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Sample records for genes controlling flowering

  1. Tulipa gesneriana and Lilium longiflorum PEBP Genes and Their Putative Roles in Flowering Time Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeggangers, Hendrika A C F; Rosilio-Brami, Tamar; Bigas-Nadal, Judit; Rubin, Noam; van Dijk, Aalt D J; Nunez de Caceres Gonzalez, Francisco F; Saadon-Shitrit, Shani; Nijveen, Harm; Hilhorst, Henk W M; Immink, Richard G H; Zaccai, Michele

    2018-01-01

    Floral induction in Tulipa gesneriana and Lilium longiflorum is triggered by contrasting temperature conditions, high and low temperature, respectively. In Arabidopsis, the floral integrator FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), a member of the PEBP (phosphatidyl ethanolamine-binding protein) gene family, is a key player in flowering time control. In this study, one PEBP gene was identified and characterized in lily (LlFT) and three PEBP genes were isolated from tulip (TgFT1, TgFT2 and TgFT3). Overexpression of these genes in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in an early flowering phenotype for LlFT and TgFT2, but a late flowering phenotype for TgFT1 and TgFT3. Overexpression of LlFT in L. longiflorum also resulted in an early flowering phenotype, confirming its proposed role as a flowering time-controlling gene. The tulip PEBP genes TgFT2 and TgFT3 have a similar expression pattern in tulip, but show opposite effects on the timing of flowering in Arabidopsis. Therefore, the difference between these two proteins was further investigated by interchanging amino acids thought to be important for the FT function. This resulted in the conversion of phenotypes in Arabidopsis upon overexpressing the substituted TgFT2 and TgFT3 genes, revealing the importance of these interchanged amino acid residues. Based on all obtained results, we hypothesize that LlFT is involved in creating meristem competence to flowering-related cues in lily, and TgFT2 is considered to act as a florigen involved in the floral induction in tulip. The function of TgFT3 remains unclear, but, based on our observations and phylogenetic analysis, we propose a bulb-specific function for this gene. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Tobacco TTG2 and ARF8 function concomitantly to control flower colouring by regulating anthocyanin synthesis genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Chen, X; Sun, F; Dong, H

    2017-07-01

    Recently we elucidated that tobacco TTG2 cooperates with ARF8 to regulate the vegetative growth and seed production. Here we show that TTG2 and ARF8 control flower colouring by regulating expression of ANS and DFR genes, which function in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Genetic modifications that substantially altered expression levels of the TTG2 gene and production quantities of TTG2 protein were correlated with flower development and colouring. Degrees of flower colour were increased by TTG2 overexpression but decreased through TTG2 silencing, in coincidence with high and low concentrations of anthocyanins in flowers. Of five genes involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway, only ANS and DFR were TTG2-regulated and displayed enhancement and diminution of expression with TTG2 overexpression and silencing, respectively. The floral expression of ANS and DFR also needed a functional ARF8 gene, as ANS and DFR expression were attenuated by ARF8 silencing, which concomitantly diminished the role of TTG2 in anthocyanin production. While ARF8 required TTG2 to be expressed by itself and to regulate ANS and DFR expression, the concurrent presence of normally functional TTG2 and ARF8 was critical for floral production of anthocyanins and also for flower colouration. Our data suggest that TTG2 functions concomitantly with ARF8 to control degrees of flower colour by regulating expression of ANS and DFR, which are involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. ARF8 depends on TTG2 to regulate floral expression of ANS and DFR with positive effects on anthocyanin production and flower colour. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Alternate bearing in citrus: changes in the expression of flowering control genes and in global gene expression in ON- versus OFF-crop trees.

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    Shalom, Liron; Samuels, Sivan; Zur, Naftali; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Zemach, Hanita; Weissberg, Mira; Ophir, Ron; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

    2012-01-01

    Alternate bearing (AB) is the process in fruit trees by which cycles of heavy yield (ON crop) one year are followed by a light yield (OFF crop) the next. Heavy yield usually reduces flowering intensity the following year. Despite its agricultural importance, how the developing crop influences the following year's return bloom and yield is not fully understood. It might be assumed that an 'AB signal' is generated in the fruit, or in another organ that senses fruit presence, and moves into the bud to determine its fate-flowering or vegetative growth. The bud then responds to fruit presence by altering regulatory and metabolic pathways. Determining these pathways, and when they are altered, might indicate the nature of this putative AB signal. We studied bud morphology, the expression of flowering control genes, and global gene expression in ON- and OFF-crop buds. In May, shortly after flowering and fruit set, OFF-crop buds were already significantly longer than ON-crop buds. The number of differentially expressed genes was higher in May than at the other tested time points. Processes differentially expressed between ON- and OFF-crop trees included key metabolic and regulatory pathways, such as photosynthesis and secondary metabolism. The expression of genes of trehalose metabolism and flavonoid metabolism was validated by nCounter technology, and the latter was confirmed by metabolomic analysis. Among genes induced in OFF-crop trees was one homologous to SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE (SPL), which controls juvenile-to-adult and annual phase transitions, regulated by miR156. The expression pattern of SPL-like, miR156 and other flowering control genes suggested that fruit load affects bud fate, and therefore development and metabolism, a relatively long time before the flowering induction period. Results shed light on some of the metabolic and regulatory processes that are altered in ON and OFF buds.

  4. Chemical control of flowering time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionescu, Irina Alexandra; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Sánchez Pérez, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Flowering at the right time is of great importance; it secures seed production and therefore species survival and crop yield. In addition to the genetic network controlling flowering time, there are a number of much less studied metabolites and exogenously applied chemicals that may influence...... on the genetic aspects of flowering time regulation in annuals, but less so in perennials. An alternative to plant breeding approaches is to engineer flowering time chemically via the external application of flower-inducing compounds. This review discusses a variety of exogenously applied compounds used in fruit...

  5. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Soybean Flowering Genes

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    Jung, Chol-Hee; Wong, Chui E.; Singh, Mohan B.; Bhalla, Prem L.

    2012-01-01

    Flowering is an important agronomic trait that determines crop yield. Soybean is a major oilseed legume crop used for human and animal feed. Legumes have unique vegetative and floral complexities. Our understanding of the molecular basis of flower initiation and development in legumes is limited. Here, we address this by using a computational approach to examine flowering regulatory genes in the soybean genome in comparison to the most studied model plant, Arabidopsis. For this comparison, a genome-wide analysis of orthologue groups was performed, followed by an in silico gene expression analysis of the identified soybean flowering genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the gene families highlighted the evolutionary relationships among these candidates. Our study identified key flowering genes in soybean and indicates that the vernalisation and the ambient-temperature pathways seem to be the most variant in soybean. A comparison of the orthologue groups containing flowering genes indicated that, on average, each Arabidopsis flowering gene has 2-3 orthologous copies in soybean. Our analysis highlighted that the CDF3, VRN1, SVP, AP3 and PIF3 genes are paralogue-rich genes in soybean. Furthermore, the genome mapping of the soybean flowering genes showed that these genes are scattered randomly across the genome. A paralogue comparison indicated that the soybean genes comprising the largest orthologue group are clustered in a 1.4 Mb region on chromosome 16 of soybean. Furthermore, a comparison with the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja) revealed that there are hundreds of SNPs that are associated with putative soybean flowering genes and that there are structural variants that may affect the genes of the light-signalling and ambient-temperature pathways in soybean. Our study provides a framework for the soybean flowering pathway and insights into the relationship and evolution of flowering genes between a short-day soybean and the long-day plant, Arabidopsis. PMID:22679494

  6. Candidate Gene Identification of Flowering Time Genes in Cotton

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    Corrinne E. Grover

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time control is critically important to all sexually reproducing angiosperms in both natural ecological and agronomic settings. Accordingly, there is much interest in defining the genes involved in the complex flowering-time network and how these respond to natural and artificial selection, the latter often entailing transitions in day-length responses. Here we describe a candidate gene analysis in the cotton genus , which uses homologs from the well-described flowering network to bioinformatically and phylogenetically identify orthologs in the published genome sequence from Ulbr., one of the two model diploid progenitors of the commercially important allopolyploid cottons, L. and L. Presence and patterns of expression were evaluated from 13 aboveground tissues related to flowering for each of the candidate genes using allopolyploid as a model. Furthermore, we use a comparative context to determine copy number variability of each key gene family across 10 published angiosperm genomes. Data suggest a pattern of repeated loss of duplicates following ancient whole-genome doubling events in diverse lineages. The data presented here provide a foundation for understanding both the parallel evolution of day-length neutrality in domesticated cottons and the flowering-time network, in general, in this important crop plant.

  7. Flowering time control in European winter wheat

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    Simon Martin Langer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time is an important trait in wheat breeding as it affects adaptation and yield potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars. To this end a population of 410 winter wheat varieties was evaluated in multi-location field trials and genotyped by a genotyping-by-sequencing approach and candidate gene markers. Our analyses revealed that the photoperiod regulator Ppd-D1 is the major factor affecting flowering time in this germplasm set, explaining 58% of the genotypic variance. Copy number variation at the Ppd-B1 locus was present but explains only 3.2% and thus a comparably small proportion of genotypic variance. By contrast, the plant height loci Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 had no effect on flowering time. The genome-wide scan identified six QTL which each explain only a small proportion of genotypic variance and in addition we identified a number of epistatic QTL, also with small effects. Taken together, our results show that flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars is mainly controlled by Ppd-D1 while the fine tuning to local climatic conditions is achieved through Ppd-B1 copy number variation and a larger number of QTL with small effects.

  8. The Rice Enhancer of Zeste [E(z] Genes SDG711 and SDG718 are respectively involved in Long Day and Short Day Signaling to Mediate the Accurate Photoperiod Control of Flowering time

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    Xiaoyun eLiu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in rice flowering studies have shown that the accurate control of flowering by photoperiod is regulated by key mechanisms that involve the regulation of flowering genes including Hd1, Ehd1, Hd3a, and RFT1. The chromatin mechanism involved in the regulation of rice flowering genes is presently not well known. Here we show that the rice E(z genes SDG711 and SDG718, which encode the Polycomb Repressive Complex2 (PRC2 key subunit that is required for trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3, are respectively involved in long day (LD and short day (SD regulation of key flowering genes. The expression of SDG711 and SDG718 is induced by LD and SD, respectively. Over-expression and down-regulation of SDG711 respectively repressed and promoted flowering in LD, but had no effect in SD. By contrast, down-regulation of SDG718 had no effect in LD but delayed flowering in SD. SDG711 and SDG718 repressed OsLF (a repressor of Hd1 respectively in LD and SD, leading to a higher expression of Hd1 thus late flowering in LD and early flowering in SD. SDG711 was also found to be involved in the repression of Ehd1 in LD. SDG711 was shown to directly target to OsLF and Ehd1 loci to mediate H3K27me3 and gene repression. The function of the rice E(z genes in LD repression and SD promotion of flowering suggests that PRC2-mediated epigenetic repression of gene expression is involved in the accurate photoperiod control of rice flowering.

  9. Genetic control of flowering time in legumes

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    James L Weller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The timing of flowering, and in particular the degree to which it is responsive to the environment, is a key factor in the adaptation of a given species to various eco-geographic locations and agricultural practices. Flowering time variation has been documented in many crop legumes, and selection for specific variants has permitted significant expansion and improvement in cultivation, from prehistoric times to the present day. Recent advances in legume genomics have accelerated the process of gene identification and functional analysis, and opened up new prospects for a molecular understanding of flowering time adaptation in this important crop group. Within the legumes, two species have been prominent in flowering time studies; the vernalization-responsive long-day species pea (Pisum sativum and the warm-season short-day plant soybean (Glycine max. Analysis of flowering in these species is now being complemented by reverse genetics capabilities in the model legumes Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, and the emergence of genome-scale resources in a range of other legumes. This review will outline the insights gained from detailed forward genetic analysis of flowering time in pea and soybean, highlighting the importance of light perception, the circadian clock and the FT family of flowering integrators. It discusses the current state of knowledge on genetic mechanisms for photoperiod and vernalization response, and concludes with a broader discussion of flowering time adaptation across legumes generally.

  10. Mapping of genes for flower-related traits and QTLs for flowering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mapping of genes for flower-related traits and QTLs for flowering time ... which would greatly enhance the use of G. darwinii-specific desirable genes in ... used to determine all linkage groups, the order of groups on the same ... age groups.

  11. Methylation controls the low temperature induction of flowering in Arabidopsis.

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    Dennis, E S; Bilodeau, P; Burn, J; Finnegan, E J; Genger, R; Helliwell, C; Kang, B J; Sheldon, C C; Peacock, W J

    1998-01-01

    Control of the transition to flowering is critical for reproductive success of a plant. Studies in Arabidopsis have led us to suggest how this species has harnessed the environmental cue of a period of low temperature to ensure flowering occurs at an appropriate time. We propose that Arabidopsis has both vernalization-independent and vernalization-dependent pathways for the initiation of inflorescence development in the shoot apex. The vernalization-independent pathway may be concerned with the supply of carbohydrate to the shoot apex. In late flowering ecotypes which respond to vernalization the vernalization-independent pathway is blocked by the action of two dominant repressors of flowering, FRI and FLC, which interact to produce very late flowering plants which respond strongly to vernalization. We have isolated a gene which may correspond to FLC. We suggest the vernalization-dependent pathway, which may be concerned with apical GA biosynthesis, is blocked by methylation of a gene critical for flowering. This gene may correspond to that encoding kaurenoic acid hydroxylase (KAH), an enzyme catalysing a step in the GA biosynthetic pathway. Under this scheme vernalization causes unblocking of this pathway by demethylation possibly of the KAH gene and consequent biosynthesis of active GAs in the apex.

  12. De novo transcriptome analysis in Dendrobium and identification of critical genes associated with flowering.

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    Chen, Yue; Shen, Qi; Lin, Renan; Zhao, Zhuangliu; Shen, Chenjia; Sun, Chongbo

    2017-10-01

    Artificial control of flowering time is pivotal for the ornamental value of orchids including the genus Dendrobium. Although various flowering pathways have been revealed in model plants, little information is available on the genetic regualtion of flowering in Dendrobium. To identify the critical genes associated with flowering, transcriptomes from four organs (leaf, root, stem and flower) of D. officinale were analyzed in our study. In total, 2645 flower-specific transcripts were identified. Functional annotation and classification suggested that several metabolic pathways, including four sugar-related pathways and two fatty acid-related pathways, were enriched. A total of 24 flowering-related transcripts were identified in D. officinale according to the similarities to their homologous genes from Arabidopsis, suggesting that most classical flowering pathways existed in D. officinale. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis suggested that the FLOWERING LOCUS T homologs in orchids are highly conserved during evolution process. In addition, expression changes in nine randomly-selected critical flowering-related transcripts between the vegetative stage and reproductive stage were quantified by qRT-PCR analysis. Our study provided a number of candidate genes and sequence resources for investigating the mechanisms underlying the flowering process of the Dendrobium genus. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Mapping of genes for flower-related traits and QTLs for flowering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mapping of genes for flower-related traits and QTLs for flowering time in an interspecific population of Gossypium hirsutum × G. darwinii. Shuwen Zhang, Qianqian Lan, Xiang Gao, Biao Yang, Caiping Cai, Tianzhen Zhang and Baoliang Zhou. J. Genet. 95, 197–201. Table 1. Loci composition and recombination distances of ...

  14. The Vaccinium corymbosum FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene (VcFT): a flowering activator reverses photoperiodic and chilling requirements in blueberry.

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    Song, Guo-qing; Walworth, Aaron; Zhao, Dongyan; Jiang, Ning; Hancock, James F

    2013-11-01

    The blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T ( FT )-like gene ( VcFT ) cloned from the cDNA of a tetraploid, northern highbush blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is able to reverse the photoperiodic and chilling requirements and drive early and continuous flowering. Blueberry is a woody perennial bush with a longer juvenile period than annual crops, requiring vernalization to flower normally. Few studies have been reported on the molecular mechanism of flowering in blueberry or other woody plants. Because FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) from Arabidopsis thaliana plays a multifaceted role in generating mobile molecular signals to regulate plant flowering time, isolation and functional analysis of the blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) FT-like gene (VcFT) will facilitate the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of flowering in woody plants. Based on EST sequences, a 525-bpVcFT was identified and cloned from the cDNA of a tetraploid, northern highbush blueberry cultivar, Bluecrop. Ectopic expression of 35S:VcFT in tobacco induced flowering an average of 28 days earlier than wild-type plants. Expression of the 35S:VcFT in the blueberry cultivar Aurora resulted in an extremely early flowering phenotype, which flowered not only during in vitro culture, a growth stage when nontransgenic shoots had not yet flowered, but also in 6-10-week old, soil-grown transgenic plants, in contrast to the fact that at least 1 year and 800 chilling hours are required for the appearance of the first flower of both nontransgenic 'Aurora' and transgenic controls with the gusA. These results demonstrate that the VcFT is a functional floral activator and overexpression of the VcFT is able to reverse the photoperiodic and chilling requirements and drive early and continuous flowering.

  15. cDNA cloning and expression of carotenogenic genes during flower development in Gentiana lutea.

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    Zhu, Changfu; Yamamura, Saburo; Koiwa, Hiroyuki; Nishihara, Masashiro; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2002-02-01

    All cDNAs involved in carotenoid biosynthesis leading to lycopene in yellow petals of Gentiana lutea have been cloned from a cDNA library. They encode a geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, a phytoene synthase, a phytoene desaturase and a zeta-carotene desaturase. The indicated function of all cDNAs was established by heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli. The amino acid sequences deduced from the cDNAs were between 47.5% and 78.9% identical to those reported for the corresponding enzymes from other higher plants. Southern analysis suggested that the genes for each enzyme probably represent a small multi-gene family. Tissue-specific expression of the genes and expression during flower development was investigated. The expression of the phytoene synthase gene, psy, was enhanced in flowers but transcripts were not detected in stems and leaves by northern blotting. Transcripts of the genes for geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (ggpps), phytoene desaturase (pds) and zeta-carotene desaturase (zds) were detected in flowers and leaves but not in stems. Analysis of the expression of psy and zds in petals revealed that levels of the transcripts were lowest in young buds and highest in fully open flowers, in parallel with the formation of carotenoids. Obviously, the transcription of these genes control the accumulation of carotenoids during flower development in G. lutea. For pds only a very slight increase of mRNA was found whereas the transcripts of ggpps decreased during flower development.

  16. A quantitative and dynamic model of the Arabidopsis flowering time gene regulatory network.

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    Felipe Leal Valentim

    Full Text Available Various environmental signals integrate into a network of floral regulatory genes leading to the final decision on when to flower. Although a wealth of qualitative knowledge is available on how flowering time genes regulate each other, only a few studies incorporated this knowledge into predictive models. Such models are invaluable as they enable to investigate how various types of inputs are combined to give a quantitative readout. To investigate the effect of gene expression disturbances on flowering time, we developed a dynamic model for the regulation of flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana. Model parameters were estimated based on expression time-courses for relevant genes, and a consistent set of flowering times for plants of various genetic backgrounds. Validation was performed by predicting changes in expression level in mutant backgrounds and comparing these predictions with independent expression data, and by comparison of predicted and experimental flowering times for several double mutants. Remarkably, the model predicts that a disturbance in a particular gene has not necessarily the largest impact on directly connected genes. For example, the model predicts that SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS (SOC1 mutation has a larger impact on APETALA1 (AP1, which is not directly regulated by SOC1, compared to its effect on LEAFY (LFY which is under direct control of SOC1. This was confirmed by expression data. Another model prediction involves the importance of cooperativity in the regulation of APETALA1 (AP1 by LFY, a prediction supported by experimental evidence. Concluding, our model for flowering time gene regulation enables to address how different quantitative inputs are combined into one quantitative output, flowering time.

  17. Divergence of flowering genes in soybean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-15

    Oct 15, 2012 ... and the production of dry matter in crops (Cockram et al. 2007). Thus ..... is repressed by AP1 in emerging flower primordia (Liu et al. 2007). ..... conserved QTLs for disease resistance and seed size (Kim et al. 2009b).

  18. Population genomics of the Arabidopsis thaliana flowering time gene network.

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    Flowers, Jonathan M; Hanzawa, Yoshie; Hall, Megan C; Moore, Richard C; Purugganan, Michael D

    2009-11-01

    The time to flowering is a key component of the life-history strategy of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana that varies quantitatively among genotypes. A significant problem for evolutionary and ecological genetics is to understand how natural selection may operate on this ecologically significant trait. Here, we conduct a population genomic study of resequencing data from 52 genes in the flowering time network. McDonald-Kreitman tests of neutrality suggested a strong excess of amino acid polymorphism when pooling across loci. This excess of replacement polymorphism across the flowering time network and a skewed derived frequency spectrum toward rare alleles for both replacement and noncoding polymorphisms relative to synonymous changes is consistent with a large class of deleterious polymorphisms segregating in these genes. Assuming selective neutrality of synonymous changes, we estimate that approximately 30% of amino acid polymorphisms are deleterious. Evidence of adaptive substitution is less prominent in our analysis. The photoperiod regulatory gene, CO, and a gibberellic acid transcription factor, AtMYB33, show evidence of adaptive fixation of amino acid mutations. A test for extended haplotypes revealed no examples of flowering time alleles with haplotypes comparable in length to those associated with the null fri(Col) allele reported previously. This suggests that the FRI gene likely has a uniquely intense or recent history of selection among the flowering time genes considered here. Although there is some evidence for adaptive evolution in these life-history genes, it appears that slightly deleterious polymorphisms are a major component of natural molecular variation in the flowering time network of A. thaliana.

  19. Heterologous expression of wheat VERNALIZATION 2 (TaVRN2 gene in Arabidopsis delays flowering and enhances freezing tolerance.

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    Amadou Diallo

    Full Text Available The vernalization gene 2 (VRN2, is a major flowering repressor in temperate cereals that is regulated by low temperature and photoperiod. Here we show that the gene from Triticum aestivum (TaVRN2 is also regulated by salt, heat shock, dehydration, wounding and abscissic acid. Promoter analysis indicates that TaVRN2 regulatory region possesses all the specific responsive elements to these stresses. This suggests pleiotropic effects of TaVRN2 in wheat development and adaptability to the environment. To test if TaVRN2 can act as a flowering repressor in species different from the temperate cereals, the gene was ectopically expressed in the model plant Arabidopsis. Transgenic plants showed no alteration in morphology, but their flowering time was significantly delayed compared to controls plants, indicating that TaVRN2, although having no ortholog in Brassicaceae, can act as a flowering repressor in these species. To identify the possible mechanism by which TaVRN2 gene delays flowering in Arabidopsis, the expression level of several genes involved in flowering time regulation was determined. The analysis indicates that the late flowering of the 35S::TaVRN2 plants was associated with a complex pattern of expression of the major flowering control genes, FCA, FLC, FT, FVE and SOC1. This suggests that heterologous expression of TaVRN2 in Arabidopsis can delay flowering by modulating several floral inductive pathways. Furthermore, transgenic plants showed higher freezing tolerance, likely due to the accumulation of CBF2, CBF3 and the COR genes. Overall, our data suggests that TaVRN2 gene could modulate a common regulator of the two interacting pathways that regulate flowering time and the induction of cold tolerance. The results also demonstrate that TaVRN2 could be used to manipulate flowering time and improve cold tolerance in other species.

  20. Identification of regulatory genes implicated in continuous flowering of longan (Dimocarpus longan L..

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    Tianqi Jia

    Full Text Available Longan (Dimocarpus longan L. is a tropical/subtropical fruit tree of significant economic importance in Southeast Asia. However, a lack of transcriptomic and genomic information hinders research on longan traits, such as the control of flowering. In this study, high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq was used to investigate differentially expressed genes between a unique longan cultivar 'Sijimi'(S which flowers throughout the year and a more typical cultivar 'Lidongben'(L which flowers only once in the season, with the aim of identifying candidate genes associated with continuous flowering. 36,527 and 40,982 unigenes were obtained by de novo assembly of the clean reads from cDNA libraries of L and S cultivars. Additionally 40,513 unigenes were assembled from combined reads of these libraries. A total of 32,475 unigenes were annotated by BLAST search to NCBI non-redundant protein (NR, Swiss-Prot, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG databases. Of these, almost fifteen thousand unigenes were identified as significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs by using Reads Per kb per Million reads (RPKM method. A total of 6,415 DEGs were mapped to 128 KEGG pathways, and 8,743 DEGs were assigned to 54 Gene Ontology categories. After blasting the DEGs to public sequence databases, 539 potential flowering-related DEGs were identified. In addition, 107 flowering-time genes were identified in longan, their expression levels between two longan samples were compared by RPKM method, of which the expression levels of 15 were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. Our results suggest longan homologues of SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP, GIGANTEA (GI, F-BOX 1 (FKF1 and EARLY FLOWERING 4 (ELF4 may be involved this flowering trait and ELF4 may be a key gene. The identification of candidate genes related to continuous flowering will provide new insight into the molecular process of regulating flowering time in woody

  1. QTL-seq for rapid identification of candidate genes for flowering time in broccoli × cabbage.

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    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Zhang, Lili; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2018-04-01

    A major QTL controlling early flowering in broccoli × cabbage was identified by marker analysis and next-generation sequencing, corresponding to GRF6 gene conditioning flowering time in Arabidopsis. Flowering is an important agronomic trait for hybrid production in broccoli and cabbage, but the genetic mechanism underlying this process is unknown. In this study, segregation analysis with BC 1 P1, BC 1 P2, F 2 , and F 2:3 populations derived from a cross between two inbred lines "195" (late-flowering) and "93219" (early flowering) suggested that flowering time is a quantitative trait. Next, employing a next-generation sequencing-based whole-genome QTL-seq strategy, we identified a major genomic region harboring a robust flowering time QTL using an F 2 mapping population, designated Ef2.1 on cabbage chromosome 2 for early flowering. Ef2.1 was further validated by indel (insertion or deletion) marker-based classical QTL mapping, explaining 51.5% (LOD = 37.67) and 54.0% (LOD = 40.5) of the phenotypic variation in F 2 and F 2:3 populations, respectively. Combined QTL-seq and classical QTL analysis narrowed down Ef1.1 to a 228-kb genomic region containing 29 genes. A cabbage gene, Bol024659, was identified in this region, which is a homolog of GRF6, a major gene regulating flowering in Arabidopsis, and was designated BolGRF6. qRT-PCR study of the expression level of BolGRF6 revealed significantly higher expression in the early flowering genotypes. Taken together, our results provide support for BolGRF6 as a possible candidate gene for early flowering in the broccoli line 93219. The identified candidate genomic regions and genes may be useful for molecular breeding to improve broccoli and cabbage flowering times.

  2. Genetic control and comparative genomic analysis of flowering time in Setaria (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Wang, Xuewen; Barbier, Hugues; Brutnell, Thomas P; Devos, Katrien M; Doust, Andrew N

    2013-02-01

    We report the first study on the genetic control of flowering in Setaria, a panicoid grass closely related to switchgrass, and in the same subfamily as maize and sorghum. A recombinant inbred line mapping population derived from a cross between domesticated Setaria italica (foxtail millet) and its wild relative Setaria viridis (green millet), was grown in eight trials with varying environmental conditions to identify a small number of quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control differences in flowering time. Many of the QTL across trials colocalize, suggesting that the genetic control of flowering in Setaria is robust across a range of photoperiod and other environmental factors. A detailed comparison of QTL for flowering in Setaria, sorghum, and maize indicates that several of the major QTL regions identified in maize and sorghum are syntenic orthologs with Setaria QTL, although the maize large effect QTL on chromosome 10 is not. Several Setaria QTL intervals had multiple LOD peaks and were composed of multiple syntenic blocks, suggesting that observed QTL represent multiple tightly linked loci. Candidate genes from flowering time pathways identified in rice and Arabidopsis were identified in Setaria QTL intervals, including those involved in the CONSTANS photoperiod pathway. However, only three of the approximately seven genes cloned for flowering time in maize colocalized with Setaria QTL. This suggests that variation in flowering time in separate grass lineages is controlled by a combination of conserved and lineage specific genes.

  3. Control of the first flowering in forest trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalupka, W. [Inst. od Dendrology, Kornik (Poland); Cecich, R.A. [U.S.D.A.-Forest Service, Columbia, MO (United States). North Central Forest Experiment Station

    1997-04-01

    Precocious flowering provides opportunities to shorten a breeding cycle. A tree may flower for the first time when sufficient crown development has occurred and there are enough meristems to support both vegetative and reproductive buds. Precocious flowering can be promoted through the use of cultural techniques, such as photoperiod, accelerated growth, gibberellins and water stress. The length of the juvenile phase is dependent on genetic and environmental variables that affect achievement of a minimum size, and is positively correlated with the height of the plants within a family. Selection pressure can be applied successfully to the precocious flowering character, and crossed or inbred lines of precocious flowering progeny can be developed. Various levels and amounts of genetic control have been implicated in the control of precocious flowering. 90 refs, 1 tab

  4. Molecular and Functional Characterization of Broccoli EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2 Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long-Fang O.; Lin, Chun-Hung; Lai, Ying-Mi; Huang, Jia-Yuan; Sung, Zinmay Renee

    2012-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins regulate major developmental processes in Arabidopsis. EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2 (EMF2), the VEFS domain-containing PcG gene, regulates diverse genetic pathways and is required for vegetative development and plant survival. Despite widespread EMF2-like sequences in plants, little is known about their function other than in Arabidopsis and rice. To study the role of EMF2 in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica cv. Elegance) development, we identified two broccoli EMF2 (BoEMF2) genes with sequence homology to and a similar gene expression pattern to that in Arabidopsis (AtEMF2). Reducing their expression in broccoli resulted in aberrant phenotypes and gene expression patterns. BoEMF2 regulates genes involved in diverse developmental and stress programs similar to AtEMF2 in Arabidopsis. However, BoEMF2 differs from AtEMF2 in the regulation of flower organ identity, cell proliferation and elongation, and death-related genes, which may explain the distinct phenotypes. The expression of BoEMF2.1 in the Arabidopsis emf2 mutant (Rescued emf2) partially rescued the mutant phenotype and restored the gene expression pattern to that of the wild type. Many EMF2-mediated molecular and developmental functions are conserved in broccoli and Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the restored gene expression pattern in Rescued emf2 provides insights into the molecular basis of PcG-mediated growth and development. PMID:22537758

  5. Looking into flowering time in almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill) D. A. Webb): the candidate gene approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C; Garcia-Mas, J; Sánchez, A M; Arús, P; Oliveira, M M

    2005-03-01

    Blooming time is one of the most important agronomic traits in almond. Biochemical and molecular events underlying flowering regulation must be understood before methods to stimulate late flowering can be developed. Attempts to elucidate the genetic control of this process have led to the identification of a major gene (Lb) and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) linked to observed phenotypic differences, but although this gene and these QTLs have been placed on the Prunus reference genetic map, their sequences and specific functions remain unknown. The aim of our investigation was to associate these loci with known genes using a candidate gene approach. Two almond cDNAs and eight Prunus expressed sequence tags were selected as candidate genes (CGs) since their sequences were highly identical to those of flowering regulatory genes characterized in other species. The CGs were amplified from both parental lines of the mapping population using specific primers. Sequence comparison revealed DNA polymorphisms between the parental lines, mainly of the single nucleotide type. Polymorphisms were used to develop co-dominant cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers or length polymorphisms based on insertion/deletion events for mapping the candidate genes on the Prunus reference map. Ten candidate genes were assigned to six linkage groups in the Prunus genome. The positions of two of these were compatible with the regions where two QTLs for blooming time were detected. One additional candidate was localized close to the position of the Evergrowing gene, which determines a non-deciduous behaviour in peach.

  6. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla P. Coelho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members.

  7. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carla P; Minow, Mark A A; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members.

  8. Domestication-driven Gossypium profilin 1 (GhPRF1) gene transduces early flowering phenotype in tobacco by spatial alteration of apical/floral-meristem related gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Dhananjay K; Chaudhary, Bhupendra

    2016-05-13

    Plant profilin genes encode core cell-wall structural proteins and are evidenced for their up-regulation under cotton domestication. Notwithstanding striking discoveries in the genetics of cell-wall organization in plants, little is explicit about the manner in which profilin-mediated molecular interplay and corresponding networks are altered, especially during cellular signalling of apical meristem determinacy and flower development. Here we show that the ectopic expression of GhPRF1 gene in tobacco resulted in the hyperactivation of apical meristem and early flowering phenotype with increased flower number in comparison to the control plants. Spatial expression alteration in CLV1, a key meristem-determinacy gene, is induced by the GhPRF1 overexpression in a WUS-dependent manner and mediates cell signalling to promote flowering. But no such expression alterations are recorded in the GhPRF1-RNAi lines. The GhPRF1 transduces key positive flowering regulator AP1 gene via coordinated expression of FT4, SOC1, FLC1 and FT1 genes involved in the apical-to-floral meristem signalling cascade which is consistent with our in silico profilin interaction data. Remarkably, these positive and negative flowering regulators are spatially controlled by the Actin-Related Protein (ARP) genes, specifically ARP4 and ARP6 in proximate association with profilins. This study provides a novel and systematic link between GhPRF1 gene expression and the flower primordium initiation via up-regulation of the ARP genes, and an insight into the functional characterization of GhPRF1 gene acting upstream to the flowering mechanism. Also, the transgenic plants expressing GhPRF1 gene show an increase in the plant height, internode length, leaf size and plant vigor. Overexpression of GhPRF1 gene induced early and increased flowering in tobacco with enhanced plant vigor. During apical meristem determinacy and flower development, the GhPRF1 gene directly influences key flowering regulators through ARP-genes

  9. Pleiotropic effects of flowering time genes in the annual crucifer Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Tienderen, P.H.; Hammad, I.; Zwaal, F.C.

    1996-01-01

    Variation in flowering time of Arabidopsis thaliana was studied in an experiment with mutant lines. The pleiotropic effects of flowering time genes on morphology and reproductive yield were assessed under three levels of nutrient supply. At all nutrient levels flowering time and number of rosette

  10. Isolation and functional characterization of JcFT, a FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) homologous gene from the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoqiong; Luo, Li; Fu, Qiantang; Niu, Longjian; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2014-05-08

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is a potential feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of the biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) -like genes are important flowering regulators in higher plants. To date, the flowering genes in Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an FT homolog was isolated from Jatropha and designated as JcFT. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic relationship of JcFT revealed a high sequence similarity with the FT genes of Litchi chinensis, Populus nigra and other perennial plants. JcFT was expressed in all tissues of adult plants except young leaves, with the highest expression level in female flowers. Overexpression of JcFT in Arabidopsis and Jatropha using the constitutive promoter cauliflower mosaic virus 35S or the phloem-specific promoter Arabidopsis SUCROSE TRANSPORTER 2 promoter resulted in an extremely early flowering phenotype. Furthermore, several flowering genes downstream of JcFT were up-regulated in the JcFT-overexpression transgenic plant lines. JcFT may encode a florigen that acts as a key regulator in flowering pathway. This study is the first to functionally characterize a flowering gene, namely, JcFT, in the biofuel plant Jatropha.

  11. Analysis on expression of gene for flower shape in Dendrobium sonia mutants using differential display technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affrida Abu Hassan; Ahmad Syazni Kamarudin; Nurul Nadia Aminuddin; Mohd Nazir Basiran

    2004-01-01

    In vitro mutagenesis on Dendrobium Sonia in MINT has produced mutants with wide range of flower form and colour variations. Among the mutants are plants with different flower size and shape. These changes could be caused by alterations to the expression level of the genes responsible for the characteristics. In this studies, Differential Display technique was used to identify and analyse altered gene expression at the mRNA level. Total RNA of the control and mutants were reversed transcribed using three anchored oligo-d T primers. Subsequently, these cDNAs were Pcr amplified in combination with 16 arbitrary primers. The amplified products were electrophoresed side by side on agarose gel. Differentially expressed bands are isolated for further analysis. (Author)

  12. The Oryza sativa Regulator HDR1 Associates with the Kinase OsK4 to Control Photoperiodic Flowering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehui Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice is a facultative short-day plant (SDP, and the regulatory pathways for flowering time are conserved, but functionally modified, in Arabidopsis and rice. Heading date 1 (Hd1, an ortholog of Arabidopsis CONSTANS (CO, is a key regulator that suppresses flowering under long-day conditions (LDs, but promotes flowering under short-day conditions (SDs by influencing the expression of the florigen gene Heading date 3a (Hd3a. Another key regulator, Early heading date 1 (Ehd1, is an evolutionarily unique gene with no orthologs in Arabidopsis, which acts as a flowering activator under both SD and LD by promoting the rice florigen genes Hd3a and RICE FLOWERING LOCUST 1 (RFT1. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of the flowering regulator Heading Date Repressor1 (HDR1 in rice. The hdr1 mutant exhibits an early flowering phenotype under natural LD in a paddy field in Beijing, China (39°54'N, 116°23'E, as well as under LD but not SD in a growth chamber, indicating that HDR1 may functionally regulate flowering time via the photoperiod-dependent pathway. HDR1 encodes a nuclear protein that is most active in leaves and floral organs and exhibits a typical diurnal expression pattern. We determined that HDR1 is a novel suppressor of flowering that upregulates Hd1 and downregulates Ehd1, leading to the downregulation of Hd3a and RFT1 under LDs. We have further identified an HDR1-interacting kinase, OsK4, another suppressor of rice flowering under LDs. OsK4 acts similarly to HDR1, suppressing flowering by upregulating Hd1 and downregulating Ehd1 under LDs, and OsK4 can phosphorylate HD1 with HDR1 presents. These results collectively reveal the transcriptional regulators of Hd1 for the day-length-dependent control of flowering time in rice.

  13. Transcript Profile of Flowering Regulatory Genes in VcFT-Overexpressing Blueberry Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron E Walworth

    Full Text Available In order to identify genetic components in flowering pathways of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L., a transcriptome reference composed of 254,396 transcripts and 179,853 gene contigs was developed by assembly of 72.7 million reads using Trinity. Using this transcriptome reference and a query of flowering pathway genes of herbaceous plants, we identified potential flowering pathway genes/transcripts of blueberry. Transcriptome analysis of flowering pathway genes was then conducted on leaf tissue samples of transgenic blueberry cv. Aurora ('VcFT-Aurora', which overexpresses a blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene (VcFT. Sixty-one blueberry transcripts of 40 genes showed high similarities to 33 known flowering-related genes of herbaceous plants, of which 17 down-regulated and 16 up-regulated genes were identified in 'VcFT-Aurora'. All down-regulated genes encoded transcription factors/enzymes upstream in the signaling pathway containing VcFT. A blueberry CONSTANS-LIKE 5-like (VcCOL5 gene was down-regulated and associated with five other differentially expressed (DE genes in the photoperiod-mediated flowering pathway. Three down-regulated genes, i.e., a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 2-like gene (VcMAF2, a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 5-like gene (VcMAF5, and a VERNALIZATION1-like gene (VcVRN1, may function as integrators in place of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC in the vernalization pathway. Because no CONSTAN1-like or FLOWERING LOCUS C-like genes were found in blueberry, VcCOL5 and VcMAF2/VcMAF5 or VRN1 might be the major integrator(s in the photoperiod- and vernalization-mediated flowering pathway, respectively. The major down-stream genes of VcFT, i.e., SUPPRESSOR of Overexpression of Constans 1-like (VcSOC1, LEAFY-like (VcLFY, APETALA1-like (VcAP1, CAULIFLOWER 1-like (VcCAL1, and FRUITFULL-like (VcFUL genes were present and showed high similarity to their orthologues in herbaceous plants. Moreover, overexpression of VcFT promoted expression of all of

  14. Transcript Profile of Flowering Regulatory Genes in VcFT-Overexpressing Blueberry Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Aaron E.; Chai, Benli; Song, Guo-qing

    2016-01-01

    In order to identify genetic components in flowering pathways of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), a transcriptome reference composed of 254,396 transcripts and 179,853 gene contigs was developed by assembly of 72.7 million reads using Trinity. Using this transcriptome reference and a query of flowering pathway genes of herbaceous plants, we identified potential flowering pathway genes/transcripts of blueberry. Transcriptome analysis of flowering pathway genes was then conducted on leaf tissue samples of transgenic blueberry cv. Aurora (‘VcFT-Aurora’), which overexpresses a blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene (VcFT). Sixty-one blueberry transcripts of 40 genes showed high similarities to 33 known flowering-related genes of herbaceous plants, of which 17 down-regulated and 16 up-regulated genes were identified in ‘VcFT-Aurora’. All down-regulated genes encoded transcription factors/enzymes upstream in the signaling pathway containing VcFT. A blueberry CONSTANS-LIKE 5-like (VcCOL5) gene was down-regulated and associated with five other differentially expressed (DE) genes in the photoperiod-mediated flowering pathway. Three down-regulated genes, i.e., a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 2-like gene (VcMAF2), a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 5-like gene (VcMAF5), and a VERNALIZATION1-like gene (VcVRN1), may function as integrators in place of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in the vernalization pathway. Because no CONSTAN1-like or FLOWERING LOCUS C-like genes were found in blueberry, VcCOL5 and VcMAF2/VcMAF5 or VRN1 might be the major integrator(s) in the photoperiod- and vernalization-mediated flowering pathway, respectively. The major down-stream genes of VcFT, i.e., SUPPRESSOR of Overexpression of Constans 1-like (VcSOC1), LEAFY-like (VcLFY), APETALA1-like (VcAP1), CAULIFLOWER 1-like (VcCAL1), and FRUITFULL-like (VcFUL) genes were present and showed high similarity to their orthologues in herbaceous plants. Moreover, overexpression of VcFT promoted expression of all

  15. Transcript Profile of Flowering Regulatory Genes in VcFT-Overexpressing Blueberry Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Aaron E; Chai, Benli; Song, Guo-Qing

    2016-01-01

    In order to identify genetic components in flowering pathways of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), a transcriptome reference composed of 254,396 transcripts and 179,853 gene contigs was developed by assembly of 72.7 million reads using Trinity. Using this transcriptome reference and a query of flowering pathway genes of herbaceous plants, we identified potential flowering pathway genes/transcripts of blueberry. Transcriptome analysis of flowering pathway genes was then conducted on leaf tissue samples of transgenic blueberry cv. Aurora ('VcFT-Aurora'), which overexpresses a blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene (VcFT). Sixty-one blueberry transcripts of 40 genes showed high similarities to 33 known flowering-related genes of herbaceous plants, of which 17 down-regulated and 16 up-regulated genes were identified in 'VcFT-Aurora'. All down-regulated genes encoded transcription factors/enzymes upstream in the signaling pathway containing VcFT. A blueberry CONSTANS-LIKE 5-like (VcCOL5) gene was down-regulated and associated with five other differentially expressed (DE) genes in the photoperiod-mediated flowering pathway. Three down-regulated genes, i.e., a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 2-like gene (VcMAF2), a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 5-like gene (VcMAF5), and a VERNALIZATION1-like gene (VcVRN1), may function as integrators in place of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in the vernalization pathway. Because no CONSTAN1-like or FLOWERING LOCUS C-like genes were found in blueberry, VcCOL5 and VcMAF2/VcMAF5 or VRN1 might be the major integrator(s) in the photoperiod- and vernalization-mediated flowering pathway, respectively. The major down-stream genes of VcFT, i.e., SUPPRESSOR of Overexpression of Constans 1-like (VcSOC1), LEAFY-like (VcLFY), APETALA1-like (VcAP1), CAULIFLOWER 1-like (VcCAL1), and FRUITFULL-like (VcFUL) genes were present and showed high similarity to their orthologues in herbaceous plants. Moreover, overexpression of VcFT promoted expression of all of these

  16. Patterns of MADS-box gene expression mark flower-type development in Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeri Teemu H

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inflorescence of the cut-flower crop Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae consists of two principal flower types, ray and disc, which form a tightly packed head, or capitulum. Despite great interest in plant morphological evolution and the tractability of the gerbera system, very little is known regarding genetic mechanisms involved in flower type specification. Here, we provide comparative staging of ray and disc flower development and microarray screening for differentially expressed genes, accomplished via microdissection of hundreds of coordinately developing flower primordia. Results Using a 9K gerbera cDNA microarray we identified a number of genes with putative specificity to individual flower types. Intrestingly, several of these encode homologs of MADS-box transcription factors otherwise known to regulate flower organ development. From these and previously obtained data, we hypothesize the functions and protein-protein interactions of several gerbera MADS-box factors. Conclusion Our RNA expression results suggest that flower-type specific MADS protein complexes may play a central role in differential development of ray and disc flowers across the gerbera capitulum, and that some commonality is shared with known protein functions in floral organ determination. These findings support the intriguing conjecture that the gerbera flowering head is more than a mere floral analog at the level of gene regulation.

  17. Identification of Genes Associated with Chlorophyll Accumulation in Flower Petals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmiya, Akemi; Hirashima, Masumi; Yagi, Masafumi; Tanase, Koji; Yamamizo, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    Plants have an ability to prevent chlorophyll accumulation, which would mask the bright flower color, in their petals. In contrast, leaves contain substantial amounts of chlorophyll, as it is essential for photosynthesis. The mechanisms of organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation are unknown. To identify factors that determine the chlorophyll content in petals, we compared the expression of genes related to chlorophyll metabolism in different stages of non-green (red and white) petals (very low chlorophyll content), pale-green petals (low chlorophyll content), and leaves (high chlorophyll content) of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). The expression of many genes encoding chlorophyll biosynthesis enzymes, in particular Mg-chelatase, was lower in non-green petals than in leaves. Non-green petals also showed higher expression of genes involved in chlorophyll degradation, including STAY-GREEN gene and pheophytinase. These data suggest that the absence of chlorophylls in carnation petals may be caused by the low rate of chlorophyll biosynthesis and high rate of degradation. Similar results were obtained by the analysis of Arabidopsis microarray data. In carnation, most genes related to chlorophyll biosynthesis were expressed at similar levels in pale-green petals and leaves, whereas the expression of chlorophyll catabolic genes was higher in pale-green petals than in leaves. Therefore, we hypothesize that the difference in chlorophyll content between non-green and pale-green petals is due to different levels of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Our study provides a basis for future molecular and genetic studies on organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation. PMID:25470367

  18. Floral pathway integrator gene expression mediates gradual transmission of environmental and endogenous cues to flowering time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Aalt D J; Molenaar, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    The appropriate timing of flowering is crucial for the reproductive success of plants. Hence, intricate genetic networks integrate various environmental and endogenous cues such as temperature or hormonal statues. These signals integrate into a network of floral pathway integrator genes. At a quantitative level, it is currently unclear how the impact of genetic variation in signaling pathways on flowering time is mediated by floral pathway integrator genes. Here, using datasets available from literature, we connect Arabidopsis thaliana flowering time in genetic backgrounds varying in upstream signalling components with the expression levels of floral pathway integrator genes in these genetic backgrounds. Our modelling results indicate that flowering time depends in a quite linear way on expression levels of floral pathway integrator genes. This gradual, proportional response of flowering time to upstream changes enables a gradual adaptation to changing environmental factors such as temperature and light.

  19. Floral pathway integrator gene expression mediates gradual transmission of environmental and endogenous cues to flowering time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aalt D.J. van Dijk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate timing of flowering is crucial for the reproductive success of plants. Hence, intricate genetic networks integrate various environmental and endogenous cues such as temperature or hormonal statues. These signals integrate into a network of floral pathway integrator genes. At a quantitative level, it is currently unclear how the impact of genetic variation in signaling pathways on flowering time is mediated by floral pathway integrator genes. Here, using datasets available from literature, we connect Arabidopsis thaliana flowering time in genetic backgrounds varying in upstream signalling components with the expression levels of floral pathway integrator genes in these genetic backgrounds. Our modelling results indicate that flowering time depends in a quite linear way on expression levels of floral pathway integrator genes. This gradual, proportional response of flowering time to upstream changes enables a gradual adaptation to changing environmental factors such as temperature and light.

  20. Getting More Power from Your Flowers: Multi-Functional Flower Strips Enhance Pollinators and Pest Control Agents in Apple Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Alistair John; Wilby, Andrew; Sutton, Peter; Wäckers, Felix

    2017-09-20

    Flower strips are commonly recommended to boost biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services (e.g., pollination and pest control) on farmland. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regards the extent to which they deliver on these aims. Here, we tested the efficacy of flower strips that targeted different subsets of beneficial arthropods (pollinators and natural enemies) and their ecosystem services in cider apple orchards. Treatments included mixes that specifically targeted: (1) pollinators ('concealed-nectar plants'); (2) natural enemies ('open-nectar plants'); or (3) both groups concurrently (i.e., 'multi-functional' mix). Flower strips were established in alleyways of four orchards and compared to control alleyways (no flowers). Pollinator (e.g., bees) and natural enemy (e.g., parasitoid wasps, predatory flies and beetles) visitation to flower strips, alongside measures of pest control (aphid colony densities, sentinel prey predation), and fruit production, were monitored in orchards over two consecutive growing seasons. Targeted flower strips attracted either pollinators or natural enemies, whereas mixed flower strips attracted both groups in similar abundance to targeted mixes. Natural enemy densities on apple trees were higher in plots containing open-nectar plants compared to other treatments, but effects were stronger for non-aphidophagous taxa. Predation of sentinel prey was enhanced in all flowering plots compared to controls but pest aphid densities and fruit yield were unaffected by flower strips. We conclude that 'multi-functional' flower strips that contain flowering plant species with opposing floral traits can provide nectar and pollen for both pollinators and natural enemies, but further work is required to understand their potential for improving pest control services and yield in cider apple orchards.

  1. Photoperiod and cold night temperature in control of flowering in Kalanchoë

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes Coelho, Lívia; Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Lütken, Henrik Vlk

    2015-01-01

    was used as control species to validate treatments that consisted of combining short day photoperiod (8 h) and different night temperature (18, 12 and 6C). While K. prittwitzii had 100% flowering for all treatments, K. marmorata only flowered at 12C (33% plants flowering) and 6C (25% plants flowering...

  2. Transcription factor PIF4 controls the thermosensory activation of flowering

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S. Vinod; Lucyshyn, Doris; Jaeger, Katja E.; Aló s, Enriqueta; Alvey, Elizabeth; Harberd, Nicholas P.; Wigge, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    Plant growth and development are strongly affected by small differences in temperature. Current climate change has already altered global plant phenology and distribution, and projected increases in temperature pose a significant challenge to agriculture. Despite the important role of temperature on plant development, the underlying pathways are unknown. It has previously been shown that thermal acceleration of flowering is dependent on the florigen, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). How this occurs is, however, not understood, because the major pathway known to upregulate FT, the photoperiod pathway, is not required for thermal acceleration of flowering. Here we demonstrate a direct mechanism by which increasing temperature causes the bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) to activate FT. Our findings provide a new understanding of how plants control their timing of reproduction in response to temperature. Flowering time is an important trait in crops as well as affecting the life cycles of pollinator species. A molecular understanding of how temperature affects flowering will be important for mitigating the effects of climate change. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  3. Transcription factor PIF4 controls the thermosensory activation of flowering

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S. Vinod

    2012-03-21

    Plant growth and development are strongly affected by small differences in temperature. Current climate change has already altered global plant phenology and distribution, and projected increases in temperature pose a significant challenge to agriculture. Despite the important role of temperature on plant development, the underlying pathways are unknown. It has previously been shown that thermal acceleration of flowering is dependent on the florigen, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). How this occurs is, however, not understood, because the major pathway known to upregulate FT, the photoperiod pathway, is not required for thermal acceleration of flowering. Here we demonstrate a direct mechanism by which increasing temperature causes the bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) to activate FT. Our findings provide a new understanding of how plants control their timing of reproduction in response to temperature. Flowering time is an important trait in crops as well as affecting the life cycles of pollinator species. A molecular understanding of how temperature affects flowering will be important for mitigating the effects of climate change. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  4. Cloning and characterization of prunus serotina AGAMOUS, a putative flower homeotic gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Joseph Anderson; Paula Pijut

    2010-01-01

    Members of the AGAMOUS subfamily of MADS-box transcription factors play an important role in regulating the development of reproductive organs in flowering plants. To help understand the mechanism of floral development in black cherry (Prunus serotina), PsAG (a putative flower homeotic identity gene) was isolated...

  5. Parallel evolution of TCP and B-class genes in Commelinaceae flower bilateral symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston Jill C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flower bilateral symmetry (zygomorphy has evolved multiple times independently across angiosperms and is correlated with increased pollinator specialization and speciation rates. Functional and expression analyses in distantly related core eudicots and monocots implicate independent recruitment of class II TCP genes in the evolution of flower bilateral symmetry. Furthermore, available evidence suggests that monocot flower bilateral symmetry might also have evolved through changes in B-class homeotic MADS-box gene function. Methods In order to test the non-exclusive hypotheses that changes in TCP and B-class gene developmental function underlie flower symmetry evolution in the monocot family Commelinaceae, we compared expression patterns of teosinte branched1 (TB1-like, DEFICIENS (DEF-like, and GLOBOSA (GLO-like genes in morphologically distinct bilaterally symmetrical flowers of Commelina communis and Commelina dianthifolia, and radially symmetrical flowers of Tradescantia pallida. Results Expression data demonstrate that TB1-like genes are asymmetrically expressed in tepals of bilaterally symmetrical Commelina, but not radially symmetrical Tradescantia, flowers. Furthermore, DEF-like genes are expressed in showy inner tepals, staminodes and stamens of all three species, but not in the distinct outer tepal-like ventral inner tepals of C. communis. Conclusions Together with other studies, these data suggest parallel recruitment of TB1-like genes in the independent evolution of flower bilateral symmetry at early stages of Commelina flower development, and the later stage homeotic transformation of C. communis inner tepals into outer tepals through the loss of DEF-like gene expression.

  6. Medicago truncatula SOC1 Genes Are Up-regulated by Environmental Cues That Promote Flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared B. Fudge

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Like Arabidopsis thaliana, the flowering of the legume Medicago truncatula is promoted by long day (LD photoperiod and vernalization. However, there are differences in the molecular mechanisms involved, with orthologs of two key Arabidopsis thaliana regulators, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC and CONSTANS (CO, being absent or not having a role in flowering time function in Medicago. In Arabidopsis, the MADS-box transcription factor gene, SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (AtSOC1, plays a key role in integrating the photoperiodic and vernalization pathways. In this study, we set out to investigate whether the Medicago SOC1 genes play a role in regulating flowering time. Three Medicago SOC1 genes were identified and characterized (MtSOC1a–MtSOC1c. All three MtSOC1 genes, when heterologously expressed, were able to promote earlier flowering of the late-flowering Arabidopsis soc1-2 mutant. The three MtSOC1 genes have different patterns of expression. However, consistent with a potential role in flowering time regulation, all three MtSOC1 genes are expressed in the shoot apex and are up-regulated in the shoot apex of plants in response to LD photoperiods and vernalization. The up-regulation of MtSOC1 genes was reduced in Medicago fta1-1 mutants, indicating that they are downstream of MtFTa1. Insertion mutant alleles of Medicago soc1b do not flower late, suggestive of functional redundancy among Medicago SOC1 genes in promoting flowering.

  7. Enhancement of flowering and branching phenotype in chrysanthemum by expression of ipt under the control of a 0.821 kb fragment of the LEACO1 gene promoter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khodakovskaya, M.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Malbeck, Jiří; Li, A.; Li, Y.; McAvoy, R.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 9 (2009), s. 1351-1362 ISSN 0721-7714 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : ipt Gene * Cytokinins * Transgenic chrysanthemum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.301, year: 2009

  8. Upland cotton gene GhFPF1 confers promotion of flowering time and shade-avoidance responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Wang

    Full Text Available Extensive studies on floral transition in model species have revealed a network of regulatory interactions between proteins that transduce and integrate developmental and environmental signals to promote or inhibit the transition to flowering. Previous studies indicated FLOWERING PROMOTING FACTOR 1 (FPF1 gene was involved in the promotion of flowering, but the molecular mechanism was still unclear. Here, FPF1 homologous sequences were screened from diploid Gossypium raimondii L. (D-genome, n = 13 and Gossypium arboreum L. genome (A-genome, n = 13 databases. Orthologous genes from the two species were compared, suggesting that distinctions at nucleic acid and amino acid levels were not equivalent because of codon degeneracy. Six FPF1 homologous genes were identified from the cultivated allotetraploid Gossypium hirsutum L. (AD-genome, n = 26. Analysis of relative transcripts of the six genes in different tissues revealed that this gene family displayed strong tissue-specific expression. GhFPF1, encoding a 12.0-kDa protein (Accession No: KC832319 exerted more transcripts in floral apices of short-season cotton, hinting that it could be involved in floral regulation. Significantly activated APETALA 1 and suppressed FLOWERING LOCUS C expression were induced by over-expression of GhFPF1 in the Arabidopsis Columbia-0 ecotype. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis displayed a constitutive shade-avoiding phenotype that is characterized by long hypocotyls and petioles, reduced chlorophyll content, and early flowering. We propose that GhFPF1 may be involved in flowering time control and shade-avoidance responses.

  9. Mediator subunit18 controls flowering time and floral organ identity in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengui Zheng

    Full Text Available Mediator is a conserved multi-protein complex that plays an important role in regulating transcription by mediating interactions between transcriptional activator proteins and RNA polymerase II. Much evidence exists that Mediator plays a constitutive role in the transcription of all genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II. However, evidence is mounting that specific Mediator subunits may control the developmental regulation of specific subsets of RNA polymerase II-dependent genes. Although the Mediator complex has been extensively studied in yeast and mammals, only a few reports on Mediator function in flowering time control of plants, little is known about Mediator function in floral organ identity. Here we show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, MEDIATOR SUBUNIT 18 (MED18 affects flowering time and floral organ formation through FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC and AGAMOUS (AG. A MED18 loss-of-function mutant showed a remarkable syndrome of later flowering and altered floral organ number. We show that FLC and AG mRNA levels and AG expression patterns are altered in the mutant. Our results support parallels between the regulation of FLC and AG and demonstrate a developmental role for Mediator in plants.

  10. Allelic Variations at Four Major Maturity E Genes and Transcriptional Abundance of the E1 Gene Are Associated with Flowering Time and Maturity of Soybean Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yueqiang; Chen, Xin; Ren, Haixiang; Yang, Jiayin; Cheng, Wen; Zong, Chunmei; Gu, Heping; Qiu, Hongmei; Wu, Hongyan; Zhang, Xingzheng; Cui, Tingting; Xia, Zhengjun

    2014-01-01

    The time to flowering and maturity are ecologically and agronomically important traits for soybean landrace and cultivar adaptation. As a typical short-day crop, long day conditions in the high-latitude regions require soybean cultivars with photoperiod insensitivity that can mature before frost. Although the molecular basis of four major E loci (E1 to E4) have been deciphered, it is not quite clear whether, or to what degree, genetic variation and the expression level of the four E genes are associated with the time to flowering and maturity of soybean cultivars. In this study, we genotyped 180 cultivars at E1 to E4 genes, meanwhile, the time to flowering and maturity of those cultivars were investigated at six geographic locations in China from 2011 to 2012 and further confirmed in 2013. The percentages of recessive alleles at E1, E2, E3 and E4 loci were 38.34%, 84.45%, 36.33%, and 7.20%, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that allelic variations at each of four loci had a significant effect on flowering time as well as maturity. We classified the 180 cultivars into eight genotypic groups based on allelic variations of the four major E loci. The genetic group of e1-nf representing dysfunctional alleles at the E1 locus flowered earliest in all the geographic locations. In contrast, cultivars in the E1E2E3E4 group originated from the southern areas flowered very late or did not flower before frost at high latitude locations. The transcriptional abundance of functional E1 gene was significantly associated with flowering time. However, the ranges of time to flowering and maturity were quite large within some genotypic groups, implying the presence of some other unknown genetic factors that are involved in control of flowering time or maturity. Known genes (e.g. E3 and E4) and other unknown factors may function, at least partially, through regulation of the expression of the E1 gene. PMID:24830458

  11. The Cloning and Functional Characterization of Peach CONSTANS and FLOWERING LOCUS T Homologous Genes PpCO and PpFT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Flowering is an essential stage of plant growth and development. The successful transition to flowering not only ensures the completion of plant life cycles, it also serves as the basis for the production of economically important seeds and fruits. CONSTANS (CO and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT are two genes playing critical roles in flowering time control in Arabidopsis. Through homology-based cloning and rapid-amplifications of cDNA ends (RACE, we obtained full-lengths cDNA sequences of Prunus persica CO (PpCO and Prunus persica FT (PpFT from peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch and investigated their functions in flowering time regulation. PpCO and PpFT showed high homologies to Arabidopsis CO and FT at DNA, mRNA and protein levels. We showed that PpCO and PpFT were nucleus-localized and both showed transcriptional activation activities in yeast cells, consistent with their potential roles as transcription activators. Moreover, we established that the over-expression of PpCO could restore the late flowering phenotype of the Arabidopsis co-2 mutant, and the late flowering defect of the Arabidopsis ft-1 mutant can be rescued by the over-expression of PpFT, suggesting functional conservations of CO and FT genes in peach and Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that PpCO and PpFT are homologous genes of CO and FT in peach and they may function in regulating plant flowering time.

  12. Different gene expression patterns between leaves and flowers in Lonicera japonica revealed by transcriptome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libin eZhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The perennial and evergreen twining vine, Lonicera japonica is an important herbal medicine with great economic value. However, gene expression information for flowers and leaves of L. japonica remains elusive, which greatly impedes functional genomics research on this species. In this study, transcriptome profiles from leaves and flowers of L. japonica were examined using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 239.41 million clean reads were used for de novo assembly with Trinity software, which generated 150,523 unigenes with N50 containing 947 bp. All the unigenes were annotated using Nr, SwissProt, COGs (Clusters of Orthologous Groups, GO (Gene Ontology and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. A total of 35,327 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, P≤0.05 between leaves and flowers were detected. Among them, a total of 6,602 DEGs were assigned with important biological processes including Metabolic process, Response to stimulus, Cellular process and etc. KEGG analysis showed that three possible enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of chlorogenic acid were up-regulated in flowers. Furthermore, the TF-based regulation network in L. japonica identified three differentially expressed transcription factors between leaves and flowers, suggesting distinct regulatory roles in L. japonica. Taken together, this study has provided a global picture of differential gene expression patterns between leaves and flowers in L japonica, providing a useful genomic resource that can also be used for functional genomics research on L. japonica in the future.

  13. Allelic Variation in the Perennial Ryegrass FLOWERING LOCUS T Gene is Associated with Changes in Flowering Time across a Range of Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, Leif; Sanderson, Ruth; Thomas, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene and its orthologs in other plant species (e.g. rice [Oryza sativa] OsFTL2/Hd3a) have an established role in the photoperiodic induction of flowering response. The genomic and phenotypic variations associated with the perennial...

  14. Towards the identification of flower-specific genes in Citrus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Carnier Dornelas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus sinensis is a perennial woody species, for which genetic approaches to the study of reproductive development are not readily amenable. Here, the usefulness of the CitEST Expressed Sequence Tag (EST database is demonstrated as a reliable new resource for identifying novel genes exclusively related to Citrus reproductive biology. We performed the analysis of an EST dataset of the CitEST Project containing 4,330 flower-derived cDNA sequences. Relying on bioinformatics tools, sequences exclusively present in this flower-derived sequence collection were selected and used for the identification of Citrus putative flower-specific genes. Our analysis revealed several Citrus sequences showing significant similarity to conserved genes known to have flower-specific expression and possessing functions related to flower metabolism and/or reproductive development in diverse plant species. Comparison of the Citrus flower-specific sequences with all available plant peptide sequences unraveled 247 unique transcripts not identified elsewhere within the plant kingdom. Additionally, 49 transcripts, for which no biological function could be attributed by means of sequence comparisons, were found to be conserved among plant species. These results allow further gene expression analysis and possibly novel approaches to the understanding of reproductive development in Citrus.

  15. Influence of EARLI1-like genes on flowering time and lignin synthesis of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y; Zhang, X; Xu, Z-Y; Li, L; Zhang, C; Schläppi, M; Xu, Z-Q

    2011-09-01

    EARLI1 encodes a 14.7 kDa protein in the cell wall, is a member of the PRP (proline-rich protein) family and has multiple functions, including resistance to low temperature and fungal infection. RNA gel blot analyses in the present work indicated that expression of EARLI1-like genes, EARLI1, At4G12470 and At4G12490, was down-regulated in Col-FRI-Sf2 RNAi plants derived from transformation with Agrobacterium strain ABI, which contains a construct encoding a double-strand RNA targeting 8CM of EARLI1. Phenotype analyses revealed that Col-FRI-Sf2 RNAi plants of EARLI1 flowered earlier than Col-FRI-Sf2 wild-type plants. The average bolting time of Col-FRI-Sf2 and Col-FRI-Sf2 RNAi plants was 39.7 and 19.4 days, respectively, under a long-day photoperiod. In addition, there were significant differences in main stem length, internode number and rosette leaf number between Col-FRI-Sf2 and Col-FRI-Sf2 RNAi plants. RT-PCR showed that EARLI1-like genes might delay flowering time through the autonomous and long-day photoperiod pathways by maintaining the abundance of FLC transcripts. In Col-FRI-Sf2 RNAi plants, transcription of FLC was repressed, while expression of SOC1 and FT was activated. Microscopy observations showed that EARLI1-like genes were also associated with morphogenesis of leaf cells in Arabidopsis. Using histochemical staining, EARLI1-like genes were found to be involved in regulation of lignin synthesis in inflorescence stems, and Col-FRI-Sf2 and Col-FRI-Sf2 RNAi plants had 9.67% and 8.76% dry weight lignin, respectively. Expression analysis revealed that cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, a key enzyme in lignin synthesis, was influenced by EARLI1-like genes. These data all suggest that EARLI1-like genes could control the flowering process and lignin synthesis in Arabidopsis. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. The Arabidopsis E3 Ubiquitin Ligase HOS1 Negatively Regulates CONSTANS Abundance in the Photoperiodic Control of Flowering[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaro, Ana; Valverde, Federico; Piñeiro, Manuel; Jarillo, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana early in short days6 (esd6) mutant was isolated in a screen for mutations that accelerate flowering time. Among other developmental alterations, esd6 displays early flowering in both long- and short-day conditions. Fine mapping of the mutation showed that the esd6 phenotype is caused by a lesion in the HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENES1 (HOS1) locus, which encodes a RING finger–containing E3 ubiquitin ligase. The esd6/hos1 mutation causes decreased FLOWERING LOCUS C expression and requires CONSTANS (CO) protein for its early flowering phenotype under long days. Moreover, CO and HOS1 physically interact in vitro and in planta, and HOS1 regulates CO abundance, particularly during the daylight period. Accordingly, hos1 causes a shift in the regular long-day pattern of expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) transcript, starting to rise 4 h after dawn in the mutant. In addition, HOS1 interacts synergistically with CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1, another regulator of CO protein stability, in the regulation of flowering time. Taken together, these results indicate that HOS1 is involved in the control of CO abundance, ensuring that CO activation of FT occurs only when the light period reaches a certain length and preventing precocious flowering in Arabidopsis. PMID:22408073

  17. A possible role for flowering locus T-encoding genes in interpreting environmental and internal cues affecting olive (Olea europaea L.) flower induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Amnon; Bakhshian, Ortal; Cerezo-Medina, Sergio; Paltiel, Judith; Adler, Chen; Ben-Ari, Giora; Mercado, Jose Angel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Lavee, Shimon; Samach, Alon

    2017-08-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) inflorescences, formed in lateral buds, flower in spring. However, there is some debate regarding time of flower induction and inflorescence initiation. Olive juvenility and seasonality of flowering were altered by overexpressing genes encoding flowering locus T (FT). OeFT1 and OeFT2 caused early flowering under short days when expressed in Arabidopsis. Expression of OeFT1/2 in olive leaves and OeFT2 in buds increased in winter, while initiation of inflorescences occurred i n late winter. Trees exposed to an artificial warm winter expressed low levels of OeFT1/2 in leaves and did not flower. Olive flower induction thus seems to be mediated by an increase in FT levels in response to cold winters. Olive flowering is dependent on additional internal factors. It was severely reduced in trees that carried a heavy fruit load the previous season (harvested in November) and in trees without fruit to which cold temperatures were artificially applied in summer. Expression analysis suggested that these internal factors work either by reducing the increase in OeFT1/2 expression or through putative flowering repressors such as TFL1. With expected warmer winters, future consumption of olive oil, as part of a healthy Mediterranean diet, should benefit from better understanding these factors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Integration of molecular biology tools for identifying promoters and genes abundantly expressed in flowers of Oncidium Gower Ramsey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung Shu-Yun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orchids comprise one of the largest families of flowering plants and generate commercially important flowers. However, model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana do not contain all plant genes, and agronomic and horticulturally important genera and species must be individually studied. Results Several molecular biology tools were used to isolate flower-specific gene promoters from Oncidium 'Gower Ramsey' (Onc. GR. A cDNA library of reproductive tissues was used to construct a microarray in order to compare gene expression in flowers and leaves. Five genes were highly expressed in flower tissues, and the subcellular locations of the corresponding proteins were identified using lip transient transformation with fluorescent protein-fusion constructs. BAC clones of the 5 genes, together with 7 previously published flower- and reproductive growth-specific genes in Onc. GR, were identified for cloning of their promoter regions. Interestingly, 3 of the 5 novel flower-abundant genes were putative trypsin inhibitor (TI genes (OnTI1, OnTI2 and OnTI3, which were tandemly duplicated in the same BAC clone. Their promoters were identified using transient GUS reporter gene transformation and stable A. thaliana transformation analyses. Conclusions By combining cDNA microarray, BAC library, and bombardment assay techniques, we successfully identified flower-directed orchid genes and promoters.

  19. Can Flowering Greencover Crops Promote Biological Control in German Vineyards?

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    Christoph Hoffmann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Greencover crops are widely recommended to provide predators and parasitoids with floral resources for improved pest control. We studied parasitism and predation of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana eggs and pupae as well as predatory mite abundances in an experimental vineyard with either one or two sowings of greencover crops compared to spontaneous vegetation. The co-occurrence between greencover flowering time and parasitoid activity differed greatly between the two study years. Parasitism was much higher when flowering and parasitoid activity coincided. While egg predation was enhanced by greencover crops, there were no significant benefits of greencover crops on parasitism of L. botrana eggs or pupae. Predatory mites did not show an as strong increase on grapevines in greencover crop plots as egg predation. Overall, our study demonstrates only limited pest control benefits of greencover crops. Given the strong within- and between year variation in natural enemy activity, studies across multiple years will be necessary to adequately describe the role of greencover crops for pest management and to identify the main predators of L. botrana eggs.

  20. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Candidate Genes for Female Sterility in Pomegranate Flowers

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    Lina Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate has two types of flowers on the same plant: functional male flowers (FMF and bisexual flowers (BF. BF are female-fertile flowers that can set fruits. FMF are female-sterile flowers that fail to set fruit and that eventually drop. The putative cause of pomegranate FMF female sterility is abnormal ovule development. However, the key stage at which the FMF pomegranate ovules become abnormal and the mechanism of regulation of pomegranate female sterility remain unknown. Here, we studied ovule development in FMF and BF, using scanning electron microscopy to explore the key stage at which ovule development was terminated and then analyzed genes differentially expressed (differentially expressed genes – DEGs between FMF and BF to investigate the mechanism responsible for pomegranate female sterility. Ovule development in FMF ceased following the formation of the inner integument primordium. The key stage for the termination of FMF ovule development was when the bud vertical diameter was 5.0–13.0 mm. Candidate genes influencing ovule development may be crucial factors in pomegranate female sterility. INNER OUTER (INO/YABBY4 (Gglean016270 and AINTEGUMENTA (ANT homolog genes (Gglean003340 and Gglean011480, which regulate the development of the integument, showed down-regulation in FMF at the key stage of ovule development cessation (ATNSII. Their upstream regulator genes, such as AGAMOUS-like (AG-like (Gglean028014, Gglean026618, and Gglean028632 and SPOROCYTELESS (SPL homolog genes (Gglean005812, also showed differential expression pattern between BF and FMF at this key stage. The differential expression of the ethylene response signal genes, ETR (ethylene-resistant (Gglean022853 and ERF1/2 (ethylene-responsive factor (Gglean022880, between FMF and BF indicated that ethylene signaling may also be an important factor in the development of pomegranate female sterility. The increase in BF observed after spraying with ethephon supported this

  1. Cloning and characterisation of two CTR1-like genes in Cucurbita pepo: regulation of their expression during male and female flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Susana; Martínez, Cecilia; Gómez, Pedro; Garrido, Dolores; Jamilena, Manuel

    2010-12-01

    Ethylene is an essential regulator of flower development in Cucurbita pepo, controlling the sexual expression, and the differentiation and maturation of floral organs. To study the action mechanism of ethylene during the male and female flower development, we have identified two CTR1 homologues from C. pepo, CpCTR1 and CpCTR2, and analysed their expressions during female and male flower development and in response to external treatments with ethylene. CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 share a high homology with plant CTR1-like kinases, but differ from other related kinases such as the Arabidopsis EDR1 and the tomato LeCTR2. The C-terminal ends of both CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 have all the conserved motifs of Ser/Thr kinase domains, including the ATP-binding signature and the protein kinase active site consensus sequence, which suggests that CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 could have the same function as CTR1 in ethylene signalling. The transcripts of both genes were detected in different organs of the plant, including roots, leaves and shoots, but were mostly accumulated in mature flowers. During the development of male and female flowers, CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 expressions were concomitant with ethylene production, which indicates that both genes could be upregulated by ethylene, at least in flowers. Moreover, external treatments with ethylene, although did not alter the expression of these two genes in seedlings and leaves, were able to upregulate their expression in flowers. In the earlier stages of flower development, when ethylene production is very low, the expression of CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 is higher in male floral organs, which agrees with the role of these genes as negative regulators of ethylene signalling, and explain the lower ethylene sensitivity of male flowers in comparison with female flowers. The function of the upregulation of these two genes in later stages of female flower development, when the production of ethylene is also increased, is discussed.

  2. Gene Coexpression Analysis Reveals Complex Metabolism of the Monoterpene Alcohol Linalool in Arabidopsis FlowersW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginglinger, J.F.; Boachon, B.; Hofer, R.; Paetz, C.; Kollner, T.G.; Miesch, L.; Lugan, R.; Baltenweck, R.; Mutterer, J.; Ullman, P.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 family encompasses the largest family of enzymes in plant metabolism, and the functions of many of its members in Arabidopsis thaliana are still unknown. Gene coexpression analysis pointed to two P450s that were coexpressed with two monoterpene synthases in flowers and were thus

  3. Functional analysis of PI-like gene in relation to flower development ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lying flower development in bamboo, a petal-identity gene was identified as a ... 35S::BoPI fully rescued the defective petal forma- tion in the ... Arabidopsis converted sepals to petals; BoPI-C interacted with BoAP3 on yeast two-hybrid assay, just like the full-length ... PI homologue function in regulating perianth organ forma-.

  4. Ethylene biosynthesis genes are differentially expressed during carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower senescence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, ten A.; Woltering, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    Ethylene production and expression patterns of an 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase (CARAO1) and of two ACC synthase (EC 4.4.1.14) genes (CARACC3 and CARAS1) were studied in floral organs of cut carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cv. White Sim. During the vase life and

  5. Comprehensive analysis of the flowering genes in Chinese cabbage and examination of evolutionary pattern of CO-like genes in plant kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoming; Duan, Weike; Huang, Zhinan; Liu, Gaofeng; Wu, Peng; Liu, Tongkun; Li, Ying; Hou, Xilin

    2015-09-01

    In plants, flowering is the most important transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. The flowering patterns of monocots and eudicots are distinctly different, but few studies have described the evolutionary patterns of the flowering genes in them. In this study, we analysed the evolutionary pattern, duplication and expression level of these genes. The main results were as follows: (i) characterization of flowering genes in monocots and eudicots, including the identification of family-specific, orthologous and collinear genes; (ii) full characterization of CONSTANS-like genes in Brassica rapa (BraCOL genes), the key flowering genes; (iii) exploration of the evolution of COL genes in plant kingdom and construction of the evolutionary pattern of COL genes; (iv) comparative analysis of CO and FT genes between Brassicaceae and Grass, which identified several family-specific amino acids, and revealed that CO and FT protein structures were similar in B. rapa and Arabidopsis but different in rice; and (v) expression analysis of photoperiod pathway-related genes in B. rapa under different photoperiod treatments by RT-qPCR. This analysis will provide resources for understanding the flowering mechanisms and evolutionary pattern of COL genes. In addition, this genome-wide comparative study of COL genes may also provide clues for evolution of other flowering genes.

  6. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) circadian clock genes can respond rapidly to temperature in an EARLY FLOWERING 3-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Brett; Deng, Weiwei; Clausen, Jenni; Oliver, Sandra; Boden, Scott; Hemming, Megan; Trevaskis, Ben

    2016-01-01

    An increase in global temperatures will impact future crop yields. In the cereal crops wheat and barley, high temperatures accelerate reproductive development, reducing the number of grains per plant and final grain yield. Despite this relationship between temperature and cereal yield, it is not clear what genes and molecular pathways mediate the developmental response to increased temperatures. The plant circadian clock can respond to changes in temperature and is important for photoperiod-dependent flowering, and so is a potential mechanism controlling temperature responses in cereal crops. This study examines the relationship between temperature, the circadian clock, and the expression of flowering-time genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a crop model for temperate cereals. Transcript levels of barley core circadian clock genes were assayed over a range of temperatures. Transcript levels of core clock genes CCA1, GI, PRR59, PRR73, PRR95, and LUX are increased at higher temperatures. CCA1 and PRR73 respond rapidly to a decrease in temperature whereas GI and PRR59 respond rapidly to an increase in temperature. The response of GI and the PRR genes to changes in temperature is lost in the elf3 mutant indicating that their response to temperature may be dependent on a functional ELF3 gene. PMID:27580625

  7. Wheat TILLING mutants show that the vernalization gene VRN1 down-regulates the flowering repressor VRN2 in leaves but is not essential for flowering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Chen

    Full Text Available Most of the natural variation in wheat vernalization response is determined by allelic differences in the MADS-box transcription factor VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1. Extended exposures to low temperatures during the winter (vernalization induce VRN1 expression and promote the transition of the apical meristem to the reproductive phase. In contrast to its Arabidopsis homolog (APETALA1, which is mainly expressed in the apical meristem, VRN1 is also expressed at high levels in the leaves, but its function in this tissue is not well understood. Using tetraploid wheat lines with truncation mutations in the two homoeologous copies of VRN1 (henceforth vrn1-null mutants, we demonstrate that a central role of VRN1 in the leaves is to maintain low transcript levels of the VRN2 flowering repressor after vernalization. Transcript levels of VRN2 were gradually down-regulated during vernalization in both mutant and wild-type genotypes, but were up-regulated after vernalization only in the vrn1-null mutants. The up-regulation of VRN2 delayed flowering by repressing the transcription of FT, a flowering-integrator gene that encodes a mobile protein that is transported from the leaves to the apical meristem to induce flowering. The role of VRN2 in the delayed flowering of the vrn1-null mutant was confirmed using double vrn1-vrn2-null mutants, which flowered two months earlier than the vrn1-null mutants. Both mutants produced normal flowers and seeds demonstrating that VRN1 is not essential for wheat flowering, which contradicts current flowering models. This result does not diminish the importance of VRN1 in the seasonal regulation of wheat flowering. The up-regulation of VRN1 during winter is required to maintain low transcript levels of VRN2, accelerate the induction of FT in the leaves, and regulate a timely flowering in the spring. Our results also demonstrate the existence of redundant wheat flowering genes that may provide new targets for engineering wheat

  8. Genomics and relative expression analysis identifies key genes associated with high female to male flower ratio in Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwar, Manali; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2016-04-01

    Jatropha curcas, has been projected as a major source of biodiesel due to high seed oil content (42 %). A major roadblock for commercialization of Jatropha-based biodiesel is low seed yield per inflorescence, which is affected by low female to male flower ratio (1:25-30). Molecular dissection of female flower development by analyzing genes involved in phase transitions and floral organ development is, therefore, crucial for increasing seed yield. Expression analysis of 42 genes implicated in floral organ development and sex determination was done at six floral developmental stages of a J. curcas genotype (IC561235) with inherently higher female to male flower ratio (1:8-10). Relative expression analysis of these genes was done on low ratio genotype. Genes TFL1, SUP, AP1, CRY2, CUC2, CKX1, TAA1 and PIN1 were associated with reproductive phase transition. Further, genes CUC2, TAA1, CKX1 and PIN1 were associated with female flowering while SUP and CRY2 in female flower transition. Relative expression of these genes with respect to low female flower ratio genotype showed up to ~7 folds increase in transcript abundance of SUP, TAA1, CRY2 and CKX1 genes in intermediate buds but not a significant increase (~1.25 folds) in female flowers, thereby suggesting that these genes possibly play a significant role in increased transition towards female flowering by promoting abortion of male flower primordia. The outcome of study has implications in feedstock improvement of J. curcas through functional validation and eventual utilization of key genes associated with female flowering.

  9. A Norway spruce FLOWERING LOCUS T homolog is implicated in control of growth rhythm in conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Clapham, David; Källman, Thomas; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2007-05-01

    Growth in perennial plants possesses an annual cycle of active growth and dormancy that is controlled by environmental factors, mainly photoperiod and temperature. In conifers and other nonangiosperm species, the molecular mechanisms behind these responses are currently unknown. In Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) seedlings, growth cessation and bud set are induced by short days and plants from southern latitudes require at least 7 to 10 h of darkness, whereas plants from northern latitudes need only 2 to 3 h of darkness. Bud burst, on the other hand, is almost exclusively controlled by temperature. To test the possible role of Norway spruce FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like genes in growth rhythm, we have studied expression patterns of four Norway spruce FT family genes in two populations with a divergent bud set response under various photoperiodic conditions. Our data show a significant and tight correlation between growth rhythm (both bud set and bud burst), and expression pattern of one of the four Norway spruce phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein gene family members (PaFT4) over a variety of experimental conditions. This study strongly suggests that one Norway spruce homolog to the FT gene, which controls flowering in angiosperms, is also a key integrator of photoperiodic and thermal signals in the control of growth rhythms in gymnosperms. The data also indicate that the divergent adaptive bud set responses of northern and southern Norway spruce populations, both to photoperiod and light quality, are mediated through PaFT4. These results provide a major advance in our understanding of the molecular control of a major adaptive trait in conifers and a tool for further molecular studies of adaptive variation in plants.

  10. Overexpression of blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T is associated with changes in the expression of phytohormone-related genes in blueberry plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuan; Walworth, Aaron E; Mackie, Charity; Song, Guo-qing

    2016-01-01

    Flowering locus T (FT) is a primary integrator in the regulation of plant flowering. Overexpressing a blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) FT gene (VcFT) (herein VcFT-OX) resulted in early flowering and dwarfing in ‘Aurora’ plants (herein ‘VcFT-Aurora’). In this study, we found that VcFT-OX reduced shoot regeneration from leaf explants. To investigate the potential roles of the phytohormone pathway genes associated with VcFT-OX, differentially expressed (DE) genes in leaf tissues of ‘VcFT-Aurora’ plants were annotated and analyzed using non-transgenic ‘Aurora’ plants as a control. Three DE floral genes, including the blueberry SUPPRESSOR of Overexpression of constans 1 (VcSOC1) (gibberellin related), Abscisic acid responsive elements-binding factor 2 (VcABF2) and protein related to ABI3/VP1 (VcABI3/VP1) (ethylene-related), are present under both the phytohormone-responsive and the dwarfing-related Gene Ontology terms. The gene networks of the DE genes overall showed the molecular basis of the multifunctional aspects of VcFT overexpression beyond flowering promotion and suggested that phytohormone changes could be signaling molecules with important roles in the phenotypic changes driven by VcFT-OX. PMID:27818778

  11. Overexpression of blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T is associated with changes in the expression of phytohormone-related genes in blueberry plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuan; Walworth, Aaron E; Mackie, Charity; Song, Guo-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Flowering locus T ( FT ) is a primary integrator in the regulation of plant flowering. Overexpressing a blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) FT gene ( VcFT ) (herein VcFT -OX) resulted in early flowering and dwarfing in 'Aurora' plants (herein 'VcFT-Aurora'). In this study, we found that VcFT -OX reduced shoot regeneration from leaf explants. To investigate the potential roles of the phytohormone pathway genes associated with VcFT -OX, differentially expressed ( DE ) genes in leaf tissues of 'VcFT-Aurora' plants were annotated and analyzed using non-transgenic 'Aurora' plants as a control. Three DE floral genes, including the blueberry SUPPRESSOR of Overexpression of constans 1 ( VcSOC1 ) (gibberellin related), Abscisic acid responsive elements-binding factor 2 ( VcABF2 ) and protein related to ABI3/VP1 ( VcABI3/VP1 ) (ethylene-related), are present under both the phytohormone-responsive and the dwarfing-related Gene Ontology terms. The gene networks of the DE genes overall showed the molecular basis of the multifunctional aspects of VcFT overexpression beyond flowering promotion and suggested that phytohormone changes could be signaling molecules with important roles in the phenotypic changes driven by VcFT -OX.

  12. Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Expression of MiSOC1: A Homolog of the Flowering Gene SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 from Mango (Mangifera indica L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junya; Liu, Debing; Liu, Guoyin; Tang, Jie; Chen, Yeyuan

    2016-01-01

    MADS-box transcription factor plays a crucial role in plant development, especially controlling the formation and development of floral organs. Mango (Mangifera indica L) is an economically important fruit crop, but its molecular control of flowering is largely unknown. To better understand the molecular basis of flowering regulation in mango, we isolated and characterized the MiSOC1, a putative mango orthologs for the Arabidopsis SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1/AGAMOUS-LIKE 20 (SOC1/AGL20) with homology-based cloning and RACE. The full-length cDNA (GenBank accession No.: KP404094) is 945 bp in length including a 74 bp long 5′ UTR and a 189 bp long 3′ UTR and the open reading frame was 733 bps, encoding 223 amino acids with molecular weight 25.6 kD. Both sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis all indicated that deduced protein contained a conservative MADS-box and semi-conservative K domain and belonged to the SOC1/TM3 subfamily of the MADS-box family. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to investigate the expression profiles of MiSOC1 gene in different tissues/organs including root, stem, leaves, flower bud, and flower. The result indicated MiSOC1 was widely expressed at different levels in both vegetative and reproductive tissues/organs with the highest expression level in the stems’ leaves and inflorescences, low expression in roots and flowers. The expression of MiSOC1 in different flower developmental stages was different while same tissue –specific pattern among different varieties. In addition, MiSOC1 gene expression was affect by ethephon while high concentration ethephon inhibit the expression of MiSOC1. Overexpression of MiSOC1 resulted in early flowering in Arabidopsis. In conclusion, these results suggest that MiSOC1 may act as induce flower function in mango. PMID:27965680

  13. Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Expression of MiSOC1: A Homolog of the Flowering Gene SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 from Mango (Mangifera indica L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junya; Liu, Debing; Liu, Guoyin; Tang, Jie; Chen, Yeyuan

    2016-01-01

    MADS-box transcription factor plays a crucial role in plant development, especially controlling the formation and development of floral organs. Mango ( Mangifera indica L) is an economically important fruit crop, but its molecular control of flowering is largely unknown. To better understand the molecular basis of flowering regulation in mango, we isolated and characterized the MiSOC1, a putative mango orthologs for the Arabidopsis SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1/AGAMOUS-LIKE 20 (SOC1/AGL20) with homology-based cloning and RACE. The full-length cDNA (GenBank accession No.: KP404094) is 945 bp in length including a 74 bp long 5' UTR and a 189 bp long 3' UTR and the open reading frame was 733 bps, encoding 223 amino acids with molecular weight 25.6 kD. Both sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis all indicated that deduced protein contained a conservative MADS-box and semi-conservative K domain and belonged to the SOC1/TM3 subfamily of the MADS-box family. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to investigate the expression profiles of MiSOC1 gene in different tissues/organs including root, stem, leaves, flower bud, and flower. The result indicated MiSOC1 was widely expressed at different levels in both vegetative and reproductive tissues/organs with the highest expression level in the stems' leaves and inflorescences, low expression in roots and flowers. The expression of MiSOC1 in different flower developmental stages was different while same tissue -specific pattern among different varieties. In addition, MiSOC1 gene expression was affect by ethephon while high concentration ethephon inhibit the expression of MiSOC1. Overexpression of MiSOC1 resulted in early flowering in Arabidopsis . In conclusion, these results suggest that MiSOC1 may act as induce flower function in mango.

  14. Male Specific Gene Expression in Dioecious Phoenix Dactylifera (Date Palm) Tree at Flowering Stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ameri, A. A.; Al-Qurainy, F.; Gaafar, A. R. Z.; Khan, S.; Nadeem, M.

    2016-01-01

    Date palm is a long-living and evergreen important tree in the semiarid regions. Its fruit is rich in carbohydrate and fibres. Transcriptional profiling was compared among male and female trees of dioecious date palm at flowering stage. Male specific genes are expressed at flowering stage which was studied using the cDNA-SCoT marker. We developed sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers of size 253 bp from male tree based on cDNA-SCoT fingerprinting. Further, developed SCAR marker was validated on the independently collected samples of both types of trees at flowering stage. The unique and specific band (253 bp) was amplified from male samples only whereas it was absent from female samples. (author)

  15. Interconnection between flowering time control and activation of systemic acquired resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Zahoor Banday

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to avoid or neutralize pathogens is inherent to all higher organisms including plants. Plants recognize pathogens through receptors, and mount resistance against the intruders, with the help of well-elaborated defense arsenal. In response to some local infections, plants develop systemic acquired resistance (SAR, which provides heightened resistance during subsequent infections. Infected tissues generate mobile signalling molecules that travel to the systemic tissues, where they epigenetically modify expression of a set of genes to initiate the manifestation of SAR in distant tissues. Immune responses are largely regulated at transcriptional level. Flowering is a developmental transition that occurs as a result of the coordinated action of large numbers of transcription factors that respond to intrinsic signals and environmental conditions. The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA which is required for SAR activation positively regulates flowering. Certain components of chromatin remodelling complexes that are recruited for suppression of precocious flowering are also involved in suppression of SAR in healthy plants. FLOWERING LOCUS D (FLD, a putative histone demethylase positively regulates SAR manifestation and flowering transition in Arabidopsis. Similarly, incorporation of histone variant H2A.Z in nucleosomes mediated by PHOTOPERIOD-INDEPENDENT EARLY FLOWERING 1 (PIE1, an orthologue of yeast chromatin remodelling complex SWR1, concomitantly influences SAR and flowering time. SUMO conjugation and deconjugation mechanisms also similarly affect SAR and flowering in an SA-dependent manner. The evidences suggest a common underlying regulatory mechanism for activation of SAR and flowering in plants.

  16. Identification and Characterization of the MADS-Box Genes and Their Contribution to Flower Organ in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoni; Wang, Qijian; Yang, Shaozong; Lin, Shengnan; Bao, Manzhu; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Wu, Quanshu; Wang, Caiyun; Fu, Xiaopeng

    2018-04-04

    Dianthus is a large genus containing many species with high ornamental economic value. Extensive breeding strategies permitted an exploration of an improvement in the quality of cultivated carnation, particularly in flowers. However, little is known on the molecular mechanisms of flower development in carnation. Here, we report the identification and description of MADS-box genes in carnation ( DcaMADS ) with a focus on those involved in flower development and organ identity determination. In this study, 39 MADS-box genes were identified from the carnation genome and transcriptome by the phylogenetic analysis. These genes were categorized into four subgroups (30 MIKC c , two MIKC*, two Mα, and five Mγ). The MADS-box domain, gene structure, and conserved motif compositions of the carnation MADS genes were analysed. Meanwhile, the expression of DcaMADS genes were significantly different in stems, leaves, and flower buds. Further studies were carried out for exploring the expression of DcaMADS genes in individual flower organs, and some crucial DcaMADS genes correlated with their putative function were validated. Finally, a new expression pattern of DcaMADS genes in flower organs of carnation was provided: sepal (three class E genes and two class A genes), petal (two class B genes, two class E genes, and one SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE ( SVP )), stamen (two class B genes, two class E genes, and two class C), styles (two class E genes and two class C), and ovary (two class E genes, two class C, one AGAMOUS-LIKE 6 ( AGL6 ), one SEEDSTICK ( STK ), one B sister , one SVP , and one Mα ). This result proposes a model in floral organ identity of carnation and it may be helpful to further explore the molecular mechanism of flower organ identity in carnation.

  17. Identification and Characterization of the MADS-Box Genes and Their Contribution to Flower Organ in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoni Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dianthus is a large genus containing many species with high ornamental economic value. Extensive breeding strategies permitted an exploration of an improvement in the quality of cultivated carnation, particularly in flowers. However, little is known on the molecular mechanisms of flower development in carnation. Here, we report the identification and description of MADS-box genes in carnation (DcaMADS with a focus on those involved in flower development and organ identity determination. In this study, 39 MADS-box genes were identified from the carnation genome and transcriptome by the phylogenetic analysis. These genes were categorized into four subgroups (30 MIKCc, two MIKC*, two Mα, and five Mγ. The MADS-box domain, gene structure, and conserved motif compositions of the carnation MADS genes were analysed. Meanwhile, the expression of DcaMADS genes were significantly different in stems, leaves, and flower buds. Further studies were carried out for exploring the expression of DcaMADS genes in individual flower organs, and some crucial DcaMADS genes correlated with their putative function were validated. Finally, a new expression pattern of DcaMADS genes in flower organs of carnation was provided: sepal (three class E genes and two class A genes, petal (two class B genes, two class E genes, and one SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP, stamen (two class B genes, two class E genes, and two class C, styles (two class E genes and two class C, and ovary (two class E genes, two class C, one AGAMOUS-LIKE 6 (AGL6, one SEEDSTICK (STK, one B sister, one SVP, and one Mα. This result proposes a model in floral organ identity of carnation and it may be helpful to further explore the molecular mechanism of flower organ identity in carnation.

  18. Erwinia amylovora expresses fast and simultaneously hrp/dsp virulence genes during flower infection on apple trees.

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    Doris Pester

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathogen entry through host blossoms is the predominant infection pathway of the gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora leading to manifestation of the disease fire blight. Like in other economically important plant pathogens, E. amylovora pathogenicity depends on a type III secretion system encoded by hrp genes. However, timing and transcriptional order of hrp gene expression during flower infections are unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using quantitative real-time PCR analyses, we addressed the questions of how fast, strong and uniform key hrp virulence genes and the effector dspA/E are expressed when bacteria enter flowers provided with the full defense mechanism of the apple plant. In non-invasive bacterial inoculations of apple flowers still attached to the tree, E. amylovora activated expression of key type III secretion genes in a narrow time window, mounting in a single expression peak of all investigated hrp/dspA/E genes around 24-48 h post inoculation (hpi. This single expression peak coincided with a single depression in the plant PR-1 expression at 24 hpi indicating transient manipulation of the salicylic acid pathway as one target of E. amylovora type III effectors. Expression of hrp/dspA/E genes was highly correlated to expression of the regulator hrpL and relative transcript abundances followed the ratio: hrpA>hrpN>hrpL>dspA/E. Acidic conditions (pH 4 in flower infections led to reduced virulence/effector gene expression without the typical expression peak observed under natural conditions (pH 7. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The simultaneous expression of hrpL, hrpA, hrpN, and the effector dspA/E during early floral infection indicates that speed and immediate effector transmission is important for successful plant invasion. When this delicate balance is disturbed, e.g., by acidic pH during infection, virulence gene expression is reduced, thus partly explaining the efficacy of acidification in fire blight

  19. De novo Assembly of the Camellia nitidissima Transcriptome Reveals Key Genes of Flower Pigment Biosynthesis

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    Xingwen Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The golden camellia, Camellia nitidissima Chi., is a well-known ornamental plant that is known as “the queen of camellias” because of its golden yellow flowers. The principal pigments in the flowers are carotenoids and flavonol glycosides. Understanding the biosynthesis of the golden color and its regulation is important in camellia breeding. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of flower development in C. nitidissima, a number of cDNA libraries were independently constructed during flower development. Using the Illumina Hiseq2500 platform, approximately 71.8 million raw reads (about 10.8 gigabase pairs were obtained and assembled into 583,194 transcripts and 466, 594 unigenes. A differentially expressed genes (DEGs and co-expression network was constructed to identify unigenes correlated with flower color. The analysis of DEGs and co-expressed network involved in the carotenoid pathway indicated that the biosynthesis of carotenoids is regulated mainly at the transcript level and that phytoene synthase (PSY, β -carotene 3-hydroxylase (CrtZ, and capsanthin synthase (CCS1 exert synergistic effects in carotenoid biosynthesis. The analysis of DEGs and co-expressed network involved in the flavonoid pathway indicated that chalcone synthase (CHS, naringenin 3-dioxygenase (F3H, leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase(ANS, and flavonol synthase (FLS play critical roles in regulating the formation of flavonols and anthocyanidin. Based on the gene expression analysis of the carotenoid and flavonoid pathways, and determinations of the pigments, we speculate that the high expression of PSY and CrtZ ensures the production of adequate levels of carotenoids, while the expression of CHS, FLS ensures the production of flavonols. The golden yellow color is then the result of the accumulation of carotenoids and flavonol glucosides in the petals. This study of the mechanism of color formation in golden camellia points the way to breeding strategies that exploit gene

  20. Characterization of FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1 gene in Brachypodium and wheat.

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    Bo Lv

    Full Text Available The phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth is a critical event in the life cycle of flowering plants. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT plays a central role in the regulation of this transition by integrating signals from multiple flowering pathways in the leaves and transmitting them to the shoot apical meristem. In this study, we characterized FT homologs in the temperate grasses Brachypodium distachyon and polyploid wheat using transgenic and mutant approaches. Downregulation of FT1 by RNAi was associated with a significant downregulation of the FT-like genes FT2 and FT4 in Brachypodium and FT2 and FT5 in wheat. In a transgenic wheat line carrying a highly-expressed FT1 allele, FT2 and FT3 were upregulated under both long and short days. Overexpression of FT1 caused extremely early flowering during shoot regeneration in both Brachypodium and hexaploid wheat, and resulted in insufficient vegetative tissue to support the production of viable seeds. Downregulation of FT1 transcripts by RNA interference (RNAi resulted in non-flowering Brachypodium plants and late flowering plants (2-4 weeks delay in wheat. A similar delay in heading time was observed in tetraploid wheat plants carrying mutations for both FT-A1 and FT-B1. Plants homozygous only for mutations in FT-B1 flowered later than plants homozygous only for mutations in FT-A1, which corresponded with higher transcript levels of FT-B1 relative to FT-A1 in the early stages of development. Taken together, our data indicate that FT1 plays a critical role in the regulation of flowering in Brachypodium and wheat, and that this role is associated with the simultaneous regulation of other FT-like genes. The differential effects of mutations in FT-A1 and FT-B1 on wheat heading time suggest that different allelic combinations of FT1 homoeologs could be used to adjust wheat heading time to improve adaptation to changing environments.

  1. Identification and validation of superior reference gene for gene expression normalization via RT-qPCR in staminate and pistillate flowers of Jatropha curcas - A biodiesel plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppaiya, Palaniyandi; Yan, Xiao-Xue; Liao, Wang; Wu, Jun; Chen, Fang; Tang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L) seed oil is a natural resource for the alternative production of fossil fuel. Seed oil production is mainly depended on seed yield, which was restricted by the low ratio of staminate flowers to pistillate flowers. Further, the mechanism of physic nut flower sex differentiation has not been fully understood yet. Quantitative Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction is a reliable and widely used technique to quantify the gene expression pattern in biological samples. However, for accuracy of qRT-PCR, appropriate reference gene is highly desirable to quantify the target gene level. Hence, the present study was aimed to identify the stable reference genes in staminate and pistillate flowers of J. curcas. In this study, 10 candidate reference genes were selected and evaluated for their expression stability in staminate and pistillate flowers, and their stability was validated by five different algorithms (ΔCt, BestKeeper, NormFinder, GeNorm and RefFinder). Resulting, TUB and EF found to be the two most stably expressed reference for staminate flower; while GAPDH1 and EF found to be the most stably expressed reference gene for pistillate flowers. Finally, RT-qPCR assays of target gene AGAMOUS using the identified most stable reference genes confirmed the reliability of selected reference genes in different stages of flower development. AGAMOUS gene expression levels at different stages were further proved by gene copy number analysis. Therefore, the present study provides guidance for selecting appropriate reference genes for analyzing the expression pattern of floral developmental genes in staminate and pistillate flowers of J. curcas.

  2. Evolutionary Co-Option of Floral Meristem Identity Genes for Patterning of the Flower-Like Asteraceae Inflorescence1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broholm, Suvi K.; Tähtiharju, Sari

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary success of Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants, has been attributed to the unique inflorescence architecture of the family, which superficially resembles an individual flower. Here, we show that Asteraceae inflorescences (flower heads, or capitula) resemble solitary flowers not only morphologically but also at the molecular level. By conducting functional analyses for orthologs of the flower meristem identity genes LEAFY (LFY) and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) in Gerbera hybrida, we show that GhUFO is the master regulator of flower meristem identity, while GhLFY has evolved a novel, homeotic function during the evolution of head-like inflorescences. Resembling LFY expression in a single flower meristem, uniform expression of GhLFY in the inflorescence meristem defines the capitulum as a determinate structure that can assume floral fate upon ectopic GhUFO expression. We also show that GhLFY uniquely regulates the ontogeny of outer, expanded ray flowers but not inner, compact disc flowers, indicating that the distinction of different flower types in Asteraceae is connected with their independent evolutionary origins from separate branching systems. PMID:27382139

  3. Evolutionary Co-Option of Floral Meristem Identity Genes for Patterning of the Flower-Like Asteraceae Inflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yafei; Zhang, Teng; Broholm, Suvi K; Tähtiharju, Sari; Mouhu, Katriina; Albert, Victor A; Teeri, Teemu H; Elomaa, Paula

    2016-09-01

    The evolutionary success of Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants, has been attributed to the unique inflorescence architecture of the family, which superficially resembles an individual flower. Here, we show that Asteraceae inflorescences (flower heads, or capitula) resemble solitary flowers not only morphologically but also at the molecular level. By conducting functional analyses for orthologs of the flower meristem identity genes LEAFY (LFY) and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) in Gerbera hybrida, we show that GhUFO is the master regulator of flower meristem identity, while GhLFY has evolved a novel, homeotic function during the evolution of head-like inflorescences. Resembling LFY expression in a single flower meristem, uniform expression of GhLFY in the inflorescence meristem defines the capitulum as a determinate structure that can assume floral fate upon ectopic GhUFO expression. We also show that GhLFY uniquely regulates the ontogeny of outer, expanded ray flowers but not inner, compact disc flowers, indicating that the distinction of different flower types in Asteraceae is connected with their independent evolutionary origins from separate branching systems. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of Genes Associated with Lemon Floral Transition and Flower Development during Floral Inductive Water Deficits: A Hypothetical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Xue; Hou, Xiao-Jin; Zhu, Jiao; Zhou, Jing-Jing; Huang, Hua-Bin; Yue, Jian-Qiang; Gao, Jun-Yan; Du, Yu-Xia; Hu, Cheng-Xiao; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Water deficit is a key factor to induce flowering in many woody plants, but reports on the molecular mechanisms of floral induction and flowering by water deficit are scarce. Here, we analyzed the morphology, cytology, and different hormone levels of lemon buds during floral inductive water deficits. Higher levels of ABA were observed, and the initiation of floral bud differentiation was examined by paraffin sections analysis. A total of 1638 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by RNA sequencing. DEGs were related to flowering, hormone biosynthesis, or metabolism. The expression of some DEGs was associated with floral induction by real-time PCR analysis. However, some DEGs may not have anything to do with flowering induction/flower development; they may be involved in general stress/drought response. Four genes from the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein family were further investigated. Ectopic expression of these genes in Arabidopsis changed the flowering time of transgenic plants. Furthermore, the 5' flanking region of these genes was also isolated and sequence analysis revealed the presence of several putative cis -regulatory elements, including basic elements and hormone regulation elements. The spatial and temporal expression patterns of these promoters were investigated under water deficit treatment. Based on these findings, we propose a model for citrus flowering under water deficit conditions, which will enable us to further understand the molecular mechanism of water deficit-regulated flowering in citrus. Based on gene activity during floral inductive water deficits identified by RNA sequencing and genes associated with lemon floral transition, a model for citrus flowering under water deficit conditions is proposed.

  5. Differential SPL gene expression patterns reveal candidate genes underlying flowering time and architectural differences in Mimulus and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Stacy A; Preston, Jill C

    2014-04-01

    Evolutionary transitions in growth habit and flowering time responses to variable environmental signals have occurred multiple times independently across angiosperms and have major impacts on plant fitness. Proteins in the SPL family of transcription factors collectively regulate flowering time genes that have been implicated in interspecific shifts in annuality/perenniality. However, their potential importance in the evolution of angiosperm growth habit has not been extensively investigated. Here we identify orthologs representative of the major SPL gene clades in annual Arabidopsis thaliana and Mimulus guttatus IM767, and perennial A. lyrata and M. guttatus PR, and characterize their expression. Spatio-temporal expression patterns are complex across both diverse tissues of the same taxa and comparable tissues of different taxa, consistent with genic sub- or neo-functionalization. However, our data are consistent with a general role for several SPL genes in the promotion of juvenile to adult phase change and/or flowering time in Mimulus and Arabidopsis. Furthermore, several candidate genes were identified for future study whose differential expression correlates with growth habit and architectural variation in annual versus perennial taxa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Arabidopsis flower specific defense gene expression patterns affect resistance to pathogens

    KAUST Repository

    Ederli, Luisa

    2015-02-20

    We investigated whether the Arabidopsis flower evolved protective measures to increase reproductive success. Firstly, analyses of available transcriptome data show that the most highly expressed transcripts in the closed sepal (stage 12) are enriched in genes with roles in responses to chemical stimuli and cellular metabolic processes. At stage 15, there is enrichment in transcripts with a role in responses to biotic stimuli. Comparative analyses between the sepal and petal in the open flower mark an over-representation of transcripts with a role in responses to stress and catalytic activity. Secondly, the content of the biotic defense-associated phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) in sepals and petals is significantly higher than in leaves. To understand whether the high levels of stress responsive transcripts and the higher SA content affect defense, wild-type plants (Col-0) and transgenic plants defective in SA accumulation (nahG) were challenged with the biotrophic fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum, the causal agent of powdery mildew, and the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. NahG leaves were more sensitive than those of Col-0, suggesting that in leaves SA has a role in the defense against biotrophs. In contrast, sepals and petals of both genotypes were resistant to G. cichoracearum, indicating that in the flower, resistance to the biotrophic pathogen is not critically dependent on SA, but likely dependent on the up-regulation of stress-responsive genes. Since sepals and petals of both genotypes are equally susceptible to B. cinerea, we conclude that neither stress-response genes nor increased SA accumulation offers protection against the necrotrophic pathogen. These results are interpreted in the light of the distinctive role of the flower and we propose that in the early stages, the sepal may act as a chemical defense barrier of the developing reproductive structures against biotrophic pathogens.

  7. HC-Pro silencing suppressor significantly alters the gene expression profile in tobacco leaves and flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehto Kirsi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA silencing is used in plants as a major defence mechanism against invasive nucleic acids, such as viruses. Accordingly, plant viruses have evolved to produce counter defensive RNA-silencing suppressors (RSSs. These factors interfere in various ways with the RNA silencing machinery in cells, and thereby disturb the microRNA (miRNA mediated endogene regulation and induce developmental and morphological changes in plants. In this study we have explored these effects using previously characterized transgenic tobacco plants which constitutively express (under CaMV 35S promoter the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro derived from a potyviral genome. The transcript levels of leaves and flowers of these plants were analysed using microarray techniques (Tobacco 4 × 44 k, Agilent. Results Over expression of HC-Pro RSS induced clear phenotypic changes both in growth rate and in leaf and flower morphology of the tobacco plants. The expression of 748 and 332 genes was significantly changed in the leaves and flowers, respectively, in the HC-Pro expressing transgenic plants. Interestingly, these transcriptome alterations in the HC-Pro expressing tobacco plants were similar as those previously detected in plants infected with ssRNA-viruses. Particularly, many defense-related and hormone-responsive genes (e.g. ethylene responsive transcription factor 1, ERF1 were differentially regulated in these plants. Also the expression of several stress-related genes, and genes related to cell wall modifications, protein processing, transcriptional regulation and photosynthesis were strongly altered. Moreover, genes regulating circadian cycle and flowering time were significantly altered, which may have induced a late flowering phenotype in HC-Pro expressing plants. The results also suggest that photosynthetic oxygen evolution, sugar metabolism and energy levels were significantly changed in these transgenic plants. Transcript levels of S

  8. Mapping genes governing flower architecture and pollen development in a double mutant population of carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger eBudahn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A linkage map of carrot (Daucus carota L. was developed in order to study reproductive traits. The F2 mapping population derived from an initial cross between a yellow leaf (yel chlorophyll mutant and a compressed lamina (cola mutant with unique flower defects of the sporophytic parts of male and female organs. The genetic map has a total length of 781 cM and included 285 loci. The length of the nine linkage groups ranged between 65 cM and 145 cM. All linkage groups have been anchored to the reference map. The objective of this study was the generation of a well-saturated linkage map of D. carota. Mapping of the cola-locus associated with flower development and fertility was successfully demonstrated. Two MADS-box genes (DcMADS3, DcMADS5 with prominent roles in flowering and reproduction as well as three additional genes (DcAOX2a, DcAOX2b, DcCHS2 with further importance for male reproduction were assigned to different loci that did not co-segregate with the cola-locus.

  9. Identification and expression analysis of ERF transcription factor genes in petunia during flower senescence and in response to hormone treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juanxu; Li, Jingyu; Wang, Huinan; Fu, Zhaodi; Liu, Juan; Yu, Yixun

    2011-01-01

    Ethylene-responsive element-binding factor (ERF) genes constitute one of the largest transcription factor gene families in plants. In Arabidopsis and rice, only a few ERF genes have been characterized so far. Flower senescence is associated with increased ethylene production in many flowers. However, the characterization of ERF genes in flower senescence has not been reported. In this study, 13 ERF cDNAs were cloned from petunia. Based on the sequence characterization, these PhERFs could be classified into four of the 12 known ERF families. Their predicted amino acid sequences exhibited similarities to ERFs from other plant species. Expression analyses of PhERF mRNAs were performed in corollas and gynoecia of petunia flower. The 13 PhERF genes displayed differential expression patterns and levels during natural flower senescence. Exogenous ethylene accelerates the transcription of the various PhERF genes, and silver thiosulphate (STS) decreased the transcription of several PhERF genes in corollas and gynoecia. PhERF genes of group VII showed a strong association with the rise in ethylene production in both petals and gynoecia, and might be associated particularly with flower senescence in petunia. The effect of sugar, methyl jasmonate, and the plant hormones abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and 6-benzyladenine in regulating the different PhERF transcripts was investigated. Functional nuclear localization signal analyses of two PhERF proteins (PhERF2 and PhERF3) were carried out using fluorescence microscopy. These results supported a role for petunia PhERF genes in transcriptional regulation of petunia flower senescence processes.

  10. Expression patterns of flowering genes in leaves of 'Pineapple' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajon, Melanie; Febres, Vicente J; Moore, Gloria A

    2017-08-30

    In citrus the transition from juvenility to mature phase is marked by the capability of a tree to flower and fruit consistently. The long period of juvenility in citrus severely impedes the use of genetic based strategies to improve fruit quality, disease resistance, and responses to abiotic environmental factors. One of the genes whose expression signals flower development in many plant species is FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). In this study, gene expression levels of flowering genes CiFT1, CiFT2 and CiFT3 were determined using reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR in citrus trees over a 1 year period in Florida. Distinct genotypes of citrus trees of different ages were used. In mature trees of pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and 'Pineapple' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) the expression of all three CiFT genes was coordinated and significantly higher in April, after flowering was over, regardless of whether they were in the greenhouse or in the field. Interestingly, immature 'Pineapple' seedlings showed significantly high levels of CiFT3 expression in April and June, while CiFT1 and CiFT2 were highest in June, and hence their expression induction was not simultaneous as in mature plants. In mature citrus trees the induction of CiFTs expression in leaves occurs at the end of spring and after flowering has taken place suggesting it is not associated with dormancy interruption and further flower bud development but is probably involved with shoot apex differentiation and flower bud determination. CiFTs were also seasonally induced in immature seedlings, indicating that additional factors must be suppressing flowering induction and their expression has other functions.

  11. Analysis of gene expression during the transition to climacteric phase in carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Byung-Chun; Binder, Brad M; Falbel, Tanya G; Patterson, Sara E

    2013-11-01

    It has been generally thought that in ethylene-sensitive plants such as carnations, senescence proceeds irreversibly once the tissues have entered the climacteric phase. While pre-climacteric petal tissues have a lower sensitivity to ethylene, these tissues are converted to the climacteric phase at a critical point during flower development. In this study, it is demonstrated that the senescence process initiated by exogenous ethylene is reversible in carnation petals. Petals treated with ethylene for 12h showed sustained inrolling and senescence, while petals treated with ethylene for 10h showed inrolling followed by recovery from inrolling. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed differential expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene signalling between 10h and 12h ethylene treatment. Ethylene treatment at or beyond 12h (threshold time) decreased the mRNA levels of the receptor genes (DcETR1, DcERS1, and DcERS2) and DcCTR genes, and increased the ethylene biosynthesis genes DcACS1 and DcACO1. In contrast, ethylene treatment under the threshold time caused a transient decrease in the receptor genes and DcCTR genes, and a transient increase in DcACS1 and DcACO1. Sustained DcACS1 accumulation is correlated with decreases in DcCTR genes and increase in DcEIL3 and indicates that tissues have entered the climacteric phase and that senescence proceeds irreversibly. Inhibition of ACS (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase) prior to 12h ethylene exposure was not able to prevent reduction in transcripts of DcCTR genes, yet suppressed transcript of DcACS1 and DcACO1. This leads to the recovery from inrolling of the petals, indicating that DcACS1 may act as a signalling molecule in senescence of flowers.

  12. Population genomic scans suggest novel genes underlie convergent flowering time evolution in the introduced range of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Billie A; Stinchcombe, John R

    2017-01-01

    A long-standing question in evolutionary biology is whether the evolution of convergent phenotypes results from selection on the same heritable genetic components. Using whole-genome sequencing and genome scans, we tested whether the evolution of parallel longitudinal flowering time clines in the native and introduced ranges of Arabidopsis thaliana has a similar genetic basis. We found that common variants of large effect on flowering time in the native range do not appear to have been under recent strong selection in the introduced range. We identified a set of 38 new candidate genes that are putatively linked to the evolution of flowering time. A high degree of conditional neutrality of flowering time variants between the native and introduced range may preclude parallel evolution at the level of genes. Overall, neither gene pleiotropy nor available standing genetic variation appears to have restricted the evolution of flowering time to high-frequency variants from the native range or to known flowering time pathway genes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Horizontal gene transfer of a plastid gene in the non-photosynthetic flowering plants Orobanche and Phelipanche (Orobanchaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Mi; Manen, Jean-François; Schneeweiss, Gerald M

    2007-06-01

    Plastid sequences are among the most widely used in phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies in flowering plants, where they are usually assumed to evolve like non-recombining, uniparentally transmitted, single-copy genes. Among others, this assumption can be violated by intracellular gene transfer (IGT) within cells or by the exchange of genes across mating barriers (horizontal gene transfer, HGT). We report on HGT of a plastid region including rps2, trnL-F, and rbcL in a group of non-photosynthetic flowering plants. Species of the parasitic broomrape genus Phelipanche harbor two copies of rps2, a plastid ribosomal gene, one corresponding to the phylogenetic position of the respective species, the other being horizontally acquired from the related broomrape genus Orobanche. While the vertically transmitted copies probably reside within the plastid genome, the localization of the horizontally acquired copies is not known. With both donor and recipient being parasitic plants, a possible pathway for the exchange of genetic material is via a commonly attacked host.

  14. Involvement of abscisic acid in correlative control of flower abscission in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarrow, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    Studies were carried out in three parts: (1) analysis of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) in abscising and non-abscising flowers, (2) partitioning of radio-labelled ABA and photoassimilates within the soybean raceme, and (3) shading experiments, wherein endogenous levels, metabolism and partitioning of ABA were determined. Endogenous concentrations of ABA failed to show any consistent relationship to abscission of soybean flowers. Partitioning of radiolabelled ABA and photoassimilates displayed consistently higher sink strengths (% DPM) for both 3 H-ABA and 14 C-photoassimilates for non-abscising flowers than for abscising flowers within control racemes. Shading flowers with aluminum foil, 48 hrs prior to sampling, resulted in lowered endogenous ABA concentrations at 12, 17 and 22 days after anthesis (DAA), but not at 0 or 4 DAA. No differences were found in the catabolism of 3 H-ABA between shaded (abscising) and non-shaded (non-abscising) flowers. Reduced partitioning of ABA and photoassimilates to shaded flowers resulted when shades were applied at 0, 4, 12, and 17 DAA, but not at 22 DAA

  15. Expression profiling of FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene in alternate bearing 'Hass' avocado trees suggests a role for PaFT in avocado flower induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafna Ziv

    Full Text Available In many perennials, heavy fruit load on a shoot decreases the ability of the plant to undergo floral induction in the following spring, resulting in a pattern of crop production known as alternate bearing. Here, we studied the effects of fruit load on floral determination in 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana. De-fruiting experiments initially confirmed the negative effects of fruit load on return to flowering. Next, we isolated a FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene, PaFT, hypothesized to act as a phloem-mobile florigen signal and examined its expression profile in shoot tissues of on (fully loaded and off (fruit-lacking trees. Expression analyses revealed a strong peak in PaFT transcript levels in leaves of off trees from the end of October through November, followed by a return to starting levels. Moreover and concomitant with inflorescence development, only off buds displayed up-regulation of the floral identity transcripts PaAP1 and PaLFY, with significant variation being detected from October and November, respectively. Furthermore, a parallel microscopic study of off apical buds revealed the presence of secondary inflorescence axis structures that only appeared towards the end of November. Finally, ectopic expression of PaFT in Arabidopsis resulted in early flowering transition. Together, our data suggests a link between increased PaFT expression observed during late autumn and avocado flower induction. Furthermore, our results also imply that, as in the case of other crop trees, fruit-load might affect flowering by repressing the expression of PaFT in the leaves. Possible mechanism(s by which fruit crop might repress PaFT expression, are discussed.

  16. Expression Profiling of FLOWERING LOCUS T-Like Gene in Alternate Bearing ‘Hass' Avocado Trees Suggests a Role for PaFT in Avocado Flower Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Dafna; Zviran, Tali; Zezak, Oshrat; Samach, Alon; Irihimovitch, Vered

    2014-01-01

    In many perennials, heavy fruit load on a shoot decreases the ability of the plant to undergo floral induction in the following spring, resulting in a pattern of crop production known as alternate bearing. Here, we studied the effects of fruit load on floral determination in ‘Hass' avocado (Persea americana). De-fruiting experiments initially confirmed the negative effects of fruit load on return to flowering. Next, we isolated a FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene, PaFT, hypothesized to act as a phloem-mobile florigen signal and examined its expression profile in shoot tissues of on (fully loaded) and off (fruit-lacking) trees. Expression analyses revealed a strong peak in PaFT transcript levels in leaves of off trees from the end of October through November, followed by a return to starting levels. Moreover and concomitant with inflorescence development, only off buds displayed up-regulation of the floral identity transcripts PaAP1 and PaLFY, with significant variation being detected from October and November, respectively. Furthermore, a parallel microscopic study of off apical buds revealed the presence of secondary inflorescence axis structures that only appeared towards the end of November. Finally, ectopic expression of PaFT in Arabidopsis resulted in early flowering transition. Together, our data suggests a link between increased PaFT expression observed during late autumn and avocado flower induction. Furthermore, our results also imply that, as in the case of other crop trees, fruit-load might affect flowering by repressing the expression of PaFT in the leaves. Possible mechanism(s) by which fruit crop might repress PaFT expression, are discussed. PMID:25330324

  17. Expression profiling of FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene in alternate bearing 'Hass' avocado trees suggests a role for PaFT in avocado flower induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Dafna; Zviran, Tali; Zezak, Oshrat; Samach, Alon; Irihimovitch, Vered

    2014-01-01

    In many perennials, heavy fruit load on a shoot decreases the ability of the plant to undergo floral induction in the following spring, resulting in a pattern of crop production known as alternate bearing. Here, we studied the effects of fruit load on floral determination in 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana). De-fruiting experiments initially confirmed the negative effects of fruit load on return to flowering. Next, we isolated a FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene, PaFT, hypothesized to act as a phloem-mobile florigen signal and examined its expression profile in shoot tissues of on (fully loaded) and off (fruit-lacking) trees. Expression analyses revealed a strong peak in PaFT transcript levels in leaves of off trees from the end of October through November, followed by a return to starting levels. Moreover and concomitant with inflorescence development, only off buds displayed up-regulation of the floral identity transcripts PaAP1 and PaLFY, with significant variation being detected from October and November, respectively. Furthermore, a parallel microscopic study of off apical buds revealed the presence of secondary inflorescence axis structures that only appeared towards the end of November. Finally, ectopic expression of PaFT in Arabidopsis resulted in early flowering transition. Together, our data suggests a link between increased PaFT expression observed during late autumn and avocado flower induction. Furthermore, our results also imply that, as in the case of other crop trees, fruit-load might affect flowering by repressing the expression of PaFT in the leaves. Possible mechanism(s) by which fruit crop might repress PaFT expression, are discussed.

  18. Cloning, Structural Characterization, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Flower MADS-Box Genes from Crocus (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios S. Tsaftaris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Crocus (Crocus sativus L. is a crop species cultivated for its flowers and, more specifically, for its red stigmas. The flower of crocus is bisexual and sterile, since crocus is a triploid species. Its perianth consists of six petaloid tepals: three tepals in whorl 1 (outer tepals and three tepals in whorl 2 (inner tepals. The androecium consists of three distinct stamens and the gynoecium consists of a single compound pistil with three carpels, a single three-branched style, and an inferior ovary. The dry form of the stigmas constitutes the commercial saffron used as a food additive, in the coloring industry, and in medicine. In order to uncover and understand the molecular mechanisms controlling flower development in cultivated crocus and its relative wild progenitor species, and characterize a number of crocus flower mutants, we have cloned and characterized different, full-length, cDNA sequences encoding MADS-box transcription factor proteins involved in flower formation.

  19. Comparative analysis of gene expression by microarray analysis of male and female flowers of Asparagus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wu-Jun; Li, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Wang, Ning-Na; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

    2013-01-01

    To identify rapidly a number of genes probably involved in sex determination and differentiation of the dioecious plant Asparagus officinalis, gene expression profiles in early flower development for male and female plants were investigated by microarray assay with 8,665 probes. In total, 638 male-biased and 543 female-biased genes were identified. These genes with biased-expression for male and female were involved in a variety of processes associated with molecular functions, cellular components, and biological processes, suggesting that a complex mechanism underlies the sex development of asparagus. Among the differentially expressed genes involved in the reproductive process, a number of genes associated with floral development were identified. Reverse transcription-PCR was performed for validation, and the results were largely consistent with those obtained by microarray analysis. The findings of this study might contribute to understanding of the molecular mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation in dioecious asparagus and provide a foundation for further studies of this plant.

  20. Transcriptional regulation of three EIN3-like genes of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Improved White Sim) during flower development and upon wounding, pollination, and ethylene exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordachescu, Mihaela; Verlinden, Sven

    2005-08-01

    Using a combination of approaches, three EIN3-like (EIL) genes DC-EIL1/2 (AY728191), DC-EIL3 (AY728192), and DC-EIL4 (AY728193) were isolated from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) petals. DC-EIL1/2 deduced amino acid sequence shares 98% identity with the previously cloned and characterized carnation DC-EIL1 (AF261654), 62% identity with DC-EIL3, and 60% identity with DC-EIL4. DC-EIL3 deduced amino acid sequence shares 100% identity with a previously cloned carnation gene fragment, Dc106 (CF259543), 61% identity with Dianthus caryophyllus DC-EIL1 (AF261654), and 59% identity with DC-EIL4. DC-EIL4 shared 60% identity with DC-EIL1 (AF261654). Expression analyses performed on vegetative and flower tissues (petals, ovaries, and styles) during growth and development and senescence (natural and ethylene-induced) indicated that the mRNA accumulation of the DC-EIL family of genes in carnation is regulated developmentally and by ethylene. DC-EIL3 mRNA showed significant accumulation upon ethylene exposure, during flower development, and upon pollination in petals and styles. Interestingly, decreasing levels of DC-EIL3 mRNA were found in wounded leaves and ovaries of senescing flowers whenever ethylene levels increased. Flowers treated with sucrose showed a 2 d delay in the accumulation of DC-EIL3 transcripts when compared with control flowers. These observations suggest an important role for DC-EIL3 during growth and development. Changes in DC-EIL1/2 and DC-EIL4 mRNA levels during flower development, and upon ethylene exposure and pollination were very similar. mRNA levels of the DC-EILs in styles of pollinated flowers showed a positive correlation with ethylene production after pollination. The cloning and characterization of the EIN3-like genes in the present study showed their transcriptional regulation not previously observed for EILs.

  1. Analysis of the Arabidopsis superman allelic series and the interactions with other genes demonstrate developmental robustness and joint specification of male-female boundary, flower meristem termination and carpel compartmentalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuil-Broyer, Stéphanie; Trehin, Christophe; Morel, Patrice; Boltz, Véronique; Sun, Bo; Chambrier, Pierre; Ito, Toshiro; Negrutiu, Ioan

    2016-04-01

    SUPERMAN is a cadastral gene controlling the sexual boundary in the flower. The gene's functions and role in flower development and evolution have remained elusive. The analysis of a contrasting SUP allelic series (for which the names superman, superwoman and supersex have been coined) makes it possible to distinguish early vs. late regulatory processes at the flower meristem centre to which SUP is an important contributor. Their understanding is essential in further addressing evolutionary questions linking bisexuality and flower meristem homeostasis. Inter-allelic comparisons were carried out and SUP interactions with other boundary factors and flower meristem patterning and homeostasis regulators (such as CLV, WUS, PAN, CUC, KNU, AG, AP3/PI, CRC and SPT) have been evaluated at genetic, molecular, morphological and histological levels. Early SUP functions include mechanisms of male-female (sexual) boundary specification, flower mersitem termination and control of stamen number. A SUP-dependent flower meristem termination pathway is identified and analysed. Late SUP functions play a role in organ morphogenesis by controlling intra-whorl organ separation and carpel medial region formation. By integrating early and late SUP functions, and by analyzing in one single experiment a series of SUP genetic interactions, the concept of meristematic 'transference' (cascade) - a regulatory bridging process redundantly and sequentially co-ordinating the triggering and completion of flower meristem termination, and carpel margin meristem and placenta patterning - is proposed. Taken together, the results strongly support the view that SUP(-type) function(s) have been instrumental in resolving male/female gradients into sharp male and female identities (whorls, organs) and in enforcing flower homeostasis during evolution. This has probably been achieved by incorporating the meristem patterning system of the floral axis into the female/carpel programme. © The Author 2016

  2. Transcriptomic changes reveal gene networks responding to the overexpression of a blueberry DWARF AND DELAYED FLOWERING 1 gene in transgenic blueberry plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-Qing; Gao, Xuan

    2017-06-19

    Constitutive expression of the CBF/DREB1 for increasing freezing tolerance in woody plants is often associated with other phenotypic changes including dwarf plant and delayed flowering. These phenotypic changes have been observed when Arabidopsis DWARF AND DELAYED FLOWERING 1 (DDF1) was overexpressed in A. thaliana plants. To date, the DDF1 orthologues have not been studied in woody plants. The aim of this study is to investigate transcriptomic responses to the overexpression of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) DDF1 (herein, VcDDF1-OX). The VcDDF1-OX resulted in enhanced freezing tolerance in tetraploid blueberry plants and did not result in significant changes in plant size, chilling requirement, and flowering time. Comparative transcriptome analysis of transgenic 'Legacy-VcDDF1-OX' plants containing an overexpressed VcDDF1 with non-transgenic highbush blueberry 'Legacy' plants revealed the VcDDF1-OX derived differentially expressed (DE) genes and transcripts in the pathways of cold-response, plant flowering, DELLA proteins, and plant phytohormones. The increase in freezing tolerance was associated to the expression of cold-regulated genes (CORs) and the ethylene pathway genes. The unchanged plant size, dormancy and flowering were due to the minimal effect of the VcDDF1-OX on the expression of DELLA proteins, flowering pathway genes, and the other phytohormone genes related to plant growth and development. The DE genes in auxin and cytokinin pathways suggest that the VcDDF1-OX has also altered plant tolerance to drought and high salinity. A DDF1 orthologue in blueberry functioned differently from the DDF1 reported in Arabidopsis. The overexpression of VcDDF1 or its orthologues is a new approach to increase freezing tolerance of deciduous woody plant species with no obvious effect on plant size and plant flowering time.

