WorldWideScience

Sample records for generic shingle technological

  1. Shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need to stay away from newborn babies, pregnant women, anyone with a weakened immune system, or anyone who is not vaccinated against chickenpox. So teens who get shingles may need to stay home from school for a while. It all depends ...

  2. HTGR generic technology program plan (FY 80)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Purpose of the program is to develop base technology and to perform design and development common to the HTGR Steam Cycle, Gas Turbine, and Process Heat Plants. The generic technology program breaks into the base technology, generic component, pebble-bed study, technology transfer, and fresh fuel programs

  3. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Technology: A Powerful, Generic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Technology: A Powerful, Generic, Facile and Cost Effective Alternative for Enantio-recognition and Separation: A Glance at Advances and Applications. ... Tanzania Journal of Science. Journal Home · ABOUT ...

  4. Shingles: Hope through Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain, or itch, generally in a band-like distribution on one side of the body, i.e., ... section entitled “Can shingles during pregnancy or at birth harm the ... a high rate of side effects. Desipramine and nortriptyline have fewer ...

  5. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  6. Herpes zoster (shingles) disseminated (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpes zoster (shingles) normally occurs in a limited area that follows a dermatome (see the "dermatome" picture). In individuals with damaged immune systems, herpes zoster may be widespread (disseminated), causing serious illness. ...

  7. Immunizations Part II: Shingles Vaccine

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-09-24

    This podcast discusses older adults and shingles, as well as the importance of getting the shingles vaccine. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 9/24/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) and National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/24/2008.

  8. HTGR generic technology program. Semiannual report ending March 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    This document reports the technical accomplishments on the HTGR Generic Technology Program at General Atomic during the first half of FY-80. It covers a period when the design direction of the National HTGR Program is in the process of an overall review. The HTGR Generic Technology Program activities have continued so as to provide the basic technology required for all HTGR applications. The activities include the need to develop an MEU fuel and the need to qualify materials and components for the higher temperatures of the gas turbine and process heat plants

  9. Characteristics of reverse overwrite process in shingled recording scheme at ultra-high track density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shaoping, E-mail: shaoping_li_2000@yahoo.com [Western Digital Inc. 1250 Reliance Way, Fremont, CA 94539 (United States); Mendez, Hector; Terrill, Dave; Liu Feng; Bai, Daniel; Mao Sining [Western Digital Inc. 1250 Reliance Way, Fremont, CA 94539 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    A systematic experimental study of the reverse overwrite (ReOVW) process in the shingled recording scheme has been conducted in conjunction with characterization of corresponding recording performances from recording heads with different geometries. It was found that there is no ReOVW reduction as the track density increases in a strict shingled recording fashion. Nonetheless, ReOVW is indeed slightly decreased from 300 to 700 kpi in a so-called one write shingled recording process. Overall our obtained data suggest that conventional magnetic recording technology might be able to extend all the way beyond an areal density of one Tbit/in{sup 2} by using the shingled recording scheme. - Research Highlights: > This paper discusses the most advanced recording scheme, e.g., shingled recording process, for next generation magnetic data storage devices. > The paper shows that the write-ability of magnetic recording is sufficient in the shingled recording scheme even when the areal density is beyond 1.0 Tb/in{sup 2}. > Our results also shows that the writer's edge write-ability is essential for reducing noise during the write process in shingled recording scheme. > The paper also demonstrates that a multiple and sequential write process ensures the normal erasure-ability in shingled recording scheme. > Our results also indicate that the noise nature in the write process still could be attributed to the hard-easy transition and imprint effect.

  10. Characteristics of reverse overwrite process in shingled recording scheme at ultra-high track density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shaoping; Mendez, Hector; Terrill, Dave; Liu Feng; Bai, Daniel; Mao Sining

    2012-01-01

    A systematic experimental study of the reverse overwrite (ReOVW) process in the shingled recording scheme has been conducted in conjunction with characterization of corresponding recording performances from recording heads with different geometries. It was found that there is no ReOVW reduction as the track density increases in a strict shingled recording fashion. Nonetheless, ReOVW is indeed slightly decreased from 300 to 700 kpi in a so-called one write shingled recording process. Overall our obtained data suggest that conventional magnetic recