WorldWideScience

Sample records for generic vehicle speed

  1. Electric vehicle speed control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, W.R.; Mc Auliffe, G.N.; Schlageter, G.A.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes an electric vehicle driven by a DC motor. The vehicle has a field winding, an electric resistance element in circuit with the field winding, a switch in the circuit operative when closed to place. The element in parallel with the field winding weakens the field and increases potential motor speed. Also are relay means for operating the switch, means to determine motor speed, computer means for determining whether the motor speed is increasing or decreasing, and means for operating the relay means to close the switch at a first speed. If the motor speed is increased, it actuates the switch at a second speed lower than the first speed but only if switch has been closed previously and motor speed is decreasing.

  2. Systems and methods for vehicle speed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujan, Vivek Anand; Vajapeyazula, Phani; Follen, Kenneth; Wu, An; Forst, Howard Robert

    2016-03-01

    Controlling a speed of a vehicle based on at least a portion of a route grade and a route distance divided into a plurality of route sections, each including at least one of a section grade and section length. Controlling the speed of the vehicle is further based on determining a cruise control speed mode for the vehicle for each of the plurality of route sections and determining a speed reference command of the vehicle based on at least one of the cruise control speed mode, the section length, the section grade, and a current speed.

  3. Intelligent Speed Adaptation in Company Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an intelligent speed adaptation project for company vehicles. The intelligent speed adaptation function in the project is both information and incentive, which means that the intelligent speed adaptation equipment gives a warning as well as penalty points if the driver...... is speeding. Each month the driver with that monthpsilas fewest points wins an award. The paper presents results concerning speed attitude on the first three of a planned 12 months test period. In all 26 vehicles and 51 drivers from six companies participate in the project. The key result is that speeding...

  4. Effects of vehicle power on passenger vehicle speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Hu, Wen

    2017-07-04

    During the past 2 decades, there have been large increases in mean horsepower and the mean horsepower-to-vehicle weight ratio for all types of new passenger vehicles in the United States. This study examined the relationship between travel speeds and vehicle power, defined as horsepower per 100 pounds of vehicle weight. Speed cameras measured travel speeds and photographed license plates and drivers of passenger vehicles traveling on roadways in Northern Virginia during daytime off-peak hours in spring 2013. The driver licensing agencies in the District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia provided vehicle information numbers (VINs) by matching license plate numbers with vehicle registration records and provided the age, gender, and ZIP code of the registered owner(s). VINs were decoded to obtain the curb weight and horsepower of vehicles. The study focused on 26,659 observed vehicles for which information on horsepower was available and the observed age and gender of drivers matched vehicle registration records. Log-linear regression estimated the effects of vehicle power on mean travel speeds, and logistic regression estimated the effects of vehicle power on the likelihood of a vehicle traveling over the speed limit and more than 10 mph over the limit. After controlling for driver characteristics, speed limit, vehicle type, and traffic volume, a 1-unit increase in vehicle power was associated with a 0.7% increase in mean speed, a 2.7% increase in the likelihood of a vehicle exceeding the speed limit by any amount, and an 11.6% increase in the likelihood of a vehicle exceeding the limit by 10 mph. All of these increases were highly significant. Speeding persists as a major factor in crashes in the United States. There are indications that travel speeds have increased in recent years. The current findings suggest the trend toward substantially more powerful vehicles may be contributing to higher speeds. Given the strong association between travel speed and crash

  5. A Generic Architecture for Autonomous Uninhabited Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barbier, Magali; Gabard, Jean-Francois; Ayreault, Herve

    2007-01-01

    ...; few solutions propose architecture adaptive to several types of platform. Autonomous vehicles that move in partially known and dynamic environments have to deal with asynchronous disruptive events...

  6. Vehicle speed control using road bumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. O. Salau

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Road bumps play a crucial role in enforcing speed limits, thereby preventing overspeeding of vehicles. It significantly contributes to the overall road safety objective through the prevention of accidents that lead to deaths of pedestrians and damage of vehicles. Despite the importance of road bumps, very little research has been done to investigate into their design. While documentation exists on quantitative descriptions of road bumps, they offer little guidance to decision making. This work presents a unique approach to solving road bumps design problems. The results of our study reveal three important road bumps variables that influence the control of vehicle speeds. The key variables are bump height, bump width, and effective distance between two consecutive road bumps. Since vehicle speed control is the ultimate aim of this study the relationship between vehicle speed and other variables earlier mentioned is established. Vehicle speed is defined as the product of frequency at which a vehicle is moving over road bumps and the sum of effective distance between two consecutive road bumps. In the determination of bump height we assume a conical shaped curve for analysis as a matter of research strategy. Based on this, two stages of motion were analysed. The first concerns the motion over the bump itself while the second relates to the motion between two consecutive road bumps. Fourier series was then used to formulate a holistic equation that combines these two stages. We used trigonometric functions to model the behaviour of the first stage while with the second stage giving a functional value of zero since no changes in height are observed. We carried out vibration analysis to determine the effect of road bumps on a vehicular system. Arising from this a model component is referred to as an isolation factor. This offers guidance to the safe frequency at which vehicles could travel over road bumps. The work appears to contribute to knowledge

  7. Literature review on vehicle travel speeds and pedestrian injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    The relationship between vehicle travel speeds and resulting pedestrian injury was reviewed in the literature and in existing data sets. Results indicated that higher vehicle speeds are strongly associated with both a greater likelihood of pedestrian...

  8. Canadian high speed magnetically levitated vehicle system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atherton, D L [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, Ont.; Belanger, P R; Burke, P E; Dawson, G E; Eastham, A R; Hayes, W F; Ooi, B T; Silvester, P; Slemon, G R

    1978-04-01

    A technically feasible high speed (400 to 480 km/h) guided ground transportation system, based on the use of the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets for electrodynamic suspension and guidance and for linear synchronous motor propulsion was defined as a future modal option for Canadian application. Analysis and design proposals were validated by large-scale tests on a rotating wheel facility and by modelling system components and their interactions. Thirty ton vehicles carrying 100 passengers operate over a flat-topped elevated guideway, which minimizes system down-time due to ice and snow accumulation and facilitates the design of turn-outs. A clearance of up to 15 cm is produced by the electrodynamic interaction between the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets and aluminum guideway strips. Propulsion and automatic system control is provided by the superconducting linear synchronous motor which operates at good efficiency (0.74) and high power factor (0.95). The vehicle is guided primarily by the interaction between the LSM field magnet array and flat null-flux loops overlying the stator windings in the guideway. The linear synchronous motor, electrodynamic suspension as well as levitation strip joints, parasitic LSM winding losses and limitations to the use of ferromagnetic guideway reinforcement were investigated experimentally on the test wheel facility. The use of a secondary suspension assures adequate dynamic stability, and good ride quality is achieved by optimized passive components with respect to lateral modes and by an actively controlled secondary suspension with respect to vertical motion.

  9. Raising the speed limit from 75 to 80mph on Utah rural interstates: Effects on vehicle speeds and speed variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen

    2017-06-01

    In November 2010 and October 2013, Utah increased speed limits on sections of rural interstates from 75 to 80mph. Effects on vehicle speeds and speed variance were examined. Speeds were measured in May 2010 and May 2014 within the new 80mph zones, and at a nearby spillover site and at more distant control sites where speed limits remained 75mph. Log-linear regression models estimated percentage changes in speed variance and mean speeds for passenger vehicles and large trucks associated with the speed limit increase. Logistic regression models estimated effects on the probability of passenger vehicles exceeding 80, 85, or 90mph and large trucks exceeding 80mph. Within the 80mph zones and at the spillover location in 2014, mean passenger vehicle speeds were significantly higher (4.1% and 3.5%, respectively), as were the probabilities that passenger vehicles exceeded 80mph (122.3% and 88.5%, respectively), than would have been expected without the speed limit increase. Probabilities that passenger vehicles exceeded 85 and 90mph were non-significantly higher than expected within the 80mph zones. For large trucks, the mean speed and probability of exceeding 80mph were higher than expected within the 80mph zones. Only the increase in mean speed was significant. Raising the speed limit was associated with non-significant increases in speed variance. The study adds to the wealth of evidence that increasing speed limits leads to higher travel speeds and an increased probability of exceeding the new speed limit. Results moreover contradict the claim that increasing speed limits reduces speed variance. Although the estimated increases in mean vehicle speeds may appear modest, prior research suggests such increases would be associated with substantial increases in fatal or injury crashes. This should be considered by lawmakers considering increasing speed limits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental Visualizations of a Generic Launch Vehicle Flow Field: Time-Resolved Shadowgraph and Infrared Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbeff, Theodore J., II; Panda, Jayanta; Ross, James C.

    2017-01-01

    Time-Resolved shadowgraph and infrared (IR) imaging were performed to investigate off-body and on-body flow features of a generic, 'hammer-head' launch vehicle geometry previously tested by Coe and Nute (1962). The measurements discussed here were one part of a large range of wind tunnel test techniques that included steady-state pressure sensitive paint (PSP), dynamic PSP, unsteady surface pressures, and unsteady force measurements. Image data was captured over a Mach number range of 0.6 less than or equal to M less than or equal to 1.2 at a Reynolds number of 3 million per foot. Both shadowgraph and IR imagery were captured in conjunction with unsteady pressures and forces and correlated with IRIG-B timing. High-speed shadowgraph imagery was used to identify wake structure and reattachment behind the payload fairing of the vehicle. Various data processing strategies were employed and ultimately these results correlated well with the location and magnitude of unsteady surface pressure measurements. Two research grade IR cameras were positioned to image boundary layer transition at the vehicle nose and flow reattachment behind the payload fairing. The poor emissivity of the model surface treatment (fast PSP) proved to be challenging for the infrared measurement. Reference image subtraction and contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) were used to analyze this dataset. Ultimately turbulent boundary layer transition was observed and located forward of the trip dot line at the model sphere-cone junction. Flow reattachment location was identified behind the payload fairing in both steady and unsteady thermal data. As demonstrated in this effort, recent advances in high-speed and thermal imaging technology have modernized classical techniques providing a new viewpoint for the modern researcher

  11. Capacitated Vehicle Routing with Nonuniform Speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Molinaro, Marco; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    is the distance traveled divided by its speed.Our algorithm relies on a new approximate minimum spanning tree construction called Level-Prim, which is related to but different from Light Approximate Shortest-path Trees. We also extend the widely used tour-splitting technique to nonuniform speeds, using ideas from...

  12. Stability control for high speed tracked unmanned vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Olivier; Morillon, Joel G.; Houbloup, Philippe; Leveque, Stephane; Fialaire, Cecile; Gauthier, Thierry; Ropars, Patrice

    2005-05-01

    The French Military Robotic Study Program (introduced in Aerosense 2003), sponsored by the French Defense Procurement Agency and managed by Thales as the prime contractor, focuses on about 15 robotic themes which can provide an immediate "operational add-on value". The paper details the "automatic speed adjustment" behavior (named SYR4), developed by Giat Industries Company, which main goal is to secure the teleoperated mobility of high speed tracked vehicles on rough grounds; more precisely, the validated low level behavior continuously adjusts the vehicle speed taking into account the teleperator wish AND the maximum speed that the vehicle can manage safely according to the commanded radius of curvature. The algorithm is based on a realistic physical model of the ground-tracks relation, taking into account many vehicle and ground parameters (such as ground adherence and dynamic specificities of tracked vehicles). It also deals with the teleoperator-machine interface, providing a balanced strategy between both extreme behaviors: a) maximum speed reduction before initiating the commanded curve; b) executing the minimum possible radius without decreasing the commanded speed. The paper presents the results got from the military acceptance tests performed on tracked SYRANO vehicle (French Operational Demonstrator).

  13. Scaling model for a speed-dependent vehicle noise spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Zambon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the well-known features of the noise emitted by moving sources, a number of vehicle characteristics such as speed, unladen mass, engine size, year of registration, power and fuel were recorded in a dedicated monitoring campaign performed in three different places, each characterized by different number of lanes and the presence of nearby reflective surfaces. A full database of 144 vehicles (cars was used to identify statistically relevant features. In order to compare the vehicle transit noise in different environmental condition, all 1/3-octave band spectra were normalized and analysed. Unsupervised clustering algorithms were employed to group together spectrum levels with similar profiles. Our results corroborate the well-known fact that speed is the most relevant characteristic to discriminate between different vehicle noise spectrum. In keeping with this fact, we present a new approach to predict analytically noise spectra for a given vehicle speed. A set of speed-dependent analytical functions are suggested in order to fit the normalized average spectrum profile at different speeds. This approach can be useful for predicting vehicle speed based purely on its noise spectrum pattern. The present work is complementary to the accurate analysis of noise sources based on the beamforming technique.

  14. In pedestrian crashes, it's vehicle speed that matters the most

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-13

    A recently prepared report on pedestrian injuries provides these two main findings: 1) regardless of age, pedestrians involved in crashes are more likely to be killed as vehicle speeds increase; and 2) in crashes at any speed, older pedestrians are m...

  15. Hydrogen tube vehicle for supersonic transport: 2. Speed and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Arnold R. [Vehicle Projects Inc and Supersonic Tubevehicle LLC, 200 Violet St, Suite 100, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The central concept of a new idea in high-speed transport is that operation of a vehicle in a hydrogen atmosphere, because of the low density of hydrogen, would increase sonic speed by a factor of 3.8 and decrease drag by 15 relative to air. A hydrogen atmosphere requires that the vehicle operate within a hydrogen-filled tube or pipeline, which serves as a phase separator. The supersonic tube vehicle (STV) can be supersonic with respect to air outside the tube while remaining subsonic inside. It breathes hydrogen fuel for its propulsion fuel cells from the tube itself. This paper, second in a series on the scientific foundations of the supersonic tube vehicle, tests the hypothesis that the STV will be simultaneously fast and energy efficient by comparing its predicted speed and energy consumption with that of four long-haul passenger transport modes: road, rail, maglev, and air. The study establishes the speed ranking STV >> airplane > maglev > train > coach (intercity bus) and the normalized energy consumption ranking Airplane >> coach > maglev > train > STV. Consistent with the hypothesis, the concept vehicle is both the fastest and lowest energy consuming mode. In theory, the vehicle can cruise at Mach 2.8 while consuming less than half the energy per passenger of a Boeing 747 at a cruise speed of Mach 0.81. (author)

  16. Reduction Vehicle Speed Using GPS Android Smart Phone Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Sami Hassan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Today the new generation of smart phone such as Samsung galaxy, Sony, Motorola, HTC is used to build smart applications that made the human life more comfortable and safe. The Android open source operating system with java programming language can be used to develop such applications. In this paper a new software application has been developed using Samsung, galaxy note smart phone to control the speed of vehicle using GPS and Android programming for such smart phone. By collecting the speed and location information from Global Position System (GPS receiver and using the global map application programming interface to determine the location nearby university, school and hospital in Baghdad city. The application will be check the speed of vehicle in zone of school, hospital and university using GPS information. If the speed over the limit the application produce sound alarm to reduce the speed to set up limit.

  17. Estimation of Engine Intake Air Mass Flow using a generic Speed-Density method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtíšek Michal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of real driving emissions (RDE from internal combustion engines under real-world operation using portable, onboard monitoring systems (PEMS is becoming an increasingly important tool aiding the assessment of the effects of new fuels and technologies on environment and human health. The knowledge of exhaust flow is one of the prerequisites for successful RDE measurement with PEMS. One of the simplest approaches for estimating the exhaust flow from virtually any engine is its computation from the intake air flow, which is calculated from measured engine rpm and intake manifold charge pressure and temperature using a generic speed-density algorithm, applicable to most contemporary four-cycle engines. In this work, a generic speed-density algorithm was compared against several reference methods on representative European production engines - a gasoline port-injected automobile engine, two turbocharged diesel automobile engines, and a heavy-duty turbocharged diesel engine. The overall results suggest that the uncertainty of the generic speed-density method is on the order of 10% throughout most of the engine operating range, but increasing to tens of percent where high-volume exhaust gas recirculation is used. For non-EGR engines, such uncertainty is acceptable for many simpler and screening measurements, and may be, where desired, reduced by engine-specific calibration.

  18. Changes in speed distribution: Applying aggregated safety effect models to individual vehicle speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadeby, Anna; Forsman, Åsa

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of applying two aggregated models (the Power model and the Exponential model) to individual vehicle speeds instead of mean speeds. This is of particular interest when the measure introduced affects different parts of the speed distribution differently. The aim was to examine how the estimated overall risk was affected when assuming the models are valid on an individual vehicle level. Speed data from two applications of speed measurements were used in the study: an evaluation of movable speed cameras and a national evaluation of new speed limits in Sweden. The results showed that when applied on individual vehicle speed level compared with aggregated level, there was essentially no difference between these for the Power model in the case of injury accidents. However, for fatalities the difference was greater, especially for roads with new cameras where those driving fastest reduced their speed the most. For the case with new speed limits, the individual approach estimated a somewhat smaller effect, reflecting that changes in the 15th percentile (P15) were somewhat larger than changes in P85 in this case. For the Exponential model there was also a clear, although small, difference between applying the model to mean speed changes and individual vehicle speed changes when speed cameras were used. This applied both for injury accidents and fatalities. There were also larger effects for the Exponential model than for the Power model, especially for injury accidents. In conclusion, applying the Power or Exponential model to individual vehicle speeds is an alternative that provides reasonable results in relation to the original Power and Exponential models, but more research is needed to clarify the shape of the individual risk curve. It is not surprising that the impact on severe traffic crashes was larger in situations where those driving fastest reduced their speed the most. Further investigations on use of the Power and/or the

  19. Vehicle Speed Estimation and Forecasting Methods Based on Cellular Floating Vehicle Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Kuang Lai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Traffic information estimation and forecasting methods based on cellular floating vehicle data (CFVD are proposed to analyze the signals (e.g., handovers (HOs, call arrivals (CAs, normal location updates (NLUs and periodic location updates (PLUs from cellular networks. For traffic information estimation, analytic models are proposed to estimate the traffic flow in accordance with the amounts of HOs and NLUs and to estimate the traffic density in accordance with the amounts of CAs and PLUs. Then, the vehicle speeds can be estimated in accordance with the estimated traffic flows and estimated traffic densities. For vehicle speed forecasting, a back-propagation neural network algorithm is considered to predict the future vehicle speed in accordance with the current traffic information (i.e., the estimated vehicle speeds from CFVD. In the experimental environment, this study adopted the practical traffic information (i.e., traffic flow and vehicle speed from Taiwan Area National Freeway Bureau as the input characteristics of the traffic simulation program and referred to the mobile station (MS communication behaviors from Chunghwa Telecom to simulate the traffic information and communication records. The experimental results illustrated that the average accuracy of the vehicle speed forecasting method is 95.72%. Therefore, the proposed methods based on CFVD are suitable for an intelligent transportation system.

  20. Open tube guideway for high speed air cushioned vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goering, R. S. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    This invention is a tubular shaped guideway for high-speed air-cushioned supported vehicles. The tubular guideway is split and separated such that the sides of the guideway are open. The upper portion of the tubular guideway is supported above the lower portion by truss-like structural members. The lower portion of the tubular guideway may be supported by the terrain over which the vehicle travels, on pedestals or some similar structure.

  1. Vision based speed breaker detection for autonomous vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. S., Arvind; Mishra, Ritesh; Vishal, Kumar; Gundimeda, Venugopal

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we are presenting a robust and real-time, vision-based approach to detect speed breaker in urban environments for autonomous vehicle. Our method is designed to detect the speed breaker using visual inputs obtained from a camera mounted on top of a vehicle. The method performs inverse perspective mapping to generate top view of the road and segment out region of interest based on difference of Gaussian and median filter images. Furthermore, the algorithm performs RANSAC line fitting to identify the possible speed breaker candidate region. This initial guessed region via RANSAC, is validated using support vector machine. Our algorithm can detect different categories of speed breakers on cement, asphalt and interlock roads at various conditions and have achieved a recall of 0.98.

  2. Magnetic suspension and guidance of high speed vehicles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alston, I A; Clark, J M; Hayden, J T

    1972-12-01

    Technical and economical assessments of magnetic suspensions for high speed vehicles and transport systems are reported. In these suspensions the suspending magnet takes the form of a powerful superconducting electromagnet that induces currents while it moves over conducting sheets or loops. A number of vehicle track designs are evaluated for operating cost effectiveness. It is shown that propulsion systems using power collected from the track are more expensive than those using power generated onboard the vehicle, and that the conducting sheet suspension is slightly more expensive than the null flux suspension.

  3. Dual motor drive vehicle speed synchronization and coordination control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Tu, Qunzhang; Jiang, Chenming; Ma, Limin; Li, Pei; Zhang, Hongxing

    2018-04-01

    Multi-motor driven systems are more and more widely used in the field of electric engineering vehicles, as a result of the road conditions and the variable load of engineering vehicles, makes multi-motors synchronization coordinated control system as a key point of the development of the electric vehicle drive system. This paper based on electrical machinery transmission speed in the process of engineering vehicles headed for coordinated control problem, summarized control strategies at home and abroad in recent years, made analysis and comparison of the characteristics, finally discussed the trend of development of the multi-motor coordination control, provided a reference for synchronized control system research of electric drive engineering vehicles.

  4. Considering Variable Road Geometry in Adaptive Vehicle Speed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinping Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive vehicle speed control is critical for developing Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS. Vehicle speed control considering variable road geometry has become a hotspot in ADAS research. In this paper, first, an exploration of intrinsic relationship between vehicle operation and road geometry is made. Secondly, a collaborative vehicle coupling model, a road geometry model, and an AVSC, which can respond to variable road geometry in advance, are developed. Then, based on H∞ control method and the minimum energy principle, a performance index is specified by a cost function for the proposed AVSC, which can explicitly consider variable road geometry in its optimization process. The proposed AVSC is designed by the Hamilton-Jacobi Inequality (HJI. Finally, simulations are carried out by combining the vehicle model with the road geometry model, in an aim of minimizing the performance index of the AVSC. Analyses of the simulation results indicate that the proposed AVSC can automatically and effectively regulate speed according to variable road geometry. It is believed that the proposed AVSC can be used to improve the economy, comfort, and safety effects of current ADAS.

  5. Effects of Vehicle Speed on Flight Initiation by Turkey Vultures: Implications for Bird-Vehicle Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVault, Travis L.; Blackwell, Bradley F.; Seamans, Thomas W.; Lima, Steven L.; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The avoidance of motorized vehicles is a common challenge for birds in the modern world. Birds appear to rely on antipredator behaviors to avoid vehicles, but modern vehicles (automobiles and aircraft) are faster than natural predators. Thus, birds may be relatively ill-equipped, in terms of sensory capabilities and behaviors, to avoid vehicles. We examined the idea that birds may be unable to accurately assess particularly high speeds of approaching vehicles, which could contribute to miscalculations in avoidance behaviors and ultimately cause collisions. We baited turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) to roads with animal carcasses and measured flight initiation distance and effective time-to-collision in response to a truck driving directly towards vultures from a starting distance of 1.13 km and at one of three speeds: 30, 60, or 90 kph (no vultures were struck). Flight initiation distance of vultures increased by a factor of 1.85 as speed increased from 30 to 90 kph. However, for 90-kph approaches there was no clear trend in flight initiation distance across replicates: birds appeared equally likely to initiate escape behavior at 40 m as at 220 m. Time-to-collision decreased by a factor of 0.62 with approach speeds from 30 to 90 kph. Also, at 90 kph, four vehicle approaches (17%) resulted in near collisions with vultures (time-to-collision ≤1.7 s), compared to none during 60 kph approaches and one during 30 kph approaches (4%). Our findings suggest that antipredator behaviors in turkey vultures, particularly stimulus processing and response, might not be well tuned to vehicles approaching at speeds ≥90 kph. The possible inability of turkey vultures to react appropriately to high-speed vehicles could be common among birds, and might represent an important determinant of bird-vehicle collisions. PMID:24503622

  6. Vehicle Routing Problems with Fuel Consumption and Stochastic Travel Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicle routing problems (VRP always assume that the vehicle travel speed is fixed or time-dependent on arcs. However, due to the uncertainty of weather, traffic conditions, and other random factors, it is not appropriate to set travel speeds to fixed constants in advance. Consequently, we propose a mathematic model for calculating expected fuel consumption and fixed vehicle cost where average speed is assumed to obey normal distribution on each arc which is more realistic than the existing model. For small-scaled problems, we make a linear transformation and solve them by existing solver CPLEX, while, for large-scaled problems, an improved simulated annealing (ISA algorithm is constructed. Finally, instances from real road networks of England are performed with the ISA algorithm. Computational results show that our ISA algorithm performs well in a reasonable amount of time. We also find that when taking stochastic speeds into consideration, the fuel consumption is always larger than that with fixed speed model.

  7. The Effects of a Rectangular Rapid-Flashing Beacon on Vehicle Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWagner, Michelle; Van Houten, Ron; Betts, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, nearly 31% of vehicle fatalities were related to failure to adhere to safe vehicle speeds (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [NHTSA], 2009). The current study evaluated the effect of a rectangular rapid-flashing beacon (RRFB) triggered by excessive speed on vehicle speed using a combined alternating treatments and reversal…

  8. Empirical analysis of gross vehicle weight and free flow speed and consideration on its relation with differential speed limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifizul, Ahmad Abdullah; Yamanaka, Hideo; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2011-05-01

    Most highly motorized countries in the world have implemented different speed limits for light weight and heavy weight vehicles. The heavy vehicle speed limit is usually chosen to be lower than that of passenger cars due to the difficulty for the drivers to safely maneuver the heavy vehicle at high speed and greater impact during a crash. However, in many cases, the speed limit for heavy vehicle is set by only considering the vehicle size or category, mostly due to simplicity in enforcement. In this study, traffic and vehicular data for all vehicle types were collected using a weigh-in-motion system installed at Federal Route 54 in Malaysia. The first finding from the data showed that the weight variation for each vehicle category is considerable. Therefore, the effect of gross vehicle weight (GVW) and category of heavy vehicle on free flow speed and their interaction were analyzed using statistical techniques. Empirical analysis results showed that statistically for each type of heavy vehicle, there was a significant relationship between free flow speed of a heavy vehicle and GVW. Specifically, the results suggest that the mean and variance of free flow speed decrease with an increase GVW by the amount unrelated to size and shape for all GVW range. Then, based on the 85th percentile principle, the study proposed a new concept for setting the speed limit for heavy vehicle by incorporating GVW where a different speed limit is imposed to the heavy vehicle, not only based on vehicle classification, but also according to its GVW. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of automated speed enforcement in Montgomery County, Maryland, on vehicle speeds, public opinion, and crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen; McCartt, Anne T

    2016-09-01

    In May 2007, Montgomery County, Maryland, implemented an automated speed enforcement program, with cameras allowed on residential streets with speed limits of 35 mph or lower and in school zones. In 2009, the state speed camera law increased the enforcement threshold from 11 to 12 mph over the speed limit and restricted school zone enforcement hours. In 2012, the county began using a corridor approach, in which cameras were periodically moved along the length of a roadway segment. The long-term effects of the speed camera program on travel speeds, public attitudes, and crashes were evaluated. Changes in travel speeds at camera sites from 6 months before the program began to 7½ years after were compared with changes in speeds at control sites in the nearby Virginia counties of Fairfax and Arlington. A telephone survey of Montgomery County drivers was conducted in Fall 2014 to examine attitudes and experiences related to automated speed enforcement. Using data on crashes during 2004-2013, logistic regression models examined the program's effects on the likelihood that a crash involved an incapacitating or fatal injury on camera-eligible roads and on potential spillover roads in Montgomery County, using crashes in Fairfax County on similar roads as controls. About 7½ years after the program began, speed cameras were associated with a 10% reduction in mean speeds and a 62% reduction in the likelihood that a vehicle was traveling more than 10 mph above the speed limit at camera sites. When interviewed in Fall 2014, 95% of drivers were aware of the camera program, 62% favored it, and most had received a camera ticket or knew someone else who had. The overall effect of the camera program in its modified form, including both the law change and the corridor approach, was a 39% reduction in the likelihood that a crash resulted in an incapacitating or fatal injury. Speed cameras alone were associated with a 19% reduction in the likelihood that a crash resulted in an

  10. Factors affecting speed in human-powered vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A P

    1994-10-01

    It is shown how to derive the appropriate cubic equation relating power and the effects of friction, gradient and wind resistance on the speed of a human-powered vehicle (HPV). The effects of gradient and wind resistance are explored for parameters representing a typical racing cyclist. The principal conclusion may be summarized as follows: for optimum performance in a time trial, there should be no wind and the course should be level. Any deviation from these conditions will produce a decrement in performance.

  11. MAINTAINING VEHICLE SPEED USING A MECHANICAL CRUISE CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter GIROVSKÝ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we would like to present cruise control realization. This cruise control is presented as mechanical device for vehicle speed maintenance and has been proposed as a low cost solution. Principle of function in mechanical cruise control is based on a position control of throttle. For the right action of mechanical cruise control it was need to solve some particular tasks related with speed sensing, construct of device for control of throttle position and design of control system of whole mechanical cruise control. Information about car velocity we have gained using Hall sensor attached on a magnetic ring of car tachometer. For control of the throttle was used a small servo drive and as the control unit was used Arduino. The designed solution of mechanical cruise control have been realized for car Škoda Felicia.

  12. Vehicle speed guidance strategy at signalized intersection based on cooperative vehicle infrastructure system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyuan JIA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce stopping time of vehicle at a signalized intersection, aiming at the difficulty, even the impossibility to obtain real-time queue length of intersection in third and fourth-tier cities in China sometimes, a speed guidance strategy based on cooperative vehicle infrastructure system is put forward and studied. For validating the strategy, the traffic signal timing data of the intersection at Hengshan Road and North Fengming Lake Road in Wuhu is collected by a vehicular traffic signal reminder system which is designed. The simulation experiments using the acquired data are done by software VISSIM. The simulation results demonstrate that the strategy under high and low traffic flow can effectively decrease the link travel-time, reducing average ratio is 9.2 % and 13.0 %, respectively, and the effect under low traffic flow is better than that under high traffic flow. The strategy improves efficiency of traffic at a signalized intersection and provides an idea for the application of vehicle speed guidance based on cooperative vehicle infrastructure system.

  13. Evaluation of sounds for hybrid and electric vehicles operating at low speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    Electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), operated at low speeds may reduce auditory cues used by pedestrians to assess the state of nearby traffic creating a safety issue. This field study compares the auditory detectability of num...

  14. On-Line Path Generation and Tracking for High-Speed Wheeled Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-17

    On-Line Path Generation and Tracking for High-Speed Wheeled Autonomous Vehicles Report Title ABSTRACT In this work we proposed two semi-analytic...298-102 Enclosure 1 On-Line Path Generation and Tracking for High-Speed Wheeled Autonomous Vehicles by...Specifically, the following problems will be addressed during this project: 2.1 Challenges The problem of trajectory planning for high-speed autonomous vehicles is

  15. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Determination of the Effect of Experimental Parameters on Vehicle Agent Speed Relative to Vehicle Intruder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Banjanovic-Mehmedovic, Lejla; Bosankic, Ivan; Kasapovic, Suad; Abdul Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Bin

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems rely on understanding, predicting and affecting the interactions between vehicles. The goal of this paper is to choose a small subset from the larger set so that the resulting regression model is simple, yet have good predictive ability for Vehicle agent speed relative to Vehicle intruder. The method of ANFIS (adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system) was applied to the data resulting from these measurements. The ANFIS process for variable selection was implemented in order to detect the predominant variables affecting the prediction of agent speed relative to intruder. This process includes several ways to discover a subset of the total set of recorded parameters, showing good predictive capability. The ANFIS network was used to perform a variable search. Then, it was used to determine how 9 parameters (Intruder Front sensors active (boolean), Intruder Rear sensors active (boolean), Agent Front sensors active (boolean), Agent Rear sensors active (boolean), RSSI signal intensity/strength (integer), Elapsed time (in seconds), Distance between Agent and Intruder (m), Angle of Agent relative to Intruder (angle between vehicles °), Altitude difference between Agent and Intruder (m)) influence prediction of agent speed relative to intruder. The results indicated that distance between Vehicle agent and Vehicle intruder (m) and angle of Vehicle agent relative to Vehicle Intruder (angle between vehicles °) is the most influential parameters to Vehicle agent speed relative to Vehicle intruder.

  16. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Determination of the Effect of Experimental Parameters on Vehicle Agent Speed Relative to Vehicle Intruder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahaboddin Shamshirband

    Full Text Available Intelligent Transportation Systems rely on understanding, predicting and affecting the interactions between vehicles. The goal of this paper is to choose a small subset from the larger set so that the resulting regression model is simple, yet have good predictive ability for Vehicle agent speed relative to Vehicle intruder. The method of ANFIS (adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system was applied to the data resulting from these measurements. The ANFIS process for variable selection was implemented in order to detect the predominant variables affecting the prediction of agent speed relative to intruder. This process includes several ways to discover a subset of the total set of recorded parameters, showing good predictive capability. The ANFIS network was used to perform a variable search. Then, it was used to determine how 9 parameters (Intruder Front sensors active (boolean, Intruder Rear sensors active (boolean, Agent Front sensors active (boolean, Agent Rear sensors active (boolean, RSSI signal intensity/strength (integer, Elapsed time (in seconds, Distance between Agent and Intruder (m, Angle of Agent relative to Intruder (angle between vehicles °, Altitude difference between Agent and Intruder (m influence prediction of agent speed relative to intruder. The results indicated that distance between Vehicle agent and Vehicle intruder (m and angle of Vehicle agent relative to Vehicle Intruder (angle between vehicles ° is the most influential parameters to Vehicle agent speed relative to Vehicle intruder.

  17. Separation flow control on a generic ground vehicle using steady microjet arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubrun, Sandrine; Kourta, Azeddine [Universite d' Orleans, Laboratoire PRISME, Orleans cedex (France); McNally, Jonathan; Alvi, Farrukh [Florida State University, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2011-11-15

    A model of a generic vehicle shape, the Ahmed body with a 25 slant, is equipped with an array of blowing steady microjets 6 mm downstream of the separation line between the roof and the slanted rear window. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of this actuation method in reducing the aerodynamic drag, by reducing or suppressing the 3D closed separation bubble located on the slanted surface. The efficiency of this control approach is quantified with the help of aerodynamic load measurements. The changes in the flow field when control is applied are examined using PIV and wall pressure measurements and skin friction visualisations. By activating the steady microjet array, the drag coefficient was reduced by 9-14% and the lift coefficient up to 42%, depending on the Reynolds number. The strong modification of the flow topology under progressive flow control is particularly studied. (orig.)

  18. Comprehensive analysis of the carbon impacts of vehicle intelligent speed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslaw, David C.; Goodman, Paul S.; Lai, Frank C. H.; Carsten, Oliver M. J.

    2010-07-01

    In recent years sophisticated technologies have been developed to control vehicle speed based on the type of road the vehicle is driven on using Global Positioning Systems and in-car technology that can alter the speed of the vehicle. While reducing the speed of road vehicles is primarily of interest from a safety perspective, vehicle speed is also an important determinant of vehicle emissions and thus these technologies can be expected to have impacts on a range of exhaust emissions. This work analyses the results from a very large, comprehensive field trial that used 20 instrumented vehicles with and without speed control driven almost 500,000 km measuring vehicle speed at 10 Hz. We develop individual vehicle modal emissions models for CO 2 for 30 Euro III and Euro IV cars at a 1-Hz time resolution. Generalized Additive Models were used to describe how emissions from individual vehicles vary depending on their driving conditions, taking account of variable interactions and time-lag effects. We quantify the impact that vehicle speed control has on-vehicle emissions of CO 2 by road type, fuel type and driver behaviour. Savings in CO 2 of ≈6% were found on average for motorway-type roads when mandatory speed control was used compared with base case conditions. For most other types of road, speed control has very little effect on emissions of CO 2 and in some cases can result in increased emissions for low-speed limit urban roads. We also find that there is on average a 20% difference in CO 2 emission between the lowest and highest emitting driver, which highlights the importance of driver behaviour in general as a means of reducing emissions of CO 2.

  19. Validation of Generic Models for Variable Speed Operation Wind Turbines Following the Recent Guidelines Issued by IEC 61400-27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Honrubia-Escribano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerable efforts are currently being made by several international working groups focused on the development of generic, also known as simplified or standard, wind turbine models for power system stability studies. In this sense, the first edition of International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 61400-27-1, which defines generic dynamic simulation models for wind turbines, was published in February 2015. Nevertheless, the correlations of the IEC generic models with respect to specific wind turbine manufacturer models are required by the wind power industry to validate the accuracy and corresponding usability of these standard models. The present work conducts the validation of the two topologies of variable speed wind turbines that present not only the largest market share, but also the most technological advances. Specifically, the doubly-fed induction machine and the full-scale converter (FSC topology are modeled based on the IEC 61400-27-1 guidelines. The models are simulated for a wide range of voltage dips with different characteristics and wind turbine operating conditions. The simulated response of the IEC generic model is compared to the corresponding simplified model of a wind turbine manufacturer, showing a good correlation in most cases. Validation error sources are analyzed in detail, as well. In addition, this paper reviews in detail the previous work done in this field. Results suggest that wind turbine manufacturers are able to adjust the IEC generic models to represent the behavior of their specific wind turbines for power system stability analysis.

  20. Motion Planning of Autonomous Vehicles on a Dual Carriageway without Speed Lanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of motion planning of an autonomous vehicle amidst other vehicles on a straight road is considered. Traffic in a number of countries is unorganized, where the vehicles do not move within predefined speed lanes. In this paper, we formulate a mechanism wherein an autonomous vehicle may travel on the “wrong” side in order to overtake a vehicle. Challenges include assessing a possible overtaking opportunity, cooperating with other vehicles, partial driving on the “wrong” side of the road and safely going to and returning from the “wrong” side. The experimental results presented show vehicles cooperating to accomplish overtaking manoeuvres.

  1. Nonlinear Output Feedback Control of Underwater Vehicle Propellers using Advance Speed Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fossen, T.I.; Blanke, M.

    1999-01-01

    More accurate propeller shaft speed controllers can be designed by using nonlinear control theory. In this paper, an output feedback controller reconstructing the advance speed (speed of water going into the propeller) from vehicle speed measurements is derived. For this purpose a three-state model...... minimizes thruster losses due to variations in propeller axial inlet flow which is a major problem when applying conventional vehicle-propeller control systems. The proposed controller is simulated for an underwater vehicle equipped with a single propeller. From the simulations it can be concluded...... of propeller shaft speed, forward (surge) speed of the vehicle and axial inlet flow of the propeller is applied. A nonlinear observer in combination with an output feedback integral controller are derived by applying Lyapunov stability theory and exponential stability is proven. The output feedback controller...

  2. 76 FR 78 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2007-26851] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter... occupants. IIHS stated that on-board electronic engine control modules (ECM) will maintain the desired speed... be equipped with an electronic control module (ECM) that is capable of limiting the maximum speed of...

  3. Estimation of longitudinal force, lateral vehicle speed and yaw rate for four-wheel independent driven electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Te; Xu, Xing; Chen, Long; Jiang, Haobing; Cai, Yingfeng; Li, Yong

    2018-02-01

    Accurate estimation of longitudinal force, lateral vehicle speed and yaw rate is of great significance to torque allocation and stability control for four-wheel independent driven electric vehicle (4WID-EVs). A fusion method is proposed to estimate the longitudinal force, lateral vehicle speed and yaw rate for 4WID-EVs. The electric driving wheel model (EDWM) is introduced into the longitudinal force estimation, the longitudinal force observer (LFO) is designed firstly based on the adaptive high-order sliding mode observer (HSMO), and the convergence of LFO is analyzed and proved. Based on the estimated longitudinal force, an estimation strategy is then presented in which the strong tracking filter (STF) is used to estimate lateral vehicle speed and yaw rate simultaneously. Finally, co-simulation via Carsim and Matlab/Simulink is carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The performance of LFO in practice is verified by the experiment on chassis dynamometer bench.

  4. Aerothermodynamics of generic re-entry vehicle with a series of aerospikes at nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rajesh; Velidi, Gurunadh; Guven, Ugur

    2014-03-01

    Re-entry of a blunt nosed vehicle is one of the most intriguing problems in any space programme. Especially in light of various space tourism possibilities, there are many works concerning re-entry of commercial blunt nosed space vehicles. In this paper, a generic blunt body re-entry model represented by a hemisphere-cylinder, fitted axisymmetrically with an aerodisk aerospike at the nose is investigated numerically with commercially available control volume based axisymmetric flow solver. The scaled down re-entry model has a base diameter of 40 mm and an overall length of 100 mm. A 6 mm diameter aerospike fitted axisymmetrically at the nose has a hemispherical cap from which another aerospike of 4 mm diameter protrudes which again has a hemispherical cap. Two dimensional compressible, axisymmetric Navier Stokes Equations are solved for a turbulent hypersonic flow of a 5 species, chemically reacting air in thermal equilibrium with free stream conditions of Mach no., static pressure and temperature of 10.1, 16,066 Pa and 216.65 K, respectively. The results are compared with that of re-entry model without any aerospike. Among the cases investigated, the spiked blunt body having two aerospikes in series with lengths l1 and l2 equal to 30 and 20 respectively and overall length-to-diameter ratio of 1.5 showed a favourable reduction in the peak reattachment heat flux along with high reduction in aerodynamic drag and thus stands as a prospective case for blunt body nose configuration for hypersonic flight.

  5. Vehicle Classification and Speed Estimation Using Combined Passive Infrared/Ultrasonic Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Odat, Enas M.

    2017-09-18

    In this paper, a new sensing device that can simultaneously monitor traffic congestion and urban flash floods is presented. This sensing device is based on the combination of passive infrared sensors (PIRs) and ultrasonic rangefinder, and is used for real-time vehicle detection, classification, and speed estimation in the context of wireless sensor networks. This framework relies on dynamic Bayesian Networks to fuse heterogeneous data both spatially and temporally for vehicle detection. To estimate the speed of the incoming vehicles, we first use cross correlation and wavelet transform-based methods to estimate the time delay between the signals of different sensors. We then propose a calibration and self-correction model based on Bayesian Networks to make a joint inference by all sensors about the speed and the length of the detected vehicle. Furthermore, we use the measurements of the ultrasonic and the PIR sensors to perform vehicle classification. Validation data (using an experimental dual infrared and ultrasonic traffic sensor) show a 99% accuracy in vehicle detection, a mean error of 5 kph in vehicle speed estimation, a mean error of 0.7m in vehicle length estimation, and a high accuracy in vehicle classification. Finally, we discuss the computational performance of the algorithm, and show that this framework can be implemented on low-power computational devices within a wireless sensor network setting. Such decentralized processing greatly improves the energy consumption of the system and minimizes bandwidth usage.

  6. Design And Implementation Of Pc Based Over Speed Violation Management For Vehicles On Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ni Hlaing

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present day scenario traffic rules are frequently violated by the drivers and over speeding occur due to bad driving behavior. So a driver assistance system is provided to prevent over speeding violation of road rules also to display alert messages and gives alerts like road works steep slope school zone in the form of acoustical messages and also in LCD. The proposed system has a reporting displaying and database systemfor over speed violation management. This designed system has the ability to detect the speed of the vehicle in the roads and the main highways and the places where the drivers can use of more speed while driving. The laser transmitter senses the load entered by the vehicle and then the receiver unit sends to the microcontroller. The receiver unit is used by Light Dependent Resistor LDR. If the speed of vehicle exceeds the permissible speed for the highway this information will sent to PC which starts the camera to capture the vehicle. And all the information of vehicle are sent to database system. Then also shows the speed information on LCD.

  7. Research on motor rotational speed measurement in regenerative braking system of electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chaofeng; Chen, Liao; Chen, Long; Jiang, Haobin; Li, Zhongxing; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Rotational speed signals acquisition and processing techniques are widely used in rotational machinery. In order to realized precise and real-time control of motor drive and regenerative braking process, rotational speed measurement techniques are needed in electric vehicles. Obtaining accurate motor rotational speed signal will contribute to the regenerative braking force control steadily and realized higher energy recovery rate. This paper aims to develop a method that provides instantaneous speed information in the form of motor rotation. It addresses principles of motor rotational speed measurement in the regenerative braking systems of electric vehicle firstly. The paper then presents ideal and actual Hall position sensor signals characteristics, the relation between the motor rotational speed and the Hall position sensor signals is revealed. Finally, Hall position sensor signals conditioning and processing circuit and program for motor rotational speed measurement have been carried out based on measurement error analysis.

  8. Investigation of new vehicle detectors for high-speed signalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Early indications from the use of the newest vehicle detectors for high-speed signalized intersections : suggested that they perform well as replacements for the Texas Department of Transportations : (TxDOTs) legacy systems, but this early conc...

  9. The dynamic behaviour of rail vehicles operating at high speeds for manriding in British coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manen, P. van

    1984-01-01

    The behaviour of trains used at high speeds for transporting men along mine railways is examined using a number of mathematical models. These models predict the responses of different rail vehicles to typical irregularities in the track, and are used to examine the guidance, the ride, and the likelihood of derailment of the main classes of manriding trains used in British coal mines. The outcome of the modelling compares favourably with the results of tests carried out on actual vehicles. The investigation has shown that the safe speed at which trains may operate is ultimately restricted by the condition of the track, but changes in the design of the vehicles can lead to an improved performance. The use of conventional wheelsets, for example, can reduce flange wear significantly and so allow higher speeds to be reached. Guidelines for the design of vehicles intended for high speed use are included in this thesis. (36 refs.)

  10. Modeling speed and width parameters of vehicle tires for prediction of the reduction in vehicle noise pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Esmael Forouhid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Safe driving requires the ability of the driver to receive the messages and complying with them. The most significant consequences of noise pollution are on the human auditory system. Disorders in the auditory system can have harmful side effects for human health. By reducing this kind of pollution in large cities, the quality of life, which is one of the biggest goals of the governments, can be considerably increased. Hence, in the present research, some parameters of vehicle tires were examined as a source of noise pollution, and the results can be taken into consideration in noise pollution reduction. Material and Method: Several vehicles with different tire width were selected for measuring sound level. The sound levels were measured for moving vehicles with the use of the Statistical Pass By Method (SPB, ISO 11819-1. Following sound level measurements for moving vehicles and by considering tire width, mathematical model of noise level was predicted on the basis of the obtained information and by usage of SPSS program and considering vehicle tire parameters. Result: The result of this study showed that the vehicle speed and tire width can affect different sound levels emitted by moving tire on road surface. The average speed of vehicles can play an important role in the noise pollution. By increasing speed, rotation of the the tires on the asphalt is increased, as it is a known factors for noise pollution. Moreover, changing the speed of vehicles is accompanied with abnormal sounds of vehicle engine. According to regression model analysis, the obtained value of R2 for the model is 0.8367 which represents the coefficient of determination. Conclusion: The results suggest the main role of the vehicle speed and tire width in increasing the noise reaches to the drivers and consequent noise pollution, which demonstrates the necessity for noise control measures. According to the obtained model, it is understood that changes in noise

  11. Sensitivity Analysis of the Critical Speed in Railway Vehicle Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigoni, Daniele; True, Hans; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2013-01-01

    -axle Cooperrider bogie, in order to study the sensitivity of the critical speed with respect to suspension parameters. The importance of a certain suspension component is expressed by the variance in critical speed that is ascribable to it. This proves to be useful in the identification of parameters for which...

  12. A Review of Vehicles Speed on School Safety Zone Areas in Pekanbaru City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwi Putri, Lusi; Soehardi, Fitridawati; Saleh, Alfian

    2017-12-01

    School Safety Zone is a location or region on particular roads that are time-based speed zone to set the speed of the vehicle in the school environment. The maximum speed limit permits entering a School Safety Zone, especially in Pekanbaru City is 25 km / h and an outline of the speed limit permit vehicles that pass through the School Safety Zone in Indonesia is generally 20-30 km / h. However, the vehicles speeds that pass School Safety Zone are higher than permit speeds.To ensure the level of vehicle offense across the territory of the School Safety Zone so it is necessary a primary data which is taken randomly based on field survey for 3 days at schools that has that facility ie SDN 3 Jalan Kesehatan Pekanbaru City, SDN 68 Jalan Balam Ujung Kota Pekanbaru and SDN 143 Jalan Taskurun Kota Pekanbaru. Furthermore, the data were taken in good condition that is at 6:30 to 7:30 am and at 12:00 to 13:00 pm. In addition, the data obtained is mileage and travel time of the vehicle. Both of these data can generate good speed value that passes through the area of School Safety Zone. Based on the research findings, the vehicle speed passing through the area of School Safety Zone is incompatible with speed permit at 35 km / h with a maximum average percentage of the rate of offense in the area of the school zone is 91.7%. This indicates that the vehicle passes School Safety Zone not following the rules of the maximum limit area and can be potentially harmful to elementary school students.

  13. An RFID-Based Intelligent Vehicle Speed Controller Using Active Traffic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Joshué; Seco, Fernando; Milanés, Vicente; Jiménez, Antonio; Díaz, Julio C.; de Pedro, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC), which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver’s attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V) communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results. PMID:22219692

  14. An RFID-based intelligent vehicle speed controller using active traffic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Joshué; Seco, Fernando; Milanés, Vicente; Jiménez, Antonio; Díaz, Julio C; de Pedro, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC), which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver's attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V) communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results.

  15. An RFID-Based Intelligent Vehicle Speed Controller Using Active Traffic Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshué Pérez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS. One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC, which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver’s attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results.

  16. Intersection Management Using In-Vehicle Speed Advisory/Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Rakha, Hesham; Bichiou, Youssef; Hassan, Abdallah; Zohdy, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, connected vehicles (CVs) and automated vehicles (AVs) have emerged as a realistic and viable transportation option. Research centers and companies have dedicated substantial efforts to the technology, motivated largely by the potential safety benefits that can be realized through the elimination of human error, the enhancement of mobility via reduction of congestion and optimization of trips, and the associated positive environmental impacts. Both sensors and control mechanis...

  17. Determination of an Optimal Control Strategy for a Generic Surface Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-18

    TERMS Autonomous Vehicles Boundary Value Problem Dynamic Programming Surface Vehicles Optimal Control Path Planning 16...to follow prescribed motion trajectories. In particular, for autonomous vehicles , this motion trajectory is given by the determination of the

  18. Sleep-related vehicle crashes on low speed roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filtness, A J; Armstrong, K A; Watson, A; Smith, S S

    2017-02-01

    Very little is known about the characteristics of sleep related (SR) crashes occurring on low speed roads compared with current understanding of the role of sleep in crashes occurring on high speed roads e.g. motorways. To address this gap, analyses were undertaken to identify the differences and similarities between (1) SR crashes occurring on roads with low (≤60km/h) and high (≥100km/h) speed limits, and (2) SR crashes and not-SR crashes occurring on roads with low speed limits. Police reports of all crashes occurring on low and high speed roads over a ten year period between 2000 and 2009 were examined for Queensland, Australia. Attending police officers identified all crash attributes, including 'fatigue/fell asleep', which indicates that the police believe the crash to have a causal factor relating to falling asleep, sleepiness due to sleep loss, time of day, or fatigue. Driver or rider involvement in crashes was classified as SR or not-SR. All crash-associated variables were compared using Chi-square tests (Cramer's V=effect size). A series of logistic regression was performed, with driver and crash characteristics as predictors of crash category. A conservative alpha level of 0.001 determined statistical significance. There were 440,855 drivers or riders involved in a crash during this time; 6923 (1.6%) were attributed as SR. SR crashes on low speed roads have similar characteristics to those on high speed roads with young (16-24y) males consistently over represented. SR crashes on low speed roads are noticeably different to not-SR crashes in the same speed zone in that male and young novice drivers are over represented and outcomes are more severe. Of all the SR crashes identified, 41% occurred on low speed roads. SR crashes are not confined to high speed roads. Low speed SR crashes warrant specific investigation because they occur in densely populated areas, exposing a greater number of people to risk and have more severe outcomes than not-SR crashes

  19. Regardless-of-Speed Superconducting LSM Controlled-Repulsive MAGLEV Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kinjiro; Egashira, Tatsuya; Hirai, Ryuichi

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes a new repulsive Maglev vehicle which a superconducting linear synchronous motor (LSM) can levitate and propel simultaneously, independently of the vehicle speeds. The combined levitation and propulsion control is carried out by controlling mechanical-load angle and armature-current. Dynamic simulations show successful operations with good ride-quality by using a compact control method proposed here.

  20. Effects of weather conditions, light conditions, and road lighting on vehicle speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jägerbrand, Annika K; Sjöbergh, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Light conditions are known to affect the number of vehicle accidents and fatalities but the relationship between light conditions and vehicle speed is not fully understood. This study examined whether vehicle speed on roads is higher in daylight and under road lighting than in darkness, and determined the combined effects of light conditions, posted speed limit and weather conditions on driving speed. The vehicle speed of passenger cars in different light conditions (daylight, twilight, darkness, artificial light) and different weather conditions (clear weather, rain, snow) was determined using traffic and weather data collected on an hourly basis for approximately 2 years (1 September 2012-31 May 2014) at 25 locations in Sweden (17 with road lighting and eight without). In total, the data included almost 60 million vehicle passes. The data were cleaned by removing June, July, and August, which have different traffic patterns than the rest of the year. Only data from the periods 10:00 A.M.-04:00 P.M. and 06:00 P.M.-10:00 P.M. were used, to remove traffic during rush hour and at night. Multivariate adaptive regression splines was used to evaluate the overall influence of independent variables on vehicle speed and nonparametric statistical testing was applied to test for speed differences between dark-daylight, dark-twilight, and twilight-daylight, on roads with and without road lighting. The results show that vehicle speed in general depends on several independent variables. Analyses of vehicle speed and speed differences between daylight, twilight and darkness, with and without road lighting, did not reveal any differences attributable to light conditions. However, vehicle speed decreased due to rain or snow and the decrease was higher on roads without road lighting than on roads with lighting. These results suggest that the strong association between traffic accidents and darkness or low light conditions could be explained by drivers failing to adjust their

  1. Smart Sensor Based Obstacle Detection for High-Speed Unmanned Surface Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Dan; Galeazzi, Roberto; Andersen, Jens Christian

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an obstacle detection system for a high-speed and agile unmanned surface vehicle (USV), running at speeds up to 30 m/s. The aim is a real-time and high performance obstacle detection system using both radar and vision technologies to detect obstacles within a range of 175 m. ...... performance using sensor fusion of radar and computer vision....

  2. Studying the Effect of Roughness of Wet Road on Critical speed of Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali K. Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroplaning is one the most dangerous phenomena which effect on the safety of driving cars on wet roads, then, the critical speed of slipping cars is an important parameter in the hydroplaning ,and depends on the properties of  the following three  parameters: tires, water layer and  road surface. The road texture is the main property of road specifications which affect directly on the critical speed of the vehicle. In the present work, the properties of road roughness and influence of surface texture on critical speed of vehicle are studied with variation of the following parameters: thickness and dynamic viscosity of water on the road surface and the vehicle load. The results showed that increasing the road surface roughness and the vehicle load both has a appositive influence on the critical speed (increaseof the vehicle, while increasing the dynamic viscosity and thickness of the water layer on the road surface has a negative influence on the critical speed (decrease of the vehicle. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25130/tjes.24.2017.24

  3. EVALUATION METHOD OF FUEL-EFFICIENT DRIVING IN DUMP TRUCK USING VEHICLE SPEED AND ENGINE ROTATIONAL SPEED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Masafumi; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Yasui, Toshiaki; Hayashi, Mayu; Takebe, Atsuji; Funahashi, Masashi

    In the construction site, the light oil that the construction vehicle such as dump trucks uses accounts for 70 percent of the amount of the energy use. Therefore, the eco-driving education of the construction vehicle is effective in the fuel cost improvement and the CO2 reduction. The eco-driving education can be executed cheap and easily, and a high effect can be expected. However, it is necessary to evaluate the eco-driving situation of the construction vehicle exactly to maintain the educative effect for a long term. In this paper, the method for evaluating the effect of the fuel cost improvement was examined by using the vehicle speed and the engine rotational speed of the dump truck. In this method, "Ideal eco-driving model" that considers the difference between the vehicle model and the running condition (traffic jam etc.) is made. As a result, it is possible to evaluate the fuel consumption improvement effect of a dump truck by the same index.

  4. Increasing accuracy of vehicle detection from conventional vehicle detectors - counts, speeds, classification, and travel time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Vehicle classification is an important traffic parameter for transportation planning and infrastructure : management. Length-based vehicle classification from dual loop detectors is among the lowest cost : technologies commonly used for collecting th...

  5. A Vehicle Active Safety Model: Vehicle Speed Control Based on Driver Vigilance Detection Using Wearable EEG and Sparse Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zutao; Luo, Dianyuan; Rasim, Yagubov; Li, Yanjun; Meng, Guanjun; Xu, Jian; Wang, Chunbai

    2016-02-19

    In this paper, we present a vehicle active safety model for vehicle speed control based on driver vigilance detection using low-cost, comfortable, wearable electroencephalographic (EEG) sensors and sparse representation. The proposed system consists of three main steps, namely wireless wearable EEG collection, driver vigilance detection, and vehicle speed control strategy. First of all, a homemade low-cost comfortable wearable brain-computer interface (BCI) system with eight channels is designed for collecting the driver's EEG signal. Second, wavelet de-noising and down-sample algorithms are utilized to enhance the quality of EEG data, and Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) is adopted to extract the EEG power spectrum density (PSD). In this step, sparse representation classification combined with k-singular value decomposition (KSVD) is firstly introduced in PSD to estimate the driver's vigilance level. Finally, a novel safety strategy of vehicle speed control, which controls the electronic throttle opening and automatic braking after driver fatigue detection using the above method, is presented to avoid serious collisions and traffic accidents. The simulation and practical testing results demonstrate the feasibility of the vehicle active safety model.

  6. A Vehicle Active Safety Model: Vehicle Speed Control Based on Driver Vigilance Detection Using Wearable EEG and Sparse Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zutao Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a vehicle active safety model for vehicle speed control based on driver vigilance detection using low-cost, comfortable, wearable electroencephalographic (EEG sensors and sparse representation. The proposed system consists of three main steps, namely wireless wearable EEG collection, driver vigilance detection, and vehicle speed control strategy. First of all, a homemade low-cost comfortable wearable brain-computer interface (BCI system with eight channels is designed for collecting the driver’s EEG signal. Second, wavelet de-noising and down-sample algorithms are utilized to enhance the quality of EEG data, and Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT is adopted to extract the EEG power spectrum density (PSD. In this step, sparse representation classification combined with k-singular value decomposition (KSVD is firstly introduced in PSD to estimate the driver’s vigilance level. Finally, a novel safety strategy of vehicle speed control, which controls the electronic throttle opening and automatic braking after driver fatigue detection using the above method, is presented to avoid serious collisions and traffic accidents. The simulation and practical testing results demonstrate the feasibility of the vehicle active safety model.

  7. Vehicle speed detection based on gaussian mixture model using sequential of images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyono, Budi; Ratna Sulistyaningrum, Dwi; Soetrisno; Fajriyah, Farah; Wahyu Wicaksono, Danang

    2017-09-01

    Intelligent Transportation System is one of the important components in the development of smart cities. Detection of vehicle speed on the highway is supporting the management of traffic engineering. The purpose of this study is to detect the speed of the moving vehicles using digital image processing. Our approach is as follows: The inputs are a sequence of frames, frame rate (fps) and ROI. The steps are following: First we separate foreground and background using Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) in each frames. Then in each frame, we calculate the location of object and its centroid. Next we determine the speed by computing the movement of centroid in sequence of frames. In the calculation of speed, we only consider frames when the centroid is inside the predefined region of interest (ROI). Finally we transform the pixel displacement into a time unit of km/hour. Validation of the system is done by comparing the speed calculated manually and obtained by the system. The results of software testing can detect the speed of vehicles with the highest accuracy is 97.52% and the lowest accuracy is 77.41%. And the detection results of testing by using real video footage on the road is included with real speed of the vehicle.

  8. Two wheel speed robust sliding mode control for electric vehicle drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfatah Nasri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the uses of electrical power resources are integrated in the modern vehicle motion traction chain so new technologies allow the development of electric vehicles (EV by means of static converters-related electric motors. All mechanical transmission devices are eliminated and vehicle wheel motion can be controlled by means of power electronics. The proposed propulsing system consists of two induction motors (IM that ensure the drive of the two back driving wheels. The proposed control structure-called independent machines- for speed control permit the achievement of an electronic differential. The electronic differential system ensures the robust control of the vehicle behavior on the road. It also allows controlling independently, every driving wheel to turn at different speeds in any curve. This paper presents the study and the sliding mode control strategy of the electric vehicle driving wheels.

  9. Speed Loop Control of PMSM Driving Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yougui; Zeng, Ping; Zhu, Jieqiong

    2011-01-01

    Various simulation models are set up and closed speed loop control strategy of PMSM is proposed based on flux weakening control in this paper. First the model of maximum torque per ampere(MTPA) is modeled based on mathematical models and gave the corresponding simulation tests. Second the formula...

  10. Capacitated Vehicle Routing with Non-Uniform Speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Molinaro, Marco; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2011-01-01

    -uniform speeds (that we call Heterogenous CVRP), and present a constant-factor approximation algorithm. The technical heart of our result lies in achieving a constant approximation to the following TSP variant (called Heterogenous TSP). Given a metric denoting distances between vertices, a depot r containing k...

  11. Modeling and predicting low-speed vehicle emissions as a function of driving kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lijun; Chen, Wei; Li, Lei; Tan, Jianwei; Wang, Xin; Yin, Hang; Ding, Yan; Ge, Yunshan

    2017-05-01

    An instantaneous emission model was developed to model and predict the real driving emissions of the low-speed vehicles. The emission database used in the model was measured by using portable emission measurement system (PEMS) under actual traffic conditions in the rural area, and the characteristics of the emission data were determined in relation to the driving kinematics (speed and acceleration) of the low-speed vehicle. The input of the emission model is driving cycle, and the model requires instantaneous vehicle speed and acceleration levels as input variables and uses them to interpolate the pollutant emission rate maps to calculate the transient pollutant emission rates, which will be accumulated to calculate the total emissions released during the whole driving cycle. And the vehicle fuel consumption was determined through the carbon balance method. The model predicted the emissions and fuel consumption of an in-use low-speed vehicle type model, which agreed well with the measured data. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Experimental study of the vehicle dynamics behavior during lane changing in different speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerwan, P. M.; Asyraf, S. M.; Efistein, A. N.; Seah, C. H.; Zikri, J. M.; Syawahieda, J. N.

    2017-10-01

    During lane changing, the speed of the vehicle is related to the stability of the vehicle. If the driver changes the lane at a high speed, the vehicle will lose its stability and it can increase the possibility of an accident. In this study, the experiment has been developed to analyse how the speed of the vehicle can affect the vehicle dynamics behavior. To achieve this objective, the UMP Test Car which employed with global positioning system (GPS), steering torque and angle sensor, displacement sensor and gyro sensor is used in the experiment. The experiment is run at the UMP test track and the track has 2 lanes which can allows the vehicle to change the position from the left to the right. In the experiment, when the GPS monitor shows 30 km/h, the driver will maintain the speed and start to turn the steering just after the test car reaches to the first skittle. Then, the driver will turn again the steering when the test car reaches to the second skittle. This method is repeated two times and the same methods is used for the speed 50 km/h. The data from the sensors is recorded in the Dewetron software and the graph is plotted. From the experimental results, the steering angle, steering torque, yaw rate and displacement for the speed 30 km/h is smaller than 50 km/h. It means that during lane changing, the speed 30 km/h is more stable compared with 50 km/h.

  13. Predicting Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy as a Function of Highway Speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huff, Shean [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-04-08

    The www.fueleconomy.gov website offers information such as window label fuel economy for city, highway, and combined driving for all U.S.-legal light-duty vehicles from 1984 to the present. The site is jointly maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and also offers a considerable amount of consumer information and advice pertaining to vehicle fuel economy and energy related issues. Included with advice pertaining to driving styles and habits is information concerning the trend that as highway cruising speed is increased, fuel economy will degrade. An effort was undertaken to quantify this conventional wisdom through analysis of dynamometer testing results for 74 vehicles at steady state speeds from 50 to 80 mph. Using this experimental data, several simple models were developed to predict individual vehicle fuel economy and its rate of change over the 50-80 mph speed range interval. The models presented require a minimal number of vehicle attributes. The simplest model requires only the EPA window label highway mpg value (based on the EPA specified estimation method for 2008 and beyond). The most complex of these simple model uses vehicle coast-down test coefficients (from testing prescribed by SAE Standard J2263) known as the vehicle Target Coefficients, and the raw fuel economy result from the federal highway test. Statistical comparisons of these models and discussions of their expected usefulness and limitations are offered.

  14. A generic approach for photogrammetric survey using a six-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahar, K N; Mohd, W M N W; Ahmad, A; Akib, W A A W M

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a rapid production of slope mapping using multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The objective of this study is to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric results based on novel method of multi-rotor UAV images as well as to analyze the slope error distribution that are obtained from the UAV images. This study only concentrates on multi-rotor UAV which also known as Hexacopter. An operator can control the speed of multi-rotor UAV during flight mission. Several ground control points and checkpoints were established using Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK- GPS) at the slope area. Ground control points were used in exterior orientation during image processing in sequence to transform image coordinates into local coordinate system. Checkpoints were established at the slope area for accuracy assessment. A digital camera, Sony NEX-5N was used for image acquisition of slope area from UAV platforms. The digital camera was mounted vertically at the bottom of UAV and captured the images at an altitude. All acquired images went through photogrammetric processing including interior orientation, exterior orientation and bundle adjustment using photogrammetric software. Photogrammetric results such as digital elevation model, and digital orthophoto including slope map were assessed. UAV is able to acquire data within short period of time with low budget compared to the previous methods such as satellite images and airborne laser scanner. Analysis on slope analysis and error distribution analysis are discussed in this paper to determine the quality of slope map in the area of interest. In summary, multi-rotor UAV is suited in slope mapping studies

  15. Assessment of capacity support and scattering in experimental high speed vehicle to vehicle MIMO links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggers, Patrick Claus F.; Brown, Tim; Olesen, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Preliminary results on the use of the vehicle to vehicle MIMO channel in a rural highway environment are presented. This is looked at both in terms of the available spatial multiplexing through singular value decomposition and also angular distribution within the channel. Results indicate a strong...... predominant line of sight link in general while instances of scattering from other vehicles will cause changes in the Doppler spectrum as well as beamforming jitter....

  16. Vibrational Comfort on Board the Vehicle: Influence of Speed Bumps and Comparison between Different Categories of Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Barone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of a study conducted on five different categories of vehicles in a specific test site. The aim was to investigate how the effect of the test site discontinuity determines variations of comfort related to the increase in speed and to the five selected road vehicles of different classes. Measurements were obtained by combining data relating to vibrations in the three reference axes, detected through a vibration dosimeter (VIB-008, and geolocation data (latitude, longitude, and speed identified by the GPS inside a smartphone. This procedure, through the synchronization between dosimeter and GPS location, has been helpful in postprocessing to eliminate any measurement anomalies generated by the operator. After the survey campaign it was determined that a formulation allows defining a Comfort Index (CI depending on velocity and five vehicles of different classes. This study showed that the presence of speed bumps, in the test site investigated, appears to be uncomfortable even at speeds well below those required by the Highway Code.

  17. Evaluation of uncertainty of vehicle speed when autotechnical examination of traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashkanov А.А.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The existing methods and ways to measure vehicle speed, which can be used in autotechnical examination of road accidents, in order to identify ways to improve the peer review mechanism of emergencies are analyzed. To achieve the goal we propose to take measurement errors vehicle speed into account. Modern automated technology (GPS, EDR and ACN can reduce these errors, and with sufficient accuracy to determine the speed of the vehicle and other motion parameters and technical data that helps to quicken research in various stages of examination, but there are a number of objective problems hindering their widespread use in Ukraine. To solve these problems need to develop and improve existing methods of expert investigation of the circumstances of accidents based process automation capabilities fixing mechanism and the scene, measurements and calculations options vehicular traffic. This will increase the effectiveness of traditional methods and to minimize the influence of subjective factors.

  18. A model predictive speed tracking control approach for autonomous ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Chen, Huiyan; Xiong, Guangming

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a novel speed tracking control approach based on a model predictive control (MPC) framework for autonomous ground vehicles. A switching algorithm without calibration is proposed to determine the drive or brake control. Combined with a simple inverse longitudinal vehicle model and adaptive regulation of MPC, this algorithm can make use of the engine brake torque for various driving conditions and avoid high frequency oscillations automatically. A simplified quadratic program (QP) solving algorithm is used to reduce the computational time, and the approach has been applied in a 16-bit microcontroller. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated via simulations and vehicle tests, which were carried out in a range of speed-profile tracking tasks. With a well-designed system structure, high-precision speed control is achieved. The system can robustly model uncertainty and external disturbances, and yields a faster response with less overshoot than a PI controller.

  19. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption. PMID:26978365

  20. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Olivares-Mendez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption.

  1. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

    2016-03-11

    Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption.

  2. A Minimization of Speed Ripple of Sensorless DTC for controlled Induction Motors used in Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Khoucha , Farid; Marouani , Khoudir; Kheloui , Abdelaziz; Benbouzid , Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The main theme of this paper is to present different switching techniques in DTC induction motor drives for electric vehicle applications, witch insert zero-voltage vector and/or more non zero-voltage vectors to the conventional switching table associated to full adaptive flux and speed observer. Those techniques are quite effective in reducing the torque pulsation and the speed ripples of the motors, as demonstrated in experimental results.

  3. Aerothermodynamics of expert ballistic vehicle at hypersonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharitonov, A. M.; Adamov, N. P.; Chirkashenko, V. F.; Mazhul, I. I.; Shpak, S. I.; Shiplyuk, A. N.; Vasenyov, L. G.; Zvegintsev, V. I.; Muylaert, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The European EXPErimental Re-entry Test bed (EXPERT) vehicle is intended for studying various basic phenomena, such as the boundary-layer transition on blunted bodies, real gas effects during shock wave/boundary layer interaction, and effect of surface catalycity. Another task is to develop methods for recalculating the results of windtunnel experiments to flight conditions. The EXPERT program implies large-scale preflight research, in particular, various calculations with the use of advanced numerical methods, experimental studies of the models in various wind tunnels, and comparative analysis of data obtained for possible extrapolation of data to in-flight conditions. The experimental studies are performed in various aerodynamic centers of Europe and Russia under contracts with ESA-ESTEC. In particular, extensive experiments are performed at the Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics (VKI, Belgium) and also at the DLR aerospace center in Germany. At ITAM SB RAS, the experimental studies of the EXPERT model characteristic were performed under ISTC Projects 2109, 3151, and 3550, in the T-313 supersonic wind tunnel and AT-303 hypersonic wind tunnel.

  4. Modeling the Turning Speed and Car Following Behaviors of Autonomous Vehicles in a Virtual World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo-González José Gerardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with mathematical models for controlling vehicles behavior in a virtual world, where two behaviors are considered: 1 curve turning and 2 car following situations, in this last is essential to provide a safety distance between the leader and the follower and at the same time keep the follower not delayed with respect to the leader, and in a curve turning the complexity is to provide a safety speed inside the curve and keep the car inside the lane. Using basic information as vehicles position, mathematical models can be developed for explaining the heading angle and the autonomous vehicles speed on curves, i.e. the controlled by the models. A model that predicts the autonomous vehicle speed on curves is developed considering previous data in other curves. Two models that control the acceleration/deceleration behavior of autonomous vehicles in a car following situation are proposed. In the first model, the parameters are calibrated with a proposed algorithm which enables accuracy in order to imitate the human behavior for accelerating and braking, and the second model provides a safety distance between the follower and the leader at sudden stops of the latter and employs the acceleration/deceleration top capabilities to follow the leader car similar to the human behavior.

  5. Design And Analysis Of Doppler Radar-Based Vehicle Speed Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Myat Paing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The most unwanted thing to happen to a road user is road accident. Most of the fatal accidents occur due to over speeding. Faster vehicles are more prone to accident than the slower one. Among the various methods for detecting speed of the vehicle object detection systems based on Radar have been replaced for about a century for various purposes like detection of aircrafts spacecraft ships navigation reading weather formations and terrain mapping. The essential feature in adaptive vehicle activated sign systems is the accurate measurement of a vehicles velocity. The velocities of the vehicles are acquired from a continuous wave Doppler radar. A very low amount of power is consumed in this system and only batteries can use to operate. The system works on the principle of Doppler Effect by detecting the Doppler shift in microwaves reflected from a moving object. Since the output of the sensor is sinusoidal wave with very small amplitude and needs to be amplified with the help of the amplifier before further processing. The purpose to calculate and display the speed on LCD is performed by the microcontroller.

  6. Vehicle recognition and tracking using a generic multi-sensor and multi-algorithm fusion approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nashashibi , Fawzi; Khammari , Ayoub; Laurgeau , Claude

    2008-01-01

    International audience; This paper tackles the problem of improving the robustness of vehicle detection for Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) applications. Our approach is based on a multisensor and a multialgorithms data fusion for vehicle detection and recognition. Our architecture combines two sensors: a frontal camera and a laser scanner. The improvement of the robustness stems from two aspects. First, we addressed the vision-based detection by developing an original approach based on fine gr...

  7. Coupled vibration analysis of Maglev vehicle-guideway while standing still or moving at low speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Jung; Han, Jong-Boo; Han, Hyung-Suk; Yang, Seok-Jo

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic instability, that is, resonance, may occur on an electromagnetic suspension-type Maglev that runs over the elevated guideway, particularly at very low speeds, due to the flexibility of the guideway. An analysis of the dynamic interaction between the vehicle and guideway is required at the design stage to investigate such instability, setting slender guideway in design direction for reducing construction costs. In addition, it is essential to design an effective control algorithm to solve the problem of instability. In this article, a more detailed model for the dynamic interaction of vehicle/guideway is proposed. The proposed model incorporates a 3D full vehicle model based on virtual prototyping, flexible guideway by a modal superposition method and levitation electromagnets including feedback controller into an integrated model. By applying the proposed model to an urban Maglev vehicle newly developed for commercial application, an analysis of the instability phenomenon and an investigation of air gap control performance are carried out through a simulation.

  8. Cooperative Intelligence in Roundabout Intersections Using Hierarchical Fuzzy Behavior Calculation of Vehicle Speed Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosankić Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new fuzzy-behavior-based algorithm for roundabout intersection management is presented. The algorithm employs cooperative intelligence and includes intelligent vehicles and infrastructure to calculate speed profiles for different vehicles, in order to achieve more comfortable driving profiles, as well to reduce congestion and CO2 emissions. The algorithm uses adaptive spatio-temporal reservation technique and was tested in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The algorithm is designed to function in different scenarios with both cooperative and non-cooperative vehicles, as well as optional intersection infrastructure. Results have show that using the proposed algorithm different vehicle communication types can be successfully combined in order to increase traffic flow through roundabout intersections.

  9. Joint optimization of green vehicle scheduling and routing problem with time-varying speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dezhi; Wang, Xin; Ni, Nan; Zhang, Zhuo

    2018-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the congestion effect and changes in the speed of vehicle flow during morning and evening peaks in a large- or medium-sized city, the piecewise function is used to capture the rules of the time-varying speed of vehicles, which are very important in modelling their fuel consumption and CO2 emission. A joint optimization model of the green vehicle scheduling and routing problem with time-varying speeds is presented in this study. Extra wages during nonworking periods and soft time-window constraints are considered. A heuristic algorithm based on the adaptive large neighborhood search algorithm is also presented. Finally, a numerical simulation example is provided to illustrate the optimization model and its algorithm. Results show that, (1) the shortest route is not necessarily the route that consumes the least energy, (2) the departure time influences the vehicle fuel consumption and CO2 emissions and the optimal departure time saves on fuel consumption and reduces CO2 emissions by up to 5.4%, and (3) extra driver wages have significant effects on routing and departure time slot decisions. PMID:29466370

  10. Vehicle Speed Determination in Case of Road Accident by Software Method and Comparing of Results with the Mathematical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hoxha Gezim; Shala Ahmet; Likaj Rame

    2017-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem to vehicle speed calculation at road accidents. To determine the speed are used the PC Crash software and Virtual Crash. With both methods are analysed concrete cases of road accidents. Calculation methods and comparing results are present for analyse. These methods consider several factors such are: the front part of the vehicle, the technical feature of the vehicle, car angle, remote relocation after the crash, road conditions etc. Expected results with PC Cr...

  11. Antisideslip and Antirollover Safety Speed Controller Design for Vehicle on Curved Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Lie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When the drivers cannot be aware of the existing of forthcoming curved roads and fail to regulate their safety speeds accordingly, sideslip or rollover may occur with high probability. The antisideslip and antirollover control of vehicle on curved road in automatic highway systems is studied. The safety speed warning system is set before entering the curved road firstly. The speed adhesion control is adopted to shorten the braking distance while decelerating and to guarantee the safety speed. The velocity controller when decelerating on the straight path and the posture controller when driving on curved road are designed, respectively, utilizing integral backstepping technology. Simulation results demonstrate that this control system is characterized by quick and precise tracking and global stability. Consequently, it is able to avoid the dangerous operating conditions, such as sideslip and rollover, and guarantee the safety and directional stability when driving on curved road.

  12. Estimation of Road Vehicle Speed Using Two Omnidirectional Microphones: A Maximum Likelihood Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Valcarce Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of estimating the speed of a road vehicle from its acoustic signature, recorded by a pair of omnidirectional microphones located next to the road. This choice of sensors is motivated by their nonintrusive nature as well as low installation and maintenance costs. A novel estimation technique is proposed, which is based on the maximum likelihood principle. It directly estimates car speed without any assumptions on the acoustic signal emitted by the vehicle. This has the advantages of bypassing troublesome intermediate delay estimation steps as well as eliminating the need for an accurate yet general enough acoustic traffic model. An analysis of the estimate for narrowband and broadband sources is provided and verified with computer simulations. The estimation algorithm uses a bank of modified crosscorrelators and therefore it is well suited to DSP implementation, performing well with preliminary field data.

  13. Comparative field evaluation of vehicle cruise speed and acceleration level impacts on hot stabilized emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shawarby, Ihab; Ahn, Kyoungho; Rakha, Hesham

    2005-01-01

    The main objectives of this paper are two fold. First, the paper evaluates the impact of vehicle cruise speed and acceleration levels on vehicle fuel-consumption and emission rates using field data gathered under real-world driving conditions. Second, it validates the VT-Micro model for the modeling of real-world conditions. Specifically, an on-board emission-measurement device was used to collect emissions of oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide using a light-duty test vehicle. The analysis demonstrates that vehicle fuel-consumption and emission rates per-unit distance are optimum in the range of 60-90 km/h, with considerable increase outside this optimum range. The study demonstrates that as the level of aggressiveness for acceleration maneuvers increases, the fuel-consumption and emission rates per maneuver decrease because the vehicle spends less time accelerating. However, when emissions are gathered over a sufficiently long fixed distance, fuel-consumption and mobile-source emission rates per-unit distance increase as the level of acceleration increases because of the history effects that accompany rich-mode engine operations. In addition, the paper demonstrates the validity of the VT-Micro framework for modeling steady-state vehicle fuel-consumption and emission behavior. Finally, the research demonstrates that the VT-Micro framework requires further refinement to capture non-steady-state history behavior when the engine operates in rich mode. (Author)

  14. Carbody elastic vibrations of high-speed vehicles caused by bogie hunting instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lai; Zeng, Jing; Chi, Maoru; Wang, Jianbin

    2017-09-01

    In particular locations of the high-speed track, the worn wheel profile matched up with the worn rail profile will lead to an extremely high-conicity wheel-rail contact. Consequently, the bogie hunting instability arises, which further results in the so-called carbody shaking phenomenon. In this paper, the carbody elastic vibrations of a high-speed vehicle in service are firstly introduced. Modal tests are conducted to identity the elastic modes of the carbody. The ride comfort and running safety indices for the tested vehicle are evaluated. The rigid-flexible coupling dynamic model for the high-speed passenger car is then developed by using the FE and MBS coupling approach. The rail profiles in those particular locations are measured and further integrated into the simulation model to reproduce the bogie hunting and carbody elastic vibrations. The effects of wheel and rail wear on the vehicle system response, e.g. wheelset bifurcation graph and carbody vibrations, are studied. Two improvement measures, including the wheel profile modification and rail grinding, are proposed to provide possible solutions. It is found that the wheel-rail contact conicity can be lowered by decreasing wheel flange thickness or grinding rail corner, which is expected to improve the bogie hunting stability under worn rail and worn wheel conditions. The carbody elastic vibrations caused by bogie hunting instability can be further restrained.

  15. A methodology for analysing lateral coupled behavior of high speed railway vehicles and structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AntolIn, P; Goicolea, J M; Astiz, M A; Alonso, A

    2010-01-01

    Continuous increment of the speed of high speed trains entails the increment of kinetic energy of the trains. The main goal of this article is to study the coupled lateral behavior of vehicle-structure systems for high speed trains. Non linear finite element methods are used for structures whereas multibody dynamics methods are employed for vehicles. Special attention must be paid when dealing with contact rolling constraints for coupling bridge decks and train wheels. The dynamic models must include mixed variables (displacements and creepages). Additionally special attention must be paid to the contact algorithms adequate to wheel-rail contact. The coupled vehicle-structure system is studied in a implicit dynamic framework. Due to the presence of very different systems (trains and bridges), different frequencies are involved in the problem leading to stiff systems. Regarding to contact methods, a main branch is studied in normal contact between train wheels and bridge decks: penalty method. According to tangential contact FastSim algorithm solves the tangential contact at each time step solving a differential equation involving relative displacements and creepage variables. Integration for computing the total forces in the contact ellipse domain is performed for each train wheel and each solver iteration. Coupling between trains and bridges requires a special treatment according to the kinetic constraints imposed in the wheel-rail pair and the load transmission. A numerical example is performed.

  16. A methodology for analysing lateral coupled behavior of high speed railway vehicles and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolín, P.; Goicolea, J. M.; Astiz, M. A.; Alonso, A.

    2010-06-01

    Continuous increment of the speed of high speed trains entails the increment of kinetic energy of the trains. The main goal of this article is to study the coupled lateral behavior of vehicle-structure systems for high speed trains. Non linear finite element methods are used for structures whereas multibody dynamics methods are employed for vehicles. Special attention must be paid when dealing with contact rolling constraints for coupling bridge decks and train wheels. The dynamic models must include mixed variables (displacements and creepages). Additionally special attention must be paid to the contact algorithms adequate to wheel-rail contact. The coupled vehicle-structure system is studied in a implicit dynamic framework. Due to the presence of very different systems (trains and bridges), different frequencies are involved in the problem leading to stiff systems. Regarding to contact methods, a main branch is studied in normal contact between train wheels and bridge decks: penalty method. According to tangential contact FastSim algorithm solves the tangential contact at each time step solving a differential equation involving relative displacements and creepage variables. Integration for computing the total forces in the contact ellipse domain is performed for each train wheel and each solver iteration. Coupling between trains and bridges requires a special treatment according to the kinetic constraints imposed in the wheel-rail pair and the load transmission. A numerical example is performed.

  17. Low Speed Longitudinal Control Algorithms for Automated Vehicles in Simulation and Real Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Marcano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS acting over throttle and brake are already available in level 2 automated vehicles. In order to increase the level of automation new systems need to be tested in an extensive set of complex scenarios, ensuring safety under all circumstances. Validation of these systems using real vehicles presents important drawbacks: the time needed to drive millions of kilometers, the risk associated with some situations, and the high cost involved. Simulation platforms emerge as a feasible solution. Therefore, robust and reliable virtual environments to test automated driving maneuvers and control techniques are needed. In that sense, this paper presents a use case where three longitudinal low speed control techniques are designed, tuned, and validated using an in-house simulation framework and later applied in a real vehicle. Control algorithms include a classical PID, an adaptive network fuzzy inference system (ANFIS, and a Model Predictive Control (MPC. The simulated dynamics are calculated using a multibody vehicle model. In addition, longitudinal actuators of a Renault Twizy are characterized through empirical tests. A comparative analysis of results between simulated and real platform shows the effectiveness of the proposed framework for designing and validating longitudinal controllers for real automated vehicles.

  18. Using endemic road features to create self-explaining roads and reduce vehicle speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Samuel G; Mackie, Hamish W; Baas, Peter H; Hay, Karen; Menezes, Miguel; Dixon, Claire

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes a project undertaken to establish a self-explaining roads (SER) design programme on existing streets in an urban area. The methodology focussed on developing a process to identify functional road categories and designs based on endemic road characteristics taken from functional exemplars in the study area. The study area was divided into two sections, one to receive SER treatments designed to maximise visual differences between road categories, and a matched control area to remain untreated for purposes of comparison. The SER design for local roads included increased landscaping and community islands to limit forward visibility, and removal of road markings to create a visually distinct road environment. In comparison, roads categorised as collectors received increased delineation, addition of cycle lanes, and improved amenity for pedestrians. Speed data collected 3 months after implementation showed a significant reduction in vehicle speeds on local roads and increased homogeneity of speeds on both local and collector roads. The objective speed data, combined with residents' speed choice ratings, indicated that the project was successful in creating two discriminably different road categories. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of Suspended Equipment on the Carbody Vertical Vibration Behaviour of High-Speed Railway Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriu Mădălina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The equipment mounted on the carbody chassis of the railway vehicles is a critical component of the vehicle in terms of ride comfort. The reason for that is their large mass, able to visibly influence the vibrations mode of the carbody. The paper examines the influence of the equipment upon the mode of vertical vibrations of the carbody in the high-speed vehicles, reached on the basis of the frequency response functions of the acceleration in three carbody reference points - at the centre and above the bogies. These functions are derived from the numerical simulations developed on a rigid-flexible coupled model, with seven degrees of freedom. As a rule, the results herein prove the influence of the equipment mounting mode (rigid or elastic, along with the speed regime, upon the level of vibrations in the carbody reference points, at the resonance frequency of the symmetrical bending mode. Similarly, it is also demonstrated how the equipment mass and the damping degree of the suspension system affect the level of the vibrations in the carbody.

  20. Ride performance of a high speed rail vehicle using controlled semi active suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Anil

    2017-05-01

    The rail-wheel interaction in a rail vehicle running at high speed results in large amplitude vibration of carbody that deteriorates the ride comfort of travellers. The role of suspension system is crucial to provide an acceptable level of ride performance. In this context, an existing rail vehicle is modelled in vertical, pitch and roll motions of carbody and bogies. Additionally, nonlinear stiffness and damping parameters of passive suspension system are defined based on experimental data. In the secondary vertical suspension system, a magneto-rheological (MR) damper is included to improve the ride quality and comfort. The parameters of MR damper depend on the current, amplitude and frequency of excitations. At different running speeds, three semi-active suspension strategies with MR damper are analysed for periodic track irregularity and the resulting performance indices are juxtaposed with the nonlinear passive suspension system. The disturbance rejection and force tracking damper controller algorithms are applied to control the desired force of MR damper. This study reveals that the vertical vibrations of a vehicle can be reduced significantly by using the proposed semi-active suspension strategies. Moreover, it naturally results in improved ride quality and passenger’s comfort in comparison to the existing passive system.

  1. Embedded Vehicle Speed Estimation System Using an Asynchronous Temporal Contrast Vision Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bauer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an embedded multilane traffic data acquisition system based on an asynchronous temporal contrast vision sensor, and algorithms for vehicle speed estimation developed to make efficient use of the asynchronous high-precision timing information delivered by this sensor. The vision sensor features high temporal resolution with a latency of less than 100 μs, wide dynamic range of 120 dB of illumination, and zero-redundancy, asynchronous data output. For data collection, processing and interfacing, a low-cost digital signal processor is used. The speed of the detected vehicles is calculated from the vision sensor's asynchronous temporal contrast event data. We present three different algorithms for velocity estimation and evaluate their accuracy by means of calibrated reference measurements. The error of the speed estimation of all algorithms is near zero mean and has a standard deviation better than 3% for both traffic flow directions. The results and the accuracy limitations as well as the combined use of the algorithms in the system are discussed.

  2. Risk Factors Associated with Injury and Mortality from Paediatric Low Speed Vehicle Incidents: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Paul Anthikkat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study reviews modifiable risk factors associated with fatal and nonfatal injury from low-speed vehicle runover (LSVRO incidents involving children aged 0–15 years. Data Sources. Electronic searches for child pedestrian and driveway injuries from the peer-reviewed literature and transport-related websites from 1955 to 2012. Study Selection. 41 studies met the study inclusion criteria. Data Extraction. A systematic narrative summary was conducted that included study design, methodology, risk factors, and other study variables. Results. The most commonly reported risk factors for LSVRO incidents included age under 5 years, male gender, and reversing vehicles. The majority of reported incidents involved residential driveways, but several studies identified other traffic and nontraffic locations. Low socioeconomic status and rental accommodation were also associated with LSVRO injury. Vehicles were most commonly driven by a family member, predominantly a parent. Conclusion. There are a number of modifiable vehicular, environmental, and behavioural factors associated with LSVRO injuries in young children that have been identified in the literature to date. Strategies relating to vehicle design (devices for increased rearward visibility and crash avoidance systems, housing design (physical separation of driveway and play areas, and behaviour (driver behaviour, supervision of young children are discussed.

  3. The wheel-rail contact friction influence on high speed vehicle model stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław DUSZA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Right estimating of the coefficient of friction between the wheel and rail is essential in modelling rail vehicle dynamics. Constant value of coefficient of friction is the typical assumption in theoretical studies. But it is obvious that in real circumstances a few factors may have significant influence on the rails surface condition and this way on the coefficient of friction value. For example the weather condition, the railway location etc. Influence of the coefficient of friction changes on high speed rail vehicle model dynamics is presented in this paper. Four axle rail vehicle model were built. The FASTSIM code is employed for calculation of the tangential contact forces between wheel and rail. One coefficient of friction value is adopted in the particular simulation process. To check the vehicle model properties under the influence of wheel-rail coefficient of friction changes, twenty four series of simulations were performed. For three curved tracks of radii R = 3000m, 6000m and  (straight track, the coefficient of friction was changed from 0.1 to 0.8. The results are presented in form of bifurcation diagrams.

  4. A quasi-vehicle/bridge interaction model for high speed railways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yau, J. D.; Frýba, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2015), s. 217-225 ISSN 1727-7191 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/08/1340 Grant - others:National Science Council in Taiwan(TW) NSC 102-2923-E-032-002-MY3 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : high speed train * quasi-VBI model * resonance * vehicle-bridge interaction Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.828, year: 2015 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9645645&fileId=S1727719114000896

  5. Improved Line Tracking System for Autonomous Navigation of High-Speed Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Zare Khafri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Line tracking navigation is one of the most widely techniques used in the robot navigation. In this paper, a customized line tracking system is proposed for autonomous navigation of high speed vehicles. In the presented system, auxiliary information -in addition to the road path- is added to the tracking lines such as locations of turn and intersections in the real roads. Moreover, the geometric position of line sensors is re-designed enables the high rate sensing with higher reliability. Finally, a light-weight navigation algorithm is proposed allow the high-speed movement using a reasonable processing power. This system is implemented on a MIPS-based embedded processor and experimental results with this embedded system show more than 98% accuracy at 200km/h with a 1GHz processor is viable.

  6. Vehicle Speed Determination in Case of Road Accident by Software Method and Comparing of Results with the Mathematical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoxha Gezim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem to vehicle speed calculation at road accidents. To determine the speed are used the PC Crash software and Virtual Crash. With both methods are analysed concrete cases of road accidents. Calculation methods and comparing results are present for analyse. These methods consider several factors such are: the front part of the vehicle, the technical feature of the vehicle, car angle, remote relocation after the crash, road conditions etc. Expected results with PC Crash software and Virtual Crash are shown in tabular graphics and compared in mathematical methods.

  7. Modelling and design optimization of low speed fuel cell - battery hybrid electric vehicles. Paper no. IGEC-1-125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, M.; Dong, Z.

    2005-01-01

    A push for electric vehicles has occurred in the past several decades due to various concerns about air pollution and the contribution of emissions to global climate change. Although electric cars and buses have been the focus of much of electric vehicle development, smaller vehicles are used extensively for transportation and utility purposes in many countries. In order to explore the viability of fuel cell - battery hybrid electric vehicles, empirical fuel cell system data has been incorporated into the NREL's vehicle design and simulation tool, ADVISOR (ADvanced Vehicle SimulatOR), to predict the performance of a low-speed, fuel cell - battery electric vehicle through MATLAB Simulink. The modelling and simulation provide valuable feedback to the design optimization of the fuel cell power system. A sampling based optimization algorithm was used to explore the viability and options of a low cost design for urban use. (author)

  8. An Airbreathing Launch Vehicle Design with Turbine-Based Low-Speed Propulsion and Dual Mode Scramjet High-Speed Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, P. L.; Bouchard, K. A.; Vause, R. F.; Pinckney, S. Z.; Ferlemann, S. M.; Leonard, C. P.; Taylor, L. W., III; Robinson, J. S.; Martin, J. G.; Petley, D. H.

    1999-01-01

    Airbreathing launch vehicles continue to be a subject of great interest in the space access community. In particular, horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing vehicles are attractive with their airplane-like benefits and flexibility for future space launch requirements. The most promising of these concepts involve airframe integrated propulsion systems, in which the external undersurface of the vehicle forms part of the propulsion flowpath. Combining of airframe and engine functions in this manner involves all of the design disciplines interacting at once. Design and optimization of these configurations is a most difficult activity, requiring a multi-discipline process to analytically resolve the numerous interactions among the design variables. This paper describes the design and optimization of one configuration in this vehicle class, a lifting body with turbine-based low-speed propulsion. The integration of propulsion and airframe, both from an aero-propulsive and mechanical perspective are addressed. This paper primarily focuses on the design details of the preferred configuration and the analyses performed to assess its performance. The integration of both low-speed and high-speed propulsion is covered. Structural and mechanical designs are described along with materials and technologies used. Propellant and systems packaging are shown and the mission-sized vehicle weights are disclosed.

  9. Real-Time Vehicle Speed Estimation Based on License Plate Tracking in Monocular Video Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksej MAKAROV

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A method of estimating the vehicle speed from images obtained by a fixed over-the-road monocular camera is presented. The method is based on detecting and tracking vehicle license plates. The contrast between the license plate and its surroundings is enhanced using infrared light emitting diodes and infrared camera filters. A range of the license plate height values is assumed a priori. The camera vertical angle of view is measured prior to installation. The camera tilt is continuously measured by a micro-electromechanical sensor. The distance of the license plate from the camera is theoretically derived in terms of its pixel coordinates. Inaccuracies due to the frame rate drift, to the tilt and the angle of view measurement errors, to edge pixel detection and to a coarse assumption of the vehicle license plate height are analyzed and theoretically formulated. The resulting system is computationally efficient, inexpensive and easy to install and maintain along with the existing ALPR cameras.

  10. Numerical analysis of flow induced noise propagation in supercavitating vehicles at subsonic speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Sai Sudha; Lim, Kian Meng; Zheng, Jianguo; Khoo, Boo Cheong

    2014-04-01

    Flow supercavitation begins when fluid is accelerated over a sharp edge, usually at the nose of an underwater vehicle, where phase change occurs and causes low density gaseous cavity to gradually envelop the whole object (supercavity) and thereby enabling higher speeds of underwater vehicles. The process of supercavity inception/development by means of "natural cavitation" and its sustainment through ventilated cavitation result in turbulence and fluctuations at the water-vapor interface that manifest themselves as major sources of hydrodynamic noise. Therefore in the present context, three main sources are investigated, namely, (1) flow generated noise due to turbulent pressure fluctuations around the supercavity, (2) small scale pressure fluctuations at the vapor-water interface, and (3) pressure fluctuations due to direct impingement of ventilated gas-jets on the supercavity wall. An understanding of their relative contributions toward self-noise is very crucial for the efficient operation of high frequency acoustic sensors that facilitate the vehicle's guidance system. Qualitative comparisons of acoustic pressure distribution resulting from aforementioned sound sources are presented by employing a recently developed boundary integral method. By using flow data from a specially developed unsteady computational fluid dynamics solver for simulating supercavitating flows, the boundary-element method based acoustic solver was developed for computing flow generated sound.

  11. Potential of pedestrian protection systems--a parameter study using finite element models of pedestrian dummy and generic passenger vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Rikard; Shin, Jaeho; Untaroiu, Costin D

    2011-08-01

    To study the potential of active, passive, and integrated (combined active and passive) safety systems in reducing pedestrian upper body loading in typical impact configurations. Finite element simulations using models of generic sedan car fronts and the Polar II pedestrian dummy were performed for 3 impact configurations at 2 impact speeds. Chest contact force, head injury criterion (HIC(15)), head angular acceleration, and the cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM(0.25)) were employed as injury parameters. Further, 3 countermeasures were modeled: an active autonomous braking system, a passive deployable countermeasure, and an integrated system combining the active and passive systems. The auto-brake system was modeled by reducing impact speed by 10 km/h (equivalent to ideal full braking over 0.3 s) and introducing a pitch of 1 degree and in-crash deceleration of 1 g. The deployable system consisted of a deployable hood, lifting 100 mm in the rear, and a lower windshield air bag. All 3 countermeasures showed benefit in a majority of impact configurations in terms of injury prevention. The auto-brake system reduced chest force in a majority of the configurations and decreased HIC(15), head angular acceleration, and CSDM in all configurations. Averaging all impact configurations, the auto-brake system showed reductions of injury predictors from 20 percent (chest force) to 82 percent (HIC). The passive deployable countermeasure reduced chest force and HIC(15) in a majority of configurations and head angular acceleration and CSDM in all configurations, although the CSDM decrease in 2 configurations was minimal. On average a reduction from 20 percent (CSDM) to 58 percent (HIC) was recorded in the passive deployable countermeasures. Finally, the integrated system evaluated in this study reduced all injury assessment parameters in all configurations compared to the reference situations. The average reductions achieved by the integrated system ranged from 56 percent

  12. Speed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Speed. The rate of information transferred per second is the speed of the information. Measured in bits per second. Need for speed on the net: You-Tube phenomenon; IPTV; 3D Video telephony. Online gaming; HDTV.

  13. The Legal Status of Low Speed, Electric, Automated Vehicles in Texas : Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This report explores whether vehicles that are both Neighborhood Electric Vehicles (NEVs) and Automated Vehicles (AVs) may operate legally on public roads in Texas. First is an examination of Neighborhood Electric Vehicles and how they are governed i...

  14. Modeling vehicle operating speed on urban roads in Montreal: a panel mixed ordered probit fractional split model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluru, Naveen; Chakour, Vincent; Chamberlain, Morgan; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F

    2013-10-01

    Vehicle operating speed measured on roadways is a critical component for a host of analysis in the transportation field including transportation safety, traffic flow modeling, roadway geometric design, vehicle emissions modeling, and road user route decisions. The current research effort contributes to the literature on examining vehicle speed on urban roads methodologically and substantively. In terms of methodology, we formulate a new econometric model framework for examining speed profiles. The proposed model is an ordered response formulation of a fractional split model. The ordered nature of the speed variable allows us to propose an ordered variant of the fractional split model in the literature. The proposed formulation allows us to model the proportion of vehicles traveling in each speed interval for the entire segment of roadway. We extend the model to allow the influence of exogenous variables to vary across the population. Further, we develop a panel mixed version of the fractional split model to account for the influence of site-specific unobserved effects. The paper contributes substantively by estimating the proposed model using a unique dataset from Montreal consisting of weekly speed data (collected in hourly intervals) for about 50 local roads and 70 arterial roads. We estimate separate models for local roads and arterial roads. The model estimation exercise considers a whole host of variables including geometric design attributes, roadway attributes, traffic characteristics and environmental factors. The model results highlight the role of various street characteristics including number of lanes, presence of parking, presence of sidewalks, vertical grade, and bicycle route on vehicle speed proportions. The results also highlight the presence of site-specific unobserved effects influencing the speed distribution. The parameters from the modeling exercise are validated using a hold-out sample not considered for model estimation. The results indicate

  15. SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATIC SELECTION OF THE SPEED RATE OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES FOR REDUCING THE POWER CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. O. Soroka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The work is aimed to design a system for automatic selection of the optimal traffic modes and automatic monitoring of the electric energy consumption by electric transport. This automatic system should provide for the minimum energy expenses. Methodology. Current methodologies: 1 mathematical modeling of traffic modes of ground electric vehicles; 2 comparison of modelling results with the statistical monitoring; 3 system development for automatic choice of traffic modes of electric transport with minimal electrical energy consumptions taking into account the given route schedules and the limitations imposed by the general traffic rules. Findings. The authors obtained a mathematical dependency of the energy consumption by electric transport enterprises on the monthly averaged environment temperature was obtained. A system which allows for an automatic selection of the speed limit and provides automatic monitoring of the electrical energy consumption by electric vehicles was proposed in the form of local network, which works together with existing GPS system. Originality. A mathematical model for calculating the motion curves and energy consumption of electric vehicles has been developed. This model takes into account the characteristic values of the motor engine and the steering system, the change of the mass when loading or unloading passengers, the slopes and radii of the roads, the limitations given by the general traffic rules, and other factors. The dependency of the energy consumption on the averaged monthly environment temperature for public electric transport companies has been calculated. Practical value. The developed mathematical model simplifies the calculations of the traffic dynamics and energy consumption. It can be used for calculating the routing maps, for design and upgrade of the power networks, for development of the electricity saving measures. The system simplifies the work of the vehicle driver and allows reducing

  16. Investigation on a Power Coupling Steering System for Dual-Motor Drive Tracked Vehicles Based on Speed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Double-motor drive tracked vehicles (2MDTV are widely used in the tracked vehicle industry due to the development of electric vehicle drive systems. The aim of this paper is to solve the problem of insufficient propulsion motor torque in low-speed, small-radius steering and insufficient power in high-speed large-radius steering. In order to do this a new type of steering system with a coupling device is designed and a closed-loop control strategy based on speed is adopted to improve the lateral stability of the vehicle. The work done entails modeling and simulating the 2MDTV and the proposed control strategy in RecurDyn and Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results show that the 2MDTV with the coupling device outputs more torque and power in both steering cases compared to the 2MDTV without the coupling device, and the steering stability of the vehicle is improved by using the strategy based on speed.

  17. Appending High-Resolution Elevation Data to GPS Speed Traces for Vehicle Energy Modeling and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Duran, A.; Gonder, J.

    2014-06-01

    Accurate and reliable global positioning system (GPS)-based vehicle use data are highly valuable for many transportation, analysis, and automotive considerations. Model-based design, real-world fuel economy analysis, and the growing field of autonomous and connected technologies (including predictive powertrain control and self-driving cars) all have a vested interest in high-fidelity estimation of powertrain loads and vehicle usage profiles. Unfortunately, road grade can be a difficult property to extract from GPS data with consistency. In this report, we present a methodology for appending high-resolution elevation data to GPS speed traces via a static digital elevation model. Anomalous data points in the digital elevation model are addressed during a filtration/smoothing routine, resulting in an elevation profile that can be used to calculate road grade. This process is evaluated against a large, commercially available height/slope dataset from the Navteq/Nokia/HERE Advanced Driver Assistance Systems product. Results will show good agreement with the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems data in the ability to estimate road grade between any two consecutive points in the contiguous United States.

  18. Planning of speed profiles for vehicles with automatic drive; Planung von Geschwindigkeitsprofilen fuer automatisch gefuehrte Fahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, O.

    2005-07-01

    Based upon the calculation of US authorities 97% of all accidents are caused by mistakes of the driver. Due to this fact one of the major focuses of research activities of the automobile industry was put on the development of new assistance systems for the driver. These technologies indicate potential risks to the driver and support him with decisions in terms of the actual driving behaviour in dangerous situations. This work presents a new system that provides prospective information in real time about the course of the road lying ahead of the vehicle. Based on this data the driver's assistance system will provide a prognosis on the force working on the vehicle and then propose a suitable speed strategy that guarantees a safe drive at any time (orig.) [German] Nach Berechnungen von US Behoerden sind 97% aller Unfaelle auf Fehlverhalten seitens des Fahrers zurueckzufuehren. Angesichts dieser Tatsache lag in den letzten Jahren einer der wesentlichen Schwerpunkte der Forschungsaktivitaeten der Automobilindustrie in der Entwicklung neuer Fahrerassistenzsysteme. Diese Technologien weisen den Fahrer auf potentielle Gefahren hin und unterstuetzen ihn bei der Entscheidung hinsichtlich des aktuellen Fahrverhaltens in gefaehrlichen Situationen. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein neuartiges Verfahren vorgestellt, welches vorausschauend Informationen ueber den vor dem Fahrzeug zu erwartenden Fahrbahnverlauf in Echtzeit bereitstellt. Basierend auf diesen Daten wird vom Fahrerassistenzsystem eine Prognose ueber die auf das Fahrzeug wirkende Kraft erstellt und anschliessend eine geeignete Geschwindigkeitsstrategie vorgeschlagen, die ein sicheres Durchfahren der Kurve zu jedem Zeitpunkt gewaehrleistet. (orig.)

  19. Effect Of Platooning on Fuel Consumption of Class 8 Vehicles Over a Range of Speeds, Following Distances, and Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M. P.; Duran, A.; Diez, J.; Burton, K.; Nicholson, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project evaluates fuel consumption results of two Class 8 tractor-trailer combinations platooned together compared to their standalone fuel consumption. A series of ten modified SAE Type II J1321 fuel consumption track tests were performed to document fuel consumption of two platooned vehicles and a control vehicle at varying steady-state speeds, following distances, and gross vehicle weights (GVWs). The steady-state speeds ranged from 55 mph to 70 mph, the following distances ranged from a 20-ft following distance to a 75-ft following distance, and the GVWs were 65K lbs and 80K lbs. All tractors involved had U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SmartWay-compliant aerodynamics packages installed, and the trailers were equipped with side skirts. Effects of vehicle speed, following distance, and GVW on fuel consumption were observed and analyzed. The platooning demonstration system used in this study consisted of radar systems, Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications, vehicle braking and torque control interface, cameras and driver displays. The lead tractor consistently demonstrated an improvement in average fuel consumption reduction as following distance decreased, with results showing 2.7% to 5.3% fuel savings at a GVW of 65k. The trailing vehicle achieved fuel consumption savings ranging from 2.8% to 9.7%; tests during which the engine cooling fan did not operate achieved savings of 8.4% to 9.7%. 'Team' fuel savings, considering the platooned vehicles as one, ranged from 3.7% to 6.4%, with the best combined result being for 55 mph, 30-ft following distance, and 65k GVW.

  20. Analysis and Design of a Speed and Position System for Maglev Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Long

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly researches one method of speed and location detection for maglev vehicles. As the maglev train doesn’t have any physical contact with the rails, it has to use non-contact measuring methods. The technology based on the inductive loop-cable could fulfill the requirement by using an on-board antenna which could detect the alternating magnetic field produced by the loop-cable on rails. This paper introduces the structure of a speed and position system, and analyses the electromagnetic field produced by the loop-cable. The equivalent model of the loop-cable is given and the most suitable component of the magnetic flux density is selected. Then the paper also compares the alternating current (AC resistance and the quality factor between two kinds of coils which the antenna is composed of. The effect of the rails to the signal receiving is also researched and then the structure of the coils is improved. Finally, considering the common-mode interference, 8-word coils are designed and analyzed.

  1. Analysis and design of a speed and position system for maglev vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chunhui; Dou, Fengshan; Song, Xianglei; Long, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    This paper mainly researches one method of speed and location detection for maglev vehicles. As the maglev train doesn't have any physical contact with the rails, it has to use non-contact measuring methods. The technology based on the inductive loop-cable could fulfill the requirement by using an on-board antenna which could detect the alternating magnetic field produced by the loop-cable on rails. This paper introduces the structure of a speed and position system, and analyses the electromagnetic field produced by the loop-cable. The equivalent model of the loop-cable is given and the most suitable component of the magnetic flux density is selected. Then the paper also compares the alternating current (AC) resistance and the quality factor between two kinds of coils which the antenna is composed of. The effect of the rails to the signal receiving is also researched and then the structure of the coils is improved. Finally, considering the common-mode interference, 8-word coils are designed and analyzed.

  2. Fuzzy logic speed control for the engine of an air-powered vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihui Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve the condition of air and eliminate exhaust gas pollution, this article proposes a compressed air power system. Instead of an internal combustion engine, the automobile is equipped with a compressed air engine, which transforms the energy of compressed air into mechanical motion energy. A prototype was built, and the compressed air engine was tested on an experimental platform. The output torque and energy efficiency were obtained from experimental results. When the supply pressure was set at 2 MPa and the speed was 420 r min−1, the output torque, the output power, and the energy efficiency were 56 N m, 1.93 kW, and 25%, respectively. To improve the efficiency of the system, a fuzzy logic speed control strategy is proposed and simulated. The experimental study verified that the theoretical evaluation of the system was reasonable, and this research can be referred to as the design and control of air-powered vehicles.

  3. Parameter design and performance analysis of shift actuator for a two-speed automatic mechanical transmission for pure electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Hu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments of pure electric vehicles have shown that pure electric vehicles equipped with two-speed or multi-speed gearbox possess higher energy efficiency by ensuring the drive motor operates at its peak performance range. This article presents the design, analysis, and control of a two-speed automatic mechanical transmission for pure electric vehicles. The shift actuator is based on a motor-controlled camshaft where a special geometric groove is machined, and the camshaft realizes the axial positions of the synchronizer sleeve for gear engaging, disengaging, and speed control of the drive motor. Based on the force analysis of shift process, the parameters of shift actuator and shift motor are designed. The drive motor’s torque control strategy before shifting, speed governing control strategy before engaging, shift actuator’s control strategy during gear engaging, and drive motor’s torque recovery strategy after shift process are proposed and implemented with a prototype. To validate the performance of the two-speed gearbox, a test bed was developed based on dSPACE that emulates various operation conditions. The experimental results indicate that the shift process with the proposed shift actuator and control strategy could be accomplished within 1 s under various operation conditions, with shift smoothness up to passenger car standard.

  4. A nonlinear model predictive control formulation for obstacle avoidance in high-speed autonomous ground vehicles in unstructured environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiechao; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Stein, Jeffrey L.; Ersal, Tulga

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear model predictive control (MPC) formulation for obstacle avoidance in high-speed, large-size autono-mous ground vehicles (AGVs) with high centre of gravity (CoG) that operate in unstructured environments, such as military vehicles. The term 'unstructured' in this context denotes that there are no lanes or traffic rules to follow. Existing MPC formulations for passenger vehicles in structured environments do not readily apply to this context. Thus, a new nonlinear MPC formulation is developed to navigate an AGV from its initial position to a target position at high-speed safely. First, a new cost function formulation is used that aims to find the shortest path to the target position, since no reference trajectory exists in unstructured environments. Second, a region partitioning approach is used in conjunction with a multi-phase optimal control formulation to accommodate the complicated forms the obstacle-free region can assume due to the presence of multiple obstacles in the prediction horizon in an unstructured environment. Third, the no-wheel-lift-off condition, which is the major dynamical safety concern for high-speed, high-CoG AGVs, is ensured by limiting the steering angle within a range obtained offline using a 14 degrees-of-freedom vehicle dynamics model. Thus, a safe, high-speed navigation is enabled in an unstructured environment. Simulations of an AGV approaching multiple obstacles are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  5. Nonlinear Adaptive Rotational Speed Control Design and Experiment of the Propeller of an Electric Micro Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouzhao Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs driven by electric propellers are of interest for military and civilian applications. The rotational speed control of such electric propellers is an important factor for improving the flight performance of the vehicles, such as their positioning accuracy and stability. Therefore, this paper presents a nonlinear adaptive control scheme for the electric propulsion system of a certain MAV, which can not only speed up the convergence rates of adjustable parameters, but can also ensure the overall stability of the adjustable parameters. The significant improvement of the dynamic tracking accuracy of the rotational speed can be easily achieved through the combination of the proposed control algorithm and linear control methods. The experimental test results have also demonstrated the positive effect of the nonlinear adaptive control scheme on the flight performance of the MAV.

  6. Market penetration speed and effects on CO2 reduction of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabe, Kuniaki; Shinoda, Yukio; Seki, Tomomichi; Tanaka, Hideo; Akisawa, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Abstarct: In order to reduce CO 2 emissions in the passenger vehicle sector, mass introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is required despite their high battery costs. This paper forecasts the rate at which EV/PHEV will penetrate into the market in the future and the effects of that spread on CO 2 reduction by using a learning curve for lithium-ion batteries, distribution of daily travel distance for each vehicle, and an optimal power generation planning model for charging vehicles. Taking into consideration each driver's economical viewpoint, the speed at which the EV/PHEV share of the new passenger vehicle market grows is fairly slow. The optimum calculation in our base case shows that the share of EV/PHEV is only a quarter even in 2050. However, the initial price and progress rate of batteries have a great effect on this share. Therefore, long-term economic support from the government and significant R and D innovation are required to reduce CO 2 drastically through cutting down battery price. The results also show how much the CO 2 emission intensity of power generation affects the CO 2 reduction rate by introducing EV/PHEV. - Highlights: ► Authors minimized the total cost of vehicle and power supply sectors until 2050. ► Simulation results show the penetration speed of PHEVs/EVs is not so fast. ► To accelerate it and reduce CO 2 , subsidies and innovations are required. ► The introduction of PHEVs/EVs is still reasonable even after the nuclear accident.

  7. Modelling road dust emission abatement measures using the NORTRIP model: Vehicle speed and studded tyre reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, M.; Sundvor, I.; Denby, B. R.; Johansson, C.; Gustafsson, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Janhäll, S.

    2016-06-01

    Road dust emissions in Nordic countries still remain a significant contributor to PM10 concentrations mainly due to the use of studded tyres. A number of measures have been introduced in these countries in order to reduce road dust emissions. These include speed reductions, reductions in studded tyre use, dust binding and road cleaning. Implementation of such measures can be costly and some confidence in the impact of the measures is required to weigh the costs against the benefits. Modelling tools are thus required that can predict the impact of these measures. In this paper the NORTRIP road dust emission model is used to simulate real world abatement measures that have been carried out in Oslo and Stockholm. In Oslo both vehicle speed and studded tyre share reductions occurred over a period from 2004 to 2006 on a major arterial road, RV4. In Stockholm a studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan in 2010 saw a significant reduction in studded tyre share together with a reduction in traffic volume. The model is found to correctly simulate the impact of these measures on the PM10 concentrations when compared to available kerbside measurement data. Importantly meteorology can have a significant impact on the concentrations through both surface and dispersion conditions. The first year after the implementation of the speed reduction on RV4 was much drier than the previous year, resulting in higher mean concentrations than expected. The following year was much wetter with significant rain and snow fall leading to wet or frozen road surfaces for 83% of the four month study period. This significantly reduced the net PM10 concentrations, by 58%, compared to the expected values if meteorological conditions had been similar to the previous years. In the years following the studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan road wear production through studded tyres decreased by 72%, due to a combination of reduced traffic volume and reduced studded tyre share. However, after accounting for exhaust

  8. Robust/optimal temperature profile control of a high-speed aerospace vehicle using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vivek; Padhi, Radhakant; Balakrishnan, S N

    2007-07-01

    An approximate dynamic programming (ADP)-based suboptimal neurocontroller to obtain desired temperature for a high-speed aerospace vehicle is synthesized in this paper. A 1-D distributed parameter model of a fin is developed from basic thermal physics principles. "Snapshot" solutions of the dynamics are generated with a simple dynamic inversion-based feedback controller. Empirical basis functions are designed using the "proper orthogonal decomposition" (POD) technique and the snapshot solutions. A low-order nonlinear lumped parameter system to characterize the infinite dimensional system is obtained by carrying out a Galerkin projection. An ADP-based neurocontroller with a dual heuristic programming (DHP) formulation is obtained with a single-network-adaptive-critic (SNAC) controller for this approximate nonlinear model. Actual control in the original domain is calculated with the same POD basis functions through a reverse mapping. Further contribution of this paper includes development of an online robust neurocontroller to account for unmodeled dynamics and parametric uncertainties inherent in such a complex dynamic system. A neural network (NN) weight update rule that guarantees boundedness of the weights and relaxes the need for persistence of excitation (PE) condition is presented. Simulation studies show that in a fairly extensive but compact domain, any desired temperature profile can be achieved starting from any initial temperature profile. Therefore, the ADP and NN-based controllers appear to have the potential to become controller synthesis tools for nonlinear distributed parameter systems.

  9. AERIS : Eco-Vehicle Speed Control at Signalized Intersections Using I2V Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This report concentrates on a velocity advisory tool, or decision support system, for vehicles approaching an intersection using communication capabilities between the infrastructure and vehicles. The system uses available signal change information, ...

  10. Connected variable speed limits control and vehicle acceleration control to resolve moving jams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Daamen, W.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Van Arem, B.

    2015-01-01

    The vision of intelligent vehicles traveling in road networks has prompted numerous concepts to control future traffic flow, one of which is the in-vehicle actuation of traffic control signals. The key of this concept is using intelligent vehicles as actuators for traffic control systems, replacing

  11. The speed of change : motor vehicles and people in Africa, 1890-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gewald, J.B.; Luning, Sabine; Walraven, van K.

    2009-01-01

    In the early 1900s the motor-vehicle (car, bus, lorry or motorcycle) was introduced in sub-Saharan Africa. Initially the plaything and symbol of colonial domination, the motor-vehicle transformed the economic and social life of the continent. Indeed, the motor-vehicle is arguably the single most

  12. Speed support through the intelligent vehicle : perspective, estimated effects and implementation aspects.[Deliverable of the Intelligent Vehicles project, part of the Traffic Management project within TRANSUMO (TRANsition to SUstainable MObility).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsink, P. Goldenbeld, C. Dragutinovic, N. Marchau, V. Walta, L. & Brookhuis, K.

    2008-01-01

    Speed management is a central theme in traffic management, aiming to optimize traffic in terms of safety, efficiency and the environment, by reducing speeding and speed differences in traffic. Intelligent vehicles can perform tasks that conventional measures cannot do at all, or do less efficiently.

  13. Maglev vehicles and superconductor technology: Integration of high-speed ground transportation into the air travel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.R.; Rote, D.M.; Hull, J.R.; Coffey, H.T.; Daley, J.G.; Giese, R.F.

    1989-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (1) evaluate the potential contribution of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) to the technical and economic feasibility of magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles, (2) determine the status of maglev transportation research in the United States and abroad, (3) identify the likelihood of a significant transportation market for high-speed maglev vehicles, and (4) provide a preliminary assessment of the potential energy and economic benefits of maglev systems. HTSCs should be considered as an enhancing, rather than an enabling, development for maglev transportation because they should improve reliability and reduce energy and maintenance costs. Superconducting maglev transportation technologies were developed in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Federal support was withdrawn in 1975, but major maglev transportation programs were continued in Japan and West Germany, where full-scale prototypes now carry passengers at speeds of 250 mi/h in demonstration runs. Maglev systems are generally viewed as very-high-speed train systems, but this study shows that the potential market for maglev technology as a train system, e.g., from one downtown to another, is limited. Rather, aircraft and maglev vehicles should be seen as complementing rather than competing transportation systems. If maglev systems were integrated into major hub airport operations, they could become economical in many relatively high-density US corridors. Air traffic congestion and associated noise and pollutant emissions around airports would also be reduced. 68 refs., 26 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. Influence of Vehicle Speed on the Characteristics of Driver's Eye Movement at a Highway Tunnel Entrance during Day and Night Conditions: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Li; Dong, Li-Li; Xu, Wen-Hai; Zhang, Li-Dong; Leon, Arturo S

    2018-04-02

    The aim of this study was to investigate how vehicle speed influences the characteristics of driver's eye movement at highway tunnel entrances during day and night. In this study, six drivers' eye movement data (from 200 m before tunnel entrance to 200 m inside tunnel entrance) under five predetermined vehicle speeds (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 km/h) in the daytime and three predetermined vehicle speeds (40, 60 and 80 km/h) in the nighttime were recorded using the non-intrusive Dikablis Professional eye-tracking system. Pupil size, the average fixation duration time and the average number of fixation were analyzed and then the influence of the vehicle speed on these parameters was evaluated by means of IBM SPSS Statistics 20.0. The results for pupil size in daytime increased when approaching the tunnel entrance, while as for nighttime, pupil size decreased when approaching the tunnel entrance and then increased after entering the tunnel. The pupil size in daytime has a significant negative correlation with vehicle speed, while the pupil size in nighttime did not show a significant association with vehicle speed. Furthermore, the average fixation duration in daytime increased when entering the tunnel, and had a significant negative correlation with vehicle speed. Also, the average number of fixations in daytime decreased when entering the tunnel and has a significant negative correlation with vehicle speed. However, the average fixation duration and the average number of fixations in nighttime did not show any significant association with vehicle speed. Moreover, limitations and future directions of the study are discussed for the further investigation.

  15. Reliability analysis of high-speed tracked vehicles in the polish army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kończak Jarosław

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Polish Armed Forces use tracked vehicles that serve as a core element of the ground combat forces. These vehicles are capable of fighting in all kinds of terrain conditions, in any season of the year. Combat missions are often fought in areas where even no dirt roads are available. The present paper assesses the reliability of tracked vehicles in the context of their irregular operation, as well as service- and maintenance-related vulnerability.

  16. A study on model fidelity for model predictive control-based obstacle avoidance in high-speed autonomous ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiechao; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Stein, Jeffrey L.; Ersal, Tulga

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates the level of model fidelity needed in order for a model predictive control (MPC)-based obstacle avoidance algorithm to be able to safely and quickly avoid obstacles even when the vehicle is close to its dynamic limits. The context of this work is large autonomous ground vehicles that manoeuvre at high speed within unknown, unstructured, flat environments and have significant vehicle dynamics-related constraints. Five different representations of vehicle dynamics models are considered: four variations of the two degrees-of-freedom (DoF) representation as lower fidelity models and a fourteen DoF representation with combined-slip Magic Formula tyre model as a higher fidelity model. It is concluded that the two DoF representation that accounts for tyre nonlinearities and longitudinal load transfer is necessary for the MPC-based obstacle avoidance algorithm in order to operate the vehicle at its limits within an environment that includes large obstacles. For less challenging environments, however, the two DoF representation with linear tyre model and constant axle loads is sufficient.

  17. Simulation and experimental research on trans-media vehicle water-entry motion characteristics at low speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Li, Yongli; Feng, Jinfu; Hu, Junhua; Liu, An

    2017-01-01

    The motion characteristics of trans-media vehicles during the water-entry process were explored in this study in an effort to obtain the optimal water-entry condition of the vehicle for developing a novel, single control strategy integrating underwater non-control and in-air control. A water-entry dynamics model is established by combining the water-entry motion characteristics of the vehicle in uncontrolled conditions at low speed with time-varying parameters (e.g. buoyancy, added mass). A water-entry experiment is designed to confirm the effectiveness of the established model. After that, by comparing the experimental results with the simulated results, the model is further modified to more accurately reflect water-entry motion. The change laws of the vehicle's attitude and position during the water-entry process are also obtained by analyzing the simulation of the modified model under different velocity, angle, and angle of attack conditions. The results presented here have guiding significance for the future realization of reaching the stable underwater navigation state of the vehicle after water-entry process.

  18. Simulation and experimental research on trans-media vehicle water-entry motion characteristics at low speed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yang

    Full Text Available The motion characteristics of trans-media vehicles during the water-entry process were explored in this study in an effort to obtain the optimal water-entry condition of the vehicle for developing a novel, single control strategy integrating underwater non-control and in-air control. A water-entry dynamics model is established by combining the water-entry motion characteristics of the vehicle in uncontrolled conditions at low speed with time-varying parameters (e.g. buoyancy, added mass. A water-entry experiment is designed to confirm the effectiveness of the established model. After that, by comparing the experimental results with the simulated results, the model is further modified to more accurately reflect water-entry motion. The change laws of the vehicle's attitude and position during the water-entry process are also obtained by analyzing the simulation of the modified model under different velocity, angle, and angle of attack conditions. The results presented here have guiding significance for the future realization of reaching the stable underwater navigation state of the vehicle after water-entry process.

  19. Investigation Into The Model Of The Vehicle System For Speed Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurij Grigorovič

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a rectilinear motion of a car modelled applyingsoftware package “Matlab/Simulink“ where two vehicles aremoving simultaneously one after the other. The parameters ofeach vehicle have been identified separately assessing a driver,road and environment.

  20. Designing Sustainable Public Transportation: Integrated Optimization of Bus Speed and Holding Time in a Connected Vehicle Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing public transportation and giving priority to buses is a feasible solution for improving the level of public transportation service, which facilitates congestion alleviation and prevention, and contributes to urban development and city sustainability. This paper presents a novel bus operation control strategy including both holding control and speed control to improve the level of service of transit systems within a connected vehicle environment. Most previous work focuses on optimization of signal timing to decrease the bus signal delay by assuming that holding control is not applied; the speed of buses is given as a constant input and the acceleration and deceleration processes of buses can be neglected. This paper explores the benefits of a bus operation control strategy to minimize the total cost, which includes bus signal delay, bus holding delay, bus travel delay, acceleration cost due to frequent stops and intense driving. A set of formulations are developed to explicitly capture the interaction between bus holding control and speed control. Experimental analysisand simulation tests have shown that the proposed integrated operational model outperforms the traditional control, speed control only, or holding control only strategies in terms of reducing the total cost of buses. The sensitivity analysis has further demonstrated the potential effectiveness of the proposed approach to be applied in a real-time bus operation control system under different levels of traffic demand, bus stop locations, and speed limits.

  1. Network Provisioning for High Speed Vehicles Moving along Predictable Routes - Part 1: Spiderman Handover

    OpenAIRE

    Maureira , Juan-Carlos; Dujovne , Diego; Dalle , Olivier

    2009-01-01

    This report presents our on-going work on a new system designed to provide a continuous network connectivity to communicating devices located on-board a vehicle moving at ”high speed” with a predictable trajectory such as trains, subways or buses. The devices on-board the vehicle form a sub-network called the ”in-motion network”. This system we propose is composed of two parts. The mobile part, called Spiderman Device (SD), installed on the roof of the vehicle, and the fixed part is composed ...

  2. Roundabouts converted for road trains and the effect on vehicle speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønning, Charlotte; Agerholm, Niels

    2016-01-01

    on the measured time use between two location identified in the roundabout for private cars driving under free flow conditions, an estimation of the speed with/after compared to the speed without/before the redesign is made for in total 100 cars per week per location. The very first tentative results show...

  3. NOISE AS AN INDIRECT CRITERION FOR EVALUATING THE CRITICAL SPEED OF VEHICLE TIRE AT HYDROPLANING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Karpenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An alternative method for determining the critical rolling speed of automobile tires with various tread patterns during hydroplaning is considered. The critical speed of the car at which the hydroplaning process takes place is determined. This method is based on recording the tire noise emission when driving on a wet road pavement.

  4. Side-suspended High- Tc Superconducting Maglev Prototype Vehicle Running at a High Speed in an Evacuated Circular Test Track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Dajin; Zhao, Lifeng; Cui, Chenyu; Zhang, Yong; Guo, Jianqiang; Zhao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    High- T c superconductor (HTS) and permanent magnetic guideway (PMG) based maglev train is intensively studied in China, Japan, Germany and Brazil, mainly through static or vibration test. Amongst these studies, only a few of reports are available for the direct and effective assessment on the dynamic performance of the HTS maglev vehicle by running on a straight or circular PMG track. The highest running speed of these experiments is lower than 50 km/h. In this paper, a side-suspended HTS permanent magnetic guideway maglev system was proposed and constructed in order to increase the running speed in a circular track. By optimizing the arrangement of YBCO bulks besides the PMG, the side-suspended HTS maglev prototype vehicle was successfully running stably at a speed as high as 150 km/h in a circular test track with 6.5 m in diameter, and in an evacuated tube environment, in which the pressure is 5 × 10 3 Pa. (paper)

  5. Modified Motor Vehicles Travel Speed Models on the Basis of Curb Parking Setting under Mixed Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Mei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing controversy about in what condition should we set the curb parking has few definitive answers because comprehensive research in this area has been lacking. Our goal is to present a set of heuristic urban street speed functions under mixed traffic flow by taking into account impacts of curb parking. Two impacts have been defined to classify and quantify the phenomena of motor vehicles' speed dynamics in terms of curb parking. The first impact is called Space impact, which is caused by the curb parking types. The other one is the Time impact, which results from the driver maneuvering in or out of parking space. In this paper, based on the empirical data collected from six typical urban streets in Nanjing, China, two models have been proposed to describe these phenomena for one-way traffic and two-way traffic, respectively. An intensive experiment has been conducted in order to calibrate and validate these proposed models, by taking into account the complexity of the model parameters. We also provide guidelines in terms of how to cluster and calculate those models' parameters. Results from these models demonstrated promising performance of modeling motor vehicles' speed for mixed traffic flow under the influence of curb parking.

  6. Impacts of Bus-stops on the Speed of Motorized Vehicles under Heterogeneous Traffic Conditions: A Case-Study of Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Bansal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of friction generators1 such as bus-stops, intersections, petrol pumps and pedestrian crossings, etc. significantly influences the speed of traffic stream. Among all the friction generators, understanding the impact of bus-stops is particularly important from planning and modeling perspective in the Indian context. Therefore, this study presents a methodology to quantify the impact of bus-stops on the speed of other motorized vehicles (the total motorized vehicle fleet minus the buses under heterogeneous traffic conditions. The methodology was validated on the typical urban arterials in Delhi, India. Two types of data, location of bus-stops and speed profiles of motorized vehicles, were collected by GPS and V-box respectively. These two data sets were mapped and merged using ArcGIS. To understand the nature of traffic stream near bus-stops, ‘influence regions’ of bus-stops were extracted. Later, characteristic parameters such as lengths of the influence regions and average speeds in the influence regions were computed. Finally, 95% confidence intervals of these characteristic parameters were obtained and regression analysis was performed to quantify the impact of bus-stops on the speed of motorized vehicles. The results of study suggest that the influence region of bus-stops on the corridors investigated varies from 140–170 meters and average speed of motorized vehicles in the influence region is reduced by 26–38% of the free flow speed. These findings can better inform planners about the speeds used in traffic flow and travel demand modeling under heterogeneous conditions by helping them in accounting for the speed-reducing impacts of bus-stops. Moreover, transit planners may also consider the magnitudes and characteristics of the influence regions of bus-stops while determining their locations along the corridor to minimize their adverse impacts on the speed of other motorized vehicles.

  7. Simulation of speed control in acceleration mode of a heavy duty vehicle; Ogatasha no kasokuji ni okeru shasoku seigyo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, S; Ukawa, H [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sanada, K; Kitagawa, A [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A control law of speed of a heavy duty vehicle in acceleration mode is presented, which is an extended version of a control law in deceleration mode proposed by the authors. The control law is based on constant acceleration strategy. Using the control law, target velocity and target distance can be performed. Both control laws for acceleration and deceleration mode can be represented by a unified mathematical formulae. Some simulation results are shown to demonstrate the control performance. 7 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Cognitive radio networks efficient resource allocation in cooperative sensing, cellular communications, high-speed vehicles, and smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Tao; Cao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    PrefaceAcknowledgmentsAbout the AuthorsIntroductionCognitive Radio-Based NetworksOpportunistic Spectrum Access NetworksCognitive Radio Networks with Cooperative SensingCognitive Radio Networks for Cellular CommunicationsCognitive Radio Networks for High-Speed VehiclesCognitive Radio Networks for a Smart GridContent and OrganizationTransmission Slot Allocation in an Opportunistic Spectrum Access NetworkSingle-User Single-Channel System ModelProbabilistic Slot Allocation SchemeOptimal Probabilistic Slot AllocationBaseline PerformanceExponential DistributionHyper-Erlang DistributionPerformance An

  9. 49 CFR 571.500 - Standard No. 500; Low-speed vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... replacement of any component is allowed after the start of the first performance test. S6.3.3. Tire inflation.... General test conditions. Each vehicle must meet the performance limit specified in S5(a) under the... standard reference test tire that meets the specifications of American Society for Testing and Materials...

  10. UNDESIRED SPLASH OVER ON EQUIPMENTS USING INDUCTIVE SENSORS FOR MONITORING AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLES' CONTROLLED SPEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Monteiro

    Full Text Available This article aims to evaluate instruments that oversight traffic flow electronically, using inductive surface sensors, based on the change of local magnetic field. More specifically, we study the possibility of false speed detections, due to the manifestation of the phenomenon called splash over - which means a space splash of the magnetic field lines out of the measuring zone. We show, through the literature, and practical simulations, the damage that can be caused by splash on the correct speed measurement and identification of the car under suspicions. It is also presented solutions to inhibiting unwanted velocity measurements due to this effect.

  11. Analysis, control and design of speed control of electric vehicles delayed model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khooban, Mohammad-Hassan; ShaSadeghi, Mokhtar; Niknam, Taher

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to suggest an optimal multi-objective fuzzy fractional-order PIλDμPIλDμ controller (MOFFOPID) for the speed control of EV systems with time-delay. It is presumed that while the EV is in movement, the armature winding resistance of the direct current (DC) motor varies...... controller. Finally, the experimental results based on a TMS320F28335 DSP are implemented on a DC motor to verify the effectiveness of the proposed MOFFOPID controller in controlling the speed of the DC motor which has non-linear features. The results of the simulation confirm the desirable performance...

  12. In-Vehicle Dynamic Curve-Speed Warnings at High-Risk Rural Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Lane-departure crashes at horizontal curves represent a significant portion of fatal crashes on rural Minnesota roads. Because of this, solutions are needed to aid drivers in identifying upcoming curves and inform them of a safe speed at which they s...

  13. Semi-active H∞ control of high-speed railway vehicle suspension with magnetorheological dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Lu-Hang; Gong, Xing-Long; Xuan, Shou-Hu; Guo, Chao-Yang

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, semi-active H∞ control with magnetorheological (MR) dampers for railway vehicle suspension systems to improve the lateral ride quality is investigated. The proposed semi-active controller is composed of a H∞ controller as the system controller and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) inverse MR damper model as the damper controller. First, a 17-degree-of-freedom model for a full-scale railway vehicle is developed and the random track irregularities are modelled. Then a modified Bouc-Wen model is built to characterise the forward dynamic characteristics of the MR damper and an inverse MR damper model is built with the ANFIS technique. Furthermore, a H∞ controller composed of a yaw motion controller and a rolling pendulum motion (lateral motion+roll motion) controller is established. By integrating the H∞ controller with the ANFIS inverse model, a semi-active H∞ controller for the railway vehicle is finally proposed. Simulation results indicate that the proposed semi-active suspension system possesses better attenuation ability for the vibrations of the car body than the passive suspension system.

  14. Effect of In-Vehicle Audio Warning System on Driver’s Speed Control Performance in Transition Zones from Rural Areas to Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuedong Yan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Speeding is a major contributing factor to traffic crashes and frequently happens in areas where there is a mutation in speed limits, such as the transition zones that connect urban areas from rural areas. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of an in-vehicle audio warning system and lit speed limit sign on preventing drivers’ speeding behavior in transition zones. A high-fidelity driving simulator was used to establish a roadway network with the transition zone. A total of 41 participants were recruited for this experiment, and the driving speed performance data were collected from the simulator. The experimental results display that the implementation of the audio warning system could significantly reduce drivers’ operating speed before they entered the urban area, while the lit speed limit sign had a minimal effect on improving the drivers’ speed control performance. Without consideration of different types of speed limit signs, it is found that male drivers generally had a higher operating speed both upstream and in the transition zones and have a larger maximum deceleration for speed reduction than female drivers. Moreover, the drivers who had medium-level driving experience had the higher operating speed and were more likely to have speeding behaviors in the transition zones than those who had low-level and high-level driving experience in the transition zones.

  15. Application of a distributed systems architecture for increased speed in image processing on an autonomous ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam A.; Momin, Orko; Shin, Young Ho; Shakya, Rahul; Nepal, Kumud; Ahlgren, David J.

    2010-01-01

    was established as the most reliable protocol after testing various options. Improvement can be made to the system by migrating more algorithms to the hardware based FPGA to further speed up the operations of the vehicle.

  16. Generic Advantages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Generic Advantages. Scalability an incremental coverage. Standardization. Business Plan Flexibility. Lifecycle Flexibility. Reliability. Service Interoperability. Changed Industry dynamics.

  17. Applications of a saving method with max-min ant system to a vehicle routing problem with time windows and speed limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphan Sodsoon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to solve a Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Speed Limits (VRPTWSL, which has received considerable attention in recent years. The vehicle routing problem with time windows is an extension of the well-known Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP and involves a fleet of vehicles set of from a depot to serve a number of customers at different geographic locations with various demands within specific time and speed limits before returning to the depot eventually. To solve the problem, an efficient Saving Method-Max Min Ant System (Saving-MMAS with Local Search algorithm is applied. Using minimization of the total transportation costs as the objective of the extension VRPTWSL, a mathematic model is constructed. Finally, the Saving-MMAS algorithms indicated the good quality of the method in this problem.

  18. Study and performances analysis of fuel cell assisted vector control variable speed drive system used for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachauri, Rupendra Kumar; Chauhan, Yogesh K.

    2017-02-01

    This paper is a novel attempt to combine two important aspects of fuel cell (FC). First, it presents investigations on FC technology and its applications. A description of FC operating principles is followed by the comparative analysis of the present FC technologies together with the issues concerning various fuels. Second, this paper also proposes a model for the simulation and performances evaluation of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) generation system. Furthermore, a MATLAB/Simulink-based dynamic model of PEMFC is developed and parameters of FC are so adjusted to emulate a commercially available PEMFC. The system results are obtained for the PEMFC-driven adjusted speed induction motor drive (ASIMD) system, normally used in electric vehicles and analysis is carried out for different operating conditions of FC and ASIMD system. The obtained results prove the validation of system concept and modelling.

  19. Development, Implementation and Evaluation of an Educational Intervention to Prevent Low Speed Vehicle Run-Over Events: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Bronwyn; Watt, Kerrianne; Kimble, Roy; Shields, Linda

    2018-04-05

    There is a growing body of literature regarding low speed vehicle runover (LSVRO) events among children. To date, no literature exists on evaluation of interventions to address this serious childhood injury. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour regarding LSVROs were assessed via survey at a shopping centre (pre-intervention), then five months later (post-intervention), to investigate the effect of a population level educational intervention in Queensland, Australia. Participants' knowledge regarding frequency of LSVRO events was poor. No participant demonstrated 'adequate behaviour' in relation to four safe driveway behaviours pre-intervention; this increased at post-intervention ( p experience reflects the 'real-world' challenges associated with implementing prevention strategies. We suggest a multi-faceted approach involving media (including social media), legislative changes, subsidies (for reversing cameras), and education to prevent LSVROs.

  20. Thermostructural applications of heat pipes for cooling leading edges of high-speed aerospace vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarda, Charles J.; Glass, David E.

    1992-01-01

    Heat pipes have been considered for use on wing leading edge for over 20 years. Early concepts envisioned metal heat pipes cooling a metallic leading edge. Several superalloy/sodium heat pipes were fabricated and successfully tested for wing leading edge cooling. Results of radiant heat and aerothermal testing indicate the feasibility of using heat pipes to cool the stagnation region of shuttle-type space transportation systems. The test model withstood a total seven radiant heating tests, eight aerothermal tests, and twenty-seven supplemental radiant heating tests. Cold-wall heating rates ranged from 21 to 57 Btu/sq ft-s and maximum operating temperatures ranged from 1090 to 1520 F. Follow-on studies investigated the application of heat pipes to cool the stagnation regions of single-stage-to-orbit and advanced shuttle vehicles. Results of those studies indicate that a 'D-shaped' structural design can reduce the mass of the heat-pipe concept by over 44 percent compared to a circular heat-pipe geometry. Simple analytical models for heat-pipe startup from the frozen state (working fluid initially frozen) were adequate to approximate transient, startup, and steady-state heat-pipe performance. Improvement in analysis methods has resulted in the development of a finite-element analysis technique to predict heat-pipe startup from the frozen state. However, current requirements of light-weight design and reliability suggest that metallic heat pipes embedded in a refractory composite material should be used. This concept is the concept presently being evaluated for NASP. A refractory-composite/heat-pipe-cooled wing leading edge is currently being considered for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). This concept uses high-temperature refractory-metal/lithium heat pipes embedded within a refractory-composite structure and is significantly lighter than an actively cooled wing leading edge because it eliminates the need for active cooling during ascent and descent. Since the

  1. Validation of temporal and spatial consistency of facility- and speed-specific vehicle-specific power distributions for emission estimation: A case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Zhiqiang; Song, Guohua; Lu, Hongyu; He, Weinan; Yu, Lei

    2017-09-01

    Vehicle-specific power (VSP) has been found to be highly correlated with vehicle emissions. It is used in many studies on emission modeling such as the MOVES (Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulator) model. The existing studies develop specific VSP distributions (or OpMode distribution in MOVES) for different road types and various average speeds to represent the vehicle operating modes on road. However, it is still not clear if the facility- and speed-specific VSP distributions are consistent temporally and spatially. For instance, is it necessary to update periodically the database of the VSP distributions in the emission model? Are the VSP distributions developed in the city central business district (CBD) area applicable to its suburb area? In this context, this study examined the temporal and spatial consistency of the facility- and speed-specific VSP distributions in Beijing. The VSP distributions in different years and in different areas are developed, based on real-world vehicle activity data. The root mean square error (RMSE) is employed to quantify the difference between the VSP distributions. The maximum differences of the VSP distributions between different years and between different areas are approximately 20% of that between different road types. The analysis of the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission factor indicates that the temporal and spatial differences of the VSP distributions have no significant impact on vehicle emission estimation, with relative error of less than 3%. The temporal and spatial differences have no significant impact on the development of the facility- and speed-specific VSP distributions for the vehicle emission estimation. The database of the specific VSP distributions in the VSP-based emission models can maintain in terms of time. Thus, it is unnecessary to update the database regularly, and it is reliable to use the history vehicle activity data to forecast the emissions in the future. In one city, the areas with less data can still

  2. Vehicle speed prediction via a sliding-window time series analysis and an evolutionary least learning machine: A case study on San Francisco urban roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Mozaffari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the current study is to take advantage of advanced numerical and intelligent tools to predict the speed of a vehicle using time series. It is clear that the uncertainty caused by temporal behavior of the driver as well as various external disturbances on the road will affect the vehicle speed, and thus, the vehicle power demands. The prediction of upcoming power demands can be employed by the vehicle powertrain control systems to improve significantly the fuel economy and emission performance. Therefore, it is important to systems design engineers and automotive industrialists to develop efficient numerical tools to overcome the risk of unpredictability associated with the vehicle speed profile on roads. In this study, the authors propose an intelligent tool called evolutionary least learning machine (E-LLM to forecast the vehicle speed sequence. To have a practical evaluation regarding the efficacy of E-LLM, the authors use the driving data collected on the San Francisco urban roads by a private Honda Insight vehicle. The concept of sliding window time series (SWTS analysis is used to prepare the database for the speed forecasting process. To evaluate the performance of the proposed technique, a number of well-known approaches, such as auto regressive (AR method, back-propagation neural network (BPNN, evolutionary extreme learning machine (E-ELM, extreme learning machine (ELM, and radial basis function neural network (RBFNN, are considered. The performances of the rival methods are then compared in terms of the mean square error (MSE, root mean square error (RMSE, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, median absolute percentage error (MDAPE, and absolute fraction of variances (R2 metrics. Through an exhaustive comparative study, the authors observed that E-LLM is a powerful tool for predicting the vehicle speed profiles. The outcomes of the current study can be of use for the engineers of automotive industry who have been

  3. Effects of major-road vehicle speed and driver age and gender on left-turn gap acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuedong; Radwan, Essam; Guo, Dahai

    2007-07-01

    Because the driver's gap-acceptance maneuver is a complex and risky driving behavior, it is a highly concerned topic for traffic safety and operation. Previous studies have mainly focused on the driver's gap acceptance decision itself but did not pay attention to the maneuver process and driving behaviors. Using a driving simulator experiment for left-turn gap acceptance at a stop-controlled intersection, this study evaluated the effects of major traffic speed and driver age and gender on gap acceptance behaviors. The experiment results illustrate relationships among drivers' left-turn gap decision, driver's acceleration rate, steering action, and the influence of the gap-acceptance maneuver on the vehicles in the major traffic stream. The experiment results identified an association between high crash risk and high traffic speed at stop-controlled intersections. The older drivers, especially older female drivers, displayed a conservative driving attitude as a compensation for reduced driving ability, but also showed to be the most vulnerable group for the relatively complex driving maneuvers.

  4. Analysis and Test Correlation of Proof of Concept Box for Blended Wing Body-Low Speed Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellman, Regina L.

    2003-01-01

    The Low Speed Vehicle (LSV) is a 14.2% scale remotely piloted vehicle of the revolutionary Blended Wing Body concept. The design of the LSV includes an all composite airframe. Due to internal manufacturing capability restrictions, room temperature layups were necessary. An extensive materials testing and manufacturing process development effort was underwent to establish a process that would achieve the high modulus/low weight properties required to meet the design requirements. The analysis process involved a loads development effort that incorporated aero loads to determine internal forces that could be applied to a traditional FEM of the vehicle and to conduct detailed component analyses. A new tool, Hypersizer, was added to the design process to address various composite failure modes and to optimize the skin panel thickness of the upper and lower skins for the vehicle. The analysis required an iterative approach as material properties were continually changing. As a part of the material characterization effort, test articles, including a proof of concept wing box and a full-scale wing, were fabricated. The proof of concept box was fabricated based on very preliminary material studies and tested in bending, torsion, and shear. The box was then tested to failure under shear. The proof of concept box was also analyzed using Nastran and Hypersizer. The results of both analyses were scaled to determine the predicted failure load. The test results were compared to both the Nastran and Hypersizer analytical predictions. The actual failure occurred at 899 lbs. The failure was predicted at 1167 lbs based on the Nastran analysis. The Hypersizer analysis predicted a lower failure load of 960 lbs. The Nastran analysis alone was not sufficient to predict the failure load because it does not identify local composite failure modes. This analysis has traditionally been done using closed form solutions. Although Hypersizer is typically used as an optimizer for the design

  5. Distributed and self-adaptive vehicle speed estimation in the composite braking case for four-wheel drive hybrid electric car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z.-G.; Zhou, L.-J.; Zhang, J.-T.; Zhu, Q.; Hedrick, J.-K.

    2017-05-01

    Considering the controllability and observability of the braking torques of the hub motor, Integrated Starter Generator (ISG), and hydraulic brake for four-wheel drive (4WD) hybrid electric cars, a distributed and self-adaptive vehicle speed estimation algorithm for different braking situations has been proposed by fully utilising the Electronic Stability Program (ESP) sensor signals and multiple powersource signals. Firstly, the simulation platform of a 4WD hybrid electric car was established, which integrates an electronic-hydraulic composited braking system model and its control strategy, a nonlinear seven degrees-of-freedom vehicle dynamics model, and the Burckhardt tyre model. Secondly, combining the braking torque signals with the ESP signals, self-adaptive unscented Kalman sub-filter and main-filter adaptable to the observation noise were, respectively, designed. Thirdly, the fusion rules for the sub-filters and master filter were proposed herein, and the estimation results were compared with the simulated value of a real vehicle speed. Finally, based on the hardware in-the-loop platform and by picking up the regenerative motor torque signals and wheel cylinder pressure signals, the proposed speed estimation algorithm was tested under the case of moderate braking on the highly adhesive road, and the case of Antilock Braking System (ABS) action on the slippery road, as well as the case of ABS action on the icy road. Test results show that the presented vehicle speed estimation algorithm has not only a high precision but also a strong adaptability in the composite braking case.

  6. Effectiveness of a Program Using a Vehicle Tracking System, Incentives, and Disincentives to Reduce the Speeding Behavior of Drivers with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Paula T.; Porter, Bryan E.; Ball, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this article, the authors investigated the effectiveness of a behavior modification program using global positioning system (GPS) vehicle tracking devices with contingency incentives and disincentives to reduce the speeding behavior of drivers with ADHD. Method: Using an AB multiple-baseline design, six participants drove a 5-mile…

  7. A two-phase control algorithm for gear-shifting in a novel multi-speed transmission for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozegar, M.; Angeles, J.

    2018-05-01

    In light of the current low energy-storage capacity of electric batteries, multi-speed transmissions (MSTs) are being considered for applications in electric vehicles (EVs), since MSTs decrease the energy consumption of the EV via gear-shifting. Nonetheless, swiftness and seamlessness are the major concerns in gear-shifting. This study focuses on developing a gear-shifting control scheme for a novel MST designed for EVs. The main advantages of the proposed MST are simplicity and modularity. Firstly, the dynamics model of the transmission is formulated. Then, a two-phase algorithm is proposed for shifting between each two gear ratios, which guarantees a smooth and swift shift. In other words, a separate control set is applied for shifting between each gear pair, which includes two independent PID controllers, tuned using trial-and-error and a genetic algorithm (GA), for the two steps of the algorithm and a switch. A supervisory controller is also employed to choose the proper PID gains, called PID gain-scheduling. Simulation results for various controllers and conditions are reported and compared, indicating that the proposed scheme is highly promising for a desired gear-shifting even in the presence of an unknown external disturbance.

  8. Development, Implementation and Evaluation of an Educational Intervention to Prevent Low Speed Vehicle Run-Over Events: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Griffin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of literature regarding low speed vehicle runover (LSVRO events among children. To date, no literature exists on evaluation of interventions to address this serious childhood injury. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour regarding LSVROs were assessed via survey at a shopping centre (pre-intervention, then five months later (post-intervention, to investigate the effect of a population level educational intervention in Queensland, Australia. Participants’ knowledge regarding frequency of LSVRO events was poor. No participant demonstrated ‘adequate behaviour’ in relation to four safe driveway behaviours pre-intervention; this increased at post-intervention (p < 0.05. Most of the sample perceived other’s driveway behaviour as inadequate, and this reduced significantly (<0.05. Perceived effectiveness of LSVRO prevention strategies increased from pre- to post-intervention, but not significantly. TV was the greatest source of knowledge regarding LSVROs pre- and post-intervention. This study provides some evidence that the educational campaign and opportunistic media engagement were successful in increasing awareness and improving behaviour regarding LSVROs. While there are several limitations to this study, our experience reflects the ‘real-world’ challenges associated with implementing prevention strategies. We suggest a multi-faceted approach involving media (including social media, legislative changes, subsidies (for reversing cameras, and education to prevent LSVROs.

  9. Family Genericity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Type abstraction in object-oriented languages embody two techniques, each with its own strenghts and weaknesses. The first technique is extension, yielding abstraction mechanisms with good support for gradual specification. The prime example is inheritance. The second technique is functional abst...... the result as family genericity. The presented language design has been implemented....

  10. Acoustic inversion with self noise of an autonomous underwater vehicle to measure sound speed in marine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leijen, A.V.; Rothkranz, L.J.M.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports on an experiment from the Maritime Rapid Environmental Assessment sea trials in 2007, where autonomous underwater vehicles were deployed for environmental assessment. Even though these underwater vehicles are very quiet platforms, this work investigates the potential of vehicle

  11. Effect of stiffness and movement speed on selected dynamic torque characteristics of hydraulic-actuation joystick controls for heavy vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Michele; Rogers, Robert; Rickards, Jeremy; Tingley, Maureen; Biden, Edmund

    2006-02-22

    The purpose of this work was to quantify the effects of joystick stiffness and movement speed on the dynamic torque characteristics of hydraulic-actuation joystick controls, as found in off-road vehicles, as one of the initial steps towards the development of a joystick design protocol. Using a previously developed mathematical model in which a hydraulic-actuation joystick is assumed to rotate about two axes where the rotation origin is a universal joint, the dynamic torque characteristics incurred by an operator were predicted. Utilizing a laboratory mock-up of an excavator cab environment, three actuation torque characteristics (peak torque, angular impulse and deceleration at the hard endpoint) were quantified for nine unskilled joystick operators during the use of a commonly used North American hydraulic-actuation joystick. The six different experimental conditions included combinations of three joystick stiffnesses and two movement speeds. The highest instantaneous input torque over the course of the joystick movement (not including the hard endpoint) was evaluated using the peak torque value. Angular impulse provided an indication of the sustained exposure to force. The third indicator, deceleration at the hard endpoint, was included to provide a description of impact loading on the hand as the joystick came to a sudden stop. The most important result of this work is that the dynamic torque characteristics incurred during hydraulic-actuation joystick use are substantial. While the peak torque values were not very different between the fast and slow motion conditions, the high decelerations even for slow movements observed at maximum excursion of the joystick indicate that the dynamics do matter. On the basis of deceleration at the hard endpoint and peak torque, the joystick movements that require the highest values for a combination of torque variables are the side-to-side ones. This suggests that less stiff balance and return springs should be considered for

  12. Numerical Modelling of the Dynamic Response of High-Speed Railway Bridges Considering Vehicle-Structure and Structure-Soil-Structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucinskas, Paulius; Agapii, L.; Sneideris, J.

    2015-01-01

    is idealized as a multi-degree-of-freedom system, modelled with two layers of spring-dashpot suspension systems. Coupling the vehicle system and railway track is realized through interaction forces between the wheels and the rail, where the irregularities of the track are implemented as a random stationary......The aim of this paper is the dynamic analysis of a multi-support bridge structure exposed to high-speed railway traffic. The proposed computational model has a unified approach for simultaneously accounting for the bridge structure response, soil response and forces induced by the vehicle....... The bridge structure is modelled in three dimensions based on the finite element method using two-noded three-dimensional beam elements. The track structure is composed of three layers: rail, sleepers and deck which are connected through spring-dashpot systems. The vehicle travelling along a bridge...

  13. Effects of Pay-As-You-Drive vehicle insurance on young drivers' speed choice : Results of a Dutch field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolderdijk, J.W.; Knockaert, J.; Steg, L.; Verhoef, E.T.

    Speeding is an important cause for young drivers' involvement in traffic accidents. A reduction in driving speeds of this group could result in fewer accidents. One way of reducing driving speed is offering explicit financial incentives. In collaboration with five Dutch car insurance companies, we

  14. 78 FR 16051 - Vehicle/Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ..., without the need for obtaining a waiver. In order to take advantage of high cant deficiency operations and... attention. In addition, to improve the process for analyzing data while vehicles are negotiating spiral... the last few decades, computer models of rail vehicles interacting with track have become practical...

  15. Systemic design of synchronous traction drives for large speed-range electric vehicle; Conception systemique de chaines de traction synchrones pour vehicule electrique a large gamme de vitesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randi, S.A.

    2003-04-15

    The presented study deals with a systemic approach based design of permanent magnet brush-less actuators. The considered system is the electric vehicle motorized with this actuator on a large speed range. First, the review of vehicles architectures and general specifications put emphasis on the design problem complexity and the interest of a simultaneous design taking account of the whole traction chain driving cycle. Then the IPM plane and lumped parameter models are used to bring out the variables which characterizes the work beyond the base speed and the ability in flux weakening operation. The properties of machines with two rotor parts in such operation are studied. The new degrees of freedom available with these structures bring new solutions for drives with larger speed range. Then a model taking account each subsystem is presented and implemented in a global SABER simulator, involving sizing models of components. This tool enables to study the work of the traction chain over significant driving cycles and the performances evaluation. A last, this simulator is brought into work so as to perform a simultaneous design of the traction chain components as battery, inverter, machine, gear, thanks to an optimisation procedure based on genetic algorithm able to process continuous sizes variations and structure modifications, considering performance criteria on losses and cost. (author)

  16. Side-suspended High-Tc Superconducting Maglev Prototype Vehicle Running at a High Speed in an Evacuated Circular Test Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dajin; Zhao, Lifeng; Cui, Chenyu; Zhang, Yong; Guo, Jianqiang; Zhao, Yong

    2017-07-01

    High-T c superconductor (HTS) and permanent magnetic guideway (PMG) based maglev train is intensively studied in China, Japan, Germany and Brazil, mainly through static or vibration test. Amongst these studies, only a few of reports are available for the direct and effective assessment on the dynamic performance of the HTS maglev vehicle by running on a straight or circular PMG track. The highest running speed of these experiments is lower than 50 km/h. In this paper, a side-suspended HTS permanent magnetic guideway maglev system was proposed and constructed in order to increase the running speed in a circular track. By optimizing the arrangement of YBCO bulks besides the PMG, the side-suspended HTS maglev prototype vehicle was successfully running stably at a speed as high as 150 km/h in a circular test track with 6.5 m in diameter, and in an evacuated tube environment, in which the pressure is 5 × 103 Pa.

  17. Incidence of paediatric fatal and non-fatal low speed vehicle run over events in Queensland, Australia: eleven year analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of fatal and non-fatal Low Speed Vehicle Run Over (LSVRO) events among children aged 0–15 years in Queensland, Australia, at a population level. Methods Fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events that occurred in children resident in Queensland over eleven calendar years (1999-2009) were identified using ICD codes, text description, word searches and medical notes clarification, obtained from five health related data bases across the continuum of care (pre-hospital to fatality). Data were manually linked. Population data provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics were used to calculate crude incidence rates for fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events. Results There were 1611 LSVROs between 1999–2009 (IR = 16.87/100,000/annum). Incidence of non-fatal events (IR = 16.60/100,000/annum) was 61.5 times higher than fatal events (IR = 0.27/100,000/annum). LSVRO events were more common in boys (IR = 20.97/100,000/annum) than girls (IR = 12.55/100,000/annum), and among younger children aged 0–4 years (IR = 21.45/100000/annum; 39% or all events) than older children (5–9 years: IR = 16.47/100,000/annum; 10–15 years IR = 13.59/100,000/annum). A total of 896 (56.8%) children were admitted to hospital for 24 hours of more following an LSVRO event (IR = 9.38/100,000/annum). Total LSVROs increased from 1999 (IR = 14.79/100,000) to 2009 (IR = 18.56/100,000), but not significantly. Over the 11 year period, there was a slight (non –significant) increase in fatalities (IR = 0.37-0.42/100,000/annum); a significant decrease in admissions (IR = 12.39–5.36/100,000/annum), and significant increase in non-admissions (IR = 2.02-12.77/100,000/annum). Trends over time differed by age, gender and severity. Conclusion This is the most comprehensive, population-based epidemiological study on fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events to date. Results from this study indicate

  18. The Seismic Response of High-Speed Railway Bridges Subjected to Near-Fault Forward Directivity Ground Motions Using a Vehicle-Track-Bridge Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ling-kun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA project ground motion library, the finite element model of the high-speed railway vehicle-bridge system is established. The model was specifically developed for such system that is subjected to near-fault ground motions. In addition, it accounted for the influence of the rail irregularities. The vehicle-track-bridge (VTB element is presented to simulate the interaction between train and bridge, in which a train can be modeled as a series of sprung masses concentrated at the axle positions. For the short period railway bridge, the results from the case study demonstrate that directivity pulse effect tends to increase the seismic responses of the bridge compared with far-fault ground motions or nonpulse-like motions and the directivity pulse effect and high values of the vertical acceleration component can notably influence the hysteretic behaviour of piers.

  19. Determining an energy-optimal thermal management strategy for electric driven vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suchaneck, Andre; Probst, Tobias; Puente Leon, Fernando [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. of Industrial Information Technology (IIIT)

    2012-11-01

    In electric, hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicles, thermal management may have a significant impact on vehicle range. Therefore, optimal thermal management strategies are required. In this paper a method for determining an energy-optimal control strategy for thermal power generation in electric driven vehicles is presented considering all controlled devices (pumps, valves, fans, and the like) as well as influences like ambient temperature, vehicle speed, motor and battery and cooling cycle temperatures. The method is designed to be generic to increase the thermal management development process speed and to achieve the maximal energy reduction for any electric driven vehicle (e.g., by waste heat utilization). Based on simulations of a prototype electric vehicle with an advanced cooling cycle structure, the potential of the method is shown. (orig.)

  20. High Speed Schlieren Studies of Flow Over Mercury Atlas Vehicle in the Langley 2-Foot Transonic Aeroplasticity Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-01-01

    Test conditions for the studies are: Mach number varying continuously from approximately 0.8 to 1.1 and Reynolds number (based on maximum diameter of Atlas) approximately 0.451 x 10(exp 6). Camera speed is 2000 frames per second.

  1. 75 FR 25927 - Vehicle/Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Transporte;* Sheet Metal Workers International Association (SMWIA); Tourist Railway Association, Inc... over their intended service routes using instrumented wheelsets to directly measure forces between the... Carbody Acceleration Events During route testing of the MARC-III multi-level car at speeds to 125 m.p.h...

  2. Vehicle-based road dust emission measurement (III):. effect of speed, traffic volume, location, and season on PM 10 road dust emissions in the Treasure Valley, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etyemezian, V.; Kuhns, H.; Gillies, J.; Chow, J.; Hendrickson, K.; McGown, M.; Pitchford, M.

    The testing re-entrained aerosol kinetic emissions from roads (TRAKER) road dust measurement system was used to survey more than 400 km of paved roads in southwestern Idaho during 3-week sampling campaigns in winter and summer, 2001. Each data point, consisting of a 1-s measurement of particle light scattering sampled behind the front tire, was associated with a link (section of road) in the traffic demand model network for the Treasure Valley, ID. Each link was in turn associated with a number of characteristics including posted speed limit, vehicle kilometers traveled (vkt), road class (local/residential, collector, arterial, and interstate), county, and land use (urban vs. rural). Overall, the TRAKER-based emission factors based on location, setting, season, and speed spanned a narrow range from 3.6 to 8.0 g/vkt. Emission factors were higher in winter compared to summer, higher in urban areas compared to rural, and lower for roads with fast travel speeds compared to slower roads. The inherent covariance between traffic volume and traffic speed obscured the assessment of the effect of traffic volume on emission potentials. Distance-based emission factors expressed in grams per kilometer traveled (g/vkt) for roads with low travel speeds (˜11 m/s residential roads) compared to those with high travel speeds (˜25 m/s interstates) were higher (5.2 vs. 3.0 g/vkt in summer and 5.9 vs. 4.9 g/vkt in winter). However, emission potentials which characterize the amount of suspendable material on a road were substantially higher on roads with low travel speeds (0.71 vs. 0.13 g/vkt/(m/s) in summer and 0.78 vs. 0.21 g/vkt/(m/s) in winter). This suggested that while high speed roads are much cleaner (factor of 5.4 in summer), on a vehicle kilometer traveled basis, emissions from high and low speed roads are of the same order. Emission inventories based on the TRAKER method, silt loadings obtained during the field study, and US EPA's AP-42 default values of silt loading were

  3. An estimation of vehicle kilometer traveled and on-road emissions using the traffic volume and travel speed on road links in Incheon City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sungwoon; Kim, Jounghwa; Kim, Jeongsoo; Hong, Dahee; Park, Dongjoo

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the vehicle kilometer traveled (VKT) and on-road emissions using the traffic volume in urban. We estimated two VKT; one is based on registered vehicles and the other is based on traffic volumes. VKT for registered vehicles was 2.11 times greater than that of the applied traffic volumes because each VKT estimation method is different. Therefore, we had to define the inner VKT is moved VKT inner in urban to compare two values. Also, we focused on freight modes because these are discharged much air pollutant emissions. From analysis results, we found middle and large trucks registered in other regions traveled to target city in order to carry freight, target city has included many industrial and logistics areas. Freight is transferred through the harbors, large logistics centers, or via locations before being moved to the final destination. During this process, most freight is moved by middle and large trucks, and trailers rather than small trucks for freight import and export. Therefore, these trucks from other areas are inflow more than registered vehicles. Most emissions from diesel trucks had been overestimated in comparison to VKT from applied traffic volumes in target city. From these findings, VKT is essential based on traffic volume and travel speed on road links in order to estimate accurately the emissions of diesel trucks in target city. Our findings support the estimation of the effect of on-road emissions on urban air quality in Korea. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Sistema de controle de velocidade sincronizada entre dois veículos agrícolas Synchronized speed control system between two agricultural vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fernando Galzerano Baldo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma proposta para o controle automático de velocidade entre dois veículos que necessitam trafegar em paralelo durante operações agrícolas. É descrito o desenvolvimento e os testes de campo de um sistema de controle de velocidade para um trator escravo baseado na velocidade de um trator mestre, utilizando um controlador desenvolvido em lógica fuzzy. Para esses testes, os tratores foram instrumentados com GPS, encoder, computador e transmissor de radiofrequência, sendo instalado ainda no trator escravo um motor de passo para o controle da velocidade de deslocamento. Para avaliar o sistema, realizaram-se dois testes: no primeiro, a resposta do trator escravo à variação de velocidade foi avaliada a partir de simulações de variação na velocidade de entrada; no segundo, foram utilizados dois tratores variando a velocidade do trator mestre e observando a resposta do trator escravo. No primeiro teste, o trator escravo acompanhou a simulação da variação da velocidade com um erro quadrático médio (EQM não significativo e erro médio percentual (EMP máximo de 1,3%. No segundo teste, o trator escravo acompanhou a variação de velocidade do trator mestre com o (EMP de deslocamento variando em módulo de 0,2% a 2,9%.This paper presents a proposal for automatic speed control of vehicles that requires working in synchronism with each other during agricultural operations. It describes the development and field tests of a control system for a slave tractor based on the master tractor speed, using a fuzzy controller. For the tests the master tractor was instrumented with GPS, encoders, computer and radio transmitter. The slave tractor was instrumented in the same way, and included also a stepper motor to act on the tractor throttle. To evaluate the system two tests were conducted. In the first, the master tractor speed was simulated using only the slave tractor. In the second test, two tractors were used varying the

  5. Safety of high speed ground transportation systems: X2000 US demonstration vehicle dynamics trials, preliminary test report. Report for October 1992-January 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitten, B.T.; Kesler, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    The report documents the procedures, events, and results of vehicle dynamic tests carried out on the ASEA-Brown Boveri (ABB) X2000 tilt body trainset in the US between October 1992 and January 1993. These tests, sponsored by Amtrak and supported by the FRA, were conducted to assess the suitability of the X2000 trainset for safe operation at elevated cant deficiencies and speeds in Amtrak's Northeast Corridor under existing track conditions in a revenue service demonstration. The report describes the safety criteria against which the performance of the X2000 test train was examined, the instrumentation used, the test locations, and the track conditions. Preliminary results are presented from tests conducted on Amtrak lines between Philadelphia and Harrisburg, PA, and between Washington DC and New York NY, in which cant deficiencies of 12.5 inches and speeds of 154 mph were reached in a safe and controlled manner. The significance of the results is discussed, and preliminary conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  6. Generic Software Architecture for Launchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carre, Emilien; Gast, Philippe; Hiron, Emmanuel; Leblanc, Alain; Lesens, David; Mescam, Emmanuelle; Moro, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    The definition and reuse of generic software architecture for launchers is not so usual for several reasons: the number of European launcher families is very small (Ariane 5 and Vega for these last decades); the real time constraints (reactivity and determinism needs) are very hard; low levels of versatility are required (implying often an ad hoc development of the launcher mission). In comparison, satellites are often built on a generic platform made up of reusable hardware building blocks (processors, star-trackers, gyroscopes, etc.) and reusable software building blocks (middleware, TM/TC, On Board Control Procedure, etc.). If some of these reasons are still valid (e.g. the limited number of development), the increase of the available CPU power makes today an approach based on a generic time triggered middleware (ensuring the full determinism of the system) and a centralised mission and vehicle management (offering more flexibility in the design and facilitating the long term maintenance) achievable. This paper presents an example of generic software architecture which could be envisaged for future launchers, based on the previously described principles and supported by model driven engineering and automatic code generation.

  7. Exhaust emissions of volatile organic compounds of powered two-wheelers: effect of cold start and vehicle speed. Contribution to greenhouse effect and tropospheric ozone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, M Antonietta; Murena, Fabio; Prati, M Vittoria

    2014-01-15

    Powered two-wheeler (PTW) vehicles complying with recent European type approval standards (stages Euro 2 and Euro 3) were tested on chassis dynamometer in order to measure exhaust emissions of about 25 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the range C1-C7, including carcinogenic compounds as benzene and 1,3-butadiene. The fleet consists of a moped (engine capacity ≤ 50 cm(3)) and three fuel injection motorcycles of different engine capacities (150, 300 and 400 cm(3)). Different driving conditions were tested (US FPT cycle, constant speed). Due to the poor control of the combustion and catalyst efficiency, moped is the highest pollutant emitter. In fact, fuel injection strategy and three way catalyst with lambda sensor are able to reduce VOC motorcycles' emission of about one order of magnitude with respect to moped. Cold start effect, that is crucial for the assessment of actual emission of PTWs in urban areas, was significant: 30-51% of extra emission for methane. In the investigated speed range, moped showed a significant maximum of VOC emission factor at minimum speed (10 km/h) and a slightly decreasing trend from 20 to 60 km/h; motorcycles showed on the average a less significant peak at 10 km/h, a minimum at 30-40 km/h and then an increasing trend with a maximum emission factor at 90 km/h. Carcinogenic VOCs show the same pattern of total VOCs. Ozone Formation Potential (OFP) was estimated by using Maximum Incremental Reactivity scale. The greatest contribution to tropospheric ozone formation comes from alkenes group which account for 50-80% to the total OFP. VOC contribution effect on greenhouse effect is negligible with respect to CO2 emitted. © 2013.

  8. Study on turning performance of four-track steering vehicles. Effect of traction force and track speed distribution control; Sodashiki sokisha no senkai seino ni kansuru kenkyu. Kudoryoku haibun to sokudo haibun no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, M; Watanabe, K; Kitano, M [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The four-track steering vehicles (4TS) is a new type of off-road vehicle which can replace four wheels with track units to improve the mobility on soft terrains. In this paper, the numerical simulations, under the various types of differential and track velocity control systems, are conducted to predict the turning performance and steer ability of the 4TS vehicles. The results of the numerical analysis demonstrate that the differential systems with realistic combined distribution control systems of the track speed is efficient at a small turning radius. 4 refs., 13 figs.

  9. Control and Performance Evaluation of Multiphase FSPM Motor in Low-Speed Region for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The flux-switching permanent-magnet (FSPM motor has been viewed as a highly reliable machine with both armature windings and magnets on the stator. Owing to the high torque-production capability with low torque ripple, FSPM motors with a higher number of phases are potential candidates for traction applications in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. However, existing research has mostly focused on the principles and static performance of multiphase FSPM motors, and little attention has been paid to advanced control strategies. In this paper, the fully decoupled current control of a 36/34-pole nine-phase FSPM (NP-FSPM motor is developed and the performance under different operating conditions is investigated. The aim of the design is to alleviate cross coupling effects and unwanted low-order stator harmonic currents, to guarantee fast transient response and small steady-state error. In addition, its fault-tolerance is further elaborated. These features are very important in automotive applications where low torque pulsation, high fault-tolerant capability and high dynamic performance are of major importance. Firstly, the research status of multiphase FSPM motors is briefly reviewed. Secondly, the mathematical model in the dq reference frames and control strategies are presented. Then, the control and performance of the NP-FSPM motor are evaluated by using MATLAB/Simulink. Finally, experiments on an NP-FSPM motor prototype are carried out to validate the study.

  10. The dynamic performance and economic benefit of a blended braking system in a multi-speed battery electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, Jiageng; Walker, Paul D.; Watterson, Peter A.; Zhang, Nong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Maximum braking energy recovery potentials of various cycles are reported. • Braking strategies are proposed for performance, comfort and energy recovery. • Braking force distributions and wheel slip ratios of different strategies are demonstrated. • The performance of ‘Eco’ strategy is experimentally validated in HWFET and NEDC. • The economic benefit of energy recovering is summarized, regarding to the fuel and maintenance cost saving. - Abstract: As motor-supplied braking torque is applied to the wheels in an entirely different way to hydraulic friction braking systems and it is usually only connected to one axle complicated effects such as wheel slip and locking, vehicle body bounce and braking distance variation will inevitability impact on the performance and safety of braking. The potential for braking energy recovery in typical driving cycles is presented to show its benefit in this study. A general predictive model is designed to analysis the economic and dynamic performance of blended braking systems, satisfying the relevant regulations/laws and critical limitations. Braking strategies for different purposes are proposed to achieve a balance between braking performance, driving comfort and energy recovery rate. Special measures are taken to avoid any effects of motor failure. All strategies are analyzed in detail for various braking events. Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), such as ABS and EBD, are properly integrated to work with the regenerative braking system (RBS) harmoniously. Different switching plans during braking are discussed. The braking energy recovery rates and brake force distribution details for different driving cycles are simulated. Results for two of the cycles in an ‘Eco’ mode are measured on a drive train test rig and found to agree with the simulated results to within approximately 10%. Reliable conclusions can thus be gained on the economic benefit and dynamic braking performance. The

  11. The generic article

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farkas, D.F.; Swart, Henriëtte de

    2005-01-01

    We take a fresh look at the connection between genericity and (in)definiteness by reconsidering a long-standing puzzle concerning the relation between definiteness and genericity. We contrast English on the one hand and Romance languages and Hungarian on the other, focusing on generic sentences

  12. Integrating GPS, GYRO, vehicle speed sensor, and digital map to provide accurate and real-time position in an intelligent navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingquan; Fang, Zhixiang; Li, Hanwu; Xiao, Hui

    2005-10-01

    The global positioning system (GPS) has become the most extensively used positioning and navigation tool in the world. Applications of GPS abound in surveying, mapping, transportation, agriculture, military planning, GIS, and the geosciences. However, the positional and elevation accuracy of any given GPS location is prone to error, due to a number of factors. The applications of Global Positioning System (GPS) positioning is more and more popular, especially the intelligent navigation system which relies on GPS and Dead Reckoning technology is developing quickly for future huge market in China. In this paper a practical combined positioning model of GPS/DR/MM is put forward, which integrates GPS, Gyro, Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS) and digital navigation maps to provide accurate and real-time position for intelligent navigation system. This model is designed for automotive navigation system making use of Kalman filter to improve position and map matching veracity by means of filtering raw GPS and DR signals, and then map-matching technology is used to provide map coordinates for map displaying. In practical examples, for illustrating the validity of the model, several experiments and their results of integrated GPS/DR positioning in intelligent navigation system will be shown for the conclusion that Kalman Filter based GPS/DR integrating position approach is necessary, feasible and efficient for intelligent navigation application. Certainly, this combined positioning model, similar to other model, can not resolve all situation issues. Finally, some suggestions are given for further improving integrated GPS/DR/MM application.

  13. Fault classification method for the driving safety of electrified vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Daniel; Drugge, Lars; Stensson Trigell, Annika

    2014-05-01

    A fault classification method is proposed which has been applied to an electric vehicle. Potential faults in the different subsystems that can affect the vehicle directional stability were collected in a failure mode and effect analysis. Similar driveline faults were grouped together if they resembled each other with respect to their influence on the vehicle dynamic behaviour. The faults were physically modelled in a simulation environment before they were induced in a detailed vehicle model under normal driving conditions. A special focus was placed on faults in the driveline of electric vehicles employing in-wheel motors of the permanent magnet type. Several failures caused by mechanical and other faults were analysed as well. The fault classification method consists of a controllability ranking developed according to the functional safety standard ISO 26262. The controllability of a fault was determined with three parameters covering the influence of the longitudinal, lateral and yaw motion of the vehicle. The simulation results were analysed and the faults were classified according to their controllability using the proposed method. It was shown that the controllability decreased specifically with increasing lateral acceleration and increasing speed. The results for the electric driveline faults show that this trend cannot be generalised for all the faults, as the controllability deteriorated for some faults during manoeuvres with low lateral acceleration and low speed. The proposed method is generic and can be applied to various other types of road vehicles and faults.

  14. Reducing the risk of rear-end collisions with infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V) integration of variable speed limit control and adaptive cruise control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Wang, Hao; Wang, Wei; Liu, Shanwen; Xiang, Yun

    2016-08-17

    Adaptive cruise control (ACC) has been investigated recently to explore ways to increase traffic capacity, stabilize traffic flow, and improve traffic safety. However, researchers seldom have studied the integration of ACC and roadside control methods such as the variable speed limit (VSL) to improve safety. The primary objective of this study was to develop an infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V) integrated system that incorporated both ACC and VSL to reduce rear-end collision risks on freeways. The intelligent driver model was firstly modified to simulate ACC behavior and then the VSL strategy used in this article was introduced. Next, the I2V system was proposed to integrate the 2 advanced techniques, ACC and VSL. Four scenarios of no control, VSL only, ACC only, and the I2V system were tested in simulation experiments. Time exposed time to collision (TET) and time integrated time to collision (TIT), 2 surrogate safety measures derived from time to collision (TTC), were used to evaluate safety issues associated with rear-end collisions. The total travel times of each scenario were also compared. The simulation results indicated that both the VSL-only and ACC-only methods had a positive impact on reducing the TET and TIT values (reduced by 53.0 and 58.6% and 59.0 and 65.3%, respectively). The I2V system combined the advantages of both ACC and VSL to achieve the most safety benefits (reduced by 71.5 and 77.3%, respectively). Sensitivity analysis of the TTC threshold also showed that the I2V system obtained the largest safety benefits with all of the TTC threshold values. The impact of different market penetration rates of ACC vehicles in I2V system indicated that safety benefits increase with an increase in ACC proportions. Compared to VSL-only and ACC-only scenarios, this integrated I2V system is more effective in reducing rear-end collision risks. The findings of this study provide useful information for traffic agencies to implement novel techniques to improve

  15. Connected variable speed limits control and car-following control with vehicle-infrastructure communication to resolve stop-and-go waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Daamen, W.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; van Arem, B.

    2016-01-01

    The vision of intelligent vehicles traveling in road networks has prompted numerous concepts to control future traffic flow, one of which is the in-vehicle actuation of traffic control commands. The key of this concept is using intelligent vehicles as actuators for traffic control systems. Under

  16. Effectiveness of Motorcycle speed controlled by speed hump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornsiri Urapa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed humps are one of the traffic calming measures widely accepted to control vehicle speed in the local road. Humps standards from the western countries are designed mainly for the passenger car. This study, therefore, aims to reveal the effectiveness of speed hump to control the motorcycle speed. This study observes the free-flow speed of the riders at the total of 20 speed bumps and humps. They are 0.3-14.8 meter in width and 5-18 centimeter in height. The results reveal that the 85th percentile speeds reduce 15-65 percent when crossing the speed bumps and speed humps. Besides, this study develops the speed model to predict the motorcycle mean speed and 85th percentile speed. It is found that speed humps follow the ITE standard can control motorcycle crossing speeds to be 25-30 Kph which are suitable to travel on the local road.

  17. Efficient Generic Functional Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alimarine, A.; Smetsers, J.E.W.

    2005-01-01

    Generic functions are defined by induction on the structural representation of types. As a consequence, by defining just a single generic operation, one acquires this operation over any particular data type. An instance on a specific type is generated by interpretation of the type's structure. A

  18. Optimizing Generic Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alimarine, A.; Smetsers, J.E.W.

    2004-01-01

    Generic functions are defined by induction on the structural representation of types. As a consequence, by defining just a single generic operation, one acquires this operation over any particular type. An instance on a specific type is generated by interpretation of the type's structure. A direct

  19. A comparison of high-speed flywheels, batteries, and ultracapacitors on the bases of cost and fuel economy as the energy storage system in a fuel cell based hybrid electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doucette, Reed T.; McCulloch, Malcolm D. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Thom Building, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-01

    Fuel cells aboard hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are often hybridized with an energy storage system (ESS). Batteries and ultracapacitors are the most common technologies used in ESSs aboard HEVs. High-speed flywheels are an emerging technology with traits that have the potential to make them competitive with more established battery and ultracapacitor technologies in certain vehicular applications. This study compares high-speed flywheels, ultracapacitors, and batteries functioning as the ESS in a fuel cell based HEV on the bases of cost and fuel economy. In this study, computer models were built to simulate the powertrain of a fuel cell based HEV where high-speed flywheels, batteries, and ultracapacitors of a range of sizes were used as the ESS. A simulated vehicle with a powertrain using each of these technologies was run over two different drive cycles in order to see how the different ESSs performed under different driving patterns. The results showed that when cost and fuel economy were both considered, high-speed flywheels were competitive with batteries and ultracapacitors. (author)

  20. Generic antibiotics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Shigeru; Watanabe, Akira

    2012-08-01

    Generic drugs have been used extensively in many developed countries, although their use in Japan has been limited. Generic drugs reduce drug expenses and thereby national medical expenditure. Because generic drugs provide advantages for both public administration and consumers, it is expected that they will be more widely used in the future. However, the diffusion rate of generic drugs in Japan is quite low compared with that of other developed countries. An investigation on generic drugs conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan revealed that 17.2 % of doctors and 37.2 % of patients had not used generic drugs. The major reasons for this low use rate included distrust of off-patent products and lower drug price margin compared with the brand name drug. The generic drugs available in the market include external drugs such as wet packs, antihypertensive agents, analgesics, anticancer drugs, and antibiotics. Among them, antibiotics are frequently used in cases of acute infectious diseases. When the treatment of these infections is delayed, the infection might be aggravated rapidly. The pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) theory has been adopted in recent chemotherapy, and in many cases, the most appropriate dosage and administration of antibiotics are determined for individual patients considering renal function; high-dosage antibiotics are used preferably for a short duration. Therefore, a highly detailed antimicrobial agent is necessary. However, some of the generic antibiotics have less antibacterial potency or solubility than the brand name products. We showed that the potency of the generic products of vancomycin and teicoplanin is lower than that of the branded drugs by 14.6 % and 17.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed that a generic meropenem drug for injection required about 82 s to solubilize in saline, whereas the brand product required only about 21 s. It was thought that the cause may be the difference in size of bulk

  1. Supercavitating Vehicle Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-10

    401) 832-1511. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT Approved for Public Release Distribution is unlimited 20081027289 Attorney Docket No. 96674 SUPERCAVITATING ...methods and more specifically to systems and methods for controlling a trajectory of a supercavitating vehicle. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004...1 [0005) Some investigations into reducing the drag of high-speed, underwater vehicles have focused attention on supercavitating underwater vehicles

  2. Practicing the Generic (City)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2010-01-01

    Flanagan proposes that most locative media artworks neglect the particularities of spaces, their historical and political layers. Koolhaas, on the other hand, states that all urban areas are alike, that we are facing a global Generic City. The paper analyses digital media artist Esther Polak......’s NomadicMILK project in light of the generic and particular properties of space as laid out by Flanagan and Koolhaas in order to discuss the possible reconfiguring practices of locative media....

  3. Scripting XML with Generic Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atanassow, F.; Clarke, D.; Jeuring, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    A generic program is written once and works on values of many data types. Generic Haskell is a recent extension of the functional programming language Haskell that supports generic programming. This paper discusses how Generic Haskell can be used to implement XML tools whose behaviour depends on

  4. Scripting XML with Generic Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atanassow, F.; Clarke, D.; Jeuring, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    A generic program is written once and works on values of many data types. Generic Haskell is a recent extension of the functional programming language Haskell that supports generic programming. This paper discusses how Generic Haskell can be used to implement XML tools whose behaviour depends on

  5. Automated vehicle identification tags in San Antonio : lessons learned from the metropolitan model deployment initiative : unique method for collecting arterial travel speed information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    This report demonstrates a unique solution to the challenge of providing accurate, timely estimates of arterial travel times to the motoring public. In particular, it discusses the lessons learned in deploying the Vehicle Tag Project in San Antonio, ...

  6. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-01-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies. - Highlights: ► The history of phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is given. ► Generic PI treatments in use today are discussed. ► Suggestions for future research are presented. ► A dose of 250 Gy for most insects may suffice.

  7. Generic robot architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  8. Integration of generic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, D.

    1989-01-01

    The NRC has recognized the need to integrate generic issues (GIs). The GI process includes a number of phases, all of which should recognize the potential for overlap and conflict among related issues. In addition to the issues themselves, other related NRC and industry programs and activities need to be factored into the GI process. Integration has taken place, or is taking place, for a number of GIs. Each case of integration involves a specific set of circumstances and, as a result, the way in which integration proceeds can vary. This paper discusses the integration of issues in the generic issue process and provides a number of examples

  9. Rethinking generic skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Canning

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a critical analysis of the notion of generic or transversal skillscontained with European Union policy discourses. The author presents a conceptualframework that challenges the idea that generic skills are universal, transferable andautonomous. An alternative analysis is put forward that argues the case forcontextualising skills and knowledge within particular understandings and cultures thatare more collective than individualistic in nature. The arguments are framed withinwider cross-disciplinary debates in linguistics, geosemiotics and social-cultural theoryand build upon an earlier paper exploring core skills in the UK (Canning, 2007.

  10. Vehicle classification using mobile sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    In this research, the feasibility of using mobile traffic sensors for binary vehicle classification on arterial roads is investigated. Features (e.g. : speed related, acceleration/deceleration related, etc.) are extracted from vehicle traces (passeng...

  11. Elevation scanning laser/multi-sensor hazard detection system controller and mirror/mast speed control components. [roving vehicle electromechanical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    The electro-mechanical and electronic systems involved with pointing a laser beam from a roving vehicle along a desired vector are described. A rotating 8 sided mirror, driven by a phase-locked dc motor servo system, and monitored by a precision optical shaft encoder is used. This upper assembly is then rotated about an orthogonal axis to allow scanning into all 360 deg around the vehicle. This axis is also driven by a phase locked dc motor servo-system, and monitored with an optical shaft encoder. The electronics are realized in standard TTL integrated circuits with UV-erasable proms used to store desired coordinates of laser fire. Related topics such as the interface to the existing test vehicle are discussed.

  12. Generic clearance values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, M.C.; Muniz, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document 'Safety Reports Series Nr 44' of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (author)

  13. Generic Clearance Values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, M.C.; Muniz, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on the one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document Safety Reports Series 44 of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (authors) [es

  14. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-07-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.

  15. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallman, Guy J [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Weslaco, TX (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies. (author)

  16. The generic strategy trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D

    1992-01-01

    Management experts claim that for a company to thrive, it must concentrate on a single generic strategy--on one thing it does better than its rivals. But specialization also has its disadvantages. The author suggests that a broader, mixed approach may be preferable.

  17. electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Lee

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem facing battery-powered electric vehicles is in their batteries: weight and charge capacity. Thus, a battery-powered electric vehicle only has a short driving range. To travel for a longer distance, the batteries are required to be recharged frequently. In this paper, we construct a model for a battery-powered electric vehicle, in which driving strategy is to be obtained such that the total travelling time between two locations is minimized. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem with switching times and speed as decision variables. This is an unconventional optimization problem. However, by using the control parametrization enhancing technique (CPET, it is shown that this unconventional optimization is equivalent to a conventional optimal parameter selection problem. Numerical examples are solved using the proposed method.

  18. Advances in RGB and RGBD Generic Object Trackers

    KAUST Repository

    Bibi, Adel

    2016-04-01

    Visual object tracking is a classical and very popular problem in computer vision with a plethora of applications such as vehicle navigation, human computer interface, human motion analysis, surveillance, auto-control systems and many more. Given the initial state of a target in the first frame, the goal of tracking is to predict states of the target over time where the states describe a bounding box covering the target. Despite numerous object tracking methods that have been proposed in recent years [1-4], most of these trackers suffer a degradation in performance mainly because of several challenges that include illumination changes, motion blur, complex motion, out of plane rotation, and partial or full occlusion, while occlusion is usually the most contributing factor in degrading the majority of trackers, if not all of them. This thesis is devoted to the advancement of generic object trackers tackling different challenges through different proposed methods. The work presented propose four new state-of-the-art trackers. One of which is 3D based tracker in a particle filter framework where both synchronization and registration of RGB and depth streams are adjusted automatically, and three works in correlation filters that achieve state-of-the-art performance in terms of accuracy while maintaining reasonable speeds.

  19. Traffic speed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Jovana Lj.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Speed, and vehicles themselves, affect the level of service and road safety, quality of life, noise from traffic, the environment, health, air pollution, emission of carbon dioxide, global warming, the economy and consumption of non-renewable energy such as oil. Therefore, the speed management of the traffic of multiple significance and that should be primarily to provide effective and economical conditions of the modern and preventive protection of human life as the greatest treasure and then the material resources. The way to accomplish this is by using various (different measures such as: appropriate planning and projecting roads and streets, speed control, the legislation, enforcement, campaigns, education, advanced technologies (ITS.

  20. Generic and biosimilar medicines: quid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Simoens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Once intellectual property protection, data and marketing exclusivity of reference medicines have expired, generic medicines and biosimilar medicines can enter the off-patent market. This market entry is conditional on the approval of marketing authorization, pricing and reimbursement. Given that there tends to be confusion surrounding generic and biosimilar medicines, this Editorial introduces basic concepts related to generic and biosimilar medicines and presents the different studies and articles included in this supplement dedicated to generic and biosimilar medicines.

  1. A system methodology for optimization design of the structural crashworthiness of a vehicle subjected to a high-speed frontal crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Liang; Liu, Weiguo; Lv, Xiaojiang; Gu, Xianguang

    2018-04-01

    The structural crashworthiness design of vehicles has become an important research direction to ensure the safety of the occupants. To effectively improve the structural safety of a vehicle in a frontal crash, a system methodology is presented in this study. The surrogate model of Online support vector regression (Online-SVR) is adopted to approximate crashworthiness criteria and different kernel functions are selected to enhance the accuracy of the model. The Online-SVR model is demonstrated to have the advantages of solving highly nonlinear problems and saving training costs, and can effectively be applied for vehicle structural crashworthiness design. By combining the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II and Monte Carlo simulation, both deterministic optimization and reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) are conducted. The optimization solutions are further validated by finite element analysis, which shows the effectiveness of the RBDO solution in the structural crashworthiness design process. The results demonstrate the advantages of using RBDO, resulting in not only increased energy absorption and decreased structural weight from a baseline design, but also a significant improvement in the reliability of the design.

  2. Generics Pricing: The Greek Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karafyllis, Ioannis; Variti, Lamprini

    2017-01-01

    This paper explains and develops a methodological framework to help evaluate the performance of generic pharmaceutical policies and the correct evaluation of generics sales. Until today erroneous recording of generics does not help proper pricing and their penetration in the Greek market. This classifies Greece on the outliners in every study or comparison that is referred on papers or studies.

  3. Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  4. Generic Reed Solomon Encorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Mursanto

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Reed Solomon (RS codes is a mechanism to detect and correct burst of errors in data transmission and storage systems. It provides a solid introduction to foundation mathematical concept of Galois Field algebra and its application. With the development of digital hardware technology, the RS concepts were brought into reality, i.e. the implementation of RS codec chips. This paper presents the development steps of a generic RS encoder using VHDL. The encoder is able to handle generic width of data, variable length of information, number of error as well as variable form of primitive polynomial and generator polynomial used in the system. The design has been implemented for FPGA chip Xilinx XC3S200-5FT256 and has a better performance than commercially available equivalent encoder.

  5. Generic safety documentation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ''core'' upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information

  6. Comparison of generic-to-brand switchback patterns for generic and authorized generic drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Richard A.; Qian, Jingjing; Berg, Richard; Linneman, James; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Dutcher, Sarah K.; Raofi, Saeid; Page, C. David; Peissig, Peggy

    2018-01-01

    Background While generic drugs are therapeutically equivalent to brand drugs, some patients and healthcare providers remain uncertain about whether they produce identical outcomes. Authorized generics, which are identical in formulation to corresponding brand drugs but marketed as a generic, provide a unique post-marketing opportunity to study whether utilization patterns are influenced by perceptions of generic drugs. Objectives To compare generic-to-brand switchback rates between generics and authorized generics. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using claims and electronic health records data from a regional U.S. healthcare system. Ten drugs with authorized generics and generics marketed between 1999 and 2014 were evaluated. Eligible adult patients received a brand drug during the 6 months preceding generic entry, and then switched to a generic or authorized generic. Patients in this cohort were followed for up to 30 months from the index switch date to evaluate occurrence of generic-to-brand switchbacks. Switchback rates were compared between patients on authorized generics versus generics using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for individual drug effects, age, sex, Charlson comorbidity score, pre-index drug use characteristics, and pre-index healthcare utilization. Results Among 5,542 unique patients that switched from brand-to-generic or brand-to-authorized generic, 264 (4.8%) switched back to the brand drug. Overall switchback rates were similar for authorized generics compared with generics (HR=0.86; 95% CI 0.65-1.15). The likelihood of switchback was higher for alendronate (HR=1.64; 95% CI 1.20-2.23) and simvastatin (HR=1.81; 95% CI 1.30-2.54) and lower for amlodipine (HR=0.27; 95% CI 0.17-0.42) compared with other drugs in the cohort. Conclusions Overall switchback rates were similar between authorized generic and generic drug users, indirectly supporting similar efficacy and tolerability profiles for

  7. Tyre influences on untripped vehicle rollover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.T.H.; Lupker, H.A.; Koppenaal, C.J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Vehicle rollover can be initiated by steering actions that occur at vehicle evasive manoeuvres or high speed cornering of commercial vehicles. This untripped vehicle rollover is more difficult to reproduce for passenger cars then for commercial vehicles. For passenger cars it occurs closer to the

  8. Perils of using speed zone data to assess real-world compliance to speed limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Anna; Clarke, Elizabeth; Chevalier, Aran John; Brown, Julie; Coxon, Kristy; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2017-11-17

    Real-world driving studies, including those involving speeding alert devices and autonomous vehicles, can gauge an individual vehicle's speeding behavior by comparing measured speed with mapped speed zone data. However, there are complexities with developing and maintaining a database of mapped speed zones over a large geographic area that may lead to inaccuracies within the data set. When this approach is applied to large-scale real-world driving data or speeding alert device data to determine speeding behavior, these inaccuracies may result in invalid identification of speeding. We investigated speeding events based on service provider speed zone data. We compared service provider speed zone data (Speed Alert by Smart Car Technologies Pty Ltd., Ultimo, NSW, Australia) against a second set of speed zone data (Google Maps Application Programming Interface [API] mapped speed zones). We found a systematic error in the zones where speed limits of 50-60 km/h, typical of local roads, were allocated to high-speed motorways, which produced false speed limits in the speed zone database. The result was detection of false-positive high-range speeding. Through comparison of the service provider speed zone data against a second set of speed zone data, we were able to identify and eliminate data most affected by this systematic error, thereby establishing a data set of speeding events with a high level of sensitivity (a true positive rate of 92% or 6,412/6,960). Mapped speed zones can be a source of error in real-world driving when examining vehicle speed. We explored the types of inaccuracies found within speed zone data and recommend that a second set of speed zone data be utilized when investigating speeding behavior or developing mapped speed zone data to minimize inaccuracy in estimates of speeding.

  9. FDTD Seismic Simulation of Moving Tracked Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ketcham, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the utility of a large finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulation of seismic wave propagation from a spatially and time varying source that generically represents a moving tracked vehicle...

  10. Specialization of Generic Array Accesses After Inlining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Tokuda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We have implemented an optimization that specializes type-generic array accesses after inlining of polymorphic functions in the native-code OCaml compiler. Polymorphic array operations (read and write in OCaml require runtime type dispatch because of ad hoc memory representations of integer and float arrays. It cannot be removed even after being monomorphized by inlining because the intermediate language is mostly untyped. We therefore extended it with explicit type application like System F (while keeping implicit type abstraction by means of unique identifiers for type variables. Our optimization has achieved up to 21% speed-up of numerical programs.

  11. Generic patch inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Lawall, Julia

    2010-01-01

    A key issue in maintaining Linux device drivers is the need to keep them up to date with respect to evolutions in Linux internal libraries. Currently, there is little tool support for performing and documenting such changes. In this paper we present a tool, spdiff, that identifies common changes...... developers can use it to extract an abstract representation of the set of changes that others have made. Our experiments on recent changes in Linux show that the inferred generic patches are more concise than the corresponding patches found in commits to the Linux source tree while being safe with respect...

  12. 76 FR 76481 - Denial of Motor Vehicle Defect Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... similarities incorporating regenerative braking (the electric motor is used as a generator to supplement..., using a scan tool in generic mode on your vehicle could cause damage to your vehicle's electric motor... whether a motor vehicle or item of replacement equipment does not comply with an applicable motor vehicle...

  13. Speed, speed variation and crash relationships for urban arterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuesong; Zhou, Qingya; Quddus, Mohammed; Fan, Tianxiang; Fang, Shou'en

    2018-04-01

    Speed and speed variation are closely associated with traffic safety. There is, however, a dearth of research on this subject for the case of urban arterials in general, and in the context of developing nations. In downtown Shanghai, the traffic conditions in each direction are very different by time of day, and speed characteristics during peak hours are also greatly different from those during off-peak hours. Considering that traffic demand changes with time and in different directions, arterials in this study were divided into one-way segments by the direction of flow, and time of day was differentiated and controlled for. In terms of data collection, traditional fixed-based methods have been widely used in previous studies, but they fail to capture the spatio-temporal distributions of speed along a road. A new approach is introduced to estimate speed variation by integrating spatio-temporal speed fluctuation of a single vehicle with speed differences between vehicles using taxi-based high frequency GPS data. With this approach, this paper aims to comprehensively establish a relationship between mean speed, speed variation and traffic crashes for the purpose of formulating effective speed management measures, specifically using an urban dataset. From a total of 234 one-way road segments from eight arterials in Shanghai, mean speed, speed variation, geometric design features, traffic volume, and crash data were collected. Because the safety effects of mean speed and speed variation may vary at different segment lengths, arterials with similar signal spacing density were grouped together. To account for potential correlations among these segments, a hierarchical Poisson log-normal model with random effects was developed. Results show that a 1% increase in mean speed on urban arterials was associated with a 0.7% increase in total crashes, and larger speed variation was also associated with increased crash frequency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  14. Non-linear vehicle-bridge-wind interaction model for running safety assessment of high-speed trains over a high-pier viaduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, José M.; Astiz, Miguel Á.

    2018-04-01

    In order to properly study the high-speed traffic safety on a high-pier viaduct subject to episodes of lateral turbulent winds, an efficient dynamic interaction train-bridge-wind model has been developed and experimentally validated. This model considers the full wheel and rail profiles, the friction between these two bodies in contact, and the piers P-Delta effect. The model has been used to determine the critical train and wind velocities from which the trains cannot travel safely over the O'Eixo Bridge. The dynamic simulations carried out and the results obtained in the time domain show that traffic safety rates exceed the allowed limits for turbulent winds with mean velocities at the deck higher than 25 m/s.

  15. Advertising and generic market entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königbauer, Ingrid

    2007-03-01

    The effect of purely persuasive advertising on generic market entry and social welfare is analysed. An incumbent has the possibility to invest in advertising which affects the prescribing physician's perceived relative qualities of the brand-name and the generic version of the drug. Advertising creates product differentiation and can induce generic market entry which is deterred without differentiation due to strong Bertrand competition. However, over-investment in advertising can deter generic market entry under certain conditions and reduces welfare as compared to accommodated market entry.

  16. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  17. Comparison of Generic-to-Brand Switchback Rates Between Generic and Authorized Generic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Richard A; Qian, Jingjing; Berg, Richard; Linneman, James; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Dutcher, Sarah K; Raofi, Saeid; Page, C David; Peissig, Peggy

    2017-04-01

    Generic drugs contain identical active ingredients as their corresponding brand drugs and are pharmaceutically equivalent and bioequivalent, whereas authorized generic drugs (AGs) contain both identical active and inactive ingredients as their corresponding brand drugs but are marketed as generics. This study compares generic-to-brand switchback rates between generic and AGs. Retrospective cohort study. Claims and electronic health record data from a regional U.S. health care system. The full cohort consisted of 5542 unique patients who received select branded drugs during the 6 months prior to their generic drug market availability (between 1999 and 2014) and then were switched to an AG or generic drug within 30 months of generic drug entry. For these patients, 5929 unique patient-drug combinations (867 with AGs and 5062 with generic drugs) were evaluated. Ten drugs with AGs and generics marketed between 1999 and 2014 were evaluated. The date of the first generic prescription was considered the index date for each drug, and it marked the beginning of follow-up to evaluate the occurrence of generic-to-brand switchback patterns over the subsequent 30 months. Switchback rates were compared between patients receiving AGs versus those receiving generics using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for individual drug effects, age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Score, pre-index drug use characteristics, and pre-index health care utilization. Among the 5542 unique patients who switched from brand to generic or brand to AG, 264 (4.8%) switched back to the brand drug. Overall switchback rates were similar for AGs compared with generics (hazard ratio [HR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-1.15). The likelihood of switchback was higher for alendronate (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.20-2.23) and simvastatin (HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.30-2.54) and lower for amlodipine (HR 0.27, 95% CI 0.17-0.42) compared with the other drugs evaluated. Overall switchback rates were similar

  18. Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    Systems ( JAUGS ). JAUGS is a JRP technology initiative under the cognizance of the Aviation and Missile Command Research, Development and Engineering Center...AMRDEC). The JAUGS focus is on developing a high-level command and control architecture for UGVs. As defined in the JRP Glossary, “ JAUGS is an upper...vehicle platforms and missions. JAUGS uses the Society of Automotive Engineers Generic Open Architecture framework to classify UGV interfaces and

  19. Article choice in plural generics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farkas, D.F.; Swart, Henriëtte de

    2007-01-01

    We discuss two groups of languages where article use contrasts in generic plural sentences but is otherwise essentially similar. The languages in the first group (English and Dutch) use bare plurals in the expression of kind reference (‘Dinosaurs are extinct’) and in generic

  20. Towards a generic lateral control concept for cooperative automated driving : theoretical and experimental evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmeitz, A.J.C.; Zegers, J.; Ploeg, J.; Alirezaei, M.

    2017-01-01

    Lateral vehicle control is an essential part for many automated and cooperative driving applications. Lane keeping and vehicle following are typical modes of such control system. The aim of this paper is to develop a generic lateral controller that can handle these different modes. Based on the

  1. Vehicle Thermal Management Facilities | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration Facility The Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility features a pad to conduct vehicle thermal station next to the pad provides a continuous data stream on temperature, humidity, wind speed, and solar

  2. Quality of generic medicines in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Aarti; Gauld, Robin; Norris, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Generic Medicines are an important policy option allowing for access to affordable, essential medicines. Quality of generic medicines must be guaranteed through the activities of national medicines regulatory authorities. Existing negative perceptions surrounding the quality of generic medicines ...

  3. Incidence and characteristics of low-speed vehicle run over events in rural and remote children aged 0-14 years in Queensland: an 11 year (1999-2009) retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Bronwyn R; Kimble, Roy M; Watt, Kerrianne; Shields, Linda

    2018-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to describe incidence rates of low-speed vehicle run-over (LSVRO) events among children aged 0-14 years residing in Queensland from 1999 to 2009. A second objective was to describe the associated patterns of injury, with respect to gender, age group, severity, characteristics (host, vehicle and environment), and trends over time in relation to geographical remoteness. Final results are hoped to inform prevention policies. In this statewide, retrospective, population-based study, data were collected on LSVRO events that occurred among children aged 0-14 years in Queensland from 1999 to 2009 from all relevant data sources across the continuum of care, and manually linked to obtain the most comprehensive estimate possible of the magnitude and nature of LSVRO events to date. Crude incidence rates were calculated separately for males and females, for fatal events, non-fatal events (hospital admissions and non-admissions, respectively), and for all LSVRO events, for each area of geographical remoteness (major cities, inner regional, outer regional, remote/very remote). Relative risks and 95% confidence interval were calculated, and trends over time were examined. Data on host, injury and event characteristics were also obtained to investigate whether these characteristics varied between areas of remoteness. Incidence rates were lowest among children (0-14 years) living in major cities (13.8/100 000/annum, with the highest recorded incidence in outer regional areas (incidence rate =42.5/100 000/annum). Incidence rates were higher for children residing outside major cities for both males and females, for every age group, for each of the 11 years of the study, and consequences of LSVRO events were worse. Young children aged 0-4 years were identified as those most at risk for these events, regardless of geographical location. Differences were observed as a function of remoteness category in relation to injury characteristics (eg injury

  4. Encouraging generic use can yield significant savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Christina

    2012-11-01

    Key findings. (1) Zero copayment for generic drugs is the greatest influencer of generic statin utilization. (2) Both higher copayments for generic drugs and lower copayments for competing brands are associated with a decreased probability of using generic statins. (3) Prior authorization and step therapy requirements for brand-name statins are associated with an increased use of generic drugs. (4) Greater use of generic statins should reduce costs for patients, plans, and Medicare.

  5. Prediction on the charging demand for electric vehicles in Chengdu

    Science.gov (United States)

    yun, Cai; wanquan, Zhang; wei, You; pan, Mao

    2018-03-01

    The development of the electric vehicle charging station facilities speed directly affect the development of electric vehicle speed. And the charging demand of electric vehicles is one of the main factors influencing the electric vehicle charging facilities. The paper collected and collated car ownership in recent years, the use of elastic coefficient to predict Chengdu electric vehicle ownership, further modeling to give electric vehicle charging demand.

  6. Blind haste: As light decreases, speeding increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bellis, Emanuel; Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Michael; Brucks, Wernher; Herrmann, Andreas; Hertwig, Ralph

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide, more than one million people die on the roads each year. A third of these fatal accidents are attributed to speeding, with properties of the individual driver and the environment regarded as key contributing factors. We examine real-world speeding behavior and its interaction with illuminance, an environmental property defined as the luminous flux incident on a surface. Drawing on an analysis of 1.2 million vehicle movements, we show that reduced illuminance levels are associated with increased speeding. This relationship persists when we control for factors known to influence speeding (e.g., fluctuations in traffic volume) and consider proxies of illuminance (e.g., sight distance). Our findings add to a long-standing debate about how the quality of visual conditions affects drivers' speed perception and driving speed. Policy makers can intervene by educating drivers about the inverse illuminance‒speeding relationship and by testing how improved vehicle headlights and smart road lighting can attenuate speeding.

  7. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  8. The Generic Data Capture Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Edward B.; Barnes, William P.; Stallings, William H.

    1987-01-01

    The Generic Data Capture Facility, which can provide data capture support for a variety of different types of spacecraft while enabling operations costs to be carefully controlled, is discussed. The data capture functions, data protection, isolation of users from data acquisition problems, data reconstruction, and quality and accounting are addressed. The TDM and packet data formats utilized by the system are described, and the development of generic facilities is considered.

  9. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-09-09

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  10. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports

  11. Military Hybrid Vehicle Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    III Composite 4.3% Integrated starter generator for engine shut down, regenerative braking and avoidance of inefficient engine operation [28]. FMTV...eliminating the inefficiencies associated with idling, vehicle braking and low engine speed part load efficiency, many improvements can be realized...literature. They can be divided into the following two categories : (1) Time dependent speed profiles, shown in Figure 4, usually defined by the federal

  12. Dynamic Speed Adaptation for Path Tracking Based on Curvature Information and Speed Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez Serna, Citlalli; Ruichek, Yassine

    2017-06-14

    A critical concern of autonomous vehicles is safety. Different approaches have tried to enhance driving safety to reduce the number of fatal crashes and severe injuries. As an example, Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) systems warn the driver when the vehicle exceeds the recommended speed limit. However, these systems only take into account fixed speed limits without considering factors like road geometry. In this paper, we consider road curvature with speed limits to automatically adjust vehicle's speed with the ideal one through our proposed Dynamic Speed Adaptation (DSA) method. Furthermore, 'curve analysis extraction' and 'speed limits database creation' are also part of our contribution. An algorithm that analyzes GPS information off-line identifies high curvature segments and estimates the speed for each curve. The speed limit database contains information about the different speed limit zones for each traveled path. Our DSA senses speed limits and curves of the road using GPS information and ensures smooth speed transitions between current and ideal speeds. Through experimental simulations with different control algorithms on real and simulated datasets, we prove that our method is able to significantly reduce lateral errors on sharp curves, to respect speed limits and consequently increase safety and comfort for the passenger.

  13. Generic Example Proving Criteria for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopp, David; Ely, Rob; Johnson­-Leung, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We review literature that discusses generic example proving and highlight ambiguities that pervade our research community's discourse about generic example arguments. We distinguish between pedagogical advice for choosing good examples that can serve as generic examples when teaching and advice for developing generic example arguments. We provide…

  14. Generic penetration in the retail antidepressant market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventimiglia, Jeffrey; Kalali, Amir H

    2010-06-01

    In this article, we explore the accelerated penetration of generic antidepressants in the United States market following the availability of generic citalopram and sertraline. Analysis suggests that overall, generic penetration into the antidepressant market has grown from approximately 41 percent in January 2004 to over 73 percent in January 2010. Similar trends are uncovered when branded and generic prescriptions are analyzed by specialty.

  15. Ground Vehicle Convoying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Douglas W.; Pletta, J. Bryan

    1987-01-01

    Initial investigations into two different approaches for applying autonomous ground vehicle technology to the vehicle convoying application are described. A minimal capability system that would maintain desired speed and vehicle spacing while a human driver provided steering control could improve convoy performance and provide positive control at night and in inclement weather, but would not reduce driver manpower requirements. Such a system could be implemented in a modular and relatively low cost manner. A more capable system would eliminate the human driver in following vehicles and reduce manpower requirements for the transportation of supplies. This technology could also be used to aid in the deployment of teleoperated vehicles in a battlefield environment. The needs, requirements, and several proposed solutions for such an Attachable Robotic Convoy Capability (ARCC) system will be discussed. Included are discussions of sensors, communications, computers, control systems and safety issues. This advanced robotic convoy system will provide a much greater capability, but will be more difficult and expensive to implement.

  16. Energy harvesting water vehicle

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra

    2018-01-04

    An efficient energy harvesting (EEH) water vehicle is disclosed. The base of the EEH water vehicle is fabricated with rolling cylindrical drums that can rotate freely in the same direction of the water medium. The drums reduce the drag at the vehicle-water interface. This reduction in drag corresponds to an increase in speed and/or greater fuel efficiency. The mechanical energy of the rolling cylindrical drums is also transformed into electrical energy using an electricity producing device, such as a dynamo or an alternator. Thus, the efficiency of the vehicle is enhanced in two parallel modes: from the reduction in drag at the vehicle-water interface, and from capturing power from the rotational motion of the drums.

  17. Visual Analysis of Speeding Bumps Using Floating Car Dataset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveladze, Irma; Agerholm, Niels

    2018-01-01

    measures, and also their influence on the driving behaviour of vehicles from a temporal perspective. To fill this gap and understand these aspects, in this research we propose visual analytics techniques. To explore the influence of the bumps on speed change behavior of vehicles, several use case studies...... in three different cities were selected with close cooperation of a traffic domain expert. The aim was first to study influence of the bumps on vehicle volume and speeding from a time perspective. And then, establish any connection between speed bump intervals and vehicle speeding in the selected use cases...

  18. Free-flow speeds for representative road and terrain types

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, IC

    2009-06-02

    Full Text Available Speed plays an important role in the justification of road infrstructure projects. It affects both vehicle operating cost and travel time cost. If incorrecr values for speed are used in the economic analyses of transport projects, incorrect...

  19. Intelligent Electronic Speed Controller, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project intends to design and develop an Intelligent Electronic Speed Controller (IESC) for use on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The IESC will advance the...

  20. Systems Challenges for Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James L.; Laruelle, Gerard; Wagner, Alain

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the system challenges posed by fully reusable hypersonic cruise airplanes and access to space vehicles. Hydrocarbon and hydrogen fueled airplanes are considered with cruise speeds of Mach 5 and 10, respectively. The access to space matrix is examined. Airbreathing and rocket powered, single- and two-stage vehicles are considered. Reference vehicle architectures are presented. Major systems/subsystems challenges are described. Advanced, enhancing systems concepts as well as common system technologies are discussed.

  1. Retailing policies for generic medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso, Susana

    2005-06-01

    As there is general disagreement about the way generic medicines should be commercialized, two retailing policies are analyzed, taking into account their effects on the welfare of patients, government, pharmacies and physicians. In the first policy scenario, pharmacies are allowed to substitute generic medicines for branded ones, while in the second, substitution is forbidden. In both cases a pharmacies association is allowed to have a share in the production of generic medicines. The model predicts that under some conditions patients may prefer substitution by pharmacies but when doctors' decisions are binding, they are never "excessively bad". However, the policy choice belongs to the government, which prefers to allow for substitution more often than patients would like.

  2. 2006 Combat Vehicles Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-25

    stressed or worn out beyond economic repair due to combat operations by repairing, rebuilding, or procuring replacement equipment. These...lives Vehicle Hardening Logistics Solutions for the Warfighter • Unique and economical surge capability • Support in coordination with op tempo...Speed, • Diagnostics Indicators – DECU Health Check Indicator, Utility Bus Comm Failure, 1553 Bus Comm Failure; MPU Critical Failure, Cautions and

  3. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  4. Generic Graph Grammar: A Simple Grammar for Generic Procedural Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2012-01-01

    in a directed cyclic graph. Furthermore, the basic productions are chosen such that Generic Graph Grammar seamlessly combines the capabilities of L-systems to imitate biological growth (to model trees, animals, etc.) and those of split grammars to design structured objects (chairs, houses, etc.). This results...

  5. Aeroelasticity, Aerothermoelasticity and Aeroelastic Scaling of Hypersonic Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freidmann, Peretz P; Powell, Kenneth G

    2004-01-01

    ...) the behavior of a complete generic hypersonic vehicle. For problems (a) the unsteady airloads were computed using third order piston theory, as well a CFD based Euler and Navier-Stokes loads. For case (b...

  6. Map Matching for Intelligent Speed Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tradisauskas, Nerius; Juhl, Jens; Lahrmann, Harry

    2007-01-01

    The availability of Global Navigation Satellite Systems enables sophisticated vehicle guidance and advisory systems such as Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) systems. In ISA systems, it is essential to be able to position vehicles within a road network. Because digital road networks as well as G...

  7. Speed mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Handley, Bill

    2012-01-01

    This new, revised edition of the bestselling Speed Mathematics features new chapters on memorising numbers and general information, calculating statistics and compound interest, square roots, logarithms and easy trig calculations. Written so anyone can understand, this book teaches simple strategies that will enable readers to make lightning-quick calculations. People who excel at mathematics use better strategies than the rest of us; they are not necessarily more intelligent. With Speed Mathematics you'll discover methods to make maths easy and fun. This book is perfect for stud

  8. DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Pointer, D; Browand, F; Ross, J; Storms, B

    2007-01-04

    Class 8 tractor-trailers consume 11-12% of the total US petroleum use. At highway speeds, 65% of the energy expenditure for a Class 8 truck is in overcoming aerodynamic drag. The project objective is to improve fuel economy of Class 8 tractor-trailers by providing guidance on methods of reducing drag by at least 25%. A 25% reduction in drag would present a 12% improvement in fuel economy at highway speeds, equivalent to about 130 midsize tanker ships per year. Specific goals include: (1) Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles; (2) Develop innovative drag reducing concepts that are operationally and economically sound; and (3) Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate the potential of new drag-reduction devices. The studies described herein provide a demonstration of the applicability of the experience developed in the analysis of the standard configuration of the Generic Conventional Model. The modeling practices and procedures developed in prior efforts have been applied directly to the assessment of new configurations including a variety of geometric modifications and add-on devices. Application to the low-drag 'GTS' configuration of the GCM has confirmed that the error in predicted drag coefficients increases as the relative contribution of the base drag resulting from the vehicle wake to the total drag increases and it is recommended that more advanced turbulence modeling strategies be applied under those circumstances. Application to a commercially-developed boat tail device has confirmed that this restriction does not apply to geometries where the relative contribution of the base drag to the total drag is reduced by modifying the geometry in that region. Application to a modified GCM geometry with an open grille and radiator has confirmed that the underbody flow, while important for underhood cooling, has little impact on the drag

  9. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  10. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...... be evaluated. Service composition mechanisms for pervasive computing are categorized and we discuss how the characteristics of pervasive computing can be supported by service composition mechanisms. Finally, we investigate how to make pervasive computing systems capable of being noticed and understood...

  11. Testing properties of generic functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansson, P.; Jeuring, J.T.; Cabenda, L.; Engels, G.; Kleerekoper, J.; Mak, S.; Overeem, M.; Visser, Kees

    2007-01-01

    A datatype-generic function is a family of functions indexed by (the structure of) a type. Examples include equality tests, maps and pretty printers. Property based testing tools like QuickCheck and Gast support the de¯nition of properties and test-data generators, and they check if a

  12. Generic component failure data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, S.A.; Calley, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses comprehensive component generic failure data base which has been developed for light water reactor probabilistic risk assessments. The Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) was used to generate component failure rates. Using this approach, most of the failure rates are based on actual plant data rather then existing estimates

  13. 'Genericism' in Danish welfare professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Verner

    and skills in the basic disciplines of the professions also termed as disciplinary and procedural knowledge '. Thus the main research question for this paper is: What consequences do recent reform actions in Danish welfare education concerning generic competence have on developing professional knowledge...

  14. 32 CFR 636.22 - Speed regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...). (d) The following special speed limits apply: (1) When passing troop formations, 10 miles per hour... vehicles and will obey the following off-road driving speeds: Day Driving: Trails, 16 MPH Cross County, 6 MPH Night Driving: Trails, 5 MPH (with headlights) Cross Country, 5 MPH Night Driving: Trails, 4 MPH...

  15. Instability of a vehicle moving on an elastic structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veritchev, S.N.

    2002-01-01

    Vibrations of a vehicle that moves on a long elastic structure can become unstable because of elastic waves that the vehicle generates in the structure. A typical example of the vehicle that can experience such instability is a high-speed train. Moving with a sufficiently high speed, this train

  16. Modeling pedestrian crossing speed profiles considering speed change behavior for the safety assessment of signalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iryo-Asano, Miho; Alhajyaseen, Wael K M

    2017-11-01

    Pedestrian safety is one of the most challenging issues in road networks. Understanding how pedestrians maneuver across an intersection is the key to applying countermeasures against traffic crashes. It is known that the behaviors of pedestrians at signalized crosswalks are significantly different from those in ordinary walking spaces, and they are highly influenced by signal indication, potential conflicts with vehicles, and intersection geometries. One of the most important characteristics of pedestrian behavior at crosswalks is the possible sudden speed change while crossing. Such sudden behavioral change may not be expected by conflicting vehicles, which may lead to hazardous situations. This study aims to quantitatively model the sudden speed changes of pedestrians as they cross signalized crosswalks under uncongested conditions. Pedestrian speed profiles are collected from empirical data and speed change events are extracted assuming that the speed profiles are stepwise functions. The occurrence of speed change events is described by a discrete choice model as a function of the necessary walking speed to complete crossing before the red interval ends, current speed, and the presence of turning vehicles in the conflict area. The amount of speed change before and after the event is modeled using regression analysis. A Monte Carlo simulation is applied for the entire speed profile of the pedestrians. The results show that the model can represent the pedestrian travel time distribution more accurately than the constant speed model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electric Vehicles at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    The story of how the transportation office began by introducing low speed electric cars (LSEV) to the fleet managers and employees. This sparked and interest in purchasing some of these LSEV and the usage on KSC. Transportation was approached by a vender of High Speed Electric Vehicle (HSEV) we decided to test the HSEV to see if they would meet our fleet vehicle needs. Transportation wrote a Space Act Agreement (SAA) for the loan of three Lithium Powered Electric vehicles for a one year test. The vehicles have worked very well and we have extended the test for another year. The use of HSEV has pushed for an independent Electric Vehicle Study to be performed to consider ways to effectively optimize the use of electric vehicles in replacement of gasoline vehicles in the KSC vehicle fleet. This will help the center to move closer to meeting the Executive Order 13423.

  18. Exploring knowledge, perceptions and attitudes about generic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring knowledge, perceptions and attitudes about generic medicines among final-year health science students. ... had knowledge deficits about the safety, quality and efficacy of generic medicines. The dissemination of information about generic medicines may strengthen future knowledge, attitudes and perceptions.

  19. Comparing approaches to generic programming in Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinze, R.; Jeuring, J.T.; Löh, A.

    2006-01-01

    The last decade has seen a number of approaches to generic programming: PolyP, Functorial ML, `Scrap Your Boilerplate', Generic Haskell, `Generics for the Masses', etc. The approaches vary in sophistication and target audience: some propose full-blown pro- gramming languages, some suggest

  20. Comparing approaches to generic programming in Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinze, R.; Jeuring, J.T.; Löh, A.

    2006-01-01

    The last decade has seen a number of approaches to data- type-generic programming: PolyP, Functorial ML, `Scrap Your Boiler- plate', Generic Haskell, `Generics for the Masses', etc. The approaches vary in sophistication and target audience: some propose full-blown pro- gramming languages, some

  1. Proceedings Workshop on Generic Programming (WGP2000)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, J.T.

    2000-01-01

    This report contains the papers selected for presentation at the 2nd Workshop on Generic Programming (WGP2000), which was held on July 6, 2000 in Ponte de Lima, Portugal. Generic programming is about making programs more adaptable by making them more general. Generic programs often embody

  2. Enhancing Safety through Generic Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mockel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides insights into proactive safety management and mitigation. An analysis of accident reports reveals categories of supervening causes of accidents which can be directly linked to the concept of generic competencies (information management, communication and coordination, problem solving, and effect control. These findings strongly suggest adding the human element as another safety-constituting pillar to the concept of ship safety next to technology and regulation. We argue that the human element has unique abilities in dealing with critical and highly dynamic situations which can contribute to the system's recovery from non-routine or critical situations. By educating seafarers in generic competencies we claim to enable the people onboard to successfully deal with critical situations.

  3. Dazzle camouflage affects speed perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas E Scott-Samuel

    Full Text Available Movement is the enemy of camouflage: most attempts at concealment are disrupted by motion of the target. Faced with this problem, navies in both World Wars in the twentieth century painted their warships with high contrast geometric patterns: so-called "dazzle camouflage". Rather than attempting to hide individual units, it was claimed that this patterning would disrupt the perception of their range, heading, size, shape and speed, and hence reduce losses from, in particular, torpedo attacks by submarines. Similar arguments had been advanced earlier for biological camouflage. Whilst there are good reasons to believe that most of these perceptual distortions may have occurred, there is no evidence for the last claim: changing perceived speed. Here we show that dazzle patterns can distort speed perception, and that this effect is greatest at high speeds. The effect should obtain in predators launching ballistic attacks against rapidly moving prey, or modern, low-tech battlefields where handheld weapons are fired from short ranges against moving vehicles. In the latter case, we demonstrate that in a typical situation involving an RPG7 attack on a Land Rover the reduction in perceived speed is sufficient to make the grenade miss where it was aimed by about a metre, which could be the difference between survival or not for the occupants of the vehicle.

  4. New Integrated Testing System for the Validation of Vehicle-Snow Interaction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    are individual wheel speeds, accelerator pedal position, vehicle speed, yaw rate, lateral acceleration, steering wheel angle and brake ...forces and moments at each wheel center, vehicle body slip angle , speed, acceleration, yaw rate, roll, and pitch. The profilometer has a 3-D scanning...Stability Program. The test vehicle provides measurements that include three forces and moments at each wheel center, vehicle body slip angle , speed

  5. Performance of an Automated-Mixed-Traffic-Vehicle /AMTV/ System. [urban people mover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, T. K. C.; Chon, K.

    1978-01-01

    This study analyzes the operation and evaluates the expected performance of a proposed automatic guideway transit system which uses low-speed Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicles (AMTV's). Vehicle scheduling and headway control policies are evaluated with a transit system simulation model. The effect of mixed-traffic interference on the average vehicle speed is examined with a vehicle-pedestrian interface model. Control parameters regulating vehicle speed are evaluated for safe stopping and passenger comfort.

  6. Automated analysis in generic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerholm, Edvard

    This thesis studies automated methods for analyzing hardness assumptions in generic group models, following ideas of symbolic cryptography. We define a broad class of generic and symbolic group models for different settings---symmetric or asymmetric (leveled) k-linear groups --- and prove ''computational soundness'' theorems for the symbolic models. Based on this result, we formulate a master theorem that relates the hardness of an assumption to solving problems in polynomial algebra. We systematically analyze these problems identifying different classes of assumptions and obtain decidability and undecidability results. Then, we develop automated procedures for verifying the conditions of our master theorems, and thus the validity of hardness assumptions in generic group models. The concrete outcome is an automated tool, the Generic Group Analyzer, which takes as input the statement of an assumption, and outputs either a proof of its generic hardness or shows an algebraic attack against the assumption. Structure-preserving signatures are signature schemes defined over bilinear groups in which messages, public keys and signatures are group elements, and the verification algorithm consists of evaluating ''pairing-product equations''. Recent work on structure-preserving signatures studies optimality of these schemes in terms of the number of group elements needed in the verification key and the signature, and the number of pairing-product equations in the verification algorithm. While the size of keys and signatures is crucial for many applications, another aspect of performance is the time it takes to verify a signature. The most expensive operation during verification is the computation of pairings. However, the concrete number of pairings is not captured by the number of pairing-product equations considered in earlier work. We consider the question of what is the minimal number of pairing computations needed to verify structure-preserving signatures. We build an

  7. Vehicle test report: Electric Vehicle Associates electric conversion of an AMC Pacer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T. W.; Wirth, V. A., Jr.; Pompa, M. F.

    1981-01-01

    Tests were performed to characterize certain parameters of the EVA Pacer and to provide baseline data that can be used for the comparison of improved batteries that may be incorporated into the vehicle at a later time. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive subsystem; i.e., the batteries, controller and motor. The tests included coastdowns to characterize the road load, and range evaluations for both cyclic and constant speed conditions. A qualitative evaluation of the vehicle's performance was made by comparing its constant speed range performance with other electric and hybrid vehicles. The Pacer performance was approximately equal to the majority of those vehicles assessed in 1977.

  8. Investigation of the Link Between Macroscopic Traffic Flow Characteristics and Individual Vehicle Fuel Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This project investigated the factors impacting individual vehicle energy consumption, including vehicle characteristics, ambient temperature, season, speed, driving behavior, and traffic flow. A fleet of 18 vehicles with a variety of ownership, size...

  9. Port-based Modeling and Control of Underactuated Aerial Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mersha, A.Y.; Carloni, Raffaella; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a generic model and a controller design for a class of underactuated aerial vehicles, namely for unmanned aerial vehicles whose primary support against gravity is thrust. The approach followed is based on energetic consideration and uses the formalisms of port-Hamiltonian

  10. 32 CFR 634.27 - Speed-measuring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Speed-measuring devices. 634.27 Section 634.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.27 Speed-measuring devices. Speed-measuring devices will be...

  11. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott Leroy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harp, Dylan Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-20

    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  12. Exploring Security Vulnerabilities of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodday, Nils Miro; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Pras, Aiko

    We are currently observing a significant increase in the popularity of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), popularly also known by their generic term drones. This is not only the case for recreational UAVs, that one can acquire for a few hundred dollars, but also for more sophisticated ones, namely

  13. GLAD: a generic lattice debugger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Today, numerous simulation and analysis codes exist for the design, commission, and operation of accelerator beam lines. There is a need to develop a common user interface and database link to run these codes interactively. This paper will describe a proposed system, GLAD (Generic LAttice Debugger), to fulfill this need. Specifically, GLAD can be used to find errors in beam lines during commissioning, control beam parameters during operation, and design beam line optics and error correction systems for the next generation of linear accelerators and storage rings. (author)

  14. Generic maximum likely scale selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    in this work is on applying this selection principle under a Brownian image model. This image model provides a simple scale invariant prior for natural images and we provide illustrative examples of the behavior of our scale estimation on such images. In these illustrative examples, estimation is based......The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...

  15. Vehicle test report: Battronic pickup truck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T. W.; Shain, T. W.; Freeman, R. J.; Pompa, M. F.

    1982-01-01

    An electric pickup truck was tested to characterize certain parameters and to provide baseline data that can be used for the comparison of improved batteries that may be incorporated into the vehicle at a later time. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive subsystem; i.e., the batteries, controller, and motor. The tests included coastdowns to characterize the road load and range evaluations for both cyclic and constant speed conditions. A qualitative evaluation of the vehicle's performance was made by comparing its constant speed range performance with other vehicles.

  16. Automated mixed traffic vehicle control and scheduling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, T. K. C.; Chon, K.

    1976-01-01

    The operation and the expected performance of a proposed automatic guideway transit system which uses low speed automated mixed traffic vehicles (AMTVs) were analyzed. Vehicle scheduling and headway control policies were evaluated with a transit system simulation model. The effect of mixed traffic interference on the average vehicle speed was examined with a vehicle pedestrian interface model. Control parameters regulating vehicle speed were evaluated for safe stopping and passenger comfort. Some preliminary data on the cost and operation of an experimental AMTV system are included. These data were the result of a separate task conducted at JPL, and were included as background information.

  17. Mobile robot vehicles for physical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGovern, D.E.

    1987-07-01

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Labs for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. These vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as test beds for developing concepts in the application of robotics to interior and exterior physical security. Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering through manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. With these vehicles, SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided

  18. Mobile robot vehicles for physical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Govern, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Labs for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. These vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as test beds for developing concepts in the application of robotics to interior and exterior physical security. Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering through manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. Communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. With these vehicles, SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided

  19. Mobile robot vehicles for physical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGovern, D.E.

    1987-06-01

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Labs for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. These vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as test beds for developing concepts in the application of robotics to interior and exterior physical security. Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering through manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. Communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. With these vehicles, SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. Integrated optical serializer designed and fabricated in a generic InP based technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stopinski, S.T.; Malinowski, M.; Piramidowicz, R.; Smit, M.K.; Leijtens, X.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents design and characterization results of an optical pulse serializer, realized as an Application Specific Photonic Integrated Circuit (ASPIC) in a novel, generic InPbased technology and fabricated in a multi-project wafer run. The measurement results show high-speed (32 Gbit/s)

  1. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  2. Inspection vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masaki; Omote, Tatsuyuki; Yoneya, Yutaka; Tanaka, Keiji; Waki, Tetsuro; Yoshida, Tomiji; Kido, Tsuyoshi.

    1993-01-01

    An inspection vehicle comprises a small-sized battery directly connected with a power motor or a direct power source from trolly lines and a switching circuit operated by external signals. The switch judges advance or retreat by two kinds of signals and the inspection vehicle is recovered by self-running. In order to recover the abnormally stopped inspection vehicle to the targeted place, the inspection vehicle is made in a free-running state by using a clutch mechanism and is pushed by an other vehicle. (T.M.)

  3. Generic Performance Measures. Chapter 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daube-Witherspoon, M. E. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The generic nuclear medicine imager, whether a gamma camera, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system or positron emission tomography (PET) scanner, comprises several main components: a detection system, a form of collimation to select γ rays at specific angles, electronics and a computing system to create the map of the radiotracer distribution. This section discusses these components in more detail. The first stage of a generic nuclear medicine imager is the detection of the γ rays emitted by the radionuclide. In the case of PET, the radiation of interest are the 511 keV annihilation photons that result from the interaction of the positron emitted by the radionuclide with an electron in the tissue. For general nuclear medicine and SPECT, there is one or sometimes more than one γ ray of interest, with energies in the range of <100 to >400 keV. The γ rays are detected when they interact and deposit energy in the crystal(s) of the imaging system. There are two main types of detector: crystals that give off light that can be converted to an electrical signal when the γ ray interacts (‘scintillators’) and semiconductors, crystals that generate an electrical signal directly when the γ ray deposits energy in the crystal. Scintillation detectors include NaI(Tl), bismuth germanate (BGO) and lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO); semiconductor detectors used in nuclear medicine imagers include cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). Radiation detectors are described in more detail in Chapter 6.

  4. Prioritization of generic safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrit, R.; Minners, W.; VanderMolen, H.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents the priority rankings for generic safety issues related to nuclear power plants. The purpose of these rankings is to assist in the timely and efficient allocation of NRC resources for the resolution of those safety issues that have a significant potential for reducing risk. The report focuses on the prioritization of generic safety issues. Issues primarily concerned with the licensing process or environmental protection and not directly related to safety have been excluded from prioritization. The prioritized issues include: TMI Action Plan items under development; previously proposed issues covered by Task Action Plans, except issues designated at Unresolved Safety Issues (USIs) which had already been assigned high priority; and newly-proposed issues. Future supplements to this report will include the prioritization of additional issues. The safety priority rankings are HIGH, MEDIUM, LOW, and DROP and have been assigned on the basis of risk significance estimates, the ratio of risk to costs and other impacts estimated to result if resolutions of the safety issues were implemented, and the consideration of uncertainties and other quantitative or qualitative factors. To the extent practical, estimates are quantitative

  5. Generic communications index: User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, R.S.; Steinbrecher, D.H.; Hennick, A.

    1987-12-01

    This report is a manual for providing information required to use a special computer program developed by the NRC for indexing generic communications. The program is written in a user-friendly menu driven form using dBASE III programming language. It facilitates use of the required dBASE III search and sort capabilities to access records in a database called Generic Communications Index. This index is made up of one record each for all bulletins, circulars, and information notices, including revisions and supplements, from 1971, when such documentation started, through 1986 (or to the latest update). The program is designed for use by anyone modestly acquainted with the general use of IBM-compatible personal computers. The manual contains both a brief overview and a detailed description of the program, as well as detailed instructions for getting started using the program on a personal computer with either a two-floppy disk or a hard disk system. Included at the end are a brief description of how to handle problems which might occur, and notes on the makeup of the program and database files for help in adding records of communications for future years

  6. Tactical Vehicle Climate Control Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    1979. b. TOP 02-2-708, Vehicle Personnel Heater Compatibility, 18 July 1980. c. Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J381, Surface Vehicle...Total Irradiance Second Class minimum, First Class recommended Engine speed ± 10 revolutions per minute (rpm) Air pressure (as appropriate) ± 1...digital camera is suggest to photograph all instrumentation locations. A tape measure, a graduated cylinder and an electric paint sprayer are required

  7. Skin rash during treatment with generic itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuono, Antonio; Palleria, Caterina; Scicchitano, Francesca; Squillace, Aida; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gallelli, Luca

    2014-04-01

    Generic drugs have the same active substance, the same pharmaceutical form, the same therapeutic indications and a similar bioequivalence with the reference medicinal product (branded). Although a similar efficacy is postulated, some cases of clinical inefficacy during treatment with generic formulations have been reported. In this case, we describe a woman with onychomycosis that developed a skin rash during treatment with a generic formulation of itraconazole. Drug administration and its re-challenge confirmed the association between itraconazole and skin rash. Both Naranjo probability scale and World Health Organization causality assessment scale documented a probable association between generic-itraconazole and skin rash. The switch from generic formulation to brand one induced an improvement of symptoms. Since we are unable to evaluate the role of each excipient in the development of skin rash, we cannot rule out their involvement. However, more data are necessary to better define the similarities or differences between branded and generic formulations.

  8. Generic medicines and generic substitution: contrasting perspectives of stakeholders in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, A; Usher, C; Lynch, M; Hall, M; Hemeryk, L; Spillane, S; Gallagher, P; Barry, M

    2015-12-15

    The Health (Pricing and Supply of Medical Goods) Act 2013 passed into law in July 2013 and legislated for generic substitution in Ireland. The aim of the study was to ascertain the knowledge and perceptions of stakeholders i.e. patients, pharmacists and prescribers, of generic medicines and to generic substitution with the passing of legislation. Three stakeholder specific questionnaires were developed to assess knowledge of and perceptions to generic medicines and generic substitution. Purposive samples of patients, prescribers and pharmacists were analysed. Descriptive quantitative and qualitative analyses were undertaken. A total of 762 healthcare professionals and 353 patients were recruited. The study highlighted that over 84% of patients were familiar with generic medicines and are supportive of the concept of generic substitution. Approximately 74% of prescribers and 84% of pharmacists were supportive of generic substitution in most cases. The main areas of concern highlighted by the healthcare professionals that might impact on the successful implementation of the policy, were the issue of bioequivalence with generic medicines, the computer software systems used at present in general practitioner (GP) surgeries and the availability of branded generics. The findings from this study identify a high baseline rate of acceptance to generic medicines and generic substitution among patients, prescribers and pharmacists in the Irish setting. The concerns of the main stakeholders provide a valuable insight into the potential difficulties that may arise in its implementation, and the need for on-going reassurance and proactive dissemination of the impact of the generic substitution policy. The existing positive attitude to generic medicines and generic substitution among key stakeholders in Ireland to generic substitution, combined with appropriate support and collaboration should result in the desired increase in rates of prescribing, dispensing and use of generic

  9. Generic domain models in software engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiden, Neil

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines three research directions related to domain-specific software development: (1) reuse of generic models for domain-specific software development; (2) empirical evidence to determine these generic models, namely elicitation of mental knowledge schema possessed by expert software developers; and (3) exploitation of generic domain models to assist modelling of specific applications. It focuses on knowledge acquisition for domain-specific software development, with emphasis on tool support for the most important phases of software development.

  10. PROBLEM OF GENERIC REPLACEMENT: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Tolpygina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main differences between original and generic drugs as well as registration criteria for generics are described. Possible reasons of discrepancy in bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence of original and generic drugs are reviewed. The examples of such a discrepancy as a result of comparative clinical trails (enalapril maleate are discussed. Approaches to planning of comparative trails on drug therapeutic equivalence are presented. 

  11. Determinants of generic drug substitution in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lufkin Thomas M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since generic drugs have the same therapeutic effect as the original formulation but at generally lower costs, their use should be more heavily promoted. However, a considerable number of barriers to their wider use have been observed in many countries. The present study examines the influence of patients, physicians and certain characteristics of the generics' market on generic substitution in Switzerland. Methods We used reimbursement claims' data submitted to a large health insurer by insured individuals living in one of Switzerland's three linguistic regions during 2003. All dispensed drugs studied here were substitutable. The outcome (use of a generic or not was modelled by logistic regression, adjusted for patients' characteristics (gender, age, treatment complexity, substitution groups and with several variables describing reimbursement incentives (deductible, co-payments and the generics' market (prices, packaging, co-branded original, number of available generics, etc.. Results The overall generics' substitution rate for 173,212 dispensed prescriptions was 31%, though this varied considerably across cantons. Poor health status (older patients, complex treatments was associated with lower generic use. Higher rates were associated with higher out-of-pocket costs, greater price differences between the original and the generic, and with the number of generics on the market, while reformulation and repackaging were associated with lower rates. The substitution rate was 13% lower among hospital physicians. The adoption of the prescribing practices of the canton with the highest substitution rate would increase substitution in other cantons to as much as 26%. Conclusions Patient health status explained a part of the reluctance to substitute an original formulation by a generic. Economic incentives were efficient, but with a moderate global effect. The huge interregional differences indicated that prescribing behaviours and

  12. Skin rash during treatment with generic itraconazole

    OpenAIRE

    De Vuono, Antonio; Palleria, Caterina; Scicchitano, Francesca; Squillace, Aida; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gallelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Generic drugs have the same active substance, the same pharmaceutical form, the same therapeutic indications and a similar bioequivalence with the reference medicinal product (branded). Although a similar efficacy is postulated, some cases of clinical inefficacy during treatment with generic formulations have been reported. In this case, we describe a woman with onychomycosis that developed a skin rash during treatment with a generic formulation of itraconazole. Drug administration and its re...

  13. Low Speed Automation, a French Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Sébastien, Glaser; Maurice, Cour; Lydie, Nouveliere; Alain, Lambert; Fawzi, Nashashibi; Jean-Christophe, Popieul; Benjamin, Mourllion

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Nowadays, vehicle safety is constantly increasing thanks to the improvement of vehicle passive and active safety. However, on a daily usage of the car, traffic jams remains a problem. With limited space for road infrastructure, automation of the driving task on specific situation seems to be a possible solution. The French project ABV, which stands for low speed automation, tries to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept and to prove the benefits. In this article, ...

  14. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  15. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  16. Emissions from US waste collection vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimoun, Mousa A.; Reinhart, Debra R.; Gammoh, Fatina T.; McCauley Bush, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Life-cycle emissions for alternative fuel technologies. ► Fuel consumption of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles. ► Actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles. ► Diesel-fueled waste collection vehicle emissions. - Abstract: This research is an in-depth environmental analysis of potential alternative fuel technologies for waste collection vehicles. Life-cycle emissions, cost, fuel and energy consumption were evaluated for a wide range of fossil and bio-fuel technologies. Emission factors were calculated for a typical waste collection driving cycle as well as constant speed. In brief, natural gas waste collection vehicles (compressed and liquid) fueled with North-American natural gas had 6–10% higher well-to-wheel (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to diesel-fueled vehicles; however the pump-to-wheel (PTW) GHG emissions of natural gas waste collection vehicles averaged 6% less than diesel-fueled vehicles. Landfill gas had about 80% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel. Biodiesel waste collection vehicles had between 12% and 75% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel depending on the fuel source and the blend. In 2011, natural gas waste collection vehicles had the lowest fuel cost per collection vehicle kilometer travel. Finally, the actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles consists of repetitive stops and starts during waste collection; this generates more emissions than constant speed driving

  17. Generic Hurricane Extreme Seas State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof; Skourup, Jesper; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Extreme sea states, which the IEC 61400-3 (2008) standard requires for the ultimate limit state (ULS) analysis of offshore wind turbines are derived to establish the design basis for the conceptual layout of deep water floating offshore wind turbine foundations in hurricane affected areas....... Especially in the initial phase of floating foundation concept development, site specific metocean data are usually not available. As the areas of interest are furthermore not covered by any design standard, in terms of design sea states, generic and in engineering terms applicable environmental background...... data is required for a type specific conceptual design. ULS conditions for different return periods are developed, which can subsequently be applied in siteindependent analysis and conceptual design. Recordings provided by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), of hurricanes along...

  18. MODELLING OF DYNAMIC SPEED LIMITS USING THE MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Borisovich Nikolaev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of traffic management using intelligent system “Car-Road” (IVHS, which consist of interacting intelligent vehicles (IV and intelligent roadside controllers. Vehicles are organized in convoy with small distances between them. All vehicles are assumed to be fully automated (throttle control, braking, steering. Proposed approaches for determining speed limits for traffic cars on the motorway using a model predictive control (MPC. The article proposes an approach to dynamic speed limit to minimize the downtime of vehicles in traffic.

  19. 76 FR 57767 - Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0204] Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... FR 54507), that requested public comment on Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011- XX: Seismic Risk...

  20. Blind haste: As light decreases, speeding increases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel de Bellis

    Full Text Available Worldwide, more than one million people die on the roads each year. A third of these fatal accidents are attributed to speeding, with properties of the individual driver and the environment regarded as key contributing factors. We examine real-world speeding behavior and its interaction with illuminance, an environmental property defined as the luminous flux incident on a surface. Drawing on an analysis of 1.2 million vehicle movements, we show that reduced illuminance levels are associated with increased speeding. This relationship persists when we control for factors known to influence speeding (e.g., fluctuations in traffic volume and consider proxies of illuminance (e.g., sight distance. Our findings add to a long-standing debate about how the quality of visual conditions affects drivers' speed perception and driving speed. Policy makers can intervene by educating drivers about the inverse illuminance‒speeding relationship and by testing how improved vehicle headlights and smart road lighting can attenuate speeding.

  1. High-speed surface transportation corridor : a conceptual framework, final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-08

    Efficient transportation is indispensable for economic growth and prosperity. In this study we propose the development of a high-speed surface corridor and compatible vehicles. We present a conceptual framework for this corridor and vehicle. This pro...

  2. A Generic Approach to Parameter Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karafotias, G.; Smit, S.K.; Eiben, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    On-line control of EA parameters is an approach to parameter setting that offers the advantage of values changing during the run. In this paper, we investigate parameter control from a generic and parameter-independent perspective. We propose a generic control mechanism that is targeted to

  3. Once more the generic name Passerina Vieillot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1910-01-01

    The note on the generic name of the Snow-bunting by Dr. E. Hartert in this part of our periodical gives me cause to revert to the subject of my note on the generic name Passerina Vieillot and to state here, that I stand to what I have said about the rejection of this name in Zoology (Notes Leyden

  4. HTGR generic technology program plan (FY 80)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Purpose of the program is to develop base technology and to perform design and development common to the HTGR Steam Cycle, Gas Turbine, and Process Heat Plants. The generic technology program breaks into the base technology, generic component, pebble-bed study, technology transfer, and fresh fuel programs

  5. South African patient's acceptance of generic drugs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mechanism in this regard for final consumers, insurance providers, and ... facilities are viewed as inferior, treated with sus- picion and ... to choose a generic drug if the decision was supported by their doctor ... The effect of brand to generic and ...

  6. Advanced technology mobile robotics vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGovern, D.E.

    1987-03-01

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Laboratories for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. The vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as testbeds for developing concepts in the areas of remote control (teleoperation) and computer control (autonomy). Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering via manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. Communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided

  7. Brand vs generic adverse event reporting patterns: An authorized generic-controlled evaluation of cardiovascular medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatawi, Y; Rahman, Md M; Cheng, N; Qian, J; Peissig, P L; Berg, R L; Page, C D; Hansen, R A

    2018-06-01

    Some public scepticism exists about generics in terms of whether brand and generic drugs produce identical outcomes. This study explores whether adverse event (AE) reporting patterns are similar between brand and generic drugs, using authorized generics (AGs) as a control for possible generic drug perception biases. Events reported to the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System from the years 2004-2015 were analysed. Drugs were classified as brand, AG or generic based on drug and manufacturer names. Reports were included if amlodipine, losartan, metoprolol extended release (ER) or simvastatin were listed as primary or secondary suspect drugs. Disproportionality analyses using the reporting odds ratio (ROR) assessed the relative rate of reporting labelled AEs compared to reporting these AEs with all other drugs. The Breslow-Day test compared RORs across brand, AG and generic. Interrupted time series analysis evaluated the impact of generic entry on reporting trends. Generics accounted for significant percentages of total U.S. reports, but AGs accounted for smaller percentages of reports, including for amlodipine (14.26%), losartan (1.48%), metoprolol ER (0.35%) and simvastatin (0.70%). Whereas the RORs were significantly different for multiple brand vs generic comparisons, the AG vs generic comparisons yielded fewer statistically significant findings. Namely, only the ROR for AG differed from generic for amlodipine with peripheral oedema (P brand and generic compared with AG and generic. Use of AGs as a control for perception biases against generics is useful, but this approach can be limited by small AG report numbers. Requiring the manufacturer name to be printed on the prescription bottle or packaging could improve the accuracy of assignment for products being reported. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Research on Correlation between Vehicle Cycle and Engine Cycle in Heavy-duty commercial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    lin, Chen; Zhong, Wang; Shuai, Liu

    2017-12-01

    In order to study the correlation between vehicle cycle and engine cycle in heavy commercial vehicles, the conversion model of vehicle cycle to engine cycle is constructed based on the vehicle power system theory and shift strategy, which considers the verification on diesel truck. The results show that the model has high rationality and reliability in engine operation. In the acceleration process of high speed, the difference of model gear selection leads to the actual deviation. Compared with the drum test, the engine speed distribution obtained by the model deviates to right, which fits to the lower grade. The grade selection has high influence on the model.

  9. Vehicle regulations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    In the Netherlands, all vehicles using public roads must meet so-called permanent requirements. This is enforced by the police and, for some categories, also during the MOT. In the Netherlands, most types of motor vehicle1 can only be introduced to the market if they meet the entry requirements. For

  10. Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Delma C., Jr.; Talay, Theodore A.; Austin, R. Eugene

    1997-01-01

    Industry/NASA reusable launch vehicle (RLV) technology program efforts are underway to design, test, and develop technologies and concepts for viable commercial launch systems that also satisfy national needs at acceptable recurring costs. Significant progress has been made in understanding the technical challenges of fully reusable launch systems and the accompanying management and operational approaches for achieving a low cost program. This paper reviews the current status of the RLV technology program including the DC-XA, X-33 and X-34 flight systems and associated technology programs. It addresses the specific technologies being tested that address the technical and operability challenges of reusable launch systems including reusable cryogenic propellant tanks, composite structures, thermal protection systems, improved propulsion and subsystem operability enhancements. The recently concluded DC-XA test program demonstrated some of these technologies in ground and flight test. Contracts were awarded recently for both the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator systems. The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 flight test vehicle will demonstrate an air-launched reusable vehicle capable of flight to speeds of Mach 8. The Lockheed-Martin X-33 flight test vehicle will expand the test envelope for critical technologies to flight speeds of Mach 15. A propulsion program to test the X-33 linear aerospike rocket engine using a NASA SR-71 high speed aircraft as a test bed is also discussed. The paper also describes the management and operational approaches that address the challenge of new cost effective, reusable launch vehicle systems.

  11. [Generic drugs: good or bad? Physician's knowledge of generic drugs and prescribing habits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, A J; Martos, F; Leiva, F; Sánchez de la Cuesta, F

    2003-01-01

    In this article we analyze the responses of 1220 Spanish physicians who participated in a survery about generic drugs. A previously validated questionnaire was sent to physicians through the Spanish Medical Councils of the different provinces. Four items were analyzed: what doctors know about generic drugs (knowledge); physicians' prescribing habits concerning these drugs (attitude and professional competence); how prescription of generic drugs effects pharmaceutical costs amd, finally, what doctors believe a generic drug should be. The influence of physician-related variables (age, type of contract, specialty, workload, etc.) on prescribing of generic drugs was also analyzed. In view of the results, we believe that to rationalize expenditure through and appropriate policy on generic drugs Spanish health authorities should offer more and better training and information (clear and independent) about what generic drugs are.

  12. Generic Local Hamiltonians are Gapless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movassagh, Ramis

    2017-12-01

    We prove that generic quantum local Hamiltonians are gapless. In fact, we prove that there is a continuous density of states above the ground state. The Hamiltonian can be on a lattice in any spatial dimension or on a graph with a bounded maximum vertex degree. The type of interactions allowed for include translational invariance in a disorder (i.e., probabilistic) sense with some assumptions on the local distributions. Examples include many-body localization and random spin models. We calculate the scaling of the gap with the system's size when the local terms are distributed according to a Gaussian β orthogonal random matrix ensemble. As a corollary, there exist finite size partitions with respect to which the ground state is arbitrarily close to a product state. When the local eigenvalue distribution is discrete, in addition to the lack of an energy gap in the limit, we prove that the ground state has finite size degeneracies. The proofs are simple and constructive. This work excludes the important class of truly translationally invariant Hamiltonians where the local terms are all equal.

  13. Generic physical protection logic trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle

  14. Generic physical protection logic trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.

  15. Generic theory for channel sinuosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Eli D; Constantine, José Antonio

    2013-05-21

    Sinuous patterns traced by fluid flows are a ubiquitous feature of physical landscapes on Earth, Mars, the volcanic floodplains of the Moon and Venus, and other planetary bodies. Typically discussed as a consequence of migration processes in meandering rivers, sinuosity is also expressed in channel types that show little or no indication of meandering. Sinuosity is sometimes described as "inherited" from a preexisting morphology, which still does not explain where the inherited sinuosity came from. For a phenomenon so universal as sinuosity, existing models of channelized flows do not explain the occurrence of sinuosity in the full variety of settings in which it manifests, or how sinuosity may originate. Here we present a generic theory for sinuous flow patterns in landscapes. Using observations from nature and a numerical model of flow routing, we propose that flow resistance (representing landscape roughness attributable to topography or vegetation density) relative to surface slope exerts a fundamental control on channel sinuosity that is effectively independent of internal flow dynamics. Resistance-dominated surfaces produce channels with higher sinuosity than those of slope-dominated surfaces because increased resistance impedes downslope flow. Not limited to rivers, the hypothesis we explore pertains to sinuosity as a geomorphic pattern. The explanation we propose is inclusive enough to account for a wide variety of sinuous channel types in nature, and can serve as an analytical tool for determining the sinuosity a landscape might support.

  16. Generic adversary characteristics: summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.B. Jr.; Davidson, J.J.; Jones, H.B.; Fulwiler, C.H.; Mullen, S.A.

    1978-07-01

    The adversaries studied were found to be complex, often unpredictable, and dynamic. The adversary typically goes through a complex decision-making process between the time a potential target is identified and the moment the decision to act is made. This study analyzes the adversary characteristics, and the following conclusions are made: one of the least likely methods of attack is an overt armed assault. Terrorists and psychotics depend upon a high degree of personal dedication. No single generic adversary group or individual exhibits strength in every characteristic. Physical danger appears to have some deterrent effect on all adversaries except the psychotics. Organized and professional criminals often try to recruit insiders. Disoriented persons, white-collar criminals, and disgruntled employees tend to operate as insiders. Professional criminals, many terrorist groups, some extremist protest groups, and certain disoriented persons plan carefully before initiating a criminal mission. Organized crime and miscellaneous criminal adversaries rely on deception and ruse to bypass security. After the decision to commit a crime, the resources deployed by terrorists or organized criminals will be a function of their perception of the operational requirements of the crime. The nature of ''threat'' is dynamic; adversary behavior and capability appear to be related to prevailing political, economic, and social conditions

  17. 78 FR 22553 - Generic Drug Facilities, Sites, and Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ...] Generic Drug Facilities, Sites, and Organizations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION.... Generic drug facilities, certain sites, and organizations identified in a generic drug submission are... active pharmaceutical ingredients and certain other sites and organizations that support the manufacture...

  18. 78 FR 59911 - Generic Information Collection for Land Management Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Generic Information Collection for Land Management... organizations on the proposed information collection, Generic Information Collection for Land Management... related to forest management. The intent of this generic information collection request (ICR) is to...

  19. A multicenter experience with generic tacrolimus conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt-Potter, Lisa M; Sadaka, Basma; Tichy, Eric M; Rogers, Christin C; Gabardi, Steven

    2011-09-27

    The first generic tacrolimus product gained Food and Drug Administration approval in August 2009. This prospective, observational trial sought to determine the need for dose titrations and measure drug cost savings on conversion to generic tacrolimus. Transplant recipients on stable tacrolimus doses were converted from brand to generic tacrolimus on a mg:mg basis. Data were collected at the time of generic conversion (study arm) and at a time point exactly 6 months before conversion (control arm) for all subjects. Seventy conversions from four centers are reported. Subjects were a mean of 70 months after kidney (n=37), liver (n=28), or multiorgan (n=5) transplant. In the study arm, mean tacrolimus doses were 4.4 and 4.5 mg/d and mean tacrolimus trough concentrations were 5.8 and 5.9 ng/mL before and after conversion, respectively. In the control arm, mean tacrolimus doses were 4.6 and 4.6 mg/d and mean tacrolimus trough concentrations were 6.1 and 5.9 ng/mL before and after the control time point, respectively. Dose titrations occurred in five patients (7%) in the control arm and 15 patients (21%) in the study arm (P=0.028). Mean monthly drug costs were $645 for brand, $593 for generic, and $595 for generic after dose titrations. Mean monthly patient copays were $38 for brand and $15 for generic. These cumulative data show that dose requirements and trough levels are similar between brand and generic tacrolimus and that generic substitution allows for savings. However, postconversion monitoring is prudent as patients may require dose titration.

  20. Speeds in school zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    School speed zones are frequently requested traffic controls for school areas, based on the common belief : that if the transportation agency would only install a reduced speed limit, then drivers would no longer : speed through the area. This resear...

  1. Approximate Pressure Distribution in an Accelerating Launch-Vehicle Fuel Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed derivation of the equations governing the pressure in a generic liquid-fuel launch vehicle tank subjected to uniformly accelerated motion is presented. The equations obtained are then for the Space Shuttle Superlightweight Liquid-Oxygen Tank at approximately 70 seconds into flight. This generic derivation is applicable to any fuel tank in the form of a surface of revolution and should be useful in the design of future launch vehicles

  2. Generic Penetration of the SSRI Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascade, Elisa F; Kalali, Amir H

    2008-04-01

    In this article, we investigate the penetration of generic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the US market and the implications for patient out-of-pocket expense. The data suggest that generic penetration into the SSRI market has grown from approximately nine percent in 2000, the year that the patent for Prozac((R)) expired, to 72 percent in 2007. For December, 2007, the difference in patient out-of-pocket expense for branded vs. generic agents was, on average, $55.42 for patients paying by cash (i.e., they had no prescription drug insurance) and $22.39 for patients with insurance coverage.

  3. Time optimal paths for high speed maneuvering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reister, D.B.; Lenhart, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent theoretical results have completely solved the problem of determining the minimum length path for a vehicle with a minimum turning radius moving from an initial configuration to a final configuration. Time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle are a subset of the minimum length paths. This paper uses the Pontryagin maximum principle to find time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle. The time optimal paths consist of sequences of axes of circles and straight lines. The maximum principle introduces concepts (dual variables, bang-bang solutions, singular solutions, and transversality conditions) that provide important insight into the nature of the time optimal paths. We explore the properties of the optimal paths and present some experimental results for a mobile robot following an optimal path.

  4. Naturalistic speeding data: Drivers aged 75 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Chevalier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “A longitudinal investigation of the predictors of older drivers׳ speeding behavior” (Chevalier et al., 2016 [1], wherein these speed events were used to investigate older drivers speeding behavior and the influence of cognition, vision, functional decline, and self-reported citations and crashes on speeding behavior over a year of driving. Naturalistic speeding behavior data were collected for up to 52 weeks from volunteer drivers aged 75–94 years (median 80 years, 52% male living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Global Positioning System (GPS data were recorded at each second and determined driving speed through triangulation of satellite collected location data. Driving speed data were linked with mapped speed zone data based on a service-provider database. To measure speeding behavior, speed events were defined as driving 1 km/h or more, with a 3% tolerance, above a single speed limit, averaged over 30 s. The data contains a row per 124,374 speed events. This article contains information about data processing and quality control. Keywords: Older drivers, Speed, Road safety, Naturalistic, In-vehicle monitoring, Device

  5. 40 CFR 205.52 - Vehicle noise emission standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle noise emission standards. 205... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.52 Vehicle noise emission standards. (a) Low Speed Noise Emission Standard. Vehicles which are manufactured after...

  6. An optimization algorithm for a capacitated vehicle routing problem ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, vehicle routing problem (VRP) with time windows and real world constraints are considered as a real-world application on google maps. Also, tabu search is used and Hopfield neural networks is utilized. Basic constraints consist of customer demands, time windows, vehicle speed, vehicle capacity andworking ...

  7. A data driven approach for automating vehicle activated signs

    OpenAIRE

    Jomaa, Diala

    2016-01-01

    Vehicle activated signs (VAS) display a warning message when drivers exceed a particular threshold. VAS are often installed on local roads to display a warning message depending on the speed of the approaching vehicles. VAS are usually powered by electricity; however, battery and solar powered VAS are also commonplace. This thesis investigated devel-opment of an automatic trigger speed of vehicle activated signs in order to influence driver behaviour, the effect of which has been measured in ...

  8. High-speed Maglev studies in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, D.L.; Eastham, A.R.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reports on Canadian studies of superconducting magnetic levitation and variable-speed linear synchronous motor propulsion for high-speed inter-city guided ground transport. Levitation is obtained by the interaction of vehicle-mounted superconducting magnets and the eddy currents induced in aluminium strip conductors on the guideway. Non-contact propulsion by linear synchronous motor (LSM) is obtained by using vehicle-borne superconducting magnets and powered guideway coils. A suggested guidance scheme uses a flat guideway with 'null-flux' loops overlying the LSM windings. The propulsion magnets interact with the loops and the edges of the levitation strips to provide lateral stabilization. The test facility is a 7.6m wheel, rotating with a peripheral speed of 33m/s. (author)

  9. Development of a fast and flexible generic process for the reduction of nitro compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas-Santo, K.; Vankayala, B.; Dittmeyer, R.

    slurry catalyst was designed that can be adapted for reduction of a range of nitro compounds. The generic process provides the possibilities of swapping out a reactor or work up technology as required. The equipments of the generic process should be also able to operate at wider range of operational......The hydrogenation of aromatic nitro substrates is a frequently used reaction in the multi-step fabrication of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Today most pharmaceutical production processes are performed in batch mode. In the frame of the C2-campaign speed is an important factor during...... the production of a multitude of possible API’s. A generic reactor set-up able to be adapted for the transformation of a specific substrate would reduce the development time and thereby the campaign time significantly. In the frame of the EU-project F3-Factory such a flexible and continuous reaction system...

  10. Abandoned vehicles

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  11. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Technology: A Powerful, Generic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Technology: A Powerful, Generic, Facile and Cost Effective Alternative for Enantio-recognition and Separation: A Glance at Advances and Applications. ... Tanzania Journal of Science. Journal Home · ABOUT ...

  12. Impacts of Generic Competition and Benefit Management...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Impacts of Generic Competition and Benefit Management Practices on Spending for Prescription Drugs - Evidence from Medicares Part D...

  13. Brand and generic medications: Are they interchangeable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jazairi, Abdulrazak S.; Blhareth, S.; Eqtefan, Iyad S.; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A.

    2008-01-01

    Generic substitution has become a common practice since the late 1970s in the United States. At that time, many of these generics caused bioavailability problems, which fueled suspicions about their efficacy and safety and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standards for bioequivalence. In Saudi Arabia, the increasing number of local products raised several concerns with regard to switching from brands to generics. Our objective was to review and examine the basis of the controversy surrounding brand and generic interchangeability and to explore a practical approach in pursuing a switch. Articles indexed initially under terms such as generic medications, generic substitution, bioequivalence and bioinequivalence were identified. These terms were used to search the indexing service, MEDLINE (1966-2006). References from the extracted articles and additional data sources, including the Code of Federal Regulations and Regulatory Guidelines from the FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and research were also reviewed. Foe most drugs, bioequivalence testing generally should enable clinicians to routinely substitute generic for innovator products. However, for narrow therapeutic, critical dose drugs, or for highly variable drugs, safe switching between products can not be assured. These drugs need special precautions and blood level monitoring upon switching. FDA firmly believes that approved generic and brand drugs can be dispensed with the full expectation that the consumer will receive the same clinical benefit. Performing the switch process is an advisable practice to reduce health care costs in countries with strong post-marketing surveillance program, but caution is to be exercised when narrow therapeutic index drugs or highly variable drugs are prescribed. (author)

  14. Generic medicine and prescribing: A quick assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainul Haque

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generic drugs are copies of brand-name drugs that have exactly the same dosage, intended use, effects, side effects, route of administration, risks, safety, and strength as the original drug. In other words, their pharmacological effects are exactly the same as those of their brand-name counterparts. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA describes that generic drugs are essential possibilities that allow better access to healthcare for all Americans. They are replicas of brand-name drugs and are the identical as those of brand-name drugs in dosage form, safety, strength, route of administration, quality, performance features, and anticipated to use. Healthcare authorities and users can be guaranteed that FDA-approved generic drug products have met the same stiff principles as the innovator drug. The company that made Bayer aspirin fought in court enthusiastically to keep generic versions off the shelves, in the 1920s. The company lost in court, and consumers suddenly had an array of choices in generic aspirin. The Supreme Court of India uttering ‘the Supreme Court's ruling will prevent companies from further seeking unwarranted patents on HIV and other essential medicines.’ Generic medicine cannot be sold at a price higher than the branded medicine, so it is regularly a low-priced option. Thereafter, both the end user and the government who pay for part of the price of the medicine under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme in Australia are benefitted. The treatment of diseases using essential drugs, prescribed by their generic names, has been emphasised by the WHO and many national health policies. Although there are some improvements in generic medicine prescribing, it has been advised by the WHO that ‘countries should intensify efforts to measure and regularly monitor medicine prices and availability, and adopt policy measures to address the issues identified.’

  15. Lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xue-jun; True, Hans; Li, Ying-hui

    2016-01-01

    The lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle are investigated using two similar wheel/rail contact models: the Vermeulen-Johnson and the Shen-Hedrick-Elkins models. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation behaviour and chaotic motions of the railway vehicle are investigated in great detail......, resulting in problems for safe operation of the vehicle. Therefore, it should be avoided in everyday operation. Furthermore, the creation of multiple solution branches suggests that the critical speed of a vehicle should be determined from a comprehensive analysis of the various kinds of possible...... by varying the speed and using the resultant bifurcation diagram' method. It is found that multiple solution branches exist and they can lead to more steady states in the dynamic behaviour of the railway vehicle. The coexistence of multiple steady states can lead to jumps in the amplitude of oscillations...

  16. Connected vehicle applications : safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure, vehicle-to-vehicle, : and vehicle-to-pedestrian data transmissions. Applications support advisor...

  17. Measures for speed management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Measures for speed management are essential for limiting the negative effects of driving too fast and at inappropriate speeds. To begin with, safe and credible speed limits need to be determined. Dynamic and variable speed limits that take into account the current circumstances, such as weather

  18. New Intelligent Transmission Concept for Hybrid Mobile Robot Speed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazim Mir-Nasiri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new concept of a mobile robot speed control by using two degree of freedom gear transmission. The developed intelligent speed controller utilizes a gear box which comprises of epicyclic gear train with two inputs, one coupled with the engine shaft and another with the shaft of a variable speed dc motor. The net output speed is a combination of the two input speeds and is governed by the transmission ratio of the planetary gear train. This new approach eliminates the use of a torque converter which is otherwise an indispensable part of all available automatic transmissions, thereby reducing the power loss that occurs in the box during the fluid coupling. By gradually varying the speed of the dc motor a stepless transmission has been achieved. The other advantages of the developed controller are pulling over and reversing the vehicle, implemented by intelligent mixing of the dc motor and engine speeds. This approach eliminates traditional braking system in entire vehicle design. The use of two power sources, IC engine and battery driven DC motor, utilizes the modern idea of hybrid vehicles. The new mobile robot speed controller is capable of driving the vehicle even in extreme case of IC engine failure, for example, due to gas depletion..

  19. New Intelligent Transmission Concept for Hybrid Mobile Robot Speed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazim Mir-Nasiri

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new concept of a mobile robot speed control by using two degree of freedom gear transmission. The developed intelligent speed controller utilizes a gear box which comprises of epicyclic gear train with two inputs, one coupled with the engine shaft and another with the shaft of a variable speed dc motor. The net output speed is a combination of the two input speeds and is governed by the transmission ratio of the planetary gear train. This new approach eliminates the use of a torque converter which is otherwise an indispensable part of all available automatic transmissions, thereby reducing the power loss that occurs in the box during the fluid coupling. By gradually varying the speed of the dc motor a stepless transmission has been achieved. The other advantages of the developed controller are pulling over and reversing the vehicle, implemented by intelligent mixing of the dc motor and engine speeds. This approach eliminates traditional braking system in entire vehicle design. The use of two power sources, IC engine and battery driven DC motor, utilizes the modern idea of hybrid vehicles. The new mobile robot speed controller is capable of driving the vehicle even in extreme case of IC engine failure, for example, due to gas depletion.

  20. Performance evaluation and design of flight vehicle control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Falangas, Eric T

    2015-01-01

    This book will help students, control engineers and flight dynamics analysts to model and conduct sophisticated and systemic analyses of early flight vehicle designs controlled with multiple types of effectors and to design and evaluate new vehicle concepts in terms of satisfying mission and performance goals. Performance Evaluation and Design of Flight Vehicle Control Systems begins by creating a dynamic model of a generic flight vehicle that includes a range of elements from airplanes and launch vehicles to re-entry vehicles and spacecraft. The models may include dynamic effects dealing with structural flexibility, as well as dynamic coupling between structures and actuators, propellant sloshing, and aeroelasticity, and they are typically used for control analysis and design. The book shows how to efficiently combine different types of effectors together, such as aero-surfaces, TVC, throttling engines and RCS, to operate as a system by developing a mixing logic atrix. Methods of trimming a vehicle controll...

  1. Longitudinal Control for Mengshi Autonomous Vehicle via Gauss Cloud Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Gao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic robustness and stability control is a requirement for self-driving of autonomous vehicle. Longitudinal control technique of autonomous vehicle is basic theory and one key complex technique which must have the reliability and precision of vehicle controller. The longitudinal control technique is one of the foundations of the safety and stability of autonomous vehicle control. In our paper, we present a longitudinal control algorithm based on cloud model for Mengshi autonomous vehicle to ensure the dynamic stability and tracking performance of Mengshi autonomous vehicle. The longitudinal control algorithm mainly uses cloud model generator to control the acceleration of the autonomous vehicle to achieve the goal that controls the speed of Mengshi autonomous vehicle. The proposed longitudinal control algorithm based on cloud model is verified by real experiments on Highway driving scene. The experiments results of the acceleration and speed show that the algorithm is validity and stability.

  2. Sharing, samples, and generics: an antitrust framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Michael A

    Rising drug prices are in the news. By increasing price, drug companies have placed vital, even life-saving, medicines out of the reach of consumers. In a recent development, brand firms have prevented generics even from entering the market. The ruse for this strategy involves risk-management programs known as Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies ("REMS"). Pursuant to legislation enacted in 2007, the FDA requires REMS when a drug's risks (such as death or injury) outweigh its rewards. Brands have used this regime, intended to bring drugs to the market, to block generic competition. Regulations such as the federal Hatch-Waxman Act and state substitution laws foster widespread generic competition. But these regimes can only be effectuated through generic entry. And that entry can take place only if a generic can use a brand's sample to show that its product is equivalent. More than 100 generic firms have complained that they have not been able to access needed samples. One study of 40 drugs subject to restricted access programs found that generics' inability to enter cost more than $5 billion a year. Brand firms have contended that antitrust law does not compel them to deal with their competitors and have highlighted concerns related to safety and product liability in justifying their refusals. This Article rebuts these claims. It highlights the importance of samples in the regulatory regime and the FDA's inability to address the issue. It shows how a sharing requirement in this setting is consistent with Supreme Court caselaw. And it demonstrates that the brands' behavior fails the defendant-friendly "no economic sense" test because the conduct literally makes no sense other than by harming generics. Brands' denial of samples offers a textbook case of monopolization. In the universe of pharmaceutical antitrust behavior, other conduct--such as "pay for delay" settlements between brands and generics and "product hopping" from one drug to a slightly modified

  3. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic drug...

  4. Stability Control of Vehicle Emergency Braking with Tire Blowout

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qingzhang; Liu, Youhua; Li, Xuezhi

    2014-01-01

    For the stability control and slowing down the vehicle to a safe speed after tire failure, an emergency automatic braking system with independent intellectual property is developed. After the system has received a signal of tire blowout, the automatic braking mode of the vehicle is determined according to the position of the failure tire and the motion state of vehicle, and a control strategy for resisting tire blowout additional yaw torque and deceleration is designed to slow down vehicle to...

  5. Comparison of the responsiveness of the Harris Hip Score with generic measures for hip function in osteoarthritis of the hip.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, H.L.; Ende, C.H.M. van den; Ronday, H.K.; Heering, A.; Breedveld, F.C.; Dekker, J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare responsiveness of the Harris Hip Score with generic measures (that is, the Short Form-36 (SF-36), and a test of walking speed and pain during walking) in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip. METHOD: The first 75 cases within the population of a randomised clinical

  6. Heel and toe driving on fuel cell vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tayoung; Chen, Dongmei

    2012-12-11

    A system and method for providing nearly instantaneous power in a fuel cell vehicle. The method includes monitoring the brake pedal angle and the accelerator pedal angle of the vehicle, and if the vehicle driver is pressing both the brake pedal and the accelerator pedal at the same time and the vehicle is in a drive gear, activating a heel and toe mode. When the heel and toe mode is activated, the speed of a cathode compressor is increased to a predetermined speed set-point, which is higher than the normal compressor speed for the pedal position. Thus, when the vehicle brake is removed, the compressor speed is high enough to provide enough air to the cathode, so that the stack can generate nearly immediate power.

  7. REAL TIME SPEED ESTIMATION FROM MONOCULAR VIDEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Temiz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, detailed studies have been performed for developing a real time system to be used for surveillance of the traffic flow by using monocular video cameras to find speeds of the vehicles for secure travelling are presented. We assume that the studied road segment is planar and straight, the camera is tilted downward a bridge and the length of one line segment in the image is known. In order to estimate the speed of a moving vehicle from a video camera, rectification of video images is performed to eliminate the perspective effects and then the interest region namely the ROI is determined for tracking the vehicles. Velocity vectors of a sufficient number of reference points are identified on the image of the vehicle from each video frame. For this purpose sufficient number of points from the vehicle is selected, and these points must be accurately tracked on at least two successive video frames. In the second step, by using the displacement vectors of the tracked points and passed time, the velocity vectors of those points are computed. Computed velocity vectors are defined in the video image coordinate system and displacement vectors are measured by the means of pixel units. Then the magnitudes of the computed vectors in the image space are transformed to the object space to find the absolute values of these magnitudes. The accuracy of the estimated speed is approximately ±1 – 2 km/h. In order to solve the real time speed estimation problem, the authors have written a software system in C++ programming language. This software system has been used for all of the computations and test applications.

  8. System Analyses of Pneumatic Technology for High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Dimitri N.; Tai, Jimmy C.; Kirby, Michelle M.; Roth, Bryce A.

    1999-01-01

    The primary aspiration of this study was to objectively assess the feasibility of the application of a low speed pneumatic technology, in particular Circulation Control (CC) to an HSCT concept. Circulation Control has been chosen as an enabling technology to be applied on a generic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). This technology has been proven for various subsonic vehicles including flight tests on a Navy A-6 and computational application on a Boeing 737. Yet, CC has not been widely accepted for general commercial fixed-wing use but its potential has been extensively investigated for decades in wind tunnels across the globe for application to rotorcraft. More recently, an experimental investigation was performed at Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) with application to an HSCT-type configuration. The data from those experiments was to be applied to a full-scale vehicle to assess the impact from a system level point of view. Hence, this study attempted to quantitatively assess the impact of this technology to an HSCT. The study objective was achieved in three primary steps: 1) Defining the need for CC technology; 2) Wind tunnel data reduction; 3) Detailed takeoff/landing performance assessment. Defining the need for the CC technology application to an HSCT encompassed a preliminary system level analysis. This was accomplished through the utilization of recent developments in modern aircraft design theory at Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory (ASDL). These developments include the creation of techniques and methods needed for the identification of technical feasibility show stoppers. These techniques and methods allow the designer to rapidly assess a design space and disciplinary metric enhancements to enlarge or improve the design space. The takeoff and landing field lengths were identified as the concept "show-stoppers". Once the need for CC was established, the actual application of data and trends was assessed. This assessment entailed a reduction of the

  9. 76 FR 54507 - Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0204] Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic... functions. SSCs in operating nuclear power plants are designed either in accordance with, or have been... nuclear reactors. The background information relevant to this GL includes the individual plant...

  10. Architectural design for a low cost FPGA-based traffic signal detection system in vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Ignacio; Salvador, Rubén; Alarcón, Jaime; Moreno, Félix

    2007-05-01

    In this paper we propose an architecture for an embedded traffic signal detection system. Development of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is one of the major trends of research in automotion nowadays. Examples of past and ongoing projects in the field are CHAMELEON ("Pre-Crash Application all around the vehicle" IST 1999-10108), PREVENT (Preventive and Active Safety Applications, FP6-507075, http://www.prevent-ip.org/) and AVRT in the US (Advanced Vision-Radar Threat Detection (AVRT): A Pre-Crash Detection and Active Safety System). It can be observed a major interest in systems for real-time analysis of complex driving scenarios, evaluating risk and anticipating collisions. The system will use a low cost CCD camera on the dashboard facing the road. The images will be processed by an Altera Cyclone family FPGA. The board does median and Sobel filtering of the incoming frames at PAL rate, and analyzes them for several categories of signals. The result is conveyed to the driver. The scarce resources provided by the hardware require an architecture developed for optimal use. The system will use a combination of neural networks and an adapted blackboard architecture. Several neural networks will be used in sequence for image analysis, by reconfiguring a single, generic hardware neural network in the FPGA. This generic network is optimized for speed, in order to admit several executions within the frame rate. The sequence will follow the execution cycle of the blackboard architecture. The global, blackboard architecture being developed and the hardware architecture for the generic, reconfigurable FPGA perceptron will be explained in this paper. The project is still at an early stage. However, some hardware implementation results are already available and will be offered in the paper.

  11. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  12. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  13. Establishing bonds between vehicle certification data and real-world vehicle fuel consumption – A Vehicle Specific Power approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, G.O.; Gonçalves, G.A.; Baptista, P.C.; Farias, T.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Innovative methodology to estimate VSP fuel consumption based on public available data. • Model validation with accurate fuel consumption results (absolute deviation from 4.7% to 9.2%). • Best-selling vehicles in Portugal case study was developed for different driving cycles. - Abstract: A method to perform the energy characterization of a vehicle according to the specific power required while driving was developed using public vehicle certification data. Using a portable emission measurement system, fuel consumption was quantified in a second-by-second basis under on-road conditions for 19 vehicles (spark-ignition, compression-ignition and hybrids). This data allowed building generic curves of fuel consumption as a function of the specific power, according to Vehicle Specific Power methodology. Comparing on-road measurements and the model estimates, a R 2 higher than 0.9 for conventional and hybrid vehicles was obtained regarding modal fuel consumption. Comparing the fuel consumption measured on the drive cycles performed by each vehicle and the correspondent estimates, an absolute deviation of 9.2% ± 9.2% was found for conventional vehicles and 4.7% ± 1.8% for hybrids vehicles. This methodology was validated and applied to estimate the energy impacts of the best-selling vehicles in Portugal for different driving cycles. This prompt method, that does not require vehicle monitoring, can estimate curves of fuel consumption in g/s, as a function of specific power, which allows quantifying the absolute fuel use for any driving cycle

  14. [Analysis of generic drug supply in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboulet, F; Haramburu, F; Latry, Ph

    2003-09-01

    The list of generic medicines (LGM), published since 1997 by the Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Produits de Santé (AFFSSaPS), the French Medicine Agency, concerns a special part of the medicines reimbursed by the National Health Insurance (Social Security). The objectives of the present study were: i) to describe the components of this list, based on pharmaceutical, economical and therapeutic characteristics, ii) to study differences between generic and reference products (formulations, excipients, prices, etc.), iii) to analyze information on excipients provided to health care professionals. The 21st version of the LGM (April 2001) was used. Therapeutic value was retrieved from the 2001 AFSSaPS report on the therapeutic value of 4490 reimbursed medicines. Information on excipients in the LGM and the Vidal dictionary (reference prescription book in France) was compared. The products included in the LGM represent 20% of all reimbursed medicines. The mean price differences between generics and their reference products vary between 30 and 50% for more than two thirds of the generic groups. The therapeutic value of the products of the LGM was judged important in 71% of cases (vs 63% for the 4409 assessed medicines) and insufficient in 13% of cases (vs 19%). Information on excipients is often missing and sometimes erroneous. Although the LGM is regularly revised and thus the generic market in perpetual change, the 2001 cross description of this pharmaceutical market provides much informations and raises some concern.

  15. Air change rates of motor vehicles and in-vehicle pollutant concentrations from secondhand smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Wayne; Klepeis, Neil; Switzer, Paul

    2008-05-01

    The air change rates of motor vehicles are relevant to the sheltering effect from air pollutants entering from outside a vehicle and also to the interior concentrations from any sources inside its passenger compartment. We made more than 100 air change rate measurements on four motor vehicles under moving and stationary conditions; we also measured the carbon monoxide (CO) and fine particle (PM(2.5)) decay rates from 14 cigarettes smoked inside the vehicle. With the vehicle stationary and the fan off, the ventilation rate in air changes per hour (ACH) was less than 1 h(-1) with the windows closed and increased to 6.5 h(-1) with one window fully opened. The vehicle speed, window position, ventilation system, and air conditioner setting was found to affect the ACH. For closed windows and passive ventilation (fan off and no recirculation), the ACH was linearly related to the vehicle speed over the range from 15 to 72 mph (25 to 116 km h(-1)). With a vehicle moving, windows closed, and the ventilation system off (or the air conditioner set to AC Max), the ACH was less than 6.6 h(-1) for speeds ranging from 20 to 72 mph (32 to 116 km h(-1)). Opening a single window by 3'' (7.6 cm) increased the ACH by 8-16 times. For the 14 cigarettes smoked in vehicles, the deposition rate k and the air change rate a were correlated, following the equation k=1.3a (R(2)=82%; n=14). With recirculation on (or AC Max) and closed windows, the interior PM(2.5) concentration exceeded 2000 microg m(-3) momentarily for all cigarettes tested, regardless of speed. The concentration time series measured inside the vehicle followed the mathematical solutions of the indoor mass balance model, and the 24-h average personal exposure to PM(2.5) could exceed 35 microg m(-3) for just two cigarettes smoked inside the vehicle.

  16. Intelligent vehicle based traffic monitoring – exploring application in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, FJJ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper details the anticipated benefits of an intelligent vehicle based traffic monitoring approach holds. The approach utilises advanced technology with the potential to reduce crashes and includes the monitor of vehicle speeds and flows...

  17. Mixed WTO ruling on generic drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R

    2000-01-01

    On 17 March 2000, the World Trade Organization upheld the provision in Canada's patent laws that allows generic drug manufacturers to develop (but not sell) their cheaper versions of patented medicines before the 20-year patients expire. The decision prevents pharmaceutical companies from enjoying market monopolies beyond their patent terms, avoiding what would otherwise be even lengthier delays in the sale of cheaper, generic drugs in Canada. This decision is of significance not only to Canada, but also to other WTO member countries and to all individuals who use pharmaceutical products. However, the decision is not all positive: the WTO also ruled that Canada is violating international agreements by letting generic manufacturers stockpile their versions of patented drugs before patents expire. This article explains the issues, the arguments, and the decision.

  18. The potential of electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Electric vehicles can help reduce the dependence of road transport on imported oil, cut the country's energy bill, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, improve air quality in cities through zero exhaust emissions and reduce noise pollution. The economic costs and environmental impacts of electric vehicles are mostly concentrated at the manufacturing stage, whereas the costs and impacts of internal combustion vehicles are predominantly felt during usage. So we cannot simply compare vehicles as objects, we must see how they are used, which means taking a fresh look at the full potential of electric vehicles which must be used intensely to be economically and environmentally viable. The main advantage of internal combustion vehicles is their ability to carry a very large amount of energy giving them a very large range and significant versatility. However, the consequences of the use of fossil fuels on the climate and the environment today require us to look for other solutions for vehicles and mobility systems. Electric vehicles are among these: its lack of versatility, due to its still limited range, is offset by being more adaptable and optimised for the usage sought. Electric vehicles are particularly suitable for new mobility services offerings and allow the transition to new ways of travelling to be speeded up optimising the use of the vehicle and no longer requiring ownership of it. The use of digital, facilitated by the electrical engine, opens up numerous opportunities for innovations and new services (such as the autonomous vehicle for example). In addition, electric vehicles can do more than just transport. Their batteries provide useful energy storage capabilities that can help regulate the power grid and the development of renewable energy. The marketing of electric vehicles may be accompanied by energy services that can be economically viable and used to structure the electro-mobility offer in return. To minimise the impact on the electrical grid, it is

  19. GSAC - Generic Seismic Application Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, R. B.; Ammon, C. J.; Koper, K. D.

    2004-12-01

    With the success of the IRIS data management center, the use of large data sets in seismological research has become common. Such data sets, and especially the significantly larger data sets expected from EarthScope, present challenges for analysis with existing tools developed over the last 30 years. For much of the community, the primary format for data analysis is the Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) format developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Although somewhat restrictive in meta-data storage, the simplicity and stability of the format has established it as an important component of seismological research. Tools for working with SAC files fall into two categories - custom research quality processing codes and shared display - processing tools such as SAC2000, MatSeis,etc., which were developed primarily for the needs of individual seismic research groups. While the current graphics display and platform dependence of SAC2000 may be resolved if the source code is released, the code complexity and the lack of large-data set analysis or even introductory tutorials could preclude code improvements and development of expertise in its use. We believe that there is a place for new, especially open source, tools. The GSAC effort is an approach that focuses on ease of use, computational speed, transportability, rapid addition of new features and openness so that new and advanced students, researchers and instructors can quickly browse and process large data sets. We highlight several approaches toward data processing under this model. gsac - part of the Computer Programs in Seismology 3.30 distribution has much of the functionality of SAC2000 and works on UNIX/LINUX/MacOS-X/Windows (CYGWIN). This is completely programmed in C from scratch, is small, fast, and easy to maintain and extend. It is command line based and is easily included within shell processing scripts. PySAC is a set of Python functions that allow easy access to SAC files and enable efficient

  20. INTEGRATED SPEED ESTIMATION MODEL FOR MULTILANE EXPREESSWAYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungjoon; Oguchi, Takashi

    In this paper, an integrated speed-estimation model is developed based on empirical analyses for the basic sections of intercity multilane expressway un der the uncongested condition. This model enables a speed estimation for each lane at any site under arb itrary highway-alignment, traffic (traffic flow and truck percentage), and rainfall conditions. By combin ing this model and a lane-use model which estimates traffic distribution on the lanes by each vehicle type, it is also possible to es timate an average speed across all the lanes of one direction from a traffic demand by vehicle type under specific highway-alignment and rainfall conditions. This model is exp ected to be a tool for the evaluation of traffic performance for expressways when the performance me asure is travel speed, which is necessary for Performance-Oriented Highway Planning and Design. Regarding the highway-alignment condition, two new estimators, called effective horizo ntal curvature and effective vertical grade, are proposed in this paper which take into account the influence of upstream and downstream alignment conditions. They are applied to the speed-estimation model, and it shows increased accuracy of the estimation.

  1. Speed management program plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Changing public attitudes regarding speeding and speed management will require a comprehensive and concerted effort, involving a wide variety of strategies. This plan identifies six primary focus areas: : A. Data and Data-Driven Approaches, : B. Rese...

  2. Small portable speed calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, J. L.; Billions, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Calculator is adapted stopwatch calibrated for fast accurate measurement of speeds. Single assembled unit is rugged, self-contained, and relatively inexpensive to manufacture. Potential market includes automobile-speed enforcement, railroads, and field-test facilities.

  3. Benefits of Digital Equipment Generic Qualification Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, James E.; Steiman, Samuel C.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control obsolescence issues, there have been numerous activities during recent years relating to the qualification of digital equipment. Some of these activities have been 'generic' in nature in that the qualification was not limited to plant specific applications, but was intended to cover a broad base of potential applications of the digital equipment. These generic qualifications have been funded by equipment manufacturers and by utility groups and organizations. The generic activities sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have been pilot projects for an overall generic qualification approach. The primary benefit resulting from the generic qualification work to date is that a number of digital platforms and digital devices are now available for use in various nuclear safety-related applications. Many of the tests and evaluations necessary to support plant specific applications have been completed. The amount of data and documentation that each utility must develop on a case by case basis has been significantly reduced. There are also a number of additional benefits resulting from these industry efforts. The challenges and difficulties in qualifying digital equipment for safety-related applications are now more clearly understood. EPRI has published a lessons learned document (EPRI Report 1001452, Generic Qualification of Commercial Grade Digital Devices: Lessons Learned from Initial Pilots, which covers several different qualification areas, including device selection, project planning, vendor surveys and design reviews, and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) qualification. Application of the experience and lessons learned from the EPRI pilot activities should help reduce the effort and cost required for future qualification work. Most generic qualification activities for commercial equipment have been conducted using the approach of EPRI TR-106439, Guideline on Evaluation and Acceptance

  4. Generic tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taube, D; Jones, G; O'Beirne, J

    2014-01-01

    The availability of a wide range of immunosuppressive therapies has revolutionized the management of patients who have undergone solid organ transplantation (SOT). However, the cost of immunosuppressive drugs remains high. This situation has led to the development of generic equivalents, which...... innovator tacrolimus drug (Prograf) in both healthy volunteers and kidney transplant patients. Clinical experience with this generic tacrolimus formulation has also been established in both de novo and conversion patients who have undergone kidney and liver transplantation, as well as in conversion of other...

  5. The SENSEI Generic In Situ Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayachit, Utkarsh [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Whitlock, Brad [Intelligent Light, Rutherford, NJ (United States); Wolf, Matthew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Loring, Burlen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Geveci, Berk [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Lonie, David [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Bethel, E. Wes [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-11

    The SENSEI generic in situ interface is an API that promotes code portability and reusability. From the simulation view, a developer can instrument their code with the SENSEI API and then make make use of any number of in situ infrastructures. From the method view, a developer can write an in situ method using the SENSEI API, then expect it to run in any number of in situ infrastructures, or be invoked directly from a simulation code, with little or no modification. This paper presents the design principles underlying the SENSEI generic interface, along with some simplified coding examples.

  6. Generic magnetic fusion reactor cost assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Fusion Energy Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory discusses ''generic'' magnetic fusion reactors. The author comments on DT burning magnetic fusion reactor models being possibly operational in the 21st century. Representative parameters from D-T reactor studies are given, as well as a shematic diagram of a generic fusion reactor. Values are given for winding pack current density for existing and future superconducting coils. Topics included are the variation of the cost of electricity (COE), the dependence of the COE on the net electric power of the reactor, and COE formula definitions

  7. Baseline test data for the EVA electric vehicle. [low energy consumption automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harhay, W. C.; Bozek, J.

    1976-01-01

    Two electric vehicles from Electric Vehicle Associates were evaluated for ERDA at the Transportation Research Center of Ohio. The vehicles, loaded to a gross vehicle weight of 3750 pounds, had a range of 56.3 miles at a steady speed of 25 mph and a 27.4 miles range during acceleration-deceleration tests to a top speed of 30 mph. Energy consumption varied from 0.48 kw-hr/mi. to 0.59 kw-hr/mi.

  8. System and method of vehicle operating condition management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujan, Vivek A.; Vajapeyazula, Phani; Follen, Kenneth; Wu, An; Moffett, Barty L.

    2015-10-20

    A vehicle operating condition profile can be determined over a given route while also considering imposed constraints such as deviation from time targets, deviation from maximum governed speed limits, etc. Given current vehicle speed, engine state and transmission state, the present disclosure optimally manages the engine map and transmission to provide a recommended vehicle operating condition that optimizes fuel consumption in transitioning from one vehicle state to a target state. Exemplary embodiments provide for offline and online optimizations relative to fuel consumption. The benefit is increased freight efficiency in transporting cargo from source to destination by minimizing fuel consumption and maintaining drivability.

  9. Associations between generic substitution and patients' attitudes, beliefs and experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Andersen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Generic substitution has been implemented in many countries, but knowledge about patients’ attitudes, beliefs and experiences is still sparse. Aim To assess associations between generic switching and patients’ attitudes, beliefs and experiences with previous generic switching...... on generic medicine and confidence in the healthcare system. Only prescriptions issued by the general practitioners were included. For each patient we focused on one purchase of a generically substitutable drug (index drug). Patients were identified by means of a dispensing database. Results Earlier generic...... switches within the index ATC code were statistically significantly associated with experience of a generic switch (adjusted OR 5.93 95% CI 4.70; 7.49). Having had more than 5 earlier switches within other ATC codes and having negative views on generic medicines reduced the odds of experiencing a generic...

  10. Self-monitoring of driving speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzioni, Shelly; Erev, Ido; Ishaq, Robert; Elias, Wafa; Shiftan, Yoram

    2017-09-01

    In-vehicle data recorders (IVDR) have been found to facilitate safe driving and are highly valuable in accident analysis. Nevertheless, it is not easy to convince drivers to use them. Part of the difficulty is related to the "Big Brother" concern: installing IVDR impairs the drivers' privacy. The "Big Brother" concern can be mitigated by adding a turn-off switch to the IVDR. However, this addition comes at the expense of increasing speed variability between drivers, which is known to impair safety. The current experimental study examines the significance of this negative effect of a turn-off switch under two experimental settings representing different incentive structures: small and large fines for speeding. 199 students were asked to participate in a computerized speeding dilemma task, where they could control the speed of their "car" using "brake" and "speed" buttons, corresponding to automatic car foot pedals. The participants in two experimental conditions had IVDR installed in their "cars", and were told that they could turn it off at any time. Driving with active IVDR implied some probability of "fines" for speeding, and the two experimental groups differed with respect to the fine's magnitude, small or large. The results indicate that the option to use IVDR reduced speeding and speed variance. In addition, the results indicate that the reduction of speed variability was maximal in the small fine group. These results suggest that using IVDR with gentle fines and with a turn-off option maintains the positive effect of IVDR, addresses the "Big Brother" concern, and does not increase speed variance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristics of the Railway Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyulan, Çağlar; Gokasan, Metin

    2017-06-01

    The nonlinear dynamic characteristics of a railway vehicle are checked into thoroughly by applying two different wheel-rail contact model: a heuristic nonlinear friction creepage model derived by using Kalker 's theory and Polach model including dead-zone clearance. This two models are matched with the quasi-static form of the LuGre model to obtain more realistic wheel-rail contact model. LuGre model parameters are determined using nonlinear optimization method, which it's objective is to minimize the error between the output of the Polach and Kalker model and quasi-static LuGre model for specific operating conditions. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation attitude and stable/unstable motion of the railway vehicle in the presence of nonlinearities which are yaw damping forces in the longitudinal suspension system are analyzed in great detail by changing the vehicle speed. Phase portraits of the lateral displacement of the leading wheelset of the railway vehicle are drawn below and on the critical speeds, where sub-critical Hopf bifurcation take place, for two wheel-rail contact model. Asymmetric periodic motions have been observed during the simulation in the lateral displacement of the wheelset under different vehicle speed range. The coexistence of multiple steady states cause bounces in the amplitude of vibrations, resulting instability problems of the railway vehicle. By using Lyapunov's indirect method, the critical hunting speeds are calculated with respect to the radius of the curved track parameter changes. Hunting, which is defined as the oscillation of the lateral displacement of wheelset with a large domain, is described by a limit cycle-type oscillation nature. The evaluated accuracy of the LuGre model adopted from Kalker's model results for prediction of critical speed is higher than the results of the LuGre model adopted from Polach's model. From the results of the analysis, the critical hunting speed must be resolved by investigating the track tests

  12. On macroeconomic characteristics of pharmaceutical generics and the potential for manufacturing and consumption under fuzzy conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascón, Fernando; de la Fuente, David; Puente, Javier; Lozano, Jesús

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology that is useful for analyzing, from a macroeconomic perspective, the aggregate demand and the aggregate supply features of the market of pharmaceutical generics. In order to determine the potential consumption and the potential production of pharmaceutical generics in different countries, two fuzzy decision support systems are proposed. Two fuzzy decision support systems, both based on the Mamdani model, were applied in this paper. These systems, generated by Matlab Toolbox 'Fuzzy' (v. 2.0), are able to determine the potential of a country for the manufacturing or the consumption of pharmaceutical generics. The systems make use of three macroeconomic input variables. In an empirical application of our proposed methodology, the potential towards consumption and manufacturing in Holland, Sweden, Italy and Spain has been estimated from national indicators. Cross-country comparisons are made and graphical surfaces are analyzed in order to interpret the results. The main contribution of this work is the development of a methodology that is useful for analyzing aggregate demand and aggregate supply characteristics of pharmaceutical generics. The methodology is valid for carrying out a systematic analysis of the potential generics have at a macrolevel in different countries. The main advantages of the use of fuzzy decision support systems in the context of pharmaceutical generics are the flexibility in the construction of the system, the speed in interpreting the results offered by the inference and surface maps and the ease with which a sensitivity analysis of the potential behavior of a given country may be performed.

  13. Two laboratory methods for the calibration of GPS speed meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yin; Sun, Qiao; Du, Lei; Yu, Mei; Bai, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The set-ups of two calibration systems are presented to investigate calibration methods of GPS speed meters. The GPS speed meter calibrated is a special type of high accuracy speed meter for vehicles which uses Doppler demodulation of GPS signals to calculate the measured speed of a moving target. Three experiments are performed: including simulated calibration, field-test signal replay calibration, and in-field test comparison with an optical speed meter. The experiments are conducted at specific speeds in the range of 40–180 km h −1 with the same GPS speed meter as the device under calibration. The evaluation of measurement results validates both methods for calibrating GPS speed meters. The relative deviations between the measurement results of the GPS-based high accuracy speed meter and those of the optical speed meter are analyzed, and the equivalent uncertainty of the comparison is evaluated. The comparison results justify the utilization of GPS speed meters as reference equipment if no fewer than seven satellites are available. This study contributes to the widespread use of GPS-based high accuracy speed meters as legal reference equipment in traffic speed metrology. (paper)

  14. Vehicle dynamic effects in the course of passing over turnouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelenka J.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available For the quantification of vehicle dynamic effects at passing over turnouts at a higher speed there was developed a methodology for evaluating of acceleration measured on vehicle axle boxes in the year 2003. The methodology is based on statistical evaluation of lateral and vertical acceleration measured values at passing over both critical parts of a turnout (tongue, frog. The created methodology was used for investigation of vehicle dynamic effects by running at speed up to 230 km/h in the year 2004 in terms of high speed tests of tilting-body unit class 680 CD. There was found relatively high values of dynamic effects already at a speed 160 km/h. In terms of tilting-body unit class 680 tests at a higher speed in curves of chosen track lines of 1st and 2nd corridor of Czech Railways there was carried out also verification of curved turnouts state according to methodology mentioned above with a view to possibility of speed increasing at curved throats of chosen stations. Lateral vehicle dynamic effects at passing over a curved turnout frog area were evaluated. There were carried out simulation calculations of vehicle passing over a turnout based on measured geometric parameters of wheelset as well as chosen turnouts. Results of the calculations were compared with measurements. The increased vehicle dynamic effects found in pulsed beats character influence negatively the turnouts part (not only wheel contacting parts as well as operating life all unsuspended parts of vehicles.

  15. Vehicle Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    UNISTICK is an airplane-like joystick being developed by Johnson Engineering under NASA and VA sponsorship. It allows a driver to control a vehicle with one hand, and is based upon technology developed for the Apollo Lunar Landings of the 1970's. It allows severely handicapped drivers to operate an automobile or van easily. The system is expected to be in production by March 1986.

  16. Current State of Military Hybrid Vehicle Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    Integrated starter generator for engine shut down, regenerative braking and avoidance of inefficient engine operation [28]. FMTV VI Composite 6-9% Fuel...and eliminating the inefficiencies associated with idling, vehicle braking and low engine speed part load efficiency, many improvements could be...different drive cycles were being used to evaluate vehicle performance. These cycles can be divided into the following two categories : (1) Time

  17. Towards Generic Interaction Styles for Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Stienstra, Marcelle

    2008-01-01

    a wider range of interactive products. In this paper we report on five years of continued research into interaction styles for telephones, kitchen equipment, HiFi products and medical devices, and we show how it is indeed possible and beneficial to formulate a set of generic interaction styles....

  18. Crystallization Kinetics within a Generic Modelling Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisler, Kresten Troelstrup; von Solms, Nicolas; Gernaey, Krist

    2013-01-01

    An existing generic modelling framework has been expanded with tools for kinetic model analysis. The analysis of kinetics is carried out within the framework where kinetic constitutive models are collected, analysed and utilized for the simulation of crystallization operations. A modelling...... procedure is proposed to gain the information of crystallization operation kinetic model analysis and utilize this for faster evaluation of crystallization operations....

  19. Baldrige Theory into Practice: A Generic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Mohammed

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The education system globally has moved from a push-based or producer-centric system to a pull-based or customer centric system. Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award (MBQA) model happens to be one of the latest additions to the pull based models. The purpose of this paper is to develop a generic framework for MBQA that can be used by…

  20. Generic Checklist for Day Care Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Services Monitoring Transfer Consortium.

    This guide presents the results of research on day care monitoring methods conducted by the Children's Services Monitoring Transfer Consortium. It suggests a set of generic predictor items that can be used to monitor day care providers' compliance with standards. The predictor items are at the licensing or minimal compliance level and have been…

  1. Climate Change: Generic Implications for Agriculture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Climate Change: Generic Implications for Agriculture. Increasing carbon dioxide: Good for most crops. Increase in mean temperature: orter ... Increasing rainfall intensity and dry days- more floods and droughts: Higher production variability. Himalayan glaciers to recede: irrigation in IGP gradually becomes less dependable ...

  2. A Generic Solution Approach to Nurse Rostering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Dohn; Mason, Andrew; Ryan, David

    In this report, we present a solution approach to the nurse rostering problem. The problem is defined by a generic model that is able to capture close to all of the problem characteristics that we have seen in the literature and in the realistic problems at hand. The model is used directly in the...

  3. The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Haspelmath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics provide a style sheet that can be used by any linguistics journal or edited book, or for teaching purposes. They regulate aspects of text-structure style such as typographic highlighting, citation style, use of capitalization, and bibliographic style (based on the LSA's Unified Stylesheet for linguistics).

  4. Generic hyper-diversity in Stachybotriaceae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lombard, L.; Houbraken, J.; Decock, C.; Samson, R.A.; Meijer, M.; Réblová, Martina; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P. W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 36, SI Jun (2016), s. 156-246 ISSN 0031-5850 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/0038 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biodegraders * generic concept * human and plant pathogens Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 7.511, year: 2016

  5. Generic Principles for Resolving Intergroup Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ronald J.

    1994-01-01

    Provides an initial statement of generic principles deemed effective for addressing protracted social conflicts between identity groups. These principles are compatible with certain values for societal organization and approaches to social change, raising questions of value differences between intervenors and the host culture(s). Three case…

  6. Intermediates and Generic Convergence to Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcondes de Freitas, Michael; Wiuf, Carsten; Feliu, Elisenda

    2017-01-01

    Known graphical conditions for the generic and global convergence to equilibria of the dynamical system arising from a reaction network are shown to be invariant under the so-called successive removal of intermediates, a systematic procedure to simplify the network, making the graphical conditions...

  7. Generic Certificates. Agricultural Economic Report Number 594.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glauber, Joseph W.

    The Food Security Act of 1985 authorizes the U.S. Department of Agriculture to issue generic certificates in lieu of cash payments due to program participants and merchants of agricultural products under provisions of several programs. The certificates may be used to acquire stocks held as collateral on government loans or owned by the Commodity…

  8. Speed in Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meglio, Olimpia; King, David R.; Risberg, Annette

    2017-01-01

    The advantage of speed is often invoked by academics and practitioners as an essential condition during post-acquisition integration, frequently without consideration of the impact earlier decisions have on acquisition speed. In this article, we examine the role speed plays in acquisitions across...... the acquisition process using research organized around characteristics that display complexity with respect to acquisition speed. We incorporate existing research with a process perspective of acquisitions in order to present trade-offs, and consider the influence of both stakeholders and the pre......-deal-completion context on acquisition speed, as well as the organization’s capabilities to facilitating that speed. Observed trade-offs suggest both that acquisition speed often requires longer planning time before an acquisition and that associated decisions require managerial judgement. A framework for improving...

  9. Vehicle fault diagnostics and management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Jagadeesh; Gowthamsachin

    2017-11-01

    This project is a kind of advanced automatic identification technology, and is more and more widely used in the fields of transportation and logistics. It looks over the main functions with like Vehicle management, Vehicle Speed limit and Control. This system starts with authentication process to keep itself secure. Here we connect sensors to the STM32 board which in turn is connected to the car through Ethernet cable, as Ethernet in capable of sending large amounts of data at high speeds. This technology involved clearly shows how a careful combination of software and hardware can produce an extremely cost-effective solution to a problem.

  10. High-speed ground transportation development outside United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastham, T.R. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (United Kingdom)

    1995-09-01

    This paper surveys the state of high-speed (in excess of 200 km/h) ground-transportation developments outside the United States. Both high-speed rail and Maglev systems are covered. Many vehicle systems capable of providing intercity service in the speed range 200--500 km/h are or will soon be available. The current state of various technologies, their implementation, and the near-term plans of countries that are most active in high-speed ground transportation development are reported.

  11. Broadband vehicle-to-vehicle communication using an extended autonomous cruise control sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddebaut, M.; Rioult, J.; Ghys, J. P.; Gransart, Ch; Ambellouis, S.

    2005-06-01

    For several years road vehicle autonomous cruise control (ACC) systems as well as anti-collision radar have been developed. Several manufacturers currently sell this equipment. The current generation of ACC sensors only track the first preceding vehicle to deduce its speed and position. These data are then used to compute, manage and optimize a safety distance between vehicles, thus providing some assistance to car drivers. However, in real conditions, to elaborate and update a real time driving solution, car drivers use information about speed and position of preceding and following vehicles. This information is essentially perceived using the driver's eyes, binocular stereoscopic vision performed through the windscreens and rear-view mirrors. Furthermore, within a line of vehicles, the frontal road perception of the first vehicle is very particular and highly significant. Currently, all these available data remain strictly on-board the vehicle that has captured the perception information and performed these measurements. To get the maximum effectiveness of all these approaches, we propose that this information be shared in real time with the following vehicles, within the convoy. On the basis of these considerations, this paper technically explores a cost-effective solution to extend the basic ACC sensor function in order to simultaneously provide a vehicle-to-vehicle radio link. This millimetre wave radio link transmits relevant broadband perception data (video, localization...) to following vehicles, along the line of vehicles. The propagation path between the vehicles uses essentially grazing angles of incidence of signals over the road surface including millimetre wave paths beneath the cars.

  12. Expendable launch vehicle studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainum, Peter M.; Reiss, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Analytical support studies of expendable launch vehicles concentrate on the stability of the dynamics during launch especially during or near the region of maximum dynamic pressure. The in-plane dynamic equations of a generic launch vehicle with multiple flexible bending and fuel sloshing modes are developed and linearized. The information from LeRC about the grids, masses, and modes is incorporated into the model. The eigenvalues of the plant are analyzed for several modeling factors: utilizing diagonal mass matrix, uniform beam assumption, inclusion of aerodynamics, and the interaction between the aerodynamics and the flexible bending motion. Preliminary PID, LQR, and LQG control designs with sensor and actuator dynamics for this system and simulations are also conducted. The initial analysis for comparison of PD (proportional-derivative) and full state feedback LQR Linear quadratic regulator) shows that the split weighted LQR controller has better performance than that of the PD. In order to meet both the performance and robustness requirements, the H(sub infinity) robust controller for the expendable launch vehicle is developed. The simulation indicates that both the performance and robustness of the H(sub infinity) controller are better than that for the PID and LQG controllers. The modelling and analysis support studies team has continued development of methodology, using eigensensitivity analysis, to solve three classes of discrete eigenvalue equations. In the first class, the matrix elements are non-linear functions of the eigenvector. All non-linear periodic motion can be cast in this form. Here the eigenvector is comprised of the coefficients of complete basis functions spanning the response space and the eigenvalue is the frequency. The second class of eigenvalue problems studied is the quadratic eigenvalue problem. Solutions for linear viscously damped structures or viscoelastic structures can be reduced to this form. Particular attention is paid to

  13. Driverless vehicles; Automatisches Fahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetting, H.H. [MSEE, Goetting KG, Lehrte (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    New sensor systems, radiocommunication and computer technology have speeded up progress in automation. Driverless vehicles are now feasible. They offer maximum mobility and driving comfort, arrival on time and with minimum environmental effects. Germany should make use of its technological advantage and start trial projects on public roads now. [German] Mit der neuen Sensor-, Funk- und Rechnertechnik ist Bewegung in die Automatisierung gekommen. Automatisches Fahren hat grosse Vorteile fuer unser Wirtschafts- und Sozialleben. Es bietet fuer uns alle ein hoechstes Mass an Mobilitaet, entspannter Bewegung, puenktlicher Ankunft, geringster Belastung fuer die Umwelt (weniger Kraftstoff, weniger Laerm, weniger Platzbedarf). Es ist jetzt entscheidend, dass wir unseren technologischen Vorsprung in Deutschland nutzen, und die ersten Erprobungsprojekte auf oeffentlichen Strassen starten. (orig.)

  14. Marketing of electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaerling, A.; Thoegersen, J.

    2001-01-01

    Substituting electric vehicles for traditional ones could reduce local pollution and greenhouse emissions from the transportation system. However, these societal benefits come at high costs to the owner of the EV in terms of price, driving range, availability, loading capacity, speed and acceleration. In addition, the usability of an EV is hampered by the lack of an infrastructure for recharging. Such a product hardly sells itself to potential customers. Besides supportive national policies, skillful marketing is needed to get it accepted and diffused throughout society. This paper outlines a two-phase strategy for the marketing of EVs based on a discussion of current and expected future characteristics of EVs and on a review of research on early adopters. (author)

  15. Vehicle Detection and Classification Using Passive Infrared Sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Odat, Enas M.; Mousa, Mustafa; Claudel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    or multiple remote temperature sensors. We show an implementation of this device, and illustrate its performance in both traffic flow sensing. Field data shows that the sensor can detect vehicles with a 99% accuracy, in addition to estimating their speed

  16. Motor Torque Calculations For Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Chauhan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is estimated that 25 of the total cars across the world will run on electricity by 2025. An important component that is an integral part of all electric vehicles is the motor. The amount of torque that the driving motor delivers is what plays a decisive role in determining the speed acceleration and performance of an electric vehicle. The following work aims at simplifying the calculations required to decide the capacity of the motor that should be used to drive a vehicle of particular specifications.

  17. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    of heavier trucks moving at larger speeds, and partly because the authorities want to permit transportation of special heavy goods at a larger part of the road net. These needs will in many cases cause the strengthening of the bridges becomes necessary. In order to keep the expenses of such strengthening...... the results obtained using the numerical models given in details in "Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges : dynamic modelling of vehicles and bridges". The models are established using a ordinary vehicle which consists of a 48 t Scania with a 3 axle tractor and a 3 axle trailer, joined in a flexible hinge...

  18. High speed maglev design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Donald M.; He, Jianliang; Coffey, Howard

    1993-01-01

    A propulsion and stabilization system for an inductive repulsion type magnetically levitated vehicle which is propelled and suspended by a system which includes dividing the superconducting magnets into two types: a strong field magnet which is located vertically below the vehicle for propulsion and guidance and a weak field superconducting magnet located at the ends of the vehicle for levitation and added guidance. Several proposed embodiments exist for the placement of the magnetic field shielding: locating the shielding on the vehicle, locating the shielding on the guideway, and locating the shielding on the guideway and adding shielding to the vertical undercarriage. In addition, the separation between the vehicle and the guideway can be controlled to reduce the exposure of the passenger cabin to magnetic fields.

  19. High speed maglev design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, D.M.; Jianliang He; Coffey, H.

    1993-10-19

    A propulsion and stabilization system for an inductive repulsion type magnetically levitated vehicle which is propelled and suspended by a system which includes dividing the superconducting magnets into two types: a strong field magnet which is located vertically below the vehicle for propulsion and guidance and a weak field superconducting magnet located at the ends of the vehicle for levitation and added guidance. Several proposed embodiments exist for the placement of the magnetic field shielding: locating the shielding on the vehicle, locating the shielding on the guideway, and locating the shielding on the guideway and adding shielding to the vertical undercarriage. In addition, the separation between the vehicle and the guideway can be controlled to reduce the exposure of the passenger cabin to magnetic fields. 4 figures.

  20. Motorcycle and scooter speeds approaching urban intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, D; Buchanan, J

    2012-09-01

    Five urban, uncontrolled T-intersections known to be motorcycle crash 'black spots' were monitored using instrumentation and a roadside observer. Two sets of twelve-hour observations were collected for each site (N≈100,000). Instrumentation recorded the 'events' of vehicles passing to measure, speed, direction, lane position, vehicle type (broadly characterised) and headway. Observers further recorded times of bicycle events, type of motorcycle (scooters or motorcycles), the behaviour of motorcycles and the use of 'high conspicuity' gear such as clothing or helmets. Results establish that motorcycles travel around 10% faster than the other traffic (car mean speed=34.97 km/h), with motorcycles travelling on average 3.3 km/h faster than cars. Motorcycles were 3.4 times more likely to be exceeding the speed limit than cars. Similar results are described for scooters. Also examined are the influences on mean speeds such as the time of day, the presence of a car at the t-intersection, and the influence of free headway. The results are compared for robustness across locations and days. It is concluded that in urban areas motorcycles are travelling significantly faster than other traffic. These findings are discussed against a concern to reduce motorcycle crashes by improving conspicuity and previous research that implicates a 'looked-but-failed-to-see' effect for car drivers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Speed and income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between speed and income is established in a microeconomic model focusing on the trade-off between travel time and the risk of receiving a penalty for exceeding the speed limit. This is used to determine when a rational driver will choose to exceed the speed limit. The relationship...... between speed and income is found again in the empirical analysis of a cross-sectional dataset comprising 60,000 observations of car trips. This is used to perform regressions of speed on income, distance travelled, and a number of controls. The results are clearly statistically significant and indicate...... an average income elasticity of speed of 0.02; it is smaller at short distances and about twice as large at the longest distance investigated of 200 km....

  2. Investigating Car Users’ Driving Behaviour through Speed Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Eboli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Speed has been identified for a long time as a key risk factor in road traffic: inappropriate speeds contribute to a relevant part of traffic accidents. Many literature studies have focused on the relationship between speed and accident risk. Starting from this consideration this paper investigates traffic accident risk by analysing the travelling speeds recorded by real tests on the road. A survey was conducted to collect experimental speed values in a real context. A specific road segment, belonging to an Italian rural two-lane road, was repeatedly run by 27 drivers in order to collect the instantaneous speed values for each trajectory. Smartphone-equipped vehicles were used to record continuous speed data. The recorded data were used to calculate: the average speed, 50th and 85th percentile speed for each geometric element of the analysed road segment. The main result of the research is the classification of car users’ driving behaviour based on the speed values. By using the above mentioned ranges of speed, the classification provides three types of driving behaviour: safe, unsafe, and safe but potentially dangerous. It was found that only four drivers feature “safe” behaviour, driving in a safe manner on most of the road elements. However, the major part of drivers, even if they feature safe behaviour, could be dangerous for other drivers because they drive at very low speeds.

  3. Generic penetration in the retail atypical antipsychotic market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenderts, Susan; Kalali, Amir H; Buckley, Peter

    2010-03-01

    In this article, we explore the penetration of generic atypical antipsychotics in the United States market before and after the availability of generic risperidone in July 2008. Analysis suggests that, overall, generic penetration into the atypical antipsychotic market has grown from approximately three percent in January 2008 to more than 25 percent in December 2009. Similar trends are uncovered when branded and generic prescriptions are analyzed by specialty.

  4. Super high-speed magnetically levitated system approaches: practical use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, S; Nakao, H; Takemasa, H

    1988-01-01

    The JR-MAGLEV, utilizing superconducting magnets, has been under development since 1970 with the manufacturing of a succession of trial vehicles such as the LSM 200, ML 100, ML 500 and MLU 001. In 1979, the ML 500 trial vehicle achieved a world-record speed of 517 km/h. This was followed by the MLU 001, which recorded a speed of 350 km/h as a 3-car formation in 1986 and 400 km/h as a 2-car formation with passengers in 1987. As a result of the satisfactory results obtained by the MLU 001, a prototype vehicle for commercial service, the MLU 002, was manufactured in March 1988 and is now under testing at the Miyazaki test track, with the aim of achieving a target operational speed of 420 km/h.

  5. Development of a lightweight fuel cell vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J. J.; Wang, D. Y.; Shih, N. C.

    This paper described the development of a fuel cell system and its integration into the lightweight vehicle known as the Mingdao hydrogen vehicle (MHV). The fuel cell system consists of a 5-kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), a microcontroller and other supported components like a compressed hydrogen cylinder, blower, solenoid valve, pressure regulator, water pump, heat exchanger and sensors. The fuel cell not only propels the vehicle but also powers the supporting components. The MHV performs satisfactorily over a hundred-kilometer drive thus validating the concept of a fuel cell powered zero-emission vehicle. Measurements further show that the fuel cell system has an efficiency of over 30% at the power consumption for vehicle cruise, which is higher than that of a typical internal combustion engine. Tests to improve performance such as speed enhancement, acceleration and fuel efficiency will be conducted in the future work. Such tests will consist of hybridizing with a battery pack.

  6. CHOOSING THE POWER OF TRACTION ELECTRIC MOTORS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    OpenAIRE

    O. Smirnov; A. Borisenko

    2017-01-01

    Recommendations on choosing the power of the electric motor, depending on the weight of the vehicle, its speed and the run distance in the «only electricity» mode are developed. Based on mathematical modeling and a number of field tests of electric vehicles, a three-dimensional dependance of the power on the weight and the speed set is built and conclusions are presented.

  7. CHOOSING THE POWER OF TRACTION ELECTRIC MOTORS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Smirnov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations on choosing the power of the electric motor, depending on the weight of the vehicle, its speed and the run distance in the «only electricity» mode are developed. Based on mathematical modeling and a number of field tests of electric vehicles, a three-dimensional dependance of the power on the weight and the speed set is built and conclusions are presented.

  8. Drag reduction of a rapid vehicle in supercavitating flow

    OpenAIRE

    D. Yang; Y.L. Xiong; X.F. Guo

    2017-01-01

    Supercavitation is one of the most attractive technologies to achieve high speed for underwater vehicles. However, the multiphase flow with high-speed around the supercavitating vehicle (SCV) is difficult to simulate accurately. In this paper, we use modified the turbulent viscosity formula in the Standard K-Epsilon (SKE) turbulent model to simulate the supercavitating flow. The numerical results of flow over several typical cavitators are in agreement with the experimental data and theoretic...

  9. A PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle real time control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongqiao

    In recent years, environmental friendly technologies and alternative energy solutions have drawn a lot of public attentions due to global energy crisis and pollution issues. Fuel cell (FC), a technology invented almost at the same time as the internal combustion (IC) engine, is now the focus of the automotive industry again. The fuel cell vehicle (FCV) has zero emission and its efficiency is significantly higher than the conventional IC engine power vehicles. Among a variety of FCV technologies, proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC vehicle appears to be far more attractive and mature. The prototype PEMFC vehicle has been developed and demonstrated to the public by nearly all the major automotive manufacturers in recent years. However, to the interest of the public research, publications and documentations on the PEMFC vehicle technology are rarely available due to its proprietary nature, which essentially makes it a secured technology. This dissertation demonstrates a real world application of a PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle. Through presenting the vehicle design concept, developing the real time control system and generating generic operation principles, this dissertation targets at establishing the public knowledge base on this new technology. A complete PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle design, including vehicle components layout, process flow diagram, real time control system architecture, subsystem structures and control algorithms, is presented in order to help understand the whole vehicle system. The design concept is validated through the vehicle demonstration. Generic operating principles are established along with the validation process, which helps populate this emerging technology. Thereafter, further improvements and future research directions are discussed.

  10. Design, Analysis and Qualification of Elevon for Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. B.; Suresh, R.; Krishnadasan, C. K.

    2017-12-01

    Reusable launch vehicle technology demonstrator is configured as a winged body vehicle, designed to fly in hypersonic, supersonic and subsonic regimes. The vehicle will be boosted to hypersonic speeds after which the winged body separates and descends using aerodynamic control. The aerodynamic control is achieved using the control surfaces mainly the rudder and the elevon. Elevons are deflected for pitch and roll control of the vehicle at various flight conditions. Elevons are subjected to aerodynamic, thermal and inertial loads during the flight. This paper gives details about the configuration, design, qualification and flight validation of elevon for Reusable Launch Vehicle.

  11. High speed atom source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Hitoshi.

    1990-01-01

    In a high speed atom source, since the speed is not identical between ions and electrons, no sufficient neutralizing effect for ionic rays due to the mixing of the ionic rays and the electron rays can be obtained failing to obtain high speed atomic rays at high density. In view of the above, a speed control means is disposed for equalizing the speed of ions forming ionic rays and the speed of electrons forming electron rays. Further, incident angle of the electron rays and/or ionic rays to a magnet or an electrode is made variable. As a result, the relative speed between the ions and the electrons to the processing direction is reduced to zero, in which the probability of association between the ions and the electrons due to the coulomb force is increased to improve the neutralizing efficiency to easily obtain fine and high density high speed electron rays. Further, by varying the incident angle, a track capable of obtaining an ideal mixing depending on the energy of the neutralized ionic rays is formed. Since the high speed electron rays has such high density, they can be irradiated easily to the minute region of the specimen. (N.H.)

  12. Computer ray tracing speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, P; Pawlowski, B

    1990-05-01

    The results of measuring the ray trace speed and compilation speed of thirty-nine computers in fifty-seven configurations, ranging from personal computers to super computers, are described. A correlation of ray trace speed has been made with the LINPACK benchmark which allows the ray trace speed to be estimated using LINPACK performance data. The results indicate that the latest generation of workstations, using CPUs based on RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) technology, are as fast or faster than mainframe computers in compute-bound situations.

  13. Emergency vehicle traffic signal preemption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron D. (Inventor); Foster, Conrad F. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An emergency vehicle traffic light preemption system for preemption of traffic lights at an intersection to allow safe passage of emergency vehicles. The system includes a real-time status monitor of an intersection which is relayed to a control module for transmission to emergency vehicles as well as to a central dispatch office. The system also provides for audio warnings at an intersection to protect pedestrians who may not be in a position to see visual warnings or for various reasons cannot hear the approach of emergency vehicles. A transponder mounted on an emergency vehicle provides autonomous control so the vehicle operator can attend to getting to an emergency and not be concerned with the operation of the system. Activation of a priority-code (i.e. Code-3) situation provides communications with each intersection being approached by an emergency vehicle and indicates whether the intersection is preempted or if there is any conflict with other approaching emergency vehicles. On-board diagnostics handle various information including heading, speed, and acceleration sent to a control module which is transmitted to an intersection and which also simultaneously receives information regarding the status of an intersection. Real-time communications and operations software allow central and remote monitoring, logging, and command of intersections and vehicles.

  14. 40 CFR 721.9973 - Zirconium dichlorides (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Zirconium dichlorides (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9973 Zirconium dichlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as zirconium dichlorides (PMNs P...

  15. 40 CFR 721.2083 - Polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hydroxylamine (generic). 721.2083 Section 721.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2083 Polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (generic). (a... generically as a polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (PMN P-97-878) is subject to reporting under...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5350 - Substituted nitrile (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted nitrile (generic name... Substances § 721.5350 Substituted nitrile (generic name). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted nitrile (PMN P-83...

  17. 40 CFR 721.555 - Alkyl amino nitriles (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). 721... Substances § 721.555 Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl amino nitriles (PMNs P-96...

  18. A developmental analysis of generic nouns in Southern Peruvian Quechua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheim, Bruce; Gelman, Susan A; Escalante, Carmen; Huayhua, Margarita; Puma, Rosalía

    2010-01-01

    Generic noun phrases (e.g., "Cats like to drink milk") are a primary means by which adults express generalizations to children, yet they pose a challenging induction puzzle for learners. Although prior research has established that English speakers understand and produce generic noun phrases by preschool age, little is known regarding the cross-cultural generality of generic acquisition. Southern Peruvian Quechua provides a valuable comparison because, unlike English, it is a highly inflected language in which generics are marked by the absence rather than the presence of any linguistic markers. Moreover, Quechua is spoken in a cultural context that differs markedly from the highly educated, middle-class contexts within which earlier research on generics was conducted. We presented participants from 5 age groups (3-6, 7-9, 10-12, 14-35, and 36-90 years of age) with two tasks that examined the ability to distinguish generic from non-generic utterances. In Study 1, even the youngest children understood generics as applying broadly to a category (like "all") and distinct from indefinite reference ("some"). However, there was a developmental lag before children understood that generics, unlike "all", can include exceptions. Study 2 revealed that generic interpretations are more frequent for utterances that (a) lack specifying markers and (b) are animate. Altogether, generic interpretations are found among the youngest participants, and may be a default mode of quantification. These data demonstrate the cross-cultural importance of generic information in linguistic expression.

  19. 40 CFR 721.9959 - Polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9959 Polyurethane polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (PMN P-01...

  20. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate polymer...

  1. Dynamics and Control of Non-Smooth Systems with Applications to Supercavitating Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Title of dissertation: Dynamics and Control of Non-Smooth Systems with Applications to Supercavitating Vehicles Vincent Nguyen, Doctor of...relates to the dynamics of non-smooth vehicle systems, and in particular, supercavitating vehicles. These high-speed under- water vehicles are...Applications to Supercavitating Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK

  2. [The patents game. Generic and biosimilar drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamañán, E; González, D; Armada, E; Ruano, M; Álvarez-Sala, R; Herrero, A

    2016-01-01

    The protection provided by patents on medicines has a limited duration. The expiry of patents expiration allows copies of the drugs to be released, competing with original. At first, they were identical to the original, known as generic drugs, but in recent years, due to the marketing of biological therapies and the expiry of many of their patents, biosimilar drugs have also emerged. These are not exact copies of the original, but, like generic drugs, biosimilar drugs have to demonstrate equivalence to the reference drugs in quality, safety and efficacy. Nevertheless, despite their importance and contribution to sustainability of health system, doctors are sometimes unaware of differences between them, and their impact in terms of clinical and economic effects. An attempt is made to review and clarify certain aspects often unknown by physicians, despite their involvement in their use. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Generic Structure Potential of Christian Apologetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwu Inya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Religious texts have been examined by scholars from different theoretical standpoints. However, a close survey of the literature reveals that little attention has been paid to Christian apologetics from a linguistic perspective. Also, an examination of studies along the lines of Generic Structure Potential (henceforth GSP shows that the genre status of Christian apologetics has not been indicated. This gap provides the motivation for this paper, which investigates the GSP of Christian apologetics. Twenty texts written by various key contemporary apologetic writers were purposively selected for the study. The following generic structure potential catalogue was generated:The paper reveals that the elements of the GSP concertedly work to advance, argue for or defend the Christian belief system. The paper also suggests that the model could be applied to other forms of apologetic instances.

  4. Generic Sensor Failure Modeling for Cooperative Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Georg; Zug, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    The advent of cooperative systems entails a dynamic composition of their components. As this contrasts current, statically composed systems, new approaches for maintaining their safety are required. In that endeavor, we propose an integration step that evaluates the failure model of shared information in relation to an application’s fault tolerance and thereby promises maintainability of such system’s safety. However, it also poses new requirements on failure models, which are not fulfilled by state-of-the-art approaches. Consequently, this work presents a mathematically defined generic failure model as well as a processing chain for automatically extracting such failure models from empirical data. By examining data of an Sharp GP2D12 distance sensor, we show that the generic failure model not only fulfills the predefined requirements, but also models failure characteristics appropriately when compared to traditional techniques. PMID:29558435

  5. An Internet of Things Generic Reference Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhalerao, Dipashree M.; Riaz, Tahir; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2013-01-01

    Internet of things Network is a future application of Internet. This network has three major basic blocks as business process or Application, core network or internetwork and peripheral network as Things or objects. The assembly has the basic intention of connecting all physical and virtual things......, and keeping track of all these things for monitoring and controlling some information. IoT architecture is studied from software architecture, overall system architecture and network architecture point of view. Paper puts forward the requirements of software architecture along with, its component...... and deployment diagram, process and interface diagram at abstract level. Paper proposes the abstract generic IoT reference and concrete abstract generic IoT reference architectures. Network architecture is also put up as a state of the art. Paper shortly gives overviews of protocols used for IoT. Some...

  6. U.S. NRC's generic issues program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, J.V.; Foster, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has a Generic Issues Program (GIP) to address Generic Issues (GI). A GI is defined as 'a regulatory matter involving the design, construction, operation, or decommissioning of several, or a class of, NRC licensees or certificate holders that is not sufficiently addressed by existing rules, guidance, or programs'. This rather legalistic definition has several practical corollaries: First, a GI must involve safety. Second, the issue must involve at least two plants, or it would be a plant-specific issue rather than a GI. Third, the potential safety question must not be covered by existing regulations and guidance (compliance). Thus, the effect of a GI is to potentially change the body of regulations and associated guidance (e.g., regulatory guides). The GIP was started in 1976, thus it is a relatively mature program. Approximately 850 issues have been processed by the program to date. More importantly, even after 30 years, new GIs continue to be proposed. The entire set of Generic Issues (GIs) is updated annually in NUREG-0933, 'A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues'. GIs normally involve complex questions of safety and regulation. Efficient and effective means of addressing these issues are very important for regulatory effectiveness. If an issue proves to pose a genuine, significant safety question, then swift, effective, enforceable, and cost-effective action needs to be taken. Conversely, if an issue is of little safety significance, the issue should be dismissed in an expeditious manner, avoiding unnecessary expenditure of resources and regulatory burden or uncertainty. This paper provides a summary of the 5-stage program, from identification through the regulatory assessment stage. The paper also includes a discussion of the program's seven criteria, sources of proposed GIs, recent improvements, publicly available information, historical performance, and status of current GIs. (authors)

  7. Molten salts processes and generic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Toru; Minato, Kazuo

    2001-01-01

    Development of dry separation process (pyrochemical process) using molten salts for the application of spent-nuclear fuel reprocessing requires a rather complete fundamental database as well as process simulation technique with wide applicability. The present report concerns recent progress and problems in this field taking behaviors of co-electrodeposition of UO 2 and PuO 2 in molten salts as an example, and using analytical simulation of local equilibrium combined with generic diffusion. (S. Ohno)

  8. Savannah River Site generic data base development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure database for the Savannah River Site (SRS). Additionally, guidelines were developed further for more advanced applications of database values. A representative list of components and failure modes for SRS risk models was generated by reviewing existing safety analyses and component failure data bases and from suggestions from SRS safety analysts. Then sources of data or failure rate estimates were identified and reviewed for applicability. A major source of information was the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability, or NUCLARR. This source includes an extensive collection of failure data and failure rate estimates for commercial nuclear power plants. A recent Idaho National Engineering Laboratory report on failure data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was also reviewed. From these and other recent sources, failure data and failure rate estimates were collected for the components and failure modes of interest. For each component failure mode, this information was aggregated to obtain a recommended generic failure rate distribution (mean and error factor based on a lognormal distribution). Results are presented in a table in this report. A major difference between generic database and previous efforts is that this effort estimates failure rates based on actual data (failure events) rather than on existing failure rate estimates. This effort was successful in that over 75% of the results are now based on actual data. Also included is a section on guidelines for more advanced applications of failure rate data. This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure database for the Savannah River site (SRS). Additionally, guidelines were developed further for more advanced applications of database values

  9. Molten salts processes and generic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Toru; Minato, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    Development of dry separation process (pyrochemical process) using molten salts for the application of spent-nuclear fuel reprocessing requires a rather complete fundamental database as well as process simulation technique with wide applicability. The present report concerns recent progress and problems in this field taking behaviors of co-electrodeposition of UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} in molten salts as an example, and using analytical simulation of local equilibrium combined with generic diffusion. (S. Ohno)

  10. Agricultural Market Structure, Generic Advertising, and Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Cardon, James H.; Pope, Rulon D.

    2003-01-01

    This analysis begins with a definition and discussion of productive advertising. Then, following Dixit and Norman, persuasive advertising is used to study the welfare effects of generic advertising by marketing orders. The study first examines horizontal competition when the competing advertiser is a monopoly, and results show that the socially optimal level of advertising for a competitive marketing order is positive only if advertising raises monopoly output. Next, advertising choices of a ...

  11. Generic superweak chaos induced by Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Harush, Moti; Dana, Itzhack

    2016-05-01

    We introduce and study the "kicked Hall system" (KHS), i.e., charged particles periodically kicked in the presence of uniform magnetic (B ) and electric (E ) fields that are perpendicular to each other and to the kicking direction. We show that for resonant values of B and E and in the weak-chaos regime of sufficiently small nonintegrability parameter κ (the kicking strength), there exists a generic family of periodic kicking potentials for which the Hall effect from B and E significantly suppresses the weak chaos, replacing it by "superweak" chaos (SWC). This means that the system behaves as if the kicking strength were κ2 rather than κ . For E =0 , SWC is known to be a classical fingerprint of quantum antiresonance, but it occurs under much less generic conditions, in particular only for very special kicking potentials. Manifestations of SWC are a decrease in the instability of periodic orbits and a narrowing of the chaotic layers, relative to the ordinary weak-chaos case. Also, for global SWC, taking place on an infinite "stochastic web" in phase space, the chaotic diffusion on the web is much slower than the weak-chaos one. Thus, the Hall effect can be relatively stabilizing for small κ . In some special cases, the effect is shown to cause ballistic motion for almost all parameter values. The generic global SWC on stochastic webs in the KHS appears to be the two-dimensional closest analog to the Arnol'd web in higher dimensional systems.

  12. Generic legislation of new psychoactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Nutt, David; van den Brink, Wim

    2013-03-01

    New psychoactive drugs (NPDs, new psychoactive substances) enter the market all the time. However, it takes several months to ban these NPDs and immediate action is generally not possible. Several European countries and drug enforcement officers insist on a faster procedure to ban NPDs. Introduction of generic legislation, in which clusters of psychotropic drugs are banned in advance, has been mentioned as a possible solution. Here we discuss the pros and cons of such an approach. First, generic legislation could unintentionally increase the expenditures of enforcement, black market practices, administrative burden and health risks for users. Second, it may have a negative impact on research and the development of new treatments. Third, due to the complexity of generic legislation, problems in the enforcement are anticipated due to lack of knowledge about the chemical nomenclature. Finally, various legal options are already available to ban the use, sale and trade of NPDs. We therefore conclude that the currently used scientific benefit-risk evaluation should be continued to limit the adverse health effects of NPDs. Only in emergency cases, where fatal incidents (may) occur, should this approach be overruled.

  13. Generic programming for deterministic neutron transport codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plagne, L.; Poncot, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of neutron transport codes via generic programming techniques. Two different Boltzmann equation approximations have been implemented, namely the Sn and SPn methods. This implementation experiment shows that generic programming allows us to improve maintainability and readability of source codes with no performance penalties compared to classical approaches. In the present implementation, matrices and vectors as well as linear algebra algorithms are treated separately from the rest of source code and gathered in a tool library called 'Generic Linear Algebra Solver System' (GLASS). Such a code architecture, based on a linear algebra library, allows us to separate the three different scientific fields involved in transport codes design: numerical analysis, reactor physics and computer science. Our library handles matrices with optional storage policies and thus applies both to Sn code, where the matrix elements are computed on the fly, and to SPn code where stored matrices are used. Thus, using GLASS allows us to share a large fraction of source code between Sn and SPn implementations. Moreover, the GLASS high level of abstraction allows the writing of numerical algorithms in a form which is very close to their textbook descriptions. Hence the GLASS algorithms collection, disconnected from computer science considerations (e.g. storage policy), is very easy to read, to maintain and to extend. (authors)

  14. Vehicle motion-state-estimation using distributed sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijs, J.; Papp, Z.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Knowing the position and speed of the vehicles on the road network in real-time is one of the major challenges that vehicle control and traffic management applications are facing. Wireless sensor networks received significant attention in the last decade and successful research put them in the

  15. Endurance in speed skating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, G.H.; Sterken, E.

    2002-01-01

    We analyse the development of world records speed skating from 1893 to 2000 for bothmen and women. The historical data show that it is likely that the relation betweenskating speed and distance of the various events is non-linear and converges to a limitvalue. We pay special attention to technical

  16. Endurance in speed skating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Gerard H.; Sterken, Elmer

    2001-01-01

    We analyse the development of world records speed skating from 1893 to 2000 for both men and women. The historical data show that it is likely that the relation between skating speed and distance of the various events is non-linear and converges to a limit value. We pay special attention to

  17. Tool-driven Design and Automated Parameterization for Real-time Generic Drivetrain Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz Christina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time dynamic drivetrain modeling approaches have a great potential for development cost reduction in the automotive industry. Even though real-time drivetrain models are available, these solutions are specific to single transmission topologies. In this paper an environment for parameterization of a solution is proposed based on a generic method applicable to all types of gear transmission topologies. This enables tool-guided modeling by non- experts in the fields of mechanic engineering and control theory leading to reduced development and testing efforts. The approach is demonstrated for an exemplary automatic transmission using the environment for automated parameterization. Finally, the parameterization is validated via vehicle measurement data.

  18. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction for a Generic Truck Using Geometrically Optimized Rear Cabin Bumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Ait Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous surge in gas prices has raised major concerns about vehicle fuel efficiency, and drag reduction devices offer a promising strategy. In this paper, we investigate the mechanisms by which geometrically optimized bumps, placed on the rear end of the cabin roof of a generic truck, reduce aerodynamic drag. The incorporation of these devices requires proper choices of the size, location, and overall geometry. In the following analysis we identify these factors using a novel methodology. The numerical technique combines automatic modeling of the add-ons, computational fluid dynamics and optimization using orthogonal arrays, and probabilistic restarts. Numerical results showed reduction in aerodynamic drag between 6% and 10%.

  19. Connected vehicle application : safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), and vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) data transmissions. Applications...

  20. The dynamic behaviour of a railway mine vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Manen, P.; Brickle, B.V.

    1983-06-01

    The paper describes a mathematical model of a railway mine vehicle which is capable of predicting its dynamic behaviour in response to track inputs. The predictions of the model have been compared with the results of tests carried out on a new high speed mine vehicle and the correlation shown is good. The model yields frequency response information for the vehicle and may be used to simulate dynamic behaviour in response to track irregularities. (4 refs.)

  1. Piecewise affine control for fast unmanned ground vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Benine Neto , André; Grand , Christophe

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) may experience skidding when moving at high speeds, and therefore have its safety jeopardized. For this reason the nonlinear dynamics of lateral tire forces must be taken into account into the design of steering controllers for autonomous vehicles. This paper presents the design of a state feedback piecewise affine controller applied to an UGV to coordinate the steering and torque distribution inputs in order to reduce vehicle skidding on...

  2. M1078 Hybrid Hydraulic Vehicle Fuel Economy Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    hydraulic energy stored in the accumulators. Park Mechanism Not Required – Vehicle air brake system used to immobilize vehicle when parked – Same...power to the transmission to accelerate the vehicle forward and maintain a desired speed. For regenerative braking , the switching valve is set to...assist, brake energy recovery, dual mode braking ( regenerative and service brakes ), engine stop/start, silent watch mode, and stationary tool use

  3. The Diesel as a Vehicle Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Kurt

    1928-01-01

    The thorough investigation of a Dorner four-cylinder, four-stroke-cycle Diesel engine with mechanical injection led me to investigate more thoroughly the operation of the Diesel as a vehicle engine. Aside from the obvious need of reliability of functioning, a high rotative speed, light weight and economy in heat consumption per horsepower are also indispensable requirements.

  4. Investigation of the Link Between Macroscopic Traffic Flow Characteristics and Individual Vehicle Fuel Consumption : Tech Transfer Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the impacts of several factors, including vehicle characteristics, ambient temperature, season, speed, driving behavior, and traffic flow, on individual vehicle energy consumption.

  5. Quieter Cars and the Safety of Blind Pedestrians, Phase 2 : Development of Potential Specifications for Vehicle Countermeasure Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This project performed research to support the development of potential specifications for vehicle : sounds, (i.e., audible countermeasures) to be used in vehicles while operating in electric mode in specific low speed : conditions. The purpose of th...

  6. Estimation of Engine Intake Air Mass Flow using a generic Speed-Density method

    OpenAIRE

    Vojtíšek Michal; Kotek Martin

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of real driving emissions (RDE) from internal combustion engines under real-world operation using portable, onboard monitoring systems (PEMS) is becoming an increasingly important tool aiding the assessment of the effects of new fuels and technologies on environment and human health. The knowledge of exhaust flow is one of the prerequisites for successful RDE measurement with PEMS. One of the simplest approaches for estimating the exhaust flow from virtually any engine is its comp...

  7. Detection and 3d Modelling of Vehicles from Terrestrial Stereo Image Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, M.; Rottensteiner, F.; Heipke, C.

    2017-05-01

    The detection and pose estimation of vehicles plays an important role for automated and autonomous moving objects e.g. in autonomous driving environments. We tackle that problem on the basis of street level stereo images, obtained from a moving vehicle. Processing every stereo pair individually, our approach is divided into two subsequent steps: the vehicle detection and the modelling step. For the detection, we make use of the 3D stereo information and incorporate geometric assumptions on vehicle inherent properties in a firstly applied generic 3D object detection. By combining our generic detection approach with a state of the art vehicle detector, we are able to achieve satisfying detection results with values for completeness and correctness up to more than 86%. By fitting an object specific vehicle model into the vehicle detections, we are able to reconstruct the vehicles in 3D and to derive pose estimations as well as shape parameters for each vehicle. To deal with the intra-class variability of vehicles, we make use of a deformable 3D active shape model learned from 3D CAD vehicle data in our model fitting approach. While we achieve encouraging values up to 67.2% for correct position estimations, we are facing larger problems concerning the orientation estimation. The evaluation is done by using the object detection and orientation estimation benchmark of the KITTI dataset (Geiger et al., 2012).

  8. Sensitivity Analysis of the Critical Speed in Railway Vehicle Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigoni, Daniele; True, Hans; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2014-01-01

    We present an approach to global sensitivity analysis aiming at the reduction of its computational cost without compromising the results. The method is based on sampling methods, cubature rules, High-Dimensional Model Representation and Total Sensitivity Indices. The approach has a general applic...

  9. Generic Switching and Non-Persistence among Medicine Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette; Andersen, Morten; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Generic substitution means that one medicinal product is replaced by another product containing the same active substance. It is strictly regulated with respect to its bioequivalence, and all products must have undergone appropriate studies. Although generic substitution is widely...... implemented, it still remains to be answered how generic switch influences persistence to long-term treatment, and if it is modified by patients' concerns about medicine and views on generic medicine. This study focuses on users of antidepressants and antiepileptics, and their experience of generic switching....... METHODS: The study was an observational cohort study. By use of a prescription database, we identified patients who had redeemed prescriptions on generically substitutable drugs, and a questionnaire was mailed to them. We analyzed predictors of discontinuation in relation to generic switch and patients...

  10. Current front stiffness of European vehicles with regard to compatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, J.; Beer, E. de

    2001-01-01

    EuroNCAP tests are carried out since 1997. The test procedure in general is comparable to the EC Directive 96/79 with a test speed of 64 km/h. This increased test speed implies a higher frontal stiffness for new vehicle designs in order to achieve a high ranking. This frontal stiffness is one of the

  11. Excessive yaw behaviour of commercial vehicles: a fundamental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauwelussen, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Rollover of trucks is a major problem. In The Netherlands, it occurs about twice a week, and the number is increasing. A factor contributing to this might be the maximised speed of commercial vehicles, not stimulating the driver to reduce this speed in potentially critically conditions. Several

  12. Connected vehicles and cybersecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicles are a next-generation technology in vehicles and in infrastructure that will make travel safer, cleaner, and more efficient. The advanced wireless technology enables vehicles to share and communicate information with each other and...

  13. Advances on generic exemption levels and generic clearance levels in the argentinean regulatory field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñiz, C.C.; Bossio, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of optimizing the regulatory effort in Argentina, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) evaluated two worldwide concepts used in the radioactive waste management field: “Generic Exemption Levels” and “Generic Clearance Levels”. The objective of this paper is to present the progress made in the past two years in relation to these topics and to present the results of the specific requests received from users of radioactive material. Since the approval of both Generic Levels, the ARN received two exemption requests. The first one, regarding the practice of dismantling lighting rods with 241 Am. The other case regards the international trade, distribution, usage and final disposal of lighting products with radioactive material ( 85 Kr and 232 Th). Concerning clearance, there has not been any request yet. However, in the future the ARN expects to receive this kind of requests from nuclear power plants and other facilities related to the nuclear fuel cycle. (authors) [es

  14. A generic coordinate system and a set of generic variables for MFE database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miner, W.H. Jr.; Ross, D.W.; Solano, E.R.; Valanju, P.M.; Wiley, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last several years, profile data from nine different tokamaks have been stored in the magnetic fusion energy database (MFEDB). These data sets have come from a variety of sources and most are given in different coordinate systems. In order to attempt any intermachine analysis, it is convenient to transform these data sets into one generic coordinate system and to choose a uniform set of variable names. The authors describe the data sets from each tokamak indicating the source of the data and the coordinate system in which it is given. Next, they discuss the generic coordinate that has been adopted and show how it is implemented for each tokamak. Finally, the generic naming convention that has been adopted is discussed. It follows closely that which was used by Christiansen et al. for the ITER Global Energy Confinement H-Mode Database. For further clarification, they discuss the characteristics of the magnetic geometry given a Fourier representation of the magnetic equilibria

  15. Perceived enjoyment, concentration, intention, and speed violation behavior: Using flow theory and theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atombo, Charles; Wu, Chaozhong; Zhang, Hui; Wemegah, Tina D

    2017-10-03

    Road accidents are an important public health concern, and speeding is a major contributor. Although flow theory (FLT) is a valid model for understanding behavior, currently the nature of the roles and interplay of FLT constructs within the theory of planned behavior (TPB) framework when attempting to explain the determinants of motivations for intention to speed and speeding behavior of car drivers is not yet known. The study aims to synthesize TPB and FLT in explaining drivers of advanced vehicles intentions to speed and speed violation behaviors and evaluate factors that are critical for explaining intention and behavior. The hypothesized model was validated using a sample collected from 354 fully licensed drivers of advanced vehicles, involving 278 males and 76 females on 2 occasions separated by a 3-month interval. During the first of the 2 occasions, participants completed questionnaire measures of TPB and FLT variables. Three months later, participants' speed violation behaviors were assessed. The study observed a significant positive relationship between the constructs. The proposed model accounted for 51 and 45% of the variance in intention to speed and speed violation behavior, respectively. The independent predictors of intention were enjoyment, attitude, and subjective norm. The independent predictors of speed violation behavior were enjoyment, concentration, intention, and perceived behavioral control. The findings suggest that safety interventions for preventing speed violation behaviors should be aimed at underlying beliefs influencing the speeding behaviors of drivers of advanced vehicles. Furthermore, perceived enjoyment is of equal importance to driver's intention, influencing speed violation behavior.

  16. Dynamic Eco-Driving Speed Guidance at Signalized Intersections: Multivehicle Driving Simulator Based Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in vehicle fuel consumption and gas emissions are usually associated with changes in cruise speed and the aggressiveness of drivers’ acceleration/deceleration, especially at traffic signals. In an attempt to enhance vehicle fuel efficiency on arterials, this study developed a dynamic eco-driving speed guidance strategy (DESGS using real-time signal timing and vehicle positioning information in a connected vehicle (CV environment. DESGS mainly aims to optimize the fuel/emission speed profiles for vehicles approaching signalized intersections. An optimization-based rolling horizon and a dynamic programming approach were proposed to track the optimal guided velocity for individual vehicles along the travel segment. In addition, a vehicle specific power (VSP based approach was integrated into DESGS to estimate the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. To evaluate the effectiveness of the overall strategy, 15 experienced drivers were recruited to participate in interactive speed guidance experiments using multivehicle driving simulators. It was found that compared to vehicles without speed guidance, those with DESGS had a significantly reduced number of stops and approximately 25% less fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.

  17. Radionuclide transport behavior in a generic geological radioactive waste repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Marco; Liu, Hui-Hai; Birkholzer, Jens T

    2015-01-01

    We performed numerical simulations of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport to study the influence of several factors, including the ambient hydraulic gradient, groundwater pressure anomalies, and the properties of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ), on the prevailing transport mechanism (i.e., advection or molecular diffusion) in a generic nuclear waste repository within a clay-rich geological formation. By comparing simulation results, we show that the EDZ plays a major role as a preferential flowpath for radionuclide transport. When the EDZ is not taken into account, transport is dominated by molecular diffusion in almost the totality of the simulated domain, and transport velocity is about 40% slower. Modeling results also show that a reduction in hydraulic gradient leads to a greater predominance of diffusive transport, slowing down radionuclide transport by about 30% with respect to a scenario assuming a unit gradient. In addition, inward flow caused by negative pressure anomalies in the clay-rich formation further reduces transport velocity, enhancing the ability of the geological barrier to contain the radioactive waste. On the other hand, local high gradients associated with positive pressure anomalies can speed up radionuclide transport with respect to steady-state flow systems having the same regional hydraulic gradients. Transport behavior was also found to be sensitive to both geometrical and hydrogeological parameters of the EDZ. Results from this work can provide useful knowledge toward correctly assessing the post-closure safety of a geological disposal system. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  18. UniBoard: generic hardware for radio astronomy signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, J. E.

    2012-09-01

    UniBoard is a generic high-performance computing platform for radio astronomy, developed as a Joint Research Activity in the RadioNet FP7 Programme. The hardware comprises eight Altera Stratix IV Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) interconnected by a high speed transceiver mesh. Each FPGA is connected to two DDR3 memory modules and three external 10Gbps ports. In addition, a total of 128 low voltage differential input lines permit connection to external ADC cards. The DSP capability of the board exceeds 644E9 complex multiply-accumulate operations per second. The first production run of eight boards was distributed to partners in The Netherlands, France, Italy, UK, China and Korea in May 2011, with a further production runs completed in December 2011 and early 2012. The function of the board is determined by the firmware loaded into its FPGAs. Current applications include beamformers, correlators, digital receivers, RFI mitigation for pulsar astronomy, and pulsar gating and search machines The new UniBoard based correlator for the European VLBI network (EVN) uses an FX architecture with half the resources of the board devoted to station based processing: delay and phase correction and channelization, and half to the correlation function. A single UniBoard can process a 64MHz band from 32 stations, 2 polarizations, sampled at 8 bit. Adding more UniBoards can expand the total bandwidth of the correlator. The design is able to process both prerecorded and real time (eVLBI) data.

  19. Generic Dynamic Environment Perception Using Smart Mobile Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danescu, Radu; Itu, Razvan; Petrovai, Andra

    2016-10-17

    The driving environment is complex and dynamic, and the attention of the driver is continuously challenged, therefore computer based assistance achieved by processing image and sensor data may increase traffic safety. While active sensors and stereovision have the advantage of obtaining 3D data directly, monocular vision is easy to set up, and can benefit from the increasing computational power of smart mobile devices, and from the fact that almost all of them come with an embedded camera. Several driving assistance application are available for mobile devices, but they are mostly targeted for simple scenarios and a limited range of obstacle shapes and poses. This paper presents a technique for generic, shape independent real-time obstacle detection for mobile devices, based on a dynamic, free form 3D representation of the environment: the particle based occupancy grid. Images acquired in real time from the smart mobile device's camera are processed by removing the perspective effect and segmenting the resulted bird-eye view image to identify candidate obstacle areas, which are then used to update the occupancy grid. The occupancy grid tracked cells are grouped into obstacles depicted as cuboids having position, size, orientation and speed. The easy to set up system is able to reliably detect most obstacles in urban traffic, and its measurement accuracy is comparable to a stereovision system.

  20. Consumer choice between common generic and brand medicines in a country with a small generic market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraeyman, Jessica; Peeters, Lies; Van Hal, Guido; Beutels, Philippe; De Meyer, Guido R Y; De Loof, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Generic medicines offer an opportunity for governments to contain pharmaceutical expenditures, since generics are generally 10%-80% lower in price than brand medicines. Belgium has a small generic market that takes up 15% of the total pharmaceutical market in packages sold. To determine the knowledge of consumers about the different available packages of a common over-the-counter medicine (acetaminophen) with regard to price advantage, quality, and effectiveness in a country with a small generic market. We conducted an online survey in the general Flemish population using a questionnaire with 25 statements. The questionnaire also contained 2 informative interventions. First, we showed the price per package and per tablet that the patient would pay in the pharmacy. Second, we provided the respondent with general information about generic medication (equivalence, effectiveness, price, and recognition). Before and after the interventions, we probed for preferences and knowledge about the different packages. Multivariate logistic models were used to examine the independent effects of consumer characteristics on responses to the survey statements. We obtained a sample of 1,636 respondents. The general attitude towards generic medication was positive-only 5% would rather not use a generic. Nevertheless, only 17% of the respondents were able to recognize a generic medicine. Older consumers (aged 60 years and above) were more often confused about the different packages (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.76-3.80, P ≤ 0.001). Consumers without a higher education degree tended to be more doubtful about the difference in effectiveness and quality between the different brands (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.44-0.79, P ≤ 0.001). Consumer recognition of the name of the active substance of acetaminophen was poor. When different brands were displayed, possible price advantage seemed to be an important motive to switch to a cheaper brand. Consumers generally found medicines

  1. South African performance based standards (PBS) vehicle to transport steel pipes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dessein, T

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available measures the vehicle?s rollover stability. Rearward Amplification (RA) ? Measures the degree to which the lateral accelerations experienced by trailing units are amplified in comparison to that of the towing unit in a high speed evasive single lane...-speed 90? turn high-speed travel along a 1.0km long straight road with uneven road surface a pulse-steer test HVTT11: A South African PBS Vehicle to Transport Pipes 10 a constant radius turn at slowly increasing speed an evasive lane change...

  2. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems.DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  3. Generic drugs: myths, facts, and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marzo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioequivalence (BE has always been an important pharmaceutical area, particularly (but not solely in Mediterranean region, where the use of generic drugs is a relatively recent development. The lack of new therapeutic molecules has concentrated primary research in the hands of a few large pharmaceutical companies. For smaller companies, this has created opportunities for the development of new formulations of existing drugs (orodispersible tablets that dissolve in the mouth, extended-release tablets, transdermal delivery systems, generic drugs. These applications take advantage of the Abridged New Drug Application (ANDA procedure, which exempts them from a series of expensive investigations and limits the requirement for clinical testing to bioequivalence trials. Since 1991, bioequivalence trials have been regulated by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA and European Medicines Agency (EMA guidelines that provide precise indications on the most specific procedures to be adopted. In spite of these guidelines, however, some aspects of the process have not been fully defined, the most important of which regards the management of endogenous substances. Additional problems are how to manage bioequivalence protocols with drugs that have long half-lives and those whose clearance is characterized by high intrinsic variability. The view that bioequivalence data would be more reliable if they were based on studies in target populations is a myth to be discredited. The present paper reviews issues relative to pharmacokinetics (PK, bioavailability (BA, and bioequivalence, also from an historical viewpoint, and includes a stimulating “questions and answers” section on some key aspects of the bioequivalence of generic drugs.

  4. Generic evolution of mixing in heterogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreuzy, J.; Carrera, J.; Dentz, M.; Le Borgne, T.

    2011-12-01

    Mixing in heterogeneous media results from the competition bewteen flow fluctuations and local scale diffusion. Flow fluctuations quickly create concentration contrasts and thus heterogeneity of the concentration field, which is slowly homogenized by local scale diffusion. Mixing first deviates from Gaussian mixing, which represents the potential mixing induced by spreading before approaching it. This deviation fundamentally expresses the evolution of the interaction between spreading and local scale diffusion. We characterize it by the ratio γ of the non-Gaussian to the Gaussian mixing states. We define the Gaussian mixing state as the integrated squared concentration of the Gaussian plume that has the same longitudinal dispersion as the real plume. The non-Gaussian mixing state is the difference between the overall mixing state defined as the integrated squared concentration and the Gaussian mixing state. The main advantage of this definition is to use the full knowledge previously acquired on dispersion for characterizing mixing even when the solute concentration field is highly non Gaussian. Using high precision numerical simulations, we show that γ quickly increases, peaks and slowly decreases. γ can be derived from two scales characterizing spreading and local mixing, at least for large flux-weighted solute injection conditions into classically log-normal Gaussian correlated permeability fields. The spreading scale is directly related to the longitudinal dispersion. The local mixing scale is the largest scale over which solute concentrations can be considered locally uniform. More generally, beyond the characteristics of its maximum, γ turns out to have a highly generic scaling form. Its fast increase and slow decrease depend neither on the heterogeneity level, nor on the ratio of diffusion to advection, nor on the injection conditions. They might even not depend on the particularities of the flow fields as the same generic features also prevail for

  5. Deriving GENERIC from a Generalized Fluctuation Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaij, Richard; Lazarescu, Alexandre; Maes, Christian; Peletier, Mark

    2018-02-01

    Much of the structure of macroscopic evolution equations for relaxation to equilibrium can be derived from symmetries in the dynamical fluctuations around the most typical trajectory. For example, detailed balance as expressed in terms of the Lagrangian for the path-space action leads to gradient zero-cost flow. We expose a new such fluctuation symmetry that implies GENERIC, an extension of gradient flow where a Hamiltonian part is added to the dissipative term in such a way as to retain the free energy as Lyapunov function.

  6. Might generic OCs create contraceptive price war?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    Genora 1/35 and 1/50, the 1st generic oral contraceptives (OCs) in the world, are now being marketed in the US. Clinicians interviewed by "Contraceptive Technology Update" (CTU) offer differing opinions as to what this new OC may mean in the marketplace. Products of Rugby Laboratories, the pills are copy products of Ortho Pharmaceutical's ON 1/35 and ON 1/50 formulations. Most clinicians believe that Genora's success or failure in the OC market depends on its eventual retail price. The price difference of $3-$4 may be sufficiently substantial for retailers to charge less for the generic OCs. If that is the case, many doctors may prescribe a pill which will save their patients $4/month. Dr. Mildred Hanson, a Minneapolis gynecologist/obstetrician, feels any cost savings from Genora will have a significant impact on the OC market. She suggests that the less expensive OCs will catch the attention of health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and the business of women who participate in such health plans. Yet James Burns, director of family planning services for the Hartford City Health Department, thinks that even a full-scale retail price war won't have much effect from a clinic standpoint. He reports that clinics are able to obtain contraceptive supplies rather inexpensively through the contracting system. Hanson also expressed doubt over the potential popularity of Genora 1/50 as clinical concerns about the effects of combined OCs on serum lipid levels and carbohydrate metabolism have resulted in a nationwide push toward OCs containing less than 50 micrograms of estrogen. He indicated concern that declines in pharmaceutical house products from pricing competition with generic pills might have a negative impact on contraceptive research and development. Dick Haskitt, director of business planning for Syntex Laboratories, Inc., who will produce the OCs for Rugby, reports that their market research shows that people are very interested in having a generic OC available

  7. The Northeast Utilities generic plant computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzner, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of computer manufacturers' equipment monitors plant systems in Northeast Utilities' (NU) nuclear and fossil power plants. The hardware configuration and the application software in each of these systems are essentially one of a kind. Over the next few years these computer systems will be replaced by the NU Generic System, whose prototype is under development now for Millstone III, an 1150 Mwe Pressurized Water Reactor plant being constructed in Waterford, Connecticut. This paper discusses the Millstone III computer system design, concentrating on the special problems inherent in a distributed system configuration such as this. (auth)

  8. Generic Wing-Body Aerodynamics Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Terry L.; Olsen, Thomas H.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The wing-body aerodynamics data base consists of a series of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations about a generic wing body configuration consisting of a ogive-circular-cylinder fuselage and a simple symmetric wing mid-mounted on the fuselage. Solutions have been obtained for Nonlinear Potential (P), Euler (E) and Navier-Stokes (N) solvers over a range of subsonic and transonic Mach numbers and angles of attack. In addition, each solution has been computed on a series of grids, coarse, medium and fine to permit an assessment of grid refinement errors.

  9. Modeling of Generic Slung Load System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; la Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the result of the modelling and verification of a generic slung load system using a small-scale helicopter. The model is intended for use in simulation, pilot training, estimation, and control. The model is derived using a redundant coordinate formulation based on Gauss...... slackening and tightening as well as aerodynamic coupling between the helicopter and the load. Furthermore, it is shown how the model can be easily used for multi-lift systems either with multiple helicopters or multiple loads. A numerical stabilisation algorithm is introduced and finally the use...... of the model is illustrated through simulations and flight verifications.  ...

  10. Entry decisions in the generic pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, F M

    1999-01-01

    Data on all generic drug entries in the period 1984-1994 are used to estimate which markets heterogeneous potential entrants will decide to enter. I find that organizational experience predicts entry. Firms tend to enter markets with supply and demand characteristics similar to the firm's existing drugs. Larger revenue markets, markets with more hospital sales, and products that treat chronic conditions attract more entry. The simultaneous nature of entry leads to an additional interpretation: specialization is profitable because of the severe risk to profits when a market is "overentered." However, I am unable to make any conclusions about the efficiency of entry decisions.

  11. Developing A Generic Optical Avionic Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiang; An, Yi; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2011-01-01

    We propose a generic optical network design for future avionic systems in order to reduce the weight and power consumption of current networks on board. A three-layered network structure over a ring optical network topology is suggested, as it can provide full reconfiguration flexibility...... and support a wide range of avionic applications. Segregation can be made on different hierarchies according to system criticality and security requirements. The structure of each layer is discussed in detail. Two network configurations are presented, focusing on how to support different network services...... by such a network. Finally, three redundancy scenarios are discussed and compared....

  12. Generic device controller for accelerator control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariotti, R.; Buxton, W.; Frankel, R.; Hoff, L.

    1987-01-01

    A new distributed intelligence control system has become operational at the AGS for transport, injection, and acceleration of heavy ions. A brief description of the functionality of the physical devices making up the system is given. An attempt has been made to integrate the devices for accelerator specific interfacing into a standard microprocessor system, namely, the Universal Device Controller (UDC). The main goals for such a generic device controller are to provide: local computing power; flexibility to configure; and real time event handling. The UDC assemblies and software are described

  13. Rigidity of complete generic shrinking Ricci solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yawei; Zhou, Jundong; Wang, Xue

    2018-01-01

    Let (Mn , g , X) be a complete generic shrinking Ricci soliton of dimension n ≥ 3. In this paper, by employing curvature inequalities, the formula of X-Laplacian for the norm square of the trace-free curvature tensor, the weak maximum principle and the estimate of the scalar curvature of (Mn , g) , we prove some rigidity results for (Mn , g , X) . In particular, it is showed that (Mn , g , X) is isometric to Rn or a finite quotient of Sn under a pointwise pinching condition. Moreover, we establish several optimal inequalities and classify those shrinking solitons for equalities.

  14. Generic Patch Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2008-01-01

    A key issue in maintaining Linux device drivers is the need to update drivers in response to evolutions in Linux internal libraries. Currently, there is little tool support for performing and documenting such changes. In this paper we present a tool, spfind, that identifies common changes made...... developers can use it to extract an abstract representation of the set of changes that others have made. Our experiments on recent changes in Linux show that the inferred generic patches are more concise than the corresponding patches found in commits to the Linux source tree while being safe with respect...

  15. The generic Gröbner walk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Lauritzen, Niels; Fukuda, Komei

    2005-01-01

    perturbation of this line. This usually involves both time and space demanding arithmetic of integers much larger than the input numbers. In this paper we show how the explicit line may be replaced by a formal line using Robbiano's characterization of group orders on . This gives rise to the generic Gröbner...... walk involving only Gröbner basis conversion over facets and computations with marked polynomials. The infinite precision integer arithmetic is replaced by term order comparisons between (small) integral vectors. This makes it possible to compute with infinitesimal numbers and perturbations...

  16. High-Speed Photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paisley, D.L.; Schelev, M.Y.

    1998-01-01

    The applications of high-speed photography to a diverse set of subjects including inertial confinement fusion, laser surgical procedures, communications, automotive airbags, lightning etc. are briefly discussed. (AIP) copyright 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

  17. Wind_Speeds_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set included wind speeds for each subregion in the study (Georges Bank, Gulf of Maine, Southern New England, Middle Atlantic Bight) . The data came from...

  18. High speed data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, P.S.

    1997-07-01

    A general introduction to high speed data acquisition system techniques in modern particle physics experiments is given. Examples are drawn from the SELEX(E78 1) high statistics charmed baryon production and decay experiment now taking data at Fermilab

  19. Influencers of generic drug utilization: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jennifer N; Harris, Ilene; Frank, Gavriella; Kiptanui, Zippora; Qian, Jingjing; Hansen, Richard

    2017-08-04

    With an increase in prescription drug spending and rising drug costs there is a need to encourage the use of generic prescription drugs. However, maximizing generic drug use is not possible without the public's positive perception and meeting their informational needs about generic drugs. Thus, improving the public's confidence in, and knowledge of generic drugs on the market is critical. The objective of this systematic review is to examine and evaluate the studies focusing on the nature and extent of key factors influencing generic drug use in the United States in order to help guide policy, education and practice interventions. Using multiple search engines and key word screening criteria, empirical studies published in English between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2015 were identified. A qualitative synthesis of the evidence identified domains of key factors that influenced generic drug use across studies. Over 3000 citations met the key word screening criteria; 67 of these met inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Seven domains of factors that influence generic drug utilization were identified: 1) patient-related factors, 2) formulary management or cost containment, 3) healthcare policies, 4) promotional activities, 5) educational initiatives, 6) technology, and 7) physician-related factors. Patients, physicians, pharmacists, formulary managers, and policymakers play an important role in generic drug use. Understanding the factors influencing generic drug use can help guide future policy, education, and practice interventions to increase generic drug use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 78 FR 9623 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... initial speeds, vehicle manufacturers will need to develop unique or complicated braking systems to comply... [Docket No. NHTSA-2013-0011] RIN 2127-AL11 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems... rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by requiring...