  3. FILAMENTOUS FLOWER controls lateral organ development by acting as both an activator and a repressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaccorso Oliver

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The YABBY (YAB family of transcription factors participate in a diverse range of processes that include leaf and floral patterning, organ growth, and the control of shoot apical meristem organisation and activity. How these disparate functions are regulated is not clear, but based on interactions with the LEUNIG-class of co-repressors, it has been proposed that YABs act as transcriptional repressors. In the light of recent work showing that DNA-binding proteins associated with the yeast co-repressor TUP1 can also function as activators, we have examined the transcriptional activity of the YABs. Results Of the four Arabidopsis YABs tested in yeast, only FILAMENTOUS FLOWER (FIL activated reporter gene expression. Similar analysis with Antirrhinum YABs identified the FIL ortholog GRAMINIFOLIA as an activator. Plant-based transactivation assays not only confirmed the potential of FIL to activate transcription, but also extended this property to the FIL paralog YABBY3 (YAB3. Subsequent transcriptomic analysis of lines expressing a steroid-inducible FIL protein revealed groups of genes that responded either positively or negatively to YAB induction. Included in the positively regulated group of genes were the polarity regulators KANADI1 (KAN1, AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 4 (ARF4 and ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1. We also show that modifying FIL to function as an obligate repressor causes strong yab loss-of-function phenotypes. Conclusions Collectively these data show that FIL functions as a transcriptional activator in plants and that this activity is involved in leaf patterning. Interestingly, our study also supports the idea that FIL can act as a repressor, as transcriptomic analysis identified negatively regulated FIL-response genes. To reconcile these observations, we propose that YABs are bifunctional transcription factors that participate in both positive and negative regulation. These findings fit a model of leaf development in which

  4. Functional importance of conserved domains in the flowering-time gene CONSTANS demonstrated by analysis of mutant alleles and transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, F; Costa, M M; Hepworth, S R; Vizir, I; Piñeiro, M; Reeves, P H; Putterill, J; Coupland, G

    2001-12-01

    CONSTANS promotes flowering of Arabidopsis in response to long-day conditions. We show that CONSTANS is a member of an Arabidopsis gene family that comprises 16 other members. The CO-Like proteins encoded by these genes contain two segments of homology: a zinc finger containing region near their amino terminus and a CCT (CO, CO-Like, TOC1) domain near their carboxy terminus. Analysis of seven classical co mutant alleles demonstrated that the mutations all occur within either the zinc finger region or the CCT domain, confirming that the two regions of homology are important for CO function. The zinc fingers are most similar to those of B-boxes, which act as protein-protein interaction domains in several transcription factors described in animals. Segments of CO protein containing the CCT domain localize GFP to the nucleus, but one mutation that affects the CCT domain delays flowering without affecting the nuclear localization function, suggesting that this domain has additional functions. All eight co alleles, including one recovered by pollen irradiation in which DNA encoding both B-boxes is deleted, are shown to be semidominant. This dominance appears to be largely due to a reduction in CO dosage in the heterozygous plants. However, some alleles may also actively delay flowering, because overexpression from the CaMV 35S promoter of the co-3 allele, that has a mutation in the second B-box, delayed flowering of wild-type plants. The significance of these observations for the role of CO in the control of flowering time is discussed.

  5. Genome-Wide Search for Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Important Plant and Flower Traits in Petunia Using an Interspecific Recombinant Inbred Population of Petunia axillaris and Petunia exserta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhe; Guo, Yufang; Yang, Qian; He, Yanhong; Fetouh, Mohammed; Warner, Ryan M; Deng, Zhanao

    2018-05-15

    A major bottleneck in plant breeding has been the much limited genetic base and much reduced genetic diversity in domesticated, cultivated germplasm. Identification and utilization of favorable gene loci or alleles from wild or progenitor species can serve as an effective approach to increasing genetic diversity and breaking this bottleneck in plant breeding. This study was conducted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) in wild or progenitor petunia species that can be used to improve important horticultural traits in garden petunia. An F 7 recombinant inbred population derived between Petunia axillaris and P. exserta was phenotyped for plant height, plant spread, plant size, flower counts, flower diameter, flower length, and days to anthesis, in Florida in two consecutive years. Transgressive segregation was observed for all seven traits in both years. The broad-sense heritability estimates for the traits ranged from 0.20 (days to anthesis) to 0.62 (flower length). A genome-wide genetic linkage map consisting 368 single nucleotide polymorphism bins and extending over 277 cM was searched to identify QTL for these traits. Nineteen QTL were identified and localized to five linkage groups. Eleven of the loci were identified consistently in both years; several loci explained up to 34.0% and 24.1% of the phenotypic variance for flower length and flower diameter, respectively. Multiple loci controlling different traits are co-localized in four intervals in four linkage groups. These intervals contain desirable alleles that can be introgressed into commercial petunia germplasm to expand the genetic base and improve plant performance and flower characteristics in petunia. Copyright © 2018, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  6. Post harvest controlling of orchid thrips on cut flowers by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansiddhi, K.; Siriphontangmun, S.

    1999-01-01

    Post-harvest controlling of orchid thrips, Thrips palmi Karny on cut flowers by irradiation was conducted during October 1992 to September 1997 at the Thai Irradiation Centre (TIC) and Division of Entomology and Zoology, Department of Agriculture, Thailand. The studies were carried out by conducting experiments on irradiation of cut flowers for controlling thrips with doses ranging from 0.1 to 1 kGy. The vase-life of radiated cut flowers was evaluated. Colonies of thrips were established in the laboratory in order to determine radiation sensitivity of various development stages of thrips and also to assess the occurrence of natural infestations by examining commercial market quality flowers from growers where management practices can be identified. Results from five years of research on post harvest control of thrips on orchids and cut flowers by irradiation showed that despite intensive investigation, difficulty in permanent establishment of a laboratory colony of Thrips palmi Karny for bioassays continued. The snap bean rearing method for rearing large number of thrips has bean developed, although it is less satisfactory than desirable. It has given sufficient numbers for testing in the 6th experiment. The maximum dose tolerated by Dendrobium orchid flowers at ambient temperature (25-30 deg. C) was below 0.5 kGy, but at a pre- and post irradiation temperature 15-18 deg. C, the maximum dose tolerated approached 0.75-0.8 kGy. The effective dose for control Thrips palmi Karny, however, was higher than 0.75 kGy. (author)

  7. Identification of flowering-related genes responsible for differences in bolting time between two radish inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Sun Cho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Late bolting after cold exposure is an economically important characteristic of radish (Raphanus sativus L., an important Brassicaceae root vegetable crop. However, little information is available regarding the genes and pathways that govern flowering time in this species. We performed high-throughput RNA sequencing analysis to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that determine the differences in flowering times between two radish lines, NH-JS1 (late bolting and NH-JS2 (early bolting. In total, 71,188 unigenes were identified by reference-guided assembly, of which 309, 788, and 980 genes were differentially expressed between the two inbred lines after 0, 15, and 35 days of vernalization, respectively. Among these genes, 218 homologs of Arabidopsis flowering-time (Ft genes were identified in the radish, and 49 of these genes were differentially expressed between the two radish lines in the presence or absence of vernalization treatment. Most of the Ft genes up-regulated in NH-JS1 vs NH-JS2 were repressors of flowering, such as RsFLC, consistent with the late-bolting phenotype of NH-JS1. Although the functions of genes down-regulated in NH-JS1 were less consistent with late-bolting characteristics than the up-regulated Ft genes, several Ft enhancer genes, including RsSOC1, a key floral integrator, showed an appropriate expression to the late-bolting phenotype. In addition, the patterns of gene expression related to the vernalization pathway closely corresponded with the different bolting times of the two inbred lines. These results suggest that the vernalization pathway is conserved between radish and Arabidopsis.

  8. A Norway Spruce FLOWERING LOCUS T Homolog Is Implicated in Control of Growth Rhythm in Conifers1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Clapham, David; Källman, Thomas; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2007-01-01

    Growth in perennial plants possesses an annual cycle of active growth and dormancy that is controlled by environmental factors, mainly photoperiod and temperature. In conifers and other nonangiosperm species, the molecular mechanisms behind these responses are currently unknown. In Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) seedlings, growth cessation and bud set are induced by short days and plants from southern latitudes require at least 7 to 10 h of darkness, whereas plants from northern latitudes need only 2 to 3 h of darkness. Bud burst, on the other hand, is almost exclusively controlled by temperature. To test the possible role of Norway spruce FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like genes in growth rhythm, we have studied expression patterns of four Norway spruce FT family genes in two populations with a divergent bud set response under various photoperiodic conditions. Our data show a significant and tight correlation between growth rhythm (both bud set and bud burst), and expression pattern of one of the four Norway spruce phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein gene family members (PaFT4) over a variety of experimental conditions. This study strongly suggests that one Norway spruce homolog to the FT gene, which controls flowering in angiosperms, is also a key integrator of photoperiodic and thermal signals in the control of growth rhythms in gymnosperms. The data also indicate that the divergent adaptive bud set responses of northern and southern Norway spruce populations, both to photoperiod and light quality, are mediated through PaFT4. These results provide a major advance in our understanding of the molecular control of a major adaptive trait in conifers and a tool for further molecular studies of adaptive variation in plants. PMID:17369429

  9. A genetic screen for modifiers of UFO meristem activity identifies three novel FUSED FLORAL ORGANS genes required for early flower development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, J Z; Fletcher, J C; Chen, X; Meyerowitz, E M

    1998-06-01

    In a screen to identify novel genes required for early Arabidopsis flower development, we isolated four independent mutations that enhance the Ufo phenotype toward the production of filamentous structures in place of flowers. The mutants fall into three complementation groups, which we have termed FUSED FLORAL ORGANS (FFO) loci. ffo mutants have specific defects in floral organ separation and/or positioning; thus, the FFO genes identify components of a boundary formation mechanism(s) acting between developing floral organ primordia. FFO1 and FFO3 have specific functions in cauline leaf/stem separation and in first- and third-whorl floral organ separation, with FFO3 likely acting to establish and FFO1 to maintain floral organ boundaries. FFO2 acts at early floral stages to regulate floral organ number and positioning and to control organ separation within and between whorls. Plants doubly mutant for two ffo alleles display additive phenotypes, indicating that the FFO genes may act in separate pathways. Plants doubly mutant for an ffo gene and for ufo, lfy, or clv3 reveal that the FFO genes play roles related to those of UFO and LFY in floral meristem initiation and that FFO2 and FFO3 may act to control cell proliferation late in inflorescence development.

  10. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of black cherry for flowering control and insect resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Wang; Paula M. Pijut

    2014-01-01

    Black cherry is one of the most valuable hardwood species for cabinetry, furniture, and veneer. The goal of this study was to develop transgenic black cherry plants with reproductive sterility and enhanced insect resistance. Black cherry TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (PsTFL1) was overexpressed under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in black cherry via

  11. Nectar accessibility determines fitness, flower choice and abundance of hoverflies that provide natural pest control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Paul C. J.; Wäckers, Felix L.

    2016-01-01

    In modern agricultural landscapes, many organisms providing ecosystem services such as pollination and natural pest control are likely constrained by shortage of nectar and/or pollen required for adult nutrition. More and more flower-rich field margin strips and other habitats are created to

  12. Nectar accessibility determines fitness, flower choice and abundance of hoverflies that provide natural pest control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, P.C.J.; Wäckers, F.L.

    2016-01-01

    1. In modern agricultural landscapes, many organisms providing ecosystem services such as pollination and natural pest control are likely constrained by shortage of nectar and/or pollen required for adult nutrition. More and more flower-rich field margin strips and other habitats are created to

  13. A Virus-Induced Assay for Functional Dissection and Analysis of Monocot and Dicot Flowering Time Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Cheng; Chen, Weiwei; Shen, Jiajia; Cheng, Linming; Akande, Femi; Zhang, Ke; Yuan, Chen; Li, Chunyang; Zhang, Pengcheng; Shi, Nongnong; Cheng, Qi; Liu, Yule; Jackson, Stephen; Hong, Yiguo

    2017-06-01

    Virus-induced flowering (VIF) uses virus vectors to express Flowering Locus T ( FT ) to induce flowering in plants. This approach has recently attracted wide interest for its practical applications in accelerating breeding in crops and woody fruit trees. However, the insight into VIF and its potential as a powerful tool for dissecting florigenic proteins remained to be elucidated. Here, we describe the mechanism and further applications of Potato virus X (PVX)-based VIF in the short-day Nicotiana tabacum cultivar Maryland Mammoth. Ectopic delivery of Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) AtFT by PVX/AtFT did not induce the expression of the endogenous FT ortholog NtFT4 ; however, it was sufficient to trigger flowering in Maryland Mammoth plants grown under noninductive long-day conditions. Infected tobacco plants developed no systemic symptoms, and the PVX-based VIF did not cause transgenerational flowering. We showed that the PVX-based VIF is a much more rapid method to examine the impacts of single amino acid mutations on AtFT for floral induction than making individual transgenic Arabidopsis lines for each mutation. We also used the PVX-based VIF to demonstrate that adding a His- or FLAG-tag to the N or C terminus of AtFT could affect its florigenic activity and that this system can be applied to assay the function of FT genes from heterologous species, including tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) SFT and rice ( Oryza sativa ) Hd3a Thus, the PVX-based VIF represents a simple and efficient system to identify individual amino acids that are essential for FT-mediated floral induction and to test the ability of mono- and dicotyledonous FT genes and FT fusion proteins to induce flowering. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Association of FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER 1-like gene FTL2 expression with growth rhythm in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avia, Komlan; Kärkkäinen, Katri; Lagercrantz, Ulf; Savolainen, Outi

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of the timing of bud set, an important trait in conifers, is relevant for adaptation and forestry practice. In common garden experiments, both Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) show a latitudinal cline in the trait. We compared the regulation of their bud set biology by examining the expression of PsFTL2, a Pinus sylvestris homolog to PaFTL2, a FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (FT/TFL1)-like gene, the expression levels of which have been found previously to be associated with the timing of bud set in Norway spruce. In a common garden study, we analyzed the relationship of bud phenology under natural and artificial photoperiods and the expression of PsFTL2 in a set of Scots pine populations from different latitudes. The expression of PsFTL2 increased in the needles preceding bud set and decreased during bud burst. In the northernmost population, even short night periods were efficient to trigger this expression, which also increased earlier under all photoperiodic regimes compared with the southern populations. Despite the different biology, with few limitations, the two conifers that diverged 140 million yr ago probably share an association of FTL2 with bud set, pointing to a common mechanism for the timing of growth cessation in conifers. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Development, anatomy, and genetic control of some teratological phenotypes of Ranunculaceae flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Jabbour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Teratological organisms originate from developmental anomalies, and exhibit structures and a body organization that deviate from the species standard. These monsters give essential clues about the formation and evolutionary significance of the wild-type groundplan. We focus on flower terata, which can be affected in their sterile and/or fertile organs, with special emphasis on the Ranunculaceae. The diversity of perianth shapes and organizations in flowers of this family is huge, and is even increased when anomalies occur during organo- and/or morphogenesis. To begin with, we synthesize the observations and research conducted on the Ranunculacean floral terata, following the most recent phylogenetic framework published in 2016 by our team. Then, we report results regarding the morphology of developing meristems, the anatomy of buds, and the genetic control of selected teratological phenotypes of Ranunculaceae flowers. We focus on species and horticultural varieties belonging to the genera Aquilegia, Delphinium, and Nigella. Wildtype flowers of these species are actinomorphic (Aquilegia, Nigella or zygomorphic (Delphinium, spurred (Aquilegia, Delphinium or with pocket-like petals (Nigella. Last, we discuss the evolutionary potential of such teratological phenotypes when they occur in the wild.

  16. How to perform RT-qPCR accurately in plant species? A case study on flower colour gene expression in an azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids) mapping population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keyser, Ellen; Desmet, Laurence; Van Bockstaele, Erik; De Riek, Jan

    2013-06-24

    Flower colour variation is one of the most crucial selection criteria in the breeding of a flowering pot plant, as is also the case for azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids). Flavonoid biosynthesis was studied intensively in several species. In azalea, flower colour can be described by means of a 3-gene model. However, this model does not clarify pink-coloration. The last decade gene expression studies have been implemented widely for studying flower colour. However, the methods used were often only semi-quantitative or quantification was not done according to the MIQE-guidelines. We aimed to develop an accurate protocol for RT-qPCR and to validate the protocol to study flower colour in an azalea mapping population. An accurate RT-qPCR protocol had to be established. RNA quality was evaluated in a combined approach by means of different techniques e.g. SPUD-assay and Experion-analysis. We demonstrated the importance of testing noRT-samples for all genes under study to detect contaminating DNA. In spite of the limited sequence information available, we prepared a set of 11 reference genes which was validated in flower petals; a combination of three reference genes was most optimal. Finally we also used plasmids for the construction of standard curves. This allowed us to calculate gene-specific PCR efficiencies for every gene to assure an accurate quantification. The validity of the protocol was demonstrated by means of the study of six genes of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. No correlations were found between flower colour and the individual expression profiles. However, the combination of early pathway genes (CHS, F3H, F3'H and FLS) is clearly related to co-pigmentation with flavonols. The late pathway genes DFR and ANS are to a minor extent involved in differentiating between coloured and white flowers. Concerning pink coloration, we could demonstrate that the lower intensity in this type of flowers is correlated to the expression of F3'H. Currently in plant

  17. Transcriptomic Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes during Flower Organ Development in Genetic Male Sterile and Male Fertile Tagetes erecta by Digital Gene-Expression Profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Ai

    Full Text Available Tagetes erecta is an important commercial plant of Asteraceae family. The male sterile (MS and male fertile (MF two-type lines of T. erecta have been utilized in F1 hybrid production for many years, but no report has been made to identify the genes that specify its male sterility that is caused by homeotic conversion of floral organs. In this study, transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression profiling were performed to generate expression profiles of MS and MF plants. A cDNA library was generated from an equal mixture of RNA isolated from MS and MF flower buds (1 mm and 4 mm in diameter. Totally, 87,473,431 clean tags were obtained and assembled into 128,937 transcripts among which 65,857 unigenes were identified with an average length of 1,188 bp. About 52% of unigenes (34,176 were annotated in Nr, Nt, Pfam, KOG/COG, Swiss-Prot, KO (KEGG Ortholog database and/or GO. Taking the above transcriptome as reference, 125 differentially expressed genes were detected in both developmental stages of MS and MF flower buds. MADS-box genes were presumed to be highly related to male sterility in T. erecta based on histological and cytological observations. Twelve MADS-box genes showed significantly different expression levels in flower buds 4 mm in diameter, whereas only one gene expressed significantly different in flower buds 1 mm in diameter between MS and MF plants. This is the first transcriptome analysis in T. erecta and will provide a valuable resource for future genomic studies, especially in flower organ development and/or differentiation.

  18. Identification of a R2R3-MYB gene regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis and relationships between its variation and flower color difference in lotus (Nelumbo Adans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Shan Sun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The lotus (Nelumbonaceae: Nelumbo Adans. is a highly desired ornamental plant, comprising only two extant species, the sacred lotus (N. nucifera Gaerten. with red flowers and the American lotus (N. lutea Willd. with yellow flowers. Flower color is the most obvious difference of two species. To better understand the mechanism of flower color differentiation, the content of anthocyanins and the expression levels of four key structural genes (e.g., DFR, ANS, UFGT and GST were analyzed in two species. Our results revealed that anthocyanins were detected in red flowers, not yellow flowers. Expression analysis showed that no transcripts of GST gene and low expression level of three UFGT genes were detected in yellow flowers. In addition, three regulatory genes (NnMYB5, NnbHLH1 and NnTTG1 were isolated from red flowers and showed a high similarity to corresponding regulatory genes of other species. Sequence analysis of MYB5, bHLH1 and TTG1 in two species revealed striking differences in coding region and promoter region of MYB5 gene. Population analysis identified three MYB5 variants in Nelumbo: a functional allele existed in red flowers and two inactive forms existed in yellow flowers. This result revealed that there was an association between allelic variation in MYB5 gene and flower color difference. Yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that NnMYB5 interacts with NnbHLH1, NlbHLH1 and NnTTG1, and NnTTG1 also interacts with NnbHLH1 and NlbHLH1. The over-expression of NnMYB5 led to anthocyanin accumulation in immature seeds and flower stalks and up-regulation of expression of TT19 in Arabidopsis. Therefore, NnMYB5 is a transcription activator of anthocyanin synthesis. This study helps to elucidate the function of NnMYB5 and will contribute to clarify the mechanism of flower coloration and genetic engineering of flower color in lotus.

  19. Disruption of a CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE 4 gene converts flower colour from white to yellow in Brassica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Liu, Chao; Wang, Yaqin; Yao, Xuan; Wang, Fang; Wu, Jiangsheng; King, Graham J; Liu, Kede

    2015-06-01

    In Brassica napus, yellow petals had a much higher content of carotenoids than white petals present in a small number of lines, with violaxanthin identified as the major carotenoid compound in yellow petals of rapeseed lines. Using positional cloning we identified a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 gene, BnaC3.CCD4, responsible for the formation of flower colour, with preferential expression in petals of white-flowered B. napus lines. Insertion of a CACTA-like transposable element 1 (TE1) into the coding region of BnaC3.CCD4 had disrupted its expression in yellow-flowered rapeseed lines. α-Ionone was identified as the major volatile apocarotenoid released from white petals but not from yellow petals. We speculate that BnaC3.CCD4 may use δ- and/or α-carotene as substrates. Four variations, including two CACTA-like TEs (alleles M1 and M4) and two insertion/deletions (INDELs, alleles M2 and M3), were identified in yellow-flowered Brassica oleracea lines. The two CACTA-like TEs were also identified in the coding region of BcaC3.CCD4 in Brassica carinata. However, the two INDELs were not detected in B. napus and B. carinata. We demonstrate that the insertions of TEs in BolC3.CCD4 predated the formation of the two allotetraploids. © 2015 The Authors New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Four Genes Encoding Ethylene Receptors Associated with Pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) Flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-He; Wu, Qing-Song; Huang, Xia; Liu, Sheng-Hui; Zhang, Hong-Na; Zhang, Zhi; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Exogenous ethylene, or ethephon, has been widely used to induce pineapple flowering, but the molecular mechanism behind ethephon induction is still unclear. In this study, we cloned four genes encoding ethylene receptors (designated AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b). The 5' flanking sequences of these four genes were also cloned by self-formed adaptor PCR and SiteFinding-PCR, and a group of putative cis-acting elements was identified. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b belonged to the plant ERS1s and ETR2/EIN4-like groups. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that AcETR2a and AcETR2b (subfamily 2) were more sensitive to ethylene treatment compared with AcERS1a and AcERS1b (subfamily 1). The relative expression of AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b was significantly increased during the earlier period of pineapple inflorescence formation, especially at 1-9 days after ethylene treatment (DAET), whereas AcERS1a expression changed less than these three genes. In situ hybridization results showed that bract primordia (BP) and flower primordia (FP) appeared at 9 and 21 DAET, respectively, and flowers were formed at 37 DAET. AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b were mainly expressed in the shoot apex at 1-4 DAET; thereafter, with the appearance of BP and FP, higher expression of these genes was found in these new structures. Finally, at 37 DAET, the expression of these genes was mainly focused in the flower but was also low in other structures. These findings indicate that these four ethylene receptor genes, especially AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b, play important roles during pineapple flowering induced by exogenous ethephon.

  1. The Evolution of the FT/TFL1 Genes in Amaranthaceae and Their Expression Patterns in the Course of Vegetative Growth and Flowering in Chenopodium rubrum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drabešová, Jana; Černá, Lucie; Mašterová, Helena; Koloušková, Pavla; Potocký, Martin; Štorchová, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 10 (2016), s. 3065-3076 ISSN 2160-1836 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1359; GA ČR GA13-02290S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : rna-seq data * locus-t * ft homologs * functional evolution * floral initiation * reference genome * arabidopsis * protein * quantification * activation * transcriptome * flowering locus t * TERMINAL FLOWER1 gene family * evolution * flowering * gene rearrangement * Amaranthaceae * Chenopodium rubrum Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.861, year: 2016

  2. Controllable synthesis of periodic flower-like ZnO nanostructures on Si subwavelength grating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Yeong Hwan; Leem, Jung Woo; Yu, Jae Su

    2011-01-01

    We report on the periodic well-defined flower-like zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures (NSs) self-assembled through a simple hydrothermal method using silicon (Si) subwavelength grating (SWG) structures. The Si SWGs serve as building blocks for constructing a two-dimensional (2D) periodic architecture to integrate the one-dimensional (1D) ZnO NSs. Various controlled morphologies of ZnO NSs with high crystallinity are obtained by changing the growth conditions. For 1D ZnO NSs integrated on periodic hexagonal Si SWG structures, the reflection characteristics are investigated in comparison with the conventional ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays. For a three-dimensional (3D) flower-like ZnO NS on Si SWGs, a relatively low total reflectance of < 8% at wavelengths of 300-1050 nm is achieved compared to the ZnO NRs on Si substrate.

  3. Genetic control of the number of days to flowering in common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Pedroso Mendes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic control of early flowering in common bean. Crosses weremade between the parents Pérola and BRS Radiante and between ESAL 506 and Preto 60 dias. The segregating generations,F3, F2BC11 and F2BC12 of each cross were evaluated in experiments with two replications. F3 plants of both crosses wererandomly taken, and F3:4 progenies evaluated for the trait number of days to flowering. There was good adjustment to theadditive-dominant model of both crosses. The dominance effect was lower than the additive effect in the trait control and, whenpresent, it reduced the number of days to flowering. The value of realized heritability (h2R was similar in both crosses andlower than the h2 estimated for selection among F3:4 progenies. There were indications that aside from the environmental effecton the trait expression, the genotype-environment interaction was also significant.

  4. Arctic mustard flower color polymorphism controlled by petal-specific downregulation at the threshold of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A Dick

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and interspecific variation in flower color is a hallmark of angiosperm diversity. The evolutionary forces underlying the variety of flower colors can be nearly as diverse as the colors themselves. In addition to pollinator preferences, non-pollinator agents of selection can have a major influence on the evolution of flower color polymorphisms, especially when the pigments in question are also expressed in vegetative tissues. In such cases, identifying the target(s of selection starts with determining the biochemical and molecular basis for the flower color variation and examining any pleiotropic effects manifested in vegetative tissues. Herein, we describe a widespread purple-white flower color polymorphism in the mustard Parrya nudicaulis spanning Alaska. The frequency of white-flowered individuals increases with increasing growing-season temperature, consistent with the role of anthocyanin pigments in stress tolerance. White petals fail to produce the stress responsive flavonoid intermediates in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP, suggesting an early pathway blockage. Petal cDNA sequences did not reveal blockages in any of the eight enzyme-coding genes in white-flowered individuals, nor any color differentiating SNPs. A qRT-PCR analysis of white petals identified a 24-fold reduction in chalcone synthase (CHS at the threshold of the ABP, but no change in CHS expression in leaves and sepals. This arctic species has avoided the deleterious effects associated with the loss of flavonoid intermediates in vegetative tissues by decoupling CHS expression in petals and leaves, yet the correlation of flower color and climate suggests that the loss of flavonoids in the petals alone may affect the tolerance of white-flowered individuals to colder environments.

  5. Haplotype Variation of Flowering Time Genes of Sugar Beet and Its Wild Relatives and the Impact on Life Cycle Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Höft

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The species Beta vulgaris encompasses wild and cultivated members with a broad range of phenological development. The annual life cycle is commonly found in sea beets (ssp. maritima from Mediterranean environments which germinate, bolt, and flower within one season under long day conditions. Biennials such as the cultivated sugar beet (B. vulgaris ssp. vulgaris as well as sea beets from northern latitudes require prolonged exposure to cold temperature over winter to acquire floral competence. Sugar beet is mainly cultivated for sugar production in Europe and is likely to have originated from sea beet. Flowering time strongly affects seed yield and yield potential and is thus a trait of high agronomic relevance. Besides environmental cues, there are complex genetic networks known to impact life cycle switch in flowering plants. In sugar beet, BTC1, BvBBX19, BvFT1, and BvFT2 are major flowering time regulators. In this study, we phenotyped plants from a diversity Beta panel encompassing cultivated and wild species from different geographical origin. Plants were grown under different day length regimes with and without vernalization. Haplotype analysis of BTC1, BvBBX19, BvFT1, and BvFT2 was performed to identify natural diversity of these genes and their impact on flowering. We found that accessions from northern latitudes flowered significantly later than those from southern latitudes. Some plants did not flower at all, indicating a strong impact of latitude of origin on life cycle. Haplotype analysis revealed a high conservation of the CCT-, REC-, BBX-, and PEBP-domains with regard to SNP occurrence. We identified sequence variation which may impact life cycle adaptation in beet. Our data endorse the importance of BTC1 in the domestication process of cultivated beets and contribute to the understanding of distribution and adaption of Beta species to different life cycle regimes in response to different environments. Moreover, our data provide a

  6. Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetic Analysis of Eight COL Superfamily Genes in Group I Related to Photoperiodic Regulation of Flowering Time in Wild and Domesticated Cotton (Gossypium) Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Ding, Jian; Liu, Chunxiao; Cai, Caiping; Zhou, Baoliang; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    Flowering time is an important ecological trait that determines the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Flowering time in cotton is controlled by short-day photoperiods, with strict photoperiod sensitivity. As the CO-FT (CONSTANS-FLOWER LOCUS T) module regulates photoperiodic flowering in several plants, we selected eight CONSTANS genes (COL) in group I to detect their expression patterns in long-day and short-day conditions. Further, we individually cloned and sequenced their homologs from 25 different cotton accessions and one outgroup. Finally, we studied their structures, phylogenetic relationship, and molecular evolution in both coding region and three characteristic domains. All the eight COLs in group I show diurnal expression. In the orthologous and homeologous loci, each gene structure in different cotton species is highly conserved, while length variation has occurred due to insertions/deletions in intron and/or exon regions. Six genes, COL2 to COL5, COL7 and COL8, exhibit higher nucleotide diversity in the D-subgenome than in the A-subgenome. The Ks values of 98.37% in all allotetraploid cotton species examined were higher in the A-D and At-Dt comparison than in the A-At and D-Dt comparisons, and the Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) of Ks between A vs. D and At vs. Dt also showed positive, high correlations, with a correlation coefficient of at least 0.797. The nucleotide polymorphism in wild species is significantly higher compared to G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, indicating a genetic bottleneck associated with the domesticated cotton species. Three characteristic domains in eight COLs exhibit different evolutionary rates, with the CCT domain highly conserved, while the B-box and Var domain much more variable in allotetraploid species. Taken together, COL1, COL2 and COL8 endured greater selective pressures during the domestication process. The study improves our understanding of the domestication-related genes/traits during cotton

  7. Validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR during leaf and flower development in Petunia hybrida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hause Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of genes with invariant levels of gene expression is a prerequisite for validating transcriptomic changes accompanying development. Ideally expression of these genes should be independent of the morphogenetic process or environmental condition tested as well as the methods used for RNA purification and analysis. Results In an effort to identify endogenous genes meeting these criteria nine reference genes (RG were tested in two Petunia lines (Mitchell and V30. Growth conditions differed in Mitchell and V30, and different methods were used for RNA isolation and analysis. Four different software tools were employed to analyze the data. We merged the four outputs by means of a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. The genes identified as optimal for transcriptomic analysis of Mitchell and V30 were EF1α in Mitchell and CYP in V30, whereas the least suitable gene was GAPDH in both lines. Conclusions The least adequate gene turned out to be GAPDH indicating that it should be rejected as reference gene in Petunia. The absence of correspondence of the best-suited genes suggests that assessing reference gene stability is needed when performing normalization of data from transcriptomic analysis of flower and leaf development.

  8. An ortholog of LEAFY in Jatropha curcas regulates flowering time and floral organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingyong; Tao, Yan-Bin; Fu, Qiantang; Song, Yaling; Niu, Longjian; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2016-11-21

    Jatropha curcas seeds are an excellent biofuel feedstock, but seed yields of Jatropha are limited by its poor flowering and fruiting ability. Thus, identifying genes controlling flowering is critical for genetic improvement of seed yield. We isolated the JcLFY, a Jatropha ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana LEAFY (LFY), and identified JcLFY function by overexpressing it in Arabidopsis and Jatropha. JcLFY is expressed in Jatropha inflorescence buds, flower buds, and carpels, with highest expression in the early developmental stage of flower buds. JcLFY overexpression induced early flowering, solitary flowers, and terminal flowers in Arabidopsis, and also rescued the delayed flowering phenotype of lfy-15, a LFY loss-of-function Arabidopsis mutant. Microarray and qPCR analysis revealed several flower identity and flower organ development genes were upregulated in JcLFY-overexpressing Arabidopsis. JcLFY overexpression in Jatropha also induced early flowering. Significant changes in inflorescence structure, floral organs, and fruit shape occurred in JcLFY co-suppressed plants in which expression of several flower identity and floral organ development genes were changed. This suggests JcLFY is involved in regulating flower identity, floral organ patterns, and fruit shape, although JcLFY function in Jatropha floral meristem determination is not as strong as that of Arabidopsis.

  9. Failure to launch: the self-regulating Md-MYB10 R6 gene from apple is active in flowers but not leaves of Petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boase, Murray R; Brendolise, Cyril; Wang, Lei; Ngo, Hahn; Espley, Richard V; Hellens, Roger P; Schwinn, Kathy E; Davies, Kevin M; Albert, Nick W

    2015-10-01

    The Md - MYB10 R6 gene from apple is capable of self-regulating in heterologous host species and enhancing anthocyanin pigmentation, but the activity of MYB10 is dependent on endogenous protein partners. Coloured foliage due to anthocyanin pigments (bronze/red/black) is an attractive trait that is often lacking in many bedding, ornamental and horticultural plants. Apples (Malus × domestica) containing an allelic variant of the anthocyanin regulator, Md-MYB10 R6 , are highly pigmented throughout the plant, due to autoregulation by MYB10 upon its own promoter. We investigated whether Md-MYB10 R6 from apple is capable of functioning within the heterologous host Petunia hybrida to generate plants with novel pigmentation patterns. The Md-MYB10 R6 transgene (MYB10-R6 pro :MYB10:MYB10 term ) activated anthocyanin synthesis when transiently expressed in Antirrhinum rosea (dorsea) petals and petunia leaf discs. Stable transgenic petunias containing Md-MYB10 R6 lacked foliar pigmentation but had coloured flowers, complementing the an2 phenotype of 'Mitchell' petunia. The absence of foliar pigmentation was due to the failure of the Md-MYB10 R6 gene to self-activate in vegetative tissues, suggesting that additional protein partners are required for Md-MYB10 to activate target genes in this heterologous system. In petunia flowers, where endogenous components including MYB-bHLH-WDR (MBW) proteins were present, expression of the Md-MYB10 R6 promoter was initiated, allowing auto-regulation to occur and activating anthocyanin production. Md-MYB10 is capable of operating within the petunia MBW gene regulation network that controls the expression of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, AN1 (bHLH) and MYBx (R3-MYB repressor) in petals.

  10. Cloning, characterization, and expression of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase and expansin genes associated with petal growth and development during carnation flower opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Taro; Torii, Yuka; Morita, Shigeto; Onodera, Reiko; Hara, Yoshinao; Yokoyama, Ryusuke; Nishitani, Kazuhiko; Satoh, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    Growth of petal cells is a basis for expansion and morphogenesis (outward bending) of petals during opening of carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). Petal growth progressed through elongation in the early stage, expansion with outward bending in the middle stage, and expansion of the whole area in the late stage of flower opening. In the present study, four cDNAs encoding xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) (DcXTH1–DcXTH4) and three cDNAs encoding expansin (DcEXPA1–DcEXPA3) were cloned from petals of opening carnation flowers and characterized. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses showed that transcript levels of XTH and expansin genes accumulated differently in floral and vegetative tissues of carnation plants with opening flowers, indicating regulated expression of these genes. DcXTH2 and DcXTH3 transcripts were detected in large quantities in petals as compared with other tissues. DcEXPA1 and DcEXPA2 transcripts were markedly accumulated in petals of opening flowers. The action of XTH in growing petal tissues was confirmed by in situ staining of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity using a rhodamine-labelled xyloglucan nonasaccharide as a substrate. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that two XTH genes (DcXTH2 and DcXTH3) and two expansin genes (DcEXPA1 and DcEXPA2) are associated with petal growth and development during carnation flower opening. PMID:20959626

  11. Transcriptome analyses of the Dof-like gene family in grapevine reveal its involvement in berry, flower and seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Danielle Costenaro; da Silveira Falavigna, Vítor; Fasoli, Marianna; Buffon, Vanessa; Porto, Diogo Denardi; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; Pezzotti, Mario; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Revers, Luís Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The Dof (DNA-binding with one finger) protein family spans a group of plant transcription factors involved in the regulation of several functions, such as plant responses to stress, hormones and light, phytochrome signaling and seed germination. Here we describe the Dof-like gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), which consists of 25 genes coding for Dof. An extensive in silico characterization of the VviDofL gene family was performed. Additionally, the expression of the entire gene family was assessed in 54 grapevine tissues and organs using an integrated approach with microarray (cv Corvina) and real-time PCR (cv Pinot Noir) analyses. The phylogenetic analysis comparing grapevine sequences with those of Arabidopsis, tomato, poplar and already described Dof genes in other species allowed us to identify several duplicated genes. The diversification of grapevine DofL genes during evolution likely resulted in a broader range of biological roles. Furthermore, distinct expression patterns were identified between samples analyzed, corroborating such hypothesis. Our expression results indicate that several VviDofL genes perform their functional roles mainly during flower, berry and seed development, highlighting their importance for grapevine growth and production. The identification of similar expression profiles between both approaches strongly suggests that these genes have important regulatory roles that are evolutionally conserved between grapevine cvs Corvina and Pinot Noir.

  12. Use of 1-methylcyclopropene for the control of Botrytis cinerea on cut flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Seglie

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cut flowers are marketed for their ornamental characteristics making post-harvest flower life an important determinant of crop value. Botrytis cinerea is one of the most significant post-harvest fungal pathogens causing losses in ornamental plants. Disease caused by this fungus seems to be enhanced by the presence of a ethylene hormone, that both the plant and the fungus are known to synthesize. The aim of the experiment was to determine if 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, an ethylene antagonist, could be used to reduce B. cinerea damage to cut flowers. Six cultivars of four ornamental species: Dianthus caryophyllus ‘Idra di Muraglia’, Rosa × hybrida ‘White Dew’ and ‘Ritz’, Ranunculus asiaticus ‘Saigon’ and ‘Green’, and Cyclamen persicum line ‘Halios Bianco Puro Compatto’ were given three concentrations of 1-MCP (0.38 μl L-1, 1.14 μL L-1, and 3.62 μL L-1 for 24 hours. Subsequently, 10 petals per cultivar were treated with a B. cinerea conidial suspension (5×103 conidia cm-2 and stored in air-tight vases. To evaluate B. cinerea development an arbitrary damage scale (1–7 was used. A high concentration of 1-MCP significantly reduced B. cinerea damage on D. caryophyllus ‘Idra di Muraglia’ and C. persicum ‘Halios White Pure Compact’ petals. In carnation, 1-MCP treatment slowed B. cinerea infection; its threshold level was reached three days after that of the control. In cyclamen, treated petals and control petals remained aesthetically good until day 53 and day 28 respectively. At low concentrations, 1-MCP slowed grey mould on R. × hybrida ‘Ritz’ for up to three days beyond the control. On the two buttercup cultivars ‘Green’ and ‘Saigon’, 1-MCP treatments were not effective. In conclusion, 1-MCP limited pathogen development; its effect depended on the species and the 1-MCP concentration. Further investigations will be performed to improve methods to reduce B. cinerea development on the petals of cut

  13. Oxygenated Phosphine Fumigation for Control of Light Brown Apple Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Eggs on Cut-Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Samuel S; Liu, Yong-Biao; Simmons, Gregory S

    2015-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigation treatments under 70% oxygen on cut flowers to determine efficacy and safety. Five cut flower species: roses, lilies, tulips, gerbera daisy, and pompon chrysanthemums, were fumigated in separate groups with 2,500 ppm phosphine for 72 h at 5°C. Egg mortality and postharvest quality of cut flowers were determined after fumigation. Egg mortalities of 99.7-100% were achieved among the cut flower species. The treatment was safe to all cut flowers except gerbera daisy. A 96-h fumigation treatment with 2,200 ppm phosphine of eggs on chrysanthemums cut flowers also did not achieve complete control of light brown apple moth eggs. A simulation of fumigation in hermetically sealed fumigation chambers with gerbera daisy showed significant accumulations of carbon dioxide and ethylene by the end of 72-h sealing. However, oxygenated phosphine fumigations with carbon dioxide and ethylene absorbents did not reduce the injury to gerbera daisy, indicating that it is likely that phosphine may directly cause the injury to gerbera daisy cut flowers. The study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation is effective against light brown apple moth eggs. However, it may not be able to achieve the probit9 quarantine level of control and the treatment was safe to most of the cut flower species. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Prevalent Role of Gene Features in Determining Evolutionary Fates of Whole-Genome Duplication Duplicated Genes in Flowering Plants1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen-kai; Liu, Yun-long; Xia, En-hua; Gao, Li-zhi

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of genes and genomes after polyploidization has been the subject of extensive studies in evolutionary biology and plant sciences. While a significant number of duplicated genes are rapidly removed during a process called fractionation, which operates after the whole-genome duplication (WGD), another considerable number of genes are retained preferentially, leading to the phenomenon of biased gene retention. However, the evolutionary mechanisms underlying gene retention after WGD remain largely unknown. Through genome-wide analyses of sequence and functional data, we comprehensively investigated the relationships between gene features and the retention probability of duplicated genes after WGDs in six plant genomes, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), poplar (Populus trichocarpa), soybean (Glycine max), rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and maize (Zea mays). The results showed that multiple gene features were correlated with the probability of gene retention. Using a logistic regression model based on principal component analysis, we resolved evolutionary rate, structural complexity, and GC3 content as the three major contributors to gene retention. Cluster analysis of these features further classified retained genes into three distinct groups in terms of gene features and evolutionary behaviors. Type I genes are more prone to be selected by dosage balance; type II genes are possibly subject to subfunctionalization; and type III genes may serve as potential targets for neofunctionalization. This study highlights that gene features are able to act jointly as primary forces when determining the retention and evolution of WGD-derived duplicated genes in flowering plants. These findings thus may help to provide a resolution to the debate on different evolutionary models of gene fates after WGDs. PMID:23396833

  15. Controlled synthesis and characterization of hollow flower-like silver nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eid KAM

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Kamel AM Eid, Hassan ME AzzazyNovel Diagnostics and Therapeutics Group, Yousef Jameel Science and Technology Research Center, School of Sciences and Engineering, The American University in Cairo, New Cairo, EgyptBackground: The synthesis of anisotropic silver nanoparticles is a time-consuming process and involves the use of expensive toxic chemicals and specialized laboratory equipment. The presence of toxic chemicals in the prepared anisotropic silver nanostructures hindered their medical application. The authors have developed a fast and inexpensive method for the synthesis of three-dimensional hollow flower-like silver nanostructures without the use of toxic chemicals.Methods: In this method, silver nitrate was reduced using dextrose in presence of trisodium citrate as a capping agent. Sodium hydroxide was added to enhance reduction efficacy of dextrose and reduce time of synthesis. The effects of all four agents on the shape and size of silver nanostructures were investigated.Results: Robust hollow flower-like silver nanostructures were successfully synthesized and ranged in size from 0.2 µm to 5.0 µm with surface area between 25–240 m2/g. Changing the concentration of silver nitrate, dextrose, sodium hydroxide, and trisodium citrate affected the size and shape of the synthesized structures, while changing temperature had no effect.Conclusion: The proposed method is simple, safe, and allows controlled synthesis of anisotropic silver nanostructures, which may represent promising tools as effective antimicrobial agents and for in vitro diagnostics. The synthesized hollow nanostructures may be used for enhanced drug encapsulation and sustained release.Keywords: silver nanoparticles, 3D hollow, flower-like, green synthesis

  16. Comprehensive Cloning of Prunus mume Dormancy Associated MADS-Box Genes and Their Response in Flower Bud Development and Dormancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dormancy Associated MADS-box genes are SVP/MADs-box members and supposed to play crucial roles in plant dormancy of perennial species. In Prunus mume, PmDAM6 has been previously identified to induce plant dormancy. In the current study, six PmDAMs were cloned in P. mume and functionally analyzed in yeast and tobacco to detect the roles of the genes paralogous to PmDAM6. The expression patterns together with sequence similarities indicate that PmDAMs are divided into two sub-clades within SVP group. Moreover, PmDAMs are verified to take part in the development of different plant organs, specifically the flower buds, in some intricate patterns. Furthermore, the PmDAM proteins are found to have special functions by forming corresponding protein complex during the development of flower bud and induction of dormancy. In particular, when PmDAM1 dominating in flower bud in the warm months, the protein complexes are consisted of PmDAM1 itself or with PmDAM2. With the decrease temperatures in the following months, PmDAM6 was found to be highly expressed and gradually changed the complex structure to PmDAM6-protein complex due to strong binding tendencies with PmDAM1 and PmDAM3. Finally, the homodimers of PmDAM6 prevailed to induce the dormancy. The results obtained in the current study highlight the functions of PmDAMs in the tissue development and dormancy, which provide available suggestions for further explorations of protein-complex functions in association with bud growth and dormancy.

  17. Gene Coexpression Analysis Reveals Complex Metabolism of the Monoterpene Alcohol Linalool in Arabidopsis Flowers[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginglinger, Jean-François; Boachon, Benoit; Höfer, René; Paetz, Christian; Köllner, Tobias G.; Miesch, Laurence; Lugan, Raphael; Baltenweck, Raymonde; Mutterer, Jérôme; Ullmann, Pascaline; Beran, Franziska; Claudel, Patricia; Verstappen, Francel; Fischer, Marc J.C.; Karst, Francis; Bouwmeester, Harro; Miesch, Michel; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Ehlting, Jürgen; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle

    2013-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 family encompasses the largest family of enzymes in plant metabolism, and the functions of many of its members in Arabidopsis thaliana are still unknown. Gene coexpression analysis pointed to two P450s that were coexpressed with two monoterpene synthases in flowers and were thus predicted to be involved in monoterpenoid metabolism. We show that all four selected genes, the two terpene synthases (TPS10 and TPS14) and the two cytochrome P450s (CYP71B31 and CYP76C3), are simultaneously expressed at anthesis, mainly in upper anther filaments and in petals. Upon transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana, the TPS enzymes colocalize in vesicular structures associated with the plastid surface, whereas the P450 proteins were detected in the endoplasmic reticulum. Whether they were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae or in N. benthamiana, the TPS enzymes formed two different enantiomers of linalool: (−)-(R)-linalool for TPS10 and (+)-(S)-linalool for TPS14. Both P450 enzymes metabolize the two linalool enantiomers to form different but overlapping sets of hydroxylated or epoxidized products. These oxygenated products are not emitted into the floral headspace, but accumulate in floral tissues as further converted or conjugated metabolites. This work reveals complex linalool metabolism in Arabidopsis flowers, the ecological role of which remains to be determined. PMID:24285789

  18. Evolution of blue-flowered species of genus Linum based on high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsheva, Nadezhda L; Melnikova, Nataliya V; Kirov, Ilya V; Speranskaya, Anna S; Krinitsina, Anastasia A; Dmitriev, Alexey A; Belenikin, Maxim S; Krasnov, George S; Lakunina, Valentina A; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V; Rozhmina, Tatiana A; Samatadze, Tatiana E; Yurkevich, Olga Yu; Zoshchuk, Svyatoslav A; Amosova, Аlexandra V; Kudryavtseva, Anna V; Muravenko, Olga V

    2017-12-28

    The species relationships within the genus Linum have already been studied several times by means of different molecular and phylogenetic approaches. Nevertheless, a number of ambiguities in phylogeny of Linum still remain unresolved. In particular, the species relationships within the sections Stellerolinum and Dasylinum need further clarification. Also, the question of independence of the species of the section Adenolinum still remains unanswered. Moreover, the relationships of L. narbonense and other species of the section Linum require further clarification. Additionally, the origin of tetraploid species of the section Linum (2n = 30) including the cultivated species L. usitatissimum has not been explored. The present study examines the phylogeny of blue-flowered species of Linum by comparisons of 5S rRNA gene sequences as well as ITS1 and ITS2 sequences of 35S rRNA genes. High-throughput sequencing has been used for analysis of multicopy rRNA gene families. In addition to the molecular phylogenetic analysis, the number and chromosomal localization of 5S and 35S rDNA sites has been determined by FISH. Our findings confirm that L. stelleroides forms a basal branch from the clade of blue-flowered flaxes which is independent of the branch formed by species of the sect. Dasylinum. The current molecular phylogenetic approaches, the cytogenetic analysis as well as different genomic DNA fingerprinting methods applied previously did not discriminate certain species within the sect. Adenolinum. The allotetraploid cultivated species L. usitatissimum and its wild ancestor L. angustifolium (2n = 30) could originate either as the result of hybridization of two diploid species (2n = 16) related to the modern L. gandiflorum and L. decumbens, or hybridization of a diploid species (2n = 16) and a diploid ancestor of modern L. narbonense (2n = 14). High-throughput sequencing of multicopy rRNA gene families allowed us to make several adjustments to the

  19. Flower colour modification of chrysanthemum by suppression of F3'H and overexpression of the exogenous Senecio cruentus F3'5'H gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang He

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × morifolium is one of the most important ornamental plants in the world. They are typically used as cut flowers or potted plants. Chrysanthemum can exhibit red, purple, pink, yellow and white flowers, but lack bright red and blue flowers. In this study, we identified two chrysanthemum cultivars, C × morifolium 'LPi' and C × morifolium 'LPu', that only accumulate flavonoids in their ligulate flowers. Next, we isolated seven anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, namely CmCHS, CmF3H, CmF3'H, CmDFR, CmANS, CmCHI and Cm3GT in these cultivars. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses showed that CmF3'H was the most important enzyme required for cyanidin biosynthsis. To rebuild the delphinidin pathway, we downregulated CmF3'H using RNAi and overexpressed the Senecio cruentus F3'5'H (PCFH gene in chrysanthemum. The resultant chrysanthemum demonstrated a significantly increased content of cyanidin and brighter red flower petals but did not accumulate delphinidin. These results indicated that CmF3'H in chrysanthemum is important for anthocyanin accumulation, and Senecio cruentus F3'5'H only exhibited F3'H activity in chrysanthemum but did not rebuild the delphinidin pathway to form blue flower chrysanthemum.

  20. Flower colour modification of chrysanthemum by suppression of F3'H and overexpression of the exogenous Senecio cruentus F3'5'H gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huang; Ke, Hu; Keting, Han; Qiaoyan, Xiang; Silan, Dai

    2013-01-01

    Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × morifolium) is one of the most important ornamental plants in the world. They are typically used as cut flowers or potted plants. Chrysanthemum can exhibit red, purple, pink, yellow and white flowers, but lack bright red and blue flowers. In this study, we identified two chrysanthemum cultivars, C × morifolium 'LPi' and C × morifolium 'LPu', that only accumulate flavonoids in their ligulate flowers. Next, we isolated seven anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, namely CmCHS, CmF3H, CmF3'H, CmDFR, CmANS, CmCHI and Cm3GT in these cultivars. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses showed that CmF3'H was the most important enzyme required for cyanidin biosynthsis. To rebuild the delphinidin pathway, we downregulated CmF3'H using RNAi and overexpressed the Senecio cruentus F3'5'H (PCFH) gene in chrysanthemum. The resultant chrysanthemum demonstrated a significantly increased content of cyanidin and brighter red flower petals but did not accumulate delphinidin. These results indicated that CmF3'H in chrysanthemum is important for anthocyanin accumulation, and Senecio cruentus F3'5'H only exhibited F3'H activity in chrysanthemum but did not rebuild the delphinidin pathway to form blue flower chrysanthemum.

  1. Flowering T Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adansonia digitata L. ( The Baobab Tree) of Bombacaceae is a tree with swollen trunk that attains a dia. of 10m. Leaves are digitately compound with leaflets up to 18cm. long. Flowers are large, solitary, waxy white, and open at dusk. They open in 30 seconds and are bat pollinated. Stamens are many. Fruit is about 30 cm ...

  2. The influence of flower morphology and nectar quality on the longevity of a parasitoid biological control agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vattala, H.D.; Wratten, S.D.; Phillips, C.B.; Wäckers, F.L.

    2006-01-01

    Conservation biological control aims to enhance the efficacy of arthropod biological control agents, such as parasitoids, partly by providing them with access to floral nectar. However, the suitability of a flower species for providing nectar to a parasitoid is dependent on the morphologies of the

  3. Overexpression of the kiwifruit SVP3 gene affects reproductive development and suppresses anthocyanin biosynthesis in petals, but has no effect on vegetative growth, dormancy, or flowering time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rongmei; Wang, Tianchi; McGie, Tony; Voogd, Charlotte; Allan, Andrew C; Hellens, Roger P; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2014-09-01

    SVP-like MADS domain transcription factors have been shown to regulate flowering time and both inflorescence and flower development in annual plants, while having effects on growth cessation and terminal bud formation in perennial species. Previously, four SVP genes were described in woody perennial vine kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.), with possible distinct roles in bud dormancy and flowering. Kiwifruit SVP3 transcript was confined to vegetative tissues and acted as a repressor of flowering as it was able to rescue the Arabidopsis svp41 mutant. To characterize kiwifruit SVP3 further, ectopic expression in kiwifruit species was performed. Ectopic expression of SVP3 in A. deliciosa did not affect general plant growth or the duration of endodormancy. Ectopic expression of SVP3 in A. eriantha also resulted in plants with normal vegetative growth, bud break, and flowering time. However, significantly prolonged and abnormal flower, fruit, and seed development were observed, arising from SVP3 interactions with kiwifruit floral homeotic MADS-domain proteins. Petal pigmentation was reduced as a result of SVP3-mediated interference with transcription of the kiwifruit flower tissue-specific R2R3 MYB regulator, MYB110a, and the gene encoding the key anthocyanin biosynthetic step, F3GT1. Constitutive expression of SVP3 had a similar impact on reproductive development in transgenic tobacco. The flowering time was not affected in day-neutral and photoperiod-responsive Nicotiana tabacum cultivars, but anthesis and seed germination were significantly delayed. The accumulation of anthocyanin in petals was reduced and the same underlying mechanism of R2R3 MYB NtAN2 transcript reduction was demonstrated. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. Control of flowering and cell fate by LIF2, an RNA binding partner of the polycomb complex component LHP1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Latrasse

    Full Text Available Polycomb Repressive Complexes (PRC modulate the epigenetic status of key cell fate and developmental regulators in eukaryotes. The chromo domain protein like heterochromatin protein1 (LHP1 is a subunit of a plant PRC1-like complex in Arabidopsis thaliana and recognizes histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation, a silencing epigenetic mark deposited by the PRC2 complex. We have identified and studied an LHP1-Interacting Factor2 (LIF2. LIF2 protein has RNA recognition motifs and belongs to the large hnRNP protein family, which is involved in RNA processing. LIF2 interacts in vivo, in the cell nucleus, with the LHP1 chromo shadow domain. Expression of LIF2 was detected predominantly in vascular and meristematic tissues. Loss-of-function of LIF2 modifies flowering time, floral developmental homeostasis and gynoecium growth determination. lif2 ovaries have indeterminate growth and produce ectopic inflorescences with severely affected flowers showing proliferation of ectopic stigmatic papillae and ovules in short-day conditions. To look at how LIF2 acts relative to LHP1, we conducted transcriptome analyses in lif2 and lhp1 and identified a common set of deregulated genes, which showed significant enrichment in stress-response genes. By comparing expression of LHP1 targets in lif2, lhp1 and lif2 lhp1 mutants we showed that LIF2 can either antagonize or act with LHP1. Interestingly, repression of the FLC floral transcriptional regulator in lif2 mutant is accompanied by an increase in H3K27 trimethylation at the locus, without any change in LHP1 binding, suggesting that LHP1 is targeted independently from LIF2 and that LHP1 binding does not strictly correlate with gene expression. LIF2, involved in cell identity and cell fate decision, may modulate the activity of LHP1 at specific loci, during specific developmental windows or in response to environmental cues that control cell fate determination. These results highlight a novel link between plant RNA

  5. Dlf1, a WRKY transcription factor, is involved in the control of flowering time and plant height in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhui Cai

    Full Text Available Flowering time and plant height are important agronomic traits for crop production. In this study, we characterized a semi-dwarf and late flowering (dlf1 mutation of rice that has pleiotropic effects on these traits. The dlf1 mutation was caused by a T-DNA insertion and the cloned Dlf1 gene was found to encode a WRKY transcription factor (OsWRKY11. The dlf1 mutant contains a T-DNA insertion at the promoter region, leading to enhanced accumulation of Dlf1 transcripts, resulting in a semidominant mutation. The dlf1 mutation suppressed the transcription of Ehd2/RID1/OsId1 and its downstream flowering-time genes including Hd1, Ehd1 and Hd3a under both long-day (LD and short-day (SD conditions. Knock-down of Dlf1 expression exhibited early flowering at LD condition related to the wild-type plants. Accumulation of Dlf1 mRNA was observed in most tissues, and two splicing forms of Dlf1 cDNAs were obtained (OsWRKY11.1 and OsWRKY11.2. These two proteins showed transactivation activity in yeast cells. Dlf1 protein was found to be localized in the nucleus. Enhanced expression of OsWRKY11.2 or its 5' truncated gene showed similar phenotypes to the dlf1 mutant, suggesting that it might function as a negative regulator. We conclude that Dlf1 acts as a transactivator to downregulate Ehd2/RID1/OsId1 in the signal transduction pathway of flowering and plays an important role in the regulation of plant height in rice.

  6. Effect of Ppd-1 on the expression of flowering-time genes in vegetative and reproductive growth stages of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Satoshi; Shimada, Sanae; Murai, Koji

    2012-01-01

    The photoperiod sensitivity gene Ppd-1 influences the timing of flowering in temperate cereals such as wheat and barley. The effect of Ppd-1 on the expression of flowering-time genes was assessed by examining the expression levels of the vernalization genes VRN1 and VRN3/WFT and of two CONSTANS-like genes, WCO1 and TaHd1, during vegetative and reproductive growth stages. Two near-isogenic lines (NILs) were used: the first carried a photoperiod-insensitive allele of Ppd-1 (Ppd-1a-NIL), the other, a photoperiod-sensitive allele (Ppd-1b-NIL). We found that the expression pattern of VRN1 was similar in Ppd-1a-NIL and Ppd-1b-NIL plants, suggesting that VRN1 is not regulated by Ppd-1. Under long day conditions, VRN3/WFT showed similar expression patterns in Ppd-1a-NIL and Ppd-1b-NIL plants. However, expression differed greatly under short day conditions: VRN3/WFT expression was detected in Ppd-1a-NIL plants at the 5-leaf stage when they transited from vegetative to reproductive growth; very low expression was present in Ppd-1b-NIL throughout all growth stages. Thus, the Ppd-1b allele acts to down-regulate VRN3/WFT under short day conditions. WCO1 showed high levels of expression at the vegetative stage, which decreased during the phase transition and reproductive growth stages in both Ppd-1a-NIL and Ppd-1b-NIL plants under short day conditions. By contrast to WCO1, TaHd1 was up-regulated during the reproductive stage. The level of TaHd1 expression was much higher in Ppd-1a-NIL than the Ppd-1b-NIL plants, suggesting that the Ppd-1b allele down-regulates TaHd1 under short day conditions. The present study indicates that down-regulation of VRN3/WFT together with TaHd1 is the cause of late flowering in the Ppd-1b-NIL plants under short day conditions.

  7. Analysis of promoter activity reveals that GmFTL2 expression differs from that of the known Flowering Locus T genes in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of flowering is one of the key issues in crop yield. The Flowering Locus T (FT gene is a well-known florigen, which integrates various signals from multiple flowering-regulation pathways to initiate flowering. We previously reported that there are at least six FT genes (GmFTL1–6 in soybean displaying flowering activity. However, the individual functions of genes GmFTL1–6 remain to be identified. In this study, we cloned the GmFTL2 promoter (GmFTLpro from soybean (Glycine max cultivar Tianlong 1 and analyzed its motifs bioinformatically and its expression patterns using both a transgenic approach and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR. In GmFTLpro::GUS transgenic lines, GUS signals were enriched in cotyledons, hypocotyledons, pollen, embryos, and root tips in a photoperiod-independent manner. qRT-PCR confirmed the GUS reporter results. Our results suggest that GmFTL2 expression is regulated by developmental and tissue-specific clues and plays roles in seedling establishment and the development of microgametophytes, embryos, and roots.

  8. Micrometeorological and Thermal Control of Frost Flower Growth and Decay on Young Sea Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galley, Ryan J.; Else, Brent G. T.; Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier

    2015-01-01

    -wave radiation balance at the surface. The observed crystal habits of the frost flowers were long needles, betraying their origin from the vapour phase at temperatures between -20°C and -30°C. After a night of growth, frost flowers decayed associated with increased solar radiation, a net surface radiation...... and the physical and thermal properties of the sea ice and atmosphere that form, decay and destroy frost flowers on young sea ice. Frost flower formation occurred during a high-pressure system that caused air temperatures to drop to -30°C, with relative humidity of 70% (an under saturated atmosphere), and very...

  9. Evolution of floral display in Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae): direct and correlated responses to selection on flower size and number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, A C; Barrett, S C

    2000-10-01

    Trade-offs between flower size and number seem likely to influence the evolution of floral display and are an important assumption of several theoretical models. We assessed floral trade-offs by imposing two generations of selection on flower size and number in a greenhouse population of bee-pollinated Eichhornia paniculata. We established a control line and two replicate selection lines of 100 plants each for large flowers (S+), small flowers (S-), and many flowers per inflorescence (N+). We compared realized heritabilities and genetic correlations with estimates based on restricted-maximum-likelihood (REML) analysis of pedigrees. Responses to selection confirmed REML heritability estimates (flower size, h2 = 0.48; daily flower number, h2 = 0.10; total flower number, h2 = 0.23). Differences in nectar, pollen, and ovule production between S+ and S- lines supported an overall divergence in investment per flower. Both realized and REML estimates of the genetic correlation between daily and total flower number were r = 1.0. However, correlated responses to selection were inconsistent in their support of a trade-off. In both S- lines, correlated increases in flower number indicated a genetic correlation of r = -0.6 between flower size and number. In contrast, correlated responses in N+ and S+ lines were not significant, although flower size decreased in one N+ line. In addition, REML estimates of genetic correlations between flower size and number were positive, and did not differ from zero when variation in leaf area and age at first flowering were taken into account. These results likely reflect the combined effects of variation in genes controlling the resources available for flowering and genes with opposing effects on flower size and number. Our results suggest that the short-term evolution of floral display is not necessarily constrained by trade-offs between flower size and number, as is often assumed.

  10. Expression of paralogous SEP-, FUL-, AG- and STK-like MADS-box genes in wild-type and peloric Phalaenopsis flowers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eAcri-Nunes-Miranda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The diverse flowers of Orchidaceae are the result of several major morphological transitions, among them the most studied is the differentiation of the inner median tepal into the labellum, a perianth organ key in pollinator attraction. Type A peloria lacking stamens and with ectopic labella in place of inner lateral tepals are useful for testing models on the genes specifying these organs by comparing their patterns of expression between wild-type and peloric flowers. Previous studies focused on DEFICIENS and GLOBOSA-like MADS-box genes because of their conserved role in perianth and stamen development. The ‘orchid code’ model summarizes this work and shows in Orchidaceae there are four paralogous lineages of DEFICIENS/AP3-like genes differentially expressed in each floral whorl. Experimental tests of this model showed the conserved, higher expression of genes from two specific DEF-like gene lineages is associated with labellum development. The present study tests whether eight MADS-box candidate SEP-, FUL-, AG- and STK-like genes have been specifically duplicated in the Orchidaceae and are also differentially expressed in association with the distinct flower organs of Phalaenopsis hyb. Athens. The gene trees indicate orchid-specific duplications. In a way analogous to what is observed in labellum-specific DEF-like genes, a two-fold increase in the expression of SEP3-like gene PhaMADS7 was measured in the labellum-like inner lateral tepals of peloric flowers. The overlap between SEP3-like and DEF-like genes suggests both are associated with labellum specification and similar positional cues determine their domains of expression. In contrast, the uniform messenger levels of FUL-like genes suggest they are involved in the development of all organs and their expression in the ovary suggests cell differentiation starts before pollination. As previously reported AG-like and STK-like are exclusively expressed in gynostemium and ovary, however no

  11. Expression conservation within the circadian clock of a monocot: natural variation at barley Ppd-H1 affects circadian expression of flowering time genes, but not clock orthologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoli, Chiara; Shtaya, Munqez; Davis, Seth J; von Korff, Maria

    2012-06-21

    The circadian clock is an endogenous mechanism that coordinates biological processes with daily changes in the environment. In plants, circadian rhythms contribute to both agricultural productivity and evolutionary fitness. In barley, the photoperiod response regulator and flowering-time gene Ppd-H1 is orthologous to the Arabidopsis core-clock gene PRR7. However, relatively little is known about the role of Ppd-H1 and other components of the circadian clock in temperate crop species. In this study, we identified barley clock orthologs and tested the effects of natural genetic variation at Ppd-H1 on diurnal and circadian expression of clock and output genes from the photoperiod-response pathway. Barley clock orthologs HvCCA1, HvGI, HvPRR1, HvPRR37 (Ppd-H1), HvPRR73, HvPRR59 and HvPRR95 showed a high level of sequence similarity and conservation of diurnal and circadian expression patterns, when compared to Arabidopsis. The natural mutation at Ppd-H1 did not affect diurnal or circadian cycling of barley clock genes. However, the Ppd-H1 mutant was found to be arrhythmic under free-running conditions for the photoperiod-response genes HvCO1, HvCO2, and the MADS-box transcription factor and vernalization responsive gene Vrn-H1. We suggest that the described eudicot clock is largely conserved in the monocot barley. However, genetic differentiation within gene families and differences in the function of Ppd-H1 suggest evolutionary modification in the angiosperm clock. Our data indicates that natural variation at Ppd-H1 does not affect the expression level of clock genes, but controls photoperiodic output genes. Circadian control of Vrn-H1 in barley suggests that this vernalization responsive gene is also controlled by the photoperiod-response pathway. Structural and functional characterization of the barley circadian clock will set the basis for future studies of the adaptive significance of the circadian clock in Triticeae species.

  12. Isolation and analysis of differentially expressed genes between male fertile and male sterile flower buds of marigold (tagetes erecta L. )

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Z.; Tang, N.

    2016-01-01

    Male sterility is an important approach in utilization of heterosis in marigold (Tagetes erecta L.). Study on the mechanism of male sterility is very important, especially in mining of fertility-related genes. Three suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries were constructed between male fertile and male sterile flower buds of marigold. Out of 1920 clones, five hundred and six positive clones were verified by dot-blot hybridization. Two hundred and eighty-six non-redundant ESTs were obtained of which, one hundred and ninety-two ESTs corresponding to proteins with known functions. Through GO function annotation, fifteen candidate genes that may have a function in male sterility were identified. These genes involved in hormone pathways and cell cycles as well as encoded transcription factors and protein kinases. Further more, five of them were verified by quantitative real-time PCR, they were CDKB2;1 functioned in cell division, AMS involved in anther wall tapetum development, LAP3 played a role in pollen exine formation, ACOS5 and CYP703A2 involved in sporopollenin biosynthetic process. This is the first study that constructing cDNA libraries containing differentially expressed gene pools associate with male fertility using SSH strategy, and provides a first step to understand the mechanism of male reproductive development in marigold. (author)

  13. Capsicum annuum S (CaS) promotes reproductive transition and is required for flower formation in pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Oded; Borovsky, Yelena; David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Paran, Ilan

    2014-05-01

    The genetic control of the transition to flowering has mainly been studied in model species, while few data are available in crop species such as pepper (Capsicum spp.). To elucidate the genetic control of the transition to flowering in pepper, mutants that lack flowers were isolated and characterized. Genetic mapping and sequencing allowed the identification of the gene disrupted in the mutants. Double mutants and expression analyses were used to characterize the relationships between the mutated gene and other genes controlling the transition to flowering and flower differentiation. The mutants were characterized by a delay in the initiation of sympodial growth, a delay in the termination of sympodial meristems and complete inhibition of flower formation. Capsicum annuum S (CaS), the pepper (Capsicum annuum) ortholog of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) COMPOUND INFLORESCENCE and petunia (Petunia hybrida) EVERGREEN, was found to govern the mutant phenotype. CaS is required for the activity of the flower meristem identity gene Ca-ANANTHA and does not affect the expression of CaLEAFY. CaS is epistatic over other genes controlling the transition to flowering with respect to flower formation. Comparative homologous mutants in the Solanaceae indicate that CaS has uniquely evolved to have a critical role in flower formation, while its role in meristem maturation is conserved in pepper, tomato and petunia. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. The introns in FLOWERING LOCUS T-LIKE (FTL) genes are useful markers for tracking paternity in tetraploid Chenopodium quinoa Willd

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štorchová, Helena; Drabešová, Jana; Cháb, David; Kolář, Jan; Jellen, E.N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 6 (2015), s. 913-925 ISSN 0925-9864 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1359 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Ancestry * Chenopodium quinoa * FLOWERING LOCUS T-LIKE (FTL) genes Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2015

  15. Transcriptome analysis of an mvp mutant reveals important changes in global gene expression and a role for methyl jasmonate in vernalization and flowering in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Amadou Oury; Agharbaoui, Zahra; Badawi, Mohamed A; Ali-Benali, Mohamed Ali; Moheb, Amira; Houde, Mario; Sarhan, Fathey

    2014-06-01

    The einkorn wheat mutant mvp-1 (maintained vegetative phase 1) has a non-flowering phenotype caused by deletions including, but not limited to, the genes CYS, PHYC, and VRN1. However, the impact of these deletions on global gene expression is still unknown. Transcriptome analysis showed that these deletions caused the upregulation of several pathogenesis-related (PR) and jasmonate-responsive genes. These results suggest that jasmonates may be involved in flowering and vernalization in wheat. To test this hypothesis, jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) content in mvp and wild-type plants was measured. The content of JA was comparable in all plants, whereas the content of MeJA was higher by more than 6-fold in mvp plants. The accumulation of MeJA was also observed in vernalization-sensitive hexaploid winter wheat during cold exposure. This accumulation declined rapidly once plants were deacclimated under floral-inductive growth conditions. This suggests that MeJA may have a role in floral transition. To confirm this result, we treated vernalization-insensitive spring wheat with MeJA. The treatment delayed flowering with significant downregulation of both TaVRN1 and TaFT1 genes. These data suggest a role for MeJA in modulating vernalization and flowering time in wheat. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. Cloning and functional analysis of the promoters that upregulate carotenogenic gene expression during flower development in Gentiana lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changfu; Yang, Qingjie; Ni, Xiuzhen; Bai, Chao; Sheng, Yanmin; Shi, Lianxuan; Capell, Teresa; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Over the last two decades, many carotenogenic genes have been cloned and used to generate metabolically engineered plants producing higher levels of carotenoids. However, comparatively little is known about the regulation of endogenous carotenogenic genes in higher plants, and this restricts our ability to predict how engineered plants will perform in terms of carotenoid content and composition. During petal development in the Great Yellow Gentian (Gentiana lutea), carotenoid accumulation, the formation of chromoplasts and the upregulation of several carotenogenic genes are temporally coordinated. We investigated the regulatory mechanisms responsible for this coordinated expression by isolating five G. lutea carotenogenic gene (GlPDS, GlZDS, GlLYCB, GlBCH and GlLYCE) promoters by inverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Each promoter was sufficient for developmentally regulated expression of the gusA reporter gene following transient expression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom). Interestingly, the GlLYCB and GlBCH promoters drove high levels of gusA expression in chromoplast-containing mature green fruits, but low levels in chloroplast-containing immature green fruits, indicating a strict correlation between promoter activity, tomato fruit development and chromoplast differentiation. As well as core promoter elements such as TATA and CAAT boxes, all five promoters together with previously characterized GlZEP promoter contained three common cis-regulatory motifs involved in the response to methyl jasmonate (CGTCA) and ethylene (ATCTA), and required for endosperm expression (Skn-1_motif, GTCAT). These shared common cis-acting elements may represent binding sites for transcription factors responsible for co-regulation. Our data provide insight into the regulatory basis of the coordinated upregulation of carotenogenic gene expression during flower development in G. lutea. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  17. Blob Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project called blob flowers in which fifth-grade students created pictures of flowers using watercolor and markers. Explains that the lesson incorporates ideas from art and science. Discusses in detail how the students created their flowers. (CMK)

  18. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Flowering Trees. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (INDIAN TREE OF. HEAVEN) of Simaroubaceae is a lofty tree with large pinnately compound alternate leaves, which are ... inflorescences, unisexual and greenish-yellow. Fruits are winged, wings many-nerved. Wood is used in making match sticks. 1. Male flower; 2. Female flower.

  19. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Flowering Trees. Gliricidia sepium(Jacq.) Kunta ex Walp. (Quickstick) of Fabaceae is a small deciduous tree with. Pinnately compound leaves. Flower are prroduced in large number in early summer on terminal racemes. They are attractive, pinkish-white and typically like bean flowers. Fruit is a few-seeded flat pod.

  20. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 112-112 Flowering Trees. Zizyphus jujuba Lam. of Rhamnaceae · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 9 September 2003 pp 97-97 Flowering Trees. Moringa oleifera · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 10 October 2003 pp 100-100 Flowering Trees.

  1. ACC synthase genes are polymorphic in watermelon (Citrullus spp.) and differentially expressed in flowers and in response to auxin and gibberellin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman-Minkov, Ayelet; Levi, Amnon; Wolf, Shmuel; Trebitsh, Tova

    2008-05-01

    The flowering pattern of watermelon species (Citrullus spp.) is either monoecious or andromonoecious. Ethylene is known to play a critical role in floral sex determination of cucurbit species. In contrast to its feminizing effect in cucumber and melon, in watermelon ethylene promotes male flower development. In cucumber, the rate-limiting enzyme of ethylene biosynthesis, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS), regulates unisexual flower development. To investigate the role of ethylene in flower development, we isolated four genomic sequences of ACS from watermelon (CitACS1-4). Both CitACS1 and CitACS3 are expressed in floral tissue. CitACS1 is also expressed in vegetative tissue and it may be involved in cell growth processes. Expression of CitACS1 is up-regulated by exogenous treatment with auxin, gibberellin or ACC, the immediate precursor of ethylene. No discernible differential floral sex-dependent expression pattern was observed for this gene. The CitACS3 gene is expressed in open flowers and in young staminate floral buds (male or hermaphrodite), but not in female flowers. CitACS3 is also up-regulated by ACC, and is likely to be involved in ethylene-regulated anther development. The expression of CitACS2 was not detected in vegetative or reproductive organs but was up-regulated by auxin. CitACS4 transcript was not detected under our experimental conditions. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequence tagged site (STS) marker analyses of the CitACS genes showed polymorphism among and within the different Citrullus groups, including watermelon cultivars, Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus, the central subspecies Citrullus lanatus var. citroides, and the desert species Citrullus colocynthis (L).

  2. QTL mapping and molecular characterization of the classical D locus controlling seed and flower color in Linum usitatissimum (flax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshan, Gurudatt Pavagada; Kulkarni, Manoj; Akhov, Leonid; Ashe, Paula; Shaterian, Hamid; Cloutier, Sylvie; Rowland, Gordon; Wei, Yangdou; Selvaraj, Gopalan

    2017-11-16

    The flowers of flax (linseed) are blue-hued, ephemeral and self-pollinating, and the seeds are typically brown. A century-old interest in natural yellow seed variants and a historical model point to recessive alleles in B1, D and G loci being responsible, but the functional aspects had remained unknown. Here, we characterized the "D" locus by quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and identified a FLAVONOID 3'5' HYDROXYLASE (F3'5'H) gene therein. It does not belong to the F3'5'H clade, but resembles biochemically characterized F3'Hs (flavonoid 3' hydroxylase) but without F3'H activity. The genome lacks other F3'H or F3'H-like genes. The apparent neo-functionalization from F3'H is associated with a Thr 498  → Ser 498 substitution in a substrate recognition site (SRS). The yellow seed and white flower phenotypes of the classical d mutation was found to be due to one nucleotide deletion that would truncate the deduced product and remove three of the six potential SRS, negatively impacting delphinidin synthesis. Delphinidin is sporadic in angiosperms, and flax has no known pollination syndrome(s) with functional pollinator group(s) that are attracted to blue flowers, raising questions on the acquisition of F3'5'H. The appearance of d allele is suggestive of the beginning of the loss of F3'5'H in this species.

  3. A genomic approach to elucidating grass flower development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dornelas Marcelo C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In sugarcane (Saccharum sp as with other species of grass, at a certain moment of its life cycle the vegetative meristem is converted into an inflorescence meristem which has at least two distinct inflorescence branching steps before the spikelet meristem terminates in the production of a flower (floret. In model dicotyledonous species such successive conversions of meristem identities and the concentric arrangement of floral organs in specific whorls have both been shown to be genetically controlled. Using data from the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (EST Project (SUCEST database, we have identified all sugarcane proteins and genes putatively involved in reproductive meristem and flower development. Sequence comparisons of known flower-related genes have uncovered conserved evolutionary pathways of flower development and flower pattern formation between dicotyledons and monocotyledons, such as some grass species. We have paid special attention to the analysis of the MADS-box multigene family of transcription factors that together with the APETALA2 (AP2 family are the key elements of the transcriptional networks controlling plant reproductive development. Considerations on the evolutionary developmental genetics of grass flowers and their relation to the ABC homeotic gene activity model of flower development are also presented.

  4. The Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme Gene Family in Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.: Genome-Wide Identification and Gene Expression during Flower Induction and Abiotic Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengwei Jue

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s or UBC enzymes play vital roles in plant development and combat various biotic and abiotic stresses. Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. is an important fruit tree in the subtropical region of Southeast Asia and Australia; however the characteristics of the UBC gene family in longan remain unknown. In this study, 40 D. longan UBC genes (DlUBCs, which were classified into 15 groups, were identified in the longan genome. An RNA-seq based analysis showed that DlUBCs showed distinct expression in nine longan tissues. Genome-wide RNA-seq and qRT-PCR based gene expression analysis revealed that 11 DlUBCs were up- or down-regualted in the cultivar “Sijimi” (SJ, suggesting that these genes may be important for flower induction. Finally, qRT-PCR analysis showed that the mRNA levels of 13 DlUBCs under SA (salicylic acid treatment, seven under methyl jasmonate (MeJA treatment, 27 under heat treatment, and 16 under cold treatment were up- or down-regulated, respectively. These results indicated that the DlUBCs may play important roles in responses to abiotic stresses. Taken together, our results provide a comprehensive insight into the organization, phylogeny, and expression patterns of the longan UBC genes, and therefore contribute to the greater understanding of their biological roles in longan.

  5. Repression of Lateral Organ Boundary Genes by PENNYWISE and POUND-FOOLISH Is Essential for Meristem Maintenance and Flowering in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Madiha; Ragni, Laura; Tabb, Paul; Salasini, Brenda C; Chatfield, Steven; Datla, Raju; Lock, John; Kuai, Xiahezi; Després, Charles; Proveniers, Marcel; Yongguo, Cao; Xiang, Daoquan; Morin, Halima; Rullière, Jean-Pierre; Citerne, Sylvie; Hepworth, Shelley R; Pautot, Véronique

    2015-11-01

    In the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), endogenous and environmental signals acting on the shoot apical meristem cause acquisition of inflorescence meristem fate. This results in changed patterns of aerial development seen as the transition from making leaves to the production of flowers separated by elongated internodes. Two related BEL1-like homeobox genes, PENNYWISE (PNY) and POUND-FOOLISH (PNF), fulfill this transition. Loss of function of these genes impairs stem cell maintenance and blocks internode elongation and flowering. We show here that pny pnf apices misexpress lateral organ boundary genes BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1/2 (BOP1/2) and KNOTTED-LIKE FROM ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA6 (KNAT6) together with ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX GENE1 (ATH1). Inactivation of genes in this module fully rescues pny pnf defects. We further show that BOP1 directly activates ATH1, whereas activation of KNAT6 is indirect. The pny pnf restoration correlates with renewed accumulation of transcripts conferring floral meristem identity, including FD, SQUAMOSA PROMOTER-BINDING PROTEIN LIKE genes, LEAFY, and APETALA1. To gain insight into how this module blocks flowering, we analyzed the transcriptome of BOP1-overexpressing plants. Our data suggest a central role for the microRNA156-SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE-microRNA172 module in integrating stress signals conferred in part by promotion of jasmonic acid biosynthesis. These data reveal a potential mechanism by which repression of lateral organ boundary genes by PNY-PNF is essential for flowering. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Flowering Without Vernalization in Winter Canola (Brassica napus: use of Virus-Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS to accelerate genetic gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Álvarez-Venegas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ciclos de reproducción cortos y la oportunidad de incrementar la ganancia genética, junto con el estudio de las bases moleculares de la vernalización, son áreas esenciales de investigación dentro de la biología de plantas. Varios métodos se han empleado para lograr el silenciamiento génico en plantas, pero ninguno reportado a la fecha para canola (Brassica napus, y en particular para inducir la floración sin vernalización en líneas de invierno a través del uso de secuencias sentido de DNA en vectores diseñados para el silenciamiento génico inducido por virus (VIGS. La presente investigación provee los métodos para transitoriamente regular a la baja, por medio de VIGS, genes de la vernalización en plantas anuales de invierno, específicamente la familia de genes de Flowering Locus C (FLC en canola de invierno (BnFLC1 a BnFLC5. La regulación a la baja de estos genes permite a las plantas anuales de invierno florecer sin vernalización y, consecuentemente, provee los medios para acelerar la ganancia genética. El sistema de silenciamiento propuesto puede ser utilizado para regular a la baja familias de genes, para determinar la función génica, y para inducir la floración sin la vernalización en líneas de invierno tanto del género Brassica como de muchos cultivos importantes de invierno.

  7. Expression of paralogous SEP-, FUL-, AG- and STK-like MADS-box genes in wild-type and peloric Phalaenopsis flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acri-Nunes-Miranda, Roberta; Mondragón-Palomino, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The diverse flowers of Orchidaceae are the result of several major morphological transitions, among them the most studied is the differentiation of the inner median tepal into the labellum, a perianth organ key in pollinator attraction. Type A peloria lacking stamens and with ectopic labella in place of inner lateral tepals are useful for testing models on the genes specifying these organs by comparing their patterns of expression between wild-type and peloric flowers. Previous studies focused on DEFICIENS- and GLOBOSA-like MADS-box genes because of their conserved role in perianth and stamen development. The "orchid code" model summarizes this work and shows in Orchidaceae there are four paralogous lineages of DEFICIENS/AP3-like genes differentially expressed in each floral whorl. Experimental tests of this model showed the conserved, higher expression of genes from two specific DEF-like gene lineages is associated with labellum development. The present study tests whether eight MADS-box candidate SEP-, FUL-, AG-, and STK-like genes have been specifically duplicated in the Orchidaceae and are also differentially expressed in association with the distinct flower organs of Phalaenopsis hyb. "Athens." The gene trees indicate orchid-specific duplications. In a way analogous to what is observed in labellum-specific DEF-like genes, a two-fold increase in the expression of SEP3-like gene PhaMADS7 was measured in the labellum-like inner lateral tepals of peloric flowers. The overlap between SEP3-like and DEF-like genes suggests both are associated with labellum specification and similar positional cues determine their domains of expression. In contrast, the uniform messenger levels of FUL-like genes suggest they are involved in the development of all organs and their expression in the ovary suggests cell differentiation starts before pollination. As previously reported AG-like and STK-like genes are exclusively expressed in gynostemium and ovary, however no evidence for

  8. Down-Regulation of Glycosyl Transferase Genes in Streptococcus Mutans by Punica Granatum L. Flower and Rhus Coriaria L. Fruit Water Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahid-Dastjerdi, Elahe; Monadi, Elham; Khalighi, Hamid Reza; Torshabi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    In our previous studies, we showed the inhibitory effects of Punica granatum L. flower and Rhus coriaria L. fruit water extracts on dental plaque accumulation by several bacteria, especially Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), on orthodontic wire by in-vitro assays. In this study, the anti-cariogenic properties of the extracts were evaluated by assessing their effects on expression of glycosyltransferase (gtf) genes, which are responsible for initial biofilm formation by S. mutans. In this study, the effect of herbal extracts on expression of gtfB, C (encoding enzymes that produce water-insoluble glucans) and D (encoding enzymes that produce water-soluble glucans) genes in S. mutans growing in planktonic state was evaluated quantitatively by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of understudied herbal water extracts significantly suppressed gtfB, C and D gene expression by 85.3 ± 7.5%, 33.3 ± 6.4% and 25 ± 14%, respectively for Punica granatum L. extract and 73.4 ± 7.3%, 93.8 ± 2.7% and 59.3 ± 9.8%, respectively for Rhus coriaria L. extract compared to the non-treated control group (P Punica granatum L. extract. These findings suggest that Punica granatum L. and especially Rhus coriaria L. maybe used as novel, natural antiplaque agents since they inhibit specific genes associated with bacterial biofilm formation without necessarily affecting the growth of oral bacteria.

  9. Flower development: open questions and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, Frank; Bowman, John L; Davies, Brendan; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Fletcher, Jennifer C; Franks, Robert G; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Gregis, Veronica; Ito, Toshiro; Jack, Thomas P; Jiao, Yuling; Kater, Martin M; Ma, Hong; Meyerowitz, Elliot M; Prunet, Nathanaël; Riechmann, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Almost three decades of genetic and molecular analyses have resulted in detailed insights into many of the processes that take place during flower development and in the identification of a large number of key regulatory genes that control these processes. Despite this impressive progress, many questions about how flower development is controlled in different angiosperm species remain unanswered. In this chapter, we discuss some of these open questions and the experimental strategies with which they could be addressed. Specifically, we focus on the areas of floral meristem development and patterning, floral organ specification and differentiation, as well as on the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolutionary changes that have led to the astounding variations in flower size and architecture among extant and extinct angiosperms.

  10. Preventive use of Bach flower Rescue Remedy in the control of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Margarida Maria de Carvalho; Costa, Francisco Eduardo de Carvalho; Gardona, Rodrigo Galvão Bueno; Araújo, Rochilan Godinho; Mundim, Fiorita Gonzales Lopes; Costa, Maria José de Carvalho

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of Bach flower Rescue Remedy on the control of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in rats. A randomized longitudinal experimental study. Eighteen Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of six animals each and orogastrically dosed with either 200 μl of water (group A, control), or 100 μl of water and 100 μl of Bach flower remedy (group B), or 200 μl of Bach flower remedy (group C) every 2 days, for 20 days. All animals were fed standard rat chow and water ad libitum. Urine volume, body weight, feces weight, and food intake were measured every 2 days. On day 20, tests of glycemia, hyperuricemia, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and total cholesterol were performed, and the anatomy and histopathology of the heart, liver and kidneys were evaluated. Data were analyzed using Tukey's test at a significance level of 5%. No significant differences were found in food intake, feces weight, urine volume and uric acid levels between groups. Group C had a significantly lower body weight gain than group A and lower glycemia compared with groups A and B. Groups B and C had significantly higher HDL-cholesterol and lower triglycerides than controls. Animals had mild hepatic steatosis, but no cardiac or renal damage was observed in the three groups. Bach flower Rescue Remedy was effective in controlling glycemia, triglycerides, and HDL-cholesterol and may serve as a strategy for reducing risk factors for cardiovascular disease in rats. This study provides some preliminary "proof of concept" data that Bach Rescue Remedy may exert some biological effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The late flowering phenotype of fwa mutants is caused by gain-of-function epigenetic alleles of a homeodomain gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soppe, W.J.J.; Jacobsen, S.E.; Alonso-Blanco, C.; Jackson, J.P.; Kakutani, T.; Koornneef, M.; Peeters, A.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The transition to flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana is delayed in fwa mutant plants. FWA was identified by loss-of-function mutations in normally flowering revertants of the fwa mutant, and it encodes a homeodomain-containing transcription factor. The DNA sequence of wild-type and fwa mutant alleles

  12. BraLTP1, a lipid transfer protein gene involved in epicuticular wax deposition, cell proliferation and flower development in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Liu

    Full Text Available Plant non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs constitute large multigene families that possess complex physiological functions, many of which remain unclear. This study isolated and characterized the function of a lipid transfer protein gene, BraLTP1 from Brassica rapa, in the important oilseed crops Brassica napus. BraLTP1 encodes a predicted secretory protein, in the little known VI Class of nsLTP families. Overexpression of BnaLTP1 in B. napus caused abnormal green coloration and reduced wax deposition on leaves and detailed wax analysis revealed 17-80% reduction in various major wax components, which resulted in significant water-loss relative to wild type. BnaLTP1 overexpressing leaves exhibited morphological disfiguration and abaxially curled leaf edges, and leaf cross-sections revealed cell overproliferation that was correlated to increased cytokinin levels (tZ, tZR, iP, and iPR in leaves and high expression of the cytokinin biosynthsis gene IPT3. BnaLTP1-overexpressing plants also displayed morphological disfiguration of flowers, with early-onset and elongated carpel development and outwardly curled stamen. This was consistent with altered expression of a a number of ABC model genes related to flower development. Together, these results suggest that BraLTP1 is a new nsLTP gene involved in wax production or deposition, with additional direct or indirect effects on cell division and flower development.

  13. Epigenetic regulation of photoperiodic flowering

    OpenAIRE

    Takeno, Kiyotoshi

    2010-01-01

    The cytidine analogue 5-azacytidine, which causes DNA demethylation, induced flowering in the non-vernalization-requiring plants Perilla frutescens var. crispa, Silene armeria and Pharbitis nil (synonym Ipomoea nil) under non-inductive photoperiodic conditions, suggesting that the expression of photoperiodic flowering-related genes is regulated epigenetically by DNA methylation. The flowering state induced by DNA demethylation was not heritable. Changes in the genome-wide methylation state we...

  14. Identification of warm day and cool night conditions induced flowering-related genes in a Phalaenopsis orchid hybrid by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D M; Lü, F B; Zhu, G F; Sun, Y B; Xu, Y C; Jiang, M D; Liu, J W; Wang, Z

    2014-02-14

    The influence of warm day and cool night conditions on induction of spikes in Phalaenopsis orchids has been studied with respect to photosynthetic efficiency, metabolic cycles and physiology. However, molecular events involved in spike emergence induced by warm day and cool night conditions are not clearly understood. We examined gene expression induced by warm day and cool night conditions in the Phalaenopsis hybrid Fortune Saltzman through suppression subtractive hybridization, which allowed identification of flowering-related genes in warm day and cool night conditions in spikes and leaves at vegetative phase grown under warm daily temperatures. In total, 450 presumably regulated expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified and classified into functional categories, including metabolism, development, transcription factor, signal transduction, transportation, cell defense, and stress. Furthermore, database comparisons revealed a notable number of Phalaenopsis hybrid Fortune Saltzman ESTs that matched genes with unknown function. The expression profiles of 24 genes (from different functional categories) have been confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR in induced spikes and juvenile apical leaves. The results of the real-time PCR showed that, compared to the vegetative apical leaves, the transcripts of genes encoding flowering locus T, AP1, AP2, KNOX1, knotted1-like homeobox protein, R2R3-like MYB, adenosine kinase 2, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, and naringenin 3-dioxygenase accumulated significantly higher levels, and genes encoding FCA, retrotransposon protein Ty3 and C3HC4-type RING finger protein accumulated remarkably lower levels in spikes of early developmental stages. These results suggested that the genes of two expression changing trends may play positive and negative roles in the early floral transition of Phalaenopsis orchids. In conclusion, spikes induced by warm day and cool night conditions were complex in

  15. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Canthium parviflorum Lam. of Rubiaceae is a large shrub that often grows into a small tree with conspicuous spines. Leaves are simple, in pairs at each node and are shiny. Inflorescence is an axillary few-flowered cymose fascicle. Flowers are small (less than 1 cm across), 4-merous and greenish-white. Fruit is ellipsoid ...

  16. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mid-sized slow-growing evergreen tree with spreading branches that form a dense crown. The bark is smooth, thick, dark and flakes off in large shreds. Leaves are thick, oblong, leathery and bright red when young. The female flowers are drooping and are larger than male flowers. Fruit is large, red in color and velvety.

  17. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    narrow towards base. Flowers are large and attrac- tive, but emit unpleasant foetid smell. They appear in small numbers on erect terminal clusters and open at night. Stamens are numerous, pink or white. Style is slender and long, terminating in a small stigma. Fruit is green, ovoid and indistinctly lobed. Flowering Trees.

  18. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Gyrocarpus americanus Jacq. (Helicopter Tree) of Hernandiaceae is a moderate size deciduous tree that grows to about 12 m in height with a smooth, shining, greenish-white bark. The leaves are ovate, rarely irregularly ... flowers which are unpleasant smelling. Fruit is a woody nut with two long thin wings.

  19. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Wight & Arn. (PINK CEDAR, AUSTRALIAN ASH) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a lofty unarmed deciduous native tree that attains a height of 30–60m with buttresses. Bark is thin and light grey. Leaves are compound and bright red when young. Flowers in dense, erect, axillary racemes.

  20. Genes of the most conserved WOX clade in plants affect root and flower development in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreau Hervé

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Wuschel related homeobox (WOX family proteins are key regulators implicated in the determination of cell fate in plants by preventing cell differentiation. A recent WOX phylogeny, based on WOX homeodomains, showed that all of the Physcomitrella patens and Selaginella moellendorffii WOX proteins clustered into a single orthologous group. We hypothesized that members of this group might preferentially share a significant part of their function in phylogenetically distant organisms. Hence, we first validated the limits of the WOX13 orthologous group (WOX13 OG using the occurrence of other clade specific signatures and conserved intron insertion sites. Secondly, a functional analysis using expression data and mutants was undertaken. Results The WOX13 OG contained the most conserved plant WOX proteins including the only WOX detected in the highly proliferating basal unicellular and photosynthetic organism Ostreococcus tauri. A large expansion of the WOX family was observed after the separation of mosses from other land plants and before monocots and dicots have arisen. In Arabidopsis thaliana, AtWOX13 was dynamically expressed during primary and lateral root initiation and development, in gynoecium and during embryo development. AtWOX13 appeared to affect the floral transition. An intriguing clade, represented by the functional AtWOX14 gene inside the WOX13 OG, was only found in the Brassicaceae. Compared to AtWOX13, the gene expression profile of AtWOX14 was restricted to the early stages of lateral root formation and specific to developing anthers. A mutational insertion upstream of the AtWOX14 homeodomain sequence led to abnormal root development, a delay in the floral transition and premature anther differentiation. Conclusion Our data provide evidence in favor of the WOX13 OG as the clade containing the most conserved WOX genes and established a functional link to organ initiation and development in Arabidopsis, most

  1. Identification of metabolic QTLs and candidate genes for glucosinolate synthesis in Brassica oleracea leaves, seeds and flower buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Sotelo

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are major secondary metabolites found in the Brassicaceae family. These compounds play an essential role in plant defense against biotic and abiotic stresses, but more interestingly they have beneficial effects on human health. We performed a genetic analysis in order to identify the genome regions regulating glucosinolates biosynthesis in a DH mapping population of Brassica oleracea. In order to obtain a general overview of regulation in the whole plant, analyses were performed in the three major organs where glucosinolates are synthesized (leaves, seeds and flower buds. Eighty two significant QTLs were detected, which explained a broad range of variability in terms of individual and total glucosinolate (GSL content. A meta-analysis rendered eighteen consensus QTLs. Thirteen of them regulated more than one glucosinolate and its content. In spite of the considerable variability of glucosinolate content and profiles across the organ, some of these consensus QTLs were identified in more than one tissue. Consensus QTLs control the GSL content by interacting epistatically in complex networks. Based on in silico analysis within the B. oleracea genome along with synteny with Arabidopsis, we propose seven major candidate loci that regulate GSL biosynthesis in the Brassicaceae family. Three of these loci control the content of aliphatic GSL and four of them control the content of indolic glucosinolates. GSL-ALK plays a central role in determining aliphatic GSL variation directly and by interacting epistatically with other loci, thus suggesting its regulatory effect.

  2. Delimitation of the Earliness per se D1 (Eps-D1) flowering gene to a subtelomeric chromosomal deletion in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikhali, Meluleki; Wingen, Luzie U.; Griffiths, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Earliness per se (Eps) genes account for the variation in flowering time when vernalization and photoperiod requirements are satisfied. Genomics and bioinformatics approaches were used to describe allelic variation for 40 Triticum aestivum genes predicted, by synteny with Brachypodium distachyon, to be in the 1DL Eps region. Re-sequencing 1DL genes revealed that varieties carrying early heading alleles at this locus, Spark and Cadenza, carry a subtelomeric deletion including several genes. The equivalent region in Rialto and Avalon is intact. A bimodal distribution in the segregating Spark X Rialto single seed descent (SSD) populations enabled the 1DL QTL to be defined as a discrete Mendelian factor, which we named Eps-D1. Near isogenic lines (NILs) and NIL derived key recombinants between markers flanking Eps-D1 suggest that the 1DL deletion contains the gene(s) underlying Eps-D1. The deletion spans the equivalent of the Triticum monoccocum Eps-A m 1 locus, and hence includes MODIFIER OF TRANSCRIPTION 1 (MOT1) and FTSH PROTEASE 4 (FTSH4), the candidates for Eps-A m 1. The deletion also contains T. aestivum EARLY FLOWERING 3-D1 (TaELF3-D1) a homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock gene EARLY FLOWERING 3. Eps-D1 is possibly a homologue of Eps-B1 on chromosome 1BL. NILs carrying the Eps-D1 deletion have significantly reduced total TaELF3 expression and altered TaGIGANTEA (TaGI) expression compared with wild type. Altered TaGI expression is consistent with an ELF3 mutant, hence we propose TaELF3-D1 as the more likely candidate for Eps-D1. This is the first direct fine mapping of Eps effect in bread wheat. PMID:26476691

  3. Delimitation of the Earliness per se D1 (Eps-D1) flowering gene to a subtelomeric chromosomal deletion in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikhali, Meluleki; Wingen, Luzie U; Griffiths, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Earliness per se (Eps) genes account for the variation in flowering time when vernalization and photoperiod requirements are satisfied. Genomics and bioinformatics approaches were used to describe allelic variation for 40 Triticum aestivum genes predicted, by synteny with Brachypodium distachyon, to be in the 1DL Eps region. Re-sequencing 1DL genes revealed that varieties carrying early heading alleles at this locus, Spark and Cadenza, carry a subtelomeric deletion including several genes. The equivalent region in Rialto and Avalon is intact. A bimodal distribution in the segregating Spark X Rialto single seed descent (SSD) populations enabled the 1DL QTL to be defined as a discrete Mendelian factor, which we named Eps-D1. Near isogenic lines (NILs) and NIL derived key recombinants between markers flanking Eps-D1 suggest that the 1DL deletion contains the gene(s) underlying Eps-D1. The deletion spans the equivalent of the Triticum monoccocum Eps-A (m) 1 locus, and hence includes MODIFIER OF TRANSCRIPTION 1 (MOT1) and FTSH PROTEASE 4 (FTSH4), the candidates for Eps-A (m) 1. The deletion also contains T. aestivum EARLY FLOWERING 3-D1 (TaELF3-D1) a homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock gene EARLY FLOWERING 3. Eps-D1 is possibly a homologue of Eps-B1 on chromosome 1BL. NILs carrying the Eps-D1 deletion have significantly reduced total TaELF3 expression and altered TaGIGANTEA (TaGI) expression compared with wild type. Altered TaGI expression is consistent with an ELF3 mutant, hence we propose TaELF3-D1 as the more likely candidate for Eps-D1. This is the first direct fine mapping of Eps effect in bread wheat. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. Functional analysis of Antirrhinum kelloggii flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase genes; critical role in flower color and evolution in the genus Antirrhinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Kanako; Taniguchi, Masumi; Tanaka, Yoshikazu

    2012-05-01

    The enzymes flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) play an important role in flower color by determining the B-ring hydroxylation pattern of anthocyanins, the major floral pigments. F3'5'H is necessary for biosynthesis of the delphinidin-based anthocyanins that confer a violet or blue color to most plants. Antirrhinum majus does not produce delphinidin and lacks violet flower colour while A. kelloggii produces violet flowers containing delphinidin. To understand the cause of this inter-specific difference in the Antirrhinum genus, we isolated one F3'H and two F3'5'H homologues from the A. kelloggii petal cDNA library. Their amino acid sequences showed high identities to F3'Hs and F3'5'Hs of closely related species. Transgenic petunia expressing these genes had elevated amounts of cyanidin and delphinidin respectively, and flower color changes in the transgenics reflected the type of accumulated anthocyanidins. The results indicate that the homologs encode F3'H and F3'5'H, respectively, and that the ancestor of A. majus lost F3'5'H activity after its speciation from the ancestor of A. kelloggii.

  5. cDNA-AFLP analysis of gene expression differences between the flower bud and sprout-shoot apical meristem of Angelica sinensis (Oliv. Diels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Guang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Angelica sinensis (Oliv. Diels (Umbelliferae is a well-known medicinal plant mainly distributed in Gansu Province of China. Its local and global demand is significant because of its food and medicinal applications. However, the early bolting rate of Angelica sinensis (Oliv. Diels reaches 20%-60%, which seriously affects its food and medicinal qualities. Thus, differences in gene expression between the flower bud and sprout-shoot apical meristem underwent analysis, by means of cDNA-amplified restriction fragment length polymorphism, to better understand the flowering mechanism. 64 primer sets, each of which amplified to 60 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs, were used. Among these TDFs, 26 were expressed specifically in the flower bud. After cloning and sequencing, 32 distinct sequences were obtained from these 26 TDFs, and 25 were found with homologous sequences in databases. Confirmation of differential expression of 13 sequences was obtained by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, their showing higher expression levels in flower buds. These homologous sequences encode transposable elements, pentatricopeptide repeat-containing proteins, DNA-binding transcription factors, zinc finger (B-box type family proteins, NADP-dependent sorbitol 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (S6PDH, amongst others.

  6. Controlling the Sex of Flowers in Different Stages of Growth and Development of Melon (Cucumis melo var. reticualus L. with Ethephon Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Arabsalmani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of ethephon on control of male flowers in melon, a split plot experiment, with randomized complete blocks design and three replications, was conducted in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Varamin, Iran, during 2005-2006. The main factor included three levels of plant growth stage (3-leaf, 6-leaf and early reproductive stage and sub-plots included four ethephon levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg/L. The appearance time of female flowers, number of male and female flowers (7 and 14 days after application of ethephon, total yield and female/male flowers ratio were evaluated. Results showed that plant response to increasing concentration of ethephon depends on plant growth stage. By using the ethephon concentrations of 100, 200 and 300 mg/L, the emergence of female flowers was delayed 6, 13 and 15 days, respectively, in comparison to control. The highest yield (26430 kg/ha was obtained with spraying of 200 mg/L ethephon in trifoliate plants. In this case, the ratio of female to male flowers was highest (81.5%. A high dose of ethephon (over 200 mg/L was associated with reduced yield and ratio of female to male flowers, at all stages of plant growth, especially in reproductive growth stage. The results this research showed that the beneficial effects of ethephon application is possible only if the right time is chosen with respect to plant growth.

  7. Localisation of Abundant and Organ-Specific Genes Expressed in Rosa hybrida Leaves and Flower Buds by Direct In Situ RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Jedrzejuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ PCR is a technique that allows specific nucleic acid sequences to be detected in individual cells and tissues. In situ PCR and IS-RT-PCR are elegant techniques that can increase both sensitivity and throughput, but they are, at best, only semiquantitative; therefore, it is desirable first to ascertain the expression pattern by conventional means to establish the suitable conditions for each probe. In plants, in situ RT-PCR is widely used in the expression localisation of specific genes, including MADS-box and other function-specific genes or housekeeping genes in floral buds and other organs. This method is especially useful in small organs or during early developmental stages when the separation of particular parts is impossible. In this paper, we compared three different labelling and immunodetection methods by using in situ RT-PCR in Rosa hybrida flower buds and leaves. As target genes, we used the abundant β-actin and RhFUL gene, which is expressed only in the leaves and petals/sepals of flower buds. We used digoxygenin-11-dUTP, biotin-11-dUTP, and fluorescein-12-dUTP-labelled nucleotides and antidig-AP/ streptavidin-fluorescein-labelled antibodies. All of the used methods gave strong, specific signal and all of them may be used in localization of gene expression on tissue level in rose organs.

  8. Genome-wide characterization of the MADS-box gene family in radish (Raphanus sativus L. and assessment of its roles in flowering and floral organogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The MADS-box gene family is an important transcription factor (TF family that is involved in various aspects of plant growth and development, especially flowering time and floral organogenesis. Although it has been reported in many plant species, the systematic identification and characterization of MADS-box TF family is still limited in radish (Raphanus sativus L.. In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box genes was performed, and a total of 144 MADS-box family members were identified from the whole radish genome. Meanwhile, a detailed list of MADS-box genes from other 28 plant species was also investigated. Through the phylogenetic analysis between radish and Arabidopsis thaliana, all the RsMADS genes were classified into two groups including 68 type I (31 Mα, 12 Mβ and 25Mγ and 76 type II (70 MIKCC and 6 MIKC*. Among them, 41 (28.47% RsMADS genes were located in nine linkage groups of radish from R1 to R9. Moreover, the homologous MADS-box gene pairs were identified among radish, A. thaliana, Chinese cabbage and rice. Additionally, the expression profiles of RsMADS genes were systematically investigated in different tissues and growth stages. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was employed to validate expression patterns of some crucial RsMADS genes. These results could provide a valuable resource to explore the potential functions of RsMADS genes in radish, and facilitate dissecting MADS-box gene-mediated molecular mechanisms underlying flowering and floral organogenesis in root vegetable crops.

  9. Relation between flower head traits and florivory in Asteraceae: a phylogenetically controlled approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguro, Michio; Sakai, Satoki

    2015-03-01

    • While much research has examined the relation between leaf traits and herbivory, very little is known about the interaction between floral traits, particularly biochemical traits, and florivory. We investigated patterns between floral traits and florivory across multiple species using phylogenetic comparative approaches to enhance our understanding of the evolution of plant-florivore interactions.• The relation between the intensity of florivory and five biochemical traits (concentrations of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, water, and total phenolics) and two morphological traits (diameter and number of flower heads) were investigated in wild individuals of 18 native species of Asteraceae. The phylogenetic signals in the morphological traits and intensity of florivory were also tested.• We found that species with higher nitrogen, water, and total phenolics and lower phosphorus concentrations in the flower heads and species with a large number and diameter of flower heads tended to be attacked by florivores. In addition, we found significant phylogenetic signals in florivory and morphological traits.• Our results clearly show that biochemical traits also play important roles in plant-florivore interactions, as previously shown in plant-leaf herbivore interactions. The positive relationship between florivory and total phenolics implies that phenolic compounds in flower heads may not act as a defense in the species. In addition, the observed pattern of signals in florivory might not be solely explained by the signals of the measured traits and other plant traits may also play significant roles in plant-florivore interaction in these species. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  10. Mapping QTLs Controlling Flowering Time and Important Agronomic Traits in Pearl Millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; Hash, C Tom; Nepolean, T; Satyavathi, C Tara; Singh, Govind; Mahendrakar, Mahesh D; Yadav, Rattan S; Srivastava, Rakesh K

    2017-01-01

    Pearl millet [ Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] is a staple crop for the people of arid and semi-arid regions of the world. It is fast gaining importance as a climate resilient nutricereal. Exploiting the bold seeded, semi-dwarf, and early flowering genotypes in pearl millet is a key breeding strategy to enhance yield, adaptability, and for adequate food in resource-poor zones. Genetic variation for agronomic traits of pearl millet inbreds can be used to dissect complex traits through quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. This study was undertaken to map a set of agronomically important traits like flowering time (FT), plant height (PH), panicle length (PL), and grain weight (self and open-pollinated seeds) in the recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of ICMB 841-P3 × 863B-P2 cross. Excluding grain weight (open pollinated), heritabilities for FT, PH, PL, grain weight (selfed) were in high to medium range. A total of six QTLs for FT were detected on five chromosomes, 13 QTLs for PH on six chromosomes, 11 QTLs for PL on five chromosomes, and 14 QTLs for 1,000-grain weight (TGW) spanning five chromosomes. One major QTL on LG3 was common for FT and PH. Three major QTLs for PL, one each on LG1, LG2, and LG6B were detected. The large effect QTL for TGW (self) on LG6B had a phenotypic variance ( R 2 ) of 62.1%. The R 2 for FT, TGW (self), and PL ranged from 22.3 to 59.4%. A total of 21 digenic interactions were discovered for FT ( R 2 = 18-40%) and PL ( R 2 = 13-19%). The epistatic effects did not reveal any significant QTL × QTL × environment (QQE) interactions. The mapped QTLs for flowering time and other agronomic traits in present experiment can be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and genomic selection (GS) breeding programs.

  11. Inhibition of SAH-hydrolase activity during seed germination leads to deregulation of flowering genes and altered flower morphology in tobacco

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fulneček, Jaroslav; Matyášek, Roman; Votruba, Ivan; Holý, Antonín; Křížová, Kateřina; Kovařík, Aleš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 285, č. 3 (2011), s. 225-236 ISSN 1617-4615 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/09/1751; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/10/0208; GA AV ČR(CZ) GPP501/11/P667 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : DNA methylation * DHPA * MADS box genes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.635, year: 2011

  12. Reverted glutathione S-transferase-like genes that influence flower color intensity of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) originated from excision of a transposable element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Masaki; Itoh, Yoshio; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2013-12-01

    A glutathione S-transferase-like gene, DcGSTF2, is responsible for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower color intensity. Two defective genes, DcGSTF2mu with a nonsense mutation and DcGSTF2-dTac1 containing a transposable element dTac1, have been characterized in detail in this report. dTac1 is an active element that produces reverted functional genes by excision of the element. A pale-pink cultivar 'Daisy' carries both defective genes, whereas a spontaneous deep-colored mutant 'Daisy-VPR' lost the element from DcGSTF2-dTac1. This finding confirmed that dTac1 is active and that the resulting reverted gene, DcGSTF2rev1, missing the element is responsible for this color change. Crosses between the pale-colored cultivar '06-LA' and a deep-colored cultivar 'Spectrum' produced segregating progeny. Only the deep-colored progeny had DcGSTF2rev2 derived from the 'Spectrum' parent, whereas progeny with pale-colored flowers had defective forms from both parents, DcGSTF2mu and DcGSTF2-dTac1. Thus, DcGSTF2rev2 had functional activity and likely originated from excision of dTac1 since there was a footprint sequence at the vacated site of the dTac1 insertion. Characterizing the DcGSTF2 genes in several cultivars revealed that the two functional genes, DcGSTF2rev1 and DcGSTF2rev2, have been used for some time in carnation breeding with the latter in use for more than half a century.

  13. Unique morphological changes in plant pathogenic phytoplasma-infected petunia flowers are related to transcriptional regulation of floral homeotic genes in an organ-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeno, Misako; Neriya, Yutaro; Minato, Nami; Miura, Chihiro; Sugawara, Kyoko; Ishii, Yoshiko; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Kakizawa, Shigeyuki; Oshima, Kenro; Namba, Shigetou

    2011-09-01

    Abnormal flowers are often induced by infection of certain plant pathogens, e.g. phytoplasma, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these malformations have remained poorly understood. Here, we show that infection with OY-W phytoplasma (Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris, onion yellows phytoplasma strain, line OY-W) affects the expression of the floral homeotic genes of petunia plants in an organ-specific manner. Upon infection with OY-W phytoplasma, floral morphological changes, including conversion to leaf-like structures, were observed in sepals, petals and pistils, but not in stamens. As the expression levels of homeotic genes differ greatly between floral organs, we examined the expression levels of homeotic genes in each floral organ infected by OY-W phytoplasma, compared with healthy plants. The expression levels of several homeotic genes required for organ development, such as PFG, PhGLO1 and FBP7, were significantly downregulated by the phytoplasma infection in floral organs, except the stamens, suggesting that the unique morphological changes caused by the phytoplasma infection might result from the significant decrease in expression of some crucial homeotic genes. Moreover, the expression levels of TER, ALF and DOT genes, which are known to participate in floral meristem identity, were significantly downregulated in the phytoplasma-infected petunia meristems, implying that phytoplasma would affect an upstream signaling pathway of floral meristem identity. Our results suggest that phytoplasma infection may have complex effects on floral development, resulting in the unique phenotypes that were clearly distinct from the mutant flower phenotypes produced by the knock-out or the overexpression of certain homeotic genes. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Developmental evolution of flowering plant pollen tube cell walls: callose synthase (CalS gene expression patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abercrombie Jason M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of innovations underlie the origin of rapid reproductive cycles in angiosperms. A critical early step involved the modification of an ancestrally short and slow-growing pollen tube for faster and longer distance transport of sperm to egg. Associated with this shift are the predominantly callose (1,3-β-glucan walls and septae (callose plugs of angiosperm pollen tubes. Callose synthesis is mediated by callose synthase (CalS. Of 12 CalS gene family members in Arabidopsis, only one (CalS5 has been directly linked to pollen tube callose. CalS5 orthologues are present in several monocot and eudicot genomes, but little is known about the evolutionary origin of CalS5 or what its ancestral function may have been. Results We investigated expression of CalS in pollen and pollen tubes of selected non-flowering seed plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms within lineages that diverged below the monocot/eudicot node. First, we determined the nearly full length coding sequence of a CalS5 orthologue from Cabomba caroliniana (CcCalS5 (Nymphaeales. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated low CcCalS5 expression within several vegetative tissues, but strong expression in mature pollen. CalS transcripts were detected in pollen tubes of several species within Nymphaeales and Austrobaileyales, and comparative analyses with a phylogenetically diverse group of sequenced genomes indicated homology to CalS5. We also report in silico evidence of a putative CalS5 orthologue from Amborella. Among gymnosperms, CalS5 transcripts were recovered from germinating pollen of Gnetum and Ginkgo, but a novel CalS paralog was instead amplified from germinating pollen of Pinus taeda. Conclusion The finding that CalS5 is the predominant callose synthase in pollen tubes of both early-diverging and model system angiosperms is an indicator of the homology of their novel callosic pollen tube walls and callose plugs. The data suggest that CalS5 had transient expression

  15. Ectopic expression of a WRKY homolog from Glycine soja alters flowering time in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Luo

    Full Text Available Flowering is a critical event in the life cycle of plants; the WRKY-type transcription factors are reported to be involved in many developmental processes sunch as trichome development and epicuticular wax loading, but whether they are involved in flowering time regulation is still unknown. Within this study, we provide clear evidence that GsWRKY20, a member of WRKY gene family from wild soybean, is involved in controlling plant flowering time. Expression of GsWRKY20 was abundant in the shoot tips and inflorescence meristems of wild soybean. Phenotypic analysis showed that GsWRKY20 over-expression lines flowered earlier than the wild-type plants under all conditions: long-day and short-day photoperiods, vernalization, or exogenous GA3 application, indicating that GsWRKY20 may mainly be involved in an autonomous flowering pathway. Further analyses by qRT-PCR and microarray suggests that GsWRKY20 accelerating plant flowering might primarily be through the regulation of flowering-related genes (i.e., FLC, FT, SOC1 and CO and floral meristem identity genes (i.e., AP1, SEP3, AP3, PI and AG. Our results provide the evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of manipulating GsWRKY20 for altering plant flowering time.

  16. Ectopic Expression of a WRKY Homolog from Glycine soja Alters Flowering Time in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baohui; Zhu, Dan; Bai, Xi; Cai, Hua; Ji, Wei; Cao, Lei; Wu, Jing; Wang, Mingchao; Ding, Xiaodong; Zhu, Yanming

    2013-01-01

    Flowering is a critical event in the life cycle of plants; the WRKY-type transcription factors are reported to be involved in many developmental processes sunch as trichome development and epicuticular wax loading, but whether they are involved in flowering time regulation is still unknown. Within this study, we provide clear evidence that GsWRKY20, a member of WRKY gene family from wild soybean, is involved in controlling plant flowering time. Expression of GsWRKY20 was abundant in the shoot tips and inflorescence meristems of wild soybean. Phenotypic analysis showed that GsWRKY20 over-expression lines flowered earlier than the wild-type plants under all conditions: long-day and short-day photoperiods, vernalization, or exogenous GA3 application, indicating that GsWRKY20 may mainly be involved in an autonomous flowering pathway. Further analyses by qRT-PCR and microarray suggests that GsWRKY20 accelerating plant flowering might primarily be through the regulation of flowering-related genes (i.e., FLC, FT, SOC1 and CO) and floral meristem identity genes (i.e., AP1, SEP3, AP3, PI and AG). Our results provide the evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of manipulating GsWRKY20 for altering plant flowering time. PMID:23991184

  17. Stamen-derived bioactive gibberellin is essential for male flower development of Cucurbita maxima L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta Lange, Maria João; Knop, Nicole; Lange, Theo

    2012-04-01

    Gibberellin (GA) signalling during pumpkin male flower development is highly regulated, including biosynthetic, perception, and transduction pathways. GA 20-oxidases, 3-oxidases, and 2-oxidases catalyse the final part of GA synthesis. Additionally, 7-oxidase initiates this part of the pathway in some cucurbits including Cucurbita maxima L. (pumpkin). Expression patterns for these GA-oxidase-encoding genes were examined by competitive reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and endogenous GA levels were determined during pumpkin male flower development. In young flowers, GA20ox3 transcript levels are high in stamens, followed by high levels of the GA precursor GA(9). Later, just before flower opening, transcript levels for GA3ox3 and GA3ox4 increase in the hypanthium and stamens, respectively. In the stamen, following GA3ox4 expression, bioactive GA(4) levels rise dramatically. Accordingly, catabolic GA2ox2 and GA2ox3 transcript levels are low in developing flowers, and increase in mature flowers. Putative GA receptor GID1b and DELLA repressor GAIPb transcript levels do not change in developing flowers, but increase sharply in mature flowers. Emasculation arrests floral development completely and leads to abscission of premature flowers. Application of GA(4) (but not of its precursors GA(12)-aldehyde or GA(9)) restores normal growth of emasculated flowers. These results indicate that de novo GA(4) synthesis in the stamen is under control of GA20ox3 and GA3ox4 genes just before the rapid flower growth phase. Stamen-derived bioactive GA is essential and sufficient for male flower development, including the petal and the pedicel growth.

  18. Comprehensive transcriptome analysis of phytohormone biosyntheis and signaling genes in the flowers of Chinese chinquapin (Castanea henryi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chinese chinquapin (Castanea henryi) nut provides a rich source of starch and nutrient elements as food and feed, but its yield is restricted by a low ratio of female to male flowers (1/2000-1/3000). Little is known about the developmental programs underlying the sex differentiation of the flowe...

  19. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    deciduous tree with irregularly-shaped trunk, greyish-white scaly bark and milky latex. Leaves in opposite pairs are simple, oblong and whitish beneath. Flowers that occur in branched inflorescence are white, 2–. 3cm across and fragrant. Calyx is glandular inside. Petals bear numerous linear white scales, the corollary.

  20. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr. (Indian Frankincense tree) of Burseraceae is a large-sized deciduous tree that is native to India. Bark is thin, greenish-ash-coloured that exfoliates into smooth papery flakes. Stem exudes pinkish resin ... Fruit is a three-valved capsule. A green gum-resin exudes from the ...

  1. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Berrya cordifolia (Willd.) Burret (Syn. B. ammonilla Roxb.) – Trincomali Wood of Tiliaceae is a tall evergreen tree with straight trunk, smooth brownish-grey bark and simple broad leaves. Inflorescence is much branched with white flowers. Stamens are many with golden yellow anthers. Fruit is a capsule with six spreading ...

  2. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sriranga

    Hook.f. ex Brandis (Yellow. Cadamba) of Rubiaceae is a large and handsome deciduous tree. Leaves are simple, large, orbicular, and drawn abruptly at the apex. Flowers are small, yellowish and aggregate into small spherical heads. The corolla is funnel-shaped with five stamens inserted at its mouth. Fruit is a capsule.

  3. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Celtis tetrandra Roxb. of Ulmaceae is a moderately large handsome deciduous tree with green branchlets and grayish-brown bark. Leaves are simple with three to four secondary veins running parallel to the mid vein. Flowers are solitary, male, female and bisexual and inconspicuous. Fruit is berry-like, small and globose ...

  4. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Aglaia elaeagnoidea (A.Juss.) Benth. of Meliaceae is a small-sized evergreen tree of both moist and dry deciduous forests. The leaves are alternate and pinnately compound, terminating in a single leaflet. Leaflets are more or less elliptic with entire margin. Flowers are small on branched inflorescence. Fruit is a globose ...

  5. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Flowers are borne on stiff bunches terminally on short shoots. They are 2-3 cm across, white, sweet-scented with light-brown hairy sepals and many stamens. Loquat fruits are round or pear-shaped, 3-5 cm long and are edible. A native of China, Loquat tree is grown in parks as an ornamental and also for its fruits.

  6. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    medium-sized handsome tree with a straight bole that branches at the top. Leaves are once pinnate, with two to three pairs of leaflets. Young parts of the tree are velvety. Inflorescence is a branched raceme borne at the branch ends. Flowers are large, white, attractive, and fragrant. Corolla is funnel-shaped. Fruit is an ...

  7. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cassia siamia Lamk. (Siamese tree senna) of Caesalpiniaceae is a small or medium size handsome tree. Leaves are alternate, pinnately compound and glandular, upto 18 cm long with 8–12 pairs of leaflets. Inflorescence is axillary or terminal and branched. Flowering lasts for a long period from March to February. Fruit is ...

  8. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andira inermis (wright) DC. , Dog Almond of Fabaceae is a handsome lofty evergreen tree. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound with 4–7 pairs of leaflets. Flowers are fragrant and are borne on compact branched inflorescences. Fruit is ellipsoidal one-seeded drupe that is peculiar to members of this family.

  9. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Cerbera manghasL. (SEA MANGO) of Apocynaceae is a medium-sized evergreen coastal tree with milky latex. The bark is grey-brown, thick and ... Fruit is large. (5–10 cm long), oval containing two flattened seeds and resembles a mango, hence the name Mangas or. Manghas. Leaves and fruits contain ...

  10. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muntingia calabura L. (Singapore cherry) of. Elaeocarpaceae is a medium size handsome ever- green tree. Leaves are simple and alternate with sticky hairs. Flowers are bisexual, bear numerous stamens, white in colour and arise in the leaf axils. Fruit is a berry, edible with several small seeds embedded in a fleshy pulp ...

  11. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br. (Sil- ver Oak) of Proteaceae is a daintily lacy ornamental tree while young and growing into a mighty tree (45 m). Young shoots are silvery grey and the leaves are fern- like. Flowers are golden-yellow in one- sided racemes (10 cm). Fruit is a boat- shaped, woody follicle.

  12. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    stems and handsome foliage. Leaves are 8–10 cm long, dull green, the two thin leathery halves of the lamina fusing or the cleft between them extending beyond the middle. Flowers are gorgeous, axillary with dark purple stamens. The pod is more or less flat. B. alba is often named as B. variegate var. alba by botanists.

  13. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guaiacum officinale L. (LIGNUM-VITAE) of Zygophyllaceae is a dense-crowned, squat, knobbly, rough and twisted medium-sized ev- ergreen tree with mottled bark. The wood is very hard and resinous. Leaves are compound. The leaflets are smooth, leathery, ovate-ellipti- cal and appear in two pairs. Flowers (about 1.5.

  14. Expression Analysis of the MdCIbHLH1 Gene in Apple Flower Buds and Seeds in the Process of Dormancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Ren

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A bHLH transcription factor that is induced by low temperature was found in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.. To understand the sequence characteristics of the gene, bioinformatics analysis was performed. Furthermore, gene expression patterns of the laminated apple seeds and lateral flower buds were analyzed during the period of dormancy release with semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Based on secondary structure predictions, the results showed that the MdCIbHLH1 protein structure mainly included α-helix and random coil, while β-sheet and extended strand content was less. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression patterns of MdCIbHLH1 were similar in laminated apple seeds and lateral flower buds during the period of dormancy release. Before dormancy release, expression levels of MdCIbHLH1 were high and gradually decreased during the period of dormancy release. These results indicated that MdCIbHLH1 might play an important role during dormancy release in apple seeds and apple buds.

  15. Flowering in Xanthium strumarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Maggy; Kinet, Jean-Marie; Bodson, Monique; Havelange, Andrée; Jacqmard, Annie; Bernier, Georges

    1981-01-01

    Vegetative plants of Xanthium strumarium L. grown in long days were induced to flower by exposure to one or several 16-hour dark periods. The distribution of male and female inflorescences on the flowering shoot was described, and a scoring system was designed to assess the development of the female inflorescences. The time of movement of the floral stimulus out of the induced leaf and the timing of action of high temperature were shown to be similar for both the apical male and lateral female inflorescences. Strong photoperiodic induction of the plants favored female sex expression, while maleness was enhanced by exogenous gibberellic acid. The problem of the control of sex expression in Xanthium is discussed in relation to the distribution pattern of male and female inflorescences on the flowering shoot and to the state of the meristem at the time of the arrival of the floral stimulus. Images PMID:16661844

  16. Association mapping of flowering time QTLs and insight into their contributions to rapeseed growth habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants have developed sophisticated systems to adapt to local conditions during evolution, domestication and natural or artificial selection. The selective pressures of these different growing conditions have caused significant genomic divergence within species. The flowering time trait is the most crucial factor because it helps plants to maintain sustainable development. Controlling flowering at appropriate times can also prevent plants from suffering from adverse growth conditions, such as drought, winter hardness, and disease. Hence, discovering the genome-wide genetic mechanisms that influence flowering time variations and understanding their contributions to adaptation should be a central goal of plant genetics and genomics. A global core collection panel with 448 inbred rapeseed lines was first planted in four independent environments, and their flowering time traits were evaluated. We then performed a genome-wide association mapping of flowering times with a 60 K SNP array for this core collection. With quality control and filtration, 20,342 SNP markers were ultimately used for further analyses. In total, 312 SNPs showed marker-trait associations in all four environments, and they were based on a threshold p value of 4.06x10-4; the 40 QTLs showed significant association with flowering time variations. To explore flowering time QTLs and genes related to growth habits in rapeseed, selection signals related to divergent habits were screened at the genome-wide level and 117 genomic regions were found. Comparing locations of flowering time QTLs and genes with these selection regions revealed that 20 flowering time QTLs and 224 flowering time genes overlapped with 24 and 81 selected regions, respectively. Based on this study, a number of marker-trait associations and candidate genes for flowering time variations in rapeseed were revealed. Moreover, we also showed that both flowering time QTLs and genes play important roles in rapeseed growth

  17. Postharvest Irradiation Treatment for Quarantine Control of Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Adrian H; Follett, Peter A

    2018-04-05

    The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important pest of fresh horticultural produce and as such is considered a biosecurity risk in many countries from which it is absent. Information is needed on the radiation tolerance of important surface pests of quarantine importance such as F. occidentalis so that phytosanitary irradiation treatments for exported fresh commodities can be lowered to below the 400 Gy generic treatment currently approved for most insects in the United States and Australia. Lowering the dose will help minimize any product quality problems, reduce costs, and shorten treatment time. In large-scale confirmatory trials conducted in two independent laboratories in Hawaii and Australia, a dose of 250 Gy (measured doses 222-279 Gy) applied to adult F. occidentalis on green beans resulted in no reproduction in 5,050 treated individuals. At 250 Gy, the effective dose is significantly below the 400 Gy generic dose, demonstrating that irradiation at this lowered level is an effective method for the disinfestation of F. occidentalis from fresh horticultural produce.

  18. Ectopic expression of Jatropha curcas APETALA1 (JcAP1) caused early flowering in Arabidopsis, but not in Jatropha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingyong; Tao, Yan-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a promising feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits a low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. APETALA1 (AP1) is a floral meristem and organ identity gene in higher plants. The flower meristem identity genes of Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an AP1 homolog (JcAP1) was isolated from Jatropha. An amino acid sequence analysis of JcAP1 revealed a high similarity to the AP1 proteins of other perennial plants. JcAP1 was expressed in inflorescence buds, flower buds, sepals and petals. The highest expression level was observed during the early developmental stage of the flower buds. The overexpression of JcAP1 using the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter resulted in extremely early flowering and abnormal flowers in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Several flowering genes downstream of AP1 were up-regulated in the JcAP1-overexpressing transgenic plant lines. Furthermore, JcAP1 overexpression rescued the phenotype caused by the Arabidopsis AP1 loss-of-function mutant ap1-11. Therefore, JcAP1 is an ortholog of AtAP1, which plays a similar role in the regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis. However, the overexpression of JcAP1 in Jatropha using the same promoter resulted in little variation in the flowering time and floral organs, indicating that JcAP1 may be insufficient to regulate flowering by itself in Jatropha. This study helps to elucidate the function of JcAP1 and contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of flower development in Jatropha. PMID:27168978

  19. Ectopic expression of Jatropha curcas APETALA1 (JcAP1 caused early flowering in Arabidopsis, but not in Jatropha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyong Tang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a promising feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits a low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. APETALA1 (AP1 is a floral meristem and organ identity gene in higher plants. The flower meristem identity genes of Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an AP1 homolog (JcAP1 was isolated from Jatropha. An amino acid sequence analysis of JcAP1 revealed a high similarity to the AP1 proteins of other perennial plants. JcAP1 was expressed in inflorescence buds, flower buds, sepals and petals. The highest expression level was observed during the early developmental stage of the flower buds. The overexpression of JcAP1 using the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter resulted in extremely early flowering and abnormal flowers in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Several flowering genes downstream of AP1 were up-regulated in the JcAP1-overexpressing transgenic plant lines. Furthermore, JcAP1 overexpression rescued the phenotype caused by the Arabidopsis AP1 loss-of-function mutant ap1-11. Therefore, JcAP1 is an ortholog of AtAP1, which plays a similar role in the regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis. However, the overexpression of JcAP1 in Jatropha using the same promoter resulted in little variation in the flowering time and floral organs, indicating that JcAP1 may be insufficient to regulate flowering by itself in Jatropha. This study helps to elucidate the function of JcAP1 and contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of flower development in Jatropha.

  20. Potential of a strain of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) as a biological control agent against western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five Beauveria bassiana strains were evaluated for control of western flower thrips. Strain RSB was the most virulent, causing 69-96% mortality at concentrations of 1×104 – 1×107 conidia mL-1, 10 days after inoculation of first instars. In greenhouse trials, RSB applied to broccoli foliage signifi...

  1. Snow cover and extreme winter warming events control flower abundance of some, but not all species in high arctic Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenchuk, Philipp R.; Elberling, Bo; Cooper, Elisabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    octopetala. However, the affected species were resilient and individuals did not experience any long term effects. In the case of short or cold summers, a subset of species suffered reduced reproductive success, which may affect future plant composition through possible cascading competition effects. Extreme...... winter warming events were shown to expose the canopy to cold winter air. The following summer most of the overwintering flower buds could not produce flowers. Thus reproductive success is reduced if this occurs in subsequent years. We conclude that snow depth influences flower abundance by altering...... events, while Stellaria crassipes responded partly. Snow pack thickness determined whether winter warming events had an effect on flower abundance of some species. Warming events clearly reduced flower abundance in shallow but not in deep snow regimes of Cassiope tetragona, but only marginally for Dryas...

  2. Water availability as an agent of selection in introduced populations of Arabidopsis thaliana: impacts on flowering time evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Amanda J; McGoey, Brechann V; Stinchcombe, John R

    2015-01-01

    Flowering is one of the most influential events in the life history of a plant and one of the main determinants of reproductive investment and lifetime fitness. It is also a highly complex trait controlled by dozens of genes. Understanding the selective pressures influencing time to flowering, and being able to reliably predict how it will evolve in novel environments, are unsolved challenges for plant evolutionary geneticists. Using the model plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana, we examined the impact of simulated high and low winter precipitation levels on the flowering time of naturalized lines from across the eastern portion of the introduced North American range, and the fitness consequences of early versus late flowering. Flowering time order was significantly correlated across two environments-in a previous common garden experiment and in environmental chambers set to mimic mid-range photoperiod and temperature conditions. Plants in low water flowered earlier, had fewer basal branches and produced fewer fruits. Selection in both treatments favored earlier flowering and more basal branches. Our analyses revealed an interaction between flowering time and water treatment for fitness, where flowering later was more deleterious for fitness in the low water treatment. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that differences in winter precipitation levels are one of the selective agents underlying a flowering time cline in introduced A. thaliana populations.

  3. Water availability as an agent of selection in introduced populations of Arabidopsis thaliana: impacts on flowering time evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Stock

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Flowering is one of the most influential events in the life history of a plant and one of the main determinants of reproductive investment and lifetime fitness. It is also a highly complex trait controlled by dozens of genes. Understanding the selective pressures influencing time to flowering, and being able to reliably predict how it will evolve in novel environments, are unsolved challenges for plant evolutionary geneticists. Using the model plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana, we examined the impact of simulated high and low winter precipitation levels on the flowering time of naturalized lines from across the eastern portion of the introduced North American range, and the fitness consequences of early versus late flowering. Flowering time order was significantly correlated across two environments—in a previous common garden experiment and in environmental chambers set to mimic mid-range photoperiod and temperature conditions. Plants in low water flowered earlier, had fewer basal branches and produced fewer fruits. Selection in both treatments favored earlier flowering and more basal branches. Our analyses revealed an interaction between flowering time and water treatment for fitness, where flowering later was more deleterious for fitness in the low water treatment. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that differences in winter precipitation levels are one of the selective agents underlying a flowering time cline in introduced A. thaliana populations.

  4. The ASK1 gene regulates development and interacts with the UFO gene to control floral organ identity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D; Yang, M; Solava, J; Ma, H

    1999-09-01

    Normal flower development likely requires both specific and general regulators. We have isolated an Arabidopsis mutant ask1-1 (for -Arabidopsis skp1-like1-1), which exhibits defects in both vegetative and reproductive development. In the ask1-1mutant, rosette leaf growth is reduced, resulting in smaller than normal rosette leaves, and internodes in the floral stem are shorter than normal. Examination of cell sizes in these organs indicates that cell expansion is normal in the mutant, but cell number is reduced. In the mutant, the numbers of petals and stamens are reduced, and many flowers have one or more petals with a reduced size. In addition, all mutant flowers have short stamen filaments. Furthermore, petal/stamen chimeric organs are found in many flowers. These results indicate that the ASK1 gene affects the size of vegetative and floral organs. The ask1 floral phenotype resembles somewhat that of the Arabidopsis ufo mutants in that both genes affect whorls 2 and 3. We therefore tested for possible interactions between ASK1 and UFO by analyzing the phenotypes of ufo-2 ask1-1 double mutant plants. In these plants, vegetative development is similar to that of the ask1-1 single mutant, whereas the floral defects are more severe than those in either single mutant. Interior to the first whorl, the double mutant flowers have more sepals or sepal-like organs than are found in ufo-2, and less petals than ask1-1. Our results suggest that ASK1 interacts with UFO to control floral organ identity in whorls 2 and 3. This is very intriguing because ASK1 is very similar in sequence to the yeast SKP1 protein and UFO contains an F-box, a motif known to interact with SKP1 in yeast. Although the precise mechanism of ASK1 and UFO action is unknown, our results support the hypothesis that these two proteins physically interact in vivo. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Large-Scale Recurrent Neural Network Based Modelling of Gene Regulatory Network Using Cuckoo Search-Flower Pollination Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sudip; Khan, Abhinandan; Saha, Goutam; Pal, Rajat K

    2016-01-01

    The accurate prediction of genetic networks using computational tools is one of the greatest challenges in the postgenomic era. Recurrent Neural Network is one of the most popular but simple approaches to model the network dynamics from time-series microarray data. To date, it has been successfully applied to computationally derive small-scale artificial and real-world genetic networks with high accuracy. However, they underperformed for large-scale genetic networks. Here, a new methodology has been proposed where a hybrid Cuckoo Search-Flower Pollination Algorithm has been implemented with Recurrent Neural Network. Cuckoo Search is used to search the best combination of regulators. Moreover, Flower Pollination Algorithm is applied to optimize the model parameters of the Recurrent Neural Network formalism. Initially, the proposed method is tested on a benchmark large-scale artificial network for both noiseless and noisy data. The results obtained show that the proposed methodology is capable of increasing the inference of correct regulations and decreasing false regulations to a high degree. Secondly, the proposed methodology has been validated against the real-world dataset of the DNA SOS repair network of Escherichia coli. However, the proposed method sacrifices computational time complexity in both cases due to the hybrid optimization process.

  6. Characterization of two TERMINAL FLOWER1 homologs PgTFL1 and PgCENa from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Hemant B; Chaurasia, Akhilesh K; Azeez, Abdul; Krishna, Bal; Subramaniam, V R; Sane, Aniruddha P; Sane, Prafullachandra V

    2017-12-21

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER1/CENTRORADIALIS (TFL1/CEN) are the key regulators of flowering time in plants with FT promoting flowering and TFL1 repressing flowering. TFL1 also controls floral meristem identity and its maintenance. In this study we have characterized two pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) TFL1/CEN-like genes designated as PgTFL1 and PgCENa. The expression of PgTFL1 and PgCENa fluctuated through alternate pruning and flowering cycles, being highly expressed during the vegetative phase (immediately after pruning) and decreasing gradually in the months thereafter such that their lowest levels, especially for PgCENa coincided with the flowering phase. Both the genes are able to functionally suppress the Arabidopsis tfl1-14 mutant flowering defect. Their expression in Arabidopsis resulted in delayed flowering time, increased plant height and leaf number, branches and shoot buds as compared with wild type, suggesting that PgTFL1 and PgCENa are bonafide homologs of TFL1. However, both the genes show distinct expression patterns, being expressed differentially in vegetative shoot apex and floral bud samples. While PgTFL1 expression was low in vegetative shoot apex and high in flower bud, PgCENa expression showed the opposite trend. These results suggest that the two TFL1s in pomegranate may be utilized to control distinct developmental processes, namely repression of flowering by PgCENa and development and growth of the reproductive tissues by PgTFL1 via distinct temporal and developmental regulation of their expression. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Constitutive expression of the K-domain of a Vaccinium corymbosum SOC1-like (VcSOC1-K) MADS-box gene is sufficient to promote flowering in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-qing; Walworth, Aaron; Zhao, Dongyan; Hildebrandt, Britton; Leasia, Michael

    2013-11-01

    The K-domain of a blueberry-derived SOC1 -like gene promotes flowering in tobacco without negatively impacting yield, demonstrating potential for manipulation of flowering time in horticultural crops. The SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) and SOC1-likes, belonging to the MIKC(c) (type II) MADS-box gene subfamily, are major floral activators and integrators of plant flowering. Both MADS-domains and K (Keratin)-domains are highly conserved in MIKC(c)-type MADS proteins. While there are many reports on overexpression of intact MIKC(c)-type MADS-box genes, few studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of the K-domains. In this report, a 474-bp K-domain of Vaccinium SOC1-like (VcSOC1-K) was cloned from the cDNA library of the northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). Functional analysis of the VcSOC1-K was conducted by ectopically expressing of 35S:VcSOC1-K in tobacco. Reverse transcription PCR confirmed expression of the VcSOC1-K in T0 plants. Phenotypically, T1 transgenic plants (10 T1 plants/event) flowered sooner after seeding, and were shorter with fewer leaves at the time of flowering, than nontransgenic plants; but seed pod production of transgenic plants was not significantly affected. These results demonstrate that overexpression of the K-domain of a MIKC(c)-type MADS-box gene alone is sufficient to promote early flowering and more importantly without affecting seed production.

  8. Linkage Map of a Gene Controlling Zero Tannins (zt-1 in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. with SSR and ISSR Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwei Hou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba L., a partially allogamous species, is rich in protein. Condensed tannins limit the use of faba beans as food and feed. Two recessive genes, zt-1 and zt-2, control the zero tannin content in faba bean and promote a white flower phenotype. To determine the inheritance and develop a linkage map for the zt-1 gene in the faba bean germplasm M3290, F2 and F3 progenies were derived from the purple flower and high tannin content genotypes Qinghai12 and zt-1 line M3290, respectively. Genetic analysis verified a single recessive gene for zero tannin content and flower colour. In total, 596 SSR markers and 100 ISSR markers were used to test the polymorphisms between the parents and bulks for the contrasting flower colour via Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA. Subsequently, six SSR markers and seven ISSR markers were used to genotype the entire 413 F2 population. Linkage analysis showed that the zt-1 gene was closely linked to the SSR markers SSR84 and M78, with genetic distances of 2.9 and 5.8 cM, respectively. The two flanked SSR markers were used to test 34 faba bean genotypes with different flower colours. The closely linked SSR marker SSR84 predicted the zt-1 genotypes with absolute accuracy. The results from the marker-assisted selection (MAS from this study could provide a solid foundation for further faba bean breeding programmes.

  9. Isolation and characterization of a floral homeotic gene in Fraxinus nigra causing earlier flowering and homeotic alterations in transgenic Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun Hyung Lee; Paula M. Pijut

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive sterility, which can be obtained by manipulating floral organ identity genes, is an important tool for gene containment of genetically engineered trees. In Arabidopsis, AGAMOUS (AG) is the only C-class gene responsible for both floral meristem determinacy and floral organ identity, and its mutations produce...

  10. Technical aspects in understanding effects of gamma irradiation on flower colour changes in Dendrobium Sonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakinah Ariffin; Azhar Mohammad; Ratnam, W.

    2012-01-01

    Colour is one of the most important traits in orchids and has created great interest in breeding programmes. Gamma irradiation is an alternative way for generation of somaclonal variation for new flower colours. Phenotypic changes are usually observed during screening and selection of mutants. Understanding of targeted gene expression level and evaluation of the changes facilitate in the development of functional markers for selection of desired flower colour mutants. Four Dendrobium orchid sequences (NCBI accessions: AM490639, AY41319, FM209429 and DQ462460) were selected to design gene specific primers based on information for chalcone synthase (CHS) from NCBI database. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to understand flower colour expression quantitatively derived from the CHS gene activities in different flower tissues (petal and sepal) from control Dendrobium Sonia (red purple), mutant DS 35-1/M (purple pink) and mutant DS 35-WhiteA. It was found that expression of CHS gene was highest in sepals of white flowers and lowest in both sepals and petals of purple pink flowers. Genomic DNA was amplified and PCR products were sequenced, aligned and compared. Sequence variations of CHS partial gene in Dendrobium Sonia mutants with different flower colour showed that two protein positions have been changed as compared to the control. These non-synonymous mutations may have contributed to the colour alterations in the white and purple pink mutants. This paper describes important procedures to quantify gene expression such as RNA isolation (quantity and quality), cDNA synthesis and primer design steps for CHS genes. (author)

  11. Patterning of inflorescences and flowers by the F-Box protein DOUBLE TOP and the LEAFY homolog ABERRANT LEAF AND FLOWER of petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souer, Erik; Rebocho, Alexandra B; Bliek, Mattijs; Kusters, Elske; de Bruin, Robert A M; Koes, Ronald

    2008-08-01

    Angiosperms display a wide variety of inflorescence architectures differing in the positions where flowers or branches arise. The expression of floral meristem identity (FMI) genes determines when and where flowers are formed. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this is regulated via transcription of LEAFY (LFY), which encodes a transcription factor that promotes FMI. We found that this is regulated in petunia (Petunia hybrida) via transcription of a distinct gene, DOUBLE TOP (DOT), a homolog of UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) from Arabidopsis. Mutation of DOT or its tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) homolog ANANTHA abolishes FMI. Ubiquitous expression of DOT or UFO in petunia causes very early flowering and transforms the inflorescence into a solitary flower and leaves into petals. Ectopic expression of DOT or UFO together with LFY or its homolog ABERRANT LEAF AND FLOWER (ALF) in petunia seedlings activates genes required for identity or outgrowth of organ primordia. DOT interacts physically with ALF, suggesting that it activates ALF by a posttranslational mechanism. Our findings suggest a wider role than previously thought for DOT and UFO in the patterning of flowers and indicate that the different roles of LFY and UFO homologs in the spatiotemporal control of floral identity in distinct species result from their divergent expression patterns.

  12. Expression of MEP Pathway Genes and Non-volatile Sequestration Are Associated with Circadian Rhythm of Dominant Terpenoids Emission in Osmanthus fragrans Lour. Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riru Zheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Osmanthus fragrans Lour. is one of the top 10 traditional ornamental flowers in China famous for its unique fragrance. Preliminary study proved that the terpenoids including ionone, linalool, and ocimene and their derivatives are the dominant aroma-active compounds that contribute greatly to the scent bouquet. Pollination observation implies the emission of aromatic terpenoids may follow a circadian rhythm. In this study, we investigated the variation of volatile terpenoids and its potential regulators. The results showed that both volatile and non-volatile terpenoids presented circadian oscillation with high emission or accumulation during the day and low emission or accumulation during the night. The volatile terpenoids always increased to reach their maximum values at 12:00 h, while free and glycosylated compounds continued increasing throughout the day. The depletion of non-volatile pool might provide the substrates for volatile emission at 0:00–6:00, suggesting the sequestration of non-volatile compounds acted like a buffer regulating emission of terpenoids. Further detection of MEP pathway genes demonstrated that their expressions increased significantly in parallel with the evident increase of both volatile and non-volatile terpenoids during the day, indicating that the gene expressions were also closely associated with terpenoid formation. Thus, the expression of MEP pathway genes and internal sequestration both played crucial roles in modulating circadian rhythm of terpenoid emission in O. fragrans.

  13. A new method for promoting lily flowering

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... FT is thought to be the florigen in plants. In this research, a new method for promoting lily flowering was introduced. The function of FT gene cloned from Arabidopsis on promoting lily flowering was analyzed. pET-30a-FT vector was constructed to indicate the expression of FT:eGFP fuse protein in.

  14. Múltiple natural enemies do not improve two spotted spider mite and flower western thrips control in strawberry tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Albendín

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological control techniques are commonly used in many horticultural crops in Spain, however the application of these techniques to Spanish strawberries are relatively recent. In this study the effectiveness of augmentative biological control techniques to control the two main strawberry (Fragaria xananassa Duchesne pest: the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, and the western flower thrips (WFT, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae, through releases of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae, and Orius laevigatus (Fieber (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae were tested. Two-year results on the performance of treatments using combinations of these biocontrol agents are presented. In both years, all treatments resulted in the reduction of TSSM numbers; but no treatment was better than the release of P. persimilis alone (P < 0.05. TSSM suppression varied among crop phases being greater early in the season. None of the treatments reduced significantly WFT numbers (P < 0.05, and the established economic injury level (EIL was surpassed from March to late April in both years. However, EIL was surpassed less times when treatment included O. laevigatus (2009: 20.7%; 2010: 22.7% of samples. No effect of A. swirskii was observed when this mite was released. Results corroborate that biological control techniques for TSSM and WFT are feasible for high-plastic tunnel strawberries. Under the conditions in our study no additive effects were observed, and there was not advantage in the release of multiple natural enemies.

  15. Novel flower-shaped albumin particles as controlled-release carriers for drugs to penetrate the round-window membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhan; Yu, Min; Zhou, Zhimin; Zhang, Zhibao; Du, Bo; Xiong, Qingqing

    2014-01-01

    Controlled-release carriers for local drug delivery have attracted increasing attention for inner-ear treatment recently. In this paper, flower-shaped bovine serum albumin (FBSA) particles were prepared by a modified desolvation method followed by glutaraldehyde or heat denaturation. The size of the FBSA particles varied from 10 μm to 100 μm, and most were 50-80 μm. Heat-denatured FBSA particles have good cytocompatibility with a prolonged survival time for L929 cells. The FBSA particles were utilized as carriers to investigate the release behaviors of the model drug - rhodamine B. Rhodamine B showed a sustained-release effect and penetrated the round-window membrane of guinea pigs. We also confirmed the attachment of FBSA particles onto the round-window membrane by microscopy. The FBSA particles, with good biocompatibility, drug-loading capacity, adhesive capability, and biodegradability, may have potential applications in the field of local drug delivery for inner-ear disease treatment.

  16. Flowers and Wild Megachilid Bees Share Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFrederick, Quinn S; Thomas, Jason M; Neff, John L; Vuong, Hoang Q; Russell, Kaleigh A; Hale, Amanda R; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2017-01-01

    Transmission pathways have fundamental influence on microbial symbiont persistence and evolution. For example, the core gut microbiome of honey bees is transmitted socially and via hive surfaces, but some non-core bacteria associated with honey bees are also found on flowers, and these bacteria may therefore be transmitted indirectly between bees via flowers. Here, we test whether multiple flower and wild megachilid bee species share microbes, which would suggest that flowers may act as hubs of microbial transmission. We sampled the microbiomes of flowers (either bagged to exclude bees or open to allow bee visitation), adults, and larvae of seven megachilid bee species and their pollen provisions. We found a Lactobacillus operational taxonomic unit (OTU) in all samples but in the highest relative and absolute abundances in adult and larval bee guts and pollen provisions. The presence of the same bacterial types in open and bagged flowers, pollen provisions, and bees supports the hypothesis that flowers act as hubs of transmission of these bacteria between bees. The presence of bee-associated bacteria in flowers that have not been visited by bees suggests that these bacteria may also be transmitted to flowers via plant surfaces, the air, or minute insect vectors such as thrips. Phylogenetic analyses of nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the Lactobacillus OTU dominating in flower- and megachilid-associated microbiomes is monophyletic, and we propose the name Lactobacillus micheneri sp. nov. for this bacterium.

  17. Say it with flowers: Flowering acceleration by root communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falik, Omer; Hoffmann, Ishay; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The timing of reproduction is a critical determinant of fitness, especially in organisms inhabiting seasonal environments. Increasing evidence suggests that inter-plant communication plays important roles in plant functioning. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flowering coordination can involve communication between neighboring plants. We show that soil leachates from Brassica rapa plants growing under long-day conditions accelerated flowering and decreased allocation to vegetative organs in target plants growing under non-inductive short-day conditions. The results suggest that besides endogenous signaling and external abiotic cues, flowering timing may involve inter-plant communication, mediated by root exudates. The study of flowering communication is expected to illuminate neglected aspects of plant reproductive interactions and to provide novel opportunities for controlling the timing of plant reproduction in agricultural settings.

  18. FT overexpression induces precocious flowering and normal reproductive development in Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocko, Amy L; Ma, Cathleen; Robertson, Sarah; Esfandiari, Elahe; Nilsson, Ove; Strauss, Steven H

    2016-02-01

    Eucalyptus trees are among the most important species for industrial forestry worldwide. However, as with most forest trees, flowering does not begin for one to several years after planting which can limit the rate of conventional and molecular breeding. To speed flowering, we transformed a Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla hybrid (SP7) with a variety of constructs that enable overexpression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). We found that FT expression led to very early flowering, with events showing floral buds within 1-5 months of transplanting to the glasshouse. The most rapid flowering was observed when the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was used to drive the Arabidopsis thaliana FT gene (AtFT). Early flowering was also observed with AtFT overexpression from a 409S ubiquitin promoter and under heat induction conditions with Populus trichocarpa FT1 (PtFT1) under control of a heat-shock promoter. Early flowering trees grew robustly, but exhibited a highly branched phenotype compared to the strong apical dominance of nonflowering transgenic and control trees. AtFT-induced flowers were morphologically normal and produced viable pollen grains and viable self- and cross-pollinated seeds. Many self-seedlings inherited AtFT and flowered early. FT overexpression-induced flowering in Eucalyptus may be a valuable means for accelerating breeding and genetic studies as the transgene can be easily segregated away in progeny, restoring normal growth and form. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A plant-based chemical genomics screen for the identification of flowering inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiers, Martijn; Hoogenboom, Jorin; Brunazzi, Alice; Wennekes, Tom; Angenent, Gerco C; Immink, Richard G H

    2017-01-01

    Floral timing is a carefully regulated process, in which the plant determines the optimal moment to switch from the vegetative to reproductive phase. While there are numerous genes known that control flowering time, little information is available on chemical compounds that are able to influence this process. We aimed to discover novel compounds that are able to induce flowering in the model plant Arabidopsis. For this purpose we developed a plant-based screening platform that can be used in a chemical genomics study. Here we describe the set-up of the screening platform and various issues and pitfalls that need to be addressed in order to perform a chemical genomics screening on Arabidopsis plantlets. We describe the choice for a molecular marker, in combination with a sensitive reporter that's active in plants and is sufficiently sensitive for detection. In this particular screen, the firefly Luciferase marker was used, fused to the regulatory sequences of the floral meristem identity gene APETALA1 (AP1) , which is an early marker for flowering. Using this screening platform almost 9000 compounds were screened, in triplicate, in 96-well plates at a concentration of 25 µM. One of the identified potential flowering inducing compounds was studied in more detail and named Flowering1 (F1). F1 turned out to be an analogue of the plant hormone Salicylic acid (SA) and appeared to be more potent than SA in the induction of flowering. The effect could be confirmed by watering Arabidopsis plants with SA or F1, in which F1 gave a significant reduction in time to flowering in comparison to SA treatment or the control. In this study a chemical genomics screening platform was developed to discover compounds that can induce flowering in Arabidopsis. This platform was used successfully, to identify a compound that can speed-up flowering in Arabidopsis.

  20. Flower morphology of Dendrobium Sonia mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakinah Ariffin; Azhar Mohamad; Affrida Abu Hassan; Zaiton Ahmad; Mohd Nazir Basiran

    2010-01-01

    Dendrobium Sonia is a commercial hybrid which is popular as cut flower and potted plant in Malaysia. Variability in flower is important for new variety to generate more demands and choices in selection. Mutation induction is a tool in creating variability for new flower color and shape. In vitro cultures of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) were exposed to gamma ray at dose 35 Gy. Phenotypic characteristics of the flower were observed at fully bloomed flower with emphasis on shape and color. Approximately 2000 regenerated irradiated plants were observed and after subsequent flowering, 100 plants were finally selected for further evaluation. Most of the color and shape changes are expressed in different combinations of petal, sepal and lip of the flower. In this work, 11 stable mutants were found different at flower phenotype as compared to control. Amongst these, four mutant varieties with commercial potential has been named as Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaOval', Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaRadiant', Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaHiengDing' and Dendrobium 'Sonia KeenaAhmadSobri'. In this paper, variations in flower morphology and flower color were discussed, giving emphasis on variations in flower petal shape. (author)

  1. Transcriptomic Analysis of Flower Bud Differentiation in Magnolia sinostellata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Fan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnolias are widely cultivated for their beautiful flowers, but despite their popularity, the molecular mechanisms regulating flower bud differentiation have not been elucidated. Here, we used paraffin sections and RNA-seq to study the process of flower bud differentiation in Magnolia sinostellata. Flower bud development occurred between 28 April and 30 May 2017 and was divided into five stages: undifferentiated, early flower bud differentiation, petal primordium differentiation, stamen primordium differentiation, and pistil primordium differentiation. A total of 52,441 expressed genes were identified, of which 11,592 were significantly differentially expressed in the five bud development stages. Of these, 82 genes were involved in the flowering. In addition, MADS-box and AP2 family genes play critical roles in the formation of flower organs and 20 differentially expressed genes associated with flower bud differentiation were identified in M. sinostellata. A qRT-PCR analysis verified that the MADS-box and AP2 family genes were expressed at high levels during flower bud differentiation. Consequently, this study provides a theoretical basis for the genetic regulation of flowering in M. sinostellata, which lays a foundation for further research into flowering genes and may facilitate the development of new cultivars.

  2. Transcriptome profiling of differentially expressed genes in floral buds and flowers of male sterile and fertile lines in watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Sun-Ju; Seo, Minseok; Jang, Yoon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Lee, Gung Pyo

    2015-11-09

    Male sterility is an important mechanism for the production of hybrid seeds in watermelon. Although fruit development has been studied extensively in watermelon, there are no reports on gene expression in floral organs. In this study, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed in two near-isogenic watermelon lines (genic male sterile [GMS] line, DAH3615-MS and male fertile line, DAH3615) to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to male sterility. DEG analysis showed that 1259 genes were significantly associated with male sterility at a FDR P-value of watermelon. This analysis revealed essential genes responsible for stamen development, including pollen development and pollen tube elongation, and allowed their functional classification. These results provided new information on global mechanisms related to male sterility in watermelon.

  3. Cloning and functional analysis of the promoters that upregulate carotenogenic gene expression during flower development in Gentiana lutea

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Changfu; Yang, Qingjie; Ni, Xiuzhen; Bai, Chao; Sheng, Yanmin; Shi, Lianxuan; Capell Capell, Teresa; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, many carotenogenic genes have been cloned and used to generate metabolically engineered plants producing higher levels of carotenoids. However, comparatively little is known about the regulation of endogenous carotenogenic genes in higher plants, and this restricts our ability to predict how engineered plants will perform in terms of carotenoid content and composition. During petal development in the Great Yellow Gentian (Gentiana lutea), carotenoid accumulation, th...

  4. Novel flower-shaped albumin particles as controlled-release carriers for drugs to penetrate the round-window membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Z

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Zhan Yu,1,* Min Yu,2,* Zhimin Zhou,3 Zhibao Zhang,3 Bo Du,3 Qingqing Xiong3 1Second Artillery General Hospital, Beijing, 2Department of Cell Biology, Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, Ministry of Public Health, College of Basic Medicine, China Medical University, Shenyang, 3Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Key Laboratory of Biomedical Material of Tianjin, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equallyto this work Abstract: Controlled-release carriers for local drug delivery have attracted increasing attention for inner-ear treatment recently. In this paper, flower-shaped bovine serum albumin (FBSA particles were prepared by a modified desolvation method followed by glutaraldehyde or heat denaturation. The size of the FBSA particles varied from 10 µm to 100 µm, and most were 50–80 µm. Heat-denatured FBSA particles have good cytocompatibility with a prolonged survival time for L929 cells. The FBSA particles were utilized as carriers to investigate the release behaviors of the model drug – rhodamine B. Rhodamine B showed a sustained-release effect and penetrated the round-window membrane of guinea pigs. We also confirmed the attachment of FBSA particles onto the round-window membrane by microscopy. The FBSA particles, with good biocompatibility, drug-loading capacity, adhesive capability, and biodegradability, may have potential applications in the field of local drug delivery for inner-ear disease treatment. Keywords: bovine serum albumin (BSA, controlled release, local delivery, round-window membrane

  5. Overexpression of DOSOC1, an ortholog of Arabidopsis SOC1, promotes flowering in the orchid Dendrobium Chao Parya Smile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lihua; Wang, Yanwen; Yu, Hao

    2013-04-01

    SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1) encodes a MADS-box protein that plays an essential role in integrating multiple flowering signals to regulate the transition from vegetative to reproductive development in the model plant Arabidopsis. Although SOC1-like genes have been isolated in various angiosperms, its orthologs in Orchidaceae, one of the largest families of flowering plants, are so far unknown. To investigate the regulatory mechanisms of flowering time control in orchids, we isolated a SOC1-like gene, DOSOC1, from Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile. DOSOC1 was highly expressed in reproductive organs, including inflorescence apices, pedicels, floral buds and open flowers. Its expression significantly increased in whole plantlets during the transition from vegetative to reproductive development, which usually occurred after 8 weeks of culture in Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile. In the shoot apex at the floral transitional stage, DOSOC1 was particularly expressed in emerging floral meristems. Overexpression of DOSOC1 in wild-type Arabidopsis plants resulted in early flowering, which was coupled with the up-regulation of two other flowering promoters, AGAMOUS-LIKE 24 and LEAFY. In addition, overexpression of DOSOC1 was able partially to complement the late-flowering phenotype of Arabidopsis soc1-2 loss-of-function mutants. Furthermore, we successfully created seven 35S:DOSOC1 transgenic Dendrobium orchid lines, which consistently exhibited earlier flowering than wild-type orchids. Our results suggest that SOC1-like genes play an evolutionarily conserved role in promoting flowering in the Orchidaceae family, and that DOSOC1 isolated from Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile could serve as an important target for genetic manipulation of flowering time in orchids.

  6. FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) regulates development pathways throughout the life cycle of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Weiwei; Ying, Hua; Helliwell, Chris A; Taylor, Jennifer M; Peacock, W James; Dennis, Elizabeth S

    2011-04-19

    FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) has a key role in the timing of the initiation of flowering in Arabidopsis. FLC binds and represses two genes that promote flowering, FT and SOC1. We show that FLC binds to many other genes, indicating that it has regulatory roles other than the repression of flowering. We identified 505 FLC binding sites, mostly located in the promoter regions of genes and containing at least one CArG box, the motif known to be associated with MADS-box proteins such as FLC. We examined 40 of the target genes, and 20 showed increased transcript levels in an flc mutant compared with the wild type. Five genes showed decreased expression in the mutant, indicating that FLC binding can result in either transcriptional repression or activation. The genes we identified as FLC targets are involved in developmental pathways throughout the life history of the plant, many of which are associated with reproductive development. FLC is also involved in vegetative development, as evidenced by its binding to SPL15, delaying the progression from juvenile to adult phase. Some of the FLC target genes are also bound by two other MADS-box proteins, AP1 and SEP3, suggesting that MADS-box genes may operate in a network of control at different stages of the life cycle, many ultimately contributing to the development of the reproductive phase of the plant.

  7. Assessment of the internal quality of stored flower bulbs using magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilsdonk, Maria Gerarda van

    2002-01-01

    Many flower bulbs have a life cycle of a year or more, flowering either in spring or in summer. Nevertheless, year-round production of cut flowers has become common practice in horticulture. To control flowering, which is necessary for the year-round production of flowers, bulbs are exposed to

  8. Wheat Brassinosteroid-Insensitive1 (TaBRI1 Interacts with Members of TaSERK Gene Family and Cause Early Flowering and Seed Yield Enhancement in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Singh

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs hormones are important for plant growth, development and immune responses. They are sensed by the transmembrane receptor kinase Brassinosteroid-Insensitive 1 (BRI1 when they bind to its extracellular Leu-rich repeat (LRR domain. We cloned and characterized the TaBRI1 from T. aestivum and raised overexpression transgenics in Arabidopsis to decipher its functional role. TaBRI1 protein consists of a putative signal peptide followed by 25 leucine rich repeats (LRR, a transmembrane domain and a C-terminal kinase domain. The analysis determined the interaction of TaBRI1 with five members of the wheat Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase (TaSERKs gene family (TaSERK1, TaSERK2, TaSERK3, TaSERK4 and TaSERK5, at the plasma membrane. Furthermore, overexpression of TaBRI1 in Arabidopsis leads to the early flowering, increased silique size and seed yield. Root growth analysis of TaBRI1 overexpressing transgenic plants showed hypersensitivity to epi-brassinolide (epi-BL hormone in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, transgenic Arabidopsis plants show thermotolerance phenotype at the seedling stages as revealed by chlorophyll content, photosystem II activity and membrane stability. The transcriptome profiling on the basis of microarray analysis indicates up-regulation of several genes related to brassinosteroid signaling pathway, abiotic stress response, defense response and transcription factors. These studies predict the possible role of TaBRI1 gene in plant growth and development imparting tolerance to thermal stress.

  9. Genes and chromosomes: control of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Serov

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has witnessed immense progress in research into the molecular basis behind the developmental regulation of genes. Sets of genes functioning under hierarchical control have been identified, evolutionary conserved systems of genes effecting the cell-to-cell transmission of transmembrane signals and assigned a central role in morphogenesis have been intensively studied; the concept of genomic regulatory networks coordinating expression of many genes has been introduced, to mention some of the major breakthroughs. It should be noted that the temporal and tissue-specific parameters of gene expression are correctly regulated in development only in the context of the chromosome and that they are to a great extent dependent on the position of the gene on the chromosome or the interphase nucleus. Moreover epigenetic inheritance of the gene states through successive cell generations has been conducted exclusively at the chromosome level by virtue of cell or chromosome memory. The ontogenetic memory is an inherent property of the chromosome and cis-regulation has a crucial role in its maintenance.Durante a última década houve imenso progresso na pesquisa sobre as bases moleculares da regulação gênica durante o desenvolvimento. Foram identificados grupos de genes funcionando sob controle hierárquico, sistemas de genes conservados ao longo da evolução atuando na transmissão célula a célula de sinais transmembrana e com uma função central na morfogênese foram intensamente estudados e o conceito de redes genômicas regulatórias coordenando a expressão de diversos genes foi introduzido, para citar apenas alguns dos principais avanços. Deve-se notar que os parâmetros tempo e tecido-específicos da expressão gênica são corretamente regulados durante o desenvolvimento apenas no contexto do cromossomo e que são amplamente dependentes da posição do gene no cromossomo ou no núcleo em interfase. Além do mais, a herança epigen

  10. Metabolic gene polymorphism frequencies in control populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garte, Seymour; Gaspari, Laura; Alexandrie, Anna-Karin

    2001-01-01

    Using the International Project on Genetic Susceptibility to Environmental Carcinogens (GSEC) database containing information on over 15,000 control (noncancer) subjects, the allele and genotype frequencies for many of the more commonly studied metabolic genes (CYP1A1, CYP2E1, CYP2D6, GSTM1, GSTT1...

  11. Ectopic Expression of the Coleus R2R3 MYB-Type Proanthocyanidin Regulator Gene SsMYB3 Alters the Flower Color in Transgenic Tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinlong Zhu

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins (PAs play an important role in plant disease defense and have beneficial effects on human health. We isolated and characterized a novel R2R3 MYB-type PA-regulator SsMYB3 from a well-known ornamental plant, coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides, to study the molecular regulation of PAs and to engineer PAs biosynthesis. The expression level of SsMYB3 was correlated with condensed tannins contents in various coleus tissues and was induced by wounding and light. A complementation test in the Arabidopsis tt2 mutant showed that SsMYB3 could restore the PA-deficient seed coat phenotype and activated expression of the PA-specific gene ANR and two related genes, DFR and ANS. In yeast two-hybrid assays, SsMYB3 interacted with the Arabidopsis AtTT8 and AtTTG1 to reform the ternary transcriptional complex, and also interacted with two tobacco bHLH proteins (NtAn1a and NtJAF13-1 and a WD40 protein, NtAn11-1. Ectopic overexpression of SsMYB3 in transgenic tobacco led to almost-white flowers by greatly reducing anthocyanin levels and enhancing accumulation of condensed tannins. This overexpression of SsMYB3 upregulated the key PA genes (NtLAR and NtANR and late anthocyanin structural genes (NtDFR and NtANS, but downregulated the expression of the final anthocyanin gene NtUFGT. The formative SsMYB3-complex represses anthocyanin accumulation by directly suppressing the expression of the final anthocyanin structural gene NtUFGT, through competitive inhibition or destabilization of the endogenous NtAn2-complex formation. These results suggested that SsMYB3 may form a transcription activation complex to regulate PA biosynthesis in the Arabidopsis tt2 mutant and transgenic tobacco. Our findings suggest that SsMYB3 is involved in the regulation of PA biosynthesis in coleus and has the potential as a molecular tool for manipulating biosynthesis of PAs in fruits and other crops using metabolic engineering.

  12. Mass spectrometric imaging as a high-spatial resolution tool for functional genomics: Tissue-specific gene expression of TT7 inferred from heterogeneous distribution of metabolites in Arabidopsis flowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, Andrew R.; Song, Zhihong; Nikolau, Basil J.; Lee, Young Jin

    2011-12-23

    Laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was used to acquire chemical images of flavonoid metabolites on the surface of wild-type and mutant (tt7) Arabidopsis thaliana flowers. Flavonoids were localized to the petals and carpels of flowers, with tissue heterogeneity in the petals. Specifically, kaempferol and/or its glycosides were abundant in the distal region of petals and quercetin and its downstream flavonoids were highly enriched in the more proximal region of petals. As a result of a mutation in the TT7 gene which blocks the conversion of dihydrokaempferol to dihydroquercetin, the downstream metabolites, quercetin, isohamnetin, and their glycosides, were not observed in the mutant flowers. Instead, the metabolites in an alternative pathway, kaempferol and/or its glycosides, were as highly abundant on the proximal region of the petals as in the distal region. In addition, the combined flavonoid amounts on the proximal region of petals in the wild-type are almost equivalent to the amounts of kaempferol and/or its glycosides in the mutant. This strongly suggests that the expression of the TT7 gene is localized on the proximal part of the petal while the other genes in the upper stream pathway are evenly expressed throughout the petal. Most importantly, this work demonstrates MSI of metabolites can be utilized for the localization of gene expression.

  13. Flowering time regulation in crops—what did we learn from Arabidopsis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümel, Martina; Dally, Nadine; Jung, Christian

    2015-04-01

    The change from vegetative to reproductive growth is a key developmental switch in flowering plants. In agriculture, flowering is a prerequisite for crop production whenever seeds or fruits are harvested. An intricate network with various (epi-) genetic regulators responding to environmental and endogenous triggers controls the timely onset of flowering. Changes in the expression of a single flowering time (FTi) regulator can suffice to drastically alter FTi. FTi regulation is of utmost importance for genetic improvement of crops. We summarize recent discoveries on FTi regulators in crop species emphasizing crop-specific genes lacking homologs in Arabidopsis thaliana. We highlight pleiotropic effects on agronomically important characters, impact on adaptation to new geographical/climate conditions and future perspectives for crop improvement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression of ethylene biosynthetic and receptor genes in rose floral tissues during ethylene-enhanced flower opening

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Jingqi; Li, Yunhui; Tan, Hui; Yang, Feng; Ma, Nan; Gao, Junping

    2008-01-01

    Ethylene production, as well as the expression of ethylene biosynthetic (Rh-ACS1?4 and Rh-ACO1) and receptor (Rh-ETR1?5) genes, was determined in five different floral tissues (sepals, petals, stamens, gynoecia, and receptacles) of cut rose (Rosa hybrida cv. Samantha upon treatment with ethylene or the ethylene inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Ethylene-enhanced ethylene production occurred only in gynoecia, petals, and receptacles, with gynoecia showing the greatest enhancement in the ...

  15. Identification, expression profiling and fluorescence-based binding assays of a chemosensory protein gene from the Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ke Zhang

    Full Text Available Using RT-PCR and RACE-PCR strategies, we cloned and identified a new chemosensory protein (FoccCSP from the Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, a species for which no chemosensory protein (CSP has yet been identified. The FoccCSP gene contains a 387 bp open-reading frame encoding a putative protein of 128 amino acids with a molecular weight of 14.51 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.41. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 19 amino acid residues at the N-terminus, as well as the typical four-cysteine signature found in other insect CSPs. As FoccCSP is from a different order of insect than other known CSPs, the GenBank FoccCSP homolog showed only 31-50% sequence identity with them. A neighbor-joining tree was constructed and revealed that FoccCSP is in a group with CSPs from Homopteran insects (e.g., AgosCSP4, AgosCSP10, ApisCSP, and NlugCSP9, suggesting that these genes likely developed from a common ancestral gene. The FoccCSP gene expression profile of different tissues and development stages was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. The results of this analysis revealed this gene is predominantly expressed in the antennae and also highly expressed in the first instar nymph, suggesting a function for FoccCSP in olfactory reception and in particular life activities during the first instar nymph stage. We expressed recombinant FoccCSP protein in a prokaryotic expression system and purified FoccCSP protein by affinity chromatography using a Ni-NTA-Sepharose column. Using N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (1-NPN as a fluorescent probe in fluorescence-based competitive binding assay, we determined the binding affinities of 19 volatile substances for FoccCSP protein. This analysis revealed that anisic aldehyde, geraniol and methyl salicylate have high binding affinities for FoccCSP, with KD values of 10.50, 15.35 and 35.24 μM, respectively. Thus, our study indicates that FoccCSP may play an important role in

  16. Silver Nanoparticles Biosynthesized Using Achillea biebersteinii Flower Extract: Apoptosis Induction in MCF-7 Cells via Caspase Activation and Regulation of Bax and Bcl-2 Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Baharara

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs, the most popular nanoparticles, possess unique properties. Achillea biebersteinii is a plant of the Asteraceae family rich in active antitumor components. The aim of this research was the characterization and investigation of the cytotoxic properties of Ag-NPs synthesized using A. biebersteinii flower extract, on a human breast cancer cell line. The Ag-NPs were synthesized after approximately 180 min of reaction at 40 °C, then they were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS. The anti-apoptosis effect of Ag-NPs on the MCF-7 cell line was investigated by MTT assay, DAPI and acridine orange staining and caspase activity. The transcriptional expression of bax, bcl-2, caspase-3, -8 and -9 were also evaluated by RT-PCR. The TEM images revealed that the Ag-NPs morphology had a different shape. The DLS indicated that the average hydrodynamic diameter of the biosynthesized Ag-NPs was around 12 nm. By UV-visible spectroscopy the strongest absorbance peak was observed at 460 nm. The FTIR results also showed interaction between the plant extract and Ag-NPs due to the similarity in the peak patterns. The EDS results showed that Ag-NPs display an absorption peak at 3 keV, indicating the presence of the element silver. The Ag-NPs caused a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, fragmentation in nucleic acid, inhibited the proliferation and induction of apoptosis on MCF-7 by suppressing specific cell cycle genes, and simulation programmed cell dead genes. Further investigation is required to establish the potential of this novel and promising approach in cancer therapy.

  17. Alternative expression of vacuolar iron transporter and ferritin genes leads to blue/purple coloration of flowers in tulip cv. 'Murasakizuisho'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Kazuaki; Momonoi, Kazumi; Tsuji, Tosiaki

    2010-02-01

    Flowers of tulip cv. 'Murasakizuisho' have a purple perianth except for the bottom region, which is blue in color even though it has the same anthocyanin, delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, as the entire perianth. The development of the blue coloration in the perianth bottom is due to complexation by anthocyanin, flavonol and iron (Fe), as well as a vacuolar iron transporter, TgVit1. Although transient expression of TgVit1 in the purple cells led to a color change to light blue, the coloration of the transformed cells did not coincide with the dark blue color of the cells of the perianth bottom. We thought that another factor is required for the blue coloration of the cells of perianth bottom. To examine the effect of ferritin (FER), an Fe storage protein, on blue color development, we cloned an FER gene (TgFER1) and performed expression analyses. TgFER1 transcripts were found in the cells located in the upper region of the petals along with purple color development by anthocyanin and were not found in the blue cells of the perianth bottom. This gene expression is in contrast to that of TgVit1, expressed only in the cells of the perianth bottom. Co-expression of TgVIT1 and TgFER-RNAi, constructed for suppressing endogenous TgFER1 by RNA interference (RNAi), changed the purple petal cells to a dark blue color similar to that of the natural perianth bottom. These results strongly suggest that TgVit1 expression and TgFER1 suppression are critical for the development of blue color in the perianth bottom.

  18. The genome and transcriptome of Phalaenopsis yield insights into floral organ development and flowering regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Zhi Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Phalaenopsis orchid is an important potted flower of high economic value around the world. We report the 3.1 Gb draft genome assembly of an important winter flowering Phalaenopsis ‘KHM190’ cultivar. We generated 89.5 Gb RNA-seq and 113 million sRNA-seq reads to use these data to identify 41,153 protein-coding genes and 188 miRNA families. We also generated a draft genome for Phalaenopsis pulcherrima ‘B8802,’ a summer flowering species, via resequencing. Comparison of genome data between the two Phalaenopsis cultivars allowed the identification of 691,532 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. In this study, we reveal that the key role of PhAGL6b in the regulation of labellum organ development involves alternative splicing in the big lip mutant. Petal or sepal overexpressing PhAGL6b leads to the conversion into a lip-like structure. We also discovered that the gibberellin pathway that regulates the expression of flowering time genes during the reproductive phase change is induced by cool temperature. Our work thus depicted a valuable resource for the flowering control, flower architecture development, and breeding of the Phalaenopsis orchids.

  19. Developmental changes in the metabolic network of snapdragon flowers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joëlle K Muhlemann

    Full Text Available Evolutionary and reproductive success of angiosperms, the most diverse group of land plants, relies on visual and olfactory cues for pollinator attraction. Previous work has focused on elucidating the developmental regulation of pathways leading to the formation of pollinator-attracting secondary metabolites such as scent compounds and flower pigments. However, to date little is known about how flowers control their entire metabolic network to achieve the highly regulated production of metabolites attracting pollinators. Integrative analysis of transcripts and metabolites in snapdragon sepals and petals over flower development performed in this study revealed a profound developmental remodeling of gene expression and metabolite profiles in petals, but not in sepals. Genes up-regulated during petal development were enriched in functions related to secondary metabolism, fatty acid catabolism, and amino acid transport, whereas down-regulated genes were enriched in processes involved in cell growth, cell wall formation, and fatty acid biosynthesis. The levels of transcripts and metabolites in pathways leading to scent formation were coordinately up-regulated during petal development, implying transcriptional induction of metabolic pathways preceding scent formation. Developmental gene expression patterns in the pathways involved in scent production were different from those of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway, highlighting distinct developmental regulation of secondary metabolism and primary metabolic pathways feeding into it.

  20. The behavior, ecology and control of legume flower thrips, #Megalurothrips sjostedti# (Trybom) in cowpea #Vigna unguiculata# (L.) towards the development of an integrated pest management (IPM) program in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Abtew, Andnet Bayleyegn

    2015-01-01

    The overarching aim of this thesis is to investigate the behaviour and ecology of the legume flower thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom and develop alternative control method. Its specific goals are to: (1) assess pest problems and management methods practiced by grain legume producers, and identifying the cropping systems in the study areas in Kenya; (2) study the impact of climate change on the geographic distribution of legume flower thrips on cowpea growing regions of Sub Saharn Africa...

  1. OsCHX14 is Involved in the K+ Homeostasis in Rice (Oryza sativa) Flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Miller, A.J.; Luo, B.; Wang, M.; Zhu, Z.; Ouwerkerk, P.B.F.

    2016-01-01

    Previously we showed in the osjar1 mutants that the lodicule senescence which controls the closing of rice flowers was delayed. This resulted in florets staying open longer when compared with the wild type. The gene OsJAR1 is silenced in osjar1 mutants and is a key member of the jasmonic acid (JA)

  2. A plant-based chemical genomics screen for the identification of flowering inducers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiers, Martijn; Hoogenboom, Jorin; Brunazzi, Alice; Wennekes, Tom; Angenent, Gerco C; Immink, Richard G H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Floral timing is a carefully regulated process, in which the plant determines the optimal moment to switch from the vegetative to reproductive phase. While there are numerous genes known that control flowering time, little information is available on chemical compounds that are able to

  3. Heterologous expression of the Arabidopsis etr1-1 allele inhibits the senescence of carnation flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovy, A.G.; Angenent, G.C.; Dons, H.J.M.; Altvorst, van A.

    1999-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana etr1-1 allele, capable of conferring ethylene insensitivity in a heterologous host, was introduced into transgenic carnation plants. This gene was expressed under control of either its own promoter, the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter or the flower-specific petunia FBP1

  4. High-temperature controlled atmosphere for post-harvest control of Indian meal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on preserved flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Jodi A; Shelton, Mark D

    2002-10-01

    High carbon dioxide atmospheres combined with high temperature were effective for controlling Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) pupae. Pupae were exposed to atmospheres of 60, 80, or 98% carbon dioxide (CO2) in nitrogen (N2), or 60 or 80% CO2 in air at temperatures of 26.7 degrees C or 32.2 degrees C and 60% RH. Controlled atmosphere treatments at 32.2 degrees C controlled pupae faster than the same treatments at the lower temperature. At both temperatures high CO2 concentration treatments combined with nitrogen killed pupae faster than high CO2 concentration treatments combined with air. Exposure to 80% carbon dioxide mixed with nitrogen was the most effective treatment causing 100% mortality in 12 h at 32.2 degrees C and 93.3% mortality in 18 h at 26.6 degrees C. High-temperature controlled atmosphere treatments had no adverse effects on quality of two preserved floral products, Limonium sinuatum (L.) and Gypsophila elegans (Bieb.), tested for 12, 18, and 24 h according to industry standards.

  5. Design a Hummingbird Flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity that engages students in designing and making an artificial flower adapted for pollination by hummingbirds. Students work in teams to design flowers that maximize the benefit from attracting hummingbirds. Examines characteristics of real flowers adapted to pollination by hummingbirds. (DLH)

  6. Molecular mapping of QTL alleles of Brassica oleracea affecting days to flowering and photosensitivity in spring Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Habibur; Bennett, Rick A; Kebede, Berisso

    2018-01-01

    Earliness of flowering and maturity are important traits in spring Brassica napus canola-whether grown under long- or short-day condition. By use of a spring B. napus mapping population carrying the genome content of B. oleracea and testing this population under 10 to 18 h photoperiod and 18 to 20 0C (day) temperature conditions, we identified a major QTL on the chromosome C1 affecting flowering time without being influenced by photoperiod and temperature, and a major QTL on C9 affecting flowering time under a short photoperiod (10 h); in both cases, the QTL alleles reducing the number of days to flowering in B. napus were introgressed from the late flowering species B. oleracea. Additive effect of the C1 QTL allele at 14 to18 h photoperiod was 1.1 to 2.9 days; however, the same QTL allele exerted an additive effect of 6.2 days at 10 h photoperiod. Additive effect of the C9 QTL at 10 h photoperiod was 2.8 days. These two QTL also showed significant interaction in the control of flowering only under a short-day (10 h photoperiod) condition with an effect of 2.3 days. A few additional QTL were also detected on the chromosomes C2 and C8; however, none of these QTL could be detected under all photoperiod and temperature conditions. BLASTn search identified several putative flowering time genes on the chromosomes C1 and C9 and located the physical position of the QTL markers in the Brassica genome; however, only a few of these genes were found within the QTL region. Thus, the molecular markers and the genomic regions identified in this research could potentially be used in breeding for the development of early flowering photoinsensitive B. napus canola cultivars, as well as for identification of candidate genes involved in flowering time variation and photosensitivity.

  7. Isolation of differentially expressed sex genes in garden asparagus using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chuan-liang; Wang, Ning-na; Li, Shu-fen; Dong, Tian-yu; Zhao, Xin-peng; Wang, Shao-jing; Gao, Wu-jun; Lu, Long-dou

    2015-09-01

    Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is a dioecious species whose male and female flowers are found in separate unisexual individuals. A region called the M-locus, located on a pair of homomorphic sex chromosomes, controls sexual dimorphism in asparagus. To date, no sex determining gene has been isolated from asparagus. To identify more genes involved in flower development in asparagus, subtractive hybridization library of male flowers in asparagus was constructed by suppression subtraction hybridization. A total of 107 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified. BLASTX analysis showed that the library contained several genes that could be related to flower development. The expression patterns of seven selected genes believed to be involved in the development of asparagus male flower were further analyzed by semi-quantitative or real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results showed that AOEST4-5, AOEST12-40, and AOEST13-38 were strongly expressed in the male flower stage, whereas no transcript level of AOEST13-38 was detected in the female flower stage. The expression levels of AOEST13-87, AOEST13-92, AOEST13-40, and AOEST18-87 in the male flower stage were also higher than those in the female flower stage, although these transcripts were also expressed in other tissues. The identified genes can provide a strong starting point for further studies on the underlying molecular differences between the male and female flowers of asparagus.

  8. An internal ribosome entry site directs translation of the 3'-gene from Pelargonium flower break virus genomic RNA: implications for infectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Fernández-Miragall

    Full Text Available Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV, genus Carmovirus has a single-stranded positive-sense genomic RNA (gRNA which contains five ORFs. The two 5'-proximal ORFs encode the replicases, two internal ORFs encode movement proteins, and the 3'-proximal ORF encodes a polypeptide (p37 which plays a dual role as capsid protein and as suppressor of RNA silencing. Like other members of family Tombusviridae, carmoviruses express ORFs that are not 5'-proximal from subgenomic RNAs. However, in one case, corresponding to Hisbiscus chlorotic ringspot virus, it has been reported that the 3'-proximal gene can be translated from the gRNA through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES. Here we show that PFBV also holds an IRES that mediates production of p37 from the gRNA, raising the question of whether this translation strategy may be conserved in the genus. The PFBV IRES was functional both in vitro and in vivo and either in the viral context or when inserted into synthetic bicistronic constructs. Through deletion and mutagenesis studies we have found that the IRES is contained within a 80 nt segment and have identified some structural traits that influence IRES function. Interestingly, mutations that diminish IRES activity strongly reduced the infectivity of the virus while the progress of the infection was favoured by mutations potentiating such activity. These results support the biological significance of the IRES-driven p37 translation and suggest that production of the silencing suppressor from the gRNA might allow the virus to early counteract the defence response of the host, thus facilitating pathogen multiplication and spread.

  9. An internal ribosome entry site directs translation of the 3'-gene from Pelargonium flower break virus genomic RNA: implications for infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Miragall, Olga; Hernández, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV, genus Carmovirus) has a single-stranded positive-sense genomic RNA (gRNA) which contains five ORFs. The two 5'-proximal ORFs encode the replicases, two internal ORFs encode movement proteins, and the 3'-proximal ORF encodes a polypeptide (p37) which plays a dual role as capsid protein and as suppressor of RNA silencing. Like other members of family Tombusviridae, carmoviruses express ORFs that are not 5'-proximal from subgenomic RNAs. However, in one case, corresponding to Hisbiscus chlorotic ringspot virus, it has been reported that the 3'-proximal gene can be translated from the gRNA through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Here we show that PFBV also holds an IRES that mediates production of p37 from the gRNA, raising the question of whether this translation strategy may be conserved in the genus. The PFBV IRES was functional both in vitro and in vivo and either in the viral context or when inserted into synthetic bicistronic constructs. Through deletion and mutagenesis studies we have found that the IRES is contained within a 80 nt segment and have identified some structural traits that influence IRES function. Interestingly, mutations that diminish IRES activity strongly reduced the infectivity of the virus while the progress of the infection was favoured by mutations potentiating such activity. These results support the biological significance of the IRES-driven p37 translation and suggest that production of the silencing suppressor from the gRNA might allow the virus to early counteract the defence response of the host, thus facilitating pathogen multiplication and spread.

  10. Flowering of Woody Bamboo in Tissue Culture Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ling Yuan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Flowering and subsequent seed set are not only normal activities in the life of most plants, but constitute the very reason for their existence. Woody bamboos can take a long time to flower, even over 100 years. This makes it difficult to breed bamboo, since flowering time cannot be predicted and passing through each generation takes too long. Another unique characteristic of woody bamboo is that a bamboo stand will often flower synchronously, both disrupting the supply chain within the bamboo industry and affecting local ecology. Therefore, an understanding of the mechanism that initiates bamboo flowering is important not only for biology research, but also for the bamboo industry. Induction of flowering in vitro is an effective way to both shorten the flowering period and control the flowering time, and has been shown for several species of bamboo. The use of controlled tissue culture systems allows investigation into the mechanism of bamboo flowering and facilitates selective breeding. Here, after a brief introduction of flowering in bamboo, we review the research on in vitro flowering of bamboo, including our current understanding of the effects of plant growth regulators and medium components on flower induction and how in vitro bamboo flowers can be used in research.

  11. Differential effects of NAA and 2,4-D in reducing floret abscission in cestrum (Cestrum elegans) cut flowers are associated with their differential activation of Aux/IAA homologous genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebie, Bekele; Lers, Amnon; Philosoph-Hadas, Sonia; Goren, Raphael; Riov, Joseph; Meir, Shimon

    2008-01-01

    A previous study showed that the relative effectiveness of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) compared with that of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in reducing floret bud abscission in cestrum (Cestrum elegans) cut flowers was due to its acropetal transport. The aim of the present study was to examine if the differential effect of these auxins on floret abscission is reflected in the expression of Aux/IAA genes in the floret abscission zone (AZ). cDNAs were isolated by PCR-based cloning from the floret AZ of auxin-treated cut flowers. The expression patterns of the cDNAs in various tissues and the effect of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), applied with or without cycloheximide, on their expression in the floret AZ were examined by northern blot analysis. The regulation of transcript accumulation in the floret AZ in response to NAA or 2,4-D was measured by real-time PCR during auxin pulsing of cut flowers and vase life, concomitantly with floret abscission. Six isolated cDNAs were identified to represent Aux/IAA homologous genes, designated as Cestrum elegans (Ce)-IAA1 to Ce-IAA6. Four Ce-IAA genes were characterized as early auxin-responsive genes (ARGs), and two (Ce-IAA1 and Ce-IAA5) as late ARGs. Only Ce-IAA5 was AZ-specific in floret buds. A temporal regulation of Ce-IAA transcript levels in the floret AZ was found, with 2,4-D inducing higher expression levels than NAA in floret buds. These Ce-IAA expression levels were negatively correlated with floret abscission. The differential transport characteristics of NAA and 2,4-D in cestrum cut flowers were reflected in differential activation of the Ce-IAA genes identified in the floret AZ. Therefore, Aux/IAA genes can be used as molecular markers to measure auxin activity, which reflects free auxin level in the AZ. Two of the identified genes, Ce-IAA1 and Ce-IAA5, may also have a regulatory role in abscission.

  12. Transcriptomic analysis of flower development in wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daofeng; Sui, Shunzhao; Ma, Jing; Li, Zhineng; Guo, Yulong; Luo, Dengpan; Yang, Jianfeng; Li, Mingyang

    2014-01-01

    Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox) is familiar as a garden plant and woody ornamental flower. On account of its unique flowering time and strong fragrance, it has a high ornamental and economic value. Despite a long history of human cultivation, our understanding of wintersweet genetics and molecular biology remains scant, reflecting a lack of basic genomic and transcriptomic data. In this study, we assembled three cDNA libraries, from three successive stages in flower development, designated as the flower bud with displayed petal, open flower and senescing flower stages. Using the Illumina RNA-Seq method, we obtained 21,412,928, 26,950,404, 24,912,954 qualified Illumina reads, respectively, for the three successive stages. The pooled reads from all three libraries were then assembled into 106,995 transcripts, 51,793 of which were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Of these annotated sequences, 32,649 and 21,893 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. We could map 15,587 transcripts onto 312 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database. Based on these transcriptomic data, we obtained a large number of candidate genes that were differentially expressed at the open flower and senescing flower stages. An analysis of differentially expressed genes involved in plant hormone signal transduction pathways indicated that although flower opening and senescence may be independent of the ethylene signaling pathway in wintersweet, salicylic acid may be involved in the regulation of flower senescence. We also succeeded in isolating key genes of floral scent biosynthesis and proposed a biosynthetic pathway for monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in wintersweet flowers, based on the annotated sequences. This comprehensive transcriptomic analysis presents fundamental information on the genes and pathways which are involved in flower development in wintersweet. And our data

  13. Identification and functional analysis of flowering related microRNAs in common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zongxiang; Li, Fuli; Yang, Songnan; Dong, Yibo; Yuan, Qianhua; Wang, Feng; Li, Weimin; Jiang, Ying; Jia, Shirong; Pei, Xinwu

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) is a class of non-coding RNAs involved in post- transcriptional control of gene expression, via degradation and/or translational inhibition. Six-hundred sixty-one rice miRNAs are known that are important in plant development. However, flowering-related miRNAs have not been characterized in Oryza rufipogon Griff. It was approved by supervision department of Guangdong wild rice protection. We analyzed flowering-related miRNAs in O. rufipogon using high-throughput sequencing (deep sequencing) to understand the changes that occurred during rice domestication, and to elucidate their functions in flowering. Three O. rufipogon sRNA libraries, two vegetative stage (CWR-V1 and CWR-V2) and one flowering stage (CWR-F2) were sequenced using Illumina deep sequencing. A total of 20,156,098, 21,531,511 and 20,995,942 high quality sRNA reads were obtained from CWR-V1, CWR-V2 and CWR-F2, respectively, of which 3,448,185, 4,265,048 and 2,833,527 reads matched known miRNAs. We identified 512 known rice miRNAs in 214 miRNA families and predicted 290 new miRNAs. Targeted functional annotation, GO and KEGG pathway analyses predicted that 187 miRNAs regulate expression of flowering-related genes. Differential expression analysis of flowering-related miRNAs showed that: expression of 95 miRNAs varied significantly between the libraries, 66 are flowering-related miRNAs, such as oru-miR97, oru-miR117, oru-miR135, oru-miR137, et al. 17 are early-flowering -related miRNAs, including osa-miR160f, osa-miR164d, osa-miR167d, osa-miR169a, osa-miR172b, oru-miR4, et al., induced during the floral transition. Real-time PCR revealed the same expression patterns as deep sequencing. miRNAs targets were confirmed for cleavage by 5'-RACE in vivo, and were negatively regulated by miRNAs. This is the first investigation of flowering miRNAs in wild rice. The result indicates that variation in miRNAs occurred during rice domestication and lays a foundation for further study of phase change

  14. Identification and functional analysis of flowering related microRNAs in common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongxiang Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs is a class of non-coding RNAs involved in post- transcriptional control of gene expression, via degradation and/or translational inhibition. Six-hundred sixty-one rice miRNAs are known that are important in plant development. However, flowering-related miRNAs have not been characterized in Oryza rufipogon Griff. It was approved by supervision department of Guangdong wild rice protection. We analyzed flowering-related miRNAs in O. rufipogon using high-throughput sequencing (deep sequencing to understand the changes that occurred during rice domestication, and to elucidate their functions in flowering. RESULTS: Three O. rufipogon sRNA libraries, two vegetative stage (CWR-V1 and CWR-V2 and one flowering stage (CWR-F2 were sequenced using Illumina deep sequencing. A total of 20,156,098, 21,531,511 and 20,995,942 high quality sRNA reads were obtained from CWR-V1, CWR-V2 and CWR-F2, respectively, of which 3,448,185, 4,265,048 and 2,833,527 reads matched known miRNAs. We identified 512 known rice miRNAs in 214 miRNA families and predicted 290 new miRNAs. Targeted functional annotation, GO and KEGG pathway analyses predicted that 187 miRNAs regulate expression of flowering-related genes. Differential expression analysis of flowering-related miRNAs showed that: expression of 95 miRNAs varied significantly between the libraries, 66 are flowering-related miRNAs, such as oru-miR97, oru-miR117, oru-miR135, oru-miR137, et al. 17 are early-flowering -related miRNAs, including osa-miR160f, osa-miR164d, osa-miR167d, osa-miR169a, osa-miR172b, oru-miR4, et al., induced during the floral transition. Real-time PCR revealed the same expression patterns as deep sequencing. miRNAs targets were confirmed for cleavage by 5'-RACE in vivo, and were negatively regulated by miRNAs. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first investigation of flowering miRNAs in wild rice. The result indicates that variation in miRNAs occurred during rice domestication and

  15. An R2R3-MYB transcription factor regulates carotenoid pigmentation in Mimulus lewisii flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagawa, Janelle M; Stanley, Lauren E; LaFountain, Amy M; Frank, Harry A; Liu, Chang; Yuan, Yao-Wu

    2016-02-01

    Carotenoids are yellow, orange, and red pigments that contribute to the beautiful colors and nutritive value of many flowers and fruits. The structural genes in the highly conserved carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been well characterized in multiple plant systems, but little is known about the transcription factors that control the expression of these structural genes. By analyzing a chemically induced mutant of Mimulus lewisii through bulk segregant analysis and transgenic experiments, we have identified an R2R3-MYB, Reduced Carotenoid Pigmentation 1 (RCP1), as the first transcription factor that positively regulates carotenoid biosynthesis during flower development. Loss-of-function mutations in RCP1 lead to down-regulation of all carotenoid biosynthetic genes and reduced carotenoid content in M. lewisii flowers, a phenotype recapitulated by RNA interference in the wild-type background. Overexpression of this gene in the rcp1 mutant background restores carotenoid production and, unexpectedly, results in simultaneous decrease of anthocyanin production in some transgenic lines by down-regulating the expression of an activator of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Identification of transcriptional regulators of carotenoid biosynthesis provides the 'toolbox' genes for understanding the molecular basis of flower color diversification in nature and for potential enhancement of carotenoid production in crop plants via genetic engineering. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. The time of day effects of warm temperature on flowering time involve PIF4 and PIF5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thines, Bryan C.; Duarte, Maritza I.; Harmon, Frank G.

    2014-01-01

    Warm temperature promotes flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana and this response involves multiple signalling pathways. To understand the temporal dynamics of temperature perception, tests were carried out to determine if there was a daily window of enhanced sensitivity to warm temperature (28 °C). Warm temperature applied during daytime, night-time, or continuously elicited earlier flowering, but the effects of each treatment were unequal. Plants exposed to warm night (WN) conditions flowered nearly as early as those in constant warm (CW) conditions, while treatment with warm days (WD) caused later flowering than either WN or CW. Flowering in each condition relied to varying degrees on the activity of CO , FT , PIF4 , and PIF5 , as well as the action of unknown genes. The combination of signalling pathways involved in flowering depended on the time of the temperature cue. WN treatments caused a significant advance in the rhythmic expression waveform of CO, which correlated with pronounced up-regulation of FT expression, while WD caused limited changes in CO expression and no stimulation of FT expression. WN- and WD-induced flowering was partially CO independent and, unexpectedly, dependent on PIF4 and PIF5 . pif4-2, pif5-3, and pif4-2 pif5-3 mutants had delayed flowering under all three warm conditions. The double mutant was also late flowering in control conditions. In addition, WN conditions alone imposed selective changes to PIF4 and PIF5 expression. Thus, the PIF4 and PIF5 transcription factors promote flowering by at least two means: inducing FT expression in WN and acting outside of FT by an unknown mechanism in WD. PMID:24574484

  17. Capsella rubella TGA4, a bZIP transcription factor, causes delayed flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Maofu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time is usually regulated by many environmental factors and endogenous signals. TGA family members are bZIP transcription factors that bind to the octopine synthase element, which has been closely linked to defense/stress responses. Most TGA factors interact with non-expressor of PR1 (NPR1 and plant defense responses are strengthened by this interaction. TGA1and TGA4factors bind to NPR1 only in salicylic acid (SA-induced leaves, suggesting that TGA4 has another function during plant development. Here, we isolated a bZIP transcription factor gene, TGA4, from Capsella rubella. TGA4transcripts were detected in most tissues, with high expression in leaves, low expression in stems and flowering buds, and undetectable in siliques. CruTGA4was over expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana wild typeCol-0 plants. Flowering time and total leaf number in the transgenic plants showed that overexpression of CruTGA4could delay flowering in A. thaliana. Our findings suggest that TGA4 may act as flowering regulator that controls plant flowering.

  18. Silencing Nicotiana attenuata LHY and ZTL alters circadian rhythms in flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yon, Felipe; Joo, Youngsung; Cortés Llorca, Lucas; Rothe, Eva; Baldwin, Ian T; Kim, Sang-Gyu

    2016-02-01

    The rhythmic opening/closing and volatile emissions of flowers are known to attract pollinators at specific times. That these rhythms are maintained under constant light or dark conditions suggests a circadian clock involvement. Although a forward and reverse genetic approach has led to the identification of core circadian clock components in Arabidopsis thaliana, the involvement of these clock components in floral rhythms has remained untested, probably because of the weak diurnal rhythms in A. thaliana flowers. Here, we addressed the role of these core clock components in the flowers of the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, whose flowers open at night, emit benzyl acetone (BA) scents and move vertically through a 140° arc. We first measured N. attenuata floral rhythms under constant light conditions. The results suggest that the circadian clock controls flower opening, BA emission and pedicel movement, but not flower closing. We generated transgenic N. attenuata lines silenced in the homologous genes of Arabidopsis LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and ZEITLUPE (ZTL), which are known to be core clock components. Silencing NaLHY and NaZTL strongly altered floral rhythms in different ways, indicating that conserved clock components in N. attenuata coordinate these floral rhythms. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Evaluation of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... MADS family of TFs control floral organ identity within each whorl of the flower by activating downstream genes. Measuring gene expression in different tissue types and developmental stages is of fundamental importance in TFs functional research. In last few years, quantitative real-time. PCR (qRT-PCR) ...

  20. a positive control plasmid for reporter gene assay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... qualification as a positive control for luciferase reporter gene assays. Key words: Reporter gene plasmid, luciferase assay, cytomegalovirus promoter/enhancer, human melanoma cell line. INTRODUCTION. Reporter genes, often called reporters, have become a precious tool in studies of gene expression ...

  1. Effect of cytokinins on delaying petunia flower senescence: a transcriptome study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivellini, Alice; Cocetta, Giacomo; Vernieri, Paolo; Mensuali-Sodi, Anna; Ferrante, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Flower senescence is a fascinating natural process that represents the final developmental stage in the life of a flower. Plant hormones play an important role in regulating the timing of flower senescence. Ethylene is a trigger and usually accelerates the senescence rate, while cytokinins are known to delay it. The aim of this work was to study the effect of 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) on petal senescence by transcript profile comparison after 3 or 6 h using a cross-species method by hybridizing petunia samples to a 4 × 44 K Agilent tomato array. The relative content of ethylene, abscisic acid, anthocyanins, total carotenoids and total phenols that determine the physiological behaviours of the petal tissue were measured. BA treatment prolonged the flower life and increased the concentrations of phenols and anthocyanins, while total carotenoids did not increase and were lower than the control. The ethylene biosynthetic and perception gene expressions were studied immediately after treatment until 24 h and all genes were repressed, while ethylene production was strongly induced after 4 days. The microarray analyses highlighted that BA strongly affected gene regulation after 3 h, but only 14% of genes remained differentially expressed after 6 h. The most affected pathways and genes were those related to stress, such as heat shock proteins, abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism and its signalling pathway, lipid metabolism and antioxidant defence systems. A gene annotation enrichment analysis using DAVID showed that the most important gene clusters were involved in energy generation and conservation processes. In addition to the ethylene pathway, cytokinins seem to be strongly involved the regulation of the ABA response in flower tissues.

  2. An Apology for Flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Aghamohammadi

    2017-01-01

    Prompting critical reflection on the common claim that flowers are always symbolic of female sexuality, the present article intends to explore symbolic roles of flowers in Persian literature and provide examples, mainly from Persian poetry, with the aim of refuting the claim. The writer, in fact, attempts to highlight overshadowed facets of flower symbolism by overshadowing carnal and ignoble readings of it. The reason why Persian literature has come into the focus of this study is that flowe...

  3. Isolation of the three grape sub-lineages of B-class MADS-box TM6, PISTILLATA and APETALA3 genes which are differentially expressed during flower and fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupin, María Josefina; Federici, Fernán; Medina, Consuelo; Matus, José Tomás; Timmermann, Tania; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2007-12-01

    The B class of MADS-box floral homeotic genes specifies petal and stamen identity in angiosperms. While this group is one of the most studied in herbaceous plant species, it has remained largely uncharacterized in woody species such as grapevine. Although the B class PI/GLO and AP3/DEF clades have been extensively characterized in model species, the role of the TM6 subgroup within the AP3 clade is not completely understood, since it is absent in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, the coding regions of VvTM6 and VvAP3 and the genomic sequence of VvPI, were cloned. VvPI and AtPI were confirmed to be functional homologues by means of complementation of the pi Arabidopsis mutant. Expression analysis revealed that VvPI and VvAP3 transcripts are restricted almost exclusively to inflorescences, although VvPI was detected at low levels in leaves and roots. VvTM6 expresses throughout the plant, with higher levels in flowers and berries. A detailed chronological study of grape flower progression by light microscopy and temporal expression analysis throughout early and late developmental stages, revealed that VvPI expression increases during pollen maturation and decreases between the events of pollination and fertilization, before the cap fall. On the other hand, VvTM6 is expressed in the last stage of anther development. Specific expression of VvAP3 and VvPI was detected in petals and stamens within the flower, while VvTM6 was also expressed in carpels. Moreover, this work provides the first evidence for expression of a TM6-like gene throughout fruit growth and ripening. Even if these genes belong to the same genetic class they could act in different periods and/or tissues during reproductive organ development.

  4. A ¤Terminal Flower-1¤-like gene from perennial ryegrass involved in floral transition and axillary meristem identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C.S.; Salchert, K.; Nielsen, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    12 weeks to induce flowering. During this period a decrease in LpTFL1 message was detected in the ryegrass apex. However, upon subsequent induction with elevated temperatures and long-day photoperiods, LpTFL1 message levels increased and reached a maximum M:hen the ryegrass apex has formed visible...

  5. Identification of New Compounds from Sage Flowers (Salvia officinalis L.) as Markers for Quality Control and the Influence of the Manufacturing Technology on the Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Sage Flower Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, Sebastian; Lübken, Tilo; Wolf, Diana; Kaiser, Martin; Hannig, Christian; Speer, Karl

    2018-02-28

    Parts of Salvia species such as its flowers and leaves are currently used as a culinary herb and for some medicinal applications. To distinguish the different sage extracts it is necessary to analyze their individual chemical compositions. Their characteristic compounds might be established as markers to differentiate between sage flowers and leaf extracts or to determine the manufacturing technology and storage conditions. Tri-p-coumaroylspermidine can be detected only in flowers and has been described here for Salvia and Lavandula species for the first time. Markers for oxidation processes are the novel compounds salviquinone A and B, which were generated from carnosol by exposure to oxygen. Caffeic acid ethyl ester was established as an indirect marker for the usage of ethanol as extraction solvent. The compounds were identified by LC-QTOF-HRESIMS, LC-MS, NMR, IR, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction after isolation by semipreparative HPLC. Furthermore, sage flower resin showed interesting antibacterial in vitro activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  6. Phylogeny determines flower size-dependent sex allocation at flowering in a hermaphroditic family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixido, A L; Guzmán, B; Staggemeier, V G; Valladares, F

    2017-11-01

    In animal-pollinated hermaphroditic plants, optimal floral allocation determines relative investment into sexes, which is ultimately dependent on flower size. Larger flowers disproportionally increase maleness whereas smaller and less rewarding flowers favour female function. Although floral traits are considered strongly conserved, phylogenetic relationships in the interspecific patterns of resource allocation to floral sex remain overlooked. We investigated these patterns in Cistaceae, a hermaphroditic family. We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships among Cistaceae species and quantified phylogenetic signal for flower size, dry mass and nutrient allocation to floral structures in 23 Mediterranean species using Blomberg's K-statistic. Lastly, phylogenetically-controlled correlational and regression analyses were applied to examine flower size-based allometry in resource allocation to floral structures. Sepals received the highest dry mass allocation, followed by petals, whereas sexual structures increased nutrient allocation. Flower size and resource allocation to floral structures, except for carpels, showed a strong phylogenetic signal. Larger-flowered species allometrically allocated more resources to maleness, by increasing allocation to corollas and stamens. Our results suggest a major role of phylogeny in determining interspecific changes in flower size and subsequent floral sex allocation. This implies that flower size balances the male-female function over the evolutionary history of Cistaceae. While allometric resource investment in maleness is inherited across species diversification, allocation to the female function seems a labile trait that varies among closely related species that have diversified into different ecological niches. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Functional characterization of duplicated Suppressor of Overexpression of Constans 1-like genes in petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jill C; Jorgensen, Stacy A; Jha, Suryatapa G

    2014-01-01

    Flowering time is strictly controlled by a combination of internal and external signals that match seed set with favorable environmental conditions. In the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae), many of the genes underlying development and evolution of flowering have been discovered. However, much remains unknown about how conserved the flowering gene networks are in plants with different growth habits, gene duplication histories, and distributions. Here we functionally characterize three homologs of the flowering gene Suppressor Of Overexpression of Constans 1 (SOC1) in the short-lived perennial Petunia hybrida (petunia, Solanaceae). Similar to A. thaliana soc1 mutants, co-silencing of duplicated petunia SOC1-like genes results in late flowering. This phenotype is most severe when all three SOC1-like genes are silenced. Furthermore, expression levels of the SOC1-like genes Unshaven (UNS) and Floral Binding Protein 21 (FBP21), but not FBP28, are positively correlated with developmental age. In contrast to A. thaliana, petunia SOC1-like gene expression did not increase with longer photoperiods, and FBP28 transcripts were actually more abundant under short days. Despite evidence of functional redundancy, differential spatio-temporal expression data suggest that SOC1-like genes might fine-tune petunia flowering in response to photoperiod and developmental stage. This likely resulted from modification of SOC1-like gene regulatory elements following recent duplication, and is a possible mechanism to ensure flowering under both inductive and non-inductive photoperiods.

  8. Functional characterization of duplicated Suppressor of Overexpression of Constans 1-like genes in petunia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill C Preston

    Full Text Available Flowering time is strictly controlled by a combination of internal and external signals that match seed set with favorable environmental conditions. In the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae, many of the genes underlying development and evolution of flowering have been discovered. However, much remains unknown about how conserved the flowering gene networks are in plants with different growth habits, gene duplication histories, and distributions. Here we functionally characterize three homologs of the flowering gene Suppressor Of Overexpression of Constans 1 (SOC1 in the short-lived perennial Petunia hybrida (petunia, Solanaceae. Similar to A. thaliana soc1 mutants, co-silencing of duplicated petunia SOC1-like genes results in late flowering. This phenotype is most severe when all three SOC1-like genes are silenced. Furthermore, expression levels of the SOC1-like genes Unshaven (UNS and Floral Binding Protein 21 (FBP21, but not FBP28, are positively correlated with developmental age. In contrast to A. thaliana, petunia SOC1-like gene expression did not increase with longer photoperiods, and FBP28 transcripts were actually more abundant under short days. Despite evidence of functional redundancy, differential spatio-temporal expression data suggest that SOC1-like genes might fine-tune petunia flowering in response to photoperiod and developmental stage. This likely resulted from modification of SOC1-like gene regulatory elements following recent duplication, and is a possible mechanism to ensure flowering under both inductive and non-inductive photoperiods.

  9. How controlled release technology can aid gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jun-Ichiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Many types of gene delivery systems have been developed to enhance the level of gene expression. Controlled release technology is a feasible gene delivery system which enables genes to extend the expression duration by maintaining and releasing them at the injection site in a controlled manner. This technology can reduce the adverse effects by the bolus dose administration and avoid the repeated administration. Biodegradable biomaterials are useful as materials for the controlled release-based gene delivery technology and various biodegradable biomaterials have been developed. Controlled release-based gene delivery plays a critical role in a conventional gene therapy and genetic engineering. In the gene therapy, the therapeutic gene is released from biodegradable biomaterial matrices around the tissue to be treated. On the other hand, the intracellular controlled release of gene from the sub-micro-sized matrices is required for genetic engineering. Genetic engineering is feasible for cell transplantation as well as research of stem cells biology and medicine. DNA hydrogel containing a sequence of therapeutic gene and the exosome including the individual specific nucleic acids may become candidates for controlled release carriers. Technologies to deliver genes to cell aggregates will play an important role in the promotion of regenerative research and therapy.

  10. Large and abundant flowers increase indirect costs of corollas: a study of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean species of contrasting flower size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixido, Alberto L; Valladares, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Large floral displays receive more pollinator visits but involve higher production and maintenance costs. This can result in indirect costs which may negatively affect functions like reproductive output. In this study, we explored the relationship between floral display and indirect costs in two pairs of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean Cistus of contrasting flower size. We hypothesized that: (1) corolla production entails direct costs in dry mass, N and P, (2) corollas entail significant indirect costs in terms of fruit set and seed production, (3) indirect costs increase with floral display, (4) indirect costs are greater in larger-flowered sympatric species, and (5) local climatic conditions influence indirect costs. We compared fruit set and seed production of petal-removed flowers and unmanipulated control flowers and evaluated the influence of mean flower number and mean flower size on relative fruit and seed gain of petal-removed and control flowers. Fruit set and seed production were significantly higher in petal-removed flowers in all the studied species. A positive relationship was found between relative fruit gain and mean individual flower size within species. In one pair of species, fruit gain was higher in the large-flowered species, as was the correlation between fruit gain and mean number of open flowers. In the other pair, the correlation between fruit gain and mean flower size was also higher in the large-flowered species. These results reveal that Mediterranean environments impose significant constraints on floral display, counteracting advantages of large flowers from the pollination point of view with increased indirect costs of such flowers.

  11. Flower development in Arabidopsis: there is more to it than learning your ABCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunet, Nathanaël; Jack, Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    The field of Arabidopsis flower development began in the early 1980s with the initial description of several mutants including apetala1, apetala2, and agamous that altered floral organ identity (Koornneef and van der Veen, Theor Appl Genet 58:257-263, 1980; Koornneef et al., J Hered 74:265-272, 1983). By the end of the 1980s, these mutants were receiving more focused attention to determine precisely how they affected flower development (Komaki et al., Development 104:195-203, 1988; Bowman et al., Plant Cell 1:37-52, 1989). In the last quarter century, impressive progress has been made in characterizing the gene products and molecular mechanisms that control the key events in flower development. In this review, we briefly summarize the highlights of work from the past 25 years but focus on advances in the field in the last several years.

  12. Natural variation of the RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 contributes to flowering time divergence in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Ogiso-Tanaka

    Full Text Available In rice (Oryza sativa L., there is a diversity in flowering time that is strictly genetically regulated. Some indica cultivars show extremely late flowering under long-day conditions, but little is known about the gene(s involved. Here, we demonstrate that functional defects in the florigen gene RFT1 are the main cause of late flowering in an indica cultivar, Nona Bokra. Mapping and complementation studies revealed that sequence polymorphisms in the RFT1 regulatory and coding regions are likely to cause late flowering under long-day conditions. We detected polymorphisms in the promoter region that lead to reduced expression levels of RFT1. We also identified an amino acid substitution (E105K that leads to a functional defect in Nona Bokra RFT1. Sequencing of the RFT1 region in rice accessions from a global collection showed that the E105K mutation is found only in indica, and indicated a strong association between the RFT1 haplotype and extremely late flowering in a functional Hd1 background. Furthermore, SNPs in the regulatory region of RFT1 and the E105K substitution in 1,397 accessions show strong linkage disequilibrium with a flowering time-associated SNP. Although the defective E105K allele of RFT1 (but not of another florigen gene, Hd3a is found in many cultivars, relative rate tests revealed no evidence for differential rate of evolution of these genes. The ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions suggest that the E105K mutation resulting in the defect in RFT1 occurred relatively recently. These findings indicate that natural mutations in RFT1 provide flowering time divergence under long-day conditions.

  13. Translating BPEL to FLOWer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    FLOWer is a case handling tool made by Pallas-Athena for process management in the service industry. BPEL on the other hand is a language for web service orchestration, and has become a de facto standard, because of its popularity, for specifying workflow processes even though that was not its...... original purpose. This paper describe an approach translating BPLE to FLOWer, or more precisely form BPEL to CHIP. where CHIP is the interchange language that FLOWer import from and export to. The aim of the translation scheme that I give is to derive a CHIP specification that is behaviorally equivalent...

  14. What flowers do we like? The influence of shape and color on the rating of flower beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hůla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that people find flowers beautiful. Surprisingly, we know very little about the actual properties which make flowers so appealing to humans. Although the evolutionary aesthetics provides some theories concerning generally preferred flower traits, empirical evidence is largely missing. In this study, we used an online survey in which residents of the Czech Republic (n = 2006 rated the perceived beauty of 52 flower stimuli of diverse shapes and colors. Colored flowers were preferred over their uncolored versions. When controlling for flower shape, we found an unequal preference for different flower colors, blue being the most and yellow the least preferred. In the overall assessment of beauty, shape was more important than color. Prototypical flowers, i.e., radially symmetrical flowers with low complexity, were rated as the most beautiful. We also found a positive effect of sharp flower contours and blue color on the overall rating of flower beauty. The results may serve as a basis for further studies in some areas of the people-plant interaction research.

  15. What flowers do we like? The influence of shape and color on the rating of flower beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    There is no doubt that people find flowers beautiful. Surprisingly, we know very little about the actual properties which make flowers so appealing to humans. Although the evolutionary aesthetics provides some theories concerning generally preferred flower traits, empirical evidence is largely missing. In this study, we used an online survey in which residents of the Czech Republic (n = 2006) rated the perceived beauty of 52 flower stimuli of diverse shapes and colors. Colored flowers were preferred over their uncolored versions. When controlling for flower shape, we found an unequal preference for different flower colors, blue being the most and yellow the least preferred. In the overall assessment of beauty, shape was more important than color. Prototypical flowers, i.e., radially symmetrical flowers with low complexity, were rated as the most beautiful. We also found a positive effect of sharp flower contours and blue color on the overall rating of flower beauty. The results may serve as a basis for further studies in some areas of the people-plant interaction research. PMID:27330863

  16. Natural variation in cross-talk between glucosinolates and onset of flowering in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Møller Jensen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Naturally variable regulatory networks control different biological processes including reproduction and defense. This variation within regulatory networks enables plants to optimize defense and reproduction in different environments. In this study we investigate the ability of two enzyme-encoding genes in the glucosinolate pathway, AOP2 and AOP3¸ to affect glucosinolate accumulation and flowering time. We have introduced the two highly similar enzymes into two different AOPnull accessions, Col-0 and Cph-0, and found that the genes differ in their ability to affect glucosinolate levels and flowering time across the accessions. This indicated that the different glucosinolates produced by AOP2 and AOP3 serve specific regulatory roles in controlling these phenotypes. While the changes in glucosinolate levels were similar in both accessions, the effect on flowering time was dependent on the genetic background pointing to natural variation in cross-talk between defense chemistry and onset of flowering. This variation likely reflects an adaptation to survival in different environments.

  17. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Ecology and the Environ- ment, Bengaluru as ... remaining plants, it is an abiotic agent (abiotic pollination), .... tion was slow until the origin of flowering plants and evolution of ..... Although pollination is generally a mutual interaction in a major-.

  18. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ecology and the. Environment ... agents (pollinators), the next step before fertilization is to se- .... the embryo sac are referred to as pollen-pistil interaction and play ..... evolutionary success of flowering plants when compared to other groups of ...

  19. Fate and control of pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms in orange blossom (Citrus aurantium) and rose flower (Rosa centifolia) hydrosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadie, C; Cerutti, C; Carlin, F

    2016-12-01

    Hydrosols are hydrodistillation products used in food and cosmetic industries, perfumery, pharmacy and aromatherapy. The ability of preservatives to control previously reported bacterial proliferation and spoilage was evaluated. All tested preservatives were authorized for food and cosmetic application. Major pathogens of concern for foods and cosmetics were poorly able to grow in rose and orange blossom hydrosols when inoculated and incubated at 30°C. Commercial antimicrobials, such as isothiazolinone, chlorphenesin and paraben solutions, benzyl alcohol and sodium benzoate at pH = 5·0, controlled the growth of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia sp. strains representative of the natural microbiota of both hydrosols for >90 days at 30°C, only at concentrations close to the authorized limits. Concentrations of some of the tested preservatives that controlled growth at 5°C were lower than at 30°C. Pathogenic micro-organisms likely represent a low risk in rose flower and orange blossom hydrosol. However, the oligotrophic character of hydrosols and the antimicrobial properties of their essential oils do not prevent microbiological spoilage by the naturally present microbiota. In the absence of aseptic conditions and microbial inactivation process, only preservatives can stabilize hydrosols for a several-month storage. Several effective preservatives have been identified. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minti, Hari

    2012-12-01

    The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

  1. Is Bumblebee Foraging Efficiency Mediated by Morphological Correspondence to Flowers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikumi Dohzono

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Preference for certain types of flowers in bee species may be an adaptation for efficient foraging, and they often prefer flowers whose shape fits their mouthparts. However, it is unclear whether such flowers are truly beneficial for them. We address this issue by experimentally measuring foraging efficiency of bumblebees, the volume of sucrose solution consumed over handling time (μL/second, using long-tongued Bombus diversus Smith and short-tongued B. honshuensis Tkalcu that visit Clematis stans Siebold et Zuccarini. The corolla tube length of C. stans decreases during a flowering period, and male flowers are longer than female flowers. Long- and short-tongued bumblebees frequently visited longer and shorter flowers, respectively. Based on these preferences, we hypothesized that bumblebee foraging efficiency is higher when visiting flowers that show a good morphological fit between the proboscis and the corolla tube. Foraging efficiency of bumblebees was estimated using flowers for which nectar quality and quantity were controlled, in an experimental enclosure. We show that 1 the foraging efficiency of B. diversus was enhanced when visiting younger, longer flowers, and that 2 the foraging efficiency of B. honshuensis was higher when visiting shorter female flowers. This suggests that morphological correspondence between insects and flowers is important for insect foraging efficiency. However, in contradiction to our prediction, 3 short-tongued bumblebees B. honshuensis sucked nectar more efficiently when visiting younger, longer flowers, and 4 there was no significant difference in the foraging efficiency of B. diversus between flower sexes. These results suggest that morphological fit between the proboscis and the corolla tube is not a sole determinant of foraging efficiency. Bumblebees may adjust their sucking behavior in response to available rewards, and competition over rewards between bumblebee species might change visitation patterns

  2. Field experiments of Anopheles gambiae attraction to local fruits/seedpods and flowering plants in Mali to optimize strategies for malaria vector control in Africa using attractive toxic sugar bait methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bah Sekou

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on recent studies in Israel demonstrating that attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB methods can be used to decimate local anopheline and culicine mosquito populations, an important consideration is whether the same methods can be adapted and improved to attract and kill malaria vectors in Africa. The ATSB approach uses fruit or flower scent as an attractant, sugar solution as a feeding stimulant, and an oral toxin. The ATSB solutions are either sprayed on vegetation or suspended in simple bait stations, and the mosquitoes ingesting the toxic solutions are killed. As such, this approach targets sugar-feeding female and male mosquitoes. This study examines the attractiveness of African malaria vectors to local fruits/seedpods and flowering plants, key biological elements of the ATSB approach for mosquito control. Methods Three field experiments were conducted at sites in Mali. The attraction of Anopheles gambiae s.l. to 26 different local fruits and seedpods was determined at a site in the semi-arid Bandiagara District of Mali. Wire mesh glue traps with fruits/seedpods suspended on skewers inside were set along a seasonal lagoon. Seven replicates of each fruit/seedpod species were tested, with a water-soaked sponge and a sugar-soaked sponge as controls. The attraction of An. gambiae s.l. to 26 different types of flowering plants was determined at a site near Mopti in Mali. The flowering plants held in a water-filled buried container were tested using the same glue traps, with controls including water only and sugar solution. Six replicates of each selected plant type were tested on transects between rice paddies. Additional studies using CDC light traps were done to determine the relative densities and periodicity of An. gambiae s.l. attraction to branches of the most highly attractive flowering plant, branches without flowers, human odor, and candescent light. Results Of the 26 fruits and seedpods tested, 6 were attractive

  3. Field experiments of Anopheles gambiae attraction to local fruits/seedpods and flowering plants in Mali to optimize strategies for malaria vector control in Africa using attractive toxic sugar bait methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Günter C; Beier, John C; Traore, Sekou F; Toure, Mahamoudou B; Traore, Mohamed M; Bah, Sekou; Doumbia, Seydou; Schlein, Yosef

    2010-09-20

    Based on recent studies in Israel demonstrating that attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) methods can be used to decimate local anopheline and culicine mosquito populations, an important consideration is whether the same methods can be adapted and improved to attract and kill malaria vectors in Africa. The ATSB approach uses fruit or flower scent as an attractant, sugar solution as a feeding stimulant, and an oral toxin. The ATSB solutions are either sprayed on vegetation or suspended in simple bait stations, and the mosquitoes ingesting the toxic solutions are killed. As such, this approach targets sugar-feeding female and male mosquitoes. This study examines the attractiveness of African malaria vectors to local fruits/seedpods and flowering plants, key biological elements of the ATSB approach for mosquito control. Three field experiments were conducted at sites in Mali. The attraction of Anopheles gambiae s.l. to 26 different local fruits and seedpods was determined at a site in the semi-arid Bandiagara District of Mali. Wire mesh glue traps with fruits/seedpods suspended on skewers inside were set along a seasonal lagoon. Seven replicates of each fruit/seedpod species were tested, with a water-soaked sponge and a sugar-soaked sponge as controls. The attraction of An. gambiae s.l. to 26 different types of flowering plants was determined at a site near Mopti in Mali. The flowering plants held in a water-filled buried container were tested using the same glue traps, with controls including water only and sugar solution. Six replicates of each selected plant type were tested on transects between rice paddies. Additional studies using CDC light traps were done to determine the relative densities and periodicity of An. gambiae s.l. attraction to branches of the most highly attractive flowering plant, branches without flowers, human odor, and candescent light. Of the 26 fruits and seedpods tested, 6 were attractive to An. gambiae s.l. females and males, respectively

  4. Genetic markers for flowering in perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paina, Cristiana; Byrne, Stephen; Andersen, Jeppe Reitan

    2011-01-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is the principal forage grass utilized in Danish agriculture and underpins the beef and dairy sectors. It is characterized as having high digestibility, high nutritional value, and high productivity during vegetative growth. However, at the reproductive growth...... genes will be converted to molecular markers and mapped in an existing mapping population previously characterized for flowering time and vernalization response. References: Amasino, R.M., Michaels S.D. (2010). The Timing of Flowering. Plant Physiology 154: 516–520 Greenup, A., W. Peacock, W.J., Dennis...

  5. Goethe and the ABC model of flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coen, E

    2001-06-01

    About 10 years ago, the ABC model for the genetic control of flower development was proposed. This model was initially based on the analysis of mutant flowers but has subsequently been confirmed by molecular analysis. This paper describes the 200-year history behind this model, from the late 18th century when Goethe arrived at his idea of plant metamorphosis, to the genetic studies on flower mutants carried out on Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum in the late 20th century.

  6. A Petunia Homeodomain-Leucine Zipper Protein, PhHD-Zip, Plays an Important Role in Flower Senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoxiao; Donnelly, Linda; Sun, Daoyang; Rao, Jingping; Reid, Michael S.; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO), and ABA (NCED) biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29) was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA) and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold). Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence. PMID:24551088

  7. A Petunia homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, PhHD-Zip, plays an important role in flower senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoxiao; Donnelly, Linda; Sun, Daoyang; Rao, Jingping; Reid, Michael S; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO), and ABA (NCED) biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29) was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA) and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold). Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence.

  8. A Petunia homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, PhHD-Zip, plays an important role in flower senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Chang

    Full Text Available Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO, and ABA (NCED biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29 was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold. Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence.

  9. The Study of Controlling the Bacterial Growth in the Cut Stem Rose (Rosa Hybrida L.‘Dolce Vita’ Flowers with Preservative Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Oraee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the economic importance of longevity of cut flowers, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of nano-silver, silver thiosulfate, hydroxyl quinoline and a natural compound, thymol, on vase life and number of bacteria in cut stem ends of Rose flowers cv. Dolce vita. Cut flowers were transferred to laboratory at 22 ± 1ºC temperature and 60 ± 5% relative humidity. Cut flowers were pulse-treated with 2.5, 5 and 10 mg L-1 nano-silver, 0.5,1 and 2 mM silver thiosulfate, 50, 100 and 200 mg L-1 hydroxy quinoline and 50, 100, 200 mg L-1 thymol with 5% sucrose. Experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 8 replications and one flower in each experimental unit. Based on the results, all of the treatments showed positive effects on the vase life of flowers and number of bacteria in cut stem ends during the vase period, and no bacteria were found in 5 and 10 mg L-1 SNP treatments. The nano-silver (5 and 10 mg L-1 treatments showed the greatest mean longevity (19 days. Considering the results and economical and functional aspects of the tested materials, nano-silver treatment can be used for increasing the vase life of ‘Dolce vita’rose.

  10. Spatial expression dynamics of Men-9 delineate the third floral whorl in male and female flowers of dioecious Silene latifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, S E; Li, Y; Scutt, C P; Willis, M E; Gilmartin, P M

    1997-07-01

    Sex determination in Silene latifolia is controlled by heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Female flowers have five fused carpels and ten arrested stamen primordia. The male-determining Y chromosome overrides female development to suppress carpel formation and promote stamen development. The isolation and characterization of two S. latifolia. Male enhanced cDNAs, Men-9a and Men-9b, which probably represent different alleles of a novel gene are reported here. Men-9a and Men-9b share 91.8% coding sequence nucleotide identity, yet only 85.4% amino acid identity. The Men-9 cDNAs are related to the previously reported MROS3 cDNA from S. latifolia. However, MROS3 is not present in the S. latifolia population used in these studies and the expression dynamics of Men-9a and Men-9b contrast dramatically with those reported for MROS3. Men-9 cDNAs are expressed primarily in anthers of young male flowers, with highest expression in 1-2 mm buds. Men-9 expression is also observed at a low level in female flowers. In situ hybridization analysis reveals two phases of Men-9 expression. The first phase is during a common stage of early stamen development in male and female flowers prior to stamen arrest in female flowers. The second phase of Men-9 expression is maximal in the epidermis and endothecium of Y chromosome- and Ustilago violacea-induced stamens; expression in male and female flowers extends to the epidermis of the staminal nectaries with strict boundaries at the second and fourth whorls, Men-9 gene expression therefore delineates the boundaries of the third floral whorl in S. latifolia flowers.

  11. dsRNA silencing of an R2R3-MYB transcription factor affects flower cell shape in a Dendrobium hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Su-Ee; Schwarzacher, Trude; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2015-08-11

    The R2R3-MYB genes regulate pigmentation and morphogenesis of flowers, including flower and cell shape, and therefore have importance in the development of new varieties of orchids. However, new variety development is limited by the long breeding time required in orchids. In this study, we identified a cDNA, DhMYB1, that is expressed during flower development in a hybrid orchid, Dendrobium hybrida (Dendrobium bobby messina X Dendrobium chao phraya) then used the direct application of dsRNA to observe the effect of gene silencing on flower phenotype and floral epidermal cell shape. Flower bud development in the Dendrobium hybrid was characterised into seven stages and the time of meiosis was determined as between stages 3 to 5 when the bud is approximately half of the mature size. Scanning electron microscopy characterisation of adaxial epidermal cells of the flower perianth, showed that the petals and sepals each are divided into two distinct domains based on cell shape and size, while the labellum comprises seven domains. Thirty-two partial cDNA fragments representing R2R3-MYB gene sequences were isolated from D. hybrida. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that nine of the translated sequences were clustered with MYB sequences that are known to be involved in cell shape development and from these, DhMYB1 was selected for full length cDNA cloning and functional study. Direct application of a 430 bp dsRNA from the 3' region of DhMYB1 to emerging orchid flower buds reduced expression of DhMYB1 RNA compared with untreated control. Scanning electron microscopy of adaxial epidermal cells within domain one of the labellum of flowers treated with DhMYB1 dsRNA showed flattened epidermal cells whilst those of control flowers were conical. DhMYB1 is expressed throughout flower bud development and is involved in the development of the conical cell shape of the epidermal cells of the Dendrobium hybrida flower labellum. The direct application of dsRNA changed the phenotype of

  12. heritability and number of genes controlling seed yield in bottle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2018-05-10

    May 10, 2018 ... For seed yield per plant, 100-seed weight per fruit, and number of seeds per fruit, a positive hypothetical heterosis was observed when calabash type was a maternal parent. ...... genes controlled fruit weight in watermelon.

  13. OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins inhibit flowering under long-day conditions in rice

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, SoonKap

    2015-11-05

    OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins regulate the photoperiodic flowering response through the modulation of three flowering-time genes ( Ehd1, Hd3a , and RFT1 ) in rice. Plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factors control numerous developmental processes by forming heterotrimeric complexes, but little is known about their roles in flowering in rice. In this study, it is shown that some subunits of OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC interact with each other, and among them, OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins regulate the photoperiodic flowering response of rice. Protein interaction studies showed that the physical interactions occurred between the three OsNF-YC proteins (OsNF-YC2, OsNF-YC4 and OsNF-YC6) and three OsNF-YB proteins (OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10 and OsNF-YB11). Repression and overexpression of the OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 genes revealed that they act as inhibitors of flowering only under long-day (LD) conditions. Overexpression of OsNF-YC6, however, promoted flowering only under LD conditions, suggesting it could function as a flowering promoter. These phenotypes correlated with the changes in the expression of three rice flowering-time genes [Early heading date 1 (Ehd1), Heading date 3a (Hd3a) and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (RFT1)]. The diurnal and tissue-specific expression patterns of the subsets of OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes were similar to those of CCT domain encoding genes such as OsCO3, Heading date 1 (Hd1) and Ghd7. We propose that OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins regulate the photoperiodic flowering response by interacting directly with OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10 or OsNF-YB11 proteins in rice.

  14. Flower volatiles, crop varieties and bee responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn K Klatt

    Full Text Available Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding.

  15. Transcriptome changes associated wtih delayed flower senescence on transgenic petunia by inducing expression of etr1-1, a mutant ethylene receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers of ethylene-sensitive ornamental plants transformed with ethylene-insensitive 1-1(etr 1-1), a mutant ethylene receptor first isolated from Arabidopsis, are known to have longer shelf lives. We have generated petunia plants in which the etr 1-1 gene was over-expressed under the control of a c...

  16. Transcription Profiles Reveal Sugar and Hormone Signaling Pathways Mediating Flower Induction in Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Li-Bo; Zhang, Dong; Li, You-Mei; Shen, Ya-Wen; Zhao, Cai-Ping; Ma, Juan-Juan; An, Na; Han, Ming-Yu

    2015-10-01

    Flower induction in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is regulated by complex gene networks that involve multiple signal pathways to ensure flower bud formation in the next year, but the molecular determinants of apple flower induction are still unknown. In this research, transcriptomic profiles from differentiating buds allowed us to identify genes potentially involved in signaling pathways that mediate the regulatory mechanisms of flower induction. A hypothetical model for this regulatory mechanism was obtained by analysis of the available transcriptomic data, suggesting that sugar-, hormone- and flowering-related genes, as well as those involved in cell-cycle induction, participated in the apple flower induction process. Sugar levels and metabolism-related gene expression profiles revealed that sucrose is the initiation signal in flower induction. Complex hormone regulatory networks involved in cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid pathways also induce apple flower formation. CK plays a key role in the regulation of cell formation and differentiation, and in affecting flowering-related gene expression levels during these processes. Meanwhile, ABA levels and ABA-related gene expression levels gradually increased, as did those of sugar metabolism-related genes, in developing buds, indicating that ABA signals regulate apple flower induction by participating in the sugar-mediated flowering pathway. Furthermore, changes in sugar and starch deposition levels in buds can be affected by ABA content and the expression of the genes involved in the ABA signaling pathway. Thus, multiple pathways, which are mainly mediated by crosstalk between sugar and hormone signals, regulate the molecular network involved in bud growth and flower induction in apple trees. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  17. A kernel regression approach to gene-gene interaction detection for case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicholas B; Schaid, Daniel J

    2013-11-01

    Gene-gene interactions are increasingly being addressed as a potentially important contributor to the variability of complex traits. Consequently, attentions have moved beyond single locus analysis of association to more complex genetic models. Although several single-marker approaches toward interaction analysis have been developed, such methods suffer from very high testing dimensionality and do not take advantage of existing information, notably the definition of genes as functional units. Here, we propose a comprehensive family of gene-level score tests for identifying genetic elements of disease risk, in particular pairwise gene-gene interactions. Using kernel machine methods, we devise score-based variance component tests under a generalized linear mixed model framework. We conducted simulations based upon coalescent genetic models to evaluate the performance of our approach under a variety of disease models. These simulations indicate that our methods are generally higher powered than alternative gene-level approaches and at worst competitive with exhaustive SNP-level (where SNP is single-nucleotide polymorphism) analyses. Furthermore, we observe that simulated epistatic effects resulted in significant marginal testing results for the involved genes regardless of whether or not true main effects were present. We detail the benefits of our methods and discuss potential genome-wide analysis strategies for gene-gene interaction analysis in a case-control study design. © 2013 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  18. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... for the right pollen,the pistil imposes a tough competition amongst them, comparableto a swayamvara of Indian mythology, to select the bestavailable pollen. Flowering plants have evolved into a matriarchalsociety. The selection of the male partner is totally theprerogative of the mother (pistil); the boy (pollen grain) andthe ...

  19. The Ethylene Biosynthesis Gene CitACS4 Regulates Monoecy/Andromonoecy in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Susana; Aguado, Encarnación; Martínez, Cecilia; Megías, Zoraida; García, Alicia; Jamilena, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Monoecious and andromonoecious cultivars of watermelon are characterised by the production of male and female flower or male and hermaphrodite flowers, respectively. The segregation analysis in the offspring of crosses between monoecious and andromonoecious lines has demonstrated that this trait is controlled by a single gene pair, being the monoecious allele M semi-dominant to the andromonoecious allele A. The two studied F1 hybrids (MA) had a predominantly monoecious phenotype since both produced not only female flowers, but also bisexual flowers with incomplete stamens, and hermaphrodite flowers with pollen. Given that in other cucurbit species andromonoecy is conferred by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7, CsACS2 and CpACS27A we have cloned and characterised CitACS4, the watermelon gene showing the highest similarity with the formers. CitACS4 encoded for a type ACS type III enzyme that is predominantly expressed in pistillate flowers of watermelon. In the andromonoecious line we have detected a missense mutation in a very conserved residue of CitACS4 (C364W) that cosegregates with the andromonoecious phenotype in two independent F2 populations, concomitantly with a reduction in ethylene production in the floral buds that will develop as hermaphrodite flowers. The gene does not however co-segregates with other sex expression traits regulated by ethylene in this species, including pistillate flowering transition and the number of pistillate flowers per plant. These data indicate that CitAC4 is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the ethylene required for stamen arrest during the development of female flowers. The C364W mutation would reduce the production of ethylene in pistillate floral buds, promoting the conversion of female into hermaphrodite flowers, and therefore of monoecy into andromonoecy.

  20. The influence of growth retardants and cytokinins on flowering of ornamental plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pobudkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth retardants are applied in order to obtain short and well compact plants. They usually inhibit stem elongation, but also can influence the flowering of plants. The aim of cytokinin application is to obtain well branched plants without removing the apical meristem. Cytokinins usually increase the number of axillary shoots but also can influence flowering. Growth retardants and cytokinins can affect flower size, pedicel length, number of flowers, flower longevity, abortion of flower buds and number of days from potting plants to the first open flower. Flowering of growth retardant and cytokinin treated plants might depend on the method of growth regulator used (foliar spray or soil drench, plant species or even a plant cultivar, but in the highest degree it depends on the growth regulator rate used. These growth regulators, when are applied at rates appropriate for height and habit control, very seldom influence flowering of ornamental plants, but applied at high rates can delay flowering, diminish flower diameter or flower pedicel length and also can decrease the number of flowers per plant. In cultivation of bulb plants, growth retardants, used at very high rates, also cause abortion of flower buds.

  1. An apple MYB transcription factor, MdMYB3, is involved in regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis and flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Han, Yuepeng; Wei, Guochao; Korban, Schuyler S

    2013-11-07

    Red coloration of fruit is an important trait in apple, and it is mainly attributed to the accumulation of anthocyanins, a class of plant flavonoid metabolites. Anthocyanin biosynthesis is genetically determined by structural and regulatory genes. Plant tissue pigmentation patterns are mainly controlled by expression profiles of regulatory genes. Among these regulatory genes are MYB transcription factors (TFs), wherein the class of two-repeats (R2R3) is deemed the largest, and these are associated with the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. Although three MdMYB genes, almost identical in nucleotide sequences, have been identified in apple, it is likely that there are other R2R3 MYB TFs that are present in the apple genome that are also involved in the regulation of coloration of red color pigmentation of the skin of apple fruits. In this study, a novel R2R3 MYB gene has been isolated and characterized in apple. This MYB gene is closely related to the Arabidopsis thaliana AtMYB3, and has been designated as MdMYB3. This TF belongs to the subgroup 4 R2R3 family of plant MYB transcription factors. This apple MdMYB3 gene is mapped onto linkage group 15 of the integrated apple genetic map. Transcripts of MdMYB3 are detected in all analyzed tissues including leaves, flowers, and fruits. However, transcripts of MdMYB3 are higher in excocarp of red-skinned apple cultivars than that in yellowish-green skinned apple cultivars. When this gene is ectopically expressed in Nicotiana tabacum cv. Petite Havana SR1, flowers of transgenic tobacco lines carrying MdMYB3 have exhibited increased pigmentation and accumulate higher levels of anthocyanins and flavonols than wild-type flowers. Overexpression of MdMYB3 has resulted in transcriptional activation of several flavonoid pathway genes, including CHS, CHI, UFGT, and FLS. Moreover, peduncles of flowers and styles of pistils of transgenic plants overexpressing MdMYB3 are longer than those of wild-type plants, thus suggesting that this

  2. Some aspects of mineral nutrition and flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinnawy, El E.I.

    1956-01-01

    In mustard N deficiency accelerated flower initiation and particularly flower bud development. Excess N delayed flowering but increased number of flowers. Of other elements Ca influenced flowering most.

    Dill developed its flowers most rapidly with normal or high rates of N. N deficiency retarded

  3. Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Several arthropods are natural predators of pests, and they are able to reduce and control their population development. FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais (Federation Regionate de Defense contre les Organismes Nuisibles = Regional Federation for Pest Control) has begun for a long time to form farmers to the recognition of beneficial arthropods and to show them their usefulness. These beneficial insects or arachnids are present everywhere, in orchards and even in fields which are areas relatively poor in biodiversity. Adults feed in the flower strips instead larvae and some adults feed on preys such as aphids or caterpillars. Most of the time, beneficial insects can regulate pest but sometimes, in agricultural area, they can't make it early enough and efficiently. Their action begin too late and there biodiversity and number are too low. It's possible to enhance their action by manipulating the ecological infrastructures, like sewing flower strips or installing refuges. Flower strips increase the density of natural enemies and make them be present earlier in the field in order to control pests. Refuges permit beneficial's to spend winter on the spot. So they're able to be active and to grow in number earlier. From 2004 to 2007, on the one hand, FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais has developed a research program. Its purpose was to inventory practices and also tools and means available and to judge the advisability of using such or such beneficial refuge in orchards. On the second hand, it studied the impact in orchard of refuges on population of beneficial's and the difference there were between manufactured refuges and homemade refuges. Interesting prospects were obtained with some of them. Otherwise, since 2003, FREDON has studied flower strips influence on beneficial population and their impact on pest control. In cabbage fields, results of trials have shown that flower strips lead to a reduction of aphid number under acceptable economic level, up to 50 meters from flower strips

  4. Genes, Parenting, Self-Control, and Criminal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Stephen J; McNulty, Thomas L

    2016-03-01

    Self-control has been found to predict a wide variety of criminal behaviors. In addition, studies have consistently shown that parenting is an important influence on both self-control and offending. However, few studies have examined the role that biological factors may play in moderating the relationship between parenting, self-control, and offending. Using a sample of adolescent males drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 3,610), we explore whether variants of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) and the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene interact with parenting to affect self-control and offending. Results reveal that parenting interacts with these genes to influence self-control and offending, and that the parenting-by-gene interaction effect on offending is mediated by self-control. The effects of parenting on self-control and offending are most pronounced for those who carry plasticity alleles for both MAOA and DAT1. Thus, MAOA and DAT1 may be implicated in offending because they increase the negative effects of parenting on self-control. Implications for theory are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Flower colour and cytochromes P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

    2013-02-19

    Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3'H and F3'5'H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3'5'Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3'5'H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3'5'H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3'5'H and F3'H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones.

  6. Preferences of cut flowers consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Kierczyńska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in spite of the occasion, roses were the most demanded cut flowers.

  7. Linear control theory for gene network modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Bleris, Leonidas

    2010-09-16

    Systems biology is an interdisciplinary field that aims at understanding complex interactions in cells. Here we demonstrate that linear control theory can provide valuable insight and practical tools for the characterization of complex biological networks. We provide the foundation for such analyses through the study of several case studies including cascade and parallel forms, feedback and feedforward loops. We reproduce experimental results and provide rational analysis of the observed behavior. We demonstrate that methods such as the transfer function (frequency domain) and linear state-space (time domain) can be used to predict reliably the properties and transient behavior of complex network topologies and point to specific design strategies for synthetic networks.

  8. The regulation of seasonal flowering in the Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokura, Takeshi; Mimida, Naozumi; Battey, Nicholas H; Hytönen, Timo

    2013-11-01

    Molecular mechanisms regulating the flowering process have been extensively studied in model annual plants; in perennials, however, understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling flowering has just started to emerge. Here we review the current state of flowering research in perennial plants of the rose family (Rosaceae), which is one of the most economically important families of horticultural plants. Strawberry (Fragaria spp.), raspberry (Rubus spp.), rose (Rosa spp.), and apple (Malus spp.) are used to illustrate how photoperiod and temperature control seasonal flowering in rosaceous crops. We highlight recent molecular studies which have revealed homologues of terminal flower1 (TFL1) to be major regulators of both the juvenile to adult, and the vegetative to reproductive transitions in various rosaceous species. Additionally, recent advances in understanding of the regulation of TFL1 are discussed.

  9. Cyanogenic Glucosides and Derivatives in Almond and Sweet Cherry Flower Buds from Dormancy to Flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Del Cueto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Almond and sweet cherry are two economically important species of the Prunus genus. They both produce the cyanogenic glucosides prunasin and amygdalin. As part of a two-component defense system, prunasin and amygdalin release toxic hydrogen cyanide upon cell disruption. In this study, we investigated the potential role within prunasin and amygdalin and some of its derivatives in endodormancy release of these two Prunus species. The content of prunasin and of endogenous prunasin turnover products in the course of flower development was examined in five almond cultivars – differing from very early to extra-late in flowering time – and in one sweet early cherry cultivar. In all cultivars, prunasin began to accumulate in the flower buds shortly after dormancy release and the levels dropped again just before flowering time. In almond and sweet cherry, the turnover of prunasin coincided with increased levels of prunasin amide whereas prunasin anitrile pentoside and β-D-glucose-1-benzoate were abundant in almond and cherry flower buds at certain developmental stages. These findings indicate a role for the turnover of cyanogenic glucosides in controlling flower development in Prunus species.

  10. The Effect of Organic Fertilizers and Flowering Plants on Sheet-Web and Wolf Spider Populations (Araneae: Lycosidae and Linyphiidae) and Its Importance for Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nabawy, El-Said M; Tsuda, Katsuo; Sakamaki, Yositaka; Oda, Asahi; Ushijima, Yurie

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to identify the treatment that increases the populations of spiders, which are effective predators in agroecosystems. In 2013 and 2014 the experimental eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) field was two different treatments, organic fertilizers and chemical fertilizer treatment, and in 2014 we surrounded organic fertilizer plots with the flowering plants mealy cup sage (Salvia farinacea Benth.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Analysis using repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant influences of fertilizer type on the numbers of linyphiid spiders and Collembola in 2013. In 2014, the numbers of Collembola, thrips, and lycosid and linyphiid spider were higher in organic fertilizer with flowering plants treatment comparing with the chemical fertilizer treatment. Moreover, the numbers of Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (F.) were significantly lower in the organic fertilizer with flowering plants treatment than in chemical fertilizers treatment. Finally, we expect that Thysanoptera and Collembola were important alternative prey for linyphiid and lycosid spiders and the use of organic fertilizer and flowering plants enhanced the density of these spiders, and may increase their effectiveness in suppressing the populations of H. vigintioctopunctata (F.). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  11. Control of flowering time and spike development in cereals: the earliness per se Eps-1 region in wheat, rice, and Brachypodium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faricelli, M. E.; Valárik, Miroslav; Dubcovsky, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2010), s. 293-306 ISSN 1438-793X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Comparative genomics * Earliness per se * Flowering Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.397, year: 2010

  12. Linear control theory for gene network modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Jun Shin

    Full Text Available Systems biology is an interdisciplinary field that aims at understanding complex interactions in cells. Here we demonstrate that linear control theory can provide valuable insight and practical tools for the characterization of complex biological networks. We provide the foundation for such analyses through the study of several case studies including cascade and parallel forms, feedback and feedforward loops. We reproduce experimental results and provide rational analysis of the observed behavior. We demonstrate that methods such as the transfer function (frequency domain and linear state-space (time domain can be used to predict reliably the properties and transient behavior of complex network topologies and point to specific design strategies for synthetic networks.

  13. The genetic architecture of leaf number and its genetic relationship to flowering time in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Wang, Xufeng; Zhang, Xiangbo; Chen, Qiuyue; Xu, Guanghui; Xu, Dingyi; Wang, Chenglong; Liang, Yameng; Wu, Lishuan; Huang, Cheng; Tian, Jinge; Wu, Yaoyao; Tian, Feng

    2016-04-01

    The number of leaves and their distributions on plants are critical factors determining plant architecture in maize (Zea mays), and leaf number is frequently used as a measure of flowering time, a trait that is key to local environmental adaptation. Here, using a large set of 866 maize-teosinte BC2 S3 recombinant inbred lines genotyped by using 19,838 single nucleotide polymorphism markers, we conducted a comprehensive genetic dissection to assess the genetic architecture of leaf number and its genetic relationship to flowering time. We demonstrated that the two components of total leaf number, the number of leaves above (LA) and below (LB) the primary ear, were under relatively independent genetic control and might be subject to differential directional selection during maize domestication and improvement. Furthermore, we revealed that flowering time and leaf number are commonly regulated at a moderate level. The pleiotropy of the genes ZCN8, dlf1 and ZmCCT on leaf number and flowering time were validated by near-isogenic line analysis. Through fine mapping, qLA1-1, a major-effect locus that specifically affects LA, was delimited to a region with severe recombination suppression derived from teosinte. This study provides important insights into the genetic basis of traits affecting plant architecture and adaptation. The genetic independence of LA from LB enables the optimization of leaf number for ideal plant architecture breeding in maize. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Investigating the Association between Flowering Time and Defense in the Arabidopsis thaliana-Fusarium oxysporum Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Rebecca; Rusu, Anca; Stiller, Jiri; Powell, Jonathan; Manners, John M.; Kazan, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    Plants respond to pathogens either by investing more resources into immunity which is costly to development, or by accelerating reproductive processes such as flowering time to ensure reproduction occurs before the plant succumbs to disease. In this study we explored the link between flowering time and pathogen defense using the interaction between Arabidopsis thaliana and the root infecting fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. We report that F. oxysporum infection accelerates flowering time and regulates transcription of a number of floral integrator genes, including FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and GIGANTEA (GI). Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between late flowering and resistance to F. oxysporum in A. thaliana natural ecotypes. Late-flowering gi and autonomous pathway mutants also exhibited enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum, supporting the association between flowering time and defense. However, epistasis analysis showed that accelerating flowering time by deletion of FLC in fve-3 or fpa-7 mutants did not alter disease resistance, suggesting that the effect of autonomous pathway on disease resistance occurs independently from flowering time. Indeed, RNA-seq analyses suggest that fve-3 mediated resistance to F. oxysporum is most likely a result of altered defense-associated gene transcription. Together, our results indicate that the association between flowering time and pathogen defense is complex and can involve both pleiotropic and direct effects. PMID:26034991

  15. Controllable growth of MoS{sub 2}/C flower-like microspheres with enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Q.Q., E-mail: zjxqq@hdu.edu.cn; Ji, Z.G.

    2016-07-15

    Tailored design/fabrication of hierarchical porous advanced electrodes is of great importance for developing high-performance power sources. Herein, we report a facile solvothermal method for fabrication of hierarchical porous MoS{sub 2}/C flower-like microspheres. Interestingly, the obtained MoS{sub 2}/C microspheres are composed of interconnected secondary thin nanoflakes and an amorphous carbon layer. As an anode material for lithium ion batteries, the resultant MoS{sub 2}/C flower-like microspheres electrode delivers a high specific capacity of 1125.9 mAh g{sup −1} and good cycle capability (916.6 mAh g{sup −1} at 200 mA g{sup −1} up to 400 cycles), as well as enhanced rate performance. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the unique porous composite architecture with fast transportation of ion/electron and good strain accommodation during the lithiation/delithiation reaction. Our research may pave the way for construction of other high-performance metal sulfides electrodes for electrochemical energy storage. - Graphical abstract: We report a facile solvothermal method for fabrication of hierarchical porous MoS{sub 2}/C flower-like microspheres composed of interconnected thin nanoflakes and an amorphous carbon layer. As an anode material for LIBs, MoS{sub 2}/C flower-like microspheres electrode delivers enhanced electrochemical performance. - Highlights: • We prepared MoS{sub 2}/C flower-like microspheres via a facile solvothermal method. • The microsphere consists of interconnected nanoflake and an amorphous carbon layer. • The MoS{sub 2}/C microspheres show high capacity and good rate performance.

  16. Let the flowers grow…

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental part of CERN Safety policy is represented by a flower whose petals are the various domains of its application. The Environment Services section within the Occupational Health and Safety and Environmental Protection Unit is in charge of monitoring the impact of the Laboratory on the environment. You are called on to make every effort to reduce this impact as much as reasonably achievable. Read why and how…   A physics Laboratory occupying a territory of the size of a small village, with sites scattered across an even larger area, has a considerable potential impact on the environment. Energy and water consumption, waste management... these are all aspects of the same problem or, in the representation, petals of the same flower. Each one should be carefully studied and dealt with. The nine members of the Environment Services section deal with matters that concern these and other aspects of the CERN's policy for the protection of the environment. “...

  17. Effects of Passion Flower Extract, as an Add-On Treatment to Sertraline, on Reaction Time in Patients ‎with Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojoumi, Mandana; Ghaeli, Padideh; Salimi, Samrand; Sharifi, Ali; Raisi, Firoozeh

    2016-07-01

    Objective: Because of functional impairment caused by generalized anxiety disorder and due to cognitive side ‎effects of many anti-anxiety agents, in this study we aimed to evaluate the influence of Passion ‎flower standardized extract on reaction time in patients with generalized anxiety disorder.‎ Method: Thirty patients aged 18 to 50 years of age, who were diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder and ‎fulfilled the study criteria, entered this double-blind placebo-controlled study. Reaction time was ‎measured at baseline and after one month of treatment using computerized software. Correct ‎responses, omission and substitution errors and the mean time of correct responses (reaction time) in ‎both visual and auditory tests were collected. The analysis was performed between the two groups ‎and within each group utilizing SPSS PASW- statics, Version 18. P-value less than 0.05 was ‎considered statistically significant.‎ Results: All the participants were initiated on Sertraline 50 mg/day, and the dosage was increased to 100 ‎mg / day after two weeks. Fourteen patients received Pasipy (Passion Flower) 15 drops three times ‎daily and 16 received placebo concurrently. Inter-group comparison proved no significant difference ‎in any of the test items between assortments while a significant decline was observed in auditory ‎omission errors in passion flower group after on month of treatment using intra-group analysis.‎‎ Conclusion: This study noted that passion flower might be suitable as an add-on in the treatment of generalized ‎anxiety disorder with low side effects. Further studies with longer duration are recommended to ‎confirm the results of this study.‎.

  18. Molecular basis of development in petaloid monocot flowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Bo; Frederiksen, Signe; Skipper, Martin

    2006-01-01

    -class genes apparently are expressed in meristems of both flower and inflorescence. Morphologically petaloid stamens and styles are well known within the petaloid monocots, whereas the phenomenon is rare in core eudicots. A simple model based on the extra copies of B-class genes can explain the molecular...

  19. A TAD further: exogenous control of gene activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapp, Anna K; Ansari, Aseem Z

    2007-01-23

    Designer molecules that can be used to impose exogenous control on gene transcription, artificial transcription factors (ATFs), are highly desirable as mechanistic probes of gene regulation, as potential therapeutic agents, and as components of cell-based devices. Recently, several advances have been made in the design of ATFs that activate gene transcription (activator ATFs), including reports of small-molecule-based systems and ATFs that exhibit potent activity. However, the many open mechanistic questions about transcriptional activators, in particular, the structure and function of the transcriptional activation domain (TAD), have hindered rapid development of synthetic ATFs. A compelling need thus exists for chemical tools and insights toward a more detailed portrait of the dynamic process of gene activation.

  20. Spatial and temporal transcriptome changes occurring during flower opening and senescence of the ephemeral hibiscus flower, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivellini, Alice; Cocetta, Giacomo; Hunter, Donald A; Vernieri, Paolo; Ferrante, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Flowers are complex systems whose vegetative and sexual structures initiate and die in a synchronous manner. The rapidity of this process varies widely in flowers, with some lasting for months while others such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis survive for only a day. The genetic regulation underlying these differences is unclear. To identify key genes and pathways that coordinate floral organ senescence of ephemeral flowers, we identified transcripts in H. rosa-sinensis floral organs by 454 sequencing. During development, 2053 transcripts increased and 2135 decreased significantly in abundance. The senescence of the flower was associated with increased abundance of many hydrolytic genes, including aspartic and cysteine proteases, vacuolar processing enzymes, and nucleases. Pathway analysis suggested that transcripts altering significantly in abundance were enriched in functions related to cell wall-, aquaporin-, light/circadian clock-, autophagy-, and calcium-related genes. Finding enrichment in light/circadian clock-related genes fits well with the observation that hibiscus floral development is highly synchronized with light and the hypothesis that ageing/senescence of the flower is orchestrated by a molecular clock. Further study of these genes will provide novel insight into how the molecular clock is able to regulate the timing of programmed cell death in tissues. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Identification of early flowering mutants from the cut chrysanthemum variety 'Jinba' and research on the physiological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Haiyan; Wen Lizhu; Zheng Chengshu; Sun Xia; Li Yingying

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the morphological characteristics the early flower mutants induced by EMS from the cut chrysanthemum variety 'Jinba' were characterized, and ISSR-PCR was used for molecular identification of mutants. The photosynthetic characteristics, stomatal and vascular bundle cross-section for the mutants were also measured. The florescence of mutants appeared about 59 days earlier than that of controls. The plant height, leaves and flower diameter were all smaller than those of controls, but they grew well. From the PCR amplification, the differences between the mutants and the control were in the present or absent of the amplified bands. The photosynthetic characteristics, such as the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr) and intercellular CO_2 concentration were all significantly lower than the controls. The number of mutant's stomata significantly reduced, and some stomatas appeared variation. The vascular bundles including primary phloem and primary xylem displayed difference in the size and shape. All these work lays a foundation for breeding the early flowering of excellent chrysanthemum and further characterization of the early flowering genes. (authors)

  2. Eating flowers? Exploring attitudes and consumers' representation of edible flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, H; Cielo, D P; Goméz-Corona, C; Silveira, A A S; Marchesan, T A; Galmarini, M V; Richards, N S P S

    2017-10-01

    Edible flowers have gained more attention in recent years thanks to their perceived health benefits. Despite this attention, it seems that edible flowers are not popularized for consumption in South America, being considered unfamiliar for some cultures from this continent. In this context, the general goal of the present study was to investigate the three dimensions of social representation theory, the representational field, the information and the attitude of the two conditions of edible flowers: a more general "food made with flowers" and more directional product "yoghurt made with flowers", using Brazilian consumers. To achieve this goal, a free word association task was applied. A total of 549 consumers participated in this study. Participants were divided into two conditions, in which the inductor expressions for the free word association task changed: (a) food products made with flowers and (b) yoghurt made with flowers. Results showed a very positive attitude to both situations, and consumers associated Food products made with flowers to "health care" while the central core of yoghurt made with flowers reflected the innovative condition of this product, supported here by their unpredictable character (information generated). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Patterning of Inflorescences and Flowers by the F-Box Protein DOUBLE TOP and the LEAFY Homolog ABERRANT LEAF AND FLOWER of Petunia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souer, E.J.; Bliek, M.; Koes, R.E.; Kusters, E.; Bruin de, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Angiosperms display a wide variety of inflorescence architectures differing in the positions where flowers or branches arise. The expression of floral meristem identity (FMI) genes determines when and where flowers are formed. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this is regulated via transcription of LEAFY

  4. Segregation of genes controlling seed colour in sesame ( Sesamum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the sixth cross, involving white and black parents, an array of white, black, brownish white and brown colours were observed in the F2. The variation in gene systems controlling seed colour expression observed in this study revealed the complex nature of the expression of this trait. Results also indicated that plants with ...

  5. The Number of Genes Controlling Resistance in Beans to Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten crosses were made between resistant (R), susceptible (S), RxS susceptible and Intermediate (I), SxI and RxR bean lines to common bacterial blight. The F1 were advanced to F2 and in each cross over 250 F2 plants were used to evaluate for the number of genes controlling resistance using Mendelian genetics and ...

  6. Automatic Control of Gene Expression in Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracassi, Chiara; Postiglione, Lorena; Fiore, Gianfranco; di Bernardo, Diego

    2016-04-15

    Automatic control of gene expression in living cells is paramount importance to characterize both endogenous gene regulatory networks and synthetic circuits. In addition, such a technology can be used to maintain the expression of synthetic circuit components in an optimal range in order to ensure reliable performance. Here we present a microfluidics-based method to automatically control gene expression from the tetracycline-inducible promoter in mammalian cells in real time. Our approach is based on the negative-feedback control engineering paradigm. We validated our method in a monoclonal population of cells constitutively expressing a fluorescent reporter protein (d2EYFP) downstream of a minimal CMV promoter with seven tet-responsive operator motifs (CMV-TET). These cells also constitutively express the tetracycline transactivator protein (tTA). In cells grown in standard growth medium, tTA is able to bind the CMV-TET promoter, causing d2EYFP to be maximally expressed. Upon addition of tetracycline to the culture medium, tTA detaches from the CMV-TET promoter, thus preventing d2EYFP expression. We tested two different model-independent control algorithms (relay and proportional-integral (PI)) to force a monoclonal population of cells to express an intermediate level of d2EYFP equal to 50% of its maximum expression level for up to 3500 min. The control input is either tetracycline-rich or standard growth medium. We demonstrated that both the relay and PI controllers can regulate gene expression at the desired level, despite oscillations (dampened in the case of the PI controller) around the chosen set point.

  7. Sequential Logic Model Deciphers Dynamic Transcriptional Control of Gene Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Zhen Xuan; Wong, Sum Thai; Arjunan, Satya Nanda Vel; Piras, Vincent; Tomita, Masaru; Selvarajoo, Kumar; Giuliani, Alessandro; Tsuchiya, Masa

    2007-01-01

    Background Cellular signaling involves a sequence of events from ligand binding to membrane receptors through transcription factors activation and the induction of mRNA expression. The transcriptional-regulatory system plays a pivotal role in the control of gene expression. A novel computational approach to the study of gene regulation circuits is presented here. Methodology Based on the concept of finite state machine, which provides a discrete view of gene regulation, a novel sequential logic model (SLM) is developed to decipher control mechanisms of dynamic transcriptional regulation of gene expressions. The SLM technique is also used to systematically analyze the dynamic function of transcriptional inputs, the dependency and cooperativity, such as synergy effect, among the binding sites with respect to when, how much and how fast the gene of interest is expressed. Principal Findings SLM is verified by a set of well studied expression data on endo16 of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (sea urchin) during the embryonic midgut development. A dynamic regulatory mechanism for endo16 expression controlled by three binding sites, UI, R and Otx is identified and demonstrated to be consistent with experimental findings. Furthermore, we show that during transition from specification to differentiation in wild type endo16 expression profile, SLM reveals three binary activities are not sufficient to explain the transcriptional regulation of endo16 expression and additional activities of binding sites are required. Further analyses suggest detailed mechanism of R switch activity where indirect dependency occurs in between UI activity and R switch during specification to differentiation stage. Conclusions/Significance The sequential logic formalism allows for a simplification of regulation network dynamics going from a continuous to a discrete representation of gene activation in time. In effect our SLM is non-parametric and model-independent, yet providing rich biological

  8. Sequential logic model deciphers dynamic transcriptional control of gene expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Xuan Yeo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cellular signaling involves a sequence of events from ligand binding to membrane receptors through transcription factors activation and the induction of mRNA expression. The transcriptional-regulatory system plays a pivotal role in the control of gene expression. A novel computational approach to the study of gene regulation circuits is presented here. METHODOLOGY: Based on the concept of finite state machine, which provides a discrete view of gene regulation, a novel sequential logic model (SLM is developed to decipher control mechanisms of dynamic transcriptional regulation of gene expressions. The SLM technique is also used to systematically analyze the dynamic function of transcriptional inputs, the dependency and cooperativity, such as synergy effect, among the binding sites with respect to when, how much and how fast the gene of interest is expressed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: SLM is verified by a set of well studied expression data on endo16 of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (sea urchin during the embryonic midgut development. A dynamic regulatory mechanism for endo16 expression controlled by three binding sites, UI, R and Otx is identified and demonstrated to be consistent with experimental findings. Furthermore, we show that during transition from specification to differentiation in wild type endo16 expression profile, SLM reveals three binary activities are not sufficient to explain the transcriptional regulation of endo16 expression and additional activities of binding sites are required. Further analyses suggest detailed mechanism of R switch activity where indirect dependency occurs in between UI activity and R switch during specification to differentiation stage. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The sequential logic formalism allows for a simplification of regulation network dynamics going from a continuous to a discrete representation of gene activation in time. In effect our SLM is non-parametric and model-independent, yet

  9. MAEWEST expression in flower development of two petunia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segatto, Ana Lúcia A; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia Carina; Aizza, Lilian Cristina B; Monte-Bello, Carolina C; Dornelas, Marcelo C; Margis, Rogerio; Freitas, Loreta B

    2013-07-03

    Changes in flower morphology may influence the frequency and specificity of animal visitors. In Petunia (Solanaceae), adaptation to different pollinators is one of the factors leading to species diversification within the genus. This study provides evidence that differential expression patterns of MAWEWEST (MAW) homologs in different Petunia species may be associated with adaptive changes in floral morphology. The Petunia × hybrida MAW gene belongs to the WOX (WUSCHEL-related homeobox) transcription factor family and has been identified as a controller of petal fusion during corolla formation. We analyzed the expression patterns of P. inflata and P. axillaris MAW orthologs (PiMAW and PaMAW, respectively) by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and in situ hybridization in different tissues and different developmental stages of flowers in both species. The spatial expression patterns of PiMAW and PaMAW were similar in P. inflata and P. axillaris. Nevertheless, PaMAW expression level in P. axillaris was higher during the late bud development stage as compared to PiMAW in P. inflata. This work represents an expansion of petunia developmental research to wild accessions.

  10. MAEWEST Expression in Flower Development of Two Petunia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia A. Segatto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Changes in flower morphology may influence the frequency and specificity of animal visitors. In Petunia (Solanaceae, adaptation to different pollinators is one of the factors leading to species diversification within the genus. This study provides evidence that differential expression patterns of MAWEWEST (MAW homologs in different Petunia species may be associated with adaptive changes in floral morphology. The Petunia × hybrida MAW gene belongs to the WOX (WUSCHEL-related homeobox transcription factor family and has been identified as a controller of petal fusion during corolla formation. We analyzed the expression patterns of P. inflata and P. axillaris MAW orthologs (PiMAW and PaMAW, respectively by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, reverse transcription–quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization in different tissues and different developmental stages of flowers in both species. The spatial expression patterns of PiMAW and PaMAW were similar in P. inflata and P. axillaris. Nevertheless, PaMAW expression level in P. axillaris was higher during the late bud development stage as compared to PiMAW in P. inflata. This work represents an expansion of petunia developmental research to wild accessions.

  11. Analysis of two heterologous flowering genes in ¤Brachypodium distachyon¤ demonstrates its potential as a grass model plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, P.; Lenk, I.; Jensen, Christian S.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the great contribution of model organisms, such as Arabidopsis and rice to understand biological processes in plants, these models are less valuable for functional studies of particular genes from temperate grass crop species. Therefore a new model plant is required, displaying features...... including close phylogenetic relationship to the temperate grasses, vernalisation requirement, high transformation efficiency, small genome size and a rapid life cycle. These requirements are all fulfilled by the small annual grass Brachypodium distachyon. As a first step towards implementing this plant...

  12. KIRA1 and ORESARA1 terminate flower receptivity by promoting cell death in the stigma of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhen; Daneva, Anna; Salanenka, Yuliya; Van Durme, Matthias; Huysmans, Marlies; Lin, Zongcheng; De Winter, Freya; Vanneste, Steffen; Karimi, Mansour; Van de Velde, Jan; Vandepoele, Klaas; Van de Walle, Davy; Dewettinck, Koen; Lambrecht, Bart N; Nowack, Moritz K

    2018-05-28

    Flowers have a species-specific functional life span that determines the time window in which pollination, fertilization and seed set can occur. The stigma tissue plays a key role in flower receptivity by intercepting pollen and initiating pollen tube growth toward the ovary. In this article, we show that a developmentally controlled cell death programme terminates the functional life span of stigma cells in Arabidopsis. We identified the leaf senescence regulator ORESARA1 (also known as ANAC092) and the previously uncharacterized KIRA1 (also known as ANAC074) as partially redundant transcription factors that modulate stigma longevity by controlling the expression of programmed cell death-associated genes. KIRA1 expression is sufficient to induce cell death and terminate floral receptivity, whereas lack of both KIRA1 and ORESARA1 substantially increases stigma life span. Surprisingly, the extension of stigma longevity is accompanied by only a moderate extension of flower receptivity, suggesting that additional processes participate in the control of the flower's receptive life span.

  13. SEP-class genes in Prunus mume and their likely role in floral organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuzhen; Xu, Zongda; Yong, Xue; Ahmad, Sagheer; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2017-01-13

    Flower phylogenetics and genetically controlled development have been revolutionised during the last two decades. However, some of these evolutionary aspects are still debatable. MADS-box genes are known to play essential role in specifying the floral organogenesis and differentiation in numerous model plants like Petunia hybrida, Arabidopsis thaliana and Antirrhinum majus. SEPALLATA (SEP) genes, belonging to the MADS-box gene family, are members of the ABCDE and quartet models of floral organ development and play a vital role in flower development. However, few studies of the genes in Prunus mume have yet been conducted. In this study, we cloned four PmSEPs and investigated their phylogenetic relationship with other species. Expression pattern analyses and yeast two-hybrid assays of these four genes indicated their involvement in the floral organogenesis with PmSEP4 specifically related to specification of the prolificated flowers in P. mume. It was observed that the flower meristem was specified by PmSEP1 and PmSEP4, the sepal by PmSEP1 and PmSEP4, petals by PmSEP2 and PmSEP3, stamens by PmSEP2 and PmSEP3 and pistils by PmSEP2 and PmSEP3. With the above in mind, flower development in P. mume might be due to an expression of SEP genes. Our findings can provide a foundation for further investigations of the transcriptional factors governing flower development, their molecular mechanisms and genetic basis.

  14. Ehd4 encodes a novel and Oryza-genus-specific regulator of photoperiodic flowering in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Gao

    Full Text Available Land plants have evolved increasingly complex regulatory modes of their flowering time (or heading date in crops. Rice (Oryza sativa L. is a short-day plant that flowers more rapidly in short-day but delays under long-day conditions. Previous studies have shown that the CO-FT module initially identified in long-day plants (Arabidopsis is evolutionary conserved in short-day plants (Hd1-Hd3a in rice. However, in rice, there is a unique Ehd1-dependent flowering pathway that is Hd1-independent. Here, we report isolation and characterization of a positive regulator of Ehd1, Early heading date 4 (Ehd4. ehd4 mutants showed a never flowering phenotype under natural long-day conditions. Map-based cloning revealed that Ehd4 encodes a novel CCCH-type zinc finger protein, which is localized to the nucleus and is able to bind to nucleic acids in vitro and transactivate transcription in yeast, suggesting that it likely functions as a transcriptional regulator. Ehd4 expression is most active in young leaves with a diurnal expression pattern similar to that of Ehd1 under both short-day and long-day conditions. We show that Ehd4 up-regulates the expression of the "florigen" genes Hd3a and RFT1 through Ehd1, but it acts independently of other known Ehd1 regulators. Strikingly, Ehd4 is highly conserved in the Oryza genus including wild and cultivated rice, but has no homologs in other species, suggesting that Ehd4 is originated along with the diversification of the Oryza genus from the grass family during evolution. We conclude that Ehd4 is a novel Oryza-genus-specific regulator of Ehd1, and it plays an essential role in photoperiodic control of flowering time in rice.

  15. The effects of different irrigation levels on flowering and flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water usage is a vital issue for all agricultural crops as well as for ornamental crops. To obtain high quality flowers, it is essential to supply water when it is required. A problem which is common with cut flower growers are determining when to irrigate and the amount of water to apply. The effect of two irrigation intervals (I1: ...

  16. The effects of different irrigation levels on flowering and flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... important export production in cut flower is carnation and it consists of 89% of cut flower export. ... irrigation management in arid and semi-arid regions will shift from emphasizing ..... Handbook of Plant and Crop. Stress (Ed: M.

  17. Genetic control of biennial bearing in apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitton, Baptiste; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Velasco, Riccardo; Gardiner, Susan E.; Chagné, David; Costes, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Although flowering in mature fruit trees is recurrent, floral induction can be strongly inhibited by concurrent fruiting, leading to a pattern of irregular fruiting across consecutive years referred to as biennial bearing. The genetic determinants of biennial bearing in apple were investigated using the 114 flowering individuals from an F1 population of 122 genotypes, from a ‘Starkrimson’ (strong biennial bearer)בGranny Smith’ (regular bearer) cross. The number of inflorescences, and the number and the mass of harvested fruit were recorded over 6 years and used to calculate 26 variables and indices quantifying yield, precocity of production, and biennial bearing. Inflorescence traits exhibited the highest genotypic effect, and three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on linkage group (LG) 4, LG8, and LG10 explained 50% of the phenotypic variability for biennial bearing. Apple orthologues of flowering and hormone-related genes were retrieved from the whole-genome assembly of ‘Golden Delicious’ and their position was compared with QTLs. Four main genomic regions that contain floral integrator genes, meristem identity genes, and gibberellin oxidase genes co-located with QTLs. The results indicated that flowering genes are less likely to be responsible for biennial bearing than hormone-related genes. New hypotheses for the control of biennial bearing emerged from QTL and candidate gene co-locations and suggest the involvement of different physiological processes such as the regulation of flowering genes by hormones. The correlation between tree architecture and biennial bearing is also discussed. PMID:21963613

  18. Metatranscriptome Analysis of Fig Flowers Provides Insights into Potential Mechanisms for Mutualism Stability and Gall Induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen O Martinson

    Full Text Available A striking property of the mutualism between figs and their pollinating wasps is that wasps consistently oviposit in the inner flowers of the fig syconium, which develop into galls that house developing larvae. Wasps typically do not use the outer ring of flowers, which develop into seeds. To better understand differences between gall and seed flowers, we used a metatranscriptomic approach to analyze eukaryotic gene expression within fig flowers at the time of oviposition choice and early gall development. Consistent with the unbeatable seed hypothesis, we found significant differences in gene expression between gall- and seed flowers in receptive syconia prior to oviposition. In particular, transcripts assigned to flavonoids and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly up-regulated in gall flowers relative to seed flowers. In response to oviposition, gall flowers significantly up-regulated the expression of chalcone synthase, which previously has been connected to gall formation in other plants. We propose several genes encoding proteins with signal peptides or associations with venom of other Hymenoptera as candidate genes for gall initiation or growth. This study simultaneously evaluates the gene expression profile of both mutualistic partners in a plant-insect mutualism and provides insight into a possible stability mechanism in the ancient fig-fig wasp association.

  19. Overexpression of a flower-specific aerolysin-like protein from the dioecious plant Rumex acetosa alters flower development and induces male sterility in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Susana; Megías, Zoraida; Martínez, Cecilia; García, Alicia; Aguado, Encarnación; Chileh, Tarik; López-Alonso, Diego; García-Maroto, Federico; Kejnovský, Eduard; Široký, Jiří; Kubát, Zdeněk; Králová, Tereza; Vyskot, Boris; Jamilena, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Sex determination in Rumex acetosa, a dioecious plant with a complex XY 1 Y 2 sex chromosome system (females are XX and males are XY 1 Y 2 ), is not controlled by an active Y chromosome but depends on the ratio between the number of X chromosomes and autosomes. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of sex determination, we generated a subtracted cDNA library enriched in genes specifically or predominantly expressed in female floral buds in early stages of development, when sex determination mechanisms come into play. In the present paper, we report the molecular and functional characterization of FEM32, a gene encoding a protein that shares a common architecture with proteins in different plants, animals, bacteria and fungi of the aerolysin superfamily; many of these function as β pore-forming toxins. The expression analysis, assessed by northern blot, RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, demonstrates that this gene is specifically expressed in flowers in both early and late stages of development, although its transcripts accumulate much more in female flowers than in male flowers. The ectopic expression of FEM32 under both the constitutive promoter 35S and the flower-specific promoter AP3 in transgenic tobacco showed no obvious alteration in vegetative development but was able to alter floral organ growth and pollen fertility. The 35S::FEM32 and AP3::FEM32 transgenic lines showed a reduction in stamen development and pollen viability, as well as a diminution in fruit set, fruit development and seed production. Compared with other floral organs, pistil development was, however, enhanced in plants overexpressing FEM32. According to these effects, it is likely that FEM32 functions in Rumex by arresting stamen and pollen development during female flower development. The aerolysin-like pore-forming proteins of eukaryotes are mainly involved in defence mechanisms against bacteria, fungi and insects and are also involved in apoptosis and programmed cell death (PCD

  20. Stop and Paint the Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art lesson where students used watercolors to paint a flower bouquet arranged in a vase. Explains that the students viewed examples of flower bouquets by artists such as Vincent van Gogh and Odilon Redon. Discusses, in detail, the process of creating the artworks. (CMK)

  1. Genetic control of eosinophilia in mice: gene(s) expressed in bone marrow-derived cells control high responsiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadas, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    A heterogeneity in the capacity of strains of mice to mount eosinophilia is described. BALB/c and C3H are eosinophil high responder strains (EO-HR) and CBA and A/J are eosinophil low responder strains (EO-LR), judged by the response of blood eosinophils to Ascaris suum, and the response of blood, bone marrow, and spleen eosinophils to keyhole limpet hemocyanin given 2 days after 150 mg/kg cyclophosphamide. Some of the gene(s) for high responsiveness appear to be dominant because (EO-HR x EO-LR)F 1 mice were intermediate to high responders. This gene is expressed in bone marrow-derived cells because radiation chimeras of the type EO-HR→F 1 were high responders and EO-LR→F 1 were low responders. This description of a genetic control of eosinophilia in mice may be useful in understanding the role of this cell in parasite immunity and allergy

  2. Genome-wide association analysis for heat tolerance at flowering detected a large set of genes involved in adaptation to thermal and other stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanguy Lafarge

    Full Text Available Fertilization sensitivity to heat in rice is a major issue within climate change scenarios in the tropics. A panel of 167 indica landraces and improved varieties was phenotyped for spikelet sterility (SPKST under 38°C during anthesis and for several secondary traits potentially affecting panicle micro-climate and thus the fertilization process. The panel was genotyped with an average density of one marker per 29 kb using genotyping by sequencing. Genome-wide association analyses (GWAS were conducted using three methods based on single marker regression, haplotype regression and simultaneous fitting of all markers, respectively. Fourteen loci significantly associated with SPKST under at least two GWAS methods were detected. A large number of associations was also detected for the secondary traits. Analysis of co-localization of SPKST associated loci with QTLs detected in progenies of bi-parental crosses reported in the literature allowed to narrow -down the position of eight of those QTLs, including the most documented one, qHTSF4.1. Gene families underlying loci associated with SPKST corresponded to functions ranging from sensing abiotic stresses and regulating plant response, such as wall-associated kinases and heat shock proteins, to cell division and gametophyte development. Analysis of diversity at the vicinity of loci associated with SPKST within the rice three thousand genomes, revealed widespread distribution of the favourable alleles across O. sativa genetic groups. However, few accessions assembled the favourable alleles at all loci. Effective donors included the heat tolerant variety N22 and some Indian and Taiwanese varieties. These results provide a basis for breeding for heat tolerance during anthesis and for functional validation of major loci governing this trait.

  3. Transcriptional control in the segmentation gene network of Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Schroeder

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The segmentation gene network of Drosophila consists of maternal and zygotic factors that generate, by transcriptional (cross- regulation, expression patterns of increasing complexity along the anterior-posterior axis of the embryo. Using known binding site information for maternal and zygotic gap transcription factors, the computer algorithm Ahab recovers known segmentation control elements (modules with excellent success and predicts many novel modules within the network and genome-wide. We show that novel module predictions are highly enriched in the network and typically clustered proximal to the promoter, not only upstream, but also in intronic space and downstream. When placed upstream of a reporter gene, they consistently drive patterned blastoderm expression, in most cases faithfully producing one or more pattern elements of the endogenous gene. Moreover, we demonstrate for the entire set of known and newly validated modules that Ahab's prediction of binding sites correlates well with the expression patterns produced by the modules, revealing basic rules governing their composition. Specifically, we show that maternal factors consistently act as activators and that gap factors act as repressors, except for the bimodal factor Hunchback. Our data suggest a simple context-dependent rule for its switch from repressive to activating function. Overall, the composition of modules appears well fitted to the spatiotemporal distribution of their positive and negative input factors. Finally, by comparing Ahab predictions with different categories of transcription factor input, we confirm the global regulatory structure of the segmentation gene network, but find odd skipped behaving like a primary pair-rule gene. The study expands our knowledge of the segmentation gene network by increasing the number of experimentally tested modules by 50%. For the first time, the entire set of validated modules is analyzed for binding site composition under a

  4. Sugars, the clock and transition to flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza eBolouri Moghaddam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugars do not only act as source of energy, but they also act as signals in plants. This mini review summarizes the emerging links between sucrose-mediated signaling and the cellular networks involved in flowering time control and defense. Cross-talks with gibberellin (GA and jasmonate (JA signaling pathways are highlighted. The circadian clock fulfills a crucial role at the heart of cellular networks and the bilateral relation between sugar signaling and the clock is discussed. It is proposed that important factors controlling plant growth (DELLAs, PIFs, invertases and trehalose- 6-phosphate or T6P might fulfill central roles in the transition to flowering as well. The emerging concept of ‘sweet immunity’, modulated by the clock, might at least partly rely on a sucrose-specific signaling pathway that needs further exploration.

  5. Construction of full-length cDNA library of white flower Salvia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to screen and isolate secondary metabolite biosynthesis related gene, we construct a cDNA library of white flower Salvia miltiorrhiza bge. f.alba. High quality of total RNA was successfully isolated from roots of white flower S. miltiorrhiza using modified CTAB method. Double strand cDNA was cloned into pDNR-LIB ...

  6. Non-linked inhibitory gene controls a disease mimicking mutant in rice [Oryza sativa L.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambhulkar, S.J.; Joshua, D.C.; Goswamy, D.G.

    2001-01-01

    A gamma ray induced disease mimicking mutant called luchai lesion was isolated in the rice variety White Luchai 112. The appearance of small light red lesions and their development continued from seedling to flowering. The lesions appeared gradually on older leaves and their uncontrolled spread eventually lead to leaf senescence. They resembled the disease spots caused by Magnaporthe grisea. However, pathological studies ruled out the possibility of pathogen mediated disease symptoms. Genetic studies revealed that lesions were governed by a dominant gene; however, their expression was suppressed in presence of a non-linked inhibitory gene. It is hypothesised that the plant cells of the mutant are able to sense inbuilt spontaneous signals leading to lesion development, but in presence of an inhibitory gene the signals are suppressed by perturbation in the signal transduction pathway [it

  7. Optimal control of gene mutation in DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Juanyi; Li, Jr-Shin; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong

    2012-01-01

    We propose a molecular-level control system view of the gene mutations in DNA replication from the finite field concept. By treating DNA sequences as state variables, chemical mutagens and radiation as control inputs, one cell cycle as a step increment, and the measurements of the resulting DNA sequence as outputs, we derive system equations for both deterministic and stochastic discrete-time, finite-state systems of different scales. Defining the cost function as a summation of the costs of applying mutagens and the off-trajectory penalty, we solve the deterministic and stochastic optimal control problems by dynamic programming algorithm. In addition, given that the system is completely controllable, we find that the global optimum of both base-to-base and codon-to-codon deterministic mutations can always be achieved within a finite number of steps.

  8. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  9. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin. Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water. The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  10. Conservation and diversification of QTGs involved in photoperiodic flowering between rice and Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki eMatsubara

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time in rice (Oryza sativa L. is determined primarily by daylength (photoperiod, and natural variation in flowering time is due to quantitative trait loci involved in photoperiodic flowering. To date, genetic analysis of natural variants in rice flowering time has resulted in the positional cloning of at least 12 quantitative trait genes (QTGs, including our recently cloned QTGs, Hd17 and Hd16. The QTGs have been assigned to specific photoperiodic flowering pathways. Among them, 9 have homologs in the Arabidopsis genome, whereas it was evident that there are differences in the pathways between rice and Arabidopsis, such that the rice Ghd7–Ehd1–Hd3a/RFT1 pathway modulated by Hd16 is not present in Arabidopsis. In this review, we describe QTGs underlying natural variation in rice flowering time. Additionally, we discuss the implications of the variation in adaptive divergence and its importance in rice breeding.

  11. The structure of flower visitation webs : how morphology and abundance affect interaction patterns between flowers and flower visitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stang, Martina

    2007-01-01

    Interaction patterns between plants and flower visitors in a Mediterranean flower visitation web can be explained surprisingly well by the combination of two simple mechanisms. Firstly, the size threshold that the nectar tube depth of flowers puts on the tongue length of potential flower visitors;

  12. Heredity of flake- and stripe-variegated traits and their introduction into Japanese day-neutral winter-flowering sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagishita, Yoshimi; Hara, Yasuhide; Nakayama, Masayoshi

    2018-01-01

    Sweet pea ( Lathyrus odoratus L.) is a major cut flower in Japan, generally grown in greenhouses in winter to spring. The wild-type sweet pea is a long-day summer-flowering plant. The day-neutral winter-flowering ability, which allows cut-flower production in Japan, is a recessive phenotype that emerged by spontaneous mutation. Although Japanese winter-flowering cultivars and additionally spring-flowering cultivars, which have semi-long-day flowering ability generated by crossing the winter- and summer-flowering cultivars, have superior phenotypes for cut flowers, they have limited variation in color and fragrance. In particular, variegated phenotypes do not appear in modern winter- and spring-flowering cultivars, only in summer-flowering cultivars. We try to expand the phenotypic diversity of Japanese cut flower cultivars. In the processes, we introduced the variegated phenotypes by crossing with summer-flowering cultivars, and succeeded in breeding some excellent cultivars. During breeding, we analyzed the segregation ratios and revealed the heredity of the phenotypes. Here we review the heredity of these variegated phenotypes and winter-flowering phenotypes and their related genes. We also describe how we introduced the trait into winter-flowering cultivars, tracing their pedigrees to show both phenotypes and genotypes of the progeny at each generation. This knowledge is useful for the efficient breeding of new variegated cultivars.

  13. Multiple controls affect arsenite oxidase gene expression in Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coppée Jean-Yves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both the speciation and toxicity of arsenic are affected by bacterial transformations, i.e. oxidation, reduction or methylation. These transformations have a major impact on environmental contamination and more particularly on arsenic contamination of drinking water. Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans has been isolated from an arsenic- contaminated environment and has developed various mechanisms for coping with arsenic, including the oxidation of As(III to As(V as a detoxification mechanism. Results In the present study, a differential transcriptome analysis was used to identify genes, including arsenite oxidase encoding genes, involved in the response of H. arsenicoxydans to As(III. To get insight into the molecular mechanisms of this enzyme activity, a Tn5 transposon mutagenesis was performed. Transposon insertions resulting in a lack of arsenite oxidase activity disrupted aoxR and aoxS genes, showing that the aox operon transcription is regulated by the AoxRS two-component system. Remarkably, transposon insertions were also identified in rpoN coding for the alternative N sigma factor (σ54 of RNA polymerase and in dnaJ coding for the Hsp70 co-chaperone. Western blotting with anti-AoxB antibodies and quantitative RT-PCR experiments allowed us to demonstrate that the rpoN and dnaJ gene products are involved in the control of arsenite oxidase gene expression. Finally, the transcriptional start site of the aoxAB operon was determined using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE and a putative -12/-24 σ54-dependent promoter motif was identified upstream of aoxAB coding sequences. Conclusion These results reveal the existence of novel molecular regulatory processes governing arsenite oxidase expression in H. arsenicoxydans. These data are summarized in a model that functionally integrates arsenite oxidation in the adaptive response to As(III in this microorganism.

  14. Functional characterization of Brassica napus DNA topoisomerase Iα-1 and its effect on flowering time when expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Chenhao; Qi, Shuanghui; Liu, Kaige; Li, Dong; Jin, Changyu; Duan, Shaowei; Zhang, Meng; Chen, Mingxun

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that DNA topoisomerase Iα (AtTOP1α) has specific developmental functions during growth and development in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, little is known about the roles of DNA topoisomerases in the closely related and commercially important plant, rapeseed (Brassica napus). Here, the full-length BnTOP1α-1 coding sequence was cloned from the A2 subgenome of the Brassica napus inbred line L111. We determine that all BnTOP1α paralogs showed differing patterns of expression in different organs of L111, and that when expressed in tobacco leaves as a fusion protein with green fluorescent protein, BnTOP1α-1 localized to the nucleus. We further showed that ectopic expression of BnTOP1α-1 in the A. thaliana top1α-7 mutant fully complemented the early flowering phenotype of the mutant. Moreover, altered expression levels in top1α-7 seedlings of several key genes controlling flowering time were restored to wild type levels by ectopic expression of BnTOP1α-1. These results provide valuable insights into the roles of rapeseed DNA topoisomerases in flowering time, and provide a promising target for genetic manipulation of this commercially significant process in rapeseed. - Highlights: • BnTOP1α-1 was cloned from the A2 subgenome of Brassica napus inbred line L111. • BnTOP1α-1 rescued the early flowering phenotype of the Attop1α-7 mutant. • BnTOP1α-1 rescued the altered expression of flowering time genes in the Attop1α-mutant. • The functions of BnTOP1α-1 and AtTOP1α are likely conserved.

  15. Comparative transcriptional profiling provides insights into the evolution and development of the zygomorphic flower of Vicia sativa (Papilionoideae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vicia sativa (the common vetch possesses a predominant zygomorphic flower and belongs to the subfamily Papilionoideae, which is related to Arabidopsis thaliana in the eurosid II clade of the core eudicots. Each vetch flower consists of 21 concentrically arranged organs: the outermost five sepals, then five petals and ten stamens, and a single carpel in the center. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We explored the floral transcriptome to examine a genome-scale genetic model of the zygomorphic flower of vetch. mRNA was obtained from an equal mixture of six floral organs, leaves and roots. De novo assembly of the vetch transcriptome using Illumina paired-end technology produced 71,553 unigenes with an average length of 511 bp. We then compared the expression changes in the 71,553 unigenes in the eight independent organs through RNA-Seq Quantification analysis. We predominantly analyzed gene expression patterns specific to each floral organ and combinations of floral organs that corresponded to the traditional ABC model domains. Comparative analyses were performed in the floral transcriptomes of vetch and Arabidopsis, and genomes of vetch and Medicago truncatula. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our comparative analysis of vetch and Arabidopsis showed that the vetch flowers conform to a strict ABC model. We analyzed the evolution and expression of the TCP gene family in vetch at a whole-genome level, and several unigenes specific to three different vetch petals, which might offer some clues toward elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying floral zygomorphy. Our results provide the first insights into the genome-scale molecular regulatory network that controls the evolution and development of the zygomorphic flower in Papilionoideae.

  16. Controlled release of an extract of Calendula officinalis flowers from a system based on the incorporation of gelatin-collagen microparticles into collagen I scaffolds: design and in vitro performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Ronald A; Millán, Diana; Suesca, Edward; Sosnik, Alejandro; Fontanilla, Marta R

    2015-06-01

    Aiming to develop biological skin dresses with improved performance in the treatment of skin wounds, acellular collagen I scaffolds were modified with polymeric microparticles and the subsequent loading of a hydroglycolic extract of Calendula officinalis flowers. Microparticles made of gelatin-collagen were produced by a water-in-oil emulsion/cross-linking method. Thereafter, these microparticles were mixed with collagen suspensions at three increasing concentrations and the resulting mixtures lyophilized to make microparticle-loaded porous collagen scaffolds. Resistance to enzymatic degradation, ability to associate with the C. officinalis extract, and the extract release profile of the three gelatin-collagen microparticle-scaffold prototypes were assessed in vitro and compared to collagen scaffolds without microparticles used as control. Data indicated that the incorporation of gelatin-collagen microparticles increased the resistance of the scaffolds to in vitro enzymatic degradation, as well as their association with the C. officinalis flower extract. In addition, a sharp decrease in cytotoxicity, as well as more prolonged release of the extract, was attained. Overall results support the potential of these systems to develop innovative dermal substitutes with improved features. Furthermore, the gelatin-collagen mixture represents a low-cost and scalable alternative with high clinical transferability, especially appealing in developing countries.

  17. Say it with flowers: Flowering acceleration by root communication

    OpenAIRE

    Falik, Omer; Hoffmann, Ishay; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The timing of reproduction is a critical determinant of fitness, especially in organisms inhabiting seasonal environments. Increasing evidence suggests that inter-plant communication plays important roles in plant functioning. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flowering coordination can involve communication between neighboring plants. We show that soil leachates from Brassica rapa plants growing under long-day conditions accelerated flowering and decreased allocation to vegetative organs i...

  18. Actin gene identification from selected medicinal plants for their use as internal controls for gene expression studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mufti, F.U.D.; Banaras, S.

    2015-01-01

    Internal control genes are the constitutive genes which maintain the basic cellular functions and regularly express in both normal and stressed conditions in living organisms. They are used in normalization of gene expression studies in comparative analysis of target genes, as their expression remains comparatively unchanged in all varied conditions. Among internal control genes, actin is considered as a candidate gene for expression studies due to its vital role in shaping cytoskeleton and plant physiology. Unfortunately most of such knowledge is limited to only model plants or crops, not much is known about important medicinal plants. Therefore, we selected seven important medicinal wild plants for molecular identification of actin gene. We used gene specific primers designed from the conserved regions of several known orthologues or homologues of actin genes from other plants. The amplified products of 370-380 bp were sequenced and submitted to GeneBank after their confirmation using different bioinformatics tools. All the novel partial sequences of putative actin genes were submitted to GeneBank (Parthenium hysterophorus (KJ774023), Fagonia indica (KJ774024), Rhazya stricta (KJ774025), Whithania coagulans (KJ774026), Capparis decidua (KJ774027), Verbena officinalis (KJ774028) and Aerva javanica (KJ774029)). The comparisons of these partial sequences by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) and phylogenetic trees demonstrated high similarity with known actin genes of other plants. Our findings illustrated highly conserved nature of actin gene among these selected plants. These novel partial fragments of actin genes from these wild medicinal plants can be used as internal controls for future gene expression studies of these important plants after precise validations of their stable expression in such plants. (author)

  19. Global patterns of interaction specialization in bird-flower networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanata, Thais B.; Dalsgaard, Bo; Passos, Fernando C.

    2017-01-01

    , such as plant species richness, asymmetry, latitude, insularity, topography, sampling methods and intensity. Results: Hummingbird–flower networks were more specialized than honeyeater–flower networks. Specifically, hummingbird–flower networks had a lower proportion of realized interactions (lower C), decreased...... in the interaction patterns with their floral resources. Location: Americas, Africa, Asia and Oceania/Australia. Methods: We compiled interaction networks between birds and floral resources for 79 hummingbird, nine sunbird and 33 honeyeater communities. Interaction specialization was quantified through connectance...... (C), complementary specialization (H2′), binary (QB) and weighted modularity (Q), with both observed and null-model corrected values. We compared interaction specialization among the three types of bird–flower communities, both independently and while controlling for potential confounding variables...

  20. Shielding Flowers Developing under Stress: Translating Theory to Field Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Chayut

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing reproductive organs within a flower are sensitive to environmental stress. A higher incidence of environmental stress during this stage of a crop plants’ developmental cycle will lead to major breaches in food security. Clearly, we need to understand this sensitivity and try and overcome it, by agricultural practices and/or the breeding of more tolerant cultivars. Although passion fruit vines initiate flowers all year round, flower primordia abort during warm summers. This restricts the season of fruit production in regions with warm summers. Previously, using controlled chambers, stages in flower development that are sensitive to heat were identified. Based on genetic analysis and physiological experiments in controlled environments, gibberellin activity appeared to be a possible point of horticultural intervention. Here, we aimed to shield flowers of a commercial cultivar from end of summer conditions, thus allowing fruit production in new seasons. We conducted experiments over three years in different settings, and our findings consistently show that a single application of an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis to vines in mid-August can cause precocious flowering of ~2–4 weeks, leading to earlier fruit production of ~1 month. In this case, knowledge obtained on phenology, environmental constraints and genetic variation, allowed us to reach a practical solution.

  1. Evidence for an evolutionarily conserved interaction between cell wall biosynthesis and flowering in maize and sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Karen J

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors that affect flowering vary among different plant species, and in the grasses in particular the exact mechanism behind this transition is not fully understood. The brown midrib (bm mutants of maize (Zea mays L., which have altered cell wall composition, have different flowering dynamics compared to their wild-type counterparts. This is indicative of a link between cell wall biogenesis and flowering. In order to test whether this relationship also exists in other grasses, the flowering dynamics in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench were investigated. Sorghum is evolutionarily closely related to maize, and a set of brown midrib (bmr mutants similar to the maize bm mutants is available, making sorghum a suitable choice for study in this context. Results We compared the flowering time (time to half-bloom of several different bmr sorghum lines and their wild-type counterparts. This revealed that the relationship between cell wall composition and flowering was conserved in sorghum. Specifically, the mutant bmr7 flowered significantly earlier than the corresponding wild-type control, whereas the mutants bmr2, bmr4, bmr6, bmr12, and bmr19 flowered later than their wild-type controls. Conclusion The change in flowering dynamics in several of the brown midrib sorghum lines provides evidence for an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that links cell wall biosynthesis to flowering dynamics. The availability of the sorghum bmr mutants expands the germplasm available to investigate this relationship in further detail.

  2. Thermodynamic control of small RNA-mediated gene silencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumiko eUi-Tei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs are crucial regulators of posttranscriptional gene silencing, which is referred to as RNA interference (RNAi or RNA silencing. In RNAi, siRNA loaded onto the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC downregulates target gene expression by cleaving mRNA whose sequence is perfectly complementary to the siRNA guide strand. We previously showed that highly functional siRNAs possessed the following characteristics: A or U residues at nucleotide position 1 measured from the 5’ terminal, four to seven A/Us in positions 1–7, and G or C residues at position 19. This finding indicated that an RNA strand with a thermodynamically unstable 5’ terminal is easily retained in the RISC and functions as a guide strand. In addition, it is clear that unintended genes with complementarities only in the seed region (positions 2–8 are also downregulated by off-target effects. siRNA efficiency is mainly determined by the Watson-Crick base-pairing stability formed between the siRNA seed region and target mRNA. siRNAs with a low seed-target duplex melting temperature (Tm have little or no seed-dependent off-target activity. Thus, important parts of the RNA silencing machinery may be regulated by nucleotide base-pairing thermodynamic stability. A mechanistic understanding of thermodynamic control may enable an efficient target gene-specific RNAi for functional genomics and safe therapeutic applications.

  3. Expression analysis of four flower-specific promoters of Brassica spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... power of the promoter. Besides, several enhancer and suppressor regions were also identified in the ... of the target gene and decrement of the burden of plant growth and ..... Meyerowitz's ABC model of flower development.

  4. Dinucleotide controlled null models for comparative RNA gene prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesell Tanja

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative prediction of RNA structures can be used to identify functional noncoding RNAs in genomic screens. It was shown recently by Babak et al. [BMC Bioinformatics. 8:33] that RNA gene prediction programs can be biased by the genomic dinucleotide content, in particular those programs using a thermodynamic folding model including stacking energies. As a consequence, there is need for dinucleotide-preserving control strategies to assess the significance of such predictions. While there have been randomization algorithms for single sequences for many years, the problem has remained challenging for multiple alignments and there is currently no algorithm available. Results We present a program called SISSIz that simulates multiple alignments of a given average dinucleotide content. Meeting additional requirements of an accurate null model, the randomized alignments are on average of the same sequence diversity and preserve local conservation and gap patterns. We make use of a phylogenetic substitution model that includes overlapping dependencies and site-specific rates. Using fast heuristics and a distance based approach, a tree is estimated under this model which is used to guide the simulations. The new algorithm is tested on vertebrate genomic alignments and the effect on RNA structure predictions is studied. In addition, we directly combined the new null model with the RNAalifold consensus folding algorithm giving a new variant of a thermodynamic structure based RNA gene finding program that is not biased by the dinucleotide content. Conclusion SISSIz implements an efficient algorithm to randomize multiple alignments preserving dinucleotide content. It can be used to get more accurate estimates of false positive rates of existing programs, to produce negative controls for the training of machine learning based programs, or as standalone RNA gene finding program. Other applications in comparative genomics that require

  5. Dinucleotide controlled null models for comparative RNA gene prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Tanja; Washietl, Stefan

    2008-05-27

    Comparative prediction of RNA structures can be used to identify functional noncoding RNAs in genomic screens. It was shown recently by Babak et al. [BMC Bioinformatics. 8:33] that RNA gene prediction programs can be biased by the genomic dinucleotide content, in particular those programs using a thermodynamic folding model including stacking energies. As a consequence, there is need for dinucleotide-preserving control strategies to assess the significance of such predictions. While there have been randomization algorithms for single sequences for many years, the problem has remained challenging for multiple alignments and there is currently no algorithm available. We present a program called SISSIz that simulates multiple alignments of a given average dinucleotide content. Meeting additional requirements of an accurate null model, the randomized alignments are on average of the same sequence diversity and preserve local conservation and gap patterns. We make use of a phylogenetic substitution model that includes overlapping dependencies and site-specific rates. Using fast heuristics and a distance based approach, a tree is estimated under this model which is used to guide the simulations. The new algorithm is tested on vertebrate genomic alignments and the effect on RNA structure predictions is studied. In addition, we directly combined the new null model with the RNAalifold consensus folding algorithm giving a new variant of a thermodynamic structure based RNA gene finding program that is not biased by the dinucleotide content. SISSIz implements an efficient algorithm to randomize multiple alignments preserving dinucleotide content. It can be used to get more accurate estimates of false positive rates of existing programs, to produce negative controls for the training of machine learning based programs, or as standalone RNA gene finding program. Other applications in comparative genomics that require randomization of multiple alignments can be considered. SISSIz

  6. Transcriptome analysis of Gossypium hirsutum flower buds infested by cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Sinara; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo Brilhante; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Silveira, Sylvia; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fátima; Martinelli, Adriana Pinheiro; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio

    2014-10-04

    Cotton is a major fibre crop grown worldwide that suffers extensive damage from chewing insects, including the cotton boll weevil larvae (Anthonomus grandis). Transcriptome analysis was performed to understand the molecular interactions between Gossypium hirsutum L. and cotton boll weevil larvae. The Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was used to sequence the transcriptome of cotton flower buds infested with boll weevil larvae. The analysis generated a total of 327,489,418 sequence reads that were aligned to the G. hirsutum reference transcriptome. The total number of expressed genes was over 21,697 per sample with an average length of 1,063 bp. The DEGseq analysis identified 443 differentially expressed genes (DEG) in cotton flower buds infected with boll weevil larvae. Among them, 402 (90.7%) were up-regulated, 41 (9.3%) were down-regulated and 432 (97.5%) were identified as orthologues of A. thaliana genes using Blastx. Mapman analysis of DEG indicated that many genes were involved in the biotic stress response spanning a range of functions, from a gene encoding a receptor-like kinase to genes involved in triggering defensive responses such as MAPK, transcription factors (WRKY and ERF) and signalling by ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA) hormones. Furthermore, the spatial expression pattern of 32 of the genes responsive to boll weevil larvae feeding was determined by "in situ" qPCR analysis from RNA isolated from two flower structures, the stamen and the carpel, by laser microdissection (LMD). A large number of cotton transcripts were significantly altered upon infestation by larvae. Among the changes in gene expression, we highlighted the transcription of receptors/sensors that recognise chitin or insect oral secretions; the altered regulation of transcripts encoding enzymes related to kinase cascades, transcription factors, Ca2+ influxes, and reactive oxygen species; and the modulation of transcripts encoding enzymes from phytohormone signalling pathways. These

  7. A pipeline to determine RT-QPCR control genes for evolutionary studies: application to primate gene expression across multiple tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Fedrigo

    Full Text Available Because many species-specific phenotypic differences are assumed to be caused by differential regulation of gene expression, many recent investigations have focused on measuring transcript abundance. Despite the availability of high-throughput platforms, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-QPCR is often the method of choice because of its low cost and wider dynamic range. However, the accuracy of this technique heavily relies on the use of multiple valid control genes for normalization. We created a pipeline for choosing genes potentially useful as RT-QPCR control genes for measuring expression between human and chimpanzee samples across multiple tissues, using published microarrays and a measure of tissue-specificity. We identified 13 genes from the pipeline and from commonly used control genes: ACTB, USP49, ARGHGEF2, GSK3A, TBP, SDHA, EIF2B2, GPDH, YWHAZ, HPTR1, RPL13A, HMBS, and EEF2. We then tested these candidate genes and validated their expression stability across species. We established the rank order of the most preferable set of genes for single and combined tissues. Our results suggest that for at least three tissues (cerebral cortex, liver, and skeletal muscle, EIF2B2, EEF2, HMBS, and SDHA are useful genes for normalizing human and chimpanzee expression using RT-QPCR. Interestingly, other commonly used control genes, including TBP, GAPDH, and, especially ACTB do not perform as well. This pipeline could be easily adapted to other species for which expression data exist, providing taxonomically appropriate control genes for comparisons of gene expression among species.

  8. Colonization by the endophyte Piriformospora indica leads to early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana likely by triggering gibberellin biosynthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dongjin; Abdelaziz, Mohamad E.; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Guo, Xiujie; Al-Babili, Salim

    2017-01-01

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus colonizing roots of a wide variety of plants. Previous studies showed that P. indica promotes early flowering and plant growth in the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. To determine the impact of P. indica on flowering time in Arabidopsis, we co-cultivated the plants with P. indica under long day condition. P. indica inoculated Arabidopsis plants displayed significant early flowering phenotype. qRT-PCR analysis of colonized plants revealed an up-regulation of flowering regulatory (FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY, and APETALA1) and gibberellin biosynthetic (Gibberellin 20-Oxidase2, Gibberellin 3-Oxidase1 and Gibberellin requiring1) genes, while the flowering-repressing gene FLOWERING LOCUS C was down regulated. Quantification of gibberellins content showed that the colonization with P. indica caused an increase in GA4 content. Compared to wild-type plants, inoculation of the Arabidopsis ga5 mutant affected in gibberellin biosynthetic gene led to less pronounced changes in the expression of genes regulating flowering and to a lower increase in GA4 content. Taken together, our data indicate that P. indica promotes early flowering in Arabidopsis likely by increasing gibberellin content.

  9. Colonization by the endophyte Piriformospora indica leads to early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana likely by triggering gibberellin biosynthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dongjin

    2017-06-28

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus colonizing roots of a wide variety of plants. Previous studies showed that P. indica promotes early flowering and plant growth in the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. To determine the impact of P. indica on flowering time in Arabidopsis, we co-cultivated the plants with P. indica under long day condition. P. indica inoculated Arabidopsis plants displayed significant early flowering phenotype. qRT-PCR analysis of colonized plants revealed an up-regulation of flowering regulatory (FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY, and APETALA1) and gibberellin biosynthetic (Gibberellin 20-Oxidase2, Gibberellin 3-Oxidase1 and Gibberellin requiring1) genes, while the flowering-repressing gene FLOWERING LOCUS C was down regulated. Quantification of gibberellins content showed that the colonization with P. indica caused an increase in GA4 content. Compared to wild-type plants, inoculation of the Arabidopsis ga5 mutant affected in gibberellin biosynthetic gene led to less pronounced changes in the expression of genes regulating flowering and to a lower increase in GA4 content. Taken together, our data indicate that P. indica promotes early flowering in Arabidopsis likely by increasing gibberellin content.

  10. POLYGALACTURONASE INVOLVED IN EXPANSION1 functions in cell elongation and flower development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chaowen; Somerville, Chris; Anderson, Charles T

    2014-03-01

    Pectins are acidic carbohydrates that comprise a significant fraction of the primary walls of eudicotyledonous plant cells. They influence wall porosity and extensibility, thus controlling cell and organ growth during plant development. The regulated degradation of pectins is required for many cell separation events in plants, but the role of pectin degradation in cell expansion is poorly defined. Using an activation tag screen designed to isolate genes involved in wall expansion, we identified a gene encoding a putative polygalacturonase that, when overexpressed, resulted in enhanced hypocotyl elongation in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. We named this gene POLYGALACTURONASE INVOLVED IN EXPANSION1 (PGX1). Plants lacking PGX1 display reduced hypocotyl elongation that is complemented by transgenic PGX1 expression. PGX1 is expressed in expanding tissues throughout development, including seedlings, roots, leaves, and flowers. PGX1-GFP (green fluorescent protein) localizes to the apoplast, and heterologously expressed PGX1 displays in vitro polygalacturonase activity, supporting a function for this protein in apoplastic pectin degradation. Plants either overexpressing or lacking PGX1 display alterations in total polygalacturonase activity, pectin molecular mass, and wall composition and also display higher proportions of flowers with extra petals, suggesting PGX1's involvement in floral organ patterning. These results reveal new roles for polygalacturonases in plant development.

  11. Blooming Knit Flowers: Loop-Linked Soft Morphing Structures for Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Min-Woo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2017-04-01

    A loop-linked structure, which is capable of morphing in various modes, including volumetric transformation, is developed based on knitting methods. Morphing flowers (a lily-like, a daffodil-like, gamopetalous, and a calla-like flower) are fabricated using loop patterning, and their blooming motion is demonstrated by controlling a current that selectively actuates the flowers petals. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Building beauty: the genetic control of floral patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, J. U., and Weigel, D.

    2002-02-01

    OAK-B135 Floral organ identity is controlled by combinatorial action of homeotic genes expressed in different territories within the emerging flower. This review discusses recent progress in our understanding of floral homeotic genes, with an emphasis on how their region-specific expression is regulated.

  13. Transcript Analysis and Regulative Events during Flower Development in Olive (Olea europaea L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiammetta Alagna

    Full Text Available The identification and characterization of transcripts involved in flower organ development, plant reproduction and metabolism represent key steps in plant phenotypic and physiological pathways, and may generate high-quality transcript variants useful for the development of functional markers. This study was aimed at obtaining an extensive characterization of the olive flower transcripts, by providing sound information on the candidate MADS-box genes related to the ABC model of flower development and on the putative genetic and molecular determinants of ovary abortion and pollen-pistil interaction. The overall sequence data, obtained by pyrosequencing of four cDNA libraries from flowers at different developmental stages of three olive varieties with distinct reproductive features (Leccino, Frantoio and Dolce Agogia, included approximately 465,000 ESTs, which gave rise to more than 14,600 contigs and approximately 92,000 singletons. As many as 56,700 unigenes were successfully annotated and provided gene ontology insights into the structural organization and putative molecular function of sequenced transcripts and deduced proteins in the context of their corresponding biological processes. Differentially expressed genes with potential regulatory roles in biosynthetic pathways and metabolic networks during flower development were identified. The gene expression studies allowed us to select the candidate genes that play well-known molecular functions in a number of biosynthetic pathways and specific biological processes that affect olive reproduction. A sound understanding of gene functions and regulatory networks that characterize the olive flower is provided.

  14. Transcript Analysis and Regulative Events during Flower Development in Olive (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Cirilli, Marco; Galla, Giulio; Carbone, Fabrizio; Daddiego, Loretta; Facella, Paolo; Lopez, Loredana; Colao, Chiara; Mariotti, Roberto; Cultrera, Nicolò; Rossi, Martina; Barcaccia, Gianni; Baldoni, Luciana; Muleo, Rosario; Perrotta, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    The identification and characterization of transcripts involved in flower organ development, plant reproduction and metabolism represent key steps in plant phenotypic and physiological pathways, and may generate high-quality transcript variants useful for the development of functional markers. This study was aimed at obtaining an extensive characterization of the olive flower transcripts, by providing sound information on the candidate MADS-box genes related to the ABC model of flower development and on the putative genetic and molecular determinants of ovary abortion and pollen-pistil interaction. The overall sequence data, obtained by pyrosequencing of four cDNA libraries from flowers at different developmental stages of three olive varieties with distinct reproductive features (Leccino, Frantoio and Dolce Agogia), included approximately 465,000 ESTs, which gave rise to more than 14,600 contigs and approximately 92,000 singletons. As many as 56,700 unigenes were successfully annotated and provided gene ontology insights into the structural organization and putative molecular function of sequenced transcripts and deduced proteins in the context of their corresponding biological processes. Differentially expressed genes with potential regulatory roles in biosynthetic pathways and metabolic networks during flower development were identified. The gene expression studies allowed us to select the candidate genes that play well-known molecular functions in a number of biosynthetic pathways and specific biological processes that affect olive reproduction. A sound understanding of gene functions and regulatory networks that characterize the olive flower is provided.

  15. DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF GENES UNDER CONTROL OF THE MATING-TYPE GENES IN THE SECONDARY MYCELIUM OF SCHIZOPHYLLUM-COMMUNE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ASGEIRSDOTTIR, SA; VANWETTER, MA; WESSELS, JGH

    The Schizophyllum commune SC3 gene, which encodes a hydrophobin that coats aerial hyphae, is expressed in both monokaryons and dikaryons. The dikaryons were formed by mating two monokaryons with different MATA and MATB genes, leading to activation of the MATA- and MATB-controlled pathways (MATA-on

  16. UFO: an Arabidopsis gene involved in both floral meristem and floral organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, J Z; Meyerowitz, E M

    1995-05-01

    We describe the role of the UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene in Arabidopsis floral development based on a genetic and molecular characterization of the phenotypes of nine ufo alleles. UFO is required for the proper identity of the floral meristem and acts in three different aspects of the process that distinguishes flowers from shoots. UFO is involved in establishing the whorled pattern of floral organs, controlling the determinacy of the floral meristem, and activating the APETALA3 and PISTILLATA genes required for petal and stamen identity. In many respects, UFO acts in a manner similar to LEAFY, but the ufo mutant phenotype also suggests an additional role for UFO in defining boundaries within the floral primordia or controlling cell proliferation during floral organ growth. Finally, genetic interactions that prevent flower formation and lead to the generation of filamentous structures implicate UFO as a member of a new, large, and diverse class of genes in Arabidopsis necessary for flower formation.

  17. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: ackoike@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  18. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2011-01-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  19. A chimeric repressor of petunia PH4 R2R3-MYB family transcription factor generates margined flowers in torenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasajima, Ichiro; Sasaki, Katsutomo

    2016-05-03

    The development of new phenotypes is key to the commercial development of the main floricultural species and cultivars. Important new phenotypes include features such as multiple-flowers, color variations, increased flower size, new petal shapes, variegation and distinctive petal margin colourations. Although their commercial use is not yet common, the transgenic technologies provide a potentially rapid means of generating interesting new phenotypes. In this report, we construct 5 vectors which we expected to change the color of the flower anthocyanins, from purple to blue, regulating vacuolar pH. When these constructs were transformed into purple torenia, we unexpectedly recovered some genotypes having slightly margined petals. These transgenic lines expressed a chimeric repressor of the petunia PhPH4 gene under the control of Cauliflower mosaic virus 35 S RNA promoter. PhPH4 is an R2R3-type MYB transcription factor. The transgenic lines lacked pigmentation in the petal margin cells both on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces. Expressions of Flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), Flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and Flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) genes were reduced in the margins of these transgenic lines, suggesting an inhibitory effect of PhPH4 repressor on anthocyanin synthesis.

  20. With Reference to Reference Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Joanne R; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The choice of reference genes that are stably expressed amongst treatment groups is a crucial step in real-time quantitative PCR gene expression studies. Recent guidelines have specified that a minimum of two validated reference genes should be used for normalisation. However, a quantitative review of the literature showed that the average number of reference genes used across all studies was 1.2. Thus, the vast majority of studies continue to use a single gene, with β-actin (ACTB) and/or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) being commonly selected in studies of vertebrate gene expression. Few studies (15%) tested a panel of potential reference genes for stability of expression before using them to normalise data. Amongst studies specifically testing reference gene stability, few found ACTB or GAPDH to be optimal, whereby these genes were significantly less likely to be chosen when larger panels of potential reference genes were screened. Fewer reference genes were tested for stability in non-model organisms, presumably owing to a dearth of available primers in less well characterised species. Furthermore, the experimental conditions under which real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted had a large influence on the choice of reference genes, whereby different studies of rat brain tissue showed different reference genes to be the most stable. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies.

  1. Antioxidant Capacity of Calendula Officinalis Flowers Extract and Prevention of Radiation Induced Oropharyngeal Mucositis in Patients with Head and Neck Cancers: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Kazemi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effect of Calendula officinalis flowers extract mouthwash as oral gel on radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis (OM in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Forty patients with neck and head cancers under radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy protocols were randomly assigned to receive either 2% calendula extract mouthwash or placebo (20 patients in each group. Patients were treated with telecobalt radiotherapy at conventional fractionation (200 cGy/fraction, five fractions weekly, 30–35 fractions within 4–7 weeks. The oropharyngeal mucositis was evaluated by two clinical investigators (a radiation oncologist and a dentist, using the oral mucositis assessment scale (OMAS. Trying to find out the possible mechanism of action of the treatment, total antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents, and quercetin concentration of the mouth wash were measured. Calendula mouthwash significantly decreased the intensity of OM compared to placebo at week 2 (score: 5.5 vs. 6.8, p = 0.019, week 3 (score: 8.25 vs. 10.95, p < 0.0001 and week 6 (score: 11.4 vs. 13.35, p = 0.031. Total antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents and quercetin concentration of the 2% extract were 2353.4 ± 56.5 μM, 313.40 ± 6.52 mg/g, 76.66 ± 23.24 mg/g, and 19.41 ± 4.34 mg/l, respectively. Calendula extract gel could be effective on decreasing the intensity of radiotherapy- induced OM during the treatment and antioxidant capacity may be partly responsible for the effect.

  2. Antioxidant capacity of calendula officinalis flowers extract and prevention of radiation induced oropharyngeal mucositis in patients with head and neck cancers: a randomized controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Neda; Moslemi, Dariush; Khalilpour, Mohammad; Vejdani, Fatemeh; Moghadamnia, Yasaman; Bijani, Ali; Baradaran, Mahmoud; Kazemi, Mohammad Taghi; Khalilpour, Asieh; Pouramir, Mahdi; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar

    2013-03-07

    This study was designed to determine the effect of Calendula officinalis flowers extract mouthwash as oral gel on radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis (OM) in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Forty patients with neck and head cancers under radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy protocols were randomly assigned to receive either 2% calendula extract mouthwash or placebo (20 patients in each group). Patients were treated with telecobalt radiotherapy at conventional fractionation (200 cGy/fraction, five fractions weekly, 30-35 fractions within 4-7 weeks). The oropharyngeal mucositis was evaluated by two clinical investigators (a radiation oncologist and a dentist), using the oral mucositis assessment scale (OMAS). Trying to find out the possible mechanism of action of the treatment, total antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents, and quercetin concentration of the mouth wash were measured. Calendula mouthwash significantly decreased the intensity of OM compared to placebo at week 2 (score: 5.5 vs. 6.8, p = 0.019), week 3 (score: 8.25 vs. 10.95, p antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents and quercetin concentration of the 2% extract were 2353.4 ± 56.5 μM, 313.40 ± 6.52 mg/g, 76.66 ± 23.24 mg/g, and 19.41 ± 4.34 mg/l, respectively. Calendula extract gel could be effective on decreasing the intensity of radiotherapy- induced OM during the treatment and antioxidant capacity may be partly responsible for the effect.

  3. Recent advancements to study flowering time in almond and other Prunus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Del Cueto, Jorge; Dicenta, Federico; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Flowering time is an important agronomic trait in almond since it is decisive to avoid the late frosts that affect production in early flowering cultivars. Evaluation of this complex trait is a long process because of the prolonged juvenile period of trees and the influence of environmental conditions affecting gene expression year by year. Consequently, flowering time has to be studied for several years to have statistical significant results. This trait is the result of the interaction between chilling and heat requirements. Flowering time is a polygenic trait with high heritability, although a major gene Late blooming (Lb) was described in "Tardy Nonpareil." Molecular studies at DNA level confirmed this polygenic nature identifying several genome regions (Quantitative Trait Loci, QTL) involved. Studies about regulation of gene expression are scarcer although several transcription factors have been described as responsible for flowering time. From the metabolomic point of view, the integrated analysis of the mechanisms of accumulation of cyanogenic glucosides and flowering regulation through transcription factors open new possibilities in the analysis of this complex trait in almond and in other Prunus species (apricot, cherry, peach, plum). New opportunities are arising from the integration of recent advancements including phenotypic, genetic, genomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomics studies from the beginning of dormancy until flowering.

  4. Evaluation of endogenous control gene(s) for gene expression studies in human blood exposed to 60Co γ-rays ex vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaiphei, S. Thangminlal; Keppen, Joshua; Nongrum, Saibadaiahun; Sharan, R.N.; Chaubey, R.C.; Kma, L.

