WorldWideScience

Sample records for generic virtual power

  1. Using Service Oriented Architecture in a Generic Virtual Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Poulsen, Bjarne; Træholt, Chresten

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to find and describe a suitable software framework that can be used to help implement the concept of a Generic Virtual Power Plant in the future power system. The Generic Virtual Power Plant concept, along with the utilization of distributed energy resources, has many...... the Generic Virtual Power Plant, an array of different software design principles, patterns and architectures must be applied. Especially Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) can aid in implementing the Generic Virtual Power Plant.......The purpose of this paper is to find and describe a suitable software framework that can be used to help implement the concept of a Generic Virtual Power Plant in the future power system. The Generic Virtual Power Plant concept, along with the utilization of distributed energy resources, has many...... interesting properties that can influence the future shape of power markets. The concept holds many promises including cheaper power to the consumer, a more flexible and responsive power production and the support of a more environment-friendly development. In order to realize a software solution supporting...

  2. Evaluation of a Generic Virtual Power Plant Framework Using Service Oriented Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Poulsen, Bjarne; Decker, Morten

    2008-01-01

    interesting properties that can influence the future shape of power markets. The concept holds many promises including cheaper power to the consumer, a more flexible and responsive power production and the support of a more environment- friendly development. In order to realize a software solution supporting...... the generic virtual power plant, an array of different software design principles, patterns and architectures must be applied. Especially Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) can aid in implementing the generic virtual power plant. An analysis of the Nordic power market has been carried out in order...... to identify potential issues and barriers, henceforth mentioned as challenges, connected with the introduction of the generic virtual power plant concept. In this paper, three use case scenarios will show how each of these challenges can be overcome by the proposed solution framework. The use case scenarios...

  3. Generic Virtual Power Plants: Management of Distributed Energy Resources under Liberalized Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of Virtual Power Plant (VPP) can be attributed to the major boost of distributed energy resources (DER), which satisfies the changing needs of modern society on energy industry. Based on this concept, DER units disregarding the differences in each individualtechnology are loosely...... aggregated with a unique interface to the external grid and energy market. This paper gives a broad overview of state-of-the-art VPP concepts and proposes a detailed generic VPP (GVPP) model running in liberalized electricity market environment. An attempt is made to provide an outline of the main functions...

  4. Reconciling Virtual Classes with Genericity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2006-01-01

    is functional abstraction, yielding more precise knowledge about the outcome; the prime ex- ample is type parameterized classes. This paper argues that they should be clearly separated to work optimally. We have applied this design philosophy to a lan- guage based on an extension mechanism, namely virtual...... classes. As a result, a kind of type parameters have been introduced, but they are simple and only used where they excel. Conversely, final definitions of virtual classes have been re- moved from the language, thus making virtual classes more flexible. The result- ing language presents a clearer and more...

  5. Integration of renewable energy plants based on generic data models in the energy management of a virtual power plant; Integration von erneuerbaren Energieanlagen auf Basis generischer Datenmodelle in das Energiemanagement eines virtuellen Kraftwerks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickert, Manuel; Slaby, Wolfgang; Hochloff, Patrick [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany); Winter, Martin [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany). Corporate Technology

    2012-07-01

    The integration of different types of energy resources manufactured by different vendors is one of the main challenges for virtual power plants. One of the important problems is a highly heterogeneous standardization environment for decentralized renewable energy resources. On the one hand proprietary solutions are implemented for some types of energy resources. In a future smart grid it is getting more and more important to handle decentralized energy generation. The project RegModHarz researched the dynamic integration of energy resources in virtual power plants based on generic data models. This paper introduces a concept for the integration of heterogeneous energy resources into the energy management of a virtual power plant using a uniform data model. On the assumption of a market-oriented virtual power plant the main attributes of this data model are generally identified and afterwards explained by examples. The capability of this data model is shown in a comprehensive field test with different renewable energy resources. (orig.)

  6. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Technology: A Powerful, Generic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Technology: A Powerful, Generic, Facile and Cost Effective Alternative for Enantio-recognition and Separation: A Glance at Advances and Applications. ... Tanzania Journal of Science. Journal Home · ABOUT ...

  7. Virtual power plant auctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausubel, Lawrence M.; Cramton, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Since their advent in 2001, virtual power plant (VPP) auctions have been implemented widely. In this paper, we describe the simultaneous ascending-clock auction format that has been used for virtually all VPP auctions to date, elaborating on other design choices that most VPP auctions have had in common as well as discussing a few aspects that have varied significantly among VPP auctions. We then evaluate the various objectives of regulators in requiring VPP auctions, concluding that the auctions have been effective devices for facilitating new entry into electricity markets and for developing wholesale power markets. (author)

  8. Virtual power plant auctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausubel, Lawrence M.; Cramton, Peter [Department of Economics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Since their advent in 2001, virtual power plant (VPP) auctions have been implemented widely. In this paper, we describe the simultaneous ascending-clock auction format that has been used for virtually all VPP auctions to date, elaborating on other design choices that most VPP auctions have had in common as well as discussing a few aspects that have varied significantly among VPP auctions. We then evaluate the various objectives of regulators in requiring VPP auctions, concluding that the auctions have been effective devices for facilitating new entry into electricity markets and for developing wholesale power markets. (author)

  9. Virtual reality technology in nuclear power plant operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a generic virtual reality comprehensive system focusing on the operation and maintenance in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is proposed. Under this layout, some key topics and means of the system are discussed. As example 'Virtual Nuclear Island' comprehensive system and its typical applications in NPP are set up. In the end, it prospects the applications of virtual reality technology in NPP operation, training and maintenance. (author)

  10. Generic nuclear power plant component failure data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Goes, A.G. de; Gibelli, S.M.O.

    1988-11-01

    This report consist in the development of a generic nuclear power plant component failure data bank. This data bank was implemented in a PC-XT microcomputer, IBM compatible, using the Open Access II program. Generic failure data tables for Westinghouse nuclear power plants and for general PWR power plants are presented. They are the final product of a research which included a preselection and a selection of data collected from the available sources in the library of CNEN (National Nuclear Energy Commission) and from the CIN/CNEN (Neclear Information Center). Futhermore, a proposal of evaluating models of average failure rates of pumps and valves are also presented. Through the electronic data bank one can easily have a generic view of failure rate ranges as well as failure models foe a certain component. It is very importante to develop procedures to collect and store generic failure data that can be quickly accessed, in order to update the Probabilistic Safety Study of Angra-1 and to used in studies which may have component failures of nuclear power plant safety systems. In the future, data specialization can be achieved by means of statistical calculations involving specific data collected from the operational experience of Angra-1 nuclear power plant and the generic data bank. (author) [pt

  11. Generic Film Forms for Dynamic Virtual Video Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Lindley

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe FRAMES project within the RDN CRC (Cooperative Research Centre for Research Data Networks) is developing an experimental environment for video content-based retrieval and dynamic virtual video synthesis from archives of video data. The FRAMES research prototype is a video synthesis

  12. Method for assigning sites to projected generic nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holter, G.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Shutz, M.E.; Young, J.R.

    1986-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a method for forecasting potential locations and startup sequences of nuclear power plants that will be required in the future but have not yet been specifically identified by electric utilities. Use of the method results in numerical ratings for potential nuclear power plant sites located in each of the 10 federal energy regions. The rating for each potential site is obtained from numerical factors assigned to each of 5 primary siting characteristics: (1) cooling water availability, (2) site land area, (3) power transmission land area, (4) proximity to metropolitan areas, and (5) utility plans for the site. The sequence of plant startups in each federal energy region is obtained by use of the numerical ratings and the forecasts of generic nuclear power plant startups obtained from the EIA Middle Case electricity forecast. Sites are assigned to generic plants in chronological order according to startup date.

  13. Method for assigning sites to projected generic nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holter, G.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Shutz, M.E.; Young, J.R.

    1986-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a method for forecasting potential locations and startup sequences of nuclear power plants that will be required in the future but have not yet been specifically identified by electric utilities. Use of the method results in numerical ratings for potential nuclear power plant sites located in each of the 10 federal energy regions. The rating for each potential site is obtained from numerical factors assigned to each of 5 primary siting characteristics: (1) cooling water availability, (2) site land area, (3) power transmission land area, (4) proximity to metropolitan areas, and (5) utility plans for the site. The sequence of plant startups in each federal energy region is obtained by use of the numerical ratings and the forecasts of generic nuclear power plant startups obtained from the EIA Middle Case electricity forecast. Sites are assigned to generic plants in chronological order according to startup date

  14. Physical and financial virtual power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willems, Bert

    2005-01-01

    Regulators in Belgium and the Netherlands use different mechanisms to mitigate generation market power. In Belgium, antitrust authorities oblige the incumbent to sell financial Virtual Power Plants, while in the Netherlands regulators have been discussing the use of physical Virtual Power Plants. This paper uses a numerical game theoretic model to simulate the behavior of the generation firms and to compare the effects of both systems on the market power of the generators. It shows that financial Virtual Power Plants are better for society. (Author)

  15. Generic 12-Bus Test System for Wind Power Integration Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamczyk, Andrzej Grzegorz; Altin, Müfit; Göksu, Ömer

    2012-01-01

    , inertial response, frequency control, damping of electromechanical oscillations, balanced and unbalanced fault management, etc. Hence, the power system components: conventional power plants with controls, transmission lines, transformers and loads should be represented accurately to achieve realistic power......High wind power penetration levels into power systems requires an appropriate power system model when assessing impact on the overall system stability. The model should capture the wide range of dynamics related to the wind integration studies, such as voltage control, synchronizing power control...... system characteristics. Additionally, the power system model should be simple and computationally manageable in order to simulate multiple scenarios with different control parameters in a reasonable time. In this paper, a generic power system model is presented in order to comprehend the wind integration...

  16. Working in a virtual power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, G.; Smadja, S.

    1999-01-01

    Graphical simulations on computer providing a virtual and reversible experience can now be used for maintenance in nuclear power plants allowing operations to be tested and tools to be optimised. Eventually, operatives will be trained to work in virtual nuclear power plants in complete safety. (authors)

  17. Generic implications of ATWS events at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant: generic implications. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This report is the first of two volumes. It documents the work of an interoffice, interdisciplinary NRC Task Force established to determine the generic implications of two anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 on February 22 and 25, 1983. A second report will document the NRC actions to be taken based on the work of the Task Force. The Task Force was established to address three questions: (1) Is there a need for prompt action for similar equipment in other facilities. (2) Are NRC and its licensees learning the sefety-management lessons, and, (3) How should the priority and content of the ATWS rule be adjusted. A number of short-term actions were taken through Bulletins and an Information Notice. Intermediate-term actions to address the generic issues will be addressed in the separate report and implemented through appropriate regulatory mechanisms

  18. Building generic anatomical models using virtual model cutting and iterative registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallgrímsson Benedikt

    2010-02-01

    retrieve a sub-region from it at their ease. Java-based implementation allows our method to be used on various visualization systems including personal computers, workstations, computers equipped with stereo displays, and even virtual reality rooms such as the CAVE Automated Virtual Environment. The technique allows biologists to build generic 3D models of their interest quickly and accurately.

  19. Virtual Golden Foods Corporation: Generic Skills in a Virtual Crisis Environment (A Pilot Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godat, Meredith

    2007-01-01

    Workplace learning in a crisis-rich environment is often difficult if not impossible to integrate into programs so that students are able to experience and apply crisis management practices and principles. This study presents the results of a pilot project that examined the effective use of a virtual reality (VR) environment as a tool to teach…

  20. Market integration of Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Kirschmeyer; Hansen, Lars Henrik; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2013-01-01

    develop a three stage market model, which includes Day-Ahead (Spot), Intra-Day and Regulating Power Markets. This allows us to test the hypothesis that the Virtual Power Plant can generate additional profit by trading across several markets. We find that even though profits do increase as more markets...

  1. SmartSIM - a virtual reality simulator for laparoscopy training using a generic physics engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zohaib Amjad; Kamal, Nabeel; Hameed, Asad; Mahmood, Amama; Zainab, Rida; Sadia, Bushra; Mansoor, Shamyl Bin; Hasan, Osman

    2017-09-01

    Virtual reality (VR) training simulators have started playing a vital role in enhancing surgical skills, such as hand-eye coordination in laparoscopy, and practicing surgical scenarios that cannot be easily created using physical models. We describe a new VR simulator for basic training in laparoscopy, i.e. SmartSIM, which has been developed using a generic open-source physics engine called the simulation open framework architecture (SOFA). This paper describes the systems perspective of SmartSIM including design details of both hardware and software components, while highlighting the critical design decisions. Some of the distinguishing features of SmartSIM include: (i) an easy-to-fabricate custom-built hardware interface; (ii) use of a generic physics engine to facilitate wider accessibility of our work and flexibility in terms of using various graphical modelling algorithms and their implementations; and (iii) an intelligent and smart evaluation mechanism that facilitates unsupervised and independent learning. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. VISIT - Virtual visits to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollaret, Jean-Christophe

    2001-01-01

    For more than twenty years, EDFs Communication Division has conducted a policy of opening its generation sites to the general public. Around 300,000 people visit a nuclear power plant every year. However, for the security of persons and the safety of facilities, those parts of the plant situated in controlled areas are not accessible to visitors. For the sake of transparency, EDF has taken an interest in the technologies offered by virtual reality to show the general public what a nuclear power plant is really like, so as to initiate dialogue on nuclear energy, particularly with young people. Visit has been developed with virtual reality technologies. It serves to show the invisible (voyage to the core of fission), the inaccessible and to immerse the visitors in environments which are usually closed to the general public (discovery of the controlled area of a nuclear power plant). Visit is used in Public Information Centres which receive visitors to EDF power plants and during international exhibitions and conferences. Visit allows a virtual tour of the following controlled areas: locker room hot area/cold area, a necessary passage before entering the controlled areas; reactor building; fuel building; waste auxiliary building (liquid, solid and gaseous effluents). It also includes a tour of the rooms or equipment usually accessible to the general public: control room, turbine hall, transformer, air cooling tower

  3. A Market-Based Virtual Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2009-01-01

    The fast growing penetration of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and the continuing trend towards a more liberalized electricity market requires more efficient energy management strategies to handle both emerging technical and economic issues. In this paper, a market-based Virtual Power Plant...... (MBVPP) model is proposed which provides individual DER units the accesses to current electricity markets. General bidding scenario and price signal scenario as two optional operation scenarios are operated by one MBVPP. In the end, a use case of a MBVPP with micro Combined Heat and Power (μCHP) systems...

  4. Virtual environments for nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; King, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    In the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the visualization process inherent in virtual environments (VE) allows for abstract design concepts to be made concrete and simulated without using a physical mock-up. This helps reduce the time and effort required to design and understand the system, thus providing the design team with a less complicated arrangement. Also, the outcome of human interactions with the components and system can be minimized through various testing of scenarios in real-time without the threat of injury to the user or damage to the equipment. If implemented, this will lead to a minimal total design and construction effort for nuclear power plants (NPP)

  5. Regulating power provided by an industrial virtual power plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roossien, B.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Doss, A.

    2012-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources for the transition towards a sustainable electricity system imposes a number of new challenges for the grid, one of them being the balancing of variable output supply and demand. The flexibility of production and consumption in Virtual Power Plants can be used

  6. Market Integration of Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Kirschmeyer

    increasingly challenging due to the intrinsic variability of production technologies such as photovoltaics and wind turbines. In a Smart Grid system the balancing task will therefore be handled by mobilizing flexibility on the consumption side. This Thesis assumes that the Smart Grid should be commercially......Global efforts to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide drives the introduction of renewable power production technologies into the existing power system. The real-time balance between production and consumption must, however, still be maintained at all times. Unfortunately, this is becoming....... It does however significantly sharpen the discussion of the flexibility concept and provides a categorization of flexible systems. This Thesis also investigates what value can be created from the different types of flexibility by assuming that the Virtual Power Plant will generate profit by trading...

  7. Optimal Regulation of Virtual Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall Anese, Emiliano; Guggilam, Swaroop S.; Simonetto, Andrea; Chen, Yu Christine; Dhople, Sairaj V.

    2018-03-01

    This paper develops a real-time algorithmic framework for aggregations of distributed energy resources (DERs) in distribution networks to provide regulation services in response to transmission-level requests. Leveraging online primal-dual-type methods for time-varying optimization problems and suitable linearizations of the nonlinear AC power-flow equations, we believe this work establishes the system-theoretic foundation to realize the vision of distribution-level virtual power plants. The optimization framework controls the output powers of dispatchable DERs such that, in aggregate, they respond to automatic-generation-control and/or regulation-services commands. This is achieved while concurrently regulating voltages within the feeder and maximizing customers' and utility's performance objectives. Convergence and tracking capabilities are analytically established under suitable modeling assumptions. Simulations are provided to validate the proposed approach.

  8. Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Appendix B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volumes 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This report consists of Volume 2, which consists of the GALL literature review tables for the NUMARC Industry Reports reviewed for the report

  9. 78 FR 37325 - License Renewal of Nuclear Power Plants; Generic Environmental Impact Statement and Standard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Nuclear Power Plants; Generic Environmental Impact Statement and Standard Review Plans for Environmental... for Nuclear Power Plants, Supplement 1: Operating License Renewal'' (ESRP). The ESRP serves as a guide... published a final rule, ``Revisions to Environmental Review for Renewal of Nuclear Power Plant Operating...

  10. Bidding Strategy of Virtual Power Plant with Energy Storage Power Station and Photovoltaic and Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the virtual power plants containing energy storage power stations and photovoltaic and wind power, the output of PV and wind power is uncertain and virtual power plants must consider this uncertainty when they participate in the auction in the electricity market. In this context, this paper studies the bidding strategy of the virtual power plant with photovoltaic and wind power. Assuming that the upper and lower limits of the combined output of photovoltaic and wind power are stochastically variable, the fluctuation range of the day-ahead energy market and capacity price is stochastically variable. If the capacity of the storage station is large enough to stabilize the fluctuation of the output of the wind and photovoltaic power, virtual power plants can participate in the electricity market bidding. This paper constructs a robust optimization model of virtual power plant bidding strategy in the electricity market, which considers the cost of charge and discharge of energy storage power station and transmission congestion. The model proposed in this paper is solved by CPLEX; the example results show that the model is reasonable and the method is valid.

  11. Developing Generic Competences in Online Virtual Education Programmes at the University of Deusto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, Irakli

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The current paper focuses on the increasing demand for generic competences both from governments and industries. Despite this fact, there is insufficient awareness and information in education systems on how to equip graduates with appropriate generic competences for the world of work and citizenship. This is even more complicated in…

  12. Spacecraft Electrical Power System (EPS) generic analysis tools and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gladys M.; Sheppard, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is provided of the analysis tools and techiques used in modeling the Space Station Freedom electrical power system, as well as future space vehicle power systems. The analysis capabilities of the Electrical Power System (EPS) are described and the EPS analysis tools are surveyed.

  13. Optimal dispatch strategy for the agile virtual power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Højgaard; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of large ratios of renewable energy into the existing power system is complicated by the inherent variability of production technologies, which harvest energy from wind, sun and waves. Fluctuations of renewable power production can be predicted to some extent, but the assumption...... of perfect prediction is unrealistic. This paper therefore introduces the Agile Virtual Power Plant. The Agile Virtual Power Plant assumes that the base load production planning based on best available knowledge is already given, so imbalances cannot be predicted. Consequently the Agile Virtual Power Plant...... attempts to preserve maneuverability (stay agile) rather than optimize performance according to predictions. In this paper the imbalance compensation problem for an Agile Virtual Power Plant is formulated. It is proved formally, that when local units are power and energy constrained integrators a dispatch...

  14. Virtual classes: a powerful mechanism in object-oriented programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1989-01-01

    The notions of class, subclass and virtual procedure are fairly well understood and recognized as some of the key concepts in object-oriented programming. The possibility of modifying a virtual procedure in a subclass is a powerful technique for specializing the general properties of the superclass....... In most object-oriented languages, the attributes of an object may be references to objects and (virtual) procedures. In Simula and BETA it is also possible to have class attributes. The power of class attributes has not yet been widely recognized. In BETA a class may also have virtual class attributes...

  15. Application of virtual reality to simulation in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Pengfei; Yang Yanhua; Yang Yongmu; Duan Dongdong; Luo Jie

    2008-01-01

    Based on detailed analysis of the structure and key techniques of a virtual reality system, the applications of virtual reality to simulation in nuclear power plant (NPP) were developed. In order to meet the requirement of simulation in NPP, motion simulation of control rod drive system, walking system inside the containment and virtual main control room were presented. A simulator of NPP was connected to interchange dynamic data between virtual main control room and the simulator. The simulating results show that the technique of virtual reality can be applied well to the simulation inside containment, which is filled with activity material, and the simulation of virtual main control room, where human factors must be considered. It also can be used well to design virtual education and training system of NPP. (authors)

  16. Draft report on compilation of generic safety issues for light water reactor nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    A generally accepted approach to characterizing the safety concerns in nuclear power plants is to express them as safety issues which need to be resolved. When such safety issues are applicable to a generation of plants of a particular design or to a family of plants of similar design, they are termed generic safety issues. Examples of generic safety issues are those related to reactor vessel embrittlement, control rod insertion reliability or strainer clogging. The safety issues compiled in this document are based on broad international experience. This compilation is one element in the framework of IAEA activities to assist Member States in reassessing the safety of operating nuclear power plants. Refs.

  17. Draft report on compilation of generic safety issues for light water reactor nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    A generally accepted approach to characterizing the safety concerns in nuclear power plants is to express them as safety issues which need to be resolved. When such safety issues are applicable to a generation of plants of a particular design or to a family of plants of similar design, they are termed generic safety issues. Examples of generic safety issues are those related to reactor vessel embrittlement, control rod insertion reliability or strainer clogging. The safety issues compiled in this document are based on broad international experience. This compilation is one element in the framework of IAEA activities to assist Member States in reassessing the safety of operating nuclear power plants. Refs

  18. Power, Influence Tactics, and Influence Processes in Virtual Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, Marla

    2011-01-01

    Current studies of power, influence tactics, and influence processes in virtual teams assume that these constructs operate in a similar manner as they do in the face-to-face (FtF) environment. However, the virtual context differs from the FtF environment on a variety of dimensions, such as the availability of status cues. The differences between…

  19. Virtual power plant mid-term dispatch optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandžić, Hrvoje; Kuzle, Igor; Capuder, Tomislav

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mid-term virtual power plant dispatching. ► Linear modeling. ► Mixed-integer linear programming applied to mid-term dispatch scheduling. ► Operation profit maximization combining bilateral contracts and the day-ahead market. -- Abstract: Wind power plants incur practically zero marginal costs during their operation. However, variable and uncertain nature of wind results in significant problems when trying to satisfy the contracted quantities of delivered electricity. For this reason, wind power plants and other non-dispatchable power sources are combined with dispatchable power sources forming a virtual power plant. This paper considers a weekly self-scheduling of a virtual power plant composed of intermittent renewable sources, storage system and a conventional power plant. On the one hand, the virtual power plant needs to fulfill its long-term bilateral contracts, while, on the other hand, it acts in the market trying to maximize its overall profit. The optimal dispatch problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming model which maximizes the weekly virtual power plant profit subject to the long-term bilateral contracts and technical constraints. The self-scheduling procedure is based on stochastic programming. The uncertainty of the wind power and solar power generation is settled by using pumped hydro storage in order to provide flexible operation, as well as by having a conventional power plant as a backup. The efficiency of the proposed model is rendered through a realistic case study and analysis of the results is provided. Additionally, the impact of different storage capacities and turbine/pump capacities of pumped storage are analyzed.

  20. Desktop Virtualization in Action: Simplicity Is Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Dustin

    2010-01-01

    Discover how your institution can better manage and increase access to instructional applications and desktops while providing a blended learning environment. Receive practical insight into how academic computing virtualization can be leveraged to enhance education at your institution while lowering Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) and reducing the…

  1. Validation of generic cost estimates for construction-related activities at nuclear power plants: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simion, G.; Sciacca, F.; Claiborne, E.; Watlington, B.; Riordan, B.; McLaughlin, M.

    1988-05-01

    This report represents a validation study of the cost methodologies and quantitative factors derived in Labor Productivity Adjustment Factors and Generic Methodology for Estimating the Labor Cost Associated with the Removal of Hardware, Materials, and Structures From Nuclear Power Plants. This cost methodology was developed to support NRC analysts in determining generic estimates of removal, installation, and total labor costs for construction-related activities at nuclear generating stations. In addition to the validation discussion, this report reviews the generic cost analysis methodology employed. It also discusses each of the individual cost factors used in estimating the costs of physical modifications at nuclear power plants. The generic estimating approach presented uses the /open quotes/greenfield/close quotes/ or new plant construction installation costs compiled in the Energy Economic Data Base (EEDB) as a baseline. These baseline costs are then adjusted to account for labor productivity, radiation fields, learning curve effects, and impacts on ancillary systems or components. For comparisons of estimated vs actual labor costs, approximately four dozen actual cost data points (as reported by 14 nuclear utilities) were obtained. Detailed background information was collected on each individual data point to give the best understanding possible so that the labor productivity factors, removal factors, etc., could judiciously be chosen. This study concludes that cost estimates that are typically within 40% of the actual values can be generated by prudently using the methodologies and cost factors investigated herein

  2. Heuristic Optimization for the Discrete Virtual Power Plant Dispatch Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Kirschmeyer; Hansen, Lars Henrik; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2014-01-01

    We consider a Virtual Power Plant, which is given the task of dispatching a fluctuating power supply to a portfolio of flexible consumers. The flexible consumers are modeled as discrete batch processes, and the associated optimization problem is denoted the Discrete Virtual Power Plant Dispatch...... Problem. First NP-completeness of the Discrete Virtual Power Plant Dispatch Problem is proved formally. We then proceed to develop tailored versions of the meta-heuristic algorithms Hill Climber and Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP). The algorithms are tuned and tested on portfolios...... of varying sizes. We find that all the tailored algorithms perform satisfactorily in the sense that they are able to find sub-optimal, but usable, solutions to very large problems (on the order of 10 5 units) at computation times on the scale of just 10 seconds, which is far beyond the capabilities...

  3. Resolution of Generic Safety Issue 29: Bolting degradation or failure in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.

    1990-06-01

    This report describes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Generic Safety Issue 29, ''Bolting Degradation or Failure in Nuclear Power Plants,'' including the bases for establishing the issue and its historical highlights. The report also describes the activities of the Atomic Industrial Forum (AIF) relevant to this issue, including its cooperation with the Materials Properties Council (MPC) to organize a task group to help resolve the issue. The Electric Power Research Institute, supported by the AIF/MPC task group, prepared and issued a two-volume document that provides, in part, the technical basis for resolving Generic Safety Issue 29. This report presents the NRC's review and evaluation of the two-volume document and NRC's conclusion that this document, in conjunction with other information from both industry and NRC, provides the bases for resolving this issue

  4. Generic dynamic wind turbine models for power system stability analysis: A comprehensive review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honrubia-Escribano, A.; Gómez-Lázaro, E.; Fortmann, J.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, international working groups, mainly from the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), have made a major effort to develop generic —also known as simplified or standard— dynamic wind turbine models to be used for power...... system stability analysis. These models are required by power system operators to conduct the planning and operation activities of their networks since the use of detailed manufacturer models is not practical. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the work done in this field, based on the results...... obtained by IEC and WECC working groups in the course of their research, which have motivated the publication of the IEC 61400-27 in February 2015. The final published versions of the generic models developed according to the existing four wind turbine technology types are detailed, highlighting...

  5. A virtual power plant model for time-driven power flow calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Guerra

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the implementation of a custom-made virtual power plant model in OpenDSS. The goal is to develop a model adequate for time-driven power flow calculations in distribution systems. The virtual power plant is modeled as the aggregation of renewable generation and energy storage connected to the distribution system through an inverter. The implemented operation mode allows the virtual power plant to act as a single dispatchable generation unit. The case studies presented in the paper demonstrate that the model behaves according to the specified control algorithm and show how it can be incorporated into the solution scheme of a general parallel genetic algorithm in order to obtain the optimal day-ahead dispatch. Simulation results exhibit a clear benefit from the deployment of a virtual power plant when compared to distributed generation based only on renewable intermittent generation.

  6. Implementation of IEC Generic Models of Type 1 Wind Turbine Generator in DIgSILENT PowerFactory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haoran ZHAO; Qiuwei WU; Ioannis MARGARIS; Poul S(O)RENSEN

    2013-01-01

    The implementation method for the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) generic models of Type 1 wind turbine generator (WTG) in DIgSILENT PowerFactory is presented.The following items are described,i.e.model structure,model blocks and how to implement these blocks in the PowerFactory environment.Case studies under both normal and fault conditions are done with the implemented IEC generic models of Type 1 WTG,and dynamic responses are captured and analyzed.The case study results show that the IEC generic models of Type 1 WTG can correctly represent the performances of Type 1 WTG under both normal and fault conditions.

  7. Offering model for a virtual power plant based on stochastic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    PandŽić, Hrvoje; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Conejo, Antonio J.

    2013-01-01

    A virtual power plant aggregates various local production/consumption units that act in the market as a single entity. This paper considers a virtual power plant consisting of an intermittent source, a storage facility, and a dispatchable power plant. The virtual power plant sells and purchases e...

  8. Development of Multi-physics (Multiphase CFD + MCNP) simulation for generic solution vessel power calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Jun [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-17

    The current study aims to predict the steady state power of a generic solution vessel and to develop a corresponding heat transfer coefficient correlation for a Moly99 production facility by conducting a fully coupled multi-physics simulation. A prediction of steady state power for the current application is inherently interconnected between thermal hydraulic characteristics (i.e. Multiphase computational fluid dynamics solved by ANSYS-Fluent 17.2) and the corresponding neutronic behavior (i.e. particle transport solved by MCNP6.2) in the solution vessel. Thus, the development of a coupling methodology is vital to understand the system behavior at a variety of system design and postulated operating scenarios. In this study, we report on the k-effective (keff) calculation for the baseline solution vessel configuration with a selected solution concentration using MCNP K-code modeling. The associated correlation of thermal properties (e.g. density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat) at the selected solution concentration are developed based on existing experimental measurements in the open literature. The numerical coupling methodology between multiphase CFD and MCNP is successfully demonstrated, and the detailed coupling procedure is documented. In addition, improved coupling methods capturing realistic physics in the solution vessel thermal-neutronic dynamics are proposed and tested further (i.e. dynamic height adjustment, mull-cell approach). As a key outcome of the current study, a multi-physics coupling methodology between MCFD and MCNP is demonstrated and tested for four different operating conditions. Those different operating conditions are determined based on the neutron source strength at a fixed geometry condition. The steady state powers for the generic solution vessel at various operating conditions are reported, and a generalized correlation of the heat transfer coefficient for the current application is discussed. The assessment of multi

  9. Abstract flexibility description for virtual power plant scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Fröhling, Judith

    2017-01-01

    In the ongoing paradigm shift of the energy market from big power plants to more and more small and decentralized power plants, virtual power plants (VPPs) play an important role. VPPs bundle the capacities of the small and decentralized resources (DER). Planing of VPP operation, that is also called scheduling, relies on the flexibilities of controllable DER in the VPP, e.g., combined heat and power plants (CHPs), heat pumps and batteries. The aim of this thesis is the development of an abstr...

  10. Bayesian methodology for generic seismic fragility evaluation of components in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Campbell, R.D.; Ravindra, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    Bayesian methodology for updating the seismic fragility of components in nuclear power plants is presented. The generic fragility data which have been evaluated based on the past SPSAs are combined with the seismic experience data. Although the seismic experience is limited to the acceleration range below the median capacity of the components, it has been found that the evidence is effective to update the fragility tail. In other words, the uncertainty of the fragility is reduced although the median capacity itself is not modified to a great extent. The annual frequency of failure is also reduced as a result of the updating of the fragility tail. The PDF of the seismic capacity is handled in discrete form, which enables the use of arbitrary type of prior distribution. Accordingly, the Log-N prior can be used which is consistent with the widely used fragility model. For evaluating posterior fragility parameters (A m and B U ), two methods have been proposed. Furthermore, it has been found that the importance of evidence used in the Bayesian methodology can be quantified by the entropy of the evidence. Only the events with high entropy need to be considered in the Bayesian updating of the fragility. The currently available seismic experience database for typical components can be utilized to develop the fragility tail which is contributive to the seismically-induced failure frequency. The combined use of generic fragility and seismic experience data, with the aid of Bayesian methodology, provides refined generic fragility curves which are useful for SPSA studies. (author)

  11. Tangible interfaces for virtual nuclear power plant control desk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghina, Mauricio Alves C.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Jorge, Carlos Alexandre F.; Lapa, Celso M.F. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nomiya, Diogo [Engenharia Eletrica (UFRJ), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cunha, Gerson G.; Landau, Luiz [Programa de Engenharia Civil (PEC/COPPE/UFRJ), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Due to the high safety requirements for nuclear power plant operation, control desks must be designed in such a way operators can take all the procedures safely, with a good overview of all variable indicators and easy access to actuator controls. Also, operators must see alarms indication in a way they can easily identify any abnormal conditions and bring the NPP back to normal operation. The ergonomics and human factors fields have helped evaluations to improve the design of nuclear power plant control systems. Lately, the use of virtual control desks have helped even more such evaluations, by integrating in one platform both nuclear power plant dynamics simulator with a high visual fidelity control desk proto typing. Operators can interact with these virtual control desks in a similar way as with real ones. Such a virtual control desk has been under development at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, IEN/CNEN. This paper reports the latest improvements, with the use of more interaction modes, to turn operation a friendlier task. An automatic speech recognition interface has been implemented as a self-contained system, by accessing directly MS Windows Application Interface, and with online neural network training for spoken commend recognition. Thus, operators can switch among different desk views. Besides this, head tracking interfaces have been integrated with the virtual control desk, to move within desk views according to users head movements. Both marker and markerless-based head tracking interfaces have been implemented. Results are shown and commented. (author)

  12. Tangible interfaces for virtual nuclear power plant control desk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghina, Mauricio Alves C.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Jorge, Carlos Alexandre F.; Lapa, Celso M.F.; Nomiya, Diogo; Cunha, Gerson G.; Landau, Luiz

    2011-01-01

    Due to the high safety requirements for nuclear power plant operation, control desks must be designed in such a way operators can take all the procedures safely, with a good overview of all variable indicators and easy access to actuator controls. Also, operators must see alarms indication in a way they can easily identify any abnormal conditions and bring the NPP back to normal operation. The ergonomics and human factors fields have helped evaluations to improve the design of nuclear power plant control systems. Lately, the use of virtual control desks have helped even more such evaluations, by integrating in one platform both nuclear power plant dynamics simulator with a high visual fidelity control desk proto typing. Operators can interact with these virtual control desks in a similar way as with real ones. Such a virtual control desk has been under development at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, IEN/CNEN. This paper reports the latest improvements, with the use of more interaction modes, to turn operation a friendlier task. An automatic speech recognition interface has been implemented as a self-contained system, by accessing directly MS Windows Application Interface, and with online neural network training for spoken commend recognition. Thus, operators can switch among different desk views. Besides this, head tracking interfaces have been integrated with the virtual control desk, to move within desk views according to users head movements. Both marker and markerless-based head tracking interfaces have been implemented. Results are shown and commented. (author)

  13. A generic multi-hazard and multi-risk framework and its application illustrated in a virtual city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignan, Arnaud; Euchner, Fabian; Wiemer, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    We present a generic framework to implement hazard correlations in multi-risk assessment strategies. We consider hazard interactions (process I), time-dependent vulnerability (process II) and time-dependent exposure (process III). Our approach is based on the Monte Carlo method to simulate a complex system, which is defined from assets exposed to a hazardous region. We generate 1-year time series, sampling from a stochastic set of events. Each time series corresponds to one risk scenario and the analysis of multiple time series allows for the probabilistic assessment of losses and for the recognition of more or less probable risk paths. Each sampled event is associated to a time of occurrence, a damage footprint and a loss footprint. The occurrence of an event depends on its rate, which is conditional on the occurrence of past events (process I, concept of correlation matrix). Damage depends on the hazard intensity and on the vulnerability of the asset, which is conditional on previous damage on that asset (process II). Losses are the product of damage and exposure value, this value being the original exposure minus previous losses (process III, no reconstruction considered). The Monte Carlo method allows for a straightforward implementation of uncertainties and for implementation of numerous interactions, which is otherwise challenging in an analytical multi-risk approach. We apply our framework to a synthetic data set, defined by a virtual city within a virtual region. This approach gives the opportunity to perform multi-risk analyses in a controlled environment while not requiring real data, which may be difficultly accessible or simply unavailable to the public. Based on the heuristic approach, we define a 100 by 100 km region where earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, fluvial floods, hurricanes and coastal floods can occur. All hazards are harmonized to a common format. We define a 20 by 20 km city, composed of 50,000 identical buildings with a fixed economic

  14. Virtual powers and virtual works in mechanics of micropolar continuous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossetie, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    The expression of virtual work and virtual powers of internal actions is established for a continuous medium where the actions are defined by fields of forces and moments. A basic formulation of the mechanical problem is thus obtained and can serve as the starting point for variational and quasi-variational formulations of these problems. This expression may be used in thermodynamic developments relating to research or constitutive laws of materials within the context of so-called hidden internal variable formulations. The principle of virtual works is given in general applied then to the classic case through a demonstration consistent with this principle and finally applied to the general case in which distributions of moments are included. The viewpoint adopted is that Euler-Cauchy. This expression will have to be accounted for in establishing thermodynamic relations regarding materials subjected to nuclear effects (irradiated materials)

  15. Knowledge-based operation guidance system for nuclear power plants based on generic task methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Naoyuki; Chandrasekaran, B.; Bhatnager, R.

    1989-01-01

    A knowledge-based system for operation guidance of nuclear power plants is proposed. The Dynamic Procedure Management System (DPMS) is designed and developed to assist human operators interactively by selecting and modifying predefined operation procedures in a dynamic situation. Unlike most operation guidance systems, DPMS has been built based on Generic Task Methodology, which makes the overall framework of the system perspicuous and also lets domain knowledge be represented in a natural way. This paper describes the organization of the system, the definition of each task, and the form and organization of knowledge, followed by an application example. (author)

  16. A generic task approach to a real time nuclear power plant fault diagnosis and advisory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, B.K.; Miller, D.W.; Bhatnagar, R.; Stasenko, J.E.; Punch, W.F. III; Yamada, N.

    1988-01-01

    A generic task toolkit developed at The Ohio State University Laboratory for Artificial Intelligence Research (LAIR) has been used in the development of an aid for operators of nuclear power plants. The toolkit consists of high level programming tools that enable knowledge to be used in accordance with its need. That is, if diagnosis is the need, a framework for performing diagnosis is provided. The operator aid provides for monitoring the conditions in the plant, detecting abnormal events, and providing the operator with guidance and advice through procedures on what path should be followed to mitigate the consequences. 8 refs., 5 figs

  17. Diagnosing component faults in a generic nuclear power plant using counterfactual and temporal reasoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehrstroem, P.; Nielsen, F.R.; Pedersen, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of main interest is the logical and epistemological aspects of diagnostic reasoning. The aim was to understand the role of conditionals and causality in this respect. A model of causal and temporal reasoning was developed and evaluated in a controlled but complex setting. The generic nuclear power plant was used as a test ground. The coherence and scope of a logical theory of diagnostic reasoning was studied in order to discover whether the theory constitutes an adequate tool for making correct diagnoses of component faults in a generic nuclear power plant. A diagnosing system based on the CIMP system was run on a computer model of a nuclear power plant, various errors were then introduced. The aim of the diagnosis is mainly explanation and only partly repair. The causal field defines a conceptual framework within which the diagnostic purpose is given and within which various diagnostic possibilities and causal relationships are given, here with regard to error detection in a control room. The causal field is tacitly given and related to the operator's training and experience. The logical aspects of the problem of the diagnosis is described. The computer model is described and the symptom language is introduced. The process of reasoning about the possible diagnosis is presented. The utilization of ideas similiar to the heuristic classification is discussed. A data base command language for manipulating lists of symptoms is described and the design of a CIMP user interface for symptom language visualization is outlined. (AB)

  18. Safety evaluation of nuclear power plant against the virtual tsunami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, S. B.; Imamura, Fumihiko

    2004-01-01

    The main scope of this study is the numerical analysis of virtual tsunami event near the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plants. In the numerical analysis, the maximum run-up height and draw-down are estimated at the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plants. The computer program developed in this study describes the propagation and associated run-up process of tsunamis by solving linear and nonlinear shallow-water equations with finite difference methods. It can be used to check the safety of a nuclear power plant against tsunami attacks. The program can also be used to calculate run-up height of wave and provide proper design criteria for coastal facilities and structures. A maximum inundation zone along the coastline can be developed by using the moving boundary condition. As a result, it is predicted that the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plants might be safe against the virtual tsunami event. Although the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plants are safe against the virtual tsunami event, the occurrence of a huge tsunami in the seismic gap should be investigated in detail. Furthermore, the possibility of nearshore tsunamis around the Korean Peninsula should also be studied and monitored continuously

  19. Microgrid Reactive and Harmonic Power Sharing Using Enhanced Virtual Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Jinwei; Wei Li, Yun; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    To address the load sharing problem in islanding microgrids, this paper proposes an improved approach which regulates the distributed generation (DG) unit interfacing virtual impedance at fundamental and selected harmonic frequencies. In contrast to the conventional virtual impedance control where...... only a line current feed-forward term is added to the DG voltage reference, the proposed virtual impedances at fundamental and harmonic frequencies are realized using DG line current and point of common coupling (PCC) voltage feed-forward terms, respectively. With this modification, the mismatched DG...... feeder impedances can be properly compensated, resulting in accurate reactive and harmonic power sharing at the same time. In addition, this paper shows that the microgrid PCC harmonic voltages can be mitigated by reducing the magnitude of DG unit equivalent harmonic impedance. Finally, an improved...

  20. Distributed continuous energy scheduling for dynamic virtual power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niesse, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents DynaSCOPE as distributed control method for continuous energy scheduling for dynamic virtual power plants (DVPP). DVPPs aggregate the flexibility of distributed energy units to address current energy markets. As an extension of the Virtual Power Plant concept they show high dynamics in aggregation and operation of energy units. Whereas operation schedules are set up for all energy units in a day-ahead planning procedure, incidents may render these schedules infeasible during execution, like deviation from prognoses or outages. Thus, a continuous scheduling process is needed to ensure product fulfillment. With DynaSCOPE, software agents representing single energy units solve this problem in a completely distributed heuristic approach. Using a stepped concept, several damping mechanisms are applied to allow minimum disturbance while continuously trying to fulfill the product as contracted at the market.

  1. Full State Feedback Control for Virtual Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jay Tillay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report presents an object-oriented implementation of full state feedback control for virtual power plants (VPP). The components of the VPP full state feedback control are (1) objectoriented high-fidelity modeling for all devices in the VPP; (2) Distribution System Distributed Quasi-Dynamic State Estimation (DS-DQSE) that enables full observability of the VPP by augmenting actual measurements with virtual, derived and pseudo measurements and performing the Quasi-Dynamic State Estimation (QSE) in a distributed manner, and (3) automated formulation of the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) in real time using the output of the DS-DQSE, and solving the distributed OPF to provide the optimal control commands to the DERs of the VPP.

  2. Implementation of IEC Generic Model of Type 1 Wind Turbine Generator in DIgSILENT PowerFactory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Margaris, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    The implementation method for the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) generic models of Type 1 wind turbine generator (WTG) in DIgSILENT PowerFactory is presented. The following items are described, i.e. model structure, model blocks and how to implement these blocks in the PowerFactory...

  3. FleetPower: Creating Virtual Power Plants in Sustainable Smart Electricity Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. Kahlen (Micha); W. Ketter (Wolfgang); A. Gupta (Alok)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractElectric vehicles have the potential to be used as virtual power plants to provide reliable back-up power. This generates additional profits for carsharing rental firms, who rent vehicles by the minute. We show this by developing a discrete event simulation platform based on real-time

  4. Implementation of draft IEC Generic Model of Type 1 Wind Turbine Generator in PowerFactory and Simulink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation work of IEC generic model of Type 1 wind turbine generator (WTG) in two commercial simulation tools: DIgSILENT PowerFactory (PF) and Matlab Simulink. The model topology, details of the composite blocks and implementation procedure in PF and Simulink environm......This paper presents the implementation work of IEC generic model of Type 1 wind turbine generator (WTG) in two commercial simulation tools: DIgSILENT PowerFactory (PF) and Matlab Simulink. The model topology, details of the composite blocks and implementation procedure in PF and Simulink...

  5. Optimization of a Virtual Power Plant to Provide Frequency Support.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Sigifredo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lave, Matthew Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Delhotal, Jarod James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Increasing the penetration of distributed renewable sources, including photovoltaic (PV) sources, poses technical challenges for grid management. The grid has been optimized over decades to rely upon large centralized power plants with well-established feedback controls, but now non-dispatchable, renewable sources are displacing these controllable generators. This one-year study was funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot program and is intended to better utilize those variable resources by providing electric utilities with the tools to implement frequency regulation and primary frequency reserves using aggregated renewable resources, known as a virtual power plant. The goal is to eventually enable the integration of 100s of Gigawatts into US power systems.

  6. Three-phase model and power-flow analysis of microgrids and virtual power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamh, M.Z.; Iravani, R. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Energy Systems Group

    2009-07-01

    A distributed energy resources (DER) unit can be a distributed generation unit, a distributed storage unit, or a hybrid of the two. It can be dispatchable, non-dispatchable or pseudo-dispatchable. A DER unit is connected to the hosting utility directly or via an electronic converter. A three-phase model and power-flow analysis of microgrids and virtual power plants was presented. The presentation discussed DER classification; microgrids and virtual power plants; motivations and goals; and a proposed DER model and power flow approach. Validation and results were also offered. The developed algorithm was implemented in the sequence-component frame using the MATLAB platform. Case studies were offered in order to verify the accuracy of the DER model and the power-flow program. It was concluded that the developed software accommodates different DER configurations and accurately reflects their control strategies. figs.

  7. AEP smart grid demo : virtual power plant simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggins, M.

    2010-01-01

    This power point presentation described a virtual power plant simulation study conducted by American Electric Power (AEP), a utility with over 5.4 million customers. The simulation study was conducted in order to enable the installation of smart meters as well as to ensure remote monitoring and control of distribution line devices and energy resources. The simulation study assessed the functionality and performance of a fully integrated smart grid using real system and device information and data. The simulations were also used to optimize power costs and plant efficiency. Energy resources simulated in the study included battery installations, photovoltaic (PV) systems, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines, hybrid electric vehicles, community energy storage systems, and wind turbines. The study also assessed the regional market structure. The impacts of various protocols and standards were assessed in order to determine control system requirement and evaluate constraints and energy efficiency targets. The simulation included regional power system, station transformers, and distribution circuit breakers. Various automation schemes were considered, as well as an integrated VAR control concept. Community energy storage unit specifications were also discussed. tabs., figs.

  8. Distributed Power System Virtual Inertia Implemented by Grid-Connected Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Jingyang; Li, Hongchang; Tang, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Renewable energy sources (RESs), e.g. wind and solar photovoltaics, have been increasingly used to meet worldwide growing energy demands and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, RESs are normally coupled to the power grid through fast-response power converters without any inertia, leading...... to decreased power system inertia. As a result, the grid frequency may easily go beyond the acceptable range under severe frequency events, resulting in undesirable load-shedding, cascading failures, or even large-scale blackouts. To address the ever-decreasing inertia issue, this paper proposes the concept...... of distributed power system virtual inertia, which can be implemented by grid-connected power converters. Without modifications of system hardware, power system inertia can be emulated by the energy stored in the dc-link capacitors of grid-connected power converters. By regulating the dc-link voltages...

  9. A PLC generic requirements and specification for safety-related applications in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jea Bok; Lee, C. K.; Lee, D. Y.

    2001-12-01

    This report presents the requirements and specification to be applied to the generic qualification of programmable Logic Controller(PLC), which is being developed as part of the KNICS project, 'Development of the Digital Reactor Safety Systems' of which purpose is the application to safety-related instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. This report defines the essential and critical characteristics that shall be included as part of a PLC design for safety-related application. The characteristics include performance, reliability, accuracy, the overall response time from an input to the PLC exceeding it trip condition to the resulting outputs, and the specification of processors and memories in digital controller. It also specifies the quality assurance process for software development, dealing with executive software, firmware, application software tools for developing the application software, and human machine interface(HMI). In addition, this report reviews the published standards and guidelines that are required for the PLC development and the quality assurance processes such as environment requirements, seismic withstand requirements, EMI/RFI withstand requirements, and isolation test

  10. Xenon-induced power oscillations in a generic small modular reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitcher, Evans Damenortey

    As world demand for energy continues to grow at unprecedented rates, the world energy portfolio of the future will inevitably include a nuclear energy contribution. It has been suggested that the Small Modular Reactor (SMR) could play a significant role in the spread of civilian nuclear technology to nations previously without nuclear energy. As part of the design process, the SMR design must be assessed for the threat to operations posed by xenon-induced power oscillations. In this research, a generic SMR design was analyzed with respect to just such a threat. In order to do so, a multi-physics coupling routine was developed with MCNP/MCNPX as the neutronics solver. Thermal hydraulic assessments were performed using a single channel analysis tool developed in Python. Fuel and coolant temperature profiles were implemented in the form of temperature dependent fuel cross sections generated using the SIGACE code and reactor core coolant densities. The Power Axial Offset (PAO) and Xenon Axial Offset (XAO) parameters were chosen to quantify any oscillatory behavior observed. The methodology was benchmarked against results from literature of startup tests performed at a four-loop PWR in Korea. The developed benchmark model replicated the pertinent features of the reactor within ten percent of the literature values. The results of the benchmark demonstrated that the developed methodology captured the desired phenomena accurately. Subsequently, a high fidelity SMR core model was developed and assessed. Results of the analysis revealed an inherently stable SMR design at beginning of core life and end of core life under full-power and half-power conditions. The effect of axial discretization, stochastic noise and convergence of the Monte Carlo tallies in the calculations of the PAO and XAO parameters was investigated. All were found to be quite small and the inherently stable nature of the core design with respect to xenon-induced power oscillations was confirmed. Finally, a

  11. Virtual Power Players Internal Negotiation and Management in MASCEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Gabriel; Pinto, Tiago; Vale, Zita

    2013-01-01

    for the management of coalitions in electricity markets. This approach is tested using the multi-agent market simulator MASCEM (Multi-Agent Simulator of Competitive Electricity Markets), taking advantage of its ability to provide the means to model and simulate Virtual Power Players (VPP). VPPs are represented......Electricity Markets are not only a new reality but an evolving one as the involved players and rules change at a relatively high rate. Multi-agent simulation combined with Artificial Intelligence techniques may result in very helpful sophisticated tools. This paper presents a new methodology...... as coalitions of agents, with the capability of negotiating both in the market and internally, with their members in order to combine and manage their individual specific characteristics and goals, with the strategy and objectives of the VPP itself. A case study using real data from the Iberian Electricity...

  12. Generic safety issues for nuclear power plants with light water reactors and measures taken for their resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    The IAEA Conference on 'The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future' in 1991 was a milestone in nuclear safety. Two of the important items addressed by this conference were ensuring and enhancing safety of operating plants and treatment of nuclear power plants built to earlier safety standards. A number of publications related to these two items issued subsequent to this conference were: A Common Basis for Judging the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants Built to Earlier Standards, INSAG-9 (1995), the IAEA Safety Guide 50-SG-O12, periodic Safety Review of Operational Nuclear Power Plants (1994) and an IAEA publication on the Safety Evaluation of Operating Nuclear Power Plants Built to Earlier Standards - A Common Basis for Judgement (1997). Some of the findings of the 1991 Conference have not yet been fully addressed. An IAEA Symposium on reviewing the Safety of Existing Nuclear Power Plants in 1996 showed that there is an urgent need for operating organizations and national authorities to review operating nuclear power plants which do not meet the high safety levels of the vast majority of plants and to undertake improvements with assistance from the international community if required. Safety reviews of operating nuclear power plants take on added importance in the context of the Convention on Nuclear safety and its implementation. The purpose of this TECDOC compilation based on broad international experience, is to assist the Member States in the reassessment of operating plants by providing a list of generic safety issues identified in nuclear power plants together with measures taken to resolve these issues. These safety issues are generic in nature with regard to light water reactors and the measures for their resolution are for use as a reference for the safety reassessment of operating plants. The TECDOC covers issues thought to be significant to Member States based on consensus process. It provides an introduction to the use of generic safety issues for

  13. A Study of Power and Individualism in Virtual Teams: Trends, Challenges, and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Deirdre

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between cultural values and effectiveness of virtual team processes. In order to render an acceptable degree of comparison, four specific team outcomes of virtual team effectiveness were aligned on Hofstede's cultural dimensions of power distance and individualism. The lack of awareness of how power and…

  14. A COMPUTATIONAL WORKBENCH ENVIRONMENT FOR VIRTUAL POWER PLANT SIMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Dave Swensen; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior

    2004-12-22

    In this report is described the work effort to develop and demonstrate a software framework to support advanced process simulations to evaluate the performance of advanced power systems. Integrated into the framework are a broad range of models, analysis tools, and visualization methods that can be used for the plant evaluation. The framework provides a tightly integrated problem-solving environment, with plug-and-play functionality, and includes a hierarchy of models, ranging from fast running process models to detailed reacting CFD models. The framework places no inherent limitations on the type of physics that can be modeled, numerical techniques, or programming languages used to implement the equipment models, or the type or amount of data that can be exchanged between models. Tools are provided to analyze simulation results at multiple levels of detail, ranging from simple tabular outputs to advanced solution visualization methods. All models and tools communicate in a seamless manner. The framework can be coupled to other software frameworks that provide different modeling capabilities. Three software frameworks were developed during the course of the project. The first framework focused on simulating the performance of the DOE Low Emissions Boiler System Proof of Concept facility, an advanced pulverized-coal combustion-based power plant. The second framework targeted simulating the performance of an Integrated coal Gasification Combined Cycle - Fuel Cell Turbine (IGCC-FCT) plant configuration. The coal gasifier models included both CFD and process models for the commercially dominant systems. Interfacing models to the framework was performed using VES-Open, and tests were performed to demonstrate interfacing CAPE-Open compliant models to the framework. The IGCC-FCT framework was subsequently extended to support Virtual Engineering concepts in which plant configurations can be constructed and interrogated in a three-dimensional, user-centered, interactive

  15. Design and Evaluation of a Secure Virtual Power Plant.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jay Tillay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    For three years, Sandia National Laboratories, Georgia Institute of Technology, and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign investigated a smart grid vision in which renewable-centric Virtual Power Plants (VPPs) provided ancillary services with interoperable distributed energy resources (DER). This team researched, designed, built, and evaluated real-time VPP designs incorporating DER forecasting, stochastic optimization, controls, and cyber security to construct a system capable of delivering reliable ancillary services, which have been traditionally provided by large power plants or other dedicated equipment. VPPs have become possible through an evolving landscape of state and national interconnection standards, which now require DER to include grid-support functionality and communications capabilities. This makes it possible for third party aggregators to provide a range of critical grid services such as voltage regulation, frequency regulation, and contingency reserves to grid operators. This paradigm (a) enables renewable energy, demand response, and energy storage to participate in grid operations and provide grid services, (b) improves grid reliability by providing additional operating reserves for utilities, independent system operators (ISOs), and regional transmission organization (RTOs), and (c) removes renewable energy high-penetration barriers by providing services with photovoltaics and wind resources that traditionally were the jobs of thermal generators. Therefore, it is believed VPP deployment will have far-reaching positive consequences for grid operations and may provide a robust pathway to high penetrations of renewables on US power systems. In this report, we design VPPs to provide a range of grid-support services and demonstrate one VPP which simultaneously provides bulk-system energy and ancillary reserves.

  16. Short-term economics of virtual power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, J.K.

    2009-08-01

    The Virtual Power Plant (VPP) has gained an increasing interest over the last few years. A VPP is a flexible representation of a portfolio of Distributed Energy Resources (DER: distributed generation, demand response and electricity storage). One of the key activities of a VPP is the delivery of (near-)real-time balancing services. In order to operate such a (near-)real-time coordination activity optimally, the VPP needs to maintain a dynamic merit-order list of all DER participating in the VPP. In order to make optimal decisions based on this list, the merit order needs to be based on the true marginal cost (or marginal benefit in case of demand response) of the individual DER units. The marginal electricity costs of most types of DER are highly dependent on local context and, hence, change over time. From analysis of the short-term bid strategies of various DER units, the existence of a bid strategy spectrum becomes clear. On one end of the spectrum, bidding strategies are based straightforwardly on true marginal cost or benefit. Further along the spectrum, optimal bidding strategies become less dependent on marginal cost levels and more on the price dynamics in the (VPP) market context. These results are relevant for VPP operations both from business and technical perspectives.

  17. Computer based virtual reality approach towards its application in an accidental emergency at nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jun; Yao Qingshan

    1999-01-01

    Virtual reality is a computer based system for creating and receiving virtual world. As an emerging branch of computer discipline, this approach is extensively expanding and widely used in variety of industries such as national defence, research, engineering, medicine and air navigation. The author intends to present the fundamentals of virtual reality, in attempt to study some interested aspects for use in nuclear power emergency planning

  18. A Virtual Engineering Framework for Simulating Advanced Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Dave Swensen; Martin Denison; Stanislav Borodai

    2008-06-18

    In this report is described the work effort performed to provide NETL with VE-Suite based Virtual Engineering software and enhanced equipment models to support NETL's Advanced Process Engineering Co-simulation (APECS) framework for advanced power generation systems. Enhancements to the software framework facilitated an important link between APECS and the virtual engineering capabilities provided by VE-Suite (e.g., equipment and process visualization, information assimilation). Model enhancements focused on improving predictions for the performance of entrained flow coal gasifiers and important auxiliary equipment (e.g., Air Separation Units) used in coal gasification systems. In addition, a Reduced Order Model generation tool and software to provide a coupling between APECS/AspenPlus and the GE GateCycle simulation system were developed. CAPE-Open model interfaces were employed where needed. The improved simulation capability is demonstrated on selected test problems. As part of the project an Advisory Panel was formed to provide guidance on the issues on which to focus the work effort. The Advisory Panel included experts from industry and academics in gasification, CO2 capture issues, process simulation and representatives from technology developers and the electric utility industry. To optimize the benefit to NETL, REI coordinated its efforts with NETL and NETL funded projects at Iowa State University, Carnegie Mellon University and ANSYS/Fluent, Inc. The improved simulation capabilities incorporated into APECS will enable researchers and engineers to better understand the interactions of different equipment components, identify weaknesses and processes needing improvement and thereby allow more efficient, less expensive plants to be developed and brought on-line faster and in a more cost-effective manner. These enhancements to APECS represent an important step toward having a fully integrated environment for performing plant simulation and engineering

  19. Research of nuclear power plant in-service maintenance based on virtual reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yong; Kuang Weijun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method of constructing nuclear power plant in-service maintenance virtual simulation scene and virtual maintenance process. Taking air baffles dismantling process of CAP1400(China Advanced Passive 1400) nuclear power plant as an instance, this paper discusses ergonomics, space analysis, time assessment based on virtual reality in the process of in-service maintenance. It demonstrates the advantage of using VR technology to design and verify in-service maintenance process of nuclear power plant compared to the conventional way. (author)

  20. High-power microwave generation from a frequency-stabilized virtual cathode source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, M.V.; Hoeberling, R.F.; Kinross-Wright, J.

    1988-01-01

    The evolution of virtual cathode based high-power microwave-source technology has been directed primarily toward achieving higher peak-power levels. As peak powers in excess of 10 GW have been reported, attention has begun to focus on techniques for producing a more frequency- and phase-stable virtual cathode source. Free-running virtual cathode microwave sources characteristically exhibit bandwidths in a single pulse of tens of percent, which makes them unsuitable for many applications such as power sources for phased array antennas and microwave linear accelerators. Presented here are results of an experimental approach utilizing a high-Q, resonant cavity surrounding the oscillating virtual cathode to achieve frequency stabilization and repeatable narrow-band operation. A cylindrical cavity resonator is used with the microwave power being extracted radially through circumferential slot apertures into L-band waveguide

  1. Remote Power Control Injection of Grid-Connected Power Converters Based on Virtual Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Fazlin Roslan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable Energy Source (RES-based power plants need to control the active and reactive power at the Point of Common Connection (PCC with the grid, in order to comply with the requirements of the Transmission System Operators (TSOs. This point is normally far away from the power converter station, and the cables and step-up transformers have a non-neglectable influence on the delivered power. In order to overcome this drawback, this paper presents a control algorithm that permits one to control remotely the power injected at the PCC, by adjusting the local controller of the Voltage Source Converters (VSCs. In this work, the synchronization with the grid is done based on the Virtual Flux (VF concept. The results reveals that the VF estimation is able to produce a reliable estimation of the grid voltage in any point of the network, and makes it possible to calculate the necessary current reference for injecting a desired active and reactive power at a point that can be some kilometres away. In this paper the main principle for this remote power control is presented. Likewise, the simulation and experimental results will be shown in order to analyse the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  2. Agent-based Integration of Complex and Heterogeneous Distributed Energy Resources in Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Umair, Aisha; Demazeau, Yves

    2017-01-01

    A Virtual Power Plant aggregates several Distributed Energy Resources in order to expose them as a single, controllable entity. This enables smaller Distributed Energy Resources to take part in Demand Response programs which traditionally only targeted larger consumers. To date, models for Virtual...

  3. RBMK nuclear power plants: Generic safety issues. A publication of the extrabudgetary programme on the safety of WWER and RBMK nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This report has been prepared on the basis of above mentioned report and it is intended to provide information on RBMK NPPs generic safety issues. As all other insights, recommendations and conclusions resulting from the IAEA Programme, this report is intended to assist national decision makers, who have sole responsibility for the regulation and safe operation of their nuclear power plants. It also serves to focus national and international projects on priority of the RBMK safety improvements. 23 refs, 10 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Generic implications of ATWS events at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant. Licensee and staff actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    This report, Volume 2 of two volumes of NUREG-1000, describes the intermediate term actions to be taken by licensees and applicants of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), on the one hand, and by NRC staff, on the other, to address the generic issues raised by two anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) at the Salem Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1, on February 22 and 25, 1983. These actions came about as a result of the findings of NUREG-1000, Volume 1, and of reviews by the NRC Committee to Review Generic Requirements, the NRC Program Offices, and the Commission. The actions to be taken by licensees and applicants have been detailed in a letter pursuant to 10 CFR 50.54(f)

  5. Interactive Virtual Reactor and Control Room for Education and Training at Universities and Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Yoshinori; Li, Ye; Zhu, Xuefeng; Rizwan, Uddin

    2014-01-01

    Efficient and effective education and training of nuclear engineering students and nuclear workers are critical for the safe operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. With an eye toward this need, we have focused on the development of 3D models of virtual labs for education, training as well as to conduct virtual experiments. These virtual labs, that are expected to supplement currently available resources, and have the potential to reduce the cost of education and training, are most easily developed on game-engine platforms. We report some recent extensions to the virtual model of the University of Illinois TRIGA reactor

  6. Interactive Virtual Reactor and Control Room for Education and Training at Universities and Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Yoshinori; Li, Ye; Zhu, Xuefeng; Rizwan, Uddin [University of Illinois, Urbana (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Efficient and effective education and training of nuclear engineering students and nuclear workers are critical for the safe operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. With an eye toward this need, we have focused on the development of 3D models of virtual labs for education, training as well as to conduct virtual experiments. These virtual labs, that are expected to supplement currently available resources, and have the potential to reduce the cost of education and training, are most easily developed on game-engine platforms. We report some recent extensions to the virtual model of the University of Illinois TRIGA reactor.

  7. An interactive cooperation model for neighboring virtual power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabanzadeh, Morteza; Sheikh-El-Eslami, Mohammad-Kazem; Haghifam, Mahmoud-Reza

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The trading strategies of a VPP in cooperation with its neighboring VPPs are addressed. •A portfolio of inter-regional contracts is considered to model this cooperation scheme. •A novel mathematical formulation for possible inadvertent transactions is provided. •A two-stage stochastic programming approach is applied to characterize the uncertainty. •Two efficient risk measures, SSD and CVaR, are implemented in the VPP decision-making problem. -- Abstract: Future distribution systems will accommodate an increasing share of distributed energy resources (DERs). Facing with this new reality, virtual power plants (VPPs) play a key role to aggregate DERs with the aim of facilitating their involvement in wholesale electricity markets. In this paper, the trading strategies of a VPP in cooperation with its neighboring VPPs are addressed. Toward this aim, a portfolio of inter-regional contracts is considered to model this cooperation and maximize the energy trade opportunities of the VPP within a medium-term horizon. To hedge against profit variability caused by market price uncertainties, two efficient risk management approaches are also implemented in the VPP decision-making problem based on the concepts of conditional value at risk (CVaR) and second-order stochastic dominance constraints (SSD). The resulting models are formulated as mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) problems that can be solved using off-the-shelf software packages. The efficiency of the proposed risk-hedging models is analyzed through a detailed case study, and thereby relevant conclusions are drawn.

  8. Virtual power plant feasibility study and funding proposal / the virtual power plant objectives, concept, components, context, business plan / objectives, activities and timelines for the VPP feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a proposal for funding a virtual power plant feasibility study. The goals of the virtual power plant are to increase the efficiency of electricity use by creating a market-driven, subsidy-free, financially sustainable mechanism to finance economic Demand Side Management (DSM) by providing a fully liquid market for saved electricity, provide a new revenue opportunity for the Local Distributing Company (LDC) and increase the use of renewable and low environmental impact, high efficiency technologies within the service area

  9. Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Main report and appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U. [and others

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volume s 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This document is Volume 1, consisting of the executive summary, summary and observations, and an appendix listing the GALL literature review tables.

  10. Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Main report and appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volumes 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This document is Volume 1, consisting of the executive summary, summary and observations, and an appendix listing the GALL literature review tables

  11. Investigation of Bose Condensation in Ideal Bose Gas Trapped under Generic Power Law Potential in d Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehedi Faruk, Mir; Sazzad Hossain, Md.; Muktadir Rahman, Md.

    2016-02-01

    The changes in characteristics of Bose condensation of ideal Bose gas due to an external generic power law potential U=\\sumi=1dci\\vert xi/ai\\vertni are studied carefully. Detailed calculation of Kim et al. (J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11 (1999) 10269) yielded the hierarchy of condensation transitions with changing fractional dimensionality. In this manuscript, some theorems regarding specific heat at constant volume CV are presented. Careful examination of these theorems reveal the existence of hidden hierarchy of the condensation transition in trapped systems as well.

  12. An islanding microgrid reactive power sharing scheme enhanced by programmed virtual impedances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Jinwei; Li, Yun Wei; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    harmonic currents. With the knowledge of feeder impedances, reactive power sharing performance can be enhanced by the regulation of DG unit output virtual impedance. The proposed method realizes accurate real and reactive power sharing in proportion to DG unit rated power. Simulated and experimental...

  13. The Optimal Dispatch of a Power System Containing Virtual Power Plants under Fog and Haze Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the growing influence of fog and haze (F-H weather and the rapid development of distributed energy resources (DERs and smart grids, the concept of the virtual power plant (VPP employed in this study would help to solve the dispatch problem caused by multiple DERs connected to the power grid. The effects of F-H weather on photovoltaic output forecast, load forecast and power system dispatch are discussed according to real case data. The wavelet neural network (WNN model was employed to predict photovoltaic output and load, considering F-H weather, based on the idea of “similar days of F-H”. The multi-objective optimal dispatch model of a power system adopted in this paper contains several VPPs and conventional power plants, under F-H weather, and the mixed integer linear programming (MILP and the Yalmip toolbox of MATLAB were adopted to solve the dispatch model. The analysis of the results from a case study proves the validity and feasibility of the model and the algorithms.

  14. Building a Generic Virtual Research Environment Framework for Multiple Earth and Space Science Domains and a Diversity of Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyborn, L. A.; Fraser, R.; Evans, B. J. K.; Friedrich, C.; Klump, J. F.; Lescinsky, D. T.

    2017-12-01

    Virtual Research Environments (VREs) are now part of academic infrastructures. Online research workflows can be orchestrated whereby data can be accessed from multiple external repositories with processing taking place on public or private clouds, and centralised supercomputers using a mixture of user codes, and well-used community software and libraries. VREs enable distributed members of research teams to actively work together to share data, models, tools, software, workflows, best practices, infrastructures, etc. These environments and their components are increasingly able to support the needs of undergraduate teaching. External to the research sector, they can also be reused by citizen scientists, and be repurposed for industry users to help accelerate the diffusion and hence enable the translation of research innovations. The Virtual Geophysics Laboratory (VGL) in Australia was started in 2012, built using a collaboration between CSIRO, the National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) and Geoscience Australia, with support funding from the Australian Government Department of Education. VGL comprises three main modules that provide an interface to enable users to first select their required data; to choose a tool to process that data; and then access compute infrastructure for execution. VGL was initially built to enable a specific set of researchers in government agencies access to specific data sets and a limited number of tools. Over the years it has evolved into a multi-purpose Earth science platform with access to an increased variety of data (e.g., Natural Hazards, Geochemistry), a broader range of software packages, and an increasing diversity of compute infrastructures. This expansion has been possible because of the approach to loosely couple data, tools and compute resources via interfaces that are built on international standards and accessed as network-enabled services wherever possible. Built originally for researchers that were not fussy about

  15. Seismic sensitivity study of a generic CANDU nuclear power plant: Soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.S.S.; Duff, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    The seismic sensitivity and capability study for a generic CANDU Plant is part of an overall development program of design standardization. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the sensitivities of structural responses and floor response spectra (FRS) to variations of structural and soil parameters. In the seismic design standardization, a wide range of soil conditions is considered and the envelopes of the resulting site spectra (soil-structure interaction effect) are then used for the design of the generic plant. The nuclear island structures considered herein have different relative stiffness and one of them has two layout/structure schemes: one is relatively flexible and the other is moderately stiff. In the preliminary phase of the seismic sensitivity study presented hereby, the soil-structure interaction seismic analysis is based on the half-space modelling (soil-spring lumped-mass) method and the response spectrum method for the seismic responses. Distinct patterns and sensitivity of the site spectrum analysis for structure schemes of different relative stiffness and for different structural elevations are observed and discussed. (orig.)

  16. A method to generate generic floor response spectra for operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curreri, J.; Costantino, C.; Subudhi, M.; Reich, M.

    1985-01-01

    A free-field earthquake response spectra was used to generate horizontal earthquake time histories. The excitation was applied through the soil and into the various structures to produce responses in equipment. An entire range of soil conditions was used with each structure, from soft soil to solid rock. Actual PWR and BWR - Mark I structural models were used as representative of a class of structures. For each model, the stiffness properties were varied, with the same mass, so as to extend the fundamental base structure natural frequency from 2 cps to 36 cps. This resulted in fundamental mode coupled natural frequencies as low as 0.86 cps and as high as 30 cps. From all of these models of soils and structures, floor response spectra were generated at each floor level. The natural frequencies of the structures were varied to obtain maximum response conditions. The actual properties were first used to locate the natural frequencies. The stiffness properties were than varied, with the same mass, to extend the range of the fundamental base structure natural frequency. The intention was to have the coupled structural material frequencies in the vicinity of the peak amplitude frequency content of the excitation spectrum. Particular attention was therefore given to the frequency band between 2 Hz and 4 Hz. A horizontal generic floor response spectra is proposed for the top level of a generic structure. Reduction factors are applied to the peak acceleration for equipment at lower levels. (orig./HP)

  17. Prototype of generic server for wind power plants using IEC 61400-25 standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Andreas K.; Ösdil, B.; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    from interfaces for control and monitoring to a standardized and secure way of handling communication. An analysis focusing on isolating the necessary requirements has been carried out based on the IEC61400-25 in order to create a generic prototype which can be used by WPP vendors. The main...... communications interface of the prototype utilizes web services and the prototype developed is comprised of several independent modules to allow for the possibility of choosing a fully customizable setup by the end user. Configuration of the system needs to be done in a simple way, ensuring a flexible...... and reusable system, where different choices for the system can be added or left out depending on user specifications. From the requirements a prototype with the purpose of examining the key aspects of these definitions has been elaborated....

  18. Method to generate generic floor response spectra for operating nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curreri, J.; Costantino, C.; Subudhi, M.; Reich, M.

    1985-01-01

    The general approach in the development of the response spectra was to study the effects on the dynamic characteristics of each of the elements in the chain of events that goes between the loads and the responses. This includes the loads, the soils and the structures. A free-field earthquake response spectra was used to generate horizontal earthquake time histories. The excitation was applied through the soil and into the various structures to produce responses in equipment. An entire range of soil conditions was used with each structure, from soft soil to solid rock. Actual PWR and BWR - Mark I structural models were used as representative of a class of structures. For each model, the stiffness properties were varied, with the same mass, so as to extend the fundamental base structure natural frequency from 2 cps to 36 cps. This resulted in fundamental mode coupled natural frequencies as low as 0.86 cps and as high as 30 cps. From all of these models of soils and structures, floor response spectra were generated at each floor level. The natural frequencies of the structures were varied to obtain maximum response conditions. The actual properties were first used to locate the natural frequencies. The stiffness properties were then varied, with the same mass, to extend the range of the fundamental base structure natural frequency. The intention was to have the coupled structural material frequencies in the vicinity of the peak amplitude frequency content of the excitation spectrum. Particular attention was therefore given to the frequency band between 2 Hz and 4 Hz. A horizontal generic floor response spectra is proposed for the top level of a generic structure. Reduction factors are applied to the peak acceleration for equipment at lower levels

  19. Competitve problems of virtual power plant sections; Wettbewerbsrechtliche Probleme virtueller Kraftwerksscheiben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesgen, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Due to dynamic price adjustment clauses 'virtual power plant sections' enable long-term contracts although the future costs of electricity production at the time of the conclusion of the contract are not predictable. Nevertheless, power plant sections gain of considerable importance due to the increasing spread in the energy industry practice. At first, the author of the book under consideration describes the different types of virtual power plant sections as well as the necessary complex economic and technical backgrounds. The competitive analysis of virtual power plant sections is the focus of this book. An orientation guide will be developed in the first part of this competitive analysis. With this it can be determined whether a virtual power plant section is qualified as a noticeable restriction of competition. The second part of this competitive analysis examines the extent to which virtual power plant sections may violate the prohibition of abuse of a market dominant position with respect to Article 102 AEUV (Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union) and ate paragraph paragraph 19 et seq. GWB (Law against the Restriction of Competition).

  20. The design of VR-CATS for power plant simulator using virtual reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. Y.; Yoo, H. J.; Lee, M. S.; Hong, J. H.; Lee, Y. K.

    2001-01-01

    In Hadong fossil power plant simulator project (1998. 1 ∼ 2000. 7), KEPRI applied virtual reality to the simulator. To provide more efficient operator training, KEPRI further developed the virtual reality technology into VR-CATS( Virtual Reality Computer Assistance Training System), a web-based multimedia training system with virtual reality technologies, in KNPEC-2 projects. By visualizing nuclear power plant system with stereoscopic 3-graphics in this project, VR-CATS enable trainee to navigate whole nuclear power plants including high radiation areas and other restricted areas. In addition, instructors can train the local operators to operate the local valves and other equipment in the local area of the plant. It aims at helping trainees understand system locations and system functions more easily. And, by reproducing main control room with stereoscopic 3-D graphics and linking it with P and ID, operating procedures, and plant components, Virtual panels maximize training effects. During the classroom training, the instructor can acess the stand-by host computer of the simulator through a network. This enables the instructor to can operate the simulator with only soft-panel. With the soft-panel, the instructor can activate any malfunction that he wants to instruct, show the trends of major parameters to the trainee and discuss with them. This desktop simulator function helps trainee to understand basic symptoms of the accidents. With CBT, operators can easily understand why some parameters are increasing or decreasing and what they should to mak the system stable. The VR-CATS for Uljin equips with much stronger and higher level virtual environment. First, all components of the virtual plant are linked with P and ID, ISO drawings, and engineering database. In addition, virtual MCR provides much immersive environment with such virtual reality equipment as HMD and data glove. Operators can also do collaboration work in the network through avatar, real

  1. Demand Response Integration Through Agent-Based Coordination of Consumers in Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Umair, Aisha; Ma, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    of industrial loads. Coordination happens in response to Demand Response events, while considering local objectives in the industrial domain. We illustrate the applicability of our approach on a Virtual Power Plant scenario with three simulated greenhouses. The results suggest that the proposed design is able...... Power Plant design that is able to balance the demand of energy-intensive, industrial loads with the supply situation in the electricity grid. The proposed Virtual Power Plant design uses a novel inter-agent, multi-objective, multi-issue negotiation mechanism, to coordinate the electricity demands...... to coordinate the electricity demands of industrial loads, in compliance with external Demand Response events....

  2. A generic miniature multi-feature programmable wireless powering headstage ASIC for implantable biomedical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubendran, Rajkumar; Krishnan, Harish; Manola, Bhupendra; John, Simon W M; Chappell, William J; Irazoqui, Pedro P

    2011-01-01

    Wireless powering holds immense promise to enable a variety of implantable biomedical measurement systems with different power supply and current budget requirements. Effective power management demands more functionality in the headstage design like power level detection for range estimation and power save modes for sleep-wake operation. This paper proposes a single chip ASIC solution that addresses these problems by incorporating digitally programmable features and thus has the potential to enable wireless powering for many implantable systems. The ASIC includes an RF rectifier which has a peak efficiency of 17.9% at 900 MHz and 11.0% at 2.4 GHz, a robust 1 V bandgap reference and LDO voltage regulator whose output can be programmed in the range of 1 V-1.5 V, and can drive upto 4 mA of load current. The input RF power level detector has a threshold of 1.6 V and the power management block can be programmed to give a 6%, 12.5% or 25% duty cycle power line to the transmitter resulting in upto 60% reduction in average power. The ASIC was fabricated using the TSMC 65 nm process, occupies 1mm(2) die area and the headstage consumes ~300 μA at 1.2V regulated supply.

  3. Smart grids : combination of 'Virtual Power Plant'-concept and 'smart network'-design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Bakari, K.; Kling, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of virtual power plant (VPP) offers a solution to control and manage higher level of dispersed generation in nowadays passive distribution network. Under certain conditions the VPP is able to displace power and energy which implies more control on the energy flow in the networks. To

  4. A Generic Role Based Access Control Model for Wind Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagarajan, Anand; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    energy sources, such as wind turbines, solar energy or wave energy. This introduces important new security challenges that are not adequately addressed by existing approaches to security in the electrical power distribution infrastructure. In this paper we examine some of the security challenges that may......The electrical power infrastructure is facing a transition from a largely centralised distribution infrastructure with a few large power plants to an increasingly distributed infrastructure that must incorporate privately owned and operated power generation units based on fuel cells or sustainable...... arise in the emerging energy distribution infrastructure. In particular, we examine the security problems that arise in the area of wind power communication infrastructures based on the IEC 61400-25 and IEC 62351 standards. These standards define ways of representing elements of the wind power...

  5. Generic safety issues for nuclear power plants with pressurized heavy water reactors and measures for their resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    be used in reassessing the safety of individual operating plants. In 1998, the IAEA completed IAEA-TECDOC-1044 entitled Generic Safety Issues for Nuclear Power Plants with Light Water Reactors and Measures Taken for their Resolution and established the associated LWRGSIDB database (Computer Manual Series No. 13). The present compilation, which is based on broad international experience, is an extension of this work to cover pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs). As in the case of LWRs, it is one element in the framework of IAEA activities to assist Member States in reassessing the safety of operating nuclear power plants. It addresses generic safety issues identified in nuclear power plants using PHWRs. In most cases, the measures taken or planned to resolve these issues are also identified. The work on this report was initiated by the Senior Regulators of Countries Operating CANDU-Type Nuclear Power Plants at one of their annual meetings. It was carried out within the framework of the IAEA's programme on National Regulatory Infrastructure for Nuclear Installation Safety and serves to enhance regulatory effectiveness through the exchange of safety related information

  6. From LCAs to simplified models: a generic methodology applied to wind power electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padey, Pierryves; Girard, Robin; le Boulch, Denis; Blanc, Isabelle

    2013-02-05

    This study presents a generic methodology to produce simplified models able to provide a comprehensive life cycle impact assessment of energy pathways. The methodology relies on the application of global sensitivity analysis to identify key parameters explaining the impact variability of systems over their life cycle. Simplified models are built upon the identification of such key parameters. The methodology is applied to one energy pathway: onshore wind turbines of medium size considering a large sample of possible configurations representative of European conditions. Among several technological, geographical, and methodological parameters, we identified the turbine load factor and the wind turbine lifetime as the most influent parameters. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) performances have been plotted as a function of these key parameters identified. Using these curves, GHG performances of a specific wind turbine can be estimated, thus avoiding the undertaking of an extensive Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This methodology should be useful for decisions makers, providing them a robust but simple support tool for assessing the environmental performance of energy systems.

  7. Generic conditional clearance for very low level active charcoal generated in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Perales, J. J.; Burgos Gallego, J.; Alvarez Mir, F.; Luis de Diego, J.; Adrada Garcia, J.

    1998-01-01

    This report proposes a generic conditional exemption to the very low level active charcoal generated in the operation of a NPP. The project has been developed in two parts: a common one (applied to the stream to be exempted) and a specific one (specific to the NPP that fulfills already the common part requirements). The common project specifies the methodology and the disposal options. It provides derived exemption levels and maximum amount of activity the exemption of which be feasible, demonstrating the viability of their conventional management. The specific project of each NPP will develop the amount of waste to be managed and other details that supplement the previous project, adjusting to the methodology and disposal options in the common project. The proposed management suggestion consists in burning the waste in a coal-burning plant and disposing of the scum in a controlled landfill. The resultant radiological dose is considered negligible according to the document Safety Series N 89 of the IAEA. The calculation of the radiological dose associated to several stages has been carried out using the IMPACTS-BRC code, contained in NUREG/CR-3585 and NUREG/5517. The methodology used in the radiological dose evaluation is as recommended in the Safety Guide n. 7.8 of the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council. (Author)

  8. Handbook for cost estimating. A method for developing estimates of costs for generic actions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.R.; Cohen, S.; Ziegler, E.Z.

    1984-10-01

    This document provides overall guidance to assist the NRC in preparing the types of cost estimates required by the Regulatory Analysis Guidelines and to assist in the assignment of priorities in resolving generic safety issues. The Handbook presents an overall cost model that allows the cost analyst to develop a chronological series of activities needed to implement a specific regulatory requirement throughout all applicable commercial LWR power plants and to identify the significant cost elements for each activity. References to available cost data are provided along with rules of thumb and cost factors to assist in evaluating each cost element. A suitable code-of-accounts data base is presented to assist in organizing and aggregating costs. Rudimentary cost analysis methods are described to allow the analyst to produce a constant-dollar, lifetime cost for the requirement. A step-by-step example cost estimate is included to demonstrate the overall use of the Handbook

  9. Virtual community centre for power wheelchair training: Experience of children and clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkia, Caryne; Ryan, Stephen E; Reid, Denise; Boissy, Patrick; Lemay, Martin; Routhier, François; Contardo, Resi; Woodhouse, Janet; Archambault, Phillipe S

    2017-11-02

    To: 1) characterize the overall experience in using the McGill immersive wheelchair - community centre (miWe-CC) simulator; and 2) investigate the experience of presence (i.e., sense of being in the virtual rather than in the real, physical environment) while driving a PW in the miWe-CC. A qualitative research design with structured interviews was used. Fifteen clinicians and 11 children were interviewed after driving a power wheelchair (PW) in the miWe-CC simulator. Data were analyzed using the conventional and directed content analysis approaches. Overall, participants enjoyed using the simulator and experienced a sense of presence in the virtual space. They felt a sense of being in the virtual environment, involved and focused on driving the virtual PW rather than on the surroundings of the actual room where they were. Participants reported several similarities between the virtual community centre layout and activities of the miWe-CC and the day-to-day reality of paediatric PW users. The simulator replicated participants' expectations of real-life PW use and promises to have an effect on improving the driving skills of new PW users. Implications for rehabilitation Among young users, the McGill immersive wheelchair (miWe) simulator provides an experience of presence within the virtual environment. This experience of presence is generated by a sense of being in the virtual scene, a sense of being involved, engaged, and focused on interacting within the virtual environment, and by the perception that the virtual environment is consistent with the real world. The miWe is a relevant and accessible approach, complementary to real world power wheelchair training for young users.

  10. Generic study on the design and operation of high power targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available With the move towards beam power in the range of 1–10 MW, a thorough understanding of the response of target materials and auxiliary systems to high power densities and intense radiation fields is required. This paper provides insight into three major aspects related to the design and operation of high power solid targets: thermal stresses, coolant performance, and radiation damage. Where appropriate, a figure-of-merit approach is followed to facilitate the comparison between different target or coolant candidates. The section on radiation damage reports total and spatial variations of displacement-per-atom and helium production levels in different target materials.

  11. The role of inmformation systems in virtual power plants; Die Rolle der Informationssysteme in virtuellen Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schloegl, F.; Rohrig, K. [Inst. fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik e.V. (ISET), Kassel (Germany); Biermann, K. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Hamburg (Germany); Frank, T. [Envidatec GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Rudion, K. [Otto-von-Guericke-Univ. Magdeburg (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Increasing penetration of electricity supply systems with information and communication technologies in combination with a growing share of distributed generation creates an abundance of information. The new challenge to information systems is to provide the user with relevant information. A virtual power plant is a cluster of distributed generation installations which are collectively run by a central control entity. A most essential part of a virtual power plant is the information system. For an efficient development of information systems it is necessary to replace the existing diversity of data formats with some few standards. Forecasts are an important component of the information system. In order to be able to control future virtual power plants it is necessary to improve the accuracy of forecasts constantly. (orig.)

  12. Generic environmental statement on the routine use of plutonium-powered cardiac pacemakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoup, R.L.; Robinson, T.W.; O'Donnell, F.R.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of a continuing program at ORNL is to provide technical assistance to the NRC on writing and editing of the final environmental statement on the routine use of nuclear-powered (primarily 238 Pu) cardiac pacemakers. This environmental statement defines the safety and reliability standards that nuclear-powered pacemakers are required to meet. All aspects of the risks to the patients, the public, and the environment are evaluated both for the routine use of plutonium-powered pacemakers and for postulated accidents involving pacemaker patients. Benefits derived from the use of plutonium-powered units are discussed and weighed against the risks in order to determine whether routine use is justified. Available alternative pacemakers with various performance characteristics are compared with respect to costs and to the needs of pacemaker patients

  13. Utilisation of real-scale renewable energy test facility for validation of generic wind turbine and wind power plant controller models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeni, Lorenzo; Gevorgian, Vahan; Wallen, Robb

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an example of application of a modern test facility conceived for experiments regarding the integration of renewable energy in the power system. The capabilities of the test facility are used to validate dynamic simulation models of wind power plants and their controllers....... The models are based on standard and generic blocks. The successful validation of events related to the control of active power (control phenomena in...

  14. Consolidating Learning in Power Systems: Virtual Reality Applied to the Study of the Operation of Electric Power Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Pebertli Nils Alho; Filho, Manoel Ribeiro; Nunes, Marcus V. Alves

    2015-01-01

    Within the field of electric power systems, the study of electrical equipment can be frustrating and demotivating because of the lack of a clear vision of how this equipment functions and operates in a real environment. The use of virtual reality can provide a more concrete representation for students, who rarely have the opportunity to visit a…

  15. Utilization of Flexible Demand in a Virtual Power Plant Set-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thavlov, Anders; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2014-01-01

    High penetration levels from renewable energy sources in large-scale power systems demand a high degree of flexibility in the transmission and distribution system. This paper presents a method for utilization of flexible demand in the low-voltage distribution system using the thermal mass...... of a building to defer power consumption from electric space heating. The power consumption for heating is controlled by an operational virtual power plant, which is sending a set point for requested power consumption to the building management system. An optimization problem is formulated...

  16. Generic environmental impact statement on handling and storage of spent light water power reactor fuel. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    Detailed appendices are included with the following titles: light water reactor fuel cycle, present practice, model 1000MW(e) coal-fired power plant, increasing fuel storage capacity, spent fuel transshipment, spent fuel generation and storage data (1976-2000), characteristics of nuclear fuel, and ''away-from-reactor'' storage concept

  17. Virtual Power Plants as a Model for the Competitiveness of Small Manufacturers and Operators of Virtual Power Plants in Markets of Electricity and Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galic, T.; Tomsic, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Production of electricity from renewable energy sources and energy-efficient power sources to be connected to the electricity distribution network is still not competitive with electricity production from conventional sources of electricity. A powerful technological development of distributed energy sources and technologies for electricity storage has reduced their production costs, production costs of electricity from distributed energy sources, the costs of simultaneous production of electricity and thermal energy from cogeneration distributed energy sources and thus has facilitated their increased use in practice. It also allows them to interconnect systems such as virtual power plants in order to achieve full economic feasibility of their use. Current electricity and gas customers, now also in the role of small power producers, interconnected by virtual power plants operators, in addition to buying electricity and gas on retail markets for electricity and gas, will be able to sell electricity and new energy services also on wholesale electricity markets. Development and application of new distributed technologies will enable the production of new quantities of electricity which will increase the competitiveness of electricity producers, competitiveness of electricity suppliers of end-customers and elasticity of supply and demand in the electricity market. These processes will also increase the efficiency of the entire systems of electricity supply and of the gas supply systems.(author)

  18. Control of heavy loads at nuclear power plants: Resolution of Generic Technical Activity A-36. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, H.J.

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes work performed by the NRC staff in the resolution of Generic Technical Activity A-36, Control of Heavy Loads Near Spent Fuel. Generic Technical Activity A-36 is one of the generic technical subjects designated as unresolved safety issues pursuant to Section 210 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974. The report describes the technical studies and evaluations performed by the NRC staff, the staff's guidelines based on these studies, and the staff's plans for implementaton of its technical guidelines

  19. Simultaneous Imbalance Reduction and Peak Shaving using a Field Operational Virtual Power Plant with Pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruissen, O.P. van; Kok, J.K.; Eisma, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch electricity infrastructure is challenged by the deployment of large numbers of heat pumps in newly-built domestic residences. An example is the apartment complex of Couperus in The Hague where 300 apartments are heated by individual heat pumps. This building was operated as a Virtual Power

  20. Virtual Power Plants of Electric Vehicles in Sustainable Smart Electricity Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. Kahlen (Micha)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe batteries of electric vehicles can be used as Virtual Power Plants to balance out frequency deviations in the electricity grid. Carsharing fleet owners have the options to charge an electric vehicle's battery, discharge an electric vehicle's battery, or keep an electric vehicle

  1. Virtual Power Plant and Microgrids controller for Energy Management based on optimization techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher G. M. Abdolrasol

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss virtual power plant (VPP and Microgrid controller for energy management system (EMS based on optimization techniques by using two optimization techniques namely Backtracking search algorithm (BSA and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO. The research proposes use of multi Microgrid in the distribution networks to aggregate the power form distribution generation and form it into single Microgrid and let these Microgrid deal directly with the central organizer called virtual power plant. VPP duties are price forecast, demand forecast, weather forecast, production forecast, shedding loads, make intelligent decision and for aggregate & optimizes the data. This huge system has been tested and simulated by using Matlab simulink. These paper shows optimizations of two methods were really significant in the results. But BSA is better than PSO to search for better parameters which could make more power saving as in the results and the discussion.

  2. Virtual power plants in energy industry law. Possible manifestations and from them resulting legal questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlbrandt, Lea Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Although cogeneration plants are operated with fossil fuels are not quite as environmentally friendly as EEG systems they have a much more favorable effect due to their high efficiency climate as conventional power plants. In the future this could can even improve with the aid of fuel cell technology. Therefore, they play for the transition to a safe and secure more efficient power supply conditions for a merger of cogeneration plants overall favorable, in particular because that no influence on the or the emission trading obligation of the plant operators has. However, the complete elimination of avoided network charges could be counterproductive. Just virtual power plants of cogeneration plants have an effect on a feed-in that the grid not charged, so fees for a decentralized feed in these cases can be justified. Also the development of cogeneration development within the framework of the newly introduced calls will have a major impact on the development of virtual power stations. [de

  3. Use of virtual environments to reduce the construction costs of the next generation nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whisker, V.E.; Baratta, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The near term deployment of the next generation of reactors will only be successful if they are built on time and without the costly overruns experienced in the previous generation. One critical factor in achieving these goals is to ensure the design is optimized for constructability. In this work the authors explored the effectiveness of full-scale virtual reality simulation in the optimization of the design and construction of the next generation of nuclear reactors. The research tested the suitability of immersive virtual reality display technology in aiding engineers in evaluating potential cost reductions that can be realized by the optimization of design and installation and construction sequences. The intent of this research is to see if this type of technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups and desktop simulations. Using a fully-immersive five sided virtual reality system, known as a CAVE, the authors constructed a series of virtual mockups that represented two next generation nuclear power plants, the Westinghouse AP-1000 and the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). These virtual mockups were then tested as a design tool to help locate and correct problem areas, to optimize the construction sequence, and to assist with familiarizing trades people with the performance of maintenance activities. A series of experiments were performed to assess the usefulness of these virtual mockups in accomplishing these tasks. (authors)

  4. Generic Combined Heat and Power (CHP Model for the Concept Phase of Energy Planning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Gopisetty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro gas turbines (MGTs are regarded as combined heat and power (CHP units which offer high fuel utilization and low emissions. They are applied in decentralized energy generation. To facilitate the planning process of energy systems, namely in the context of the increasing application of optimization techniques, there is a need for easy-to-parametrize component models with sufficient accuracy which allow a fast computation. In this paper, a model is proposed where the non-linear part load characteristics of the MGT are linearized by means of physical insight of the working principles of turbomachinery. Further, it is shown that the model can be parametrized by the data usually available in spec sheets. With this model a uniform description of MGTs from several manufacturers covering an electrical power range from 30 k W to 333 k W can be obtained. The MGT model was implemented by means of Modelica/Dymola. The resulting MGT system model, comprising further heat exchangers and hydraulic components, was validated using the experimental data of a 65 k W MGT from a trigeneration energy system.

  5. Virtual Generation (Energy Efficiency) The Cheapest Source For Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasnie, Sohail

    2010-09-15

    Energy efficiency is the cheapest source of energy that has escaped the minds of the politicians in the developing countries. This paper argues for large scale utility led end use efficiency programs in a new paradigm, where 1 million efficient light bulbs is synonymous to a 50 MW power station that costs only 2% of the traditional fossil fuel power station and zero maintenance. Bulk procurement, setting up new standards and generation of certified emissions reduction is part of this strategy. It discusses implementation of a $20 million pilot in the Philippines supported by the Asian Development Bank.

  6. Generic Advantages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Generic Advantages. Scalability an incremental coverage. Standardization. Business Plan Flexibility. Lifecycle Flexibility. Reliability. Service Interoperability. Changed Industry dynamics.

  7. Microgrids, virtual power plants and our distributed energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmus, Peter

    2010-12-15

    Opportunities for VPPs and microgrids will only increase dramatically with time, as the traditional system of building larger and larger centralized and polluting power plants by utilities charging a regulated rate of return fades. The key questions are: how soon will these new business models thrive - and who will be in the driver's seat? (author)

  8. Modified enforcement policy relating to 10 CFR 50.49, ''Environmental qualification of electrical equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants'' (Generic Letter 88-07)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miraglia, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    Generic Letters, Bulletins, and Information Notices have been issued to provide guidance regarding the application and enforcement of 10 CFR 50.49, ''Environmental Qualification of Electric Equipment Important to Safety for Nuclear Power Plants.'' Generic Letter 85-15, issued August 6, 1985, and Generic Letter 86-15, issued September 22, 1986, provided information related to the deadlines for compliance with 10 CFR 50.49 and possible civil penalties applicable to licensees who were not in compliance with the rule as of the November 30, 1985 deadline. Upon review, the Commission found that the EQ Enforcement Policy promulgated in Generic Letter 86-15, could result in imposition of civil penalties that did not properly reflect the safety significance of EQ violations with respect to civil penalties imposed in the past. In the interest of continuing a tough but fair enforcement policy, the Commission determined that the EQ Enforcement Policy should be revised. The purpose of this letter is to provide a modification to the NRC's enforcement policy, as approved by the Commission, for environmental qualification (EQ) violations. This letter replaces the guidance provided in Generic Letters 85-15 and 86-15

  9. The virtual digital nuclear power plant: A modern tool for supporting the lifecycle of VVER-based nuclear power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkadov, G. V.; Zhukavin, A. P.; Kroshilin, A. E.; Parshikov, I. A.; Solov'ev, S. L.; Shishov, A. V.

    2014-10-01

    The article describes the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based Nuclear Power Plant" computerized system comprising a totality of verified initial data (sets of input data for a model intended for describing the behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) systems in design and emergency modes of their operation) and a unified system of new-generation computation codes intended for carrying out coordinated computation of the variety of physical processes in the reactor core and NPP equipment. Experiments with the demonstration version of the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based NPP" computerized system has shown that it is in principle possible to set up a unified system of computation codes in a common software environment for carrying out interconnected calculations of various physical phenomena at NPPs constructed according to the standard AES-2006 project. With the full-scale version of the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based NPP" computerized system put in operation, the concerned engineering, design, construction, and operating organizations will have access to all necessary information relating to the NPP power unit project throughout its entire lifecycle. The domestically developed commercial-grade software product set to operate as an independently operating application to the project will bring about additional competitive advantages in the modern market of nuclear power technologies.

  10. Enhanced power sharing in microgrids using the modified droop and virtual line impedance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghasafari, M.A.; Lopes, L.A.C.; Williamson, S. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Power Electronics and Energy Research Group

    2009-06-15

    The microgrid is the local electricity network which connects several distributed energy systems. This paper proposed a control strategy which provided better power sharing than that of other control systems with low sensibility to the line unbalances, with fast and non-oscillatory responses. These distributed sources (which can include solar panels) were connected together using inverters in a low voltage microgrid. Power equations of the system were considered and presented from the droop strategy point of view and the importance of including virtual impedances in the control system was considered. The performance of the system was verified by means of simulations. Several illustrations and graphs were presented, including a simplified power stage of the system; power sharing variations by change in the first source voltage phase; power sharing variations as the first source voltage magnitude changes; power sharing variations by change in the system steady state frequency; and apparent power changes by change in the system steady state frequency. The control system and its levels was also illustrated including its four levels, namely an inverter current control loop; inverter voltage control loop; virtual resistance loop; and droop control loop. It was concluded that the control scheme for isolated microgrids yielded good speed, power sharing, and efficiency with small transient oscillations. The system could make good power sharing insensitive to the line unbalance. 8 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  11. Research on multi - channel interactive virtual assembly system for power equipment under the “VR+” era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yilong; Duan, Xitong; Wu, Lei; He, Jin; Xu, Wu

    2017-06-01

    With the development of the “VR+” era, the traditional virtual assembly system of power equipment has been unable to satisfy our growing needs. In this paper, based on the analysis of the traditional virtual assembly system of electric power equipment and the application of VR technology in the virtual assembly system of electric power equipment in our country, this paper puts forward the scheme of establishing the virtual assembly system of power equipment: At first, we should obtain the information of power equipment, then we should using OpenGL and multi texture technology to build 3D solid graphics library. After the completion of three-dimensional modeling, we can use the dynamic link library DLL package three-dimensional solid graphics generation program to realize the modularization of power equipment model library and power equipment model library generated hidden algorithm. After the establishment of 3D power equipment model database, we set up the virtual assembly system of 3D power equipment to separate the assembly operation of the power equipment from the space. At the same time, aiming at the deficiency of the traditional gesture recognition algorithm, we propose a gesture recognition algorithm based on improved PSO algorithm for BP neural network data glove. Finally, the virtual assembly system of power equipment can really achieve multi-channel interaction function.

  12. Intelligent Energy Management System for Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braun, Philipp

    demonstrated to be suitable storage technologies that have been integrated in power systems worldwide in recent years. Such storage systems are underlying a fast development track and have improved over the past decades considerably. This makes an increase in the number of VPPs more likely in future. Potential...... investors in VPPs face several questions before and after an investment decision for a specific BESS is made. This work addresses the following questions: 1. Is a VPP a profitable investment and if so, which technology or combination of different technologies of BESSs and which size should be purchased? 2...... questions depending on the input parameters provided to the model. The model focuses on the BESS including capacity fade which is a battery specific property. It determines the performance, live-time, and - most important - the annualized costs of the BESS. Modeling capacity fade opens up the possibility...

  13. Interrater Reliability of the Power Mobility Road Test in the Virtual Reality-Based Simulator-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, Deepan C; Dicianno, Brad E; Mahajan, Harshal P; Buhari, Alhaji M; Cooper, Rory A

    2016-07-01

    To assess interrater reliability of the Power Mobility Road Test (PMRT) when administered through the Virtual Reality-based SIMulator-version 2 (VRSIM-2). Within-subjects repeated-measures design. Participants interacted with VRSIM-2 through 2 display options (desktop monitor vs immersive virtual reality screens) using 2 control interfaces (roller system vs conventional movement-sensing joystick), providing 4 different driving scenarios (driving conditions 1-4). Participants performed 3 virtual driving sessions for each of the 2 display screens and 1 session through a real-world driving course (driving condition 5). The virtual PMRT was conducted in a simulated indoor office space, and an equivalent course was charted in an open space for the real-world assessment. After every change in driving condition, participants completed a self-reported workload assessment questionnaire, the Task Load Index, developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A convenience sample of electric-powered wheelchair (EPW) athletes (N=21) recruited at the 31st National Veterans Wheelchair Games. Not applicable. Total composite PMRT score. The PMRT had high interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]>.75) between the 2 raters in all 5 driving conditions. Post hoc analyses revealed that the reliability analyses had >80% power to detect high ICCs in driving conditions 1 and 4. The PMRT has high interrater reliability in conditions 1 and 4 and could be used to assess EPW driving performance virtually in VRSIM-2. However, further psychometric assessment is necessary to assess the feasibility of administering the PMRT using the different interfaces of VRSIM-2. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Virtual Constraint Control of a Powered Prosthetic Leg: From Simulation to Experiments with Transfemoral Amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Robert D; Lenzi, Tommaso; Hargrove, Levi J; Sensinger, Jonathon W

    2014-12-01

    Recent powered (or robotic) prosthetic legs independently control different joints and time periods of the gait cycle, resulting in control parameters and switching rules that can be difficult to tune by clinicians. This challenge might be addressed by a unifying control model used by recent bipedal robots, in which virtual constraints define joint patterns as functions of a monotonic variable that continuously represents the gait cycle phase. In the first application of virtual constraints to amputee locomotion, this paper derives exact and approximate control laws for a partial feedback linearization to enforce virtual constraints on a prosthetic leg. We then encode a human-inspired invariance property called effective shape into virtual constraints for the stance period. After simulating the robustness of the partial feedback linearization to clinically meaningful conditions, we experimentally implement this control strategy on a powered transfemoral leg. We report the results of three amputee subjects walking overground and at variable cadences on a treadmill, demonstrating the clinical viability of this novel control approach.

  15. A COMPUTATIONAL WORKBENCH ENVIRONMENT FOR VIRTUAL POWER PLANT SIMULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mike Bockelie; Dave Swensen; Martin Denison

    2002-01-01

    This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT41047. The goal of the project is to develop and demonstrate a computational workbench for simulating the performance of Vision 21 Power Plant Systems. Within the last quarter, our efforts have become focused on developing an improved workbench for simulating a gasifier based Vision 21 energyplex. To provide for interoperability of models developed under Vision 21 and other DOE programs, discussions have been held with DOE and other organizations developing plant simulator tools to review the possibility of establishing a common software interface or protocol to use when developing component models. A component model that employs the CCA protocol has successfully been interfaced to our CCA enabled workbench. To investigate the software protocol issue, DOE has selected a gasifier based Vision 21 energyplex configuration for use in testing and evaluating the impacts of different software interface methods. A Memo of Understanding with the Cooperative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development (CCSD) in Australia has been completed that will enable collaborative research efforts on gasification issues. Preliminary results have been obtained for a CFD model of a pilot scale, entrained flow gasifier. A paper was presented at the Vision 21 Program Review Meeting at NETL (Morgantown) that summarized our accomplishments for Year One and plans for Year Two and Year Three

  16. Applying machine learning techniques for forecasting flexibility of virtual power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDougall, Pamela; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2016-01-01

    network as well as the multi-variant linear regression. It is found that it is possible to estimate the longevity of flexibility with machine learning. The linear regression algorithm is, on average, able to estimate the longevity with a 15% error. However, there was a significant improvement with the ANN...... approach to investigating the longevity of aggregated response of a virtual power plant using historic bidding and aggregated behaviour with machine learning techniques. The two supervised machine learning techniques investigated and compared in this paper are, multivariate linear regression and single...... algorithm achieving, on average, a 5.3% error. This is lowered 2.4% when learning for the same virtual power plant. With this information it would be possible to accurately offer residential VPP flexibility for market operations to safely avoid causing further imbalances and financial penalties....

  17. Simulation of Digital Control Computer of Nuclear Power Plant Based on Virtual Machine Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Xue Yan; Li, Shu; Li, Qing

    2011-01-01

    Based on analyzing DCC (Digital Control Computer) instruction sets, memory map, display controllers and I/O system, virtual machine of DCC (abbr. VM DCC) has been developed. The executive and control programs, same as running on NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) unit's DCC, can run on the VM DCC smoothly and get same control results. Dual VM DCC system has been successfully applied in NPP FSS(Full Scope Simulator) training. It not only improves FSS's fidelity but also makes maintaining easier

  18. Virtual Refrigerant Mass Flow and Power Sensors for Variable-Speed Compressors

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Woohyun; Braun, James E.

    2012-01-01

    The use of variable-speed compressors in heat pumps and air conditioners has increased in recent years in order to improve comfort and energy efficiency. At the same time, there is a trend towards embedding more sensors in this type of equipment to facilitate real-time energy monitoring and diagnostics. Although compressor mass flow rate and power consumption are useful indices for performance monitoring and diagnostics, they are expensive to measure. The virtual variable-speed compressor sen...

  19. Introduction of virtual detectors for core monitoring system of korean standard nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, Ki Lee.; Yong, Hee Kim.; Jybe, Ho Cha.; Moon, Ghu Park.

    2000-01-01

    A novel algorithm known as the virtual detector method (VDM) is introduced to reconstruct the axial power shape (APS) for the on-line core monitoring system of the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP). A pure statistical method (SM) is also introduced and the results are compared with the currently implemented five-mode Fourier fitting method (FFM). VDM adopts nine virtual detector informations coupled with a regression model based on the Alternating Conditional Expectation (ACE) algorithm. VDM uses Fourier fitting with the information of nine virtual detectors expanded from the currently implemented FFM, which uses five-level detector information. By introducing virtual detectors, we can increase the number of axial detectors, and thus expect the computational errors of APS to be reduced. The two methods (SM and VDM) are applied to in-core mapping data from six cycles of Yong Gwang nuclear power plant Units 3 and 4. For ∼ 3500 cases of APSs extracted from a cycle of operation which is simulated by a three-dimensional nodal code, the accuracy of the three methods (SM, VDM, FFM) is compared. The average root mean square (RMS) error and average of axial peaking error of SM and VDM resulted in reduction of more than 50 % and 70 %, respectively, relative to FFM. VDM and SM also show more realistic axial profiles and predict more accurate axial peaking than FFM. These improvements can contribute to a larger thermal margin. SM shows the most accurate results for all cases. VDM can almost obtain the same results as SM, and using far fewer computation steps. VDM can be a useful tool for precisely reconstructing axial power shapes in a core monitoring system. (authors)

  20. Developing Virtual Power Plant for Optimized Distributed Energy Resources Operation and Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi

    Distributed Energy Resources (DER) are small-scale power generation and storage technologies, (typically in the range of a few kWe to tens of kWe) located close to the customer side. They are right now under heavy development and have a great market potential in the near future. However, these so......Distributed Energy Resources (DER) are small-scale power generation and storage technologies, (typically in the range of a few kWe to tens of kWe) located close to the customer side. They are right now under heavy development and have a great market potential in the near future. However...... units in the electric power system  Efficient electricity market participation to benefit both power system operation and DER owners To address these issues, an innovative concept Virtual Power Plant (VPP) is investigated in this PhD study. Based on a comprehensive overview of the state of the art...

  1. An accurate reactive power control study in virtual flux droop control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aimeng; Zhang, Jia

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the problem of reactive power sharing based on virtual flux droop method. Firstly, flux droop control method is derived, where complicated multiple feedback loops and parameter regulation are avoided. Then, the reasons for inaccurate reactive power sharing are theoretically analyzed. Further, a novel reactive power control scheme is proposed which consists of three parts: compensation control, voltage recovery control and flux droop control. Finally, the proposed reactive power control strategy is verified in a simplified microgrid model with two parallel DGs. The simulation results show that the proposed control scheme can achieve accurate reactive power sharing and zero deviation of voltage. Meanwhile, it has some advantages of simple control and excellent dynamic and static performance.

  2. Is micro-CHP price controllable under price signal controlled Virtual Power Plants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    As micro-combined heat and power (micro-CHP) systems move towards mass deployment together with other kinds of distributed energy resources (DER), an increasing emphasis has been placed on how to coordinate such a large diversified DER portfolio in an efficient way by the Virtual Power Plant (VPP...... for three different micro-CHP systems to investigate the feasibility of being controlled by price. Such analysis is relevant for both controller designs for micro-CHP systems and VPP related operations. The results indicate that controlling the micro-CHP systems by price is feasible but could result...

  3. Distributed generation and demand response dispatch for a virtual power player energy and reserve provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria, Pedro; Soares, Tiago; Vale, Zita

    2014-01-01

    Recent changes in the operation and planning of power systems have been motivated by the introduction of Distributed Generation (DG) and Demand Response (DR) in the competitive electricity markets’ environment, with deep concerns at the efficiency level. In this context, grid operators, market...... proposes a methodology which considers the joint dispatch of demand response and distributed generation in the context of a distribution network operated by a virtual power player. The resources’ participation can be performed in both energy and reserve contexts. This methodology contemplates...

  4. Power Flow Analysis for Low-Voltage AC and DC Microgrids Considering Droop Control and Virtual Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    In the low-voltage (LV) ac microgrids (MGs), with a relatively high R/X ratio, virtual impedance is usually adopted to improve the performance of droop control applied to distributed generators (DGs). At the same time, LV dc MG using virtual impedance as droop control is emerging without adequate...... power flow studies. In this paper, power flow analyses for both ac and dc MGs are formulated and implemented. The mathematical models for both types of MGs considering the concept of virtual impedance are used to be in conformity with the practical control of the DGs. As a result, calculation accuracy...... is improved for both ac and dc MG power flow analyses, comparing with previous methods without considering virtual impedance. Case studies are conducted to verify the proposed power flow analyses in terms of convergence and accuracy. Investigation of the impact to the system of internal control parameters...

  5. Assessment of generic solar thermal systems for large power applications: analysis of electric power generating costs for systems larger than 10 MWe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apley, W.J.; Bird, S.P.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.; Fort, J.A.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Patton, W.P.; Williams, T.A.

    1980-11-01

    Seven generic types of collectors, together with associated subsystems for electric power generation, were considered. The collectors can be classified into three categories: (1) two-axis tracking (with compound-curvature reflecting surfaces); (2) one-axis tracking (with single-curvature reflecting surfaces); and (3) nontracking (with low-concentration reflecting surfaces). All seven collectors were analyzed in conceptual system configurations with Rankine-cycle engines. In addition, two of the collectors were analyzed with Brayton-cycle engines, and one was analyzed with a Stirling-cycle engine. With these engine options, and the consideration of both thermal and electrical storage for the Brayton-cycle central receiver, 11 systems were formulated for analysis. Conceptual designs developed for the 11 systems were based on common assumptions of available technology in the 1990 to 2000 time frame. No attempt was made to perform a detailed optimization of each conceptual design. Rather, designs best suited for a comparative evaluation of the concepts were formulated. Costs were estimated on the basis of identical assumptions, ground rules, methodologies, and unit costs of materials and labor applied uniformly to all of the concepts. The computer code SOLSTEP was used to analyze the thermodynamic performance characteristics and energy costs of the 11 concepts. Year-long simulations were performed using meteorological and insolation data for Barstow, California. Results for each concept include levelized energy costs and capacity factors for various combinations of storage capacity and collector field size.

  6. Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement. Handling and storage of spent light water power reactor fuel. Volume 1. Executive summary and text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    The Generic Environmental Impact Statement on spent fuel storage was prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff in response to a directive from the Commissioners published in the Federal Register, September 16, 1975 (40 FR 42801). The Commission directed the staff to analyze alternatives for the handling and storage of spent light water power reactor fuel with particular emphasis on developing long range policy. Accordingly, the scope of this statement examines alternative methods of spent fuel storage as well as the possible restriction or termination of the generation of spent fuel through nuclear power plant shutdown. Volume 1 includes the executive summary and the text

  7. Virtual instrument for controlling and monitoring digitalized power supply in SSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Junlong; Chen Huanguang; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Xu Ruinian; Shen Tianjian; Li Deming

    2006-01-01

    The Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) needs extremely precise power supplies for their various magnets. A digital controller is being developed for the power converters of the SSRF power supply (PS). In the digital controller, a fully digital pulse-width modulator (PWM) directly controls the power unit insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) of the PS. A program in LabVIEW language has been developed to control and monitor the digital PS via serial communication (RS232) from a PC and to modify its parameters as well. In this article, the software design of the virtual instrument for controlling and monitoring digitalized PS and its associated functions are described, and the essential elements of the program graphical main-VI and sub-VI source code are presented and explained. The communication protocol and the structure of the developed system are also included in this article. (authors)

  8. Joint Scheduling Optimization of Virtual Power Plants and Equitable Profit Distribution Using Shapely Value Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-fu Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The installation capacity of wind and solar photovoltaic power is continually increasing, which makes renewable energy grid connection and power generation an important link of China’s power structure optimization. A virtual power plant (VPP is an important way to help distributed energy resource grid connection and promote renewable energy industry development. To study the economic scheduling problem of various distributed energy resources and the profit distribution problem of VPP alliance, this study builds a separate operation scheduling model for individual VPP and a joint operation scheduling model for VPP alliance, as well as the profit distribution model. The case study verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model. The sensitivity analysis provides information about VPP decision-making in accordance with the policy environment development trend.

  9. Virtual inertia for variable speed wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeni, Lorenzo; Rudolph, Andreas Jakob; Münster-Swendsen, Janus

    2013-01-01

    electronic converter and on its impact on the primary frequency response of a power system. An additional control for the power electronics is implemented to give VSWTs a virtual inertia, referring to the kinetic energy stored in the rotating masses, which can be released initially to support the system......’s inertia. A simple Matlab/Simulink model and control of a VSWT and of a generic power system are developed to analyse the primary frequency response following different generation losses in a system comprising VSWTs provided with virtual inertia. The possibility of substituting a 50% share of conventional...... power with wind is also assessed and investigated. The intrinsic problems related to the implementation of virtual inertia are illustrated, addressing their origin in the action of pitch and power control. A solution is proposed, which aims at obtaining the same response as for the system with only...

  10. The Optimal Configuration Scheme of the Virtual Power Plant Considering Benefits and Risks of Investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmin Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A virtual power plant (VPP is a special virtual unit that integrates various distributed energy resources (DERs distributed in the generation and consumption sides. The optimal configuration scheme of the VPP needs to break the geographical restrictions to make full use of DERs, considering the uncertainties. First, the components of the DERs and the structure of the VPP are briefly introduced. Next, the cubic exponential smoothing method is adopted to predict the VPP load requirement. Finally, the optimal configuration of the DER capacities inside the VPP is calculated by using portfolio theory and genetic algorithms (GA. The results show that the configuration scheme can optimize the DER capacities considering uncertainties, guaranteeing economic benefits of investors, and fully utilizing the DERs. Therefore, this paper provides a feasible reference for the optimal configuration scheme of the VPP from the perspective of investors.

  11. Modeling of power train by applying the virtual prototype concept; Kaso genkei ni yoru power train no model ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiramatsu, S; Harada, Y; Arakawa, H; Komori, S [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Sumida, S [U-Shin Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    This paper describes the simulation of power train that includes the model developed by applying the virtual prototype concept. By this concept, subsystem models which consist of functional model and mechanism models are integrated into a total system model. This peculiarity in architecture of model, which is called the hierarchical structure, enables us to model a system of large scale with many units, systems and parts easily. Two kinds of computer simulations are performed. One is engine revolution fluctuation by accessory load input, and the other is changing gears by automatic transmission. They are verified to have sufficient accuracy. 2 refs., 12 figs.

  12. Risk averse optimal operation of a virtual power plant using two stage stochastic programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajeddini, Mohammad Amin; Rahimi-Kian, Ashkan; Soroudi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    VPP (Virtual Power Plant) is defined as a cluster of energy conversion/storage units which are centrally operated in order to improve the technical and economic performance. This paper addresses the optimal operation of a VPP considering the risk factors affecting its daily operation profits. The optimal operation is modelled in both day ahead and balancing markets as a two-stage stochastic mixed integer linear programming in order to maximize a GenCo (generation companies) expected profit. Furthermore, the CVaR (Conditional Value at Risk) is used as a risk measure technique in order to control the risk of low profit scenarios. The uncertain parameters, including the PV power output, wind power output and day-ahead market prices are modelled through scenarios. The proposed model is successfully applied to a real case study to show its applicability and the results are presented and thoroughly discussed. - Highlights: • Virtual power plant modelling considering a set of energy generating and conversion units. • Uncertainty modelling using two stage stochastic programming technique. • Risk modelling using conditional value at risk. • Flexible operation of renewable energy resources. • Electricity price uncertainty in day ahead energy markets

  13. Development of a virtual power market model to investigate strategic and collusive behavior of market players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafie-khah, Miadreza; Parsa Moghaddam, Mohsen; Sheikh-El-Eslami, Mohamad Kazem

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a virtual power market model is proposed to investigate the behavior of power market players from regulator's point of view. In this approach, strategic players are modeled in a multi-agent environment. These agents which are virtual representative of actual players forecast the prices and participate in the markets, exactly the same as real world situation. In addition, the role of ISO is encountered by using security constraint unit commitment (SCUC) and security constraint economic dispatch (SCED) solutions. Moreover, the interaction between market players is modeled using a heuristic dynamic game theory algorithm based on the supply function equilibria (SFE). In addition to the collusive behavior, using the proposed model, the short-term strategic behavior of players, which their effects will appear in long-term, can be simulated. The proposed model enables the market regulators to make decision before implementing new market rules with the confidence of their results. To represent the effectiveness of the proposed method, a case study including wind power plants is considered and the impact of various market rules on players’ behavior is simulated and discussed. Numerical studies indicate that simulating the strategic and collusive behavior prior to any change in the market rules is necessary. - Highlights: • A virtual power market model is proposed using a heuristic dynamic game theory. • The proposed model can simulate the behavior of market players in a certain period. • This model can evaluate the oligopoly, collusive and strategic behavior of players. • The price uncertainty and security constraint are considered. • Neglecting strategic behavior of players can cause adverse consequences

  14. FDS simulation of the fuel fireball from a hypothetical commercial airliner crash on a generic nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, Wolfgang [GRS, Forschungsinstitute, Garching (Germany); Mueller, W. Christoph [GRS, Forschungsinstitute, Garching (Germany)], E-mail: mur@grs.de

    2009-10-15

    In the aftermath of 9/11 events it became clear that the impact of a fast flying commercial airliner hitting the NPP could no longer be excluded as a potential external hazard threatening the nuclear power plant (NPP) safety. One of the potential consequences of the impact is the occurrence of a fireball, large enough to engulf the entire NPP. The knowledge about fireballs from air crashes is rather poor since it is only based on footage shot by chance. From careful physical and chemical examinations using first principles, it can be concluded that the physics and chemistry of the kerosene fireball are similar to BLEVE fireballs in gas tank accidents which have been studied during the last decades. The knowledge from these analyses can be applied to air crash fireball analysis. In order to obtain an adequate understanding of the potential hazards to a NPP engulfed by a fireball a detailed analysis of the fireball is necessary. It is only by a detailed analysis that the effect of the NPP structures on the evolution of the fireball can be derived. Though the safety-relevant parts of the NPP are strong concrete structures, according to IAEA regulations the hypothesized entry of combustion products into ventilation or air supply systems and the entry of fuel into buildings through normal openings have to be analyzed in detail. This requires local transient values of the safety-relevant fireball parameters. With the NPP being a very large structure an adequately detailed simulation requires large computing grids and substantial computing power. With the release of Version 5 of the Fire Dynamic Simulator (FDS) from NIST in 2007 a simulation tool is now available which is capable to perform simulations of large fireballs on sufficiently large computing grids. These fireball simulations can be performed also by any other CFD code in which the relevant models have been implemented. The FDS fireball simulation capabilities were validated with the help of a well

  15. Virtual instrumention-based linearity test platform for DCCT of digital power supply at SSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Junlong; Li Deming; Shen Tianjian; Liu Hong

    2008-01-01

    Based on virtual instrumentation, a reliable and effective test platform, performing instrument control, data acquisition and data recording, has been established to evaluate linearity of high performance DCCT (DC current transducer) for digital power supply at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). The software in LabVIEW language was developed to perform computer communication via serial communication (RS232) and GPIB, providing a friendly user interface to the linearity test platform. This makes it easy to test the linearity and control power on or off and current output of high-precision and high-current DC constant current output power supply. The experimental data, stored in an EXCEL file, can be processed to obtain DCCT linearity, and provide basis to further analyze DCCT performance in the future. (authors)

  16. Family Genericity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Type abstraction in object-oriented languages embody two techniques, each with its own strenghts and weaknesses. The first technique is extension, yielding abstraction mechanisms with good support for gradual specification. The prime example is inheritance. The second technique is functional abst...... the result as family genericity. The presented language design has been implemented....

  17. A Location Selection Policy of Live Virtual Machine Migration for Power Saving and Load Balancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green cloud data center has become a research hotspot of virtualized cloud computing architecture. And load balancing has also been one of the most important goals in cloud data centers. Since live virtual machine (VM migration technology is widely used and studied in cloud computing, we have focused on location selection (migration policy of live VM migration for power saving and load balancing. We propose a novel approach MOGA-LS, which is a heuristic and self-adaptive multiobjective optimization algorithm based on the improved genetic algorithm (GA. This paper has presented the specific design and implementation of MOGA-LS such as the design of the genetic operators, fitness values, and elitism. We have introduced the Pareto dominance theory and the simulated annealing (SA idea into MOGA-LS and have presented the specific process to get the final solution, and thus, the whole approach achieves a long-term efficient optimization for power saving and load balancing. The experimental results demonstrate that MOGA-LS evidently reduces the total incremental power consumption and better protects the performance of VM migration and achieves the balancing of system load compared with the existing research. It makes the result of live VM migration more high-effective and meaningful.

  18. A location selection policy of live virtual machine migration for power saving and load balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jia; Ding, Yan; Xu, Gaochao; Hu, Liang; Dong, Yushuang; Fu, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    Green cloud data center has become a research hotspot of virtualized cloud computing architecture. And load balancing has also been one of the most important goals in cloud data centers. Since live virtual machine (VM) migration technology is widely used and studied in cloud computing, we have focused on location selection (migration policy) of live VM migration for power saving and load balancing. We propose a novel approach MOGA-LS, which is a heuristic and self-adaptive multiobjective optimization algorithm based on the improved genetic algorithm (GA). This paper has presented the specific design and implementation of MOGA-LS such as the design of the genetic operators, fitness values, and elitism. We have introduced the Pareto dominance theory and the simulated annealing (SA) idea into MOGA-LS and have presented the specific process to get the final solution, and thus, the whole approach achieves a long-term efficient optimization for power saving and load balancing. The experimental results demonstrate that MOGA-LS evidently reduces the total incremental power consumption and better protects the performance of VM migration and achieves the balancing of system load compared with the existing research. It makes the result of live VM migration more high-effective and meaningful.

  19. Aircraft panel with sensorless active sound power reduction capabilities through virtual mechanical impedances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulandet, R.; Michau, M.; Micheau, P.; Berry, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with an active structural acoustic control approach to reduce the transmission of tonal noise in aircraft cabins. The focus is on the practical implementation of the virtual mechanical impedances method by using sensoriactuators instead of conventional control units composed of separate sensors and actuators. The experimental setup includes two sensoriactuators developed from the electrodynamic inertial exciter and distributed over an aircraft trim panel which is subject to a time-harmonic diffuse sound field. The target mechanical impedances are first defined by solving a linear optimization problem from sound power measurements before being applied to the test panel using a complex envelope controller. Measured data are compared to results obtained with sensor-actuator pairs consisting of an accelerometer and an inertial exciter, particularly as regards sound power reduction. It is shown that the two types of control unit provide similar performance, and that here virtual impedance control stands apart from conventional active damping. In particular, it is clear from this study that extra vibrational energy must be provided by the actuators for optimal sound power reduction, mainly due to the high structural damping in the aircraft trim panel. Concluding remarks on the benefits of using these electrodynamic sensoriactuators to control tonal disturbances are also provided.

  20. Simulation of Digital Control Computer of Nuclear Power Plant Based on Virtual Machine Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xue Yan; Li, Shu; Li, Qing [China Nuclear Power Operation Technology Co., Wuhan (China)

    2011-08-15

    Based on analyzing DCC (Digital Control Computer) instruction sets, memory map, display controllers and I/O system, virtual machine of DCC (abbr. VM DCC) has been developed. The executive and control programs, same as running on NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) unit's DCC, can run on the VM DCC smoothly and get same control results. Dual VM DCC system has been successfully applied in NPP FSS(Full Scope Simulator) training. It not only improves FSS's fidelity but also makes maintaining easier.

  1. Coalition of distributed generation units to virtual power players - a game theory approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago M; Santos, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    and the existence of new management players such as several types of aggregators. This paper proposes a methodology to facilitate the coalition between distributed generation units originating Virtual Power Players (VPP) considering a game theory approach. The proposed approach consists in the analysis...... strategies, size and goals, each parameter has different importance. VPP can also manage other type of energy resources, like storage units, electric vehicles, demand response programs or even parts of the MV and LV distribution network. A case study with twelve VPPs with different characteristics and one...

  2. Virtual Impedance Based Stability Improvement for DC Microgrids with Constant Power Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Huang, Lipei

    2014-01-01

    DC microgrid provides an efficient way to integrate different kinds of renewable energy sources with DC couplings. In this paper, in order to improve the stability of DC microgrids with constant power loads (CPLs), a virtual impedance based method is proposed. The CPLs have inherent instability....... To validate the stability with the above stabilizers in a DC microgrid with parallel interfacing converters and CPL, the impedance matching approach is employed. The output impedance of the source converter and input impedance of the load are calculated respectively, and the influence of droop control...

  3. Seismic and dynamic qualification of safety-related electrical and mechanical equipment in operating nuclear power plants: development of a method to generate generic floor-response spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curreri, J.; Costantino, C.; Subudhi, M.; Reich, M.

    1983-09-01

    Generic floor response spectra were developed for use in the qualification of electrical and mechanical equipment in operating nuclear power plants. The characteristics of 1000 floor response spectra were studied to determine the generic spectra. The procedure developed uses as much or as little information that currently exists at the plant relating to the question of equipment qualification. The general approach was to study the effects on the dynamic characteristics of each of the elements in the chain of events that goes between the loads and the responses. This includes the loads, the soils and the structures. A free-field earthquake response spectra was used to generate horizontal earthquake time histories. The excitation was applied through the soil and into the various structures to produce responses in equipment. An entire range of soil conditions was used with each structure. Actual PWR and BWR - Mark I structural models were used. For each model, the stiffness properties were varied, with the same mass, so as to extend the fundamental base structure natural frequency from 2 cps to 36 cps. The natural frequencies of the structures were varied to obtain maximum response conditions. The actual properties were first used to locate the natural frequencies. The stiffness properties were than varied, with the same mass, to extend the range of the fundamental base structure natural frequency. The intention was to have the coupled structural material frequencies in the vicinity of the peak amplitude frequency content of the excitation spectrum. Particular attention was therefore given to the frequency band between 2 Hz and 4 Hz. A horizontal generic floor response spectra is proposed for the top level of a generic structure. Reduction factors are applied to the peak acceleration for equipment at lower levels

  4. A virtualized software based on the NVIDIA cuFFT library for image denoising: performance analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galletti, Ardelio; Marcellino, Livia; Montella, Raffaele

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Generic Virtualization Service (GVirtuS) is a new solution for enabling GPGPU on Virtual Machines or low powered devices. This paper focuses on the performance analysis that can be obtained using a GPGPU virtualized software. Recently, GVirtuS has been extended in order to support CUDA...... ancillary libraries with good results. Here, our aim is to analyze the applicability of this powerful tool to a real problem, which uses the NVIDIA cuFFT library. As case study we consider a simple denoising algorithm, implementing a virtualized GPU-parallel software based on the convolution theorem...

  5. Maximizing the Social Welfare of Virtual Power Players Operation in Case of Excessive Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria, Pedro; Vale, Zita; Morais, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    based generation (including wind power) has caused several changes in the operation and planning of power systems and of electricity markets. Sometimes the available non-dispatchable generation is higher than the demand. This generation must be used; otherwise it is wasted if not stored or used...... that aggregates and manages the available energy resources. When facing a situation of excessive non-dispatchable generation, including wind power, real time pricing is applied in order to induce the increase of consumption so that wind curtailment is minimized. This method is especially useful when actual...... in this paper using a real 937-bus distribution network with 20.310 consumers and 548 distributed generators, some of them non-dispatchable and with must take contracts. The implemented scenario corresponds to a real day in Portuguese power system....

  6. Combined heat and power considered as a virtual steam cycle heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The first aim of this paper is to shed light on the thermodynamic reasons for the practical pursuit of low temperature operation by engineers involved in the design and the operation of combined heat and power (CHP) and district heating (DH) systems. The paper shows that the steam cycle of a combined heat and power generator is thermodynamically equivalent to a conventional steam cycle generator plus an additional virtual steam cycle heat pump. This apparently novel conceptualisation leads directly to (i) the observed sensitivity of coefficient of performance of CHP to supply and return temperatures in associated DH systems, and (ii) the conclusion that the performance of CHP will tend to be significantly higher than real heat pumps operating at similar temperatures. The second aim, which is pursued more qualitatively, is to show that the thermodynamic performance advantages of CHP are consistent with the goal of deep, long-term decarbonisation of industrialised economies. As an example, estimates are presented, which suggest that CHP based on combined-cycle gas turbines with carbon capture and storage has the potential to reduce the carbon intensity of delivered heat by a factor of ∼30, compared with a base case of natural gas-fired condensing boilers. - Highlights: → Large-scale CHP systems are thermodynamically equivalent to virtual steam cycle heat pumps. → COPs of such virtual heat pumps are necessarily better than the Carnot limit for real heat pumps. → COPs can approach 9 for plant matched to district heating systems with flow temperatures of 90 deg. C. → CHP combined with CCGT and CCS can reduce the carbon intensity of delivered heat ∼30-fold.

  7. Enhancing Cellular Coverage Quality by Virtual Access Point and Wireless Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Gui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultradensification deploying for cellular networks is a direct and effective method for the improvement of network capacity. However, the benefit is achieved at the cost of network infrastructure investment and operating overheads, especially when there is big gap between peak-hour Internet traffic and average one. Therefore, we put forward the concept of virtual cellular coverage area, where wireless terminals with high-end configuration are motivated to enhance cellular coverage quality by both providing RF energy compensation and rewarding free traffic access to Internet. This problem is formulated as the Stackelberg game based on three-party circular decision, where a Macro BS (MBS acts as the leader to offer a charging power to Energy Transferring Relays (ETRs, and the ETRs and their associating Virtual Access Points (VAPs act as the followers to make their decisions, respectively. According to the feedback from the followers, the leader may readjust its strategy. The circular decision is repeated until the powers converge. Also, the better response algorithm for each game player is proposed to iteratively achieve the Stackelberg-Nash Equilibrium (SNE. Theoretical analysis proves the convergence of the proposed game scheme, and simulation results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  8. Experimental progress on virtual-cathode very high power microwave source development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, M.V.; Hoeberling, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The evolution of rf accelerator technology toward high-power, high-current, low-emittance beams produces an ever-increasing demand for efficient, very high power microwave sources. The present klystron technology has performed very well but is not expected to produce reliable gigawatt peak-power units in the 1- to 10-GHz regime. Further major advancements must involve other types of sources. The reflexing electron sources can produce microwave powers at the gigawatt level and have demonstrated operation from 800 MHz to 40 GHz. Pulse length appears to be limited by electron-beam diode closure, and reflexing electron devices have been operated in a repetitively pulsed mode. An experiment is under way to investigate concepts to stabilize the frequency of the virtual cathode source. If one can successfully frequency and phase lock this source to an external signal, then this source can operate as a very high power microwave amplifier making it practical for accelerator applications. The progress on an experiment to test these concepts will be discussed

  9. Virtual marketing in virtual enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Ale Ebrahim, Nader; Fattahi, Hamaid Ali; Golnam, Arash

    2008-01-01

    Virtualization caused tremendous evolution in the economics of marketing channels, patterns of physical distribution and the structure of distributors and developed a new concept that is known as virtual marketing (VM). VM combines the powerful technologies of interactive marketing and virtual reality. Virtual enterprise (VE) refers to an organization not having a clear physical locus. In other words, VE is an organization distributed geographically and whose work is coordinated through e...

  10. Generic event trees and the treatment of dependencies and non-proceduralized actions in a low power and shutdown Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forester, J.; Yakle, J.; Whitehead, D.; Darby, J.

    1993-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was tasked by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to perform a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of a boiling water reactor (BWR) during low power and shutdown (LP ampersand S) conditions. The plant chosen for the study was Grand Gulf Nuclear Station (GGNS), a BWR 6. In performing the analysis, it was found that in comparison with full-power PRAs, the low decay heat levels present during LP ampersand S conditions result in a relatively large number of ways by which cooling can be provided to the core. In addition, because of the less stringent requirements imposed on system configurations possible is large and the availability of plant systems is more difficult to specify. These aspects of the LP ampersand S environment led to the development and use of ''generic'' event trees in performing the analysis. The use of ''generic'' event trees, in turn, had a significant impact on the nature of the human reliability analysis (HRA) that was performed. This paper describes the development of the event trees for the LP ampersand S PRA and important aspects of the resulting HRA

  11. Virtual resistance-based control strategy for DC link regeneration protection and current sharing in uninterruptible power supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jinghang; Guan, Yajuan; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    To address the DC link voltage regeneration issue in parallel Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) system, a DC link voltage protection (DCVP) method through online virtual resistance regulation is proposed. The proposed control strategy is able to protect the DC link from overvoltage that may...... trigger the protection mechanism of the UPS system. Moreover, a current sharing control strategy by regulating the virtual resistance is proposed to address the circulating current caused by the active power feeding. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed method is verified by experimental results from...

  12. Natural interfaces for interacting with a virtual control desk of a nuclear power plant simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghina, Mauricio Alves da Cunha e

    2012-01-01

    Due to very strict standards of safe operation of a nuclear power plant operators must be well trained so they can operate it within the necessary safety procedures. This is done through training simulators, which enable the user operation, as close as possible to the real control desk, and can be inserted accident situations, so they train, how to return the plant to a normal operating condition. Normally is used two types of simulator. Preferred is the full scope simulator, what is a computational dynamics program of the plant used in conjunction with a physical replica of the control desk, but this type of simulator involves a high construction cost. The second type is what uses synoptic windows of various regions of the original control desk, its construction cost is smaller, but it have a little fidelity to the original appearance of the table. Currently, with the use of virtual reality, control desks can be modeled in 3D, making the simulator interface is very similar to the appearance of the real control desk with a low cost construction. This work shows the use of natural interfaces for operator interaction with the virtual control desk, in order that it does not use any mechanical device for displaying and acting with it. For procedures that were used, such as: computer vision to recognize the position of the operator's and observation of their hands to the work of the desk controls and voice recognition. (author)

  13. Virtual control desk for operators training: a case study for a nuclear power plant simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghina, Mauricio Alves da Cunha e

    2009-03-01

    Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is a facility for electrical energy generation. Because of its high degree of complexity and very rigid norms of security it is extremely necessary that operators are very well trained for the NPP operation. A mistaken operation by a human operator may cause a shutdown of the NPP, incurring in a huge economical damage for the owner and for the population in the case of a electric net black out. To reduce the possibility of a mistaken operation, the NPP usually have a full scope simulator of the plant's control room, which is the physical copy of the original control room. The control of this simulator is a computer program that can generate the equal functioning of the normal one or some scenarios of accidents to train the operators in many abnormal conditions of the plant. A physical copy of the control room has a high cost for its construction, not only of its facilities but also for its physical components. The proposal of this work is to present a project of a virtual simulator with the modeling in 3D stereo of a control room of a given nuclear plant with the same operation functions of the original simulator. This virtual simulator will have a lower cost and serves for pretraining of operators with the intention of making them familiar to the original control room. (author)

  14. Field tests applying multi-agent technology for distributed control. Virtual power plants and wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, G.J.; Warmer, C.J.; Hommelberg, M.P.F.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Kok, J.K. [Energy in the Built Environment and Networks, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-01-15

    Multi-agent technology is state of the art ICT. It is not yet widely applied in power control systems. However, it has a large potential for bottom-up, distributed control of a network with large-scale renewable energy sources (RES) and distributed energy resources (DER) in future power systems. At least two major European R and D projects (MicroGrids and CRISP) have investigated its potential. Both grid-related as well as market-related applications have been studied. This paper will focus on two field tests, performed in the Netherlands, applying multi-agent control by means of the PowerMatcher concept. The first field test focuses on the application of multi-agent technology in a commercial setting, i.e. by reducing the need for balancing power in the case of intermittent energy sources, such as wind energy. In this case the flexibility is used of demand and supply of industrial and residential consumers and producers. Imbalance reduction rates of over 40% have been achieved applying the PowerMatcher, and with a proper portfolio even larger rates are expected. In the second field test the multi-agent technology is used in the design and implementation of a virtual power plant (VPP). This VPP digitally connects a number of micro-CHP units, installed in residential dwellings, into a cluster that is controlled to reduce the local peak demand of the common low-voltage grid segment the micro-CHP units are connected to. In this way the VPP supports the local distribution system operator (DSO) to defer reinforcements in the grid infrastructure (substations and cables)

  15. Field tests applying multi-agent technology for distributed control. Virtual power plants and wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, G.J.; Warmer, C.J.; Hommelberg, M.P.F.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Kok, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Multi-agent technology is state of the art ICT. It is not yet widely applied in power control systems. However, it has a large potential for bottom-up, distributed control of a network with large-scale renewable energy sources (RES) and distributed energy resources (DER) in future power systems. At least two major European R and D projects (MicroGrids and CRISP) have investigated its potential. Both grid-related as well as market-related applications have been studied. This paper will focus on two field tests, performed in the Netherlands, applying multi-agent control by means of the PowerMatcher concept. The first field test focuses on the application of multi-agent technology in a commercial setting, i.e. by reducing the need for balancing power in the case of intermittent energy sources, such as wind energy. In this case the flexibility is used of demand and supply of industrial and residential consumers and producers. Imbalance reduction rates of over 40% have been achieved applying the PowerMatcher, and with a proper portfolio even larger rates are expected. In the second field test the multi-agent technology is used in the design and implementation of a virtual power plant (VPP). This VPP digitally connects a number of micro-CHP units, installed in residential dwellings, into a cluster that is controlled to reduce the local peak demand of the common low-voltage grid segment the micro-CHP units are connected to. In this way the VPP supports the local distribution system operator (DSO) to defer reinforcements in the grid infrastructure (substations and cables)

  16. The influence and evaluation of different virtual reality presentations for the main control room of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rouwen; Lin Chiuhsiang Joe; Lin Shiaufeng; Yang Chihwei; Cheng Tsungchieh; Yang Lichen

    2011-01-01

    Certainly, a nuclear power plant (NPP) is a complex system and requires high reliability. Engineering technology plays an important role in NPP that requires complex technical equipment and interfaces in order to achieve public security and working safety. Through training, operators can understand the nuclear power system and further establish the fit between human operators and the system, in order to reduce human errors and to ensure the working safety of the control room of NPP. However, the operator trainings for the control room of NPP are difficult and time-consuming. Virtual control room is thus developed using the virtual reality (VR) technology to help the training process. Presently several researches have developed virtual system for NPP for the purpose of training. However, whether the virtual training system for the control room of NPP can give users realistic immersive context as in the real environment is unknown. Whether these virtual systems are helpful in training performance are yet to be confirmed. For this reason, the control room of Lung-Men NPP of Taiwan was constructed with VR technology in this study in order to compare the performances of two VR representation methods (Desktop VR and Project VR). A searching task was planned in which the operators have to find out the objects appointed by the experimenter in the virtual interface of the main control room. The time to complete the task was collected as dependent variables in this experiment. The subjects have to complete the questionnaire that was developed for evaluating the usability of the virtual interface of MRC after finishing the experiment. The result showed that the performance of the virtual interface of NPP presented by the VR projector was better than the desktop. (author)

  17. Status of safety issues at licensed power plants: TMI action plan requirements, unresolved safety issues, generic safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    As part of ongoing US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) efforts to ensure the quality and accountability of safety issue information, a program was established whereby an annual NUREG report would be published on the status of licensee implementation and NRC verification of safety issues in major NRC requirements areas. This information was compiled and reported in three NUREG volumes. Volume 1, published in March 1991, addressed the status of of Three Mile Island (TMI) Action Plan Requirements. Volume 2, published in May 1991, addressed the status of unresolved safety issues (USIs). Volume 3, published in June 1991, addressed the implementation and verification status of generic safety issues (GSIs). This annual NUREG report combines these volumes into a single report and provides updated information as of September 30, 1991. The data contained in these NUREG reports are a product of the NRC's Safety Issues Management System (SIMS) database, which is maintained by the Project Management Staff in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and by NRC regional personnel. This report is to provide a comprehensive description of the implementation and verification status of TMI Action Plan Requirements, safety issues designated as USIs, and GSIs that have been resolved and involve implementation of an action or actions by licensees. This report makes the information available to other interested parties, including the public. An additional purpose of this NUREG report is to serve as a follow-on to NUREG-0933, ''A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues,'' which tracks safety issues up until requirements are approved for imposition at licensed plants or until the NRC issues a request for action by licensees

  18. Development of pilot model of virtual nuclear power plant and its application to radiation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K. D.; Sin, S. W.

    2002-01-01

    Using Virtual Reality (VR) technique, a real model for radiation controlled area in nuclear power plant was developed and a feasibility study to develop a computational program to estimate radiation dose was performed. For this purpose a pilot model with an dynamic function and bi-directional communication was developed. This model was enhanced from the existing 3-D single-directional communication. In this pilot model, a plant visitor needs a series of security checking process initially. If he(she) enters the controlled area and approaches radiation hazard area, the alarms with warning lamp will be initiated automatically. Throughout the test to connect this model from both domestic and international sites in various time zones it has proven that it showed a sufficient performance. Therefore this model can be applied to broad fields as radiation protection procedures photographic data, on-line dose program

  19. The Persuasive Power of Virtual Reality: Effects of Simulated Human Distress on Attitudes towards Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittaro, Luca; Zangrando, Nicola

    Although virtual reality (VR) is a powerful simulation tool that can allow users to experience the effects of their actions in vivid and memorable ways, explorations of VR as a persuasive technology are rare. In this paper, we focus on different ways of providing negative feedback for persuasive purposes through simulated experiences in VR. The persuasive goal we consider concerns awareness of personal fire safety issues and the experiment we describe focuses on attitudes towards smoke in evacuating buildings. We test two techniques: the first technique simulates the damaging effects of smoke on the user through a visualization that should not evoke strong emotions, while the second is aimed at partially reproducing the anxiety of an emergency situation. The results of the study show that the second technique is able to increase user's anxiety as well as producing better results in attitude change.

  20. A Cost-Effective Virtual Environment for Simulating and Training Powered Wheelchairs Manoeuvres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headleand, Christopher J; Day, Thomas; Pop, Serban R; Ritsos, Panagiotis D; John, Nigel W

    2016-01-01

    Control of a powered wheelchair is often not intuitive, making training of new users a challenging and sometimes hazardous task. Collisions, due to a lack of experience can result in injury for the user and other individuals. By conducting training activities in virtual reality (VR), we can potentially improve driving skills whilst avoiding the risks inherent to the real world. However, until recently VR technology has been expensive and limited the commercial feasibility of a general training solution. We describe Wheelchair-Rift, a cost effective prototype simulator that makes use of the Oculus Rift head mounted display and the Leap Motion hand tracking device. It has been assessed for face validity by a panel of experts from a local Posture and Mobility Service. Initial results augur well for our cost-effective training solution.

  1. Risk-averse formulations and methods for a virtual power plant

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ricardo M.; Conejo, Antonio J.; Langodan, Sabique; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Knio, Omar M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we address the optimal operation of a virtual power plant using stochastic programming. We consider one risk-neutral and two risk-averse formulations that rely on the conditional value at risk. To handle large-scale problems, we implement two decomposition methods with variants using single- and multiple-cuts. We propose the utilization of wind ensembles obtained from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) to quantify the uncertainty of the wind forecast. We present detailed results relative to the computational performance of the risk-averse formulations, the decomposition methods, and risk management and sensitivities analysis as a function of the number of scenarios and risk parameters. The implementation of the two decomposition methods relies on the parallel solution of subproblems, which turns out to be paramount for computational efficiency. The results show that one of the two decomposition methods is the most efficient.

  2. Risk-averse formulations and methods for a virtual power plant

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ricardo M.

    2017-12-15

    In this paper we address the optimal operation of a virtual power plant using stochastic programming. We consider one risk-neutral and two risk-averse formulations that rely on the conditional value at risk. To handle large-scale problems, we implement two decomposition methods with variants using single- and multiple-cuts. We propose the utilization of wind ensembles obtained from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) to quantify the uncertainty of the wind forecast. We present detailed results relative to the computational performance of the risk-averse formulations, the decomposition methods, and risk management and sensitivities analysis as a function of the number of scenarios and risk parameters. The implementation of the two decomposition methods relies on the parallel solution of subproblems, which turns out to be paramount for computational efficiency. The results show that one of the two decomposition methods is the most efficient.

  3. Day-ahead resource scheduling of a renewable energy based virtual power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamani, Ali Ghahgharaee; Zakariazadeh, Alireza; Jadid, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Simultaneous energy and reserve scheduling of a VPP. • Aggregate uncertainties of electricity prices, renewable generation and load demand. • Develop a stochastic scheduling model using the point estimate method. - Abstract: The evolution of energy markets is accelerating in the direction of a greater reliance upon distributed energy resources (DERs). To manage this increasing two-way complexity, virtual power plants (VPPs) are being deployed today all over the world. In this paper, a probabilistic model for optimal day ahead scheduling of electrical and thermal energy resources in a VPP is proposed where participation of energy storage systems and demand response programs (DRPs) are also taken into account. In the proposed model, energy and reserve is simultaneously scheduled considering the uncertainties of market prices, electrical demand and intermittent renewable power generation. The Point Estimate Method (PEM) is applied in order to model the uncertainties of VPP’s scheduling problem. Moreover, the optimal reserve scheduling of VPP is presented which efficiently decreases VPP’s risk facing the unexpected fluctuations of uncertain parameters at the power delivery time. The results demonstrated that implementation of demand response programs (DRPs) would decrease total operation costs of VPP as well as its dependency on the upstream network.

  4. A full scope nuclear power plant simulator for multiple reactor types with virtual control panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Hisanori; Ueda, Hiroki; Kato, Takahisa

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes a full scope nuclear power plant simulator for multiple reactor types with virtual control panels which Toshiba developed and delivered. After the Fukushima DAIICHI nuclear power plants accident, it is required that all the people who are engaged in the design, manufacturing, operation, maintenance, management and regulation for the nuclear power plant should learn the wide and deep knowledge about the nuclear power plant design including the severe accident. For this purpose, the training with a full scope simulator is one of the most suitable ways. However the existing full scope simulators which are consist of the control panels replica of the referenced plants are costly and they are hard to remodel to fit to the real plant of the latest condition. That's why Toshiba developed and delivered the new concept simulator system which covers multiple referenced plants even though they have different design like BWR and PWR. The control panels of the simulator are made by combining 69 large Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) panels with touch screen instead of a control panel replica of referenced plant. The screen size of the each panel is 42 inches and 3 displays are arranged in tandem for one unit and 23 units are connected together. Each panel displays switches, indicators, recorders and lamps with the Computer Graphics (CG) and trainees operate them with touch operations. The simulator includes a BWR and a PWR simulator model, which enable trainees to learn the wide and deep knowledge about the nuclear power plant of BWR and PWR reactor types. (author)

  5. Selection and impedance based model of a lithium ion battery technology for integration with virtual power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2013-01-01

    is to integrate lithium-ion batteries into virtual power plants; thus, the power system stability and the energy quality can be increased. The selection of the best lithium-ion battery candidate for integration with wind power plants is a key aspect for the economic feasibility of the virtual power plant...... investment. This paper presents a methodology for selection, between three candidates, of a Li-ion battery which offers long cycle lifetime at partial charge/discharge (required by many grid support applications) while providing a low cost per cycle also. For the selected Li-ion battery an impedance......-based diagnostic tool for lifetime estimation was developed and verified. This diagnostic tool can be extended into an impedance-based lifetime model that will be able to predict the remaining useful lifetime of Li-ion batteries for specific grid support applications....

  6. Virial Coefficients from Unified Statistical Thermodynamics of Quantum Gases Trapped under Generic Power Law Potential in d Dimension and Equivalence of Quantum Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahauddin, Shah Mohammad; Mehedi Faruk, Mir

    2016-09-01

    From the unified statistical thermodynamics of quantum gases, the virial coefficients of ideal Bose and Fermi gases, trapped under generic power law potential are derived systematically. From the general result of virial coefficients, one can produce the known results in d = 3 and d = 2. But more importantly we found that, the virial coefficients of Bose and Fermi gases become identical (except the second virial coefficient, where the sign is different) when the gases are trapped under harmonic potential in d = 1. This result suggests the equivalence between Bose and Fermi gases established in d = 1 (J. Stat. Phys. DOI 10.1007/s10955-015-1344-4). Also, it is found that the virial coefficients of two-dimensional free Bose (Fermi) gas are equal to the virial coefficients of one-dimensional harmonically trapped Bose (Fermi) gas.

  7. Virial Coefficients from Unified Statistical Thermodynamics of Quantum Gases Trapped under Generic Power Law Potential in d Dimension and Equivalence of Quantum Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahauddin, Shah Mohammad; Faruk, Mir Mehedi

    2016-01-01

    From the unified statistical thermodynamics of quantum gases, the virial coefficients of ideal Bose and Fermi gases, trapped under generic power law potential are derived systematically. From the general result of virial coefficients, one can produce the known results in d = 3 and d = 2. But more importantly we found that, the virial coefficients of Bose and Fermi gases become identical (except the second virial coefficient, where the sign is different) when the gases are trapped under harmonic potential in d = 1. This result suggests the equivalence between Bose and Fermi gases established in d = 1 (J. Stat. Phys. DOI 10.1007/s10955-015-1344-4). Also, it is found that the virial coefficients of two-dimensional free Bose (Fermi) gas are equal to the virial coefficients of one-dimensional harmonically trapped Bose (Fermi) gas. (paper)

  8. Stochastic profit-based scheduling of industrial virtual power plant using the best demand response strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosratabadi, Seyyed Mostafa; Hooshmand, Rahmat-Allah; Gholipour, Eskandar

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • VPPs and IVPPs are defined for energy management of aggregated generations. • IVPP can manage industrial microgrid containing some relevant load and generation. • A stochastic modeling is proposed to schedule optimal generations in competition market. • Wind generation and day-ahead and spot market prices are considered to be stochastic. • A new DRL program selection scheme is presented in the scheduling procedure. - Abstract: One of the main classified microgrids in a power system is the industrial microgrid. Due to its behaviors and the heavy loads, its energy management is challengeable. Virtual Power Plant (VPP) can be an important concept in managing such problems in this kind of grids. Here, a transmission power system is considered as a Regional Electric Company (REC) and the VPPs comprising Distributed Generation (DG) units and Demand Response Loads (DRLs) are determined in this system. This paper focuses on Industrial VPP (IVPP) and its management. An IVPP can be determined as a management unit comprising generations and loads in an industrial microgrid. Since the scheduling procedure for these units is very important for their participation in a short-term electric market, a stochastic formulation is proposed for power scheduling in VPPs especially in IVPPs in this paper. By introducing the DRL programs and using the proposed modeling, the operator can select the best DRL program for each VPP in a scheduling procedure. In this regard, a suitable approach is presented to determine the proposed formulation and its solution in a Mixed Integer Non-Linear Programming (MINLP). To validate the performance of the proposed method, the IEEE Reliability Test System (IEEE-RTS) is considered to apply the method on it, while some challenging aspects are presented.

  9. Micro-size cogeneration plants and virtual power plants. New energy landscapes; Mikro-KWK und virtuelle Kraftwerke. Neue Energielandschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roon, Serafin von [Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Combined heat and power generation is an established technology. With micro-size cogeneration units, the technology is now available to private single or multiple dwellings and for decentral power supply of residential blocks. With the right political boundary conditions and integrated into virtual power stations, this is an option for enhanced use of renewable energy sources and for decentral, flexible and climate-friendly heat and power generation in buildings. Economic efficiency analyses by experts, high utilisation rates, innovative developments of the manufacturers and a positive public image are all in favour of a great future for micro-size cogeneration units. (orig.)

  10. A Virtual Power Plant Architecture for the Demand-Side Management of Smart Prosumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pasetti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a conceptual study on a Virtual Power Plant (VPP architecture for the optimal management of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs owned by prosumers participating in Demand-Side Management (DSM programs. Compared to classical VPP architectures, which aim to aggregate several DERs dispersed throughout the electrical grid, in the proposed VPP architecture the supervised physical domain is limited to single users, i.e., to single Points of Delivery (PODs of the distribution network. The VPP architecture is based on a service-oriented approach, where multiple agents cooperate to implement the optimal management of the prosumer’s assets, by also considering different forms of Demand Response (DR requests. The considered DR schemes range from Price-Based DRs to Event-Based DRs, covering both the normal operating functions and the emergency control requests applied in modern distribution networks. With respect to centralized approaches, in this study the control perspective is moved from the system level to the single prosumer’s level, who is allowed to independently provide flexible power profiles through the aggregation of multiple DERs. A generalized optimization model, formulated as a Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP problem, is also introduced. Such a model is able to compute the optimal scheduling of a prosumer’s assets by considering both DR requests and end-users’ requirements in terms of comfort levels while minimizing the costs.

  11. Stability Enhancement Based on Virtual Impedance for DC Microgrids with Constant Power Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a converter-based DC microgrid is studied. By considering the impact of each component in DC microgrids on system stability, a multi-stage configuration is employed, which includes the source stage, interface converter stage between buses and common load stage. In order to study th....... It can be seen that by using the proposed stabilizers, the unstable poles induced by the CPLs are forced to move into the stable region. The proposed method is verified by the MATLAB/Simulink model of multi-stage DC microgrids with three distributed power generation units.......In this paper, a converter-based DC microgrid is studied. By considering the impact of each component in DC microgrids on system stability, a multi-stage configuration is employed, which includes the source stage, interface converter stage between buses and common load stage. In order to study...... the overall stability of the above DC microgrid with constant power loads (CPLs), a comprehensive small-signal model is derived by analyzing the interface converters in each stage. The instability issue induced by the CPLs is revealed by using the criteria of impedance matching. Meanwhile, virtual...

  12. GreenVMAS: Virtual Organization Based Platform for Heating Greenhouses Using Waste Energy from Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Briones, Alfonso; Chamoso, Pablo; Yoe, Hyun; Corchado, Juan M

    2018-03-14

    The gradual depletion of energy resources makes it necessary to optimize their use and to reuse them. Although great advances have already been made in optimizing energy generation processes, many of these processes generate energy that inevitably gets wasted. A clear example of this are nuclear, thermal and carbon power plants, which lose a large amount of energy that could otherwise be used for different purposes, such as heating greenhouses. The role of GreenVMAS is to maintain the required temperature level in greenhouses by using the waste energy generated by power plants. It incorporates a case-based reasoning system, virtual organizations and algorithms for data analysis and for efficient interaction with sensors and actuators. The system is context aware and scalable as it incorporates an artificial neural network, this means that it can operate correctly even if the number and characteristics of the greenhouses participating in the case study change. The architecture was evaluated empirically and the results show that the user's energy bill is greatly reduced with the implemented system.

  13. GreenVMAS: Virtual Organization Based Platform for Heating Greenhouses Using Waste Energy from Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso González-Briones

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The gradual depletion of energy resources makes it necessary to optimize their use and to reuse them. Although great advances have already been made in optimizing energy generation processes, many of these processes generate energy that inevitably gets wasted. A clear example of this are nuclear, thermal and carbon power plants, which lose a large amount of energy that could otherwise be used for different purposes, such as heating greenhouses. The role of GreenVMAS is to maintain the required temperature level in greenhouses by using the waste energy generated by power plants. It incorporates a case-based reasoning system, virtual organizations and algorithms for data analysis and for efficient interaction with sensors and actuators. The system is context aware and scalable as it incorporates an artificial neural network, this means that it can operate correctly even if the number and characteristics of the greenhouses participating in the case study change. The architecture was evaluated empirically and the results show that the user’s energy bill is greatly reduced with the implemented system.

  14. A comparative study of imbalance reduction strategies for virtual power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, J.; Vandewalle, J.; D'haeseleer, W.

    2014-01-01

    The penetration of a large amount of distributed generation (DG) technologies with intermittent output, such as photovoltaic installations and wind turbines, yields an important challenge to the electric grid. It is believed that aggregating them with controllable technologies such as cogeneration devices (CHP) can help to balance fluctuations of renewable energy. This work evaluates the ability of a virtual power plant (VPP) to reduce the imbalance error of renewable generators. The study is undertaken in a VPP that consists of several cogeneration devices and photovoltaic (PV) installations. The virtual power plant operator bids electricity into the day-ahead market using the forecast for solar irradiation and for the thermal demand. During the actual day, the imbalance due to deviations between the forecasted electricity delivered and the real output has to be settled in the balancing market. Thus, in order to compensate these errors and possible economic drawbacks, the operation of the CHP is adjusted periodically in a so called reschedule. Two different rescheduling strategies are compared against a ‘reference scenario’ in which the imbalance error is settled in the market. The first one (‘forced strategy’) aims at reducing the imbalance error every time step regardless of the imbalance prices. The second (‘economic strategy’) considers the imbalance prices and takes only action if it is economically appropriate and thus intends to reduce the total operational cost. The results show that the rescheduling technique is able to reduce the imbalance error (up to 90% depending on the season and the strategy). Additionally, the total operational cost is estimated. However, the nowadays imbalance prices only lead to a minor financial advantage that is unlikely to motivate real life operators to perform a rescheduling strategy. - Highlights: • The VPP is dispatched by a day-ahead optimization followed by a rescheduling. • A forced rescheduling strategy

  15. Virtual solar field - An opportunity to optimize transient processes in line-focus CSP power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureldin, Kareem; Hirsch, Tobias; Pitz-Paal, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Optimizing solar field operation and control is a key factor to improve the competitiveness of line-focus solar thermal power plants. However, the risks of assessing new and innovative control strategies on operational power plants hinder such optimizations and result in applying more conservative control schemes. In this paper, we describe some applications for a whole solar field transient in-house simulation tool developed at the German Aerospace Centre (DLR), the Virtual Solar Field (VSF). The tool offers a virtual platform to simulate real solar fields while coupling the thermal and hydraulic conditions of the field with high computational efficiency. Using the tool, developers and operator can probe their control strategies and assess the potential benefits while avoiding the high risks and costs. In this paper, we study the benefits gained from controlling the loop valves and of using direct normal irradiance maps and forecasts for the field control. Loop valve control is interesting for many solar field operators since it provides a high degree of flexibility to the control of the solar field through regulating the flow rate in each loop. This improves the reaction to transient condition, such as passing clouds and field start-up in the morning. Nevertheless, due to the large number of loops and the sensitivity of the field control to the valve settings, this process needs to be automated and the effect of changing the setting of each valve on the whole field control needs to be taken into account. We used VSF to implement simple control algorithms to control the loop valves and to study the benefits that could be gained from using active loop valve control during transient conditions. Secondly, we study how using short-term highly spatially-resolved DNI forecasts provided by cloud cameras could improve the plant energy yield. Both cases show an improvement in the plant efficiency and outlet temperature stability. This paves the road for further

  16. Development of Generic SAM Strategies and Evaluation of their Implementability at Operating WWER-1000/V-320 Power Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podshibiakin, A.K.; Fil, N.S.; Kuznetsova, T.E.; Krushelnitsky, V.N.; Peressadko, V.G.; Korshunov, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    requirements give, although implicitly, the certain directions with regard to approac h to be used when developing the BDBA management measures. The BDBA management measures shall include the following: - determination of the operational objectives in order to prevent or to terminate core melting and to mitigate radioactive release into the environment; - determination of systems and equipment on the NPP site and outside it that could be used to achieve the operational objectives; - development of the strategies for personnel's actions to achieve the safety objectives. It's worth noting that the accident management strategies should foresee the usage of all the available systems and components (including systems and components not related to safety) that could be applied not in accordance with design purpose and under off-design operational conditions. This paper presents: the Current status of AM at operating WWER-1000 (Instruction on accident liquidation, Guideline on BDBA management, Upgrading the BDBA management); the approach to generic SAM strategy development, the evaluation of generic strategies for operating WWER-1000, the severe accident mitigation in advanced WWER-1000/V-392 design (NVAES-2 design, Hydrogen control, Containment function provisions)

  17. Multi-objective stochastic scheduling optimization model for connecting a virtual power plant to wind-photovoltaic-electric vehicles considering uncertainties and demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Liwei; Li, Huanhuan; Zhao, Junwei; Chen, Kangting; Tan, Qingkun; Tan, Zhongfu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Our research focuses on virtual power plant. • Electric vehicle group and demand response are integrated into virtual power plant. • Stochastic chance constraint planning is applied to overcome uncertainties. • A multi-objective stochastic scheduling model is proposed for virtual power plant. • A three-stage hybrid intelligent solution algorithm is proposed for solving the model. - Abstract: A stochastic chance-constrained planning method is applied to build a multi-objective optimization model for virtual power plant scheduling. Firstly, the implementation cost of demand response is calculated using the system income difference. Secondly, a wind power plant, photovoltaic power, an electric vehicle group and a conventional power plant are aggregated into a virtual power plant. A stochastic scheduling model is proposed for the virtual power plant, considering uncertainties under three objective functions. Thirdly, a three-stage hybrid intelligent solution algorithm is proposed, featuring the particle swarm optimization algorithm, the entropy weight method and the fuzzy satisfaction theory. Finally, the Yunnan distributed power demonstration project in China is utilized for example analysis. Simulation results demonstrate that when considering uncertainties, the system will reduce the grid connection of the wind power plant and photovoltaic power to decrease the power shortage punishment cost. The average reduction of the system power shortage punishment cost and the operation revenue of virtual power plant are 61.5% and 1.76%, respectively, while the average increase of the system abandoned energy cost is 40.4%. The output of the virtual power plant exhibits a reverse distribution with the confidence degree of the uncertainty variable. The proposed algorithm rapidly calculates a global optimal set. The electric vehicle group could provide spinning reserve to ensure stability of the output of the virtual power plant. Demand response could

  18. Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement. Handling and storage of spent light water power reactor fuel. Volume 2. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    This volume contains the following appendices: LWR fuel cycle, handling and storage of spent fuel, termination case considerations (use of coal-fired power plants to replace nuclear plants), increasing fuel storage capacity, spent fuel transshipment, spent fuel generation and storage data, characteristics of nuclear fuel, away-from-reactor storage concept, spent fuel storage requirements for higher projected nuclear generating capacity, and physical protection requirements and hypothetical sabotage events in a spent fuel storage facility

  19. Stochastic Optimal Dispatch of Virtual Power Plant considering Correlation of Distributed Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual power plant (VPP is an aggregation of multiple distributed generations, energy storage, and controllable loads. Affected by natural conditions, the uncontrollable distributed generations within VPP, such as wind and photovoltaic generations, are extremely random and relative. Considering the randomness and its correlation of uncontrollable distributed generations, this paper constructs the chance constraints stochastic optimal dispatch of VPP including stochastic variables and its random correlation. The probability distributions of independent wind and photovoltaic generations are described by empirical distribution functions, and their joint probability density model is established by Frank-copula function. And then, sample average approximation (SAA is applied to convert the chance constrained stochastic optimization model into a deterministic optimization model. Simulation cases are calculated based on the AIMMS. Simulation results of this paper mathematic model are compared with the results of deterministic optimization model without stochastic variables and stochastic optimization considering stochastic variables but not random correlation. Furthermore, this paper analyzes how SAA sampling frequency and the confidence level influence the results of stochastic optimization. The numerical example results show the effectiveness of the stochastic optimal dispatch of VPP considering the randomness and its correlations of distributed generations.

  20. A Bilevel Scheduling Approach for Modeling Energy Transaction of Virtual Power Plants in Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nazari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available By increasing the use of distributed generation (DG in the distribution network operation, an entity called virtual power plant (VPP has been introduced to control, dispatch and aggregate the generation of DGs, enabling them to participate either in the electricity market or the distribution network operation. The participation of VPPs in the electricity market has made challenges to fairly allocate payments and benefits between VPPs and distribution network operator (DNO. This paper presents a bilevel scheduling approach to model the energy transaction between VPPs and DNO.  The upper level corresponds to the decision making of VPPs which bid their long- term contract prices so that their own profits are maximized and the lower level represents the DNO decision making to supply electricity demand of the network by minimizing its overall cost. The proposed bilevel scheduling approach is transformed to a single level optimizing problem using its Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT optimality conditions. Several scenarios are applied to scrutinize the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed model. 

  1. Handbook for quick cost estimates. A method for developing quick approximate estimates of costs for generic actions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.R.

    1986-04-01

    This document is a supplement to a ''Handbook for Cost Estimating'' (NUREG/CR-3971) and provides specific guidance for developing ''quick'' approximate estimates of the cost of implementing generic regulatory requirements for nuclear power plants. A method is presented for relating the known construction costs for new nuclear power plants (as contained in the Energy Economic Data Base) to the cost of performing similar work, on a back-fit basis, at existing plants. Cost factors are presented to account for variations in such important cost areas as construction labor productivity, engineering and quality assurance, replacement energy, reworking of existing features, and regional variations in the cost of materials and labor. Other cost categories addressed in this handbook include those for changes in plant operating personnel and plant documents, licensee costs, NRC costs, and costs for other government agencies. Data sheets, worksheets, and appropriate cost algorithms are included to guide the user through preparation of rough estimates. A sample estimate is prepared using the method and the estimating tools provided

  2. Handbook for quick cost estimates. A method for developing quick approximate estimates of costs for generic actions for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J.R.

    1986-04-01

    This document is a supplement to a ''Handbook for Cost Estimating'' (NUREG/CR-3971) and provides specific guidance for developing ''quick'' approximate estimates of the cost of implementing generic regulatory requirements for nuclear power plants. A method is presented for relating the known construction costs for new nuclear power plants (as contained in the Energy Economic Data Base) to the cost of performing similar work, on a back-fit basis, at existing plants. Cost factors are presented to account for variations in such important cost areas as construction labor productivity, engineering and quality assurance, replacement energy, reworking of existing features, and regional variations in the cost of materials and labor. Other cost categories addressed in this handbook include those for changes in plant operating personnel and plant documents, licensee costs, NRC costs, and costs for other government agencies. Data sheets, worksheets, and appropriate cost algorithms are included to guide the user through preparation of rough estimates. A sample estimate is prepared using the method and the estimating tools provided.

  3. A Hands-Free Interface for Controlling Virtual Electric-Powered Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauseef Gulrez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on how to provide mobility to people with motor impairments with the integration of robotics and wearable computing systems. The burden of learning to control powered mobility devices should not fall entirely on the people with disabilities. Instead, the system should be able to learn the user's movements. This requires learning the degrees of freedom of user movement, and mapping these degrees of freedom onto electric-powered wheelchair (EPW controls. Such mapping cannot be static because in some cases users will eventually improve with practice. Our goal in this paper is to present a hands-free interface (HFI that can be customized to the varying needs of EPW users with appropriate mapping between the users' degrees of freedom and EPW controls. EPW users with different impairment types must learn how to operate a wheelchair with their residual body motions. EPW interfaces are often customized to fit their needs. An HFI utilizes the signals generated by the user's voluntary shoulder and elbow movements and translates them into an EPW control scheme. We examine the correlation of kinematics that occur during moderately paced repetitive elbow and shoulder movements for a range of motion. The output of upper-limb movements (shoulder and elbows was tested on six participants, and compared with an output of a precision position tracking (PPT optical system for validation. We find strong correlations between the HFI signal counts and PPT optical system during different upper-limb movements (ranged from r = 0.86 to 0.94. We also tested the HFI performance in driving the EPW in a virtual reality environment on a spinal-cord-injured (SCI patient. The results showed that the HFI was able to adapt and translate the residual mobility of the SCI patient into efficient control commands within a week's training. The results are encouraging for the development of more efficient HFIs, especially for wheelchair users.

  4. Virtual Grower 3: A powerful decision support tool for greenhouse systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several years ago, Virtual Grower software was released to the public. Initially designed to help greenhouse growers determine heating costs and do simple simulations to figure out where heat savings could be achieved, it has slowly added features. Now, Virtual Grower can help not only identify he...

  5. Final generic environmental statement on the routine use of plutonium-powered cardiac pacemakers. Update of information on power sources for pacemakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    The Final Environmental Statement on Routine Use of Plutonium-Powered Cardiac Pacemakers (FES) was issued in July 1976. Supplement 1, prepared in 1978, updates the FES with respect to power sources for pacemakers. Particular attention is given to the non-nuclear lithium batteries as alternatives to 238-Pu power sources in pacemakers. Supplement 1 also considers the current extent of pacemaker use and makeup of the patient population and concludes that the FES' conclusion is still valid that distribution of 238-Pu powered pacemakers for routine use should be authorized subject to specific conditions

  6. NRC program for the resolution of generic issues related to nuclear power plants. (Includes plans for the resolution of ''unresolved safety issues'' pursuant to Section 210 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    This report provides a description of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Program for the Resolution of Generic Issues Related to Nuclear Power Plants. The NRC program is of considerably broader scope than the ''Unresolved Safety Issues Plan'' required by Section 210. The NRC program does include plans for the resolution of ''Unresolved Safety Issues''; however, in addition, it includes generic tasks for the resolution of environmental issues, for the development of improvements in the reactor licensing process and for consideration of less conservative design criteria or operating limitations in areas where over conservatisms may be unnecessarily restrictive or costly

  7. Full scope simulator of a nuclear power plant control room using 3D stereo virtual reality techniques for operators training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghina, Mauricio A.C.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Almeida, Adino Americo A.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Varela, Thiago F.B.

    2007-01-01

    Practical training of nuclear power plants operators are partially performed by means of simulators. Usually these simulators are physical copies of the original control roam, needing a large space on a facility being also very expensive. In this way, the proposal of this paper is to implement the use of Virtual Reality techniques to design a full scope control room simulator, in a manner to reduce costs and physical space usage. (author)

  8. Generic requirements specification for qualifying a commercially available PLC for safety-related applications in nuclear power plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostenso, A.; May, R.

    1996-12-01

    This is a specification for qualifying a commercially available PLC for application to safety systems in nuclear power plants. The specifications are suitable for evaluating a particular PLC product line as a platform for safety-related applications, establishing a suitable qualification test program, and confirming that the manufacturer has a quality assurance program that is adequate for safety-related applications or is sufficiently complete that, with a reasonable set of compensatory actions, it can be brought into conformance. The specification includes requirements for: (1) quality assurance measures applied to the qualification activities, (2) documentation to support the qualification, and (3) documentation to provide the information needed for applying the qualified PLC platform to a specific application. The specifications are designed to encompass a broad range of safety applications; however, qualifying a particular platform for a different range of applications can be accomplished by appropriate adjustments to the requirements

  9. FDS simulation of the fuel fireball from a hypothetical commercial airliner crash on a generic nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, W.; Mueller, C.; Zocher, O.

    2008-01-01

    Before September 11, 2001 nuclear installations were designed to withstand the impact of a typical aircraft fighter of that time. In the aftermath of 9/11 it became clear that any new NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) must be designed sufficiently robust against terrorist attack and that the impact of a fast flying commercial airliner hitting the NPP can no longer be excluded as a potential external hazard threatening the NPP safety. The lesson learnt from the WTC and Pentagon attack is that the impact of the aircraft and the onboard jet fuel can cause structural damage, a fireball and a consecutive fire. This paper deals with the simulation of the fireball and its consequence for the NPP safety. (orig.)

  10. Stopping power for particle therapy: the generic library libdEdx and clinically relevant stopping-power ratios for light ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lühr, Armin Christian; Toftegaard, Jakob; Kantemiris, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    to be known accurately for dosimetry. Methods: An open-source computer library called libdEdx (library for energy loss per unit path length, dE/dx, calculations) is developed, providing stopping-power data from data tables and computer programs as well as a stopping-power formula comprising a large list...

  11. Implementation of a virtual link between power system testbeds at Marshall Spaceflight Center and Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv

    1990-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) owns and operates a space station module power management and distribution (SSM-PMAD) testbed. This system, managed by expert systems, is used to analyze and develop power system automation techniques for Space Station Freedom. The Lewis Research Center (LeRC), Cleveland, Ohio, has developed and implemented a space station electrical power system (EPS) testbed. This system and its power management controller are representative of the overall Space Station Freedom power system. A virtual link is being implemented between the testbeds at MSFC and LeRC. This link would enable configuration of SSM-PMAD as a load center for the EPS testbed at LeRC. This connection will add to the versatility of both systems, and provide an environment of enhanced realism for operation of both testbeds.

  12. A Virtual Test Bed for PEBB-Based Ship Power Systems, Volume 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dougal, Roger

    1997-01-01

    .... The use of virtual prototypes, rather than hardware prototypes, allows the U.S. Navy to maintain its technological superiority by exploiting its dominant position with respect to information technologies...

  13. A Virtual Test Bed for PEBB-Based Ship Power Systems, Volume 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dougal, Roger

    1997-01-01

    .... The use of virtual prototypes, rather than hardware prototypes, allows the U.S. Navy to maintain its technological superiority by exploiting its dominant position with respect to information technologies...

  14. An Islanding Microgrid Power Sharing Approach Using Enhanced Virtual Impedance Control Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Jinwei; Li, Yun Wei; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    In order to address the load sharing problem in islanding microgrids, this paper proposes an enhanced distributed generation (DG) unit virtual impedance control approach. The proposed method can realize accurate regulation of DG unit equivalent impedance at both fundamental and selected harmonic...... and PCC harmonic voltage compensation are achieved without using any fundamental and harmonic components extractions. Experimental results from a scaled single-phase microgrid prototype are provided to validate the feasibility of the proposed virtual impedance control approach....... frequencies. In contrast to conventional virtual impedance control methods, where only a line current feed-forward term is added to the DG voltage reference, the proposed virtual impedance at fundamental and harmonic frequencies is regulated using DG line current and point of common coupling (PCC) voltage...

  15. 78 FR 74175 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... precision requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response...: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on... Information Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback...

  16. Anthropometric Considerations in the Modernized Main Control Room: Application to a Virtual Nuclear Power Plant Control Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chih Wei; Cheng, Tsung Chieh; Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the anthropometric considerations in the main control room (MCR) application to a virtual nuclear power plant (NPP) control panel. Influences of working postures and physical demands on the operational performance are also discussed. Finally, the present research provides a case example to illustrate the influences of anthropometric considerations on the control panel design for MCR operators by applying virtual reality (VR) technology. The MCR design primarily evolved in different countries. The datasets available is usually insufficient or inconsistent for the end users. To solve the upper mentioned problem, this study put emphasis on applying VR technology to anthropometric considerations support control panel design in the modernized MCR. Although the concept of applying VR technology on anthropometric considerations in this paper is related to the MCR in NPPs, it could be easily applied for the purposes of any type of control room in a similar manner

  17. Anthropometric Considerations in the Modernized Main Control Room: Application to a Virtual Nuclear Power Plant Control Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chih Wei; Cheng, Tsung Chieh [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan (China); Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe [Chung-Yuan Christian University, Chung Li (China)

    2011-08-15

    This study investigates the anthropometric considerations in the main control room (MCR) application to a virtual nuclear power plant (NPP) control panel. Influences of working postures and physical demands on the operational performance are also discussed. Finally, the present research provides a case example to illustrate the influences of anthropometric considerations on the control panel design for MCR operators by applying virtual reality (VR) technology. The MCR design primarily evolved in different countries. The datasets available is usually insufficient or inconsistent for the end users. To solve the upper mentioned problem, this study put emphasis on applying VR technology to anthropometric considerations support control panel design in the modernized MCR. Although the concept of applying VR technology on anthropometric considerations in this paper is related to the MCR in NPPs, it could be easily applied for the purposes of any type of control room in a similar manner.

  18. Bidding strategies for virtual power plants considering CHPs and intermittent renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata Riveros, J.; Bruninx, K.; Poncelet, K.; D’haeseleer, W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A stochastic optimization evaluates the optimal bidding strategy of a VPP. • Three different strategies were assessed: ‘static’, ‘flexible DA’ and ‘flexible RT’. • The ‘flexible RT’ attains the largest profits. It adapts the VPP output in real-time. - Abstract: Energy efficiency and renewable-energy sources (RES) are fundamental parts of the European energy policy. For this reason, efficient distributed generation technologies such as combined heat and power coupled to district heating (CHP–DH) and RES based electricity are largely promoted. Additionally, the flexibility that CHP–DH offers to the power system is seen as an option to balance the intermittent output of RES-based generation. This could be done by aggregating RES based electricity generation and CHP DH in a virtual power plant (VPP). In this framework, the present work presents a methodology to evaluate the optimal bidding strategy of a VPP composed of a CHP–DH and RES based generators. The objective is to investigate the optimal bidding strategy for a VPP that uses CHP DH to compensate for the uncertainties regarding RES-based electricity generation and market prices. The VPP operator nominates its energy to the day ahead market the day before the actual delivery (D-1). In real time, any deviation from the day-ahead schedule is settled in the imbalance market. The uncertainties are modeled using a two stage stochastic programming approach. Three different bidding strategies are studied: ‘static’, ‘flexible DA’ and ‘flexible RT’. The major difference between the studied strategies lies in the dispatch decisions. The ‘static’ strategy does not adjust the scheduled output of the CHP. Whereas, the ‘flexible DA’ and ‘flexible RT’ strategies differ from each other in terms of the information available at the moment of performing the reschedule (second stage decision). The ‘flexible DA’ reschedules the CHP output for the whole day assuming

  19. Energy Fluctuation of Ideal Fermi Gas Trapped under Generic Power Law Potential U=\\sum_{i=1}^{d} c_i\\vert x_{i}/a_{i}\\vert^{n_{i} } in d Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Mehedi Faruk; Muktadir Rahman, Md.; Dwaipayan, Debnath; Sakhawat Hossain Himel, Md.

    2016-04-01

    Energy fluctuation of ideal Fermi gas trapped under generic power law potential U=\\sumi=1d ci \\vertxi/ai \\vert n_i has been calculated in arbitrary dimensions. Energy fluctuation is scrutinized further in the degenerate limit μ ≫ KBT with the help of Sommerfeld expansion. The dependence of energy fluctuation on dimensionality and power law potential is studied in detail. Most importantly our general result can not only exactly reproduce the recently published result regarding free and harmonically trapped ideal Fermi gas in d = 3 but also can describe the outcome for any power law potential in arbitrary dimension.

  20. The generic article

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farkas, D.F.; Swart, Henriëtte de

    2005-01-01

    We take a fresh look at the connection between genericity and (in)definiteness by reconsidering a long-standing puzzle concerning the relation between definiteness and genericity. We contrast English on the one hand and Romance languages and Hungarian on the other, focusing on generic sentences

  1. Simulation of Power Produced by a Building Added PV System in Indonesia using virtual reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, A.J.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study a PV system will be simulated using virtual reality software for PV system simulations -called VR4PV - to show the effectiveness of the modelling of PV systems on buildings which are placed in the tropics. The PV system used for this study has been installed in Papua, Indonesia and

  2. Development of a dose database in the refuelling scenario of a nuclear power plant for a virtual reality application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenas, J.; Zarza, I.; Pascual, A.; Felipe, A.; Sanchez-Mayoral, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Operators in Nuclear Power Plants can receive high doses during refuelling operation. A training program simulating refuelling operations will be useful to reduce doses received by workers as well as to minimise operation time. With this goal in mind a Virtual Reality application is developed in the frame of CIPRES Project (Calculos Interactivos de Proteccion Radiologica en un Entorno de Simulacion - Interactive Calculations of Radiological Protection in a Simulation Environment), a RD project sponsored by IBERINCO and developed jointly by IBERINCO and the Nuclear Engineering Department of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. The Virtual Reality application requires the possibility of displaying doses, both instantaneous and accumulated, at all times during the operator training. Therefore, it is necessary to elaborate a database containing dose rates at every point of the refuelling plant. This database is elaborated from Radiological Protection Surveillance data measured throughout the plant during refuelling operation. To estimate doses throughout the refuelling plant some interpolation routines have been used. Different assumptions have been adopted in order to perform the interpolation and obtain consistent data. In this paper, procedures developed to elaborate the dose database for the Virtual Reality application are presented and analysed

  3. Reducing radiation exposures at nuclear power plants using virtual job planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verzilov, Y.; Husain, A.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Dose Exposure Planning Tool (ADEPT) is an innovative solution for assisting nuclear station staff to effectively minimize worker dose during inspection and maintenance activities and to improve ALARA job planning. ADEPT combines visualization and simulation of the radioactive environment at a nuclear station to estimate worker dose. It allows users to walk through a virtual job plan and receive a live radiation dose estimate for the planned work. (author)

  4. 76 FR 54507 - Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0204] Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic... functions. SSCs in operating nuclear power plants are designed either in accordance with, or have been... nuclear reactors. The background information relevant to this GL includes the individual plant...

  5. The power of virtual integration: an interview with Dell Computer's Michael Dell. Interview by Joan Magretta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, M

    1998-01-01

    Michael Dell started his computer company in 1984 with a simple business insight. He could bypass the dealer channel through which personal computers were then being sold and sell directly to customers, building products to order. Dell's direct model eliminated the dealer's markup and the risks associated with carrying large inventories of finished goods. In this interview, Michael Dell provides a detailed description of how his company is pushing that business model one step further, toward what he calls virtual integration. Dell is using technology and information to blur the traditional boundaries in the value chain between suppliers, manufacturers, and customers. The individual pieces of Dell's strategy--customer focus, supplier partnerships, mass customization, just-in-time manufacturing--may be all be familiar. But Michael Dell's business insight into how to combine them is highly innovative. Direct relationships with customers create valuable information, which in turn allows the company to coordinate its entire value chain back through manufacturing to product design. Dell describes how his company has come to achieve this tight coordination without the "drag effect" of ownership. Dell reaps the advantages of being vertically integrated without incurring the costs, all the while achieving the focus, agility, and speed of a virtual organization. As envisioned by Michael Dell, virtual integration may well become a new organizational model for the information age.

  6. Application Prospect of Block Chain Technology in Virtual Power Plant%区块链技术在虚拟电厂中的应用前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何奇琳; 艾芊

    2017-01-01

    从区块链技术与虚拟电厂的概念和特点出发,通过二者特性的相似点以及虚拟电厂的发展需求,分析了区块链技术与虚拟电厂融合的互补性,重点分析了区块链技术应用于虚拟电厂的可行性;同时,区块链技术与虚拟电厂技术融合后的系统仍存在一些问题,值得思考和关注.%Based on the concept and characteristics of blockchain and virtual power plants,this paper analyzed the complementarity of integration between block chain technology and virtual power plant technology through the similarity of these two technology's characteristics and the development demand of virtual power plants,and focuses on analysis of the feasibility about the blockchain technology used in a virtual power plant.At the same time,the blockchain technology and the virtual power plant technology fusion system still has some problems worthy of our consideration and concern.

  7. Generic Software Architecture for Launchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carre, Emilien; Gast, Philippe; Hiron, Emmanuel; Leblanc, Alain; Lesens, David; Mescam, Emmanuelle; Moro, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    The definition and reuse of generic software architecture for launchers is not so usual for several reasons: the number of European launcher families is very small (Ariane 5 and Vega for these last decades); the real time constraints (reactivity and determinism needs) are very hard; low levels of versatility are required (implying often an ad hoc development of the launcher mission). In comparison, satellites are often built on a generic platform made up of reusable hardware building blocks (processors, star-trackers, gyroscopes, etc.) and reusable software building blocks (middleware, TM/TC, On Board Control Procedure, etc.). If some of these reasons are still valid (e.g. the limited number of development), the increase of the available CPU power makes today an approach based on a generic time triggered middleware (ensuring the full determinism of the system) and a centralised mission and vehicle management (offering more flexibility in the design and facilitating the long term maintenance) achievable. This paper presents an example of generic software architecture which could be envisaged for future launchers, based on the previously described principles and supported by model driven engineering and automatic code generation.

  8. Implementation of an Electric Vehicle Test Bed Controlled by a Virtual Power Plant for Contributing to Regulating Power Reserves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Sacchetti, Dario; Pedersen, Anders Bro

    2012-01-01

    and communication interfaces, is able to respond in real-time to smart grid control signals. The EV test bed is equipped with a Lithium-ion battery pack, a Battery Management System (BMS), a charger and a Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) unit for feeding power back to the grid. The designed solution serves......With the increased focus on Electric Vehicles (EV) research and the potential benefits they bring for smart grid applications, there is a growing need for an evaluation platform connected to the electricity grid. This paper addresses the design of an EV test bed, which using real EV components...... requests from the Danish TSO are used as a proof-of-concept, to demonstrate the EV test bed power response. Test results have proven the capability to respond to frequent power control requests and they reveal the potential EV ability for contributing to regulating power reserves....

  9. DCS upgrades for nuclear power plants: Saving money and reducing risk through virtual-stimulation control system checkout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKim, G.; Yeager, M.; Weirich, C.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear power plant control systems of 1970's vintage have reached the end of their life: reliability is poor and spare parts are hard to come by. At First Energy Perry station, two costly feedwater system trips caused by an ailing analog control system led to the decision to replace it with a modern Foxboro I/A-series Distributed Control System. The simulator was also upgraded using the Virtual-Stim simulation of I/A, called FSIM. Virtual-Stim simulation allows the configuration and graphics from the plant to be downloaded onto the simulator as-is, using the same tools and operator interface as the plant, without imprecise translations, conversions, or other emulation. Advances in simulation technology and market forces have led to an open architecture design, allowing FSIM to be 'bridged' to Perry's existing Opensim simulator process model. This appears to be an industry-wide trend as more control system vendors offer Virtual Stimulation solutions for connection to third-party simulation products. Taking a cue from First Energy's Sammis Station FSIM simulator projects, the Perry simulator was used for dedicated control verification and tuning. Preventing forced outages caused by control configuration errors can result in enormous savings, and the simulator is now required to precede any plant modifications rather than just a training tool that lags the plant. This testing revealed several surprising results for a relatively straightforward control strategy, showing that simulator-based testing will be even more crucial in the future as the remain-der of the balance of plant is migrated to digital control. (author)

  10. Modelling the power conversion unit of a generic nuclear fusion plant, with a dual coolant blanket and a supercritical CO2 power cycle, by means of RELAP5-3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batet, L.

    2015-07-01

    In the framework of the Spanish fusion program TECNO-FUS, a dual coolant blanket design was proposed for DEMO. A generic power conversion system (supercritical recompression CO2 cycle) based on this proposal has been simulated using RELAP5-3D, a multipurpose system thermal-hydraulic code developed by the Idaho National Laboratory (USA). The code allows the dynamic simulation of thermal-hydraulic systems, including the control features. A model has been set up by assembling the available RELAP5-3D components: pipe, branch, pump, compressor, turbine, etc. Thermal fluxes between fluids in heat exchangers are simulated by means of heat structures, which are used as well to simulate the heating from plasma. A number of control features have been designed for the simulated plant, and their parameters have been adjusted. The code is then able to simulate robustly the dynamics of the system with a few boundary conditions. This paper exemplifies the usefulness of the code and model to understand the behavior of the plant and to perform sensitivity analyses of the control parameters or other design features. (Author)

  11. Status of safety issues at licensed power plants: TMI Action Plan requirements, unresolved safety issues, generic safety issues, other multiplant action issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This report is to provide a comprehensive description of the implementation and verification status of Three Mile Island (TMI) Action Plan requirements, safety issues designated as Unresolved Safety Issues (USIs), Generic Safety Issues(GSIs), and other Multiplant Actions (MPAs) that have been resolved and involve implementation of an action or actions by licensees. This report makes the information available to other interested parties, including the public. An additional purpose of this NUREG report is to serve as a follow-on to NUREG-0933, ''A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues,'' which tracks safety issues up until requirements are approved for imposition at licensed plants or until the NRC issues a request for action by licensees

  12. Efficient Generic Functional Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alimarine, A.; Smetsers, J.E.W.

    2005-01-01

    Generic functions are defined by induction on the structural representation of types. As a consequence, by defining just a single generic operation, one acquires this operation over any particular data type. An instance on a specific type is generated by interpretation of the type's structure. A

  13. Optimizing Generic Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alimarine, A.; Smetsers, J.E.W.

    2004-01-01

    Generic functions are defined by induction on the structural representation of types. As a consequence, by defining just a single generic operation, one acquires this operation over any particular type. An instance on a specific type is generated by interpretation of the type's structure. A direct

  14. Summary of replies to the public consultation on the virtual power plants (VPP) system implemented by EDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    From 15 December 2005 to 13 January 2006, CRE organized a public consultation on the Virtual Power Plants (VPP) system implemented by EDF. The questions asked to the contributors concerned: their assessment of the effect of VPP on the French market during the period 2001-2005; their suggestions concerning the continuation or stopping of the current system, or concerning the setting up of a new system of energy or generation capacity release by EDF. Twenty three players in the French electricity market answered this consultation. The replies made by the various contributors to each question are very diversified. This document presents the summary of replies received, question by question. (A.L.B.)

  15. Summary of replies to the public consultation on the virtual power plants (VPP) system implemented by EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    From 15 December 2005 to 13 January 2006, CRE organized a public consultation on the Virtual Power Plants (VPP) system implemented by EDF. The questions asked to the contributors concerned: their assessment of the effect of VPP on the French market during the period 2001-2005; their suggestions concerning the continuation or stopping of the current system, or concerning the setting up of a new system of energy or generation capacity release by EDF. Twenty three players in the French electricity market answered this consultation. The replies made by the various contributors to each question are very diversified. This document presents the summary of replies received, question by question. (A.L.B.)

  16. Improving the Stability and Accuracy of Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation Using Virtual Impedance Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Zha

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL systems are advanced, real-time platforms for combined software and hardware testing. Two paramount issues in PHIL simulations are the closed-loop stability and simulation accuracy. This paper presents a virtual impedance (VI method for PHIL simulations that improves the simulation’s stability and accuracy. Through the establishment of an impedance model for a PHIL simulation circuit, which is composed of a voltage-source converter and a simple network, the stability and accuracy of the PHIL system are analyzed. Then, the proposed VI method is implemented in a digital real-time simulator and used to correct the combined impedance in the impedance model, achieving higher stability and accuracy of the results. The validity of the VI method is verified through the PHIL simulation of two typical PHIL examples.

  17. An Efficient Power Estimation Methodology for Complex RISC Processor-based Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Rethinagiri , Santhosh Kumar; Ben Atitallah , Rabie; Dekeyser , Jean-Luc; Niar , Smail; Senn , Eric

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In this contribution, we propose an efficient power estima- tion methodology for complex RISC processor-based plat- forms. In this methodology, the Functional Level Power Analysis (FLPA) is used to set up generic power models for the different parts of the system. Then, a simulation framework based on virtual platform is developed to evalu- ate accurately the activities used in the related power mod- els. The combination of the two parts above leads to a het- erogeneou...

  18. Server virtualization solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Jonasts, Gusts

    2012-01-01

    Currently in the information technology sector that is responsible for a server infrastructure is a huge development in the field of server virtualization on x86 computer architecture. As a prerequisite for such a virtualization development is growth in server productivity and underutilization of available computing power. Several companies in the market are working on two virtualization architectures – hypervizor and hosting. In this paper several of virtualization products that use host...

  19. Short-term Wind Forecasting to Support Virtual Power Player Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Sérgio; Soares, João; Pinto, Tiago; Vale, Zita

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a wind speed forecasting model that contributes to the development and implementation of adequate methodologies for Energy Resource Man-agement in a distribution power network, with intensive use of wind based power generation. The proposed fore-casting methodology aims to support the operation in the scope of the intraday resources scheduling model, name-ly with a time horizon of 10 minutes. A case study using a real database from the meteoro-logical station installed ...

  20. Regional virtual power plant. State of the art; Regionales virtuelles Kraftwerk. Eine Ist-Stand-Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, Joachim; Meinzenbach, Andrea [TU Dresden (Germany). Professur fuer Gebaeudeenergietechnik und Waermeversorgung; Hartan, Joerg [VNG Gasspeicher GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Fachgruppe fuer Automatisierung und Prozessleittechnik; Schegner, Peter [TU Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Elektrische Energieversorgung und Hochspannungstechnik; Rehkopf, Andreas [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Automatisierungstechnik

    2013-04-15

    The politically and socially desired rearrangement of the energy sector in Germany becomes very challenging for the regional and national utility company. In particular, the integration of renewable energy sources into the power structures is mentioned. The activities mainly focus on the electric power sector. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on two current research projects. These research projects look for solutions in order to operate micro-CHP systems in the network in addition to the isolated operation.

  1. Tidal power: will it bring 40 years of virtually free power, or is it still no more than a dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C

    1978-04-01

    First proposed in Canada in 1919, the use of tidal power to generate electricity remains a well-studied but unproved option. The Cumberland Basin has been recommended for research and engineering studies as a possible site. A single-effect system is preferred over a double-effect system for the Bay of Fundy area because of construction costs. Although major problems arise because the lunar cycle and solar cycles do not coincide, tidal power could provide utility base loads. No significant dampening of the tidal effect was seen to be caused by a dam across open water, but other complications remain to be solved. System stability, the effect of dredging and sedimentation, social and ecological impacts will be examined in the next phase of assessment. A coalition of conservationists will monitor the environmental study. (DCK)

  2. Improvement of core monitoring code cecor by the virtual segmentation of the self powered neutron detector loaded at Korean Standard Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, T.; Jung, Y.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Korean Standard Nuclear Plant uses Self Powered Neutron Detectors (SPNDs) to measure the neutron flux in the reactor core. The SPND's height is 40 cm and is located axially at the five different positions and 45 radial places. The design code simulated a reactor core is calculated by segmentation of the core. The segmentation is called as 'node', of which size is normally 20 cm. The axial height of the detector is larger than that of the node, and the larger detector's height maybe product some error on the axially complex shape. The analysis with the detector's signals showed some errors at the non-cosine axial flux shape. In order to reduce the errors for the shape, we tried to divide the detector by introducing the virtual boundary in the detector. Then, each axially 5 detectors had two virtual segmentations respectively and the detector's signal was divided by the inputs. So the more virtual detector's signals were gotten, the more accurate axial shape was produced. The result with virtual segmentations in a detector gave less deviation than the case without virtual segmentation (the current model). After the middle of cycle at the initial core specially, the axial neutron flux shape is changed to the saddle type one. The current model gave some error in Root Mean Square (RMS) between the measured value and the calculated one. The virtual segmentation model gave the better agreement at that time

  3. Instruction by virtual reality to operation and security of a nuclear power plant of IV generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri O, J. C.; Baltasar M, J.; Valle H, J.

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of LaNuVi project which is developing in the Engineering Faculty of National Autonomous University of Mexico, to have a virtual laboratory of nuclear reactors as tool of multidisciplinary education at basic and advanced levels in nuclear engineering area, involves training resources in audio visual and interactive form that allow to form a comprehension more realistic of operation of different systems and components. In this work is proposed to use educational resources, as the employees in the U.S. Army and in some centers of advanced education of medicine, where have been come proving concepts like projected reality, increased reality, tele transparency and others that present big benefits to learning-education process. The proposal here is to include the resource knew as serious game based learning. The focal point of stage that is presented is of a nuclear reactor PBMR like desalination and generator of controlled alternating energy and efficient that should put on in operation to allow the subsistence of a community in a desolated region of beginning second quarter of X XI century. For this purpose the designs are initiated and programmed several subsystems that allow the three-dimensional modeling of main components of a PBMR as well as of surrounding facilities. The obtained results and reaches of this design are presented. The product is in tests for a first version and it is hope to achieve a free and integral resource of national distribution for different cultural groups, interested in this type of advanced technology. (Author)

  4. Generic antibiotics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Shigeru; Watanabe, Akira

    2012-08-01

    Generic drugs have been used extensively in many developed countries, although their use in Japan has been limited. Generic drugs reduce drug expenses and thereby national medical expenditure. Because generic drugs provide advantages for both public administration and consumers, it is expected that they will be more widely used in the future. However, the diffusion rate of generic drugs in Japan is quite low compared with that of other developed countries. An investigation on generic drugs conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan revealed that 17.2 % of doctors and 37.2 % of patients had not used generic drugs. The major reasons for this low use rate included distrust of off-patent products and lower drug price margin compared with the brand name drug. The generic drugs available in the market include external drugs such as wet packs, antihypertensive agents, analgesics, anticancer drugs, and antibiotics. Among them, antibiotics are frequently used in cases of acute infectious diseases. When the treatment of these infections is delayed, the infection might be aggravated rapidly. The pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) theory has been adopted in recent chemotherapy, and in many cases, the most appropriate dosage and administration of antibiotics are determined for individual patients considering renal function; high-dosage antibiotics are used preferably for a short duration. Therefore, a highly detailed antimicrobial agent is necessary. However, some of the generic antibiotics have less antibacterial potency or solubility than the brand name products. We showed that the potency of the generic products of vancomycin and teicoplanin is lower than that of the branded drugs by 14.6 % and 17.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed that a generic meropenem drug for injection required about 82 s to solubilize in saline, whereas the brand product required only about 21 s. It was thought that the cause may be the difference in size of bulk

  5. Virtual Organizations: Beyond Network Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Gabriel CRETU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most used buzz-words in (e-business literature of the last decade is virtual organization. The term "virtual" can be identified in all sorts of combinations regarding the business world. From virtual products to virtual processes or virtual teams, everything that is “touched” by the computer’s processing power instantly becomes virtual. Moreover, most of the literature treats virtual and network organizations as being synonyms. This paper aims to draw a much more distinctive line between the two concepts. Providing a more coherent description of what virtual organization might be is also one of our intentions.

  6. Facilitating sustainability through smart network design in combination with virtual power plant operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Bakari, K.; Kling, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    While smart grids are considered as an outcome to integrate a high penetration level of dispersed generation (DG) in the power system, most distribution networks are still passive controlled. To accelerate the transition towards smart grids network operators can take two important steps: 1.

  7. Practicing the Generic (City)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2010-01-01

    Flanagan proposes that most locative media artworks neglect the particularities of spaces, their historical and political layers. Koolhaas, on the other hand, states that all urban areas are alike, that we are facing a global Generic City. The paper analyses digital media artist Esther Polak......’s NomadicMILK project in light of the generic and particular properties of space as laid out by Flanagan and Koolhaas in order to discuss the possible reconfiguring practices of locative media....

  8. Virtual reality applied in the ergonomic evaluation of nuclear power plant control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatto, Leandro Barbosa da Silveira

    2012-01-01

    A nuclear power plant control room is a complex system that controls a nuclear and thermodynamic process used to produce electrical energy. The operators interact with the control room through interfaces that have significant implications to nuclear power plant safety and influence the operator activity. The operator activity presents complexity features and shows a series of mechanisms absents from the human factors guidelines, important to the evaluation and update of control rooms. The ergonomics approach considers the operation strategies, the interaction between the operators, the operator-system interaction, and interaction between operators and support groups. The main objective of this paper is propose the modeling of a nuclear control room, with the support of a game engine core. This tool will be used in the ergonomic evaluation of nuclear control room, generating information and data that will make possible the adequacy of control rooms features to the legal requirements of the regulating agency, assisting the nuclear licensing. (author)

  9. Restricted conformal invariance in QCD and its predictive power for virtual two-photon processes

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, D

    1998-01-01

    The conformal algebra provides powerful constraints, which guarantee that renormalized conformally covariant operators exist in the hypothetical conformal limit of the theory, where the $\\beta$-function vanishes. Thus, in this limit also the conformally covariant operator product expansion on the light cone holds true. This operator product expansion has predictive power for two-photon processes in the generalized Bjorken region. Only the Wilson coefficients and the anomalous dimensions that are known from deep inelastic scattering are required for the prediction of all other two-photon processes in terms of the process-dependent off-diagonal expectation values of conformal operators. It is checked that the next-to-leading order calculations for the flavour non-singlet meson transition form factors are consistent with the corrections to the corresponding Wilson coefficients in deep inelasitic scattering.

  10. Divestiture or virtual power plants - the solution to the problem of the dominant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppens, F.

    2005-01-01

    The European commission adopted the directive on 'the common rules for the creation of the internal electricity market' in 1996. After about ten years, it seems that in many smaller countries the historical producer remains dominant in the national market. This is the case for Belgium, where historical reasons and limited interconnection capacity resulted in a market share between 70% and 80% (depending on whether the interconnections are taken into account) for the historical producer Electrabel. This might potentially lead to an abuse of market power. Moreover, the wholesale margins seem to be higher in Belgium than e.g. in the Netherlands. Many argue that divestiture or additional VPP might solve the problem. This paper argues that there is no doubt whatsoever that divestiture and VPP will increase competition. However, whether it will also increase efficiency depends strongly on the specific context. It is shown that the existence of margins might be due to other causes than the abuse of market power and as a consequence that divestiture and VPP might not be the solution. (Author)

  11. Scripting XML with Generic Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atanassow, F.; Clarke, D.; Jeuring, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    A generic program is written once and works on values of many data types. Generic Haskell is a recent extension of the functional programming language Haskell that supports generic programming. This paper discusses how Generic Haskell can be used to implement XML tools whose behaviour depends on

  12. Scripting XML with Generic Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atanassow, F.; Clarke, D.; Jeuring, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    A generic program is written once and works on values of many data types. Generic Haskell is a recent extension of the functional programming language Haskell that supports generic programming. This paper discusses how Generic Haskell can be used to implement XML tools whose behaviour depends on

  13. Virtualization A Manager's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Kusnetzky, Dan

    2011-01-01

    What exactly is virtualization? As this concise book explains, virtualization is a smorgasbord of technologies that offer organizations many advantages, whether you're managing extremely large stores of rapidly changing data, scaling out an application, or harnessing huge amounts of computational power. With this guide, you get an overview of the five main types of virtualization technology, along with information on security, management, and modern use cases. Topics include: Access virtualization-Allows access to any application from any deviceApplication virtualization-Enables applications

  14. Status of safety issues at licensed power plants: TMI Action Plan requirements; unresolved safety issues; generic safety issues; other multiplant action issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    As part of ongoing US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) efforts to ensure the quality and accountability of safety issue information, the NRC established a program for publishing an annual report on the status of licensee implementation and NRC verification of safety issues in major NRC requirements areas. This information was initially compiled and reported in three NUREG-series volumes. Volume 1, published in March 1991, addressed the status of Three Mile Island (TMI) Action Plan Requirements. Volume 2, published in May 1991, addressed the status of unresolved safety issues (USIs). Volume 3, published in June 1991, addressed the implementation and verification status of generic safety issues (GSIs). The first annual supplement, which combined these volumes into a single report and presented updated information as of September 30, 1991, was published in December 1991. The second annual supplement, which provided updated information as of September 30, 1992, was published in December 1992. Supplement 2 also provided the status of licensee implementation and NRC verification of other multiplant action (MPA) issues not related to TMI Action Plan requirements, USIs, or GSIs. This third annual NUREG report, Supplement 3, presents updated information as of September 30, 1993. This report gives a comprehensive description of the implementation and verification status of TMI Action Plan requirements, safety issues designated as USIs, GSIs, and other MPAs that have been resolved and involve implementation of an action or actions by licensees. This report makes the information available to other interested parties, including the public. Additionally, this report serves as a follow-on to NUREG-0933, ''A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues,'' which tracks safety issues until requirements are approved for imposition at licensed plants or until the NRC issues a request for action by licensees

  15. Status of safety issues at licensed power plants: TMI Action Plan requirements, unresolved safety issues, generic safety issues, other multiplant action issues. Supplement 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    As part of ongoing US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) efforts to ensure the quality and accountability of safety issue information, the NRC established a program for publishing an annual report on the status of licensee implementation and NRC verification of safety issues in major NRC requirements areas. This information was initially compiled and reported in three NUREG-series volumes. Volume 1, published in March 1991, addressed the status of Three Mile Island (TMI) Action Plan Requirements. Volume 2, published in May 1991, addressed the status of unresolved safety issues (USIs). Volume 3, published in June 1991, addressed the implementation and verification status of generic safety issues (GSIs). The first annual supplement, which combined these volumes into a single report and presented updated information as of September 30, 1991, was published in December 1991. The second annual supplement, which provided updated information as of September 30, 1992, was published in December 1992. Supplement 2 also provided the status of licensee implementation and NRC verification of other multiplant action (MPA) issues not related to TMI Action Plan requirements, USIs, or GSIs. Supplement 3 gives status as of September 30, 1993. This annual report, Supplement 4, presents updated information as of September 30, 1994. This report gives a comprehensive description of the implementation and verification status of TMI Action Plan requirements, safety issues designated as USIs, GSIs, and other MPAs that have been resolved and involve implementation of an action or actions by licensees. This report makes the information available to other interested parties, including the public. Additionally, this report serves as a follow-on to NUREG-0933, ''A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues,'' which tracks safety issues until requirements are approved for imposition at licensed plants or until the NRC issues a request for action by licensees

  16. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-01-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies. - Highlights: ► The history of phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is given. ► Generic PI treatments in use today are discussed. ► Suggestions for future research are presented. ► A dose of 250 Gy for most insects may suffice.

  17. Virtually teaching virtual leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus; Nielsen, Rikke Kristine; Børgesen, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the challenges to virtual collaboration and leadership on basis of findings from a virtual course on collaboration and leadership. The course used for this experiment was designed as a practical approach, which allowed participants to experience curriculum phenomena....... This experimental course provided insights into the challenges involved in virtual processes, and those experiences where used for addressing the challenges that virtual leadership is confronted with. Emphasis was placed on the reduction of undesired virtual distance and its consequences through affinity building....... We found that student scepticism appeared when a breakdown resulted in increasing virtual distance, and raises questions on how leaders might translate or upgrade their understandings of leadership to handling such increased distance through affinity building....

  18. Generic robot architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  19. An Internet of Things Generic Reference Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhalerao, Dipashree M.; Riaz, Tahir; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2013-01-01

    Internet of things Network is a future application of Internet. This network has three major basic blocks as business process or Application, core network or internetwork and peripheral network as Things or objects. The assembly has the basic intention of connecting all physical and virtual things......, and keeping track of all these things for monitoring and controlling some information. IoT architecture is studied from software architecture, overall system architecture and network architecture point of view. Paper puts forward the requirements of software architecture along with, its component...... and deployment diagram, process and interface diagram at abstract level. Paper proposes the abstract generic IoT reference and concrete abstract generic IoT reference architectures. Network architecture is also put up as a state of the art. Paper shortly gives overviews of protocols used for IoT. Some...

  20. Integration of generic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, D.

    1989-01-01

    The NRC has recognized the need to integrate generic issues (GIs). The GI process includes a number of phases, all of which should recognize the potential for overlap and conflict among related issues. In addition to the issues themselves, other related NRC and industry programs and activities need to be factored into the GI process. Integration has taken place, or is taking place, for a number of GIs. Each case of integration involves a specific set of circumstances and, as a result, the way in which integration proceeds can vary. This paper discusses the integration of issues in the generic issue process and provides a number of examples

  1. Rethinking generic skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Canning

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a critical analysis of the notion of generic or transversal skillscontained with European Union policy discourses. The author presents a conceptualframework that challenges the idea that generic skills are universal, transferable andautonomous. An alternative analysis is put forward that argues the case forcontextualising skills and knowledge within particular understandings and cultures thatare more collective than individualistic in nature. The arguments are framed withinwider cross-disciplinary debates in linguistics, geosemiotics and social-cultural theoryand build upon an earlier paper exploring core skills in the UK (Canning, 2007.

  2. Generic clearance values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, M.C.; Muniz, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document 'Safety Reports Series Nr 44' of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (author)

  3. Generic Clearance Values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, M.C.; Muniz, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on the one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document Safety Reports Series 44 of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (authors) [es

  4. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-07-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.

  5. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallman, Guy J [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Weslaco, TX (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies. (author)

  6. The generic strategy trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D

    1992-01-01

    Management experts claim that for a company to thrive, it must concentrate on a single generic strategy--on one thing it does better than its rivals. But specialization also has its disadvantages. The author suggests that a broader, mixed approach may be preferable.

  7. Generic magnetic fusion reactor cost assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Fusion Energy Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory discusses ''generic'' magnetic fusion reactors. The author comments on DT burning magnetic fusion reactor models being possibly operational in the 21st century. Representative parameters from D-T reactor studies are given, as well as a shematic diagram of a generic fusion reactor. Values are given for winding pack current density for existing and future superconducting coils. Topics included are the variation of the cost of electricity (COE), the dependence of the COE on the net electric power of the reactor, and COE formula definitions

  8. A medium-term coalition-forming model of heterogeneous DERs for a commercial virtual power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabanzadeh, Morteza; Sheikh-El-Eslami, Mohammad-Kazem; Haghifam, Mahmoud-Reza

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A medium-term coalition-forming scheme is proposed for commercial VPPs. • Decision making on the optimal selection of VPP coalition members, bilateral and forward contracting, and pool involvement. • VPP acts as an arbitrageur by exercising arbitrage between diverse energy trading floors. • Stochastic programming approach applied to characterize the uncertainty and to derive informed decisions. - Abstract: Within a medium-term market horizon, this research work provides a methodology that allows a commercial virtual power plant (CVPP) to form an optimal coalition of heterogeneous distributed energy resources (DERs) based on weekly bilateral contracting, futures-market involvement, and pool participation. The established model aims at composing an optimal portfolio of available DERs and jointly takes into account the risk associated with the energy trading strategy of the CVPP. Perceiving the fact that pool prices have highly uncertain nature, a framework based on stochastic programming approach is utilized to model this decision-making problem. The proposed framework consists of two stages. The first stage deals with decisions regarding DERs optimal selection for the VPP coalition, the amount of agreed quantity in the bilateral negotiation, and the type and quantity selection of futures-market contracts as well. In the second stage, decisions are made based on the most plausible realizations of the stochastic prices in the day-ahead market. For a given pre-specified risk level on profit volatility, the main objective is to maximize the expected profit for the VPP manager over the planning horizon. The efficiency and applicability of the developed model is illustrated and analyzed by its implementation in a system with few heterogeneous DERs and through different scenarios, and finally thereby meaningful conclusions are duly drawn.

  9. Co-ordinated research programme on benchmark study for the seismic analysis and testing of WWER-type nuclear power plants. V. 2. Generic material: Codes, standards, criteria. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Co-ordinated research programme on the benchmark study for the seismic analysis and testing of WWER-type nuclear power plants was initiated subsequent to the request from representatives of Member States. The conclusions adopted at the Technical Committee Meeting on Seismic Issues related to existing nuclear power plants held in Tokyo in 1991 called for the harmonization of methods and criteria used in Member States in issues related to seismic safety. The Consulltants' Meeting which followed resulted in producing a working document for CRP. It was decided that a benchmark study is the most effective way to achieve the principal objective. Two types of WWER reactors (WWER-440/213 and WWER-1000) were selected as prototypes for the benchmark exercise to be tested on a full scale using explosions and/or vibration generators. The two prototypes are Kozloduy Units 5/6 for WWER-1000 and Paks for WWER-440/213 nuclear power plants. This volume of Working material contains reports related to generic material, namely codes, standards and criteria for benchmark analysis.

  10. Co-ordinated research programme on benchmark study for the seismic analysis and testing of WWER-type nuclear power plants. V. 2. Generic material: Codes, standards, criteria. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Co-ordinated research programme on the benchmark study for the seismic analysis and testing of WWER-type nuclear power plants was initiated subsequent to the request from representatives of Member States. The conclusions adopted at the Technical Committee Meeting on Seismic Issues related to existing nuclear power plants held in Tokyo in 1991 called for the harmonization of methods and criteria used in Member States in issues related to seismic safety. The Consulltants' Meeting which followed resulted in producing a working document for CRP. It was decided that a benchmark study is the most effective way to achieve the principal objective. Two types of WWER reactors (WWER-440/213 and WWER-1000) were selected as prototypes for the benchmark exercise to be tested on a full scale using explosions and/or vibration generators. The two prototypes are Kozloduy Units 5/6 for WWER-1000 and Paks for WWER-440/213 nuclear power plants. This volume of Working material contains reports related to generic material, namely codes, standards and criteria for benchmark analysis

  11. Variable Speed (DFIG) Wind Turbines: Rapid Frequency Response to Power System Disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of integrating large number of wind turbines particularly the double fed induction generator (DFIG) on the virtual inertia of the Danish power system network. The virtual inertia refers to the kinetic energy stored in the rotating masses which can be released...... initially to counter act the frequency change during a power system disturbance. Simulation studies have been carried out on a generic reduced model of a transmission power grid of the Danish TSO Energinet.dk to assess the impact of loss of generation on system frequency. Further, simulation study has been...

  12. Generic Properties of Curvature Sensing through Vision and Touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Dresp-Langley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Generic properties of curvature representations formed on the basis of vision and touch were examined as a function of mathematical properties of curved objects. Virtual representations of the curves were shown on a computer screen for visual scaling by sighted observers (experiment 1. Their physical counterparts were placed in the two hands of blindfolded and congenitally blind observers for tactile scaling. The psychophysical data show that curvature representations in congenitally blind individuals, who never had any visual experience, and in sighted observers, who rely on vision most of the time, are statistically linked to the same mathematical properties of the curves. The perceived magnitude of object curvature, sensed through either vision or touch, is related by a mathematical power law, with similar exponents for the two sensory modalities, to the aspect ratio of the curves, a scale invariant geometric property. This finding supports biologically motivated models of sensory integration suggesting a universal power law for the adaptive brain control and balance of motor responses to environmental stimuli from any sensory modality.

  13. Prioritization of generic safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrit, R.; Minners, W.; VanderMolen, H.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents the priority rankings for generic safety issues related to nuclear power plants. The purpose of these rankings is to assist in the timely and efficient allocation of NRC resources for the resolution of those safety issues that have a significant potential for reducing risk. The report focuses on the prioritization of generic safety issues. Issues primarily concerned with the licensing process or environmental protection and not directly related to safety have been excluded from prioritization. The prioritized issues include: TMI Action Plan items under development; previously proposed issues covered by Task Action Plans, except issues designated at Unresolved Safety Issues (USIs) which had already been assigned high priority; and newly-proposed issues. Future supplements to this report will include the prioritization of additional issues. The safety priority rankings are HIGH, MEDIUM, LOW, and DROP and have been assigned on the basis of risk significance estimates, the ratio of risk to costs and other impacts estimated to result if resolutions of the safety issues were implemented, and the consideration of uncertainties and other quantitative or qualitative factors. To the extent practical, estimates are quantitative

  14. Final environmental statement related to the proposed manufacture of floating nuclear power plants by Offshore Power Systems: (Docket No. STN 50-437): Part 2, A generic environmental statement considering the siting and operation of floating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of a manufacturing license to Offshore Power Systems for the startup and operation of a proposed manufacturing facility located at Blount Island, Jacksonville, Florida (Docket No. STN 50-437). No nuclear fuel will be handled or stored at the manufacturing site. The plants will be fueled after they have been towed to and moored within protected basins at specific locations designated by the purchaser and after an operating license has been issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Each nuclear generating plant, mounted on a floating platform, has a net capacity of 1150 MWe. This energy is provided by a pressurized water reactor steam supply system consisting of a Westinghouse four-loop 3425-MWt unit with an ice-condenser containment system. When one or more of these units is located within a single breakwater, the installation is designated an offshore power station. Volume 2 contains the siting criteria, regulations, effects of construction, effects of operation, and a safety analysis. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Virtual screening of compound libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Nuno M F S A; Sousa, Sérgio F; Fernandes, Pedro A; Ramos, Maria João

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade, Virtual Screening (VS) has definitively established itself as an important part of the drug discovery and development process. VS involves the selection of likely drug candidates from large libraries of chemical structures by using computational methodologies, but the generic definition of VS encompasses many different methodologies. This chapter provides an introduction to the field by reviewing a variety of important aspects, including the different types of virtual screening methods, and the several steps required for a successful virtual screening campaign within a state-of-the-art approach, from target selection to postfilter application. This analysis is further complemented with a small collection important VS success stories.

  16. The power of Virtual Globes for valorising cultural heritage and enabling sustainable tourism: NASA World Wind applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovelli, M.; Hogan, P.; Minghini, M.; Zamboni, G.

    2013-10-01

    Inspired by the visionary idea of Digital Earth, as well as from the tremendous improvements in geo-technologies, use of virtual globes has been changing the way people approach to geographic information on the Web. Unlike the traditional 2D-visualization typical of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), virtual globes offer multi-dimensional, fully-realistic content visualization which allows for a much richer user experience. This research investigates the potential for using virtual globes to foster tourism and enhance cultural heritage. The paper first outlines the state of the art for existing virtual globes, pointing out some possible categorizations according to license type, platform-dependence, application type, default layers, functionalities and freedom of customization. Based on this analysis, the NASA World Wind virtual globe is the preferred tool for promoting tourism and cultural heritage. This is because its open source nature allows unlimited customization (in terms of both data and functionalities), and its Java core supports platform-independence. Relevant tourism-oriented World Wind-based applications, dealing with both the Web promotion of historical cartography and the setup of a participatory Web platform exploiting crowd-sourced data, are described. Finally, the paper presents a project focusing on the promotion of the Via Regina area (crossing the border between Italy and Switzerland) through an ad hoc World Wind customization. World Wind can thus be considered an ideal virtual globe for tourism applications, as it can be shaped to increase awareness of cultural history and, in turn, enhance touristic experience.

  17. Generic and biosimilar medicines: quid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Simoens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Once intellectual property protection, data and marketing exclusivity of reference medicines have expired, generic medicines and biosimilar medicines can enter the off-patent market. This market entry is conditional on the approval of marketing authorization, pricing and reimbursement. Given that there tends to be confusion surrounding generic and biosimilar medicines, this Editorial introduces basic concepts related to generic and biosimilar medicines and presents the different studies and articles included in this supplement dedicated to generic and biosimilar medicines.

  18. Generics Pricing: The Greek Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karafyllis, Ioannis; Variti, Lamprini

    2017-01-01

    This paper explains and develops a methodological framework to help evaluate the performance of generic pharmaceutical policies and the correct evaluation of generics sales. Until today erroneous recording of generics does not help proper pricing and their penetration in the Greek market. This classifies Greece on the outliners in every study or comparison that is referred on papers or studies.

  19. Training simulators for power plant operation based in multimedia, intelligent tutorials and virtual reality; Simuladores para entrenamiento en la operacion de centrales basados en multimedia, tutores inteligentes y realidad virtual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossano Roman, Miguel; Tavira Mondragon, Jose A.; Romero Jimenez, Guillermo; Buenabad Arias, Maria de los Angeles [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The possibility of utilizing simulators to support the fossil fuel power plants operation personnel training, is analyzed. These simulators can be based in multimedia, intelligent tutorials and virtual reality. The software and hardware advances of these technologies are analyzed and it is concluded that the simulators development for operators training supported in the fore mentioned technologies represents a new alternative for the instruction of personnel of this type of power stations that has to be analyzed and evaluated, since one of the disadvantages of this type of technologies is the equipment and software investment cost [Espanol] Se analiza la posibilidad de utilizar simuladores para ayudar al entrenamiento del personal en la operacion de centrales termoelectricas, dichos simuladores pueden estar basados en multimedia, tutores inteligentes y realidad virtual. Se describen los avances en software y hardware de estas tecnologias y se concluye en que el desarrollo de simuladores para el entrenamiento de operadores apoyados con las tecnologias antes mencionadas representa una nueva alternativa para la instruccion del personal de este tipo de centrales, que hay que analizar y evaluar, ya que una de las desventajas de este tipo de tecnologias es el costo de inversion en equipo y software

  20. Training simulators for power plant operation based in multimedia, intelligent tutorials and virtual reality; Simuladores para entrenamiento en la operacion de centrales basados en multimedia, tutores inteligentes y realidad virtual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossano Roman, Miguel; Tavira Mondragon, Jose A; Romero Jimenez, Guillermo; Buenabad Arias, Maria de los Angeles [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The possibility of utilizing simulators to support the fossil fuel power plants operation personnel training, is analyzed. These simulators can be based in multimedia, intelligent tutorials and virtual reality. The software and hardware advances of these technologies are analyzed and it is concluded that the simulators development for operators training supported in the fore mentioned technologies represents a new alternative for the instruction of personnel of this type of power stations that has to be analyzed and evaluated, since one of the disadvantages of this type of technologies is the equipment and software investment cost [Espanol] Se analiza la posibilidad de utilizar simuladores para ayudar al entrenamiento del personal en la operacion de centrales termoelectricas, dichos simuladores pueden estar basados en multimedia, tutores inteligentes y realidad virtual. Se describen los avances en software y hardware de estas tecnologias y se concluye en que el desarrollo de simuladores para el entrenamiento de operadores apoyados con las tecnologias antes mencionadas representa una nueva alternativa para la instruccion del personal de este tipo de centrales, que hay que analizar y evaluar, ya que una de las desventajas de este tipo de tecnologias es el costo de inversion en equipo y software

  1. Virtual Globes: Serving Science and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Qureshi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Globes reached the mass market in 2005. They created multi-million dollar businesses in a very short time by providing novel ways to explore data geographically. We use the term “Virtual Globes” as the common denominator for technologies offering capabilities to annotate, edit and publish geographic information to a world-wide audience and to visualize information provided by the public and private sectors, as well as by citizens who volunteer new data. Unfortunately, but not surprising for a new trend or paradigm, overlapping terms such as “Virtual Globes”, “Digital Earth”, “Geospatial Web”, “Geoportal” or software specific terms are used heterogeneously. We analyze the terminologies and trends in scientific publications and ask whether these developments serve science and society. While usage can be answered quantitatively, the authors reason from the literature studied that these developments serve to educate the masses and may help to democratize geographic information by extending the producer base. We believe that we can contribute to a better distinction between software centered terms and the generic concept as such. The power of the visual, coupled with the potential of spatial analysis and modeling for public and private purposes raises new issues of reliability, standards, privacy and best practice. This is increasingly addressed in scientific literature but the required body of knowledge is still in its infancy.

  2. Generic Reed Solomon Encorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Mursanto

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Reed Solomon (RS codes is a mechanism to detect and correct burst of errors in data transmission and storage systems. It provides a solid introduction to foundation mathematical concept of Galois Field algebra and its application. With the development of digital hardware technology, the RS concepts were brought into reality, i.e. the implementation of RS codec chips. This paper presents the development steps of a generic RS encoder using VHDL. The encoder is able to handle generic width of data, variable length of information, number of error as well as variable form of primitive polynomial and generator polynomial used in the system. The design has been implemented for FPGA chip Xilinx XC3S200-5FT256 and has a better performance than commercially available equivalent encoder.

  3. Generic safety documentation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ''core'' upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information

  4. Comparison of generic-to-brand switchback patterns for generic and authorized generic drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Richard A.; Qian, Jingjing; Berg, Richard; Linneman, James; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Dutcher, Sarah K.; Raofi, Saeid; Page, C. David; Peissig, Peggy

    2018-01-01

    Background While generic drugs are therapeutically equivalent to brand drugs, some patients and healthcare providers remain uncertain about whether they produce identical outcomes. Authorized generics, which are identical in formulation to corresponding brand drugs but marketed as a generic, provide a unique post-marketing opportunity to study whether utilization patterns are influenced by perceptions of generic drugs. Objectives To compare generic-to-brand switchback rates between generics and authorized generics. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using claims and electronic health records data from a regional U.S. healthcare system. Ten drugs with authorized generics and generics marketed between 1999 and 2014 were evaluated. Eligible adult patients received a brand drug during the 6 months preceding generic entry, and then switched to a generic or authorized generic. Patients in this cohort were followed for up to 30 months from the index switch date to evaluate occurrence of generic-to-brand switchbacks. Switchback rates were compared between patients on authorized generics versus generics using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for individual drug effects, age, sex, Charlson comorbidity score, pre-index drug use characteristics, and pre-index healthcare utilization. Results Among 5,542 unique patients that switched from brand-to-generic or brand-to-authorized generic, 264 (4.8%) switched back to the brand drug. Overall switchback rates were similar for authorized generics compared with generics (HR=0.86; 95% CI 0.65-1.15). The likelihood of switchback was higher for alendronate (HR=1.64; 95% CI 1.20-2.23) and simvastatin (HR=1.81; 95% CI 1.30-2.54) and lower for amlodipine (HR=0.27; 95% CI 0.17-0.42) compared with other drugs in the cohort. Conclusions Overall switchback rates were similar between authorized generic and generic drug users, indirectly supporting similar efficacy and tolerability profiles for

  5. Developing a virtual reality application for training Nuclear Power Plant operators: Setting up a database containing dose rates in the refuelling plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenas, J.; Zarza, I.; Burgos, M. C.; Felipe, A.; Sanchez-Mayoral, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    Operators in Nuclear Power Plants can receive high doses during refuelling operations. A training programme for simulating refuelling operations will be useful in reducing the doses received by workers as well as minimising operation time. With this goal in mind, a virtual reality application is developed within the framework of the CIPRES project. The application requires doses, both instantaneous and accumulated, to be displayed at all times during operator training. Therefore, it is necessary to set up a database containing dose rates at every point in the refuelling plant. This database is based on radiological protection surveillance data measured in the plant during refuelling operations. Some interpolation routines have been used to estimate doses through the refuelling plant. Different assumptions have been adopted in order to perform the interpolation and obtain consistent data. In this paper, the procedures developed to set up the dose database for the virtual reality application are presented and analysed. (authors)

  6. 76 FR 21800 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Generic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... precision requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response... Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative... Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service...

  7. 76 FR 24920 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... precision requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response... Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service... Information Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback...

  8. 76 FR 35069 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... precision requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response...; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on... (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery...

  9. 76 FR 17861 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods...; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery... Information Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback...

  10. 76 FR 25693 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods... Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service... Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency...

  11. Virtual colonoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonoscopy - virtual; CT colonography; Computed tomographic colonography; Colography - virtual ... Differences between virtual and conventional colonoscopy include: VC can view the colon from many different angles. This is not as easy ...

  12. Benefits of Digital Equipment Generic Qualification Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, James E.; Steiman, Samuel C.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control obsolescence issues, there have been numerous activities during recent years relating to the qualification of digital equipment. Some of these activities have been 'generic' in nature in that the qualification was not limited to plant specific applications, but was intended to cover a broad base of potential applications of the digital equipment. These generic qualifications have been funded by equipment manufacturers and by utility groups and organizations. The generic activities sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have been pilot projects for an overall generic qualification approach. The primary benefit resulting from the generic qualification work to date is that a number of digital platforms and digital devices are now available for use in various nuclear safety-related applications. Many of the tests and evaluations necessary to support plant specific applications have been completed. The amount of data and documentation that each utility must develop on a case by case basis has been significantly reduced. There are also a number of additional benefits resulting from these industry efforts. The challenges and difficulties in qualifying digital equipment for safety-related applications are now more clearly understood. EPRI has published a lessons learned document (EPRI Report 1001452, Generic Qualification of Commercial Grade Digital Devices: Lessons Learned from Initial Pilots, which covers several different qualification areas, including device selection, project planning, vendor surveys and design reviews, and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) qualification. Application of the experience and lessons learned from the EPRI pilot activities should help reduce the effort and cost required for future qualification work. Most generic qualification activities for commercial equipment have been conducted using the approach of EPRI TR-106439, Guideline on Evaluation and Acceptance

  13. A bi-level stochastic scheduling optimization model for a virtual power plant connected to a wind–photovoltaic–energy storage system considering the uncertainty and demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Liwei; Tan, Zhongfu; Yuan, Jinyun; Tan, Qingkun; Li, Huanhuan; Dong, Fugui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Our research focuses on Virtual Power Plant (VPP). • Virtual Power Plant consists of WPP, PV, CGT, ESSs and DRPs. • Robust optimization theory is introduced to analyze uncertainties. • A bi-level stochastic scheduling optimization model is proposed for VPP. • Models are built to measure the impacts of ESSs and DERPs on VPP operation. - Abstract: To reduce the uncertain influence of wind power and solar photovoltaic power on virtual power plant (VPP) operation, robust optimization theory (ROT) is introduced to build a stochastic scheduling model for VPP considering the uncertainty, price-based demand response (PBDR) and incentive-based demand response (IBDR). First, the VPP components are described including the wind power plant (WPP), photovoltaic generators (PV), convention gas turbine (CGT), energy storage systems (ESSs) and demand resource providers (DRPs). Then, a scenario generation and reduction frame is proposed for analyzing and simulating output stochastics based on the interval method and the Kantorovich distance. Second, a bi-level robust scheduling model is proposed with a double robust coefficient for WPP and PV. In the upper layer model, the maximum VPP operation income is taken as the optimization objective for building the scheduling model with the day-ahead prediction output of WPP and PV. In the lower layer model, the day-ahead scheduling scheme is revised with the actual output of the WPP and PV under the objectives of the minimum system net load and the minimum system operation cost. Finally, the independent micro-grid in a coastal island in eastern China is used for the simulation analysis. The results illustrate that the model can overcome the influence of uncertainty on VPP operations and reduce the system power shortage cost by connecting the day-ahead scheduling with the real-time scheduling. ROT could provide a flexible decision tool for decision makers, effectively addressing system uncertainties. ESSs could

  14. Training for the seismic qualification utility group (SQUG) generic implementation procedure (GIP) for verification of seismic effects on nuclear power plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffstall, R.E.; Smith, N.P.; Baker, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    Resolution of USI A-46 was accomplished May, 1992 with the issuance of the SER for the GIP, Revision 2. The implementation of the resolution for the SQUG plants will be completed by 1996. Both the USNRC and the SQUG utilities have expended considerable resources to effect a common understanding that the effort has been worth the price. The Training Program developed to ensure that the efforts expended by the SQUG was indeed worth the price will be a major contributor in the success of the implementation. All of the older nuclear power plants in the United States now have an alternative standard to determine seismic resistance using experience data- a standard against which they can be evaluated and found seismically adequate to achieve and maintain a safe and reliable shutdown when subjected to strong motion earthquakes

  15. Generic patch inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Lawall, Julia

    2010-01-01

    A key issue in maintaining Linux device drivers is the need to keep them up to date with respect to evolutions in Linux internal libraries. Currently, there is little tool support for performing and documenting such changes. In this paper we present a tool, spdiff, that identifies common changes...... developers can use it to extract an abstract representation of the set of changes that others have made. Our experiments on recent changes in Linux show that the inferred generic patches are more concise than the corresponding patches found in commits to the Linux source tree while being safe with respect...

  16. Disposal of metal artifacts by monochrome virtual images generated by TC dual power planning in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Perez, V.; Bartres Salido, A.; Arana Fernandez Moya, E.; Crispin Contreras, V.; Dolores Alemany, V. de los; Campo Sanmartin, V.; Moratal Perez, D.

    2015-01-01

    Using monochromatic high-energy virtual images reconstructed by a scanner TCED is viable for planning radiotherapy treatments and improves image quality. Such images using the DICOM standard, and have been successfully exported to the planning system XiO treatments. (Author)

  17. Virtual control desk for operators training: a case study for a nuclear power plant simulator; Mesa de controle virtual para treinamento de operadores: um estudo de caso para um simulador de usina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghina, Mauricio Alves da Cunha e

    2009-03-15

    Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is a facility for electrical energy generation. Because of its high degree of complexity and very rigid norms of security it is extremely necessary that operators are very well trained for the NPP operation. A mistaken operation by a human operator may cause a shutdown of the NPP, incurring in a huge economical damage for the owner and for the population in the case of a electric net black out. To reduce the possibility of a mistaken operation, the NPP usually have a full scope simulator of the plant's control room, which is the physical copy of the original control room. The control of this simulator is a computer program that can generate the equal functioning of the normal one or some scenarios of accidents to train the operators in many abnormal conditions of the plant. A physical copy of the control room has a high cost for its construction, not only of its facilities but also for its physical components. The proposal of this work is to present a project of a virtual simulator with the modeling in 3D stereo of a control room of a given nuclear plant with the same operation functions of the original simulator. This virtual simulator will have a lower cost and serves for pretraining of operators with the intention of making them familiar to the original control room. (author)

  18. Natural interfaces for interacting with a virtual control desk of a nuclear power plant simulator; Interfaces naturais para interacao com uma mesa de controle virtual de um simulador de uma usina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghina, Mauricio Alves da Cunha e

    2012-07-01

    Due to very strict standards of safe operation of a nuclear power plant operators must be well trained so they can operate it within the necessary safety procedures. This is done through training simulators, which enable the user operation, as close as possible to the real control desk, and can be inserted accident situations, so they train, how to return the plant to a normal operating condition. Normally is used two types of simulator. Preferred is the full scope simulator, what is a computational dynamics program of the plant used in conjunction with a physical replica of the control desk, but this type of simulator involves a high construction cost. The second type is what uses synoptic windows of various regions of the original control desk, its construction cost is smaller, but it have a little fidelity to the original appearance of the table. Currently, with the use of virtual reality, control desks can be modeled in 3D, making the simulator interface is very similar to the appearance of the real control desk with a low cost construction. This work shows the use of natural interfaces for operator interaction with the virtual control desk, in order that it does not use any mechanical device for displaying and acting with it. For procedures that were used, such as: computer vision to recognize the position of the operator's and observation of their hands to the work of the desk controls and voice recognition. (author)

  19. Generic substitution: micro evidence from register data in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, Dag Morten; Furu, Kari; Locatelli, Marilena; Strøm, Steinar

    2011-02-01

    The importance of prices, doctor and patient characteristics, and market institutions for the likelihood of choosing generic drugs instead of the more expensive original brand-name version are examined. Using an extensive dataset extracted from The Norwegian Prescription Database containing all prescriptions dispensed to individuals in February 2004 and 2006 on 23 different drugs (chemical substances) in Norway, we find strong evidence for the importance of both doctor and patient characteristics for the choice probabilities. The price difference between brand and generic versions and insurance coverage both affect generic substitution. Moreover, controlling for the retail chain affiliation of the dispensing pharmacy, we find that pharmacies play an important role in promoting generic substitution. In markets with more recent entry of generic drugs, brand-name loyalty proves to be much stronger, giving less explanatory power to our demand model.

  20. Advertising and generic market entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königbauer, Ingrid

    2007-03-01

    The effect of purely persuasive advertising on generic market entry and social welfare is analysed. An incumbent has the possibility to invest in advertising which affects the prescribing physician's perceived relative qualities of the brand-name and the generic version of the drug. Advertising creates product differentiation and can induce generic market entry which is deterred without differentiation due to strong Bertrand competition. However, over-investment in advertising can deter generic market entry under certain conditions and reduces welfare as compared to accommodated market entry.

  1. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  2. Advances on generic exemption levels and generic clearance levels in the argentinean regulatory field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñiz, C.C.; Bossio, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of optimizing the regulatory effort in Argentina, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) evaluated two worldwide concepts used in the radioactive waste management field: “Generic Exemption Levels” and “Generic Clearance Levels”. The objective of this paper is to present the progress made in the past two years in relation to these topics and to present the results of the specific requests received from users of radioactive material. Since the approval of both Generic Levels, the ARN received two exemption requests. The first one, regarding the practice of dismantling lighting rods with 241 Am. The other case regards the international trade, distribution, usage and final disposal of lighting products with radioactive material ( 85 Kr and 232 Th). Concerning clearance, there has not been any request yet. However, in the future the ARN expects to receive this kind of requests from nuclear power plants and other facilities related to the nuclear fuel cycle. (authors) [es

  3. Comparison of Generic-to-Brand Switchback Rates Between Generic and Authorized Generic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Richard A; Qian, Jingjing; Berg, Richard; Linneman, James; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Dutcher, Sarah K; Raofi, Saeid; Page, C David; Peissig, Peggy

    2017-04-01

    Generic drugs contain identical active ingredients as their corresponding brand drugs and are pharmaceutically equivalent and bioequivalent, whereas authorized generic drugs (AGs) contain both identical active and inactive ingredients as their corresponding brand drugs but are marketed as generics. This study compares generic-to-brand switchback rates between generic and AGs. Retrospective cohort study. Claims and electronic health record data from a regional U.S. health care system. The full cohort consisted of 5542 unique patients who received select branded drugs during the 6 months prior to their generic drug market availability (between 1999 and 2014) and then were switched to an AG or generic drug within 30 months of generic drug entry. For these patients, 5929 unique patient-drug combinations (867 with AGs and 5062 with generic drugs) were evaluated. Ten drugs with AGs and generics marketed between 1999 and 2014 were evaluated. The date of the first generic prescription was considered the index date for each drug, and it marked the beginning of follow-up to evaluate the occurrence of generic-to-brand switchback patterns over the subsequent 30 months. Switchback rates were compared between patients receiving AGs versus those receiving generics using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for individual drug effects, age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Score, pre-index drug use characteristics, and pre-index health care utilization. Among the 5542 unique patients who switched from brand to generic or brand to AG, 264 (4.8%) switched back to the brand drug. Overall switchback rates were similar for AGs compared with generics (hazard ratio [HR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-1.15). The likelihood of switchback was higher for alendronate (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.20-2.23) and simvastatin (HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.30-2.54) and lower for amlodipine (HR 0.27, 95% CI 0.17-0.42) compared with the other drugs evaluated. Overall switchback rates were similar

  4. InGaP solar cell on Ge-on-Si virtual substrate for novel solar power conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T. W.; Albert, B. R.; Kimerling, L. C.; Michel, J.

    2018-02-01

    InGaP single-junction solar cells are grown on lattice-matched Ge-on-Si virtual substrates using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Optoelectronic simulation results indicate that the optimal collection length for InGaP single-junction solar cells with a carrier lifetime range of 2-5 ns is wider than approximately 1 μm. Electron beam-induced current measurements reveal that the threading dislocation density (TDD) of InGaP solar cells fabricated on Ge and Ge-on-Si substrates is in the range of 104-3 × 107 cm-2. We demonstrate that the open circuit voltage (Voc) of InGaP solar cells is not significantly influenced by TDDs less than 2 × 106 cm-2. Fabricated InGaP solar cells grown on a Ge-on-Si virtual substrate and a Ge substrate exhibit Voc in the range of 0.96 to 1.43 V under an equivalent illumination in the range of ˜0.5 Sun. The estimated efficiency of the InGaP solar cell fabricated on the Ge-on-Si virtual substrate (Ge substrate) at room temperature for the limited incident spectrum spanning the photon energy range of 1.9-2.4 eV varies from 16.6% to 34.3%.

  5. Decision support tool for Virtual Power Players: Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization applied to Day-ahead Vehicle-To-Grid Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, João; Valle, Zita; Morais, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a decision support Tool methodology to help virtual power players (VPPs) in the Smart Grid (SGs) context to solve the day-ahead energy ressource scheduling considering the intensive use of Distributed Generation (DG) and Vehicle-To-Grid (V2G). The main focus is the application...... of a new hybrid method combing a particle swarm approach and a deterministic technique based on mixedinteger linear programming (MILP) to solve the day-ahead scheduling minimizing total operation costs from the aggregator point of view. A realistic mathematical formulation, considering the electric network...... constraints and V2G charging and discharging efficiencies is presented. Full AC power flow calculation is included in the hybrid method to allow taking into account the network constraints. A case study with a 33-bus distribution network and 1800 V2G resources is used to illustrate the performance...

  6. Virtual power plants in energy industry law. Possible manifestations and from them resulting legal questions; Virtuelle Kraftwerke im Energiewirtschaftsrecht. Moegliche Erscheinungsformen und daraus resultierende Rechtsfragen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahlbrandt, Lea Katharina [Bucerius Law School, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    Although cogeneration plants are operated with fossil fuels are not quite as environmentally friendly as EEG systems they have a much more favorable effect due to their high efficiency climate as conventional power plants. In the future this could can even improve with the aid of fuel cell technology. Therefore, they play for the transition to a safe and secure more efficient power supply conditions for a merger of cogeneration plants overall favorable, in particular because that no influence on the or the emission trading obligation of the plant operators has. However, the complete elimination of avoided network charges could be counterproductive. Just virtual power plants of cogeneration plants have an effect on a feed-in that the grid not charged, so fees for a decentralized feed in these cases can be justified. Also the development of cogeneration development within the framework of the newly introduced calls will have a major impact on the development of virtual power stations. [German] Zwar sind KWK-Anlagen, die mit fossilen Brennstoffen betrieben werden, nicht ganz so umweltfreundlich wie EEG-Anlagen, doch haben sie aufgrund ihres hohen Wirkungsgrades eine viel guenstigere Klimabilanz als konventionelle Kraftwerke. In Zukunft koennte diese sich mithilfe der Brennstoffzellen-Technologie sogar noch verbessern. Daher spielen sie fuer den Uebergang zu einer sicheren und klimafreundlicheren Stromversorgung eine wichtige Rolle. Die Bedingungen fuer einen Zusammenschluss von KWK-Anlagen sind insgesamt guenstig, insbesondere weil jener keinen Einfluss auf die Foerdersaetze oder die Emissionshandelspflicht der Anlagenbetreiber hat. Allerdings koennte die vollstaendige Abschaffung vermiedener Netzentgelte kontraproduktiv sein. Gerade virtuelle Kraftwerke aus KWK-Anlagen wirken auf eine Einspeisung hin, die das Netz nicht ueberfordert, sodass Entgelte fuer eine dezentrale Einspeisung in diesen Faellen durchaus eine Rechtfertigung haben. Auch die Entwicklung des KWK

  7. Article choice in plural generics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farkas, D.F.; Swart, Henriëtte de

    2007-01-01

    We discuss two groups of languages where article use contrasts in generic plural sentences but is otherwise essentially similar. The languages in the first group (English and Dutch) use bare plurals in the expression of kind reference (‘Dinosaurs are extinct’) and in generic

  8. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Technology: A Powerful, Generic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    determined analyte (called template) in a polymeric matrix. The template directs the molecular positioning and orientation of the material's functional monomers. Cross-linking ensures polymer rigidity that “freezes” the 3-D molecular architecture of the ...

  9. TRAC-PF1/MOD2 best-estimate analysis of a large-break LOCA in a 15 x 15 generic four-loop Westinghouse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spore, J.W.; Lin, J.C.; Schnurr, N.M.; White, J.R.; Cappiello, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Calculations of a large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a 15 x 15 generic four-loop Westinghouse nuclear power plant with both the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 and TRAC-PF1/MOD2 computer codes will be presented. The Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) has been developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory to provide advanced best-estimate simulations of real postulated transients in pressurized light-water reactors (LWRs) and for many related thermal-hydraulic facilities. The latest released version of TRAC is TRAC-PF1/MOD2. Significant improvements and enhancements over the MOD1 version were implemented in the MOD2 heat-transfer and constitutive models. One of the most significant improvements in the MOD2 code has been the implementation of the two-step numerics method in the three-dimensional components, which can significantly reduce run times for long, slow transients. A very important area of improvement has been in the reflood heat-transfer models. Developmental assessment results (i.e., code comparisons with experimental data) will be discussed for several separate-effects and integral test, including analysis of the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF), the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF), and the Loss-of-Fluid Test Facility (LOFT). The assessment results provide information on the anticipated accuracy for the best-estimate models in the MOD2 computer code. The MOD1 to MOD2 comparison will provide an estimate for the effect of improved heat-transfer models on predicted peak cladding temperatures

  10. Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    until exhausted. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE All other editions are obsolete. UNCLASSIFIED " VIRTUAL REALITY JAMES F. DAILEY, LIEUTENANT COLONEL...US" This paper reviews the exciting field of virtual reality . The author describes the basic concepts of virtual reality and finds that its numerous...potential benefits to society could revolutionize everyday life. The various components that make up a virtual reality system are described in detail

  11. Virtual Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Hilary; Skov, Mikael B.; Stougaard, Malthe

    2007-01-01

    . This paper reports on the design, implementation and initial evaluation of Virtual Box. Virtual Box attempts to create a physical and engaging context in order to support reciprocal interactions with expressive content. An implemented version of Virtual Box is evaluated in a location-aware environment...

  12. Quality of generic medicines in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Aarti; Gauld, Robin; Norris, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Generic Medicines are an important policy option allowing for access to affordable, essential medicines. Quality of generic medicines must be guaranteed through the activities of national medicines regulatory authorities. Existing negative perceptions surrounding the quality of generic medicines ...

  13. Saving Money and Time with Virtual Server

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Microsoft Virtual Server 2005 consistently proves to be worth its weight in gold, with new implementations thought up every day. With this product now a free download from Microsoft, scores of new users are able to experience what the power of virtualization can do for their networks. This guide is aimed at network administrators who are interested in ways that Virtual Server 2005 can be implemented in their organizations in order to save money and increase network productivity. It contains information on setting up a virtual network, virtual consolidation, virtual security, virtual honeypo

  14. Encouraging generic use can yield significant savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Christina

    2012-11-01

    Key findings. (1) Zero copayment for generic drugs is the greatest influencer of generic statin utilization. (2) Both higher copayments for generic drugs and lower copayments for competing brands are associated with a decreased probability of using generic statins. (3) Prior authorization and step therapy requirements for brand-name statins are associated with an increased use of generic drugs. (4) Greater use of generic statins should reduce costs for patients, plans, and Medicare.

  15. Wireless virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Heming; Le-Ngoc, Tho

    2013-01-01

    This SpringerBriefs is an overview of the emerging field of wireless access and mobile network virtualization. It provides a clear and relevant picture of the current virtualization trends in wireless technologies by summarizing and comparing different architectures, techniques and technologies applicable to a future virtualized wireless network infrastructure. The readers are exposed to a short walkthrough of the future Internet initiative and network virtualization technologies in order to understand the potential role of wireless virtualization in the broader context of next-generation ubiq

  16. Novice Shooters With Lower Pre-shooting Alpha Power Have Better Performance During Competition in a Virtual Reality Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pereira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Competition changes the environment for athletes. The difficulty of training for such stressful events can lead to the well-known effect of “choking” under pressure, which prevents athletes from performing at their best level. To study the effect of competition on the human brain, we recorded pilot electroencephalography (EEG data while novice shooters were immersed in a realistic virtual environment representing a shooting range. We found a differential between-subject effect of competition on mu (8–12 Hz oscillatory activity during aiming; compared to training, the more the subject was able to desynchronize his mu rhythm during competition, the better was his shooting performance. Because this differential effect could not be explained by differences in simple measures of the kinematics and muscular activity, nor by the effect of competition or shooting performance per se, we interpret our results as evidence that mu desynchronization has a positive effect on performance during competition.

  17. Art in virtual reality 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ben

    2010-01-01

    For decades, virtual reality artwork has existed in a small but highly influential niche in the world of electronic and new media art. Since the early 1990's, virtual reality installations have come to define an extreme boundary point of both aesthetic experience and technological sophistication. Classic virtual reality artworks have an almost mythological stature - powerful, exotic, and often rarely exhibited. Today, art in virtual environments continues to evolve and mature, encompassing everything from fully immersive CAVE experiences to performance art in Second Life to the use of augmented and mixed reality in public space. Art in Virtual Reality 2010 is a public exhibition of new artwork that showcases the diverse ways that contemporary artists use virtual environments to explore new aesthetic ground and investigate the continually evolving relationship between our selves and our virtual worlds.

  18. 77 FR 12089 - Proposed Generic Communication; Regulatory Issue Summary 2012-XX: Developing Inservice Testing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0048] Proposed Generic Communication; Regulatory Issue... CFR) Part 52, ``Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants,'' to satisfy the... inservice testing programs during the initial 120-month program interval following nuclear power plant...

  19. A Generic Danish Distribution Grid Model for Smart Grid Technology Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a generic Danish distribution grid model for smart grid technology testing based on the Bornholm power system. The frequency dependent network equivalent (FDNE) method has been used in order to accurately preserve the desired properties and characteristics...... as a generic Smart Grid benchmark model for testing purposes....... by comparing the transient response of the original Bornholm power system model and the developed generic model under significant fault conditions. The results clearly show that the equivalent generic distribution grid model retains the dynamic characteristics of the original system, and can be used...

  20. Final environmental statement related to the proposed manufacture of floating nuclear power plants: (Docket No. STN 50-437): Part 2, A generic environmental statement considering the siting and operation of floating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of a manufacturing license to Offshore Power Systems for the startup and operation of a proposed manufacturing facility located at Blount Island, Jacksonville, Florida (Docket No. STN 50-437). No nuclear fuel will be handled or stored at the manufacturing site. The plants will be fueled after they have been towed to and moored within protected basins at specific locations designated by the purchaser and after an operating license has been issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Each nuclear generating plant, mounted on a floating platform, has a net capacity of 1150 MWe. This energy is provided by a pressurized water reactor steam supply system consisting of a Westinghouse four-loop 3425-MWt unit with an ice-condenser containment system. When one or more of these units is located within a single breakwater, the installation is designated an offshore power station. 226 figs., 95 tabs

  1. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  2. Short-term Forecast of Automatic Frequency Restoration Reserve from a Renewable Energy Based Virtual Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Camal , Simon; Michiorri , Andrea; Kariniotakis , Georges; Liebelt , Andreas

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents the initial findings on a new forecast approach for ancillary services delivered by aggregated renewable power plants. The increasing penetration of distributed variable generators challenges grid reliability. Wind and photovoltaic power plants are technically able to provide ancillary services, but their stochastic behavior currently impedes their integration into reserve mechanisms. A methodology is developed to forecast the flexibility that a win...

  3. The Generic Data Capture Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Edward B.; Barnes, William P.; Stallings, William H.

    1987-01-01

    The Generic Data Capture Facility, which can provide data capture support for a variety of different types of spacecraft while enabling operations costs to be carefully controlled, is discussed. The data capture functions, data protection, isolation of users from data acquisition problems, data reconstruction, and quality and accounting are addressed. The TDM and packet data formats utilized by the system are described, and the development of generic facilities is considered.

  4. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-09-09

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  5. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports

  6. Savannah River Site generic data base development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure database for the Savannah River Site (SRS). Additionally, guidelines were developed further for more advanced applications of database values. A representative list of components and failure modes for SRS risk models was generated by reviewing existing safety analyses and component failure data bases and from suggestions from SRS safety analysts. Then sources of data or failure rate estimates were identified and reviewed for applicability. A major source of information was the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability, or NUCLARR. This source includes an extensive collection of failure data and failure rate estimates for commercial nuclear power plants. A recent Idaho National Engineering Laboratory report on failure data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was also reviewed. From these and other recent sources, failure data and failure rate estimates were collected for the components and failure modes of interest. For each component failure mode, this information was aggregated to obtain a recommended generic failure rate distribution (mean and error factor based on a lognormal distribution). Results are presented in a table in this report. A major difference between generic database and previous efforts is that this effort estimates failure rates based on actual data (failure events) rather than on existing failure rate estimates. This effort was successful in that over 75% of the results are now based on actual data. Also included is a section on guidelines for more advanced applications of failure rate data. This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure database for the Savannah River site (SRS). Additionally, guidelines were developed further for more advanced applications of database values

  7. The Northeast Utilities generic plant computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzner, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of computer manufacturers' equipment monitors plant systems in Northeast Utilities' (NU) nuclear and fossil power plants. The hardware configuration and the application software in each of these systems are essentially one of a kind. Over the next few years these computer systems will be replaced by the NU Generic System, whose prototype is under development now for Millstone III, an 1150 Mwe Pressurized Water Reactor plant being constructed in Waterford, Connecticut. This paper discusses the Millstone III computer system design, concentrating on the special problems inherent in a distributed system configuration such as this. (auth)

  8. Developing A Generic Optical Avionic Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiang; An, Yi; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2011-01-01

    We propose a generic optical network design for future avionic systems in order to reduce the weight and power consumption of current networks on board. A three-layered network structure over a ring optical network topology is suggested, as it can provide full reconfiguration flexibility...... and support a wide range of avionic applications. Segregation can be made on different hierarchies according to system criticality and security requirements. The structure of each layer is discussed in detail. Two network configurations are presented, focusing on how to support different network services...... by such a network. Finally, three redundancy scenarios are discussed and compared....

  9. Generic device controller for accelerator control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariotti, R.; Buxton, W.; Frankel, R.; Hoff, L.

    1987-01-01

    A new distributed intelligence control system has become operational at the AGS for transport, injection, and acceleration of heavy ions. A brief description of the functionality of the physical devices making up the system is given. An attempt has been made to integrate the devices for accelerator specific interfacing into a standard microprocessor system, namely, the Universal Device Controller (UDC). The main goals for such a generic device controller are to provide: local computing power; flexibility to configure; and real time event handling. The UDC assemblies and software are described

  10. Virtual Exploratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sisse Siggaard

    2006-01-01

    -systems, the paper introduces the designing strategy referred to as virtual exploratories. Some of the advanced virtual worlds may inspire the design of such provoking and challenging virtual exploratories, and especially the Massively Multi-User Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGS). However, if we have to learn from...... the design and activity of the advanced virtual worlds and role-playing games, then the empirical research on the actors’ activity, while they are acting, is an important precondition to it. A step towards the conception of such a designing strategy for virtual exploratories is currently pursued....... [1] The research project: Actors and Avatars Communicating in Virtual Worlds – an Empirical Analysis of Actors’ Sense-making Strategies When Based on a Communication Theoretical Approach’ (2006-2007) is supported...

  11. Generic Example Proving Criteria for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopp, David; Ely, Rob; Johnson­-Leung, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We review literature that discusses generic example proving and highlight ambiguities that pervade our research community's discourse about generic example arguments. We distinguish between pedagogical advice for choosing good examples that can serve as generic examples when teaching and advice for developing generic example arguments. We provide…

  12. Generic penetration in the retail antidepressant market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventimiglia, Jeffrey; Kalali, Amir H

    2010-06-01

    In this article, we explore the accelerated penetration of generic antidepressants in the United States market following the availability of generic citalopram and sertraline. Analysis suggests that overall, generic penetration into the antidepressant market has grown from approximately 41 percent in January 2004 to over 73 percent in January 2010. Similar trends are uncovered when branded and generic prescriptions are analyzed by specialty.

  13. Virtual Reflexes

    OpenAIRE

    Jonker, Catholijn; Broekens, Joost; Plaat, Aske

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Reality is used successfully to treat people for regular phobias. A new challenge is to develop Virtual Reality Exposure Training for social skills. Virtual actors in such systems have to show appropriate social behavior including emotions, gaze, and keeping distance. The behavior must be realistic and real-time. Current approaches consist of four steps: 1) trainee social signal detection, 2) cognitive-affective interpretation, 3) determination of the appropriate bodily responses, and...

  14. Virtual volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. Christian; Prange, Richard E.

    2007-03-01

    We introduce the concept of virtual volatility. This simple but new measure shows how to quantify the uncertainty in the forecast of the drift component of a random walk. The virtual volatility also is a useful tool in understanding the stochastic process for a given portfolio. In particular, and as an example, we were able to identify mean reversion effect in our portfolio. Finally, we briefly discuss the potential practical effect of the virtual volatility on an investor asset allocation strategy.

  15. Smart grid and intelligent office buildings: virtual power plants : the basis for the optimal use of renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aduda, K.O.; Zeiler, W.; Boxem, G.; Sayigh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Electricity energy generation and its supply through electricity networks are mainly organized in a top-down, centralized manner. Energy consumption can be predicted quite accurately at a high level, and this forms the basis for prescheduling the production by large power plants. Only few actors are

  16. Smart Grid and Intelligent Office Buildings: Virtual Power Plants-The basis for optimal use of renwable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aduda, Kennedy; Zeiler, Wim; Boxem, Gert; Sayigh, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Electricity energy generation and its supply through electricity networks are mainly organized in a top-down, centralized manner. Energy consumption can be predicted quite accurately at a high level, and this forms the basis for prescheduling the production by large power plants. Only few actors are

  17. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC) - based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  18. Virtual bronchoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogalla, P.; Meiri, N.; Hamm, B.; Rueckert, J.C.; Schmidt, B.; Witt, C.

    2001-01-01

    Flexible bronchoscopy represents a clinically well-established invasive diagnostic tool. Virtual bronchoscopies, calculated from thin-slice CT sections, allow astonishing immitations of reality although principal differences exist between both technologies: the Fact that colour representation is artificial and concommitant interventions are impossible limits the clinical use of virtual bronchoscopy. However, its value increases when calculations can be attained within minutes due to technological advancements, and when virtually any chest CT is suitable for further postprocessing. Indications, findings and the clinical role of virtual bronchoscopy are discussed. (orig.) [de

  19. Virtual projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Commisso, Trine Hald

    2012-01-01

    that the best practice knowledge has not permeated sufficiently to the practice. Furthermore, the appropriate application of information and communication technology (ICT) remains a big challenge, and finally project managers are not sufficiently trained in organizing and conducting virtual projects....... The overall implications for research and practice are to acknowledge virtual project management as very different to traditional project management and to address this difference.......Virtual projects are common with global competition, market development, and not least the financial crisis forcing organizations to reduce their costs drastically. Organizations therefore have to place high importance on ways to carry out virtual projects and consider appropriate practices...

  20. Optimizing a Hybrid Energy Storage System for a Virtual Power Plant for Improved Wind Power Generation: A Case Study for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braun, Philipp; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Diosi, Robert

    2011-01-01

    market in western Denmark. The optimum ESs are selected based on the highest net present value (NPV) out of many different combinations of ESs in terms of power rating and technologies. Due to its many possible combinations a simulation model has been built which uses historical market data and also...

  1. A virtual nuclear world?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salve, R.

    1998-01-01

    The way in which virtual reality technology has so dramatically developed over the last few years has opened up the possibility of its application to various industrial processes. This article describes the possible uses of such a technique in nuclear power plants in various phases such as design, construction, operation or dismantling. (Author)

  2. Retailing policies for generic medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso, Susana

    2005-06-01

    As there is general disagreement about the way generic medicines should be commercialized, two retailing policies are analyzed, taking into account their effects on the welfare of patients, government, pharmacies and physicians. In the first policy scenario, pharmacies are allowed to substitute generic medicines for branded ones, while in the second, substitution is forbidden. In both cases a pharmacies association is allowed to have a share in the production of generic medicines. The model predicts that under some conditions patients may prefer substitution by pharmacies but when doctors' decisions are binding, they are never "excessively bad". However, the policy choice belongs to the government, which prefers to allow for substitution more often than patients would like.

  3. Virtual Workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Lillian; Bygholm, Ann

    In relation to the Tutor course in the Mediterranean Virtual University (MVU) project, a virtual workshop “Getting experiences with different synchronous communication media, collaboration, and group work” was held with all partner institutions in January 2006. More than 25 key-tutors within MVU...

  4. Generic Graph Grammar: A Simple Grammar for Generic Procedural Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2012-01-01

    in a directed cyclic graph. Furthermore, the basic productions are chosen such that Generic Graph Grammar seamlessly combines the capabilities of L-systems to imitate biological growth (to model trees, animals, etc.) and those of split grammars to design structured objects (chairs, houses, etc.). This results...

  5. Cosmological N-body simulations with generic hot dark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Jacob; Hannestad, Steen

    2017-01-01

    We have calculated the non-linear effects of generic fermionic and bosonic hot dark matter components in cosmological N-body simulations. For sub-eV masses, the non-linear power spectrum suppression caused by thermal free-streaming resembles the one seen for massive neutrinos, whereas for masses...

  6. 78 FR 40729 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... precision requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response... Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY: Washington Headquarters Service (WHS), DOD. ACTION: 30... (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery...

  7. 76 FR 37825 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods... Activities; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY: U...): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery '' to OMB for...

  8. 76 FR 13020 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... precision requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response... Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY: Department of... Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency...

  9. Applied virtual reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yule, I.Y.; Lee, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    To reduce plant down time during irradiated fuel cell dismantling at Torness Power Station, a new visualisation technique has been used for the manipulator. Complex computer graphics packages were used to provide a ''Virtual Reality'' environment which allowed the Irradiated Fuel Dismantling Cell to be simulated. Significant cost savings have been achieved due to reductions in lost output. The virtual reality environment is at present being extended to the design and deployment of a new manipulator for in-vessel inspection of the boiler. (UK)

  10. Testing properties of generic functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansson, P.; Jeuring, J.T.; Cabenda, L.; Engels, G.; Kleerekoper, J.; Mak, S.; Overeem, M.; Visser, Kees

    2007-01-01

    A datatype-generic function is a family of functions indexed by (the structure of) a type. Examples include equality tests, maps and pretty printers. Property based testing tools like QuickCheck and Gast support the de¯nition of properties and test-data generators, and they check if a

  11. Generic component failure data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, S.A.; Calley, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses comprehensive component generic failure data base which has been developed for light water reactor probabilistic risk assessments. The Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) was used to generate component failure rates. Using this approach, most of the failure rates are based on actual plant data rather then existing estimates

  12. 'Genericism' in Danish welfare professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Verner

    and skills in the basic disciplines of the professions also termed as disciplinary and procedural knowledge '. Thus the main research question for this paper is: What consequences do recent reform actions in Danish welfare education concerning generic competence have on developing professional knowledge...

  13. Virtual Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    Virtual work teams scattered around the globe are becoming a feature of corporate workplaces. Although most people prefer face-to-face meetings and interactions, reality often requires telecommuting. (JOW)

  14. Virtual data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorklund, E.

    1993-01-01

    In the 1970's, when computers were memory limited, operating system designers created the concept of ''virtual memory'' which gave users the ability to address more memory than physically existed. In the 1990s, many large control systems have the potential for becoming data limited. We propose that many of the principles behind virtual memory systems (working sets, locality, caching, and clustering) can also be applied to data-limited systems - creating, in effect, ''virtual data systems.'' At the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF), we have applied these principles to a moderately sized (10,000 data points) data acquisition and control system. To test the principles, we measured the system's performance during tune-up, production, and maintenance periods. In this paper, we present a general discussion of the principles of a virtual data system along with some discussion of our own implementation and the results of our performance measurements

  15. Virtual Worlds for Virtual Organizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoten, Diana; Lutters, Wayne

    The members and resources of a virtual organization are dispersed across time and space, yet they function as a coherent entity through the use of technologies, networks, and alliances. As virtual organizations proliferate and become increasingly important in society, many may exploit the technical architecture s of virtual worlds, which are the confluence of computer-mediated communication, telepresence, and virtual reality originally created for gaming. A brief socio-technical history describes their early origins and the waves of progress followed by stasis that brought us to the current period of renewed enthusiasm. Examination of contemporary examples demonstrates how three genres of virtual worlds have enabled new arenas for virtual organizing: developer-defined closed worlds, user-modifiable quasi-open worlds, and user-generated open worlds. Among expected future trends are an increase in collaboration born virtually rather than imported from existing organizations, a tension between high-fidelity recreations of the physical world and hyper-stylized imaginations of fantasy worlds, and the growth of specialized worlds optimized for particular sectors, companies, or cultures.

  16. IAEA's experience in compiling a generic component reliability data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomic, B.; Lederman, L.

    1991-01-01

    Reliability data are essential in probabilistic safety assessment, with component reliability parameters being particularly important. Component failure data which is plant specific would be most appropriate but this is rather limited. However, similar components are used in different designs. Generic data, that is all data that is not plant specific to the plant being analyzed but which relates to components more generally, is important. The International Atomic Energy Agency has compiled the Generic Component Reliability Data Base from data available in the open literature. It is part of the IAEA computer code package for fault/event tree analysis. The Data Base contains 1010 different records including most of the components used in probabilistic safety analyses of nuclear power plants. The data base input was quality controlled and data sources noted. The data compilation procedure and problems associated with using generic data are explained. (UK)

  17. A prioritization of generic safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrit, R.; Riggs, R.; Milstead, W.; Pittman, J.

    1991-07-01

    This report presents the priority rankings for generic safety issues and related to nuclear power plants. The purpose of these rankings is to assist in the timely and efficient allocation of NRC resources for the resolution of those safety issues that have a significant potential for reducing risk. The report focuses on the prioritization of generic safety issues. Issues primarily concerned with the licensing process or environmental protection and not directly related to safety have been excluded from prioritization. The prioritized issues include: TMI Action Plan items under development; previously proposed issues covered by Task Action Plans, except issues designated as Un-resolved Safety Issues (USIs) which had already been assigned high priority; and newly-proposed issues. Future supplements to this report will include the prioritization of additional issues. The safety priority rankings are High, Medium, Low, and Drop and have been assigned on the basis of risk significance estimates, the ratio of risk to costs and other impacts estimated to result if resolutions of the safety issues were implemented, and the consideration of uncertainties and other quantitative or qualitative factors. To the extent practical, estimates are quantitative. 1310 refs

  18. Method for developing cost estimates for generic regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The NRC has established a practice of performing regulatory analyses, reflecting costs as well as benefits, of proposed new or revised generic requirements. A method had been developed to assist the NRC in preparing the types of cost estimates required for this purpose and for assigning priorities in the resolution of generic safety issues. The cost of a generic requirement is defined as the net present value of total lifetime cost incurred by the public, industry, and government in implementing the requirement for all affected plants. The method described here is for commercial light-water-reactor power plants. Estimating the cost for a generic requirement involves several steps: (1) identifying the activities that must be carried out to fully implement the requirement, (2) defining the work packages associated with the major activities, (3) identifying the individual elements of cost for each work package, (4) estimating the magnitude of each cost element, (5) aggregating individual plant costs over the plant lifetime, and (6) aggregating all plant costs and generic costs to produce a total, national, present value of lifetime cost for the requirement. The method developed addresses all six steps. In this paper, we discuss on the first three

  19. Generic study on the relation between contamination if primary coolants and occupational radiation exposure in nuclear power plants with PWR. Final report; Generische Studie zum Zusammenhang zwischen Kontamination von Primaerkreislaufmedien und beruflicher Strahlenexposition bei Kernkraftwerken mit Druckwasserreaktor. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artmann, Andreas; Bruhn, Gerd; Schneider, Sebastian [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Koeln (Germany); Strub, Erik [Koeln Univ. (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    A generic model for the primary cooling system contamination in pressurized water reactors and the resulting radiological consequences has been developed. The functional capability was demonstrated by means of three examples concerning manipulation procedures during revision outages. Activities at the main reactor coolant pumps were studied and the influence of the coolant contamination on the resulting dose rates and collective doses were calculated. The effect of a Co-90 hot spot in a more remote area on the radiation exposure during the specific action at the reactor pumps was considered.

  20. Implementation of IEC Generic Model Type 1 Wind Turbine Generators using RTDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei; Zhao, Haoran

    With the ever increasing penetration of the wind power generation, transmission system operators (TSOs) and distribution system operators (DSOs) are demanding an accurate dynamic wind turbine generator (WTG) models for power system stability studies. However, the confidential requirements from wind...... are useful tools to evaluate the impact of the wind power on the power system stability. Thus, a strong stimulus exists for the development of a generic dynamic model in order to further investigate the dynamic response of WTG under grid disturbances. This paper presents the implementation of the IEC generic...... turbine manufacturers prevent the academia and researchers from working on a real or/and manufacturer specific models. A generic WTG model is of great interest that does not contain the confidential information meanwhile represents the manufacturer specific models. These generic dynamic simulation models...

  1. Exploring knowledge, perceptions and attitudes about generic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring knowledge, perceptions and attitudes about generic medicines among final-year health science students. ... had knowledge deficits about the safety, quality and efficacy of generic medicines. The dissemination of information about generic medicines may strengthen future knowledge, attitudes and perceptions.

  2. Comparing approaches to generic programming in Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinze, R.; Jeuring, J.T.; Löh, A.

    2006-01-01

    The last decade has seen a number of approaches to generic programming: PolyP, Functorial ML, `Scrap Your Boilerplate', Generic Haskell, `Generics for the Masses', etc. The approaches vary in sophistication and target audience: some propose full-blown pro- gramming languages, some suggest

  3. Comparing approaches to generic programming in Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinze, R.; Jeuring, J.T.; Löh, A.

    2006-01-01

    The last decade has seen a number of approaches to data- type-generic programming: PolyP, Functorial ML, `Scrap Your Boiler- plate', Generic Haskell, `Generics for the Masses', etc. The approaches vary in sophistication and target audience: some propose full-blown pro- gramming languages, some

  4. Proceedings Workshop on Generic Programming (WGP2000)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, J.T.

    2000-01-01

    This report contains the papers selected for presentation at the 2nd Workshop on Generic Programming (WGP2000), which was held on July 6, 2000 in Ponte de Lima, Portugal. Generic programming is about making programs more adaptable by making them more general. Generic programs often embody

  5. Disposal of metal artifacts by monochrome virtual images generated by TC dual power planning in radiation therapy; Eliminacion de artefactos metalicos mediante imagenes virtuales nonocromaticas generadas mediante TC de energia dual para planificacion en radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Perez, V.; Bartres Salido, A.; Arana Fernandez Moya, E.; Crispin Contreras, V.; Dolores Alemany, V. de los; Campo Sanmartin, V.; Moratal Perez, D.

    2015-07-01

    Using monochromatic high-energy virtual images reconstructed by a scanner TCED is viable for planning radiotherapy treatments and improves image quality. Such images using the DICOM standard, and have been successfully exported to the planning system XiO treatments. (Author)

  6. Virtual Power Plant Operation and Scheduling Model Based on Energy Blockchain Network%基于能源区块链网络的虚拟电厂运行与调度模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘维; 胡跃; 杨晓宇; 高山; 刘炜

    2017-01-01

    区块链作为一种全新的去中心化基础构架和分布式计算范式,融合并创新了多种计算机技术.虚拟电厂(virtual power plant,VPP)是能源互联网中的一个重要分支,在聚合分布式发电资源和建立虚拟电力资源交易等方面发挥着重要的作用.该文针对现有的VPP模型中存在的问题,将区块链技术引入VPP,提出一种能源区块链网络模型,进而提出一种改进的VPP运行与调度模型.通过仿真实验,对比了该模型与原有的VPP运行模式在煤炭消耗、温室气体排放和经济成本等方面的数据.仿真结果表明,该模型可更好地反映需求侧实时信息,更有利于VPP进行环境友好、信息透明的稳定调度,也提高了系统的数据安全性和存储安全性.%Block chain is a new decentralized framework and a distributed computing paradigm,which integrates and innovates a variety of computer technologies.Virtual power plant is an important branch of the energy intemet.It plays an important role in the convergence of distributed power generation resources and the establishment of virtual power resource transactions.In this paper,it proposed a kind of energy block chain network model and a virtual power plant operation and scheduling of the improved model to solve the existing problems in the VPP model.The simulation results show that the proposed model can reflect the real-time information of the demand,conducive to the virtual power plant environmental friendly and transparent stable scheduling,and improve the data and storage security.

  7. Enhancing Safety through Generic Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mockel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides insights into proactive safety management and mitigation. An analysis of accident reports reveals categories of supervening causes of accidents which can be directly linked to the concept of generic competencies (information management, communication and coordination, problem solving, and effect control. These findings strongly suggest adding the human element as another safety-constituting pillar to the concept of ship safety next to technology and regulation. We argue that the human element has unique abilities in dealing with critical and highly dynamic situations which can contribute to the system's recovery from non-routine or critical situations. By educating seafarers in generic competencies we claim to enable the people onboard to successfully deal with critical situations.

  8. Towards a generic user support system (GUS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, W.J.; Wilson, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    One relevant issue confronting the operator of a nuclear power plant is information and task overload. The goal, then, of the various developers is to improve the current situations by creating an environment where the operator can perform at optimum capacity. This is to be accomplished by providing tools and techniques which reduce operator involvement in low level tasks (freeing up time for higher level cognitive tasks) and assist in information and knowledge manipulation so that high level tasks can be performed more efficiently. This paper reviews the operational environment of nuclear plants from the viewpoint of engineering design and from the viewpoint of the operators and technical support staff. Principles are advanced for a generic operator companion. These design principles are being applied to a test case: the Point Lepreau NGS secondary side central sampling system. 6 refs., 6 figs

  9. The effect of distance on moral engagement: Event related potentials and alpha power are sensitive to perspective in a virtual shooting task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten ePetras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a shooting video game we investigated whether increased distance reduces moral conflict. We measured and analysed the event related potential (ERP, including the N2 component, which has previously been linked to cognitive conflict from competing decision tendencies. In a modified go/nogo task designed to trigger moral conflict participants had to shoot suddenly appearing human like avatars in a virtual reality scene. The scene was seen either from an ego perspective with targets appearing directly in front of the participant or from a bird’s view, where targets were seen from above and more distant. To control for low level visual features, we conducted a visually identical control experiment, where the instruction to shoot was replaced by an instruction to detect. ERP waveforms showed differences between the two tasks as early as in the N1 time-range, with higher N1 amplitudes for the close perspective in the shoot task. Additionally, we found that pre-stimulus alpha power was significantly decreased in the ego, compared to the bird's view only for the shoot but not for the detect task. In the N2 time window, we observed main amplitude effects for response (nogo > go and distance (ego > bird perspective but no interaction with task type (shoot vs detect. We argue that the pre-stimulus and N1 effects can be explained by reduced attention and arousal in the distance condition when people are instructed to shoot. The lack of interaction in the N2 across tasks suggests that at that time point, the moral conflict is already resolved and response execution dominates. We discuss potential implications for real life shooting situations, especially considering recent developments in drone shootings which are per definition of a distant view.

  10. The Effect of Distance on Moral Engagement: Event Related Potentials and Alpha Power are Sensitive to Perspective in a Virtual Shooting Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, Kirsten; Ten Oever, Sanne; Jansma, Bernadette M

    2015-01-01

    In a shooting video game we investigated whether increased distance reduces moral conflict. We measured and analyzed the event related potential (ERP), including the N2 component, which has previously been linked to cognitive conflict from competing decision tendencies. In a modified Go/No-go task designed to trigger moral conflict participants had to shoot suddenly appearing human like avatars in a virtual reality scene. The scene was seen either from an ego perspective with targets appearing directly in front of the participant or from a bird's view, where targets were seen from above and more distant. To control for low level visual features, we added a visually identical control condition, where the instruction to "shoot" was replaced by an instruction to "detect." ERP waveforms showed differences between the two tasks as early as in the N1 time-range, with higher N1 amplitudes for the close perspective in the "shoot" task. Additionally, we found that pre-stimulus alpha power was significantly decreased in the ego, compared to the bird's view only for the "shoot" but not for the "detect" task. In the N2 time window, we observed main amplitude effects for response (No-go > Go) and distance (ego > bird perspective) but no interaction with task type (shoot vs. detect). We argue that the pre-stimulus and N1 effects can be explained by reduced attention and arousal in the distance condition when people are instructed to "shoot." These results indicate a reduced moral engagement for increased distance. The lack of interaction in the N2 across tasks suggests that at that time point response execution dominates. We discuss potential implications for real life shooting situations, especially considering recent developments in drone shootings which are per definition of a distant view.

  11. Virtual Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzopoulos, Demetri; Qureshi, Faisal Z.

    Computer vision and sensor networks researchers are increasingly motivated to investigate complex multi-camera sensing and control issues that arise in the automatic visual surveillance of extensive, highly populated public spaces such as airports and train stations. However, they often encounter serious impediments to deploying and experimenting with large-scale physical camera networks in such real-world environments. We propose an alternative approach called "Virtual Vision", which facilitates this type of research through the virtual reality simulation of populated urban spaces, camera sensor networks, and computer vision on commodity computers. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by developing two highly automated surveillance systems comprising passive and active pan/tilt/zoom cameras that are deployed in a virtual train station environment populated by autonomous, lifelike virtual pedestrians. The easily reconfigurable virtual cameras distributed in this environment generate synthetic video feeds that emulate those acquired by real surveillance cameras monitoring public spaces. The novel multi-camera control strategies that we describe enable the cameras to collaborate in persistently observing pedestrians of interest and in acquiring close-up videos of pedestrians in designated areas.

  12. Automated analysis in generic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerholm, Edvard

    This thesis studies automated methods for analyzing hardness assumptions in generic group models, following ideas of symbolic cryptography. We define a broad class of generic and symbolic group models for different settings---symmetric or asymmetric (leveled) k-linear groups --- and prove ''computational soundness'' theorems for the symbolic models. Based on this result, we formulate a master theorem that relates the hardness of an assumption to solving problems in polynomial algebra. We systematically analyze these problems identifying different classes of assumptions and obtain decidability and undecidability results. Then, we develop automated procedures for verifying the conditions of our master theorems, and thus the validity of hardness assumptions in generic group models. The concrete outcome is an automated tool, the Generic Group Analyzer, which takes as input the statement of an assumption, and outputs either a proof of its generic hardness or shows an algebraic attack against the assumption. Structure-preserving signatures are signature schemes defined over bilinear groups in which messages, public keys and signatures are group elements, and the verification algorithm consists of evaluating ''pairing-product equations''. Recent work on structure-preserving signatures studies optimality of these schemes in terms of the number of group elements needed in the verification key and the signature, and the number of pairing-product equations in the verification algorithm. While the size of keys and signatures is crucial for many applications, another aspect of performance is the time it takes to verify a signature. The most expensive operation during verification is the computation of pairings. However, the concrete number of pairings is not captured by the number of pairing-product equations considered in earlier work. We consider the question of what is the minimal number of pairing computations needed to verify structure-preserving signatures. We build an

  13. Virtual Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In four ways, massively multiplayer online role-playing games may serve as tools for advancing sustainability goals, and as laboratories for developing alternatives to current social arrangements that have implications for the natural environment. First, by moving conspicuous consumption and other usually costly status competitions into virtual environments, these virtual worlds might reduce the need for physical resources. Second, they provide training that could prepare individuals to be teleworkers, and develop or demonstrate methods for using information technology to replace much transportation technology, notably in commuting. Third, virtual worlds and online games build international cooperation, even blending national cultures, thereby inching us toward not only the world consciousness needed for international agreements about the environment, but also toward non-spatial government that cuts across archaic nationalisms. Finally, realizing the potential social benefits of this new technology may urge us to reconsider a number of traditional societal institutions.

  14. Virtual Tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayne, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The primary responsibility of an intrusion detection system (IDS) operator is to monitor the system, assess alarms, and summon and coordinate the response team when a threat is acknowledged. The tools currently provided to the operator are somewhat limited: monitors must be switched, keystrokes must be entered to call up intrusion sensor data, and communication with the response force must be maintained. The Virtual tower is an operator interface assembled from low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and software; it enables large amounts of data to be displayed in a virtual manner that provides instant recognition for the operator and increases assessment accuracy in alarm annunciator and control systems. This is accomplished by correlating and fusing the data into a 360-degree visual representation that employs color, auxiliary attributes, video, and directional audio to prompt the operator. The Virtual Tower would be a valuable low-cost enhancement to existing systems

  15. Virtual care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Annette; Aaløkke Ballegaard, Stinne

    of retrenchment, promising better quality, empowerment of citizens and work that is smarter and more qualified. Through ethnographic field studies we study the introduction of virtual home care in Danish elderly care, focusing on the implications for relational work and care relations. Virtual home care entails...... the performance of specific home care services by means of video conversations rather than physical visits in the citizens’ homes. As scholars within the STS tradition maintain, technologies do not simply replace a human function; they rather transform care work, redistributing tasks between citizens, technology...... point out how issues of trust and surveillance, which are always negotiated in care relations, are in fact accentuated in this kind of virtual care work. Moreover, we stress that the contemporary institutional context, organization and time schedules have a vast impact on the practices developed....

  16. Virtual toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Charles J.; Jacobus, Heidi N.; Mitchell, Brian T.; Riggs, A. J.; Taylor, Mark J.

    1993-04-01

    At least three of the five senses must be fully addressed in a successful virtual reality (VR) system. Sight, sound, and touch are the most critical elements for the creation of the illusion of presence. Since humans depend so much on sight to collect information about their environment, this area has been the focus of much of the prior art in virtual reality, however, it is also crucial that we provide facilities for force, torque, and touch reflection, and sound replay and 3-D localization. In this paper we present a sampling of hardware and software in the virtual environment maker's `toolbox' which can support rapidly building up of customized VR systems. We provide demonstrative examples of how some of the tools work and we speculate about VR applications and future technology needs.

  17. Virtual polytopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panina, G Yu; Streinu, I

    2015-01-01

    Originating in diverse branches of mathematics, from polytope algebra and toric varieties to the theory of stressed graphs, virtual polytopes represent a natural algebraic generalization of convex polytopes. Introduced as elements of the Grothendieck group associated to the semigroup of convex polytopes, they admit a variety of geometrizations. The present survey connects the theory of virtual polytopes with other geometrical subjects, describes a series of geometrizations together with relations between them, and gives a selection of applications. Bibliography: 50 titles

  18. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott Leroy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harp, Dylan Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-20

    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  19. Virtual Savannah

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Eskildsen, Søren; Rehm, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Virtual Savannah is constructed to visualize parts of a curriculum, which the educational service at Aalborg Zoo has difficulties in teaching children visiting the zoo. It contains rich media like audio, text, video and picture galleries about African ecology, but some of this episodic information...

  20. Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Gregory B.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the current state of the art in virtual reality (VR), its historical background, and future possibilities. Highlights include applications in medicine, art and entertainment, science, business, and telerobotics; and VR for information science, including graphical display of bibliographic data, libraries and books, and cyberspace.…

  1. Virtualize Me!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John K.

    2009-01-01

    John Abdelmalak, director of technology for the School District of the Chathams, was pretty sure it was time to jump on the virtualization bandwagon last year when he invited Dell to conduct a readiness assessment of his district's servers. When he saw just how little of their capacity was being used, he lost all doubt. Abdelmalak is one of many…

  2. Virtual Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ove

    2013-01-01

    In the Scandinavian countries: Sweden, Norway and Denmark, the project GNU (Grænseoverskridende Nordisk Undervisning, i.e. Transnational Nordic Teaching) is experimenting with ways of conducting teaching across the borders in the elementary schools. The cloud classes are organised with one class...... and benefits in regard to learning and pedagogy with virtual classroom....

  3. Virtual landmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Bai, Peirui; Torigian, Drew A.

    2017-03-01

    Much has been published on finding landmarks on object surfaces in the context of shape modeling. While this is still an open problem, many of the challenges of past approaches can be overcome by removing the restriction that landmarks must be on the object surface. The virtual landmarks we propose may reside inside, on the boundary of, or outside the object and are tethered to the object. Our solution is straightforward, simple, and recursive in nature, proceeding from global features initially to local features in later levels to detect landmarks. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used as an engine to recursively subdivide the object region. The object itself may be represented in binary or fuzzy form or with gray values. The method is illustrated in 3D space (although it generalizes readily to spaces of any dimensionality) on four objects (liver, trachea and bronchi, and outer boundaries of left and right lungs along pleura) derived from 5 patient computed tomography (CT) image data sets of the thorax and abdomen. The virtual landmark identification approach seems to work well on different structures in different subjects and seems to detect landmarks that are homologously located in different samples of the same object. The approach guarantees that virtual landmarks are invariant to translation, scaling, and rotation of the object/image. Landmarking techniques are fundamental for many computer vision and image processing applications, and we are currently exploring the use virtual landmarks in automatic anatomy recognition and object analytics.

  4. GLAD: a generic lattice debugger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Today, numerous simulation and analysis codes exist for the design, commission, and operation of accelerator beam lines. There is a need to develop a common user interface and database link to run these codes interactively. This paper will describe a proposed system, GLAD (Generic LAttice Debugger), to fulfill this need. Specifically, GLAD can be used to find errors in beam lines during commissioning, control beam parameters during operation, and design beam line optics and error correction systems for the next generation of linear accelerators and storage rings. (author)

  5. Generic maximum likely scale selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    in this work is on applying this selection principle under a Brownian image model. This image model provides a simple scale invariant prior for natural images and we provide illustrative examples of the behavior of our scale estimation on such images. In these illustrative examples, estimation is based......The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...

  6. Generic safety insights for inspection of boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, J.C.; Taylor, J.H.; Fresco, A.N.; Hillman, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    As the number of operating nuclear power plants (NPP) increases, safety inspection has increased in importance. However, precisely what is important, and what is not important? What should one focus inspection efforts on. Over the last two years Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PR) techniques have been developed to aid in the inspection process. Broad interest in generic PRA-based methods has arisen in the past year, since only about 25% of the US nuclear power plants have completed PRAs, and also, inspectors want PRA-based tools for these plants. This paper describes the BNL program to develop generic BWR PRA-based inspection insights or inspection guidance designed to be applied to plants without PRAs

  7. Personal Virtual Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2004-01-01

    Virtual libraries are becoming more and more common. Most states have a virtual library. A growing number of public libraries have a virtual presence on the Web. Virtual libraries are a growing addition to school library media collections. The next logical step would be personal virtual libraries. A personal virtual library (PVL) is a collection…

  8. Managing congestion in distribution grids - Market design consideration. How heat pumps can deliver flexibility though well-designed markets and virtual power plant technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg Rasmussen, L. [NEAS Energy, Aalborg (Denmark); Bang, C.; Togeby, M. [Ea Energy Analyses, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-10-15

    of end-users to react to price fluctuations e.g. spot prices, thus enabling them to save on their electricity bill, and contribute to the overall system balance. The aim of this report is to discuss challenges with congestions in the distribution grids and how these can be solved through different tariffs and connection agreements, and how a market can be designed to manage congestion in local grids. A part of this is the investigation of the principal questions: Does the DSO have information about potential congestions, and what should the geographic scope of such a signal be? End-user demand can be controlled by a computer in each home which responds to a price signal that originates from the DSO, or it could be controlled by a centralised system, e.g. a virtual-power-plant (VPP) setup. The VPP set-up is in focus in this project, but the signal from the DSO should likely be useable in relation to both control solutions. How future signals from the DSO to the consumer would work in practice is open to discussion as there are a number of potential options, each which vary with respect to their geographic scope, timing, notice, and price level. Our initial findings indicate a number of issues that appear to be clear: 1) The signal indicating a potential congestion in distribution grids must originate from the DSO, and this signal will be directed to the retailer/aggregator/balance responsible, which will pass it on to end-users. 2) Ideally, the signal with grid tariffs should be sent to all end-users (not only heat pumps) in the congested area (i.e. possibly a small fraction of the DSO area). However, with more than 10,000 potential grids this may not be practical, and costs may not allow for this ideal solution. 3) Simple time-of-use tariffs can be an important first step in the direction of dynamic tariffs. Time-of-use tariffs can motivate behavioural change, i.e. computers and communication are not a requirement. It has not been analysed in detail how far in the

  9. Generic Performance Measures. Chapter 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daube-Witherspoon, M. E. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The generic nuclear medicine imager, whether a gamma camera, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system or positron emission tomography (PET) scanner, comprises several main components: a detection system, a form of collimation to select γ rays at specific angles, electronics and a computing system to create the map of the radiotracer distribution. This section discusses these components in more detail. The first stage of a generic nuclear medicine imager is the detection of the γ rays emitted by the radionuclide. In the case of PET, the radiation of interest are the 511 keV annihilation photons that result from the interaction of the positron emitted by the radionuclide with an electron in the tissue. For general nuclear medicine and SPECT, there is one or sometimes more than one γ ray of interest, with energies in the range of <100 to >400 keV. The γ rays are detected when they interact and deposit energy in the crystal(s) of the imaging system. There are two main types of detector: crystals that give off light that can be converted to an electrical signal when the γ ray interacts (‘scintillators’) and semiconductors, crystals that generate an electrical signal directly when the γ ray deposits energy in the crystal. Scintillation detectors include NaI(Tl), bismuth germanate (BGO) and lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO); semiconductor detectors used in nuclear medicine imagers include cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). Radiation detectors are described in more detail in Chapter 6.

  10. Generic communications index: User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, R.S.; Steinbrecher, D.H.; Hennick, A.

    1987-12-01

    This report is a manual for providing information required to use a special computer program developed by the NRC for indexing generic communications. The program is written in a user-friendly menu driven form using dBASE III programming language. It facilitates use of the required dBASE III search and sort capabilities to access records in a database called Generic Communications Index. This index is made up of one record each for all bulletins, circulars, and information notices, including revisions and supplements, from 1971, when such documentation started, through 1986 (or to the latest update). The program is designed for use by anyone modestly acquainted with the general use of IBM-compatible personal computers. The manual contains both a brief overview and a detailed description of the program, as well as detailed instructions for getting started using the program on a personal computer with either a two-floppy disk or a hard disk system. Included at the end are a brief description of how to handle problems which might occur, and notes on the makeup of the program and database files for help in adding records of communications for future years

  11. Skin rash during treatment with generic itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuono, Antonio; Palleria, Caterina; Scicchitano, Francesca; Squillace, Aida; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gallelli, Luca

    2014-04-01

    Generic drugs have the same active substance, the same pharmaceutical form, the same therapeutic indications and a similar bioequivalence with the reference medicinal product (branded). Although a similar efficacy is postulated, some cases of clinical inefficacy during treatment with generic formulations have been reported. In this case, we describe a woman with onychomycosis that developed a skin rash during treatment with a generic formulation of itraconazole. Drug administration and its re-challenge confirmed the association between itraconazole and skin rash. Both Naranjo probability scale and World Health Organization causality assessment scale documented a probable association between generic-itraconazole and skin rash. The switch from generic formulation to brand one induced an improvement of symptoms. Since we are unable to evaluate the role of each excipient in the development of skin rash, we cannot rule out their involvement. However, more data are necessary to better define the similarities or differences between branded and generic formulations.

  12. Effect of generic issues program on improving safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fard, M. R.; Kauffman, J. V.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) identifies (by its assessment of plant operation) certain issues involving public health and safety, the common defense and security, or the environment that could affect multiple entities under NRC jurisdiction. The Generic Issues Program (GIP) addresses the resolution of these Generic Issues (GIs). The resolution of these issues may involve new or revised rules, new or revised guidance, or revised interpretation of rules or guidance that affect nuclear power plant licensees, nuclear material certificate holders, or holders of other regulatory approvals. U.S. NRC provides information related to the past and ongoing GIP activities to the general public by the use of three main resources, namely NUREG-0933, 'Resolution of Generic Safety Issues, ' Generic Issues Management Control System (GIMCS), and GIP public web page. GIP information resources provide information such as historical information on resolved GIs, current status of the open GIs, policy documents, program procedures, GIP annual and quarterly reports and the process to contact GIP and propose a GI This paper provides an overview of the GIP and several examples of safety improvements resulting from the resolution of GIs. In addition, the paper provides a brief discussion of a few recent GIs to illustrate how the program functions to improve safety. (authors)

  13. Generic medicines and generic substitution: contrasting perspectives of stakeholders in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, A; Usher, C; Lynch, M; Hall, M; Hemeryk, L; Spillane, S; Gallagher, P; Barry, M

    2015-12-15

    The Health (Pricing and Supply of Medical Goods) Act 2013 passed into law in July 2013 and legislated for generic substitution in Ireland. The aim of the study was to ascertain the knowledge and perceptions of stakeholders i.e. patients, pharmacists and prescribers, of generic medicines and to generic substitution with the passing of legislation. Three stakeholder specific questionnaires were developed to assess knowledge of and perceptions to generic medicines and generic substitution. Purposive samples of patients, prescribers and pharmacists were analysed. Descriptive quantitative and qualitative analyses were undertaken. A total of 762 healthcare professionals and 353 patients were recruited. The study highlighted that over 84% of patients were familiar with generic medicines and are supportive of the concept of generic substitution. Approximately 74% of prescribers and 84% of pharmacists were supportive of generic substitution in most cases. The main areas of concern highlighted by the healthcare professionals that might impact on the successful implementation of the policy, were the issue of bioequivalence with generic medicines, the computer software systems used at present in general practitioner (GP) surgeries and the availability of branded generics. The findings from this study identify a high baseline rate of acceptance to generic medicines and generic substitution among patients, prescribers and pharmacists in the Irish setting. The concerns of the main stakeholders provide a valuable insight into the potential difficulties that may arise in its implementation, and the need for on-going reassurance and proactive dissemination of the impact of the generic substitution policy. The existing positive attitude to generic medicines and generic substitution among key stakeholders in Ireland to generic substitution, combined with appropriate support and collaboration should result in the desired increase in rates of prescribing, dispensing and use of generic

  14. Generic domain models in software engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiden, Neil

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines three research directions related to domain-specific software development: (1) reuse of generic models for domain-specific software development; (2) empirical evidence to determine these generic models, namely elicitation of mental knowledge schema possessed by expert software developers; and (3) exploitation of generic domain models to assist modelling of specific applications. It focuses on knowledge acquisition for domain-specific software development, with emphasis on tool support for the most important phases of software development.

  15. PROBLEM OF GENERIC REPLACEMENT: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Tolpygina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main differences between original and generic drugs as well as registration criteria for generics are described. Possible reasons of discrepancy in bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence of original and generic drugs are reviewed. The examples of such a discrepancy as a result of comparative clinical trails (enalapril maleate are discussed. Approaches to planning of comparative trails on drug therapeutic equivalence are presented. 

  16. Determinants of generic drug substitution in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lufkin Thomas M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since generic drugs have the same therapeutic effect as the original formulation but at generally lower costs, their use should be more heavily promoted. However, a considerable number of barriers to their wider use have been observed in many countries. The present study examines the influence of patients, physicians and certain characteristics of the generics' market on generic substitution in Switzerland. Methods We used reimbursement claims' data submitted to a large health insurer by insured individuals living in one of Switzerland's three linguistic regions during 2003. All dispensed drugs studied here were substitutable. The outcome (use of a generic or not was modelled by logistic regression, adjusted for patients' characteristics (gender, age, treatment complexity, substitution groups and with several variables describing reimbursement incentives (deductible, co-payments and the generics' market (prices, packaging, co-branded original, number of available generics, etc.. Results The overall generics' substitution rate for 173,212 dispensed prescriptions was 31%, though this varied considerably across cantons. Poor health status (older patients, complex treatments was associated with lower generic use. Higher rates were associated with higher out-of-pocket costs, greater price differences between the original and the generic, and with the number of generics on the market, while reformulation and repackaging were associated with lower rates. The substitution rate was 13% lower among hospital physicians. The adoption of the prescribing practices of the canton with the highest substitution rate would increase substitution in other cantons to as much as 26%. Conclusions Patient health status explained a part of the reluctance to substitute an original formulation by a generic. Economic incentives were efficient, but with a moderate global effect. The huge interregional differences indicated that prescribing behaviours and

  17. Skin rash during treatment with generic itraconazole

    OpenAIRE

    De Vuono, Antonio; Palleria, Caterina; Scicchitano, Francesca; Squillace, Aida; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gallelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Generic drugs have the same active substance, the same pharmaceutical form, the same therapeutic indications and a similar bioequivalence with the reference medicinal product (branded). Although a similar efficacy is postulated, some cases of clinical inefficacy during treatment with generic formulations have been reported. In this case, we describe a woman with onychomycosis that developed a skin rash during treatment with a generic formulation of itraconazole. Drug administration and its re...

  18. Development of generic soil profiles and soil data development for SSI analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Josh, E-mail: jparker@nuscalepower.com [NuScale Power, 1000 NE Circle Boulevard, Suite 10310, Corvallis, OR 97330 (United States); Khan, Mohsin; Rajagopal, Raj [ARES Corporation, 1990N California Boulevard, Suite 500, Walnut Creek, CA 94596 (United States); Groome, John [NuScale Power, 1000 NE Circle Boulevard, Suite 10310, Corvallis, OR 97330 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the approach to developing generic soil profiles for the design of reactor building for small modular reactor (SMR) nuclear power plant developed by NuScale Power. The reactor building is a deeply embedded structure. In order to perform soil structure interaction (SSI) analyses, generic soil profiles are required to be defined for the standardized Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) designs for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in a design control document (DCD). The development of generic soil profiles is based on utilization of information on generic soil profiles from the new standardized nuclear power plant designs already submitted to the NRC for license certification. Eleven generic soil profiles have been recommended, and those profiles cover a wide range of parameters such as soil depth, shear wave velocity, unit weight, Poisson's ratio, water table, and depth to rock strata. The soil profiles are developed for a range of shear wave velocities between bounds of 1000 fps and 8000 fps as inferred from NRC Standard Review Plan (NUREG 0800) Sections 3.7.1 and 3.7.2. To account for the soil degradation due to seismic events, the strain compatible soil properties are based on the EPRI generic soil degradation curves. In addition, one dimensional soil dynamic response analyses were performed to study the soil layer input motions for performing the SSI analyses.

  19. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of

  20. Sensorial Virtualization: Coupling Gaming and Virtual Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garbaya, S.; Miraoui, C.; Wendrich, Robert E.; Lim, T.; Stanescu, I.A.; Hauge, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality and virtualization are currently used to design complex systems and demonstrate that they represent the functionalities of real systems. However, the design refinement of the virtual environment (VE) and distributed virtual environment (DVE) are still time consuming and costly, as it

  1. Virtual Presenters: Towards Interactive Virtual Presentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Cappellini, V.; Hemsley, J.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss having virtual presenters in virtual environments that present information to visitors of these environments. Some current research is surveyed and we will look in particular to our research in the context of a virtual meeting room where a virtual presenter uses speech, gestures, pointing

  2. Virtual materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    as their recounts of them and 3. the consumption of other media products like movies, reality shows, YouTube videos etc. How do we theorize ‘matter’ in such dimensions? Is it possible to theorize virtual matter as ‘materiality’ in line with any real life materiality? What conceptualization will help us understand......? These questions become crucial when we follow matter in and across real life, virtual experience, recounted imagery, night dreams, YouTube videos and even further. Some may already have recognized Phillip’s skeleton army as a transport/transformation from Lord of the Rings, DVD 3, the army which Aragon calls out....... Butler, J. (1993) Bodies that Matter. On the Discursive Limits of “Sex”. London: Routledge. Durkin, K. et al. (1998) Children, Media and Agression. Current Research in Australia and New Zealand. In: Carlson, U. & von Feilitzen, C. (red): Children and Media Violence. Yearbook from the UNESCO International...

  3. Virtual anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Gerhard W

    2015-02-01

    Comparative morphology, dealing with the diversity of form and shape, and functional morphology, the study of the relationship between the structure and the function of an organism's parts, are both important subdisciplines in biological research. Virtual anthropology (VA) contributes to comparative morphology by taking advantage of technological innovations, and it also offers new opportunities for functional analyses. It exploits digital technologies and pools experts from different domains such as anthropology, primatology, medicine, paleontology, mathematics, statistics, computer science, and engineering. VA as a technical term was coined in the late 1990s from the perspective of anthropologists with the intent of being mostly applied to biological questions concerning recent and fossil hominoids. More generally, however, there are advanced methods to study shape and size or to manipulate data digitally suitable for application to all kinds of primates, mammals, other vertebrates, and invertebrates or to issues regarding plants, tools, or other objects. In this sense, we could also call the field "virtual morphology." The approach yields permanently available virtual copies of specimens and data that comprehensively quantify geometry, including previously neglected anatomical regions. It applies advanced statistical methods, supports the reconstruction of specimens based on reproducible manipulations, and promotes the acquisition of larger samples by data sharing via electronic archives. Finally, it can help identify new, hidden traits, which is particularly important in paleoanthropology, where the scarcity of material demands extracting information from fragmentary remains. This contribution presents a current view of the six main work steps of VA: digitize, expose, compare, reconstruct, materialize, and share. The VA machinery has also been successfully used in biomechanical studies which simulate the stress and strains appearing in structures. Although

  4. Applied virtual reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yule, I.Y.; Lee, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    An early experience in deploying a manipulator to the Irradiated Fuel Dismantling Cell at Torness Power Station, quickly highlighted that special visualisation techniques were required to achieve a successful deployment and reduce plant system down time. This visualisation was later realised through the IGRIP software pakcage operating on a Silicon Graphics computing engine, which provides a 'Non-Immersive' Virtual Reality environment. Within this environment, models of the Irradiated Fuel Dismantling cell were generated along with a model of the manipulator, allowing manipulator deployment to the Irradiated Fuel Dismantling Cell be modelled. It is estimated that the first use of this new environment provided a significant saving to Scottish Nuclear in potential lost output. The use of this virtual reality environment is currently being extended into the design and deployment of a new manipulator for Torness in vessel inspection, the Boiler Inspection Manipulator. (author)

  5. Virtual automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casis, E; Garrido, A; Uranga, B; Vives, A; Zufiaurre, C

    2001-01-01

    Total laboratory automation (TLA) can be substituted in mid-size laboratories by a computer sample workflow control (virtual automation). Such a solution has been implemented in our laboratory using PSM, software developed in cooperation with Roche Diagnostics (Barcelona, Spain), to this purpose. This software is connected to the online analyzers and to the laboratory information system and is able to control and direct the samples working as an intermediate station. The only difference with TLA is the replacement of transport belts by personnel of the laboratory. The implementation of this virtual automation system has allowed us the achievement of the main advantages of TLA: workload increase (64%) with reduction in the cost per test (43%), significant reduction in the number of biochemistry primary tubes (from 8 to 2), less aliquoting (from 600 to 100 samples/day), automation of functional testing, drastic reduction of preanalytical errors (from 11.7 to 0.4% of the tubes) and better total response time for both inpatients (from up to 48 hours to up to 4 hours) and outpatients (from up to 10 days to up to 48 hours). As an additional advantage, virtual automation could be implemented without hardware investment and significant headcount reduction (15% in our lab).

  6. Virtual Cystoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia Restrepo, Jorge; Aldana S, Natalia; Munoz Sierra, Juan; Lopez Amaya, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: virtual cystoscopy is a minimally invasive procedure that facilitates the evaluation of the urinary tract, allowing intraluminal navigation through the urinary tract structures on the basis of CT imaging reconstructions. it allows detection of various pathologies of the system, through high-sensitivity, three-dimensional lesion visualization with some advantages over conventional cystoscopy. Objective: to describe the technique used for virtual cystoscopy at our institution,and present some representative cases. Materials and methods: We describe the main indications, advantages and limitations of the method, followed by a description of the technique used in our institution, and finally, we present five representative cases of bladder and urethral pathology. Conclusion: virtual cystoscopy is a sensitive technique for the diagnosis of bladder tumors, even those smaller than 5mm. it is the preferred method in patients who have contraindications for conventional cystoscopy, such as prostate hyperplasia, urethral stenoses and active haematuria.it is less invasive and has a lower complication rate when compared with conventional cystoscopy. It has limited use in the assessment of the mucosa and of small, flat lesions.

  7. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable....... It is thus a central point that power is not necessarily something that breaks down and represses. On the contrary, an explicit focus on the dynamics of power in relation to creativity can be productive for the organisation. Our main focus is to elaborate the implications of this for practice and theory...

  8. Virtual Communities of Collaborative Learning for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor, Gilda E.

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to outline and project three new learning scenarios for Higher Education that, after the emergence of ICT and communication through the Network-lnternet, have appeared under the generic name of virtual communities. To that end, we start from a previous conceptual analysis on collaborative learning, cooperative learning and…

  9. Generic Hurricane Extreme Seas State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof; Skourup, Jesper; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Extreme sea states, which the IEC 61400-3 (2008) standard requires for the ultimate limit state (ULS) analysis of offshore wind turbines are derived to establish the design basis for the conceptual layout of deep water floating offshore wind turbine foundations in hurricane affected areas....... Especially in the initial phase of floating foundation concept development, site specific metocean data are usually not available. As the areas of interest are furthermore not covered by any design standard, in terms of design sea states, generic and in engineering terms applicable environmental background...... data is required for a type specific conceptual design. ULS conditions for different return periods are developed, which can subsequently be applied in siteindependent analysis and conceptual design. Recordings provided by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), of hurricanes along...

  10. 76 FR 57767 - Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0204] Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... FR 54507), that requested public comment on Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011- XX: Seismic Risk...

  11. Cosmological N -body simulations with generic hot dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandbyge, Jacob; Hannestad, Steen, E-mail: jacobb@phys.au.dk, E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade 120, DK–8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2017-10-01

    We have calculated the non-linear effects of generic fermionic and bosonic hot dark matter components in cosmological N -body simulations. For sub-eV masses, the non-linear power spectrum suppression caused by thermal free-streaming resembles the one seen for massive neutrinos, whereas for masses larger than 1 eV, the non-linear relative suppression of power is smaller than in linear theory. We furthermore find that in the non-linear regime, one can map fermionic to bosonic models by performing a simple transformation.

  12. A Generic Approach to Parameter Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karafotias, G.; Smit, S.K.; Eiben, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    On-line control of EA parameters is an approach to parameter setting that offers the advantage of values changing during the run. In this paper, we investigate parameter control from a generic and parameter-independent perspective. We propose a generic control mechanism that is targeted to

  13. Once more the generic name Passerina Vieillot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1910-01-01

    The note on the generic name of the Snow-bunting by Dr. E. Hartert in this part of our periodical gives me cause to revert to the subject of my note on the generic name Passerina Vieillot and to state here, that I stand to what I have said about the rejection of this name in Zoology (Notes Leyden

  14. HTGR generic technology program plan (FY 80)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Purpose of the program is to develop base technology and to perform design and development common to the HTGR Steam Cycle, Gas Turbine, and Process Heat Plants. The generic technology program breaks into the base technology, generic component, pebble-bed study, technology transfer, and fresh fuel programs

  15. South African patient's acceptance of generic drugs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mechanism in this regard for final consumers, insurance providers, and ... facilities are viewed as inferior, treated with sus- picion and ... to choose a generic drug if the decision was supported by their doctor ... The effect of brand to generic and ...

  16. Virtualization in the Operations Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Lee; Lankford, Kim; Felton, Larry; Pruitt, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Virtualization provides the opportunity to continue to do "more with less"---more computing power with fewer physical boxes, thus reducing the overall hardware footprint, power and cooling requirements, software licenses, and their associated costs. This paper explores the tremendous advantages and any disadvantages of virtualization in all of the environments associated with software and systems development to operations flow. It includes the use and benefits of the Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) specification, and identifies lessons learned concerning hardware and network configurations. Using the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center as an example, we demonstrate that deploying virtualized servers as a means of managing computing resources is applicable and beneficial to many areas of application, up to and including flight operations.

  17. Brand vs generic adverse event reporting patterns: An authorized generic-controlled evaluation of cardiovascular medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatawi, Y; Rahman, Md M; Cheng, N; Qian, J; Peissig, P L; Berg, R L; Page, C D; Hansen, R A

    2018-06-01

    Some public scepticism exists about generics in terms of whether brand and generic drugs produce identical outcomes. This study explores whether adverse event (AE) reporting patterns are similar between brand and generic drugs, using authorized generics (AGs) as a control for possible generic drug perception biases. Events reported to the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System from the years 2004-2015 were analysed. Drugs were classified as brand, AG or generic based on drug and manufacturer names. Reports were included if amlodipine, losartan, metoprolol extended release (ER) or simvastatin were listed as primary or secondary suspect drugs. Disproportionality analyses using the reporting odds ratio (ROR) assessed the relative rate of reporting labelled AEs compared to reporting these AEs with all other drugs. The Breslow-Day test compared RORs across brand, AG and generic. Interrupted time series analysis evaluated the impact of generic entry on reporting trends. Generics accounted for significant percentages of total U.S. reports, but AGs accounted for smaller percentages of reports, including for amlodipine (14.26%), losartan (1.48%), metoprolol ER (0.35%) and simvastatin (0.70%). Whereas the RORs were significantly different for multiple brand vs generic comparisons, the AG vs generic comparisons yielded fewer statistically significant findings. Namely, only the ROR for AG differed from generic for amlodipine with peripheral oedema (P brand and generic compared with AG and generic. Use of AGs as a control for perception biases against generics is useful, but this approach can be limited by small AG report numbers. Requiring the manufacturer name to be printed on the prescription bottle or packaging could improve the accuracy of assignment for products being reported. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 3, Appendix M, Contract Copies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This report, is part of the final environmental impact statement of the Bonneville Power Administration, consists of an appendix of contract copies related to the following: Detailed Index to Generic Utility Power Sales Contracts, Text of Generic Utility Contract, Detailed Index to Generic DSI Power Sales Contracts, Text of Generic DSI Contract, Text of Residential Purchase and Sale Agreement (Residential Exchange), and Detailed Index to General Contract Provisions -- GCP Form PSC-2 (Incorporated into all three types of contracts as an Exhibit).

  19. Periodismo virtual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El periodismo virtual se produce en diarios que no ofrecen noticias (concebidas como versión o reflejo de la realidad sino que crean sus propias ficciones, especialmente en primeras planas. El autor del artículo señala que esto esta sucediendo en LA NACIÓN de San José de Costa Rica, diario premiado por la inefable Sociedad Interamericana de Prensa - SIP - y periódico económicamente más importante del país.

  20. [Generic drugs: good or bad? Physician's knowledge of generic drugs and prescribing habits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, A J; Martos, F; Leiva, F; Sánchez de la Cuesta, F

    2003-01-01

    In this article we analyze the responses of 1220 Spanish physicians who participated in a survery about generic drugs. A previously validated questionnaire was sent to physicians through the Spanish Medical Councils of the different provinces. Four items were analyzed: what doctors know about generic drugs (knowledge); physicians' prescribing habits concerning these drugs (attitude and professional competence); how prescription of generic drugs effects pharmaceutical costs amd, finally, what doctors believe a generic drug should be. The influence of physician-related variables (age, type of contract, specialty, workload, etc.) on prescribing of generic drugs was also analyzed. In view of the results, we believe that to rationalize expenditure through and appropriate policy on generic drugs Spanish health authorities should offer more and better training and information (clear and independent) about what generic drugs are.

  1. Generic implications of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sege, G.

    1989-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff's assessment of the generic implications of the Chernobyl accident led to the conclusion that no immediate changes in the NRC's regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors are needed. However, further consideration of certain issues was recommended. This paper discusses those issues and the studies being addressed to them. Although 24 tasks relating to light water reactor issues are identified in the Chernobyl follow-up research program, only four are new initiatives originating from Chernobyl implications. The remainder are limited modifications of ongoing programs designed to ensure that those programs duly reflect any lessons that may be drawn from the Chernobyl experience. The four new study tasks discussed include a study of reactivity transients, to reconfirm or bring into question the adequacy of potential reactivity accident sequences hitherto selected as a basis for design approvals; analysis of risk at low power and shutdown; a study of procedure violations; and a review of current NRC testing requirements for balance of benefits and risks. Also discussed, briefly, are adjustments to ongoing studies in the areas of operational controls, design, containment, emergency planning, and severe accident phenomena

  2. Impact of advanced wind power ancillary services on power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit

    The objective of this report is to illustrate and analyse, by means of simulation test cases, the impact of wind power advanced ancillary services, like inertial response (IR), power oscillation damping (POD) and synchronising power (SP) on the power system. Generic models for wind turbine, wind...... power plant and power system are used in the investigation....

  3. Generic impact statement for commercial radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unruh, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    ERDA is preparing a generic environmental impact statement on the treatment and disposal of waste resulting from commercial reactors and post fission operations in the light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle. Expert contributions will be provided by many of the ERDA national laboratories and contractors. The waste management aspects of the statement will be based on available technology as presented in the recently issued ''Alternatives for Managing Waste from Reactors and Post Fission Operations in the LWR Fuel Cycle,'' ERDA-76-43 Document. This 1500 page, five volume Technical Alternative Document (TAD) describes the status of technology (to September, 1975) for handling post fission radioactive waste generated by the production of electricity by nuclear power light water reactor-generator systems. The statement will be generic in nature discussing typical or hypothetical facilities in typical or hypothetical environments. It is not intended to replace environmental statements required in support of specific projects nor for Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing procedures. A major purpose of the generic statement is to inform the public and to solicit comments on the ERDA program for: (1) the final disposition of commercial radioactive waste, (2) waste treatment, (3) waste interim storage, and (4) transportation of waste. The statement will discuss the ERDA contingency program to provide retrievable storage of such waste if they should be transferred to Federal custody prior to the availability of the geologic isolation facilities for terminal disposal. The generic statement will not address radioactive waste resulting from U.S. Defense Programs, the mining or milling of uranium, the management of waste from the breeder reactor program, waste from other nations, nor will it include an evaluation of the impact of waste resulting from power sources other than light water reactors

  4. Imparting Individuality to Virtual Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egges, A.; Kshirsagar, V.; Magnenat-Thalmann, N.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present an integrated method of linking personality and emotion with the response generation and expression synthesis of Virtual Humans. The characters are powered by a dialogue system that consists of a large set of basic interactions between user and computer. These

  5. Green Virtualization for Multiple Collaborative Cellular Operators

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Muhammad Junaid; Ghazzai, Hakim; Yaacoub, Elias; Kadri, Abdullah; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes and investigates a green virtualization framework for infrastructure sharing among multiple cellular operators whose networks are powered by a combination of conventional and renewable sources of energy. Under the proposed

  6. Citrix XenApp 7.5 desktop virtualization solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Andy

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Citrix® engineer, a virtualization consultant, or an IT project manager with prior experience of using Citrix XenApp® and related technologies for desktop virtualization and want to further explore the power of XenApp® for flawless desktop virtualization, then this book is for you.

  7. Application of Virtual Reality to Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamela, B.; Felipe, A.; Sanchez-Mayoral, M. L.; Mreino, A.; Sarti, F.

    2004-01-01

    In order to optimize the operations and procedures in several aspects of a Nuclear Power Plants, Iberdrola Ingenieria y Consultoria (Iberinco) has been developed some projects with Virtual Reality: CIPRES, ACEWO, TILOS and SICOMORO. With the experience acquired in these projects, Iberinco has checked the utility and advantageous of Virtual Reality applications that could have a direct application to Radiation Protection. With Virtual Reality it is possible to optimize the procedures involved in several critical aspects of the Plant Management. A training program bases on Virtual Reality systems could be one of the most important application. In Emergency situations the time of reaction is very important and in order to reduce it and dose, Virtual Reality is a very important tool, that could be used for training and to guide response team actions. Finally, the reduction of dose to workers, in a NPP, and patients, in hospital, is one of the most important application of Virtual Reality. (Author) 5 refs

  8. Generic Local Hamiltonians are Gapless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movassagh, Ramis

    2017-12-01

    We prove that generic quantum local Hamiltonians are gapless. In fact, we prove that there is a continuous density of states above the ground state. The Hamiltonian can be on a lattice in any spatial dimension or on a graph with a bounded maximum vertex degree. The type of interactions allowed for include translational invariance in a disorder (i.e., probabilistic) sense with some assumptions on the local distributions. Examples include many-body localization and random spin models. We calculate the scaling of the gap with the system's size when the local terms are distributed according to a Gaussian β orthogonal random matrix ensemble. As a corollary, there exist finite size partitions with respect to which the ground state is arbitrarily close to a product state. When the local eigenvalue distribution is discrete, in addition to the lack of an energy gap in the limit, we prove that the ground state has finite size degeneracies. The proofs are simple and constructive. This work excludes the important class of truly translationally invariant Hamiltonians where the local terms are all equal.

  9. Generic physical protection logic trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle

  10. Generic physical protection logic trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.

  11. Generic theory for channel sinuosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Eli D; Constantine, José Antonio

    2013-05-21

    Sinuous patterns traced by fluid flows are a ubiquitous feature of physical landscapes on Earth, Mars, the volcanic floodplains of the Moon and Venus, and other planetary bodies. Typically discussed as a consequence of migration processes in meandering rivers, sinuosity is also expressed in channel types that show little or no indication of meandering. Sinuosity is sometimes described as "inherited" from a preexisting morphology, which still does not explain where the inherited sinuosity came from. For a phenomenon so universal as sinuosity, existing models of channelized flows do not explain the occurrence of sinuosity in the full variety of settings in which it manifests, or how sinuosity may originate. Here we present a generic theory for sinuous flow patterns in landscapes. Using observations from nature and a numerical model of flow routing, we propose that flow resistance (representing landscape roughness attributable to topography or vegetation density) relative to surface slope exerts a fundamental control on channel sinuosity that is effectively independent of internal flow dynamics. Resistance-dominated surfaces produce channels with higher sinuosity than those of slope-dominated surfaces because increased resistance impedes downslope flow. Not limited to rivers, the hypothesis we explore pertains to sinuosity as a geomorphic pattern. The explanation we propose is inclusive enough to account for a wide variety of sinuous channel types in nature, and can serve as an analytical tool for determining the sinuosity a landscape might support.

  12. Generic adversary characteristics: summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.B. Jr.; Davidson, J.J.; Jones, H.B.; Fulwiler, C.H.; Mullen, S.A.

    1978-07-01

    The adversaries studied were found to be complex, often unpredictable, and dynamic. The adversary typically goes through a complex decision-making process between the time a potential target is identified and the moment the decision to act is made. This study analyzes the adversary characteristics, and the following conclusions are made: one of the least likely methods of attack is an overt armed assault. Terrorists and psychotics depend upon a high degree of personal dedication. No single generic adversary group or individual exhibits strength in every characteristic. Physical danger appears to have some deterrent effect on all adversaries except the psychotics. Organized and professional criminals often try to recruit insiders. Disoriented persons, white-collar criminals, and disgruntled employees tend to operate as insiders. Professional criminals, many terrorist groups, some extremist protest groups, and certain disoriented persons plan carefully before initiating a criminal mission. Organized crime and miscellaneous criminal adversaries rely on deception and ruse to bypass security. After the decision to commit a crime, the resources deployed by terrorists or organized criminals will be a function of their perception of the operational requirements of the crime. The nature of ''threat'' is dynamic; adversary behavior and capability appear to be related to prevailing political, economic, and social conditions

  13. Generic aspects of salt repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughon, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    The history of geological disposal of radioactive wastes in salt is presented from 1957 when a panel of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council recommended burial in bedded salt deposits. Early work began in the Kansas, portion of the Permian Basin where simulated wastes were placed in an abandoned salt mine at Lyons, Kansas, in the late 1960's. This project was terminated when the potential effect of nearby solution mining activities could not be resolved. Evaluation of bedded salts resumed a few years later in the Permian Basin in southeastern New Mexico, and search for suitable sites in the 1970's resulted in the formation of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program in 1976. Evaluation of salt deposits in many regions of the United States has been virtually completed and has shown that deposits having the greatest potential for radioactive waste disposal are those of the largest depositional basins and salt domes of the Gulf Coast region

  14. Instruction by virtual reality to operation and security of a nuclear power plant of IV generation; Instruccion por realidad virtual a la operacion y seguridad de una central nuclear de generacion IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri O, J. C.; Baltasar M, J.; Valle H, J. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Campus Morelos, UNAM, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Col. Progreso, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)], e-mail: neriunam@ieee.org

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of LaNuVi project which is developing in the Engineering Faculty of National Autonomous University of Mexico, to have a virtual laboratory of nuclear reactors as tool of multidisciplinary education at basic and advanced levels in nuclear engineering area, involves training resources in audio visual and interactive form that allow to form a comprehension more realistic of operation of different systems and components. In this work is proposed to use educational resources, as the employees in the U.S. Army and in some centers of advanced education of medicine, where have been come proving concepts like projected reality, increased reality, tele transparency and others that present big benefits to learning-education process. The proposal here is to include the resource knew as serious game based learning. The focal point of stage that is presented is of a nuclear reactor PBMR like desalination and generator of controlled alternating energy and efficient that should put on in operation to allow the subsistence of a community in a desolated region of beginning second quarter of X XI century. For this purpose the designs are initiated and programmed several subsystems that allow the three-dimensional modeling of main components of a PBMR as well as of surrounding facilities. The obtained results and reaches of this design are presented. The product is in tests for a first version and it is hope to achieve a free and integral resource of national distribution for different cultural groups, interested in this type of advanced technology. (Author)

  15. Trust and virtual worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles; Thorseth, May

    2011-01-01

    We collect diverse philosophical analyses of the issues and problems clustering around trust online with specific attention to establishing trust in virtual environments. The book moves forward important discussions of how virtual worlds and virtuality are to be defined and understood; the role o...... by virtuality, such as virtual child pornography. The introduction further develops a philosophical anthropology, rooted in Kantian ethics, phenomenology, virtue ethics, and feminist perspectives, that grounds a specific approach to ethical issues in virtual environments....

  16. 78 FR 22553 - Generic Drug Facilities, Sites, and Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ...] Generic Drug Facilities, Sites, and Organizations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION.... Generic drug facilities, certain sites, and organizations identified in a generic drug submission are... active pharmaceutical ingredients and certain other sites and organizations that support the manufacture...

  17. 78 FR 59911 - Generic Information Collection for Land Management Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Generic Information Collection for Land Management... organizations on the proposed information collection, Generic Information Collection for Land Management... related to forest management. The intent of this generic information collection request (ICR) is to...

  18. A multicenter experience with generic tacrolimus conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt-Potter, Lisa M; Sadaka, Basma; Tichy, Eric M; Rogers, Christin C; Gabardi, Steven

    2011-09-27

    The first generic tacrolimus product gained Food and Drug Administration approval in August 2009. This prospective, observational trial sought to determine the need for dose titrations and measure drug cost savings on conversion to generic tacrolimus. Transplant recipients on stable tacrolimus doses were converted from brand to generic tacrolimus on a mg:mg basis. Data were collected at the time of generic conversion (study arm) and at a time point exactly 6 months before conversion (control arm) for all subjects. Seventy conversions from four centers are reported. Subjects were a mean of 70 months after kidney (n=37), liver (n=28), or multiorgan (n=5) transplant. In the study arm, mean tacrolimus doses were 4.4 and 4.5 mg/d and mean tacrolimus trough concentrations were 5.8 and 5.9 ng/mL before and after conversion, respectively. In the control arm, mean tacrolimus doses were 4.6 and 4.6 mg/d and mean tacrolimus trough concentrations were 6.1 and 5.9 ng/mL before and after the control time point, respectively. Dose titrations occurred in five patients (7%) in the control arm and 15 patients (21%) in the study arm (P=0.028). Mean monthly drug costs were $645 for brand, $593 for generic, and $595 for generic after dose titrations. Mean monthly patient copays were $38 for brand and $15 for generic. These cumulative data show that dose requirements and trough levels are similar between brand and generic tacrolimus and that generic substitution allows for savings. However, postconversion monitoring is prudent as patients may require dose titration.

  19. Realidad virtual y materialidad

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Herranz, Fernando Miguel

    2009-01-01

    1. Fenomenología de partida: Real / Simbólico / Imaginario 2. Realidad 3. Virtual 3.1. Virtual / real / posible / probable 3.2. Los contextos de la realidad virtual A) REALIDAD VIRTUAL INMERSIVA B) REALIDAD VIRTUAL NO INMERSIVA C) REALIDAD VIRTUAL Y DIGITALIZACIÓN 3.3. Cruce virtual / real 3.4. Cuestiones filosóficas 4. Materialidad 5. Materialidad y descentramiento 5.1. Ejemplos de descentramiento en los contextos de Realidad Virtual A’) DUALISMO CARTESIANO, CUERPO Y «CIBORG » B’) EL ESPÍRIT...

  20. Generic Penetration of the SSRI Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascade, Elisa F; Kalali, Amir H

    2008-04-01

    In this article, we investigate the penetration of generic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the US market and the implications for patient out-of-pocket expense. The data suggest that generic penetration into the SSRI market has grown from approximately nine percent in 2000, the year that the patent for Prozac((R)) expired, to 72 percent in 2007. For December, 2007, the difference in patient out-of-pocket expense for branded vs. generic agents was, on average, $55.42 for patients paying by cash (i.e., they had no prescription drug insurance) and $22.39 for patients with insurance coverage.

  1. Realidad virtual

    OpenAIRE

    García García, Alberto Luis

    2000-01-01

    Las nuevas tecnologías, basadas en el mundo digital propuesto por la informática, están cambiando nuestra forma de entender el mundo, tanto desde el punto de vista sociocultural como económico. La realidad virtual se vale de códigos icónicos, y con ello se convierte en un paso más hacia la supresión de toda barrera linguística, para llegar a conseguir la gran comunidad global. Es necesario conocer en toda su extensión, una tecnología que está cambiando el modo de comunicarnos. Estos son, a gr...

  2. Virtual Reality and the Virtual Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Explains virtual reality, including proper and improper uses of the term, and suggests ways that libraries might be affected by it. Highlights include elements of virtual reality systems; possible virtual reality applications, including architecture, the chemical industry, transport planning, armed forces, and entertainment; and the virtual…

  3. From virtual environment to virtual community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Terano, Takao; Nishida, Toyoaki; Namatame, Akira; Tsumoto, Syusaku; Ohsawa, Yukido; Washio, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a virtual reality theater environment and its transition to a virtual community by adding domain agents and by allowing multiple users to visit this environment. The environment has been built using VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). We discuss how our ideas about this environment

  4. Microsoft Virtualization Master Microsoft Server, Desktop, Application, and Presentation Virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Olzak, Thomas; Boomer, Jason; Keefer, Robert M

    2010-01-01

    Microsoft Virtualization helps you understand and implement the latest virtualization strategies available with Microsoft products. This book focuses on: Server Virtualization, Desktop Virtualization, Application Virtualization, and Presentation Virtualization. Whether you are managing Hyper-V, implementing desktop virtualization, or even migrating virtual machines, this book is packed with coverage on all aspects of these processes. Written by a talented team of Microsoft MVPs, Microsoft Virtualization is the leading resource for a full installation, migration, or integration of virtual syste

  5. Work in a virtual plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, G.; Smadja, S.

    1996-01-01

    An EDF graphic simulator is based on a three dimensional image built by an optical radar in an EDF PWR power plant. The resulting virtual plant has improved accuracy thanks to radar millimeter range spatial resolution. These performances allow realistic and reliable training of reactor operators, in particular for work in virtual reality. The simulation gives accurate data on the possibility of introducing a tool in a particular place. EDF work resulted in COMPROMIS computer code which optimizes their maintenance. (D.L.). 7 refs., 6 figs

  6. Grids, Clouds, and Virtualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafaro, Massimo; Aloisio, Giovanni

    This chapter introduces and puts in context Grids, Clouds, and Virtualization. Grids promised to deliver computing power on demand. However, despite a decade of active research, no viable commercial grid computing provider has emerged. On the other hand, it is widely believed - especially in the Business World - that HPC will eventually become a commodity. Just as some commercial consumers of electricity have mission requirements that necessitate they generate their own power, some consumers of computational resources will continue to need to provision their own supercomputers. Clouds are a recent business-oriented development with the potential to render this eventually as rare as organizations that generate their own electricity today, even among institutions who currently consider themselves the unassailable elite of the HPC business. Finally, Virtualization is one of the key technologies enabling many different Clouds. We begin with a brief history in order to put them in context, and recall the basic principles and concepts underlying and clearly differentiating them. A thorough overview and survey of existing technologies provides the basis to delve into details as the reader progresses through the book.

  7. Impacts of Generic Competition and Benefit Management...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Impacts of Generic Competition and Benefit Management Practices on Spending for Prescription Drugs - Evidence from Medicares Part D...

  8. Brand and generic medications: Are they interchangeable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jazairi, Abdulrazak S.; Blhareth, S.; Eqtefan, Iyad S.; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A.

    2008-01-01

    Generic substitution has become a common practice since the late 1970s in the United States. At that time, many of these generics caused bioavailability problems, which fueled suspicions about their efficacy and safety and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standards for bioequivalence. In Saudi Arabia, the increasing number of local products raised several concerns with regard to switching from brands to generics. Our objective was to review and examine the basis of the controversy surrounding brand and generic interchangeability and to explore a practical approach in pursuing a switch. Articles indexed initially under terms such as generic medications, generic substitution, bioequivalence and bioinequivalence were identified. These terms were used to search the indexing service, MEDLINE (1966-2006). References from the extracted articles and additional data sources, including the Code of Federal Regulations and Regulatory Guidelines from the FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and research were also reviewed. Foe most drugs, bioequivalence testing generally should enable clinicians to routinely substitute generic for innovator products. However, for narrow therapeutic, critical dose drugs, or for highly variable drugs, safe switching between products can not be assured. These drugs need special precautions and blood level monitoring upon switching. FDA firmly believes that approved generic and brand drugs can be dispensed with the full expectation that the consumer will receive the same clinical benefit. Performing the switch process is an advisable practice to reduce health care costs in countries with strong post-marketing surveillance program, but caution is to be exercised when narrow therapeutic index drugs or highly variable drugs are prescribed. (author)

  9. Generic medicine and prescribing: A quick assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainul Haque

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generic drugs are copies of brand-name drugs that have exactly the same dosage, intended use, effects, side effects, route of administration, risks, safety, and strength as the original drug. In other words, their pharmacological effects are exactly the same as those of their brand-name counterparts. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA describes that generic drugs are essential possibilities that allow better access to healthcare for all Americans. They are replicas of brand-name drugs and are the identical as those of brand-name drugs in dosage form, safety, strength, route of administration, quality, performance features, and anticipated to use. Healthcare authorities and users can be guaranteed that FDA-approved generic drug products have met the same stiff principles as the innovator drug. The company that made Bayer aspirin fought in court enthusiastically to keep generic versions off the shelves, in the 1920s. The company lost in court, and consumers suddenly had an array of choices in generic aspirin. The Supreme Court of India uttering ‘the Supreme Court's ruling will prevent companies from further seeking unwarranted patents on HIV and other essential medicines.’ Generic medicine cannot be sold at a price higher than the branded medicine, so it is regularly a low-priced option. Thereafter, both the end user and the government who pay for part of the price of the medicine under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme in Australia are benefitted. The treatment of diseases using essential drugs, prescribed by their generic names, has been emphasised by the WHO and many national health policies. Although there are some improvements in generic medicine prescribing, it has been advised by the WHO that ‘countries should intensify efforts to measure and regularly monitor medicine prices and availability, and adopt policy measures to address the issues identified.’

  10. Comparative study of the impacts of hydroelectric power plants with impacts avoided by a Virtual Plants Equivalents (VPEs) through of energy efficiency actions; Estudo comparativo dos impactos das usinas hidreletricas com os impactos evitados por uma usina virtual equivalente atraves das acoes de eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Roberto Perillo Barbosa da; Barros, Regiane Silva de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], emails: rpbsilva@fem.unicamp.br, rsbarros@fem.unicamp.br Rossi, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. Engenharia Agricola], email: rossi@feagri.unicamp.br

    2010-07-01

    This article presents a comparative study of the impacts caused by Hydroelectric Power Plants (HPPs) in relation to the impacts avoided through actions that promotes energy efficiency called Virtual Plants Equivalents (VPEs). To do so, it was considering the recent results presented by the National Program for Electric Energy Conservation (PROCEL) to the year 2008, which shows that the program actions' in this period resulted in a Virtual Plant Equivalent of 1049 MW. It was performed a survey of the values of wetland and families displaced by the construction of hydropower plants and, later, it was compared these data with the values found in the literature and, finally, it was established that the actions of energy efficiency are important instruments to avoid (or at least postpone) the social and environmental impacts directly and indirectly that affects the whole society. Thus, it is suggested that there is a stimulus in relation to energy efficiency actions, what is observed nowadays in Brazil is that these actions are negligible before the potential that exists at industrial, commercial and residential sectors. (author)

  11. : Virtual Tours in School Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Ribeiro,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the importance of using virtual tours in schools as a means to disseminate local cultural heritage, school projects and teaching resources. We want to use virtual tours, involving the school community in its use, through the production of relevant multimedia content as a way to understand and analyze the potential of multimedia resources in schools. With the evolution of new technologies, including the internet, it is up to the schools, as sources of knowledge transmission, to resort to new technologies as a way to encourage students to learn, to promote local heritage and to disclose the work of the school community, using virtual tours in school context as a powerful interdisciplinary technical and educational resource.

  12. Generic methods for design of small-bore pipe supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.L.; LaSalle, F.R.

    1981-01-01

    Large numbers of supports for small-bore, low-temperature pipe are utilized in nuclear power plants. These supports often must meet ASME code and project seismic design requirements. Detailed analysis for each support is time consuming and costly. This paper describes some economical generic methods developed to design and qualify supports for two-inch and smaller pipe operating at temperatures less than 300 0 F (185 0 C), on the Fast Flux Test Facility. Use of standard designs, standard support spacing tables, anchor bolt and baseplate considerations, and field qualification methods are discussed

  13. Generic Accounting and Reporting Software for Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaernry, C.

    2010-01-01

    This poster will give a general description of a generic accounting and reporting software for research reactors. The program has been designed to be a powerful working tool for the operator. The software is designed to be extremely easy to handle and at the same time give the operator the maximal power of searches, calculations and reports that a modern advanced system can produce. The systems are designed to take make the relevant accountancy for the site and perform the reporting to IAEA in Code 10. Generic software for accounting and reporting for research and other smaller facilities is something that has been asked for by many parties. Software like this could be distributed to facilities in need of a powerful accountancy and reporting system for a much lower cost than the systems that is now custom made for these facilities. This will greatly increase the quality of accountancy at these facilities and the quality of the reporting to IAEA and other state offices etc. The software is based on our advanced custom made software series 'STAR' that has been in use in many places for more than a decade with successful use. (author)

  14. Virtualization and cloud computing in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Frank; Muftu, Ali; Shorter, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The use of virtualization and cloud computing has changed the way we use computers. Virtualization is a method of placing software called a hypervisor on the hardware of a computer or a host operating system. It allows a guest operating system to run on top of the physical computer with a virtual machine (i.e., virtual computer). Virtualization allows multiple virtual computers to run on top of one physical computer and to share its hardware resources, such as printers, scanners, and modems. This increases the efficient use of the computer by decreasing costs (e.g., hardware, electricity administration, and management) since only one physical computer is needed and running. This virtualization platform is the basis for cloud computing. It has expanded into areas of server and storage virtualization. One of the commonly used dental storage systems is cloud storage. Patient information is encrypted as required by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and stored on off-site private cloud services for a monthly service fee. As computer costs continue to increase, so too will the need for more storage and processing power. Virtual and cloud computing will be a method for dentists to minimize costs and maximize computer efficiency in the near future. This article will provide some useful information on current uses of cloud computing.

  15. A Virtual Class Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik; Ostermann, Klaus; Cook, William Randall

    2006-01-01

    Virtual classes are class-valued attributes of objects. Like virtual methods, virtual classes are defined in an object's class and may be redefined within subclasses. They resemble inner classes, which are also defined within a class, but virtual classes are accessed through object instances...... model for virtual classes has been a long-standing open question. This paper presents a virtual class calculus, vc, that captures the essence of virtual classes in these full-fledged programming languages. The key contributions of the paper are a formalization of the dynamic and static semantics of vc...

  16. Virtual Trackballs Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Knud; Sporring, Jon; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    reviews and provides a mathematical foundation for virtual trackballs. The first, but still popular, virtual trackball was described by Chen et al. [CHECK END OF SENTENCE]. We show that the virtual trackball by Chen et al. does not rotate the object along the intended great circular arc on the virtual...... trackball and we give a correction. Another popular virtual trackball is Shoemake's quaternion implementation [CHECK END OF SENTENCE], which we show to be a special case of the virtual trackball by Chen et al.. Shoemake extends the scope of the virtual trackball to the full screen. Unfortunately, Shoemake......'s virtual trackball is inhomogeneous and discontinuous with consequences for usability. Finally, we review Bell's virtual trackball [CHECK END OF SENTENCE] and discuss studies of the usability of virtual trackballs....

  17. Virtual cystoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Aza; Simpson, Adam; Zamora, Ignacio; Gilliland, Leslie

    2008-07-01

    Bladder cancer is a common problem facing urologists worldwide. The gold standard for its diagnosis and follow-up is the direct visualization of the tumor using conventional cystoscopy. Despite having high sensitivity and specificity for detecting bladder cancer, conventional cystoscopy is regarded as an invasive procedure which is associated with several complications. In addition, regular follow-up of patients with bladder cancer is a financial burden on the health system. With the progressive development in diagnostic imaging and medical computer software technologies, it was possible to generate virtual reality images to aid the clinician to inspect the interior of the bladder in real time. This technology is considered as a safe test for bladder cancer diagnosis and follow-up, and it is associated with cancer detection rates comparable with conventional cystoscopy. However, it is associated with some drawbacks that limit its use in routine clinical practice at the current time. In this paper, we review the development and clinical applications of this technology.

  18. PowerCLI cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sellers, Philip

    2015-01-01

    If you are a virtualization professional who wants to unleash the power of automation and combat the complexity of sprawling virtual environments, this book is ideal for you. This book will enhance your skills of administering VMware vSphere and vCloud Director with PowerCLI.

  19. Sharing, samples, and generics: an antitrust framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Michael A

    Rising drug prices are in the news. By increasing price, drug companies have placed vital, even life-saving, medicines out of the reach of consumers. In a recent development, brand firms have prevented generics even from entering the market. The ruse for this strategy involves risk-management programs known as Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies ("REMS"). Pursuant to legislation enacted in 2007, the FDA requires REMS when a drug's risks (such as death or injury) outweigh its rewards. Brands have used this regime, intended to bring drugs to the market, to block generic competition. Regulations such as the federal Hatch-Waxman Act and state substitution laws foster widespread generic competition. But these regimes can only be effectuated through generic entry. And that entry can take place only if a generic can use a brand's sample to show that its product is equivalent. More than 100 generic firms have complained that they have not been able to access needed samples. One study of 40 drugs subject to restricted access programs found that generics' inability to enter cost more than $5 billion a year. Brand firms have contended that antitrust law does not compel them to deal with their competitors and have highlighted concerns related to safety and product liability in justifying their refusals. This Article rebuts these claims. It highlights the importance of samples in the regulatory regime and the FDA's inability to address the issue. It shows how a sharing requirement in this setting is consistent with Supreme Court caselaw. And it demonstrates that the brands' behavior fails the defendant-friendly "no economic sense" test because the conduct literally makes no sense other than by harming generics. Brands' denial of samples offers a textbook case of monopolization. In the universe of pharmaceutical antitrust behavior, other conduct--such as "pay for delay" settlements between brands and generics and "product hopping" from one drug to a slightly modified

  20. Virtual Web Services

    OpenAIRE

    Rykowski, Jarogniew

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we propose an application of software agents to provide Virtual Web Services. A Virtual Web Service is a linked collection of several real and/or virtual Web Services, and public and private agents, accessed by the user in the same way as a single real Web Service. A Virtual Web Service allows unrestricted comparison, information merging, pipelining, etc., of data coming from different sources and in different forms. Detailed architecture and functionality of a single Virtual We...

  1. Virtual button interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.S.

    1999-01-12

    An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment are disclosed. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch. 4 figs.

  2. Virtual reality in education

    OpenAIRE

    Minocha, Shailey; Tudor, Ana-Despina

    2017-01-01

    In this workshop-presentation, we described the evolution of virtual reality technologies and our research from 3D virtual worlds, 3D virtual environments built in gaming environments such as Unity 3D, 360-degree videos, and mobile virtual reality via Google Expeditions. For each of these four technologies, we discussed the affordances of the technologies and how they contribute towards learning and teaching. We outlined the significance of students being aware of the different virtual realit...

  3. Virtual reality - aesthetic consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Benda, Lubor

    2014-01-01

    In the present work we study aesthetic consequences of virtual reality. Exploring the fringe between fictional and virtual is one of the key goals, that will be achieved through etymologic and technologic definition of both fiction and virtual reality, fictional and virtual worlds. Both fiction and virtual reality will be then studied from aesthetic distance and aesthetic pleasure point of view. At the end, we will see the main difference as well as an common grounds between fiction and virtu...

  4. Virtual goods recommendations in virtual worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Yu; Liao, Hsiu-Yu; Chen, Jyun-Hung; Liu, Duen-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Virtual worlds (VWs) are computer-simulated environments which allow users to create their own virtual character as an avatar. With the rapidly growing user volume in VWs, platform providers launch virtual goods in haste and stampede users to increase sales revenue. However, the rapidity of development incurs virtual unrelated items which will be difficult to remarket. It not only wastes virtual global companies' intelligence resources, but also makes it difficult for users to find suitable virtual goods fit for their virtual home in daily virtual life. In the VWs, users decorate their houses, visit others' homes, create families, host parties, and so forth. Users establish their social life circles through these activities. This research proposes a novel virtual goods recommendation method based on these social interactions. The contact strength and contact influence result from interactions with social neighbors and influence users' buying intention. Our research highlights the importance of social interactions in virtual goods recommendation. The experiment's data were retrieved from an online VW platform, and the results show that the proposed method, considering social interactions and social life circle, has better performance than existing recommendation methods.

  5. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic drug...

  6. Soft Skills assessment through virtual environments in the university sector : A narrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Morales, Yovanni; Biencinto López, Chantal; García García, Mercedes; Carpintero Molina, Elvira

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a narrative on the state of the question about the teaching and assessment of generic soft skills through Virtual Environments (VEs) in universities, based on consultation of scientific journals in electronic and printed format published between 2000 and 2014, as well as research projects focused on the development of generic skills through VEs. The paper summarises the theoretical and empirical contributions as a way of providing a greater insight into a line of research t...

  7. Virtual Reality Simulators in the Process IndustryA Review of Existing Systems and the Way Towards ETS

    OpenAIRE

    Cibulka, Jaroslav; Komulainen, Tiina M.; Mirtaheri, Peyman; Nazir, Salman; Manca, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Simulator training with Virtual Reality Simulators deeply engages the operators and improves the learning outcome. The available commercial 3D and Virtual Reality Simulator products range from generic models for laptops to specialized projection rooms with a great variety of different audiovisual, haptic, and sensory effects. However, current virtual reality simulators do not take into account the physical and psychological strain involved in field operators’ work in real process plants. Coll...

  8. Modeling HIV/AIDS drug price determinants in Brazil: is generic competition a myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiners, Constance; Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Hasenclever, Lia; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    Brazil became the first developing country to guarantee free and universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment, with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) being delivered to nearly 190,000 patients. The analysis of ARV price evolution and market dynamics in Brazil can help anticipate issues soon to afflict other developing countries, as the 2010 revision of the World Health Organization guidelines shifts demand towards more expensive treatments, and, at the same time, current evolution of international legislation and trade agreements on intellectual property rights may reduce availability of generic drugs for HIV care. Our analyses are based on effective prices paid for ARV procurement in Brazil between 1996 and 2009. Data panel structure was exploited to gather ex-ante and ex-post information and address various sources of statistical bias. In-difference estimation offered in-depth information on ARV market characteristics which significantly influence prices. Although overall ARV prices follow a declining trend, changing characteristics in the generic segment help explain recent increase in generic ARV prices. Our results show that generic suppliers are more likely to respond to factors influencing demand size and market competition, while originator suppliers tend to set prices strategically to offset compulsory licensing threats and generic competition. In order to guarantee the long term sustainability of access to antiretroviral treatment, our findings highlight the importance of preserving and stimulating generic market dynamics to sustain developing countries' bargaining power in price negotiations undertaken with originator companies.

  9. Modeling HIV/AIDS drug price determinants in Brazil: is generic competition a myth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Meiners

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brazil became the first developing country to guarantee free and universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment, with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs being delivered to nearly 190,000 patients. The analysis of ARV price evolution and market dynamics in Brazil can help anticipate issues soon to afflict other developing countries, as the 2010 revision of the World Health Organization guidelines shifts demand towards more expensive treatments, and, at the same time, current evolution of international legislation and trade agreements on intellectual property rights may reduce availability of generic drugs for HIV care. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our analyses are based on effective prices paid for ARV procurement in Brazil between 1996 and 2009. Data panel structure was exploited to gather ex-ante and ex-post information and address various sources of statistical bias. In-difference estimation offered in-depth information on ARV market characteristics which significantly influence prices. Although overall ARV prices follow a declining trend, changing characteristics in the generic segment help explain recent increase in generic ARV prices. Our results show that generic suppliers are more likely to respond to factors influencing demand size and market competition, while originator suppliers tend to set prices strategically to offset compulsory licensing threats and generic competition. SIGNIFICANCE: In order to guarantee the long term sustainability of access to antiretroviral treatment, our findings highlight the importance of preserving and stimulating generic market dynamics to sustain developing countries' bargaining power in price negotiations undertaken with originator companies.

  10. Designing communication and remote controlling of virtual instrument network system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Lin; Wang, Houjun; Zhou, Xue; Zhou, Wenjian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a virtual instrument network through the LAN and finally remote control of virtual instruments is realized based on virtual instrument and LabWindows/CVI software platform. The virtual instrument network system is made up of three subsystems. There are server subsystem, telnet client subsystem and local instrument control subsystem. This paper introduced virtual instrument network structure in detail based on LabWindows. Application procedure design of virtual instrument network communication, the Client/the programming mode of the server, remote PC and server communication far realizing, the control power of the workstation is transmitted, server program and so on essential technical were introduced. And virtual instruments network may connect to entire Internet on. Above-mentioned technology, through measuring the application in the electronic measurement virtual instrument network that is already built up, has verified the actual using value of the technology. Experiment and application validate that this design is resultful.

  11. Designing communication and remote controlling of virtual instrument network system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Lin; Wang Houjun; Zhou Xue; Zhou Wenjian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a virtual instrument network through the LAN and finally remote control of virtual instruments is realized based on virtual instrument and LabWindows/CVI software platform. The virtual instrument network system is made up of three subsystems. There are server subsystem, telnet client subsystem and local instrument control subsystem. This paper introduced virtual instrument network structure in detail based on LabWindows. Application procedure design of virtual instrument network communication, the Client/the programming mode of the server, remote PC and server communication far realizing, the control power of the workstation is transmitted, server program and so on essential technical were introduced. And virtual instruments network may connect to entire Internet on. Above-mentioned technology, through measuring the application in the electronic measurement virtual instrument network that is already built up, has verified the actual using value of the technology. Experiment and application validate that this design is resultful

  12. The novel cloud application technology with virtual platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ying-Chuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtualization technology of cloud application service is the major research issue in recent years. Our virtual platform can obtain a lot of advantages base on virtualization technology with suitable virtual machine solution that all system resources can deployed quickly and managed competently, and it has some features including the high capacity for reliability, elasticity and customization. In our virtual platform, there are many different application services are provided for cloud service style. For system computing resources, we need to share all of system and software resources using the virtualization technology is presented in related sections, and we proposed virtual and remote application technology to implement innovative, convenient and powerful cloud application service base on virtual platform. For users of our platform, they can easy to use any software and tools on demand with pay per use mode anytime, and they do not have specialized knowledge and ability of install and maintenance.

  13. A study on development of virtual panel and virtual collaboration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, H. J.; Park, S. Y.; Lee, M. S.; Hong, J. H.

    2001-01-01

    The Nuclear I and C group of KEPRI has been peforming research and development on the VRCATS, Virtual Reality based Computer Assisted Training System. For the past two years, we have developed the first VRCATS for Youngkwang 1 nuclear power plant. Currently, we are developing an advanced VRCATS for Uljin 3 nuclear power plant. In this paepr, we will describe virtual panel system and VR based collaborate training system (VRCATS) of the Uljin VRCATS. Since Virtual Panel provides the same environment as the real MCR, trainees can expect the same training effect with Virtual Panel as they do with full scope simulator. i.e., trainees can check key variables and operate the plants and get responses with Virtual Panel. VRCTS provides another realistic training environment for trainees. In VRCATS, for example, operators in a group can work together t handle LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) according to emergency operation procedures

  14. [Analysis of generic drug supply in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboulet, F; Haramburu, F; Latry, Ph

    2003-09-01

    The list of generic medicines (LGM), published since 1997 by the Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Produits de Santé (AFFSSaPS), the French Medicine Agency, concerns a special part of the medicines reimbursed by the National Health Insurance (Social Security). The objectives of the present study were: i) to describe the components of this list, based on pharmaceutical, economical and therapeutic characteristics, ii) to study differences between generic and reference products (formulations, excipients, prices, etc.), iii) to analyze information on excipients provided to health care professionals. The 21st version of the LGM (April 2001) was used. Therapeutic value was retrieved from the 2001 AFSSaPS report on the therapeutic value of 4490 reimbursed medicines. Information on excipients in the LGM and the Vidal dictionary (reference prescription book in France) was compared. The products included in the LGM represent 20% of all reimbursed medicines. The mean price differences between generics and their reference products vary between 30 and 50% for more than two thirds of the generic groups. The therapeutic value of the products of the LGM was judged important in 71% of cases (vs 63% for the 4409 assessed medicines) and insufficient in 13% of cases (vs 19%). Information on excipients is often missing and sometimes erroneous. Although the LGM is regularly revised and thus the generic market in perpetual change, the 2001 cross description of this pharmaceutical market provides much informations and raises some concern.

  15. Mixed WTO ruling on generic drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R

    2000-01-01

    On 17 March 2000, the World Trade Organization upheld the provision in Canada's patent laws that allows generic drug manufacturers to develop (but not sell) their cheaper versions of patented medicines before the 20-year patients expire. The decision prevents pharmaceutical companies from enjoying market monopolies beyond their patent terms, avoiding what would otherwise be even lengthier delays in the sale of cheaper, generic drugs in Canada. This decision is of significance not only to Canada, but also to other WTO member countries and to all individuals who use pharmaceutical products. However, the decision is not all positive: the WTO also ruled that Canada is violating international agreements by letting generic manufacturers stockpile their versions of patented drugs before patents expire. This article explains the issues, the arguments, and the decision.

  16. Structural Design of HRA Database using generic task for Quantitative Analysis of Human Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Hwan; Kim, Yo Chan; Choi, Sun Yeong; Park, Jin Kyun; Jung Won Dea [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This paper describes a design of generic task based HRA database for quantitative analysis of human performance in order to estimate the number of task conductions. The estimation method to get the total task conduction number using direct counting is not easy to realize and maintain its data collection framework. To resolve this problem, this paper suggests an indirect method and a database structure using generic task that enables to estimate the total number of conduction based on instructions of operating procedures of nuclear power plants. In order to reduce human errors, therefore, all information on the human errors taken by operators in the power plant should be systematically collected and examined in its management. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is carrying out a research to develop a data collection framework to establish a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) database that could be employed as technical bases to generate human error probabilities (HEPs) and performance shaping factors (PSFs)]. As a result of the study, the essential table schema was designed to the generic task database which stores generic tasks, procedure lists and task tree structures, and other supporting tables. The number of task conduction based on the operating procedures for HEP estimation was enabled through the generic task database and framework. To verify the framework applicability, case study for the simulated experiments was performed and analyzed using graphic user interfaces developed in this study.

  17. Structural Design of HRA Database using generic task for Quantitative Analysis of Human Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hwan; Kim, Yo Chan; Choi, Sun Yeong; Park, Jin Kyun; Jung Won Dea

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a design of generic task based HRA database for quantitative analysis of human performance in order to estimate the number of task conductions. The estimation method to get the total task conduction number using direct counting is not easy to realize and maintain its data collection framework. To resolve this problem, this paper suggests an indirect method and a database structure using generic task that enables to estimate the total number of conduction based on instructions of operating procedures of nuclear power plants. In order to reduce human errors, therefore, all information on the human errors taken by operators in the power plant should be systematically collected and examined in its management. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is carrying out a research to develop a data collection framework to establish a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) database that could be employed as technical bases to generate human error probabilities (HEPs) and performance shaping factors (PSFs)]. As a result of the study, the essential table schema was designed to the generic task database which stores generic tasks, procedure lists and task tree structures, and other supporting tables. The number of task conduction based on the operating procedures for HEP estimation was enabled through the generic task database and framework. To verify the framework applicability, case study for the simulated experiments was performed and analyzed using graphic user interfaces developed in this study.

  18. Light Water Reactor Generic Safety Issues Database (LWRGSIDB). User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    resolved in other plants and which can be used in reassessing the safety of individual operating plants. The IAEA-TECDOC-1044, Generic Safety Issues for Nuclear Power Plants with Light Water Reactors and Measures Taken for Their Resolution (September 1998), is a compilation of such safety issues which is based on broad international experience. This compilation is one element within the framework of IAEA activities to assist Member States in reassessing the safety of operating nuclear power plants. It is a compilation not only of the generic safety issues identified in nuclear power plants but also, in almost all cases, the measures taken to resolve these issues. The safety issues, which are generic in nature with regard to light water reactors (LWRs), and the measures taken for their resolution, are intended for use as a reference in the reassessment of the safety of operating plants.The information contained in the main body of the TECDOC has been used to establish a database. This database has search, query and report functions. This information is thus available in an electronic form which can be selectively queried and with which reports can be produced according to the requirements of the user. The database also enables the IAEA to update the data periodically on the basis of information made available by Member States

  19. The World of Virtual Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Eiselt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACTSpecial collections of the National and University Library (NUK hide a lot of items of precious value. The Slovenian cultural heritage is stored on paper or on other media as a part of the library’s Manuscripts, Incunabula and Rare Books Collection, Old Prints Collection, Maps and Pictorial Collection, Music Collection, Ephemera Collection, Serials Collection, and Slovenian Diaspora Publications Collection. Only a small part of the treasures is temporary revealed to the public on special exhibitions. The idea of virtual exhibitions of library treasures was born in 2005. The library aimed to exhibit precious items of special collections of high historical or artistic value. In 2008 the first two virtual exhibitions were created in-house offering access to the rich collections of old postcards of Ljubljana at the beginning of 20th century kept in the Maps and Pictorial Collection of NUK. They were soon followed by other virtual exhibitions. At the beginning they were organised in the same way as physical exhibitions, afterwards different programs were used for creation of special effects (for ex. 3D wall. About two years ago it was decided that the creation of virtual exhibitions will be simplified. Files of digitised and borndigital library materials in jpg format are imported to MS PowerPoint 2010. Each jpg file is now formatted by adding a frame, a description … to the slides which are saved as jpg files. The last step is the import of jpg files into Cooliris application used for NUK web exhibitions. In the paper the virtual exhibition design and creation, the technical point of view and criteria for the selection of exhibition content are explained following the example of the virtual exhibitions the Old Postcards of Ljubljana, Photo Ateliers in Slovenia, a collection of photographs Four Seasons by Fran Krašovec and photos of Post-Earthquake Ljubljana in 1895.

  20. Optimal Placement Algorithms for Virtual Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Bellur, Umesh; Rao, Chetan S; SD, Madhu Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing provides a computing platform for the users to meet their demands in an efficient, cost-effective way. Virtualization technologies are used in the clouds to aid the efficient usage of hardware. Virtual machines (VMs) are utilized to satisfy the user needs and are placed on physical machines (PMs) of the cloud for effective usage of hardware resources and electricity in the cloud. Optimizing the number of PMs used helps in cutting down the power consumption by a substantial amo...

  1. Virtual Communities of Collaborative Learning for Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda E. Sotomayor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to outline and project three new learning scenarios for Higher Education that, after the emergence of ICT and communication through the Network-lnternet, have come under the generic name of virtual communities. To that end, we start from a previous conceptual analysis on collaborative learning, cooperative learning and related concepts taking place in these communities and serving as a basis for sorting them into three types in particular: communities of educational work of professional practice and scientific knowledge. Virtual communities where the activities undertaken and skills acquired are set as important parts of our personal learning development, wich are necessary to build the Knowledge Society.

  2. Optimization of virtual source parameters in neutron scattering instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habicht, K; Skoulatos, M

    2012-01-01

    We report on phase-space optimizations for neutron scattering instruments employing horizontal focussing crystal optics. Defining a figure of merit for a generic virtual source configuration we identify a set of optimum instrumental parameters. In order to assess the quality of the instrumental configuration we combine an evolutionary optimization algorithm with the analytical Popovici description using multidimensional Gaussian distributions. The optimum phase-space element which needs to be delivered to the virtual source by preceding neutron optics may be obtained using the same algorithm which is of general interest in instrument design.

  3. Generic tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taube, D; Jones, G; O'Beirne, J

    2014-01-01

    The availability of a wide range of immunosuppressive therapies has revolutionized the management of patients who have undergone solid organ transplantation (SOT). However, the cost of immunosuppressive drugs remains high. This situation has led to the development of generic equivalents, which...... innovator tacrolimus drug (Prograf) in both healthy volunteers and kidney transplant patients. Clinical experience with this generic tacrolimus formulation has also been established in both de novo and conversion patients who have undergone kidney and liver transplantation, as well as in conversion of other...

  4. The SENSEI Generic In Situ Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayachit, Utkarsh [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Whitlock, Brad [Intelligent Light, Rutherford, NJ (United States); Wolf, Matthew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Loring, Burlen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Geveci, Berk [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Lonie, David [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Bethel, E. Wes [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-11

    The SENSEI generic in situ interface is an API that promotes code portability and reusability. From the simulation view, a developer can instrument their code with the SENSEI API and then make make use of any number of in situ infrastructures. From the method view, a developer can write an in situ method using the SENSEI API, then expect it to run in any number of in situ infrastructures, or be invoked directly from a simulation code, with little or no modification. This paper presents the design principles underlying the SENSEI generic interface, along with some simplified coding examples.

  5. 76 FR 55398 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... precision requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response... Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Eunice Kennedy Shriver...): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery '' to OMB for...

  6. 76 FR 13977 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods... of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY: Office of the Secretary/Office of the...): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery'' to OMB for...

  7. 76 FR 31383 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods...; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY: Peace... Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery '' to OMB for approval under the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA...

  8. 76 FR 63301 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods... Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service... Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery'' to OMB for approval under...

  9. 76 FR 15027 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... clustering), the precision requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the...; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery... Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery'' to OMB for approval under...

  10. 76 FR 13019 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods... Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY: Department of...): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery '' to OMB for...

  11. 76 FR 20967 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods... Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY: U... Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery'' to OMB for approval under...

  12. 76 FR 22920 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; DOL Generic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods... Collection; Comment Request; DOL Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency... of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for...

  13. 78 FR 44099 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods... Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service... Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery'' for approval under the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) (44 U.S...

  14. 76 FR 36139 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Generic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods... for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY: Federal Emergency...): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery'' to the Office of...

  15. Three-component particle image velocimetry in a generic can-type gas turbine combustor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyers, Bronwyn C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available -1 Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy November 2012/ Vol. 226(7) Three-componentParticle Image Velocimetry in a Generic Can-type Gas Turbine Combustor B C Meyers 1, 2* , G C Snedden 1 , J P...

  16. A Generic Topology Derivation Method for Single-phase Converters with Active Capacitive DC-links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haoran; Wang, Huai; Zhu, Guorong

    2016-01-01

    capacitive DCDC- link solutions, but important aspects of the topology assess-ment, such as the total energy storage, overall capacitive energy buffer ratio, cost, and reliability are still not available. This paper proposes a generic topology derivation method of single-phase power converters...

  17. Associations between generic substitution and patients' attitudes, beliefs and experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Andersen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Generic substitution has been implemented in many countries, but knowledge about patients’ attitudes, beliefs and experiences is still sparse. Aim To assess associations between generic switching and patients’ attitudes, beliefs and experiences with previous generic switching...... on generic medicine and confidence in the healthcare system. Only prescriptions issued by the general practitioners were included. For each patient we focused on one purchase of a generically substitutable drug (index drug). Patients were identified by means of a dispensing database. Results Earlier generic...... switches within the index ATC code were statistically significantly associated with experience of a generic switch (adjusted OR 5.93 95% CI 4.70; 7.49). Having had more than 5 earlier switches within other ATC codes and having negative views on generic medicines reduced the odds of experiencing a generic...

  18. Development of a multi-physic, multi-time virtual proto-typing module. Application to power converters; Developpement d'un module de prototypage virtuel multiphysique, multidomaine et multitemps. Application aux convertisseurs de puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menanteau, L.

    2004-10-15

    This works concerns the development of a virtual proto-typing tool for electro-thermo-mechanical simulation of power converters. The programming of this code, written in an object-oriented language, includes a dual Schur Domain Decomposition Method. The solving of problems including floating sub-domains can be performed in steady-state whereas man can couple implicit and explicit integration schemes. These integration schemes can have different time steps. Moreover, the code includes parts of programme which permit the parallelization of calculus and so the optimisation of the times of resolution. The benchmarks which are presented validate the method and show its substantial gains in time of calculus. The last part of this work concerns the study of an industrial benchmark concerning the power converters used in railway transport: it concerns the electro-thermal simulation of a semiconductor chip in steady state and in transient. This sample allows to compare different strategies of tearing in sub-domains and to couple different time steps on the same structure. (author)

  19. Virtual Trackballs Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Henriksen, Knud; Sporring, Jon; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Udgivelsesdato: March/April Rotation of three-dimensional objects by a two-dimensional mouse is a typical task in computer-aided design, operation simulations, and desktop virtual reality. The most commonly used rotation technique is a virtual trackball surrounding the object and operated by the mouse pointer. This article reviews and provides a mathematical foundation for virtual trackballs. The first, but still popular, virtual trackball was described by Chen et al. [CHECK END OF SENTENC...

  20. Virtual currencies- Real opportunities?

    OpenAIRE

    Selldahl, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The European Central Bank defines virtual currencies as ”unregulated, digital money, which is issued and usually controlled by its developers, and used and accepted among the members of a specific virtual community.” (European Central Bank, 2012, p. 5) The interest in virtual currencies has increased immensely over the last few years as they become increasingly prevalent in our society across many different industries. Up until now, the field of virtual currencies has been mainly uncharted ...