepts of LSC developed by co-creative methods at SPARK campus which is a hub for open innovation in built environment. Necessity of a paradigm shift towards sustainable and smart cities came into being due to the significant increase in energy demand of the buildings. The challenge is to increase renewable sources in the energy mix while designing aesthetic environments. Thus, building integrated renewable energy technologies represent a great opportunity to help overcome this current challenge. Smart energy, energy efficiency and use of renewable sources are key aspects to be considered nowadays and many innovative technologies need further exploitation to be commercially viable, such as luminescent solar concentrator.

  20. Treatment of biomass to obtain a target chemical

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Elander, Richard T.; Hennessey, Susan Marie

    2010-08-24

    Target chemicals were produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  1. The ESR age of Portlandia arctica shells from glacial deposits of Central Latvia . an answer to a controversy on the age and genesis of their enclosing sediments

    Molodkov, Anatoly; Dreimanis, Aleksis; ĀBoltiņš, Ojars; Raukas, Anto

    The occurrence of Portlandia arctica shells in glacigenic sediments of Central Latvia had created a controversy in many publications about (1) their age ranging from the Holsteinian to the Late Weichselian and (2) the genesis of their enclosing sediments: glacial, glaciomarine or marine. Our reinvestigation of the main object of controversy, the Lı¯čupe site, leads to a conclusion that the sedimentary package of diamictons, clays and sands containing Portlandia arctica shells and marine microfossils is a large glacial raft that had been transported and deposited by the Riga lobe during the Weichselian. The electron spin resonance (ESR) ages on five sets of Portlandia arctica shells from the Lı¯čupe and Daugmales Tomēni sites range from 86.0±6.8 to 105.0±9.2 ka BP. These ESR age determinations and the cool climate indicators of the associated microflora and microfauna suggest that their source sediments, probably in the Gulf of Riga, are marine clays of Early Weichselian age, probably correlative to the Brørup Interstadial. In Central Latvia Portlandia arctica shells and their enclosing clay occur resedimented or translocated in glacial deposits during Weichselian glacial advances.

  2. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from genesis to senescence: the influence of LCPUFA on neural development, aging, and neurodegeneration.

    Janssen, Carola I F; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2014-01-01

    Many clinical and animal studies demonstrate the importance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in neural development and neurodegeneration. This review will focus on involvement of LCPUFA from genesis to senescence. The LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid are important components of neuronal membranes, while eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid also affect cardiovascular health and inflammation. In neural development, LCPUFA deficiency can lead to severe disorders like schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Perinatal LCPUFA supplementation demonstrated beneficial effects in neural development in humans and rodents resulting in improved cognition and sensorimotor integration. In normal aging, the effect of LCPUFA on prevention of cognitive impairment will be discussed. LCPUFA are important for neuronal membrane integrity and function, and also contribute in prevention of brain hypoperfusion. Cerebral perfusion can be compromised as result of obesity, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, or diabetes mellitus type 2. Last, we will focus on the role of LCPUFA in most common neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. These disorders are characterized by impaired cognition and connectivity and both clinical and animal supplementation studies have shown the potential of LCPUFA to decrease neurodegeneration and inflammation. This review shows that LCPUFA are essential throughout life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Using the GENESYS model quantifying the effect of cropping systems on gene escape from GM rape varieties to evaluate and design cropping systems

    Colbach Nathalie

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene flow in rapeseed is a process taking place both in space and over the years and cannot be studied exclusively by field trials. Consequently, the GENESYS model was developed to quantify the effects of cropping systems on transgene escape from rapeseed crops to rapeseed volunteers in neighbour plots and in the subsequent crops. In the present work, this model was used to evaluate the risk of rape harvest contamination by extraneous genes in various farming systems in case of co-existing GM, conventional and organic crops. When 50 % of the rape varieties in the region were transgenic, the rate of GM seeds in non-GM crop harvests on farms with large fields was lower than the 0.9 % purity threshold proposed by the EC for rape crop production (food and feed harvests, but on farms with smaller fields, the threshold was exceeded. Harvest impurity increased in organic farms, mainly because of their small field size. The model was then used to evaluate the consequences of changes in farming practices and to identify those changes reducing harvest contamination. The effects of these changes depended on the field pattern and farming system. The most efficient practices in limiting harvest impurity comprised improved set-aside management by sowing a cover crop in spring on all set-aside fields in the region, permanently banning rape crops and set-aside around seed production fields and (for non-GM farmers clustering farm fields to reduce gene inflow from neighbour fields.

  4. Genesis of a novel Shigella flexneri serotype by sequential infection of serotype-converting bacteriophages SfX and SfI

    Sun Qiangzheng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shigella flexneri is the major pathogen causing bacillary dysentery. Fifteen serotypes have been recognized up to now. The genesis of new S. flexneri serotypes is commonly mediated by serotype-converting bacteriophages. Untypeable or novel serotypes from natural infections had been reported worldwide but have not been generated in laboratory. Results A new S. flexneri serotype-serotype 1 d was generated when a S. flexneri serotype Y strain (native LPS was sequentially infected with 2 serotype-converting bacteriophages, SfX first and then SfI. The new serotype 1 d strain agglutinated with both serotype X-specific anti-7;8 grouping serum and serotype 1a-specific anti- I typing serum, and differed from subserotypes 1a, 1b and 1c. Twenty four S. flexneri clinical isolates of serotype X were all converted to serotype 1 d by infection with phage SfI. PCR and sequencing revealed that SfI and SfX were integrated in tandem into the proA-yaiC region of the host chromosome. Conclusions These findings suggest a new S. flexneri serotype could be created in nature. Such a conversion may be constrained by susceptibility of a strain to infection by a given serotype-converting bacteriophage. This finding has significant implications in the emergence of new S. flexneri serotypes in nature.

  5. Genesis and timing of secondary uranium mineralization in northern Bavaria (F.R. of Germany), with special reference to geomorphology

    Dill, H.

    1985-01-01

    Uranium deposits in northern Bavaria may be subdivided into two major types. Type-I deposits are hosted by black shales and contain uranous Fe-Al-phosphates with minor amounts of limonite in their near-surface parts. Supergene redeposition in type-II deposits caused 'gummites', uranophanes and uranyl phosphates which have formed as a function of pH and climate. Type-II deposits are hosted by crystalline rocks. Four stages of supergene U enrichment may be established in the study area: Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary, Late Miocene, Plio-Pleistocene and Late Pleistocene. The most important period for supergene U concentration is considered to be the Late Miocene. (orig.)

  6. Accumulation of glycation products in. cap alpha. -H pig lens crystallin and its bearing to diabetic cataract genesis

    Vidal, P; Cabezas-Cerrato, J

    1988-01-01

    The incorporation of /sup 11/C-glucose in native pig crystalline by in vitro incubation was found, after subsequent dialysis, to affect all 5 classes of crystallin separated by Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. Though the radioactivity of the ..cap alpha..-H fraction was three times greater than that of any of the others, autoradiographs of SDS-PAGE gels showed /sup 11/C-glucose adducts to be present in all soluble protein subunits, without there being any evidence of preferential glycation of the ..cap alpha..-H subunits. The concentration of stable glycation products in the ..cap alpha..-H chromatographic fraction of soluble crystallins is suggested to be due the addition of glycated material to this fraction as result of glycation-induced hyperaggregation, and not because the ..cap alpha..-H subunits were especially susceptible to glycation.

  7. Target Choice and Unique Synergies in Global Mobile Telephony

    Claussen, Jörg; Köhler, Rebecca; Kretschmer, Tobias

    2018-01-01

    their foresight to select specific targets: First, they lower integration costs by selecting geographically close targets. This effect is stronger when buyer and target are in the same country, but only if the market is not so concentrated that it provokes regulatory interventions. Second, they select targets......The success of acquisitions rests on detecting and realizing unique synergies between buyer and target through their dyadic relationships. We study the role of unique dyad-specific synergies in the selection of takeover targets in the global mobile telecommunications industry. Firms use...... that can be acquired at a modest bid premium because they have asymmetric bargaining power. Finally, they select targets which can generate significant synergies due to technological synergies. Our work expands the existing target selection literature by studying dyad-specific factors within a single...

  8. Genesis of B lymphocytes in the bone marrow: extravascular and intravascular localization of surface IgM-bearing cells in mouse bone marrow detected by electron-microscope radioautography after in vivo perfusion of 125I anti-IgM antibody

    Osmond, D.G.; Batten, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The role of mammalian bone marrow in generating surface IgM (sIgM)-bearing B lymphocytes is reviewed. Precursor cells in the marrow give rise to large, rapidly dividing cells bearing free cytoplasmic mu chains (c mu). The progeny of the large c mu+ cells form a population of small, nondividing c mu+ cells that mature into small lymphocytes, progressively expressing sIgM and other B-cell surface membrane components. Newly formed sIgM+ cells soon migrate through the bloodstream to the spleen and other lymphoid tissues, where they may die after a short lifespan or be activated to produce antibody molecules. The large-scale lymphocytopoiesis in the bone marrow thus maintains a population of rapidly renewed virgin B lymphocytes in the peripheral lymphoid tissues. A technique for perfusing radiolabeled anti-IgM antibodies in young mice has now permitted sIgM+ cells to be detected radioautographically in histological preparations of bone marrow under the electron microscope. Small sIgM+ lymphocytes are situated either singly or in small groups throughout the extravascular hemopoietic compartment of the bone marrow, often near sinusoid walls adjacent to late erythroblasts and reticular cells. Some regional concentrations of sIgM+ cells are apparent. sIgM+ cells also appear in transit through the sinusoidal endothelium and are markedly concentrated in the lumen of some sinusoids. Intrasinusoidal sIgM+ small lymphocytes have high densities of sIgM and long microvilli, on which sIgM molecules are concentrated. These studies reveal the localization and cell associations of specifically identified sIgM+ small lymphocytes in the extravascular marrow compartment and suggest that these cells may also undergo a transient intravascular storage and maturation phase. Use of this in vivo immunolabeling technique to detect other cell-surface markers may further elucidate the microenvironmental basis of B lymphocyte genesis in the bone marrow

  9. Pushing concentration of stationary solar concentrators to the limit.

    Winston, Roland; Zhang, Weiya

    2010-04-26

    We give the theoretical limit of concentration allowed by nonimaging optics for stationary solar concentrators after reviewing sun- earth geometry in direction cosine space. We then discuss the design principles that we follow to approach the maximum concentration along with examples including a hollow CPC trough, a dielectric CPC trough, and a 3D dielectric stationary solar concentrator which concentrates sun light four times (4x), eight hours per day year around.

  10. Burglar Target Selection

    Townsley, Michael; Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn; Johnson, Shane D.; White, Gentry; Baum, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study builds on research undertaken by Bernasco and Nieuwbeerta and explores the generalizability of a theoretically derived offender target selection model in three cross-national study regions. Methods: Taking a discrete spatial choice approach, we estimate the impact of both environment- and offender-level factors on residential burglary placement in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Combining cleared burglary data from all study regions in a single statistical model, we make statistical comparisons between environments. Results: In all three study regions, the likelihood an offender selects an area for burglary is positively influenced by proximity to their home, the proportion of easily accessible targets, and the total number of targets available. Furthermore, in two of the three study regions, juvenile offenders under the legal driving age are significantly more influenced by target proximity than adult offenders. Post hoc tests indicate the magnitudes of these impacts vary significantly between study regions. Conclusions: While burglary target selection strategies are consistent with opportunity-based explanations of offending, the impact of environmental context is significant. As such, the approach undertaken in combining observations from multiple study regions may aid criminology scholars in assessing the generalizability of observed findings across multiple environments. PMID:25866418

  11. LANSCE target system performance

    Russell, G.J.; Gilmore, J.S.; Robinson, H.; Legate, G.L.; Bridge, A.; Sanchez, R.J.; Brewton, R.J.; Woods, R.; Hughes, H.G. III

    1989-01-01

    We measured neutron beam fluxes at LANSCE using gold foil activation techniques. We did an extensive computer simulation of the as-built LANSCE Target/Moderator/Reflector/Shield geometry. We used this mockup in a Monte Carlo calculation to predict LANSCE neutronic performance for comparison with measured results. For neutron beam fluxes at 1 eV, the ratio of measured data to calculated varies from ∼0.6-0.9. The computed 1 eV neutron leakage at the moderator surface is 3.9 x 10 10 n/eV-sr-s-μA for LANSCE high-intensity water moderators. The corresponding values for the LANSCE high-resolution water moderator and the liquid hydrogen moderator are 3.3 and 2.9 x 10 10 , respectively. LANSCE predicted moderator intensities (per proton) for a tungsten target are essentially the same as ISIS predicted moderator intensities for a depleted uranium target. The calculated LANSCE steady state unperturbed thermal (E 13 n/cm 2 -s. The unique LANSCE split-target/flux-trap-moderator system is performing exceedingly well. The system has operated without a target or moderator change for over three years at nominal proton currents of ∼25 μA of 800-MeV protons. (author)

  12. Plasma concentrations of misonidazole

    Notter, G; Rylander, U; Turesson, I

    1980-10-01

    The plasma concentrations of misonidazole doses between 0.6 and 2.0 g/m/sup 2/ were analyzed in respect to the variation within the same patient and between different patients. Peak plasma levels were observed after 2 hours. The mean plasma levels of misonidazole only at 3 hours were 23.8, 47.0 and 76.5 ..mu..g/ml after misonidazole doses of 0.6, 1.2 g/m/sup 2/, respectively. The half-life of misonidazole only was found to be 8.2 hours for women and 10.5 for men. Good linearity between plasma levels and drug doses was observed after administration of different single doses to the same patient within the dose range 0.6 to 2.0 g/m/sup 2/.