    2015-01-01

    In gene expression studies, it is critical to normalize data using a stably expressed endogenous control gene in order to obtain accurate and reliable results. However, we currently do not have a universally applied endogenous control gene for normalization of data for gene expression studies, particularly those involving 60 Co γ-ray-exposed human blood samples. In this study, a comparative assessment of the gene expression of six widely used housekeeping endogenous control genes, namely 18S, ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, MT-ATP6 and CDKN1A, was undertaken for a range of 60 Co γ-ray doses (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 Gy) at 8.4 Gy min -1 at 0 and 24 h post-irradiation time intervals. Using the NormFinder algorithm, real-time PCR data obtained from six individuals (three males and three females) were analyzed with respect to the threshold cycle (Ct) value and abundance, ΔCt pair-wise comparison, intra- and inter-group variability assessments, etc. GAPDH, either alone or in combination with 18S, was found to be the most suitable endogenous control gene and should be used in gene expression studies, especially those involving qPCR of γ-ray-exposed human blood samples. (author)

  5. Evaluation of endogenous control gene(s) for gene expression studies in human blood exposed to 60Co γ-rays ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiphei, S Thangminlal; Keppen, Joshua; Nongrum, Saibadaiahun; Chaubey, R C; Kma, L; Sharan, R N

    2015-01-01

    In gene expression studies, it is critical to normalize data using a stably expressed endogenous control gene in order to obtain accurate and reliable results. However, we currently do not have a universally applied endogenous control gene for normalization of data for gene expression studies, particularly those involving (60)Co γ-ray-exposed human blood samples. In this study, a comparative assessment of the gene expression of six widely used housekeeping endogenous control genes, namely 18S, ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, MT-ATP6 and CDKN1A, was undertaken for a range of (60)Co γ-ray doses (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 Gy) at 8.4 Gy min(-1) at 0 and 24 h post-irradiation time intervals. Using the NormFinder algorithm, real-time PCR data obtained from six individuals (three males and three females) were analyzed with respect to the threshold cycle (Ct) value and abundance, ΔCt pair-wise comparison, intra- and inter-group variability assessments, etc. GAPDH, either alone or in combination with 18S, was found to be the most suitable endogenous control gene and should be used in gene expression studies, especially those involving qPCR of γ-ray-exposed human blood samples. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  6. Diurnal and circadian expression profiles of glycerolipid biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuki; Andrés, Fernando; Kanehara, Kazue; Liu, Yu-chi; Coupland, George; Dörmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Glycerolipid composition in plant membranes oscillates in response to diurnal change. However, its functional significance remained unclear. A recent discovery that Arabidopsis florigen FT binds diurnally oscillating phosphatidylcholine molecules to promote flowering suggests that diurnal oscillation of glycerolipid composition is an important input in flowering time control. Taking advantage of public microarray data, we globally analyzed the expression pattern of glycerolipid biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis under long-day, short-day, and continuous light conditions. The results revealed that 12 genes associated with glycerolipid metabolism showed significant oscillatory profiles. Interestingly, expression of most of these genes followed circadian profiles, suggesting that glycerolipid biosynthesis is partially under clock regulation. The oscillating expression profile of one representative gene, PECT1, was analyzed in detail. Expression of PECT1 showed a circadian pattern highly correlated with that of the clock-regulated gene GIGANTEA. Thus, our study suggests that a considerable number of glycerolipid biosynthetic genes are under circadian control.

  7. Nectar exploitation by herbivores and their parasitoids is a function of flower species and relative humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, K.; Wäckers, F.L.; Kaufman, L.V.; Larraz, V.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2009-01-01

    In conservation biological control, diversification of the agro ecosystem with flowering vegetation is seen as an important tool to support the broad range of predators and parasitoids that require nectar and pollen sources to survive and reproduce. In order to identify flowering plants that provide

  8. Flowers and Landscape by Serendipity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Sandi

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art lesson in which students sketch drawings of flowers and use watercolor paper and other materials to paint a landscape. Explains that the students also learn about impressionism in this lesson. Discusses how the students prepare the paper and create their artwork. (CMK)

  9. Thrips (Thysanoptera) of coffee flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of thrips (Thysanoptera) associated with coffee flowers was conducted in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. The main objectives were to identify them and to determine whether they were carrying coffee pollen grains. A total of 40 thrips species in 22 genera were identified. The most com...

  10. Pyrethrum flowers and pyrethroid insecticides.

    OpenAIRE

    Casida, J E

    1980-01-01

    The natural pyrethrins from the daisy-like flower, Tanacetum or Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium, are nonpersistent insecticides of low toxicity to mammals. Synthetic analogs or pyrethroids, evolved from the natural compounds by successive isosteric modifications, are more potent and stable and are the newest important class of crop protection chemicals. They retain many of the favorable properties of the pyrethrins.

  11. Notes on collecting flower-visiting insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemstein, S.C.

    1974-01-01

    Flower-visiting insects may play a role in the pollination of the flowers they visit. An important indication for this is the pollen they carry on their body. The transport of pollen does not prove pollination without observations of the behaviour of the insects on the flowers, but at least it

  12. Proteomic identification of differentially expressed proteins during alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. flower development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Flower development, pollination, and fertilization are important stages in the sexual reproduction process of plants; they are also critical steps in the control of seed formation and development. During alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. seed production, some distinct phenomena such as a low seed setting ratio, serious flower falling, and seed abortion commonly occur. However, the causes of these phenomena are complicated and largely unknown. An understanding of the mechanisms that regulate alfalfa flowering is important in order to increase seed yield. Hence, proteomic technology was used to analyze changes in protein expression during the stages of alfalfa flower development. Flower samples were collected at pre-pollination (S1, pollination (S2, and the post-pollination senescence period (S3. Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified, including 17 down-regulated in pollinated flowers, one up-regulated in pollinated and senesced flowers, and six up-regulated in senesced flowers. The largest proportions of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense response, oxidation reduction, cell death, and programmed cell death (PCD. Their expression profiles demonstrated that energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and amino acid metabolism provided the nutrient foundation for pollination in alfalfa. Furthermore, there were three proteins involved in multiple metabolic pathways: dual specificity kinase splA-like protein (kinase splALs, carbonic anhydrase (CA, and NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-like protein (NQOLs. Expression patterns of these proteins indicated that MAPK cascades regulated multiple processes, such as signal transduction, stress response, and cell death. PCD also played an important role in the alfalfa flower developmental process, and regulated both pollination and flower senescence. The current study sheds some light on protein expression profiles during alfalfa flower

  13. Proteomic Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins during Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Flower Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingling; Chen, Quanzhu; Zhu, Yanqiao; Hou, Longyu; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Flower development, pollination, and fertilization are important stages in the sexual reproduction process of plants; they are also critical steps in the control of seed formation and development. During alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) seed production, some distinct phenomena such as a low seed setting ratio, serious flower falling, and seed abortion commonly occur. However, the causes of these phenomena are complicated and largely unknown. An understanding of the mechanisms that regulate alfalfa flowering is important in order to increase seed yield. Hence, proteomic technology was used to analyze changes in protein expression during the stages of alfalfa flower development. Flower samples were collected at pre-pollination (S1), pollination (S2), and the post-pollination senescence period (S3). Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified, including 17 down-regulated in pollinated flowers, one up-regulated in pollinated and senesced flowers, and six up-regulated in senesced flowers. The largest proportions of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense response, oxidation reduction, cell death, and programmed cell death (PCD). Their expression profiles demonstrated that energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and amino acid metabolism provided the nutrient foundation for pollination in alfalfa. Furthermore, there were three proteins involved in multiple metabolic pathways: dual specificity kinase splA-like protein (kinase splALs), carbonic anhydrase, and NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-like protein. Expression patterns of these proteins indicated that MAPK cascades regulated multiple processes, such as signal transduction, stress response, and cell death. PCD also played an important role in the alfalfa flower developmental process, and regulated both pollination and flower senescence. The current study sheds some light on protein expression profiles during alfalfa flower development and

  14. Validation of a 1DL earliness per se (eps) flowering QTL in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikhali, Meluleki; Leverington-Waite, Michelle; Fish, Lesley; Simmonds, James; Orford, Simon; Wingen, Luzie U; Goram, Richard; Gosman, Nick; Bentley, Alison; Griffiths, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Vernalization, photoperiod and the relatively poorly defined earliness per se ( eps ) genes regulate flowering in plants. We report here the validation of a major eps quantitative trait locus (QTL) located on wheat 1DL using near isogenic lines (NILs). We used four independent pairs of NILs derived from a cross between Spark and Rialto winter wheat varieties, grown in both the field and controlled environments. NILs carrying the Spark allele, defined by QTL flanking markers Xgdm111 and Xbarc62 , consistently flowered 3-5 days earlier when fully vernalized relative to those with the Rialto. The effect was independent of photoperiod under field conditions, short days (10-h light), long days (16-h light) and very long days (20-h light). These results validate our original QTL identified using doubled haploid (DH) populations. This QTL represents variation maintained in elite north-western European winter wheat germplasm. The two DH lines used to develop the NILs, SR9 and SR23 enabled us to define the location of the 1DL QTL downstream of marker Xgdm111 . SR9 has the Spark 1DL arm while SR23 has a recombinant 1DL arm with the Spark allele from Xgdm111 to the distal end. Our work suggests that marker assisted selection of eps effects is feasible and useful even before the genes are cloned. This means eps genes can be defined and positionally cloned in the same way as the photoperiod and vernalization genes have been. This validation study is a first step towards fine mapping and eventually cloning the gene directly in hexaploid wheat.

  15. Identification QTLs Controlling Genes for Se Uptake in Lentil Seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Ates

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. is an excellent source of protein and carbohydrates and is also rich in essential trace elements for the human diet. Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient for human health and nutrition, providing protection against several diseases and regulating important biological systems. Dietary intake of 55 μg of Se per day is recommended for adults, with inadequate Se intake causing significant health problems. The objective of this study was to identify and map quantitative trait loci (QTL of genes controlling Se accumulation in lentil seeds using a population of 96 recombinant inbred lines (RILs developed from the cross "PI 320937" × "Eston" grown in three different environments for two years (2012 and 2013. Se concentration in seed varied between 119 and 883 μg/kg. A linkage map consisting of 1,784 markers (4 SSRs, and 1,780 SNPs was developed. The map spanned a total length of 4,060.6 cM, consisting of 7 linkage groups (LGs with an average distance of 2.3 cM between adjacent markers. Four QTL regions and 36 putative QTL markers, with LOD scores ranging from 3.00 to 4.97, distributed across two linkage groups (LG2 and LG5 were associated with seed Se concentration, explaining 6.3-16.9% of the phenotypic variation.

  16. Functional conservation of rice OsNF-YB/YC and Arabidopsis AtNF-YB/YC proteins in the regulation of flowering time

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, Yoon-Hyung; Kim, SoonKap; Lee, Keh Chien; Chung, Young Soo; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Kook

    2016-01-01

    Plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factors play important roles in plant development and abiotic stress. In Arabidopsis thaliana, two NF-YB (AtNF-YB2 and AtNF-YB3) and five NF-YC (AtNF-YC1, AtNF-YC2, AtNF-YC3, AtNF-YC4, and AtNF-YC9) genes regulate photoperiodic flowering by interacting with other AtNF-Y subunit proteins. Three rice NF-YB (OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10, and OsNF-YB11) and five rice OsNF-YC (OsNF-YC1, OsNF-YC2, OsNF-YC4, OsNF-YC6, and OsNF-YC7) genes are clustered with two AtNF-YB and five AtNF-YC genes, respectively. To investigate the functional conservation of these NF-YB and NF-YC genes in rice and Arabidopsis, we analyzed the flowering phenotypes of transgenic plants overexpressing the respective OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes in Arabidopsis mutants. Overexpression of OsNF-YB8/10/11 and OsNF-YC2 complemented the late flowering phenotype of Arabidopsis nf-yb2 nf-yb3 and nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 mutants, respectively. The rescued phenotype of 35S::OsNF-YC2 nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 plants was attributed to the upregulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1). In vitro and in planta protein–protein analyses revealed that OsNF-YB8/10/11 and OsNF-YC1/2/4/6/7 interact with AtNF-YC3/4/9 and AtNF-YB2/3, respectively. Our data indicate that some OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes are functional equivalents of AtNF-YB2/3 and AtNF-YC3/4/9 genes, respectively, and suggest functional conservation of Arabidopsis and rice NF-Y genes in the control of flowering time.

  17. Functional conservation of rice OsNF-YB/YC and Arabidopsis AtNF-YB/YC proteins in the regulation of flowering time

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, Yoon-Hyung

    2016-01-11

    Plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factors play important roles in plant development and abiotic stress. In Arabidopsis thaliana, two NF-YB (AtNF-YB2 and AtNF-YB3) and five NF-YC (AtNF-YC1, AtNF-YC2, AtNF-YC3, AtNF-YC4, and AtNF-YC9) genes regulate photoperiodic flowering by interacting with other AtNF-Y subunit proteins. Three rice NF-YB (OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10, and OsNF-YB11) and five rice OsNF-YC (OsNF-YC1, OsNF-YC2, OsNF-YC4, OsNF-YC6, and OsNF-YC7) genes are clustered with two AtNF-YB and five AtNF-YC genes, respectively. To investigate the functional conservation of these NF-YB and NF-YC genes in rice and Arabidopsis, we analyzed the flowering phenotypes of transgenic plants overexpressing the respective OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes in Arabidopsis mutants. Overexpression of OsNF-YB8/10/11 and OsNF-YC2 complemented the late flowering phenotype of Arabidopsis nf-yb2 nf-yb3 and nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 mutants, respectively. The rescued phenotype of 35S::OsNF-YC2 nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 plants was attributed to the upregulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1). In vitro and in planta protein–protein analyses revealed that OsNF-YB8/10/11 and OsNF-YC1/2/4/6/7 interact with AtNF-YC3/4/9 and AtNF-YB2/3, respectively. Our data indicate that some OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes are functional equivalents of AtNF-YB2/3 and AtNF-YC3/4/9 genes, respectively, and suggest functional conservation of Arabidopsis and rice NF-Y genes in the control of flowering time.

  18. Control of gene expression by CRISPR-Cas systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci and their associated cas (CRISPR-associated) genes provide adaptive immunity against viruses (phages) and other mobile genetic elements in bacteria and archaea. While most of the early work has largely been dominated by examples of CRISPR-Cas systems directing the cleavage of phage or plasmid DNA, recent studies have revealed a more complex landscape where CRISPR-Cas loci might be involved in gene regulation. In this review, we summarize the role of these loci in the regulation of gene expression as well as the recent development of synthetic gene regulation using engineered CRISPR-Cas systems. PMID:24273648

  19. Controle de doenças foliares e de flores e qualidade pós-colheita do morangueiro tratado com Saccharomyces cerevisiae Control of leaf and flower diseases and postharvest quality of strawberry plants treated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo de Gouvea

    2009-12-01

    , Brazil. Five different preparations of the yeast S. cerevisiae (a suspension of commercial fresh biological yeast for bakery, a suspension of yeast cells, a suspension of autoclaved cells, a filtered yeast liquid culture and the commercial product Agro-MOS® were compared to control treatments (distilled water spraying and another one with fungicides. None of the preparations were effective against the mycosphaerella leaf spot (Mycosphaerella fragariae; preparations with living cells and the product Agro-MOS® showed effect against leaf blight (Dendrophoma obscurans; suspension of the bakery yeast and the filtered liquid culture reduced the incidence of anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum in flowers and fruits. Preparations of S. cerevisiae with suspension of cells, suspension of autoclaved cells and filtered liquid culture increased the productivity of the strawberry plants, which ranged from 589.6 to 617.8 g plant-1. The preparations of S. cerevisiae, with living cells or not, modified the plant metabolism, improving the activity of the chitinase and glucanase enzymes, which are involved in the acquired systemic resistance. Except for the treatment with suspension of autoclaved cells, the other preparations reduced the incidence of gray mould (Botrytis cinerea in the postharvest of fruits.

  20. Clinical infection control in gene therapy : A multidisciplinary conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, ME; Jordan, CT; Chang, SMW; Conrad, C; Gerberding, JL; Kaufman, HL; Mayhall, CG; Nolta, JA; Pilaro, AM; Sullivan, S; Weber, DJ; Wivel, NA

    2000-01-01

    Gene therapy is being studied for the treatment of a variety of acquired and inherited disorders. Retroviruses, adenoviruses, poxviruses, adeno-associated viruses, herpesviruses, and others are being engineered to transfer genes into humans. Treatment protocols using recombinant viruses are being

  1. Fast neutron induced increase of flowering in portulaca grandiflora linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, V.; Desai, B.M.

    1975-01-01

    Unbranched cuttings were exposed to fast neutron doses of 71-284 rads and planted along with unirradiated controls. There was a significant increase in the numbers of flowers in the treated populations due to the increased production of primary and secondary branches. (MG) [de

  2. Heat pump applications in Dutch flower bulb farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, J.B. de

    1999-01-01

    Increasing numbers of flower bulb fanns in the Netherlands are using heat pumps for conditioning bulbs. The main advantage of the (electric) heat pump is that it combines all conditioning steps (drying, cooling and heating) in one device. Another advantage is that it makes process control simple and

  3. Digital Signal Processing and Control for the Study of Gene Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Thanks to the digital revolution, digital signal processing and control has been widely used in many areas of science and engineering today. It provides practical and powerful tools to model, simulate, analyze, design, measure, and control complex and dynamic systems such as robots and aircrafts. Gene networks are also complex dynamic systems which can be studied via digital signal processing and control. Unlike conventional computational methods, this approach is capable of not only modeling but also controlling gene networks since the experimental environment is mostly digital today. The overall aim of this article is to introduce digital signal processing and control as a useful tool for the study of gene networks.

  4. Isolation and characterization of FLOWERING LOCUS T subforms and APETALA1 of the subtropical fruit tree Dimocarpus longan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterhagen, Patrick; Tiyayon, Pimsiri; Samach, Alon; Hegele, Martin; Wünsche, Jens N

    2013-10-01

    Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) is a subtropical evergreen fruit tree, mainly cultivated in Asia. Two putative floral integrator genes, D. longan FLOWERING LOCUS T1 and 2 (DlFT1 and DlFT2) were isolated and both translated sequences revealed a high homology to FT sequences from other plants. Moreover, two APETALA1-like (DlAP1-1 and DlAP1-2) sequences from longan were isolated and characterized. Results indicate that the sequences of these genes are highly conserved, suggesting functions in the longan flowering pathway. Ectopic expression of the longan genes in arabidopsis resulted in different flowering time phenotypes of transgenic plants. Expression experiments reveal a different action of the longan FT genes and indicate that DlFT1 is a flowering promoter, while DlFT2 acts as flowering inhibitor. Overexpression of longan AP1 genes in transgenic arabidopsis results in a range of flowering time phenotypes also including early and late flowering individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Robust Tests for Additive Gene-Environment Interaction in Case-Control Studies Using Gene-Environment Independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Gang; Lee, Seunggeun; Lee, Alice W

    2018-01-01

    test with case-control data. Our simulation studies suggest that the EB approach uses the gene-environment independence assumption in a data-adaptive way and provides power gain compared to the standard logistic regression analysis and better control of Type I error when compared to the analysis......There have been recent proposals advocating the use of additive gene-environment interaction instead of the widely used multiplicative scale, as a more relevant public health measure. Using gene-environment independence enhances the power for testing multiplicative interaction in case......-control studies. However, under departure from this assumption, substantial bias in the estimates and inflated Type I error in the corresponding tests can occur. This paper extends the empirical Bayes (EB) approach previously developed for multiplicative interaction that trades off between bias and efficiency...

  6. Circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled genes in the rat retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Willem; Cailotto, Cathy; Dijk, Frederike; Bergen, Arthur; Buijs, Ruud M.

    2005-01-01

    The circadian expression patterns of genes encoding for proteins that make up the core of the circadian clock were measured in rat retina using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Transcript levels of several genes previously used for normalization of qPCR assays were determined and the effect of

  7. Effect of Packaging on Shelf-life and Lutein Content of Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sayani; Ghosh, Probir Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Paramita

    2016-01-01

    African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) flowers are highly valued for their ornamental appeal as well as medicinal properties. However, their short shelf lives cause high post-harvest loss and limit their export potential. The review of patents and research articles revealed that different types of packaging designs/materials have been successfully employed for extension of shelf lives of cut flowers. The current work focuses on designing of different packaging configurations and selection of best configuration for preservation of marigold cut flowers. Ten packaging configurations, composed of four different packaging materials i.e., low density polyethylene (LDPE), polyethylene terephthalate, glassine paper and cellophane paper, were designed. Each pack, consisting of 20 ± 1 g of marigold flowers along with non-packaged control set were stored at 23 ± 2°C, 80% R.H., in an environmental chamber and the flowers were evaluated for their sensory attributes, phytochemical characteristics and physicochemical parameters of senescence to determine their shelf lives. Flowers packed in LDPE bag showed highest shelf life of 8 days with a lead of 4 days compared to control (shelf life - 4 days). This study also established for the first time the phenomenon of carotenogenesis in marigold cut flowers with significantly (Pshelf lives. This economically viable packaging can not only boost the export potential of this ornamental flower, but also allow utilization of nutraceutical potency of lutein.

  8. Tiger cubs and little flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Short vignettes are related to show the conditions for girls and women in Morocco. Descriptions are given for child labor, literacy, the government's education campaign, youth group efforts to enhance family planning (FP) knowledge, the impact of FP outreach in rural areas, and unmarried mothers. In Morocco's cities, young boys can be seen hawking cigarettes and working in market stalls; in the countryside, boys herd goats or do other farm work. In rural areas girls are hidden by having them perform work around the house or on the farm primarily indoors. Women are supervised by women. 54% work as maids and 39% are apprentices in carpet factories. Parents prefer to have their daughters working and consider it protection from mischief as well as needed income. Only 60% of girls are enrolled in primary school vs. 80% of the boys. In rural areas, only 44% of girls are enrolled, and 20% stay to complete their primary education, while 76% of boys enroll and 63% complete primary school. Literacy of women has an effect on the ability to accurately take birth control pills. All ages of women gather at schools in the evening for lessons in reading and writing in a program supported by the King. Women are pleased with their success in just learning how to write their own names. Television advertisements promote sending children to school, as another part of the Ministry of Education's campaign to increase girl's educational status. There are still not enough schools; many schools are double shift, and communities are building their own schools. Youth clubs, which refer to boys as "tiger cubs" and girls as "little flowers," try to familiarize young people with some basic information about contraception. A traditional midwife relates some problems with girl's education: costs for clothing and supplies, worry about male teachers, and poor role models. In some remote areas, farm families do not send their children to school, because of the distance to schools and the need for

  9. Genes and gene expression: Localization, damage and control -- A multilevel and inter-disciplinary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ts'o, P.O.P.

    1990-09-01

    All projects are working toward a goal for describing the three dimensional nuclear topography in terms of relative spatial relationships among genes (specific DNA sequence). Methods are now being perfected to detect these genes, quantitatively and spatially, to perturb these genes specifically, and to measure the perturbation in order to assure specificity. We are developing methods to assay, after perturbation of the target DNA within living cells, whether or not only the target sequence are attacked while other sequences remain unharmed. We are now at the stage to do chemical gene modification or masking within living cells in a strictly sequence-specific manner. Soon, we will be able to study the function and the physical location of each gene in living cells with exquisite specificity. 25 refs., 15 figs

  10. Overexpression of fatty acid amide hydrolase induces early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal D. Teaster

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs are bioactive lipids derived from the hydrolysis of the membrane phospholipid N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE. In animal systems this reaction is part of the endocannabinoid signaling pathway, which regulates a variety of physiological processes. The signaling function of NAE is terminated by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH, which hydrolyzes NAE to ethanolamine and free fatty acid. Our previous work in Arabidopsis thaliana showed that overexpression of AtFAAH (At5g64440 lowered endogenous levels of NAEs in seeds, consistent with its role in NAE signal termination. Reduced NAE levels were accompanied by an accelerated growth phenotype, increased sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA, enhanced susceptibility to bacterial pathogens, and early flowering. Here we investigated the nature of the early flowering phenotype of AtFAAH overexpression. AtFAAH overexpressors flowered several days earlier than wild type and AtFAAH knockouts under both non-inductive short day (SD and inductive long day (LD conditions. Microarray analysis revealed that the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT gene, which plays a major role in regulating flowering time, and one target MADS box transcription factor, SEPATALLA3 (SEP3, were elevated in AtFAAH overexpressors. Furthermore, AtFAAH overexpressors, with the early flowering phenotype had lower endogenous NAE levels in leaves compared to wild type prior to flowering. Exogenous application of NAE 12:0, which was reduced by up to 30% in AtFAAH overexpressors, delayed the onset of flowering in wild type plants. We conclude that the early flowering phenotype of AtFAAH overexpressors is, in part, explained by elevated FT gene expression resulting from the enhanced NAE hydrolase activity of AtFAAH, suggesting that NAE metabolism may participate in floral signaling pathways.

  11. Glucocorticoid control of gene transcription in neural tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsink, Maarten Christian

    2007-01-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones exert modulatory effects on neural function in a delayed genomic fashion. The two receptor types that can bind glucocorticoids, the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), are ligand-inducible transcription factors. Therefore, changes in gene

  12. Antigenotoxic spinasterol from Cucurbita maxima flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseñor, I M; Lemon, P; Palileo, A; Bremner, J B

    1996-06-10

    The antigenotoxic constituent of squash flowers was isolated by solvent partitioning and repeated vacuum liquid chromatography. The micronucleus test, an in vivo method, was used to monitor the antigenotoxicity of the various fractions during the isolation process. Isolate SQFwB2D from the chloroform extract of squash flowers is the most antigenotoxic isolate. It decreased the mutagenicity of tetracycline by 64.7% at a dosage of 100 mg/kg mouse. Statistical analysis using Kruskall Wallis one-way analysis of variance by Ranks showed that SQFw2D is different from the control group (tetracycline + corn oil) at alpha = 0.001. GC-MSD of isolate SQFwB2D shows 2 peaks at Rt = 19.860 (SQFwB2D-1) and 20.242 min (SQFwB2D-2) with relative peak heights of 16:1, respectively. Spectral analyses show that SQFwB2D-1 is 24 alpha-ethyl-5 alpha-cholesta-7,trans-22-dien-3 beta-ol or spinasterol.

  13. flu, a metastable gene controlling surface properties of Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Diderichsen, B

    1980-01-01

    flu, a gene of Escherichia coli K-12, was discovered and mapped between his and shiA. It is shown that flu is a metastable gene that changes frequently between the flu+ and flu states. flu+ variants give stable homogeneous suspensions, are piliated, and form glossy colonies. flu variants aggregate, fluff and sediment from suspensions, are nonpiliated, and form frizzy colonies. flu+ and flu variants can be isolated from most strains. Implications of these observations are discussed, and it is ...

  14. Effects of flowering phenology and synchrony on the reproductive success of a long-flowering shrub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Javier; Traveset, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Flowering phenology and synchrony with biotic and abiotic resources are crucial traits determining the reproductive success in insect-pollinated plants. In seasonal climates, plants flowering for long periods should assure reproductive success when resources are more predictable. In this work, we evaluated the relationship between flowering phenology and synchrony and reproductive success in Hypericum balearicum, a shrub flowering all year round but mainly during spring and summer. We studied two contrasting localities (differing mostly in rainfall) during 3 years, and at different biological scales spanning from localities to individual flowers and fruits. We first monitored (monthly) flowering phenology and reproductive success (fruit and seed set) of plants, and assessed whether in the locality with higher rainfall plants had longer flowering phenology and synchrony and relatively higher reproductive success within or outside the flowering peak. Secondly, we censused pollinators on H. balearicum individuals and measured reproductive success along the flowering peak of each locality to test for an association between (i) richness and abundance of pollinators and (ii) fruit and seed set, and seed weight. We found that most flowers (∼90 %) and the highest fruit set (∼70 %) were produced during the flowering peak of each locality. Contrary to expectations, plants in the locality with lower rainfall showed more relaxed flowering phenology and synchrony and set more fruits outside the flowering peak. During the flowering peak of each locality, the reproductive success of early-flowering individuals depended on a combination of both pollinator richness and abundance and rainfall; by contrast, reproductive success of late-flowering individuals was most dependent on rainfall. Plant species flowering for long periods in seasonal climates, thus, appear to be ideal organisms to understand how flowering phenology and synchrony match with biotic and abiotic resources, and

  15. Comparative Analysis of Flower Volatiles from Nine Citrus at Three Blooming Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Azam

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatiles from flowers at three blooming stages of nine citrus cultivars were analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME-GC-MS. Up to 110 volatiles were detected, with 42 tentatively identified from citrus flowers for the first time. Highest amounts of volatiles were present in fully opened flowers of most citrus, except for pomelos. All cultivars were characterized by a high percentage of either oxygenated monoterpenes or monoterpene hydrocarbons, and the presence of a high percentage of nitrogen containing compounds was also observed. Flower volatiles varied qualitatively and quantitatively among citrus types during blooming. Limonene was the most abundant flower volatile only in citrons; α-citral and β-citral ranked 2nd and 3rd only for Bergamot, and unopened flowers of Ponkan had a higher amount of linalool and β-pinene while much lower amount of γ-terpinene and p-cymene than Satsuma. Taking the average of all cultivars, linalool and limonene were the top two volatiles for all blooming stages; β-pinene ranked 3rd in unopened flowers, while indole ranked 3rd for half opened and fully opened flower volatiles. As flowers bloomed, methyl anthranilate increased while 2-hexenal and p-cymene decreased. In some cases, a volatile could be high in both unopened and fully opened flowers but low in half opened ones. Through multivariate analysis, the nine citrus cultivars were clustered into three groups, consistent with the three true citrus types. Furthermore, an influence of blooming stages on clustering was observed, especially with hybrids Satsuma and Huyou. Altogether, it was suggested that flower volatiles can be suitable markers for revealing the genetic relationships between citrus cultivars but the same blooming stage needs to be strictly controlled.

  16. Strain Specific Factors Control Effector Gene Silencing in Phytophthora sojae.

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    Sirjana Devi Shrestha

    Full Text Available The Phytophthora sojae avirulence gene Avr3a encodes an effector that is capable of triggering immunity on soybean plants carrying the resistance gene Rps3a. P. sojae strains that express Avr3a are avirulent to Rps3a plants, while strains that do not are virulent. To study the inheritance of Avr3a expression and virulence towards Rps3a, genetic crosses and self-fertilizations were performed. A cross between P. sojae strains ACR10 X P7076 causes transgenerational gene silencing of Avr3a allele, and this effect is meiotically stable up to the F5 generation. However, test-crosses of F1 progeny (ACR10 X P7076 with strain P6497 result in the release of silencing of Avr3a. Expression of Avr3a in the progeny is variable and correlates with the phenotypic penetrance of the avirulence trait. The F1 progeny from a direct cross of P6497 X ACR10 segregate for inheritance for Avr3a expression, a result that could not be explained by parental imprinting or heterozygosity. Analysis of small RNA arising from the Avr3a gene sequence in the parental strains and hybrid progeny suggests that the presence of small RNA is necessary but not sufficient for gene silencing. Overall, we conclude that inheritance of the Avr3a gene silenced phenotype relies on factors that are variable among P. sojae strains.

  17. Flowering phenology, growth forms, and pollination syndromes in tropical dry forest species: Influence of phylogeny and abiotic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Flores, Jorge; Hernández-Esquivel, Karen Beatriz; González-Rodríguez, Antonio; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    Analyses of the influence of temporal variation in abiotic factors on flowering phenology of tropical dry forest species have not considered the possible response of species with different growth forms and pollination syndromes, while controlling for phylogenetic relationships among species. Here, we investigated the relationship between flowering phenology, abiotic factors, and plant functional attributes, while controlling for phylogenetic relationship among species, in a dry forest community in Mexico. We characterized flowering phenology (time and duration) and pollination syndromes of 55 tree species, 49 herbs, 24 shrubs, 15 lianas, and 11 vines. We tested the influence of pollination syndrome, growth form, and abiotic factors on flowering phenology using phylogenetic generalized least squares. We found a relationship between flowering duration and time. Growth form was related to flowering time, and the pollination syndrome had a more significant relationship with flowering duration. Flowering time variation in the community was explained mainly by abiotic variables, without an important phylogenetic effect. Flowering time in lianas and trees was negatively and positively correlated with daylength, respectively. Functional attributes, environmental cues, and phylogeny interact with each other to shape the diversity of flowering patterns. Phenological differentiation among species groups revealed multiples strategies associated with growth form and pollination syndromes that can be important for understanding species coexistence in this highly diverse plant community. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  18. Biosensor-controlled gene therapy/drug delivery with nanoparticles for nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prow, Tarl W.; Rose, William A.; Wang, Nan; Reece, Lisa M.; Lvov, Yuri; Leary, James F.

    2005-04-01

    Nanomedicine involves cell-by-cell regenerative medicine, either repairing cells one at a time or triggering apoptotic pathways in cells that are not repairable. Multilayered nanoparticle systems are being constructed for the targeted delivery of gene therapy to single cells. Cleavable shells containing targeting, biosensing, and gene therapeutic molecules are being constructed to direct nanoparticles to desired intracellular targets. Therapeutic gene sequences are controlled by biosensor-activated control switches to provide the proper amount of gene therapy on a single cell basis. The central idea is to set up gene therapy "nanofactories" inside single living cells. Molecular biosensors linked to these genes control their expression. Gene delivery is started in response to a biosensor detected problem; gene delivery is halted when the cell response indicates that more gene therapy is not needed. Cell targeting of nanoparticles, both nanocrystals and nanocapsules, has been tested by a combination of fluorescent tracking dyes, fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Intracellular targeting has been tested by confocal microscopy. Successful gene delivery has been visualized by use of GFP reporter sequences. DNA tethering techniques were used to increase the level of expression of these genes. Integrated nanomedical systems are being designed, constructed, and tested in-vitro, ex-vivo, and in small animals. While still in its infancy, nanomedicine represents a paradigm shift in thinking-from destruction of injured cells by surgery, radiation, chemotherapy to cell-by-cell repair within an organ and destruction of non-repairable cells by natural apoptosis.

  19. Flower bud transcriptome analysis of Sapium sebiferum (Linn.) Roxb. and primary investigation of drought induced flowering: pathway construction and G-quadruplex prediction based on transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minglei; Wu, Ying; Jin, Shan; Hou, Jinyan; Mao, Yingji; Liu, Wenbo; Shen, Yangcheng; Wu, Lifang

    2015-01-01

    Sapium sebiferum (Linn.) Roxb. (Chinese Tallow Tree) is a perennial woody tree and its seeds are rich in oil which hold great potential for biodiesel production. Despite a traditional woody oil plant, our understanding on S. sebiferum genetics and molecular biology remains scant. In this study, the first comprehensive transcriptome of S. sebiferum flower has been generated by sequencing and de novo assembly. A total of 149,342 unigenes were generated from raw reads, of which 24,289 unigenes were successfully matched to public database. A total of 61 MADS box genes and putative pathways involved in S. sebiferum flower development have been identified. Abiotic stress response network was also constructed in this work, where 2,686 unigenes are involved in the pathway. As for lipid biosynthesis, 161 unigenes have been identified in fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. Besides, the G-Quadruplexes in RNA of S. sebiferum also have been predicted. An interesting finding is that the stress-induced flowering was observed in S. sebiferum for the first time. According to the results of semi-quantitative PCR, expression tendencies of flowering-related genes, GA1, AP2 and CRY2, accorded with stress-related genes, such as GRX50435 and PRXⅡ39562. This transcriptome provides functional genomic information for further research of S. sebiferum, especially for the genetic engineering to shorten the juvenile period and improve yield by regulating flower development. It also offers a useful database for the research of other Euphorbiaceae family plants.

  20. Efikasi Chitosan untuk Memperpanjang Flower Longevity Bunga Anggrek Dendrobium Hibrida dalam Pot (Potted Flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE SUKEWIJAYA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effication of Chitosan on Lengthening The Flower Longevity of Potted Orchid ofDendrobium Hybrid. The aim of the current research is to investigate general effects of Chitosantreatment on the flowering of Dendrobium orchid and to find out the optimum concentration of Chitosanin lengthening flower longevity of potted orchid of Dendrobium hybrid. Results of the research showedthat Chitosan application significantly affected variables of the number of flower per-plant, the length ofindividual flower, period of time to get full blooming, and the flower longevity. The best results for thoseof variables was achieved with Chitosan concentration of 0.15%.

  1. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum: complementary interaction between vernalization-insensitive and photoperiod-insensitive mutations imparts very early flowering habit to spring wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; Sharma, Vishakha; Chaudhary, Swati; Tyagi, Anshika; Mishra, Poonam; Priyadarshini, Anupama; Singh, Anupam

    2012-01-01

    Time to flowering in the winter growth habit bread wheat is dependent on vernalization (exposure to cold conditions) and exposure to long days (photoperiod). Dominant Vrn-1 (Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1) alleles are associated with vernalization independent spring growth habit. The semidominant Ppd-D1a mutation confers photoperiod-insensitivity or rapid flowering in wheat under short day and long day conditions. The objective of this study was to reveal the nature of interaction between Vrn-1 and Ppd-D1a mutations (active alleles of the respective genes vrn-1 and Ppd-D1b). Twelve Indian spring wheat cultivars and the spring wheat landrace Chinese Spring were characterized for their flowering times by seeding them every month for five years under natural field conditions in New Delhi. Near isogenic Vrn-1 Ppd-D1 and Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a lines constructed in two genetic backgrounds were also phenotyped for flowering time by seeding in two different seasons. The wheat lines of Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1a, Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Ppd-D1a and Vrn-A1a Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1a (or Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a) genotypes flowered several weeks earlier than that of Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1b, Vrn-A1b Ppd-D1b and Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1b (or Vrn-1 Ppd-D1b) genotypes. The flowering time phenotypes of the isogenic vernalization-insensitive lines confirmed that Ppd-D1a hastened flowering by several weeks. It was concluded that complementary interaction between Vrn-1 and Ppd-D1a active alleles imparted super/very-early flowering habit to spring wheats. The early and late flowering wheat varieties showed differences in flowering time between short day and long day conditions. The flowering time in Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a genotypes was hastened by higher temperatures under long day conditions. The ambient air temperature and photoperiod parameters for flowering in spring wheat were estimated at 25°C and 12 h, respectively.

  2. Design parameters to control synthetic gene expression in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Welch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Production of proteins as therapeutic agents, research reagents and molecular tools frequently depends on expression in heterologous hosts. Synthetic genes are increasingly used for protein production because sequence information is easier to obtain than the corresponding physical DNA. Protein-coding sequences are commonly re-designed to enhance expression, but there are no experimentally supported design principles. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify sequence features that affect protein expression we synthesized and expressed in E. coli two sets of 40 genes encoding two commercially valuable proteins, a DNA polymerase and a single chain antibody. Genes differing only in synonymous codon usage expressed protein at levels ranging from undetectable to 30% of cellular protein. Using partial least squares regression we tested the correlation of protein production levels with parameters that have been reported to affect expression. We found that the amount of protein produced in E. coli was strongly dependent on the codons used to encode a subset of amino acids. Favorable codons were predominantly those read by tRNAs that are most highly charged during amino acid starvation, not codons that are most abundant in highly expressed E. coli proteins. Finally we confirmed the validity of our models by designing, synthesizing and testing new genes using codon biases predicted to perform well. CONCLUSION: The systematic analysis of gene design parameters shown in this study has allowed us to identify codon usage within a gene as a critical determinant of achievable protein expression levels in E. coli. We propose a biochemical basis for this, as well as design algorithms to ensure high protein production from synthetic genes. Replication of this methodology should allow similar design algorithms to be empirically derived for any expression system.

  3. Early histological, hormonal, and molecular changes during pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill) artificial flowering induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Maita Eulalia Ávila; Moreira, Rafael Oliveira; Lima, André Almeida; Ságio, Solange Aparecida; Barreto, Horllys Gomes; Luiz, Sara Lazara Pérez; Abreu, Carlos Eduardo Aragón; Yanes-Paz, Ermis; Ruíz, Yanelis Capdesuñer; González-Olmedo, Justo Lorenzo; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Natural flowering can cause serious scheduling problems in the pineapple (Ananas comosus) industry and increase harvest costs. Pineapple flowering is thought to be triggered by increased ethylene levels and artificial forcing of pineapple flowering is a common practice to promote flowering synchronisation. However, little is known about the early hormonal and molecular changes of pineapple flowering induction and development. Here, we aimed to analyse the molecular, hormonal, and histological changes during artificial pineapple flowering by Ethrel ® 48 treatment. Histological analyses of the shoot apical meristem, leaf gibberellic acid (GA 3 ), and ethylene quantification were carried out during the first 72h after Ethrel ® 48 treatment. Expression profiles from ethylene biosynthesis (AcACS2 and AcACO1), gibberellin metabolism (AcGA2-ox1 and AcDELLA1), and flower development (FT-like gene (AcFT), LFY-like gene (AcLFY), and a PISTILLATA-like gene (AcPI)) genes were analysed during the first 24h after Ethrel ® 48 treatment. Differentiation processes of the shoot apical meristem into flower buds were already present in the first 72h after Ethrel ® 48 treatment. Ethrel ® 48 lead to a reduction in GA 3 levels, probably triggered by elevated ethylene levels and the positive regulation AcGA2-ox1. AcLFY activation upon Ethrel ® 48 may also have contributed to the reduction of GA 3 levels and, along with the up-regulation of AcPI, are probably associated with the flower induction activation. AcFT and AcDELLA1 do not seem to be regulated by GA 3 and ethylene. Decreased GA 3 and increased ethylene levels suggest an accumulation of AcDELLA1, which may display an important role in pineapple flowering induction. Thus, this study shows that molecular, hormonal, and histological changes are present right after Ethrel ® 48 treatment, providing new insights into how pineapple flowering occurs under natural conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. MADS box genes expressed in developing inflorescences of rice and sorghum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greco, R.; Stagi, L.; Colombo, L.; Angenent, G.C.; Sari-Gorla, M.; Pé, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    With the aim of elucidating the complex genetic system controlling flower morphogenesis in cereals, we have characterized two rice and two sorghum MADS box genes isolated from cDNA libraries made from developing inflorescences. The rice clones OsMADS24 and OsMADS45, which share high homology with

  5. Heterologous expression of gentian MYB1R transcription factors suppresses anthocyanin pigmentation in tobacco flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Takashi; Yamada, Eri; Saito, Misa; Fujita, Kohei; Nishihara, Masahiro

    2013-12-01

    Single-repeat MYB transcription factors, GtMYB1R1 and GtMYB1R9 , were isolated from gentian. Overexpression of these genes reduced anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco flowers, demonstrating their applicability to modification of flower color. RNA interference (RNAi) has recently been used to successfully modify flower color intensity in several plant species. In most floricultural plants, this technique requires prior isolation of target flavonoid biosynthetic genes from the same or closely related species. To overcome this limitation, we developed a simple and efficient method for reducing floral anthocyanin accumulation based on genetic engineering using novel transcription factor genes isolated from Japanese gentians. We identified two single-repeat MYB genes--GtMYB1R and GtMYB1R9--predominantly expressed in gentian petals. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing these genes were produced, and their flowers were analyzed for flavonoid components and expression of flavonoid biosynthetic genes. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing GtMYB1R1 or GtMYB1R9 exhibited significant reductions in floral anthocyanin accumulation, resulting in white-flowered phenotypes. Expression levels of chalcone isomerase (CHI), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) genes were preferentially suppressed in these transgenic tobacco flowers. A yeast two-hybrid assay demonstrated that both GtMYB1R1 and GtMYB1R9 proteins interacted with the GtbHLH1 protein, previously identified as an anthocyanin biosynthesis regulator in gentian flowers. In addition, a transient expression assay indicated that activation of the gentian GtDFR promoter by the GtMYB3-GtbHLH1 complex was partly canceled by addition of GtMYB1R1 or GtMYB1R9. These results suggest that GtMYB1R1 and GtMYB1R9 act as antagonistic transcription factors of anthocyanin biosynthesis in gentian flowers. These genes should consequently be useful for manipulating anthocyanin accumulation via genetic engineering in

  6. Evolution of flowering strategies in Oenothera glazioviana: an integral projection model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Mark; Rose, Karen E

    2002-07-22

    The timing of reproduction is a key determinant of fitness. Here, we develop parameterized integral projection models of size-related flowering for the monocarpic perennial Oenothera glazioviana and use these to predict the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) for flowering. For the most part there is excellent agreement between the model predictions and the results of quantitative field studies. However, the model predicts a much steeper relationship between plant size and the probability of flowering than observed in the field, indicating selection for a 'threshold size' flowering function. Elasticity and sensitivity analysis of population growth rate lambda and net reproductive rate R(0) are used to identify the critical traits that determine fitness and control the ESS for flowering. Using the fitted model we calculate the fitness landscape for invading genotypes and show that this is characterized by a ridge of approximately equal fitness. The implications of these results for the maintenance of genetic variation are discussed.

  7. Rootstock control of scion transpiration and its acclimation to water deficit are controlled by different genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguerit, Elisa; Brendel, Oliver; Lebon, Eric; Van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Ollat, Nathalie

    2012-04-01

    The stomatal control of transpiration is one of the major strategies by which plants cope with water stress. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of the rootstock control of scion transpiration-related traits over a period of 3 yr. The rootstocks studied were full sibs from a controlled interspecific cross (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon × Vitis riparia cv. Gloire de Montpellier), onto which we grafted a single scion genotype. After 10 d without stress, the water supply was progressively limited over a period of 10 d, and a stable water deficit was then applied for 15 d. Transpiration rate was estimated daily and a mathematical curve was fitted to its response to water deficit intensity. We also determined δ(13) C values in leaves, transpiration efficiency and water extraction capacity. These traits were then analysed in a multienvironment (year and water status) quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Quantitative trait loci, independent of year and water status, were detected for each trait. One genomic region was specifically implicated in the acclimation of scion transpiration induced by the rootstock. The QTLs identified colocalized with genes involved in water deficit responses, such as those relating to ABA and hydraulic regulation. Scion transpiration rate and its acclimation to water deficit are thus controlled genetically by the rootstock, through different genetic architectures. © 2012 INRA. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Flower, fruit phenology and flower traits in Cordia boissieri (Boraginaceae from northeastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Adrian Martínez-Adriano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We characterized variations in Cordia boissieri flowers and established if these variations occur between plants or between flowering events. Flowering and fruiting was measured for 256 plants. A GLM test was used to determine the relationship between flowering and fruit set processes and rainfall. We performed measurements of floral traits to detect variations within the population and between flowering events. The position of the anthers with respect to the ovary was determined in 1,500 flowers. Three out of four flowering events of >80% C. boissieri plants occurred after rainfall events. Only one flowering event occurred in a drought. Most plants flowered at least twice a year. The overlapping of flowering and fruiting only occurred after rainfall. Anthesis lasted three-to-five days, and there were two flower morphs. Half of the plants had longistylus and half had brevistylus flowers. Anacahuita flower in our study had 1–4 styles; 2–9 stamens; 6.5–41.5 mm long corolla; sepals from 4.5–29.5 mm in length; a total length from 15.5–59 mm; a corolla diameter from 10.5–77 mm. The nectar guide had a diameter from 5–30.5 mm; 4–9 lobes; and 5 distinguishable nectar guide colors. The highest variation of phenotypic expression was observed between plants.

  9. Flower, fruit phenology and flower traits in Cordia boissieri (Boraginaceae) from northeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Adriano, Cristian Adrian; Jurado, Enrique; Flores, Joel; González-Rodríguez, Humberto; Cuéllar-Rodríguez, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    We characterized variations in Cordia boissieri flowers and established if these variations occur between plants or between flowering events. Flowering and fruiting was measured for 256 plants. A GLM test was used to determine the relationship between flowering and fruit set processes and rainfall. We performed measurements of floral traits to detect variations within the population and between flowering events. The position of the anthers with respect to the ovary was determined in 1,500 flowers. Three out of four flowering events of >80% C. boissieri plants occurred after rainfall events. Only one flowering event occurred in a drought. Most plants flowered at least twice a year. The overlapping of flowering and fruiting only occurred after rainfall. Anthesis lasted three-to-five days, and there were two flower morphs. Half of the plants had longistylus and half had brevistylus flowers. Anacahuita flower in our study had 1-4 styles; 2-9 stamens; 6.5-41.5 mm long corolla; sepals from 4.5-29.5 mm in length; a total length from 15.5-59 mm; a corolla diameter from 10.5-77 mm. The nectar guide had a diameter from 5-30.5 mm; 4-9 lobes; and 5 distinguishable nectar guide colors. The highest variation of phenotypic expression was observed between plants.

  10. Arabidopsis SUMO protease ASP1 positively regulates flowering time partially through regulating FLC stability 

    KAUST Repository

    Kong, Xiangxiong; Luo, Xi; Qu, Gao Ping; Liu, Peng; Jin, Jing Bo

    2016-01-01

    The initiation of flowering is tightly regulated by the endogenous and environment signals, which is crucial for the reproductive success of flowering plants. It is well known that autonomous and vernalization pathways repress transcription of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a focal floral repressor, but how its protein stability is regulated remains largely unknown. Here, we found that mutations in a novel Arabidopsis SUMO protease 1 (ASP1) resulted in a strong late-flowering phenotype under long-days, but to a lesser extent under short-days. ASP1 localizes in the nucleus and exhibited a SUMO protease activity in vitro and in vivo. The conserved Cys-577 in ASP1 is critical for its enzymatic activity, as well as its physiological function in the regulation of flowering time. Genetic and gene expression analyses demonstrated that ASP1 promotes transcription of positive regulators of flowering, such as FT, SOC1 and FD, and may function in both CO-dependent photoperiod pathway and FLC-dependent pathways. Although the transcription level of FLC was not affected in the loss-of-function asp1 mutant, the protein stability of FLC was increased in the asp1 mutant. Taken together, this study identified a novel bona fide SUMO protease, ASP1, which positively regulates transition to flowering at least partly by repressing FLC protein stability.

  11. Arabidopsis SUMO protease ASP1 positively regulates flowering time partially through regulating FLC stability 

    KAUST Repository

    Kong, Xiangxiong

    2016-12-07

    The initiation of flowering is tightly regulated by the endogenous and environment signals, which is crucial for the reproductive success of flowering plants. It is well known that autonomous and vernalization pathways repress transcription of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a focal floral repressor, but how its protein stability is regulated remains largely unknown. Here, we found that mutations in a novel Arabidopsis SUMO protease 1 (ASP1) resulted in a strong late-flowering phenotype under long-days, but to a lesser extent under short-days. ASP1 localizes in the nucleus and exhibited a SUMO protease activity in vitro and in vivo. The conserved Cys-577 in ASP1 is critical for its enzymatic activity, as well as its physiological function in the regulation of flowering time. Genetic and gene expression analyses demonstrated that ASP1 promotes transcription of positive regulators of flowering, such as FT, SOC1 and FD, and may function in both CO-dependent photoperiod pathway and FLC-dependent pathways. Although the transcription level of FLC was not affected in the loss-of-function asp1 mutant, the protein stability of FLC was increased in the asp1 mutant. Taken together, this study identified a novel bona fide SUMO protease, ASP1, which positively regulates transition to flowering at least partly by repressing FLC protein stability.

  12. Control of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora on apple trees with trunk-injected plant resistance inducers and antibiotics and assessment of induction of pathogenesis-related protein genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan G. Aćimović

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Management of fire blight is complicated by limitations on use of antibiotics in agriculture, antibiotic resistance development, and limited efficacy of alternative control agents. Even though successful in control, preventive antibiotic sprays also affect non-target bacteria, aiding the selection for resistance which could ultimately be transferred to the pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Trunk injection is a target-precise pesticide delivery method that utilizes tree xylem to distribute injected compounds. Trunk injection could decrease antibiotic usage in the open environment and increase the effectiveness of compounds in fire blight control. In field experiments, after 1-2 apple tree injections of either streptomycin, potassium phosphites (PH or acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM, significant reduction of blossom and shoot blight symptoms was observed compared to water- or non-injected control trees. Overall disease suppression with streptomycin was lower than typically observed following spray applications to flowers. Trunk injection of oxytetracycline resulted in excellent control of shoot blight severity, suggesting that injection is a superior delivery method for this antibiotic. Injection of both ASM and PH resulted in the significant induction of PR-1, PR-2 and PR-8 protein genes in apple leaves indicating induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR under field conditions. The time separating SAR induction and fire blight symptom suppression indicated that various defensive compounds within the SAR response were synthesized and accumulated in the canopy. ASM and PH suppressed fire blight even after cessation of induced gene expression. With the development of injectable formulations and optimization of doses and injection schedules, the injection of protective compounds could serve as an effective option for fire blight control.

  13. Early pregnancy peripheral blood gene expression and risk of preterm delivery: a nested case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhie Seid Y

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm delivery (PTD is a significant public health problem associated with greater risk of mortality and morbidity in infants and mothers. Pathophysiologic processes that may lead to PTD start early in pregnancy. We investigated early pregnancy peripheral blood global gene expression and PTD risk. Methods As part of a prospective study, ribonucleic acid was extracted from blood samples (collected at 16 weeks gestational age from 14 women who had PTD (cases and 16 women who delivered at term (controls. Gene expressions were measured using the GeneChip® Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array. Student's T-test and fold change analysis were used to identify differentially expressed genes. We used hierarchical clustering and principle components analysis to characterize signature gene expression patterns among cases and controls. Pathway and promoter sequence analyses were used to investigate functions and functional relationships as well as regulatory regions of differentially expressed genes. Results A total of 209 genes, including potential candidate genes (e.g. PTGDS, prostaglandin D2 synthase 21 kDa, were differentially expressed. A set of these genes achieved accurate pre-diagnostic separation of cases and controls. These genes participate in functions related to immune system and inflammation, organ development, metabolism (lipid, carbohydrate and amino acid and cell signaling. Binding sites of putative transcription factors such as EGR1 (early growth response 1, TFAP2A (transcription factor AP2A, Sp1 (specificity protein 1 and Sp3 (specificity protein 3 were over represented in promoter regions of differentially expressed genes. Real-time PCR confirmed microarray expression measurements of selected genes. Conclusions PTD is associated with maternal early pregnancy peripheral blood gene expression changes. Maternal early pregnancy peripheral blood gene expression patterns may be useful for better understanding of PTD

  14. Chosen aspects of flowering of Ranunculaceae representatives in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The family Ranunculaceae consists of numerous widespread species occuring from lowlands to subalpine or alpine zones. In Poland, the species grow in different types of habitats, including xerothermic swards (Adonido-Brachypodietum, Brachypodio- Teucrietum, Thalictro-Salvietum, Seslerio- Scorzoneretum and decidous forests (Tilio- Carpinetum. Many species are popular ornamentals cultivated fro their esthetic value. Ranunculaceans vary remarkably in the phenology of blooming. Among them, there are early spring blooming species like Eranthis hyemalis, Ficaria verna, Isopyrum thalictroides, Anemone nemorosa, A. ranunculoides, and those that start to bloom in autumn, e.g. Aconitum carmichaelli. The overall flowering duration may differ significantly between years – for example, in Anemone sylvestris the disparities reached more than three weeks. The occurrence and the length of each blooming phase may vary considerably between sites, e.g. in Adonis vernalis 10-15-day dissimilarities in the occurrence of blooming stages were recorded. Additionally, the duration of the full blooming stage varied from 10 to 30 days. The diurnal pattern of blooming among Ranunculaceae members was proved to be highly species-specific. Flowers of Aquilegia vulgaris started opening at approx. 5.00 (GMT+2, which was 2-3 hours earlier than those of Adonis vernalis. Significant differences in the diurnal flowering dynamics can be found even in the same genus: flowers of Aconitum lycoctonum began opening at 5.00 (with the peak between 6.00-9.00, while flowers of Aconitum carmichaelii started opening at 8.00 and peaked between 11.00-13.00. The flowering abundance may differ among populations of the same species. The management type was found to have an impact on the individuals’ density of Adonis vernalis occurring in xerothermic grasslands. The control of shrub encashment has already been designated as the factor determining the flowering abundance of Adonis vernalis in

  15. ODORANT1 Regulates Fragrance Biosynthesis in Petunia FlowersW⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Julian C.; Haring, Michel A.; van Tunen, Arjen J.; Schuurink, Robert C.

    2005-01-01

    Floral scent is important to plant reproduction because it attracts pollinators to the sexual organs. Therefore, volatile emission is usually tuned to the foraging activity of the pollinators. In Petunia hybrida, volatile benzenoids determine the floral aroma. Although the pathways for benzenoid biosynthesis have been characterized, the enzymes involved are less well understood. How production and emission are regulated is unknown. By targeted transcriptome analyses, we identified ODORANT1 (ODO1), a member of the R2R3-type MYB family, as a candidate for the regulation of volatile benzenoids in Petunia hybrida cv W115 (Mitchell) flowers. These flowers are only fragrant in the evening and at night. Transcript levels of ODO1 increased before the onset of volatile emission and decreased when volatile emission declined. Downregulation of ODO1 in transgenic P. hybrida Mitchell plants strongly reduced volatile benzenoid levels through decreased synthesis of precursors from the shikimate pathway. The transcript levels of several genes in this pathway were reduced by suppression of ODO1 expression. Moreover, ODO1 could activate the promoter of the 5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene. Flower pigmentation, which is furnished from the same shikimate precursors, was not influenced because color and scent biosynthesis occur at different developmental stages. Our studies identify ODO1 as a key regulator of floral scent biosynthesis. PMID:15805488

  16. GBOOST: a GPU-based tool for detecting gene-gene interactions in genome-wide case control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Ling Sing; Yang, Can; Wan, Xiang; Yu, Weichuan

    2011-05-01

    Collecting millions of genetic variations is feasible with the advanced genotyping technology. With a huge amount of genetic variations data in hand, developing efficient algorithms to carry out the gene-gene interaction analysis in a timely manner has become one of the key problems in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Boolean operation-based screening and testing (BOOST), a recent work in GWAS, completes gene-gene interaction analysis in 2.5 days on a desktop computer. Compared with central processing units (CPUs), graphic processing units (GPUs) are highly parallel hardware and provide massive computing resources. We are, therefore, motivated to use GPUs to further speed up the analysis of gene-gene interactions. We implement the BOOST method based on a GPU framework and name it GBOOST. GBOOST achieves a 40-fold speedup compared with BOOST. It completes the analysis of Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium Type 2 Diabetes (WTCCC T2D) genome data within 1.34 h on a desktop computer equipped with Nvidia GeForce GTX 285 display card. GBOOST code is available at http://bioinformatics.ust.hk/BOOST.html#GBOOST.

  17. Doublesex: a conserved downstream gene controlled by diverse ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Drosophila doublesex (dsx) gene at the bottom of the sex-determination cascade is the best characterized candidate so far, and is conserved from worms (mab3 of Caenorhabditis elegans) to mammals (Dmrt-1). Studies of dsx homologues from insect species belonging to different orders position them at the bottom of ...

  18. Zingiber zerumbet flower stem postharvest characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charleston Gonçalves

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available About the Zingiber zerumbet little is known about its cut flower postharvest and market, despite its high ornamental potential. The inflorescences, which resemble a compact cone, emerge from the base of the plants and start with green color changing to red with the age. This study objective was to characterize floral stem of ornamental ginger in two cultivate conditions and to evaluate the longevity of those submitted to post-harvest treatments. Flower stems were harvest from clumps cultivated under full sun and partial shade area, and were submitted to the postharvest treatments: complete flower immersion in tap water (CFI or only the base stem immersion (BSI. The flower stems harvested from clumps at partial shade presented higher fresh weight, length and diameter of the inflorescences compared to flower stems harvested from clumps at full sun area. The flower stem bracts cultivated in full sun area changed the color from green to red 10.69 and 11.94 days after BSI and CFI postharvest treatments, and the vase life were 22.94 and 28.19 days, respectively. Flower stem harvest in partial shade area change the color only after 18.94 and 18.43 days and the vase life durability was 27.56 and 31.81, respectively. The complete immersion of the flower stem increase the vase life durability in 5.25 and 4.25 days compared to flowers kept with the stem base immersed only, in flower stems harvested from clumps cultivated in full sun area and partial shade area, respectively. Flower stems harvested from clumps cultivated in partial shade area and completely immerse in tap water during 3 hours increase the vase life durability in 8.87 days compared to flowers harvested from clumps cultivated in full sun area and base immersed only.

  19. Transcriptome Changes Associated with Delayed Flower Senescence on Transgenic Petunia by Inducing Expression of etr1-1, a Mutant Ethylene Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Zhen; Chang, Youhong; Reid, Michael S.; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Flowers of ethylene-sensitive ornamental plants transformed with ethylene-insensitive 1-1(etr1-1), a mutant ethylene receptor first isolated from Arabidopsis, are known to have longer shelf lives. We have generated petunia plants in which the etr1-1 gene was over-expressed under the control of a chemically-inducible promoter, which would allow expression of etr1-1 to be initiated at the desired time and stage of development. Here, we showed that transgenic plants grew and developed normally without a chemical inducer. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the abundance of transcripts of Arabidopsis etr1-1 gene was substantially induced in flowers with 30 μM dexamethasone (DEX). Consequently, t he life of the flowers was almost doubled and the peak of ethylene production was delayed. We compared gene expression changes of petals with DEX to those without DEX at 24 h and 48 h by microarray. Our results indicated that transcripts of many putative genes encoding transcription factors were down-regulated by etr1-1 induced expression at the early stage. In addition, putative genes involved in gibberellin biosynthesis, response to jasmonic acid/gibberellins stimulus, cell wall modification, ethylene biosynthesis, and cell death were down-regulated associating with etr1-1 induced expression. We investigated time-course gene expression profiles and found two profiles which displayed totally opposite expression patterns under these two treatments. In these profiles, ‘the regulation of transcription’ was predominant in GO categories. Taking all results together, we concluded those transcription factors down-regulated at early stage might exert a major role in regulating the senescence process which were consequently characterized by cell wall modification and cell death. PMID:23874385

  20. Transcriptome changes associated with delayed flower senescence on transgenic petunia by inducing expression of etr1-1, a mutant ethylene receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    Full Text Available Flowers of ethylene-sensitive ornamental plants transformed with ethylene-insensitive 1-1(etr1-1, a mutant ethylene receptor first isolated from Arabidopsis, are known to have longer shelf lives. We have generated petunia plants in which the etr1-1 gene was over-expressed under the control of a chemically-inducible promoter, which would allow expression of etr1-1 to be initiated at the desired time and stage of development. Here, we showed that transgenic plants grew and developed normally without a chemical inducer. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the abundance of transcripts of Arabidopsis etr1-1 gene was substantially induced in flowers with 30 μM dexamethasone (DEX. Consequently, t he life of the flowers was almost doubled and the peak of ethylene production was delayed. We compared gene expression changes of petals with DEX to those without DEX at 24 h and 48 h by microarray. Our results indicated that transcripts of many putative genes encoding transcription factors were down-regulated by etr1-1 induced expression at the early stage. In addition, putative genes involved in gibberellin biosynthesis, response to jasmonic acid/gibberellins stimulus, cell wall modification, ethylene biosynthesis, and cell death were down-regulated associating with etr1-1 induced expression. We investigated time-course gene expression profiles and found two profiles which displayed totally opposite expression patterns under these two treatments. In these profiles, 'the regulation of transcription' was predominant in GO categories. Taking all results together, we concluded those transcription factors down-regulated at early stage might exert a major role in regulating the senescence process which were consequently characterized by cell wall modification and cell death.

  1. Coordination of flower development by homeotic master regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Toshiro

    2011-02-01

    Floral homeotic genes encode transcription factors and act as master regulators of flower development. The homeotic protein complex is expressed in a specific whorl of the floral primordium and determines floral organ identity by the combinatorial action. Homeotic proteins continue to be expressed until late in flower development to coordinate growth and organogenesis. Recent genomic studies have shown that homeotic proteins bind thousands of target sites in the genome and regulate the expression of transcription factors, chromatin components and various proteins involved in hormone biosynthesis and signaling and other physiological activities. Further, homeotic proteins program chromatin to direct the developmental coordination of stem cell maintenance and differentiation in shaping floral organs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bacterial toxin-antitoxin gene system as containment control in yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, P.; Jensen, G. B.; Gerdes, K.

    2000-01-01

    The potential of a bacterial toxin-antitoxin gene system for use in containment control in eukaryotes was explored. The Escherichia coli relE and relB genes were expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Expression of the relE gene was highly toxic to yeast cells. However, expression...... fermentation processes in which the escape of genetically modified cells would be considered highly risky....

  3. ICG: a wiki-driven knowledgebase of internal control genes for RT-qPCR normalization.