  13. Stress concentration at notches

    Savruk, Mykhaylo P

    2017-01-01

    This book compiles solutions of linear theory of elasticity problems for isotropic and anisotropic bodies with sharp and rounded notches. It contains an overview of established and recent achievements, and presents the authors’ original solutions in the field considered with extensive discussion. The volume demonstrates through numerous, useful examples the effectiveness of singular integral equations for obtaining exact solutions of boundary problems of the theory of elasticity for bodies with cracks and notches. Incorporating analytical and numerical solutions of the problems of stress concentrations in solid bodies with crack-like defects, this volume is ideal for scientists and PhD students dealing with the problems of theory of elasticity and fracture mechanics. Stands as a modern and extensive compendium of solutions to the problems of linear theory of elasticity of isotropic and anisotropic bodies with sharp and rounded notches; Adopts a highly reader-friendly layout of tables, charts, approximation ...

  14. Concentration solar thermal power

    Livet, F.

    2011-01-01

    As the production of electricity by concentration solar power (CSP) installations is said to be a source of energy for the future, the author discusses past experiments (notably the French Thermis project), and the different techniques which are currently being used. He indicates the regions which appear to be the most appropriate for this technique. He presents the three main techniques: parabolic cylinder, tower, and Stirling cycle installations. He discusses the issue of intermittency. He proposes an assessment of prices and of their evolution, and indicates the investments made in different installations (in Italy, Spain, Germany and Portugal). He comments the case of hybrid installations (sun and gas), evokes the Desertec project proposed by the German industry which comprises a set of hybrid installations. He notices that there is no significant technological evolution for this process

  15. Concentrating solar thermal power.

    Müller-Steinhagen, Hans

    2013-08-13

    In addition to wind and photovoltaic power, concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) will make a major contribution to electricity provision from renewable energies. Drawing on almost 30 years of operational experience in the multi-megawatt range, CSP is now a proven technology with a reliable cost and performance record. In conjunction with thermal energy storage, electricity can be provided according to demand. To date, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity of 1.3 GW are in operation worldwide, with an additional 2.3 GW under construction and 31.7 GW in advanced planning stage. Depending on the concentration factors, temperatures up to 1000°C can be reached to produce saturated or superheated steam for steam turbine cycles or compressed hot gas for gas turbine cycles. The heat rejected from these thermodynamic cycles can be used for sea water desalination, process heat and centralized provision of chilled water. While electricity generation from CSP plants is still more expensive than from wind turbines or photovoltaic panels, its independence from fluctuations and daily variation of wind speed and solar radiation provides it with a higher value. To become competitive with mid-load electricity from conventional power plants within the next 10-15 years, mass production of components, increased plant size and planning/operating experience will be accompanied by technological innovations. On 30 October 2009, a number of major industrial companies joined forces to establish the so-called DESERTEC Industry Initiative, which aims at providing by 2050 15 per cent of European electricity from renewable energy sources in North Africa, while at the same time securing energy, water, income and employment for this region. Solar thermal power plants are in the heart of this concept.

  16. Light-ion spectroscopy with exotic targets

    Struble, G.L.; Lanier, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding the rich and diverse aspects underlying the physics of nuclear structure requires a variety of experimental techniques. In our laboratory, we have concentrated on experimental techniques using light-ion probes and isotopes that are technically difficult to fabricate into targets. In particular, our studies of p-, d-, and t-induced nuclear reactions on the radioactive targets of 152,154 Eu and 148 Gd have illuminated some very specific and very interesting features of nuclear structure near the N = 89 shape-transition region

  17. Modelling Recycling Targets

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...... the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...

  18. Targeted Phototherapy (newer phototherapy

    Zonunsanga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional phototherapy uses a whole body cabinet or body part machine such as hand, foot or scalp machines. They have many disadvantages due to which new phototherapy technique was then developed to overcome this situation. This new technique is called targeted phototherapy which includes excimer laser, intense pulse light system (IPL, photodynamic therapy and ultraviolet (UV light source with a sophisticated delivery system which is easy to be operated by hands. The mechanisms of action of targeted phototherapy systems are similar to those in conventional UVB/UVA therapy. They have many advantages like less chances of side effects, avoidance of exposure of unnecessary sites, faster response, shortening of the duration of treatments. But they have disadvantages like high costs and inability to use for extensive areas. This review article discusses targeted phototherapy in considerable to the mechanism of actions and advantages and disadvantages in comparison to the conventional phototherapy.

  19. Setting reference targets

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets

  20. Target-specific binding of immunoliposomes in vivo

    Holmberg, E.; Maruyama, K.; Kennel, S.; Klibanov, A.; Torchilin, V.; Ryan, U.; Huang, L.; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN; Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow; Miami Univ., FL; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1989-01-01

    Our group at the University of Tennessee has been concentrating on using monoclonal antibody for targeting of a liposomal drug carrier system. This paper discusses our initial effort to target these liposomes using an organ-specific monoclonal antibody. 9 refs., 9 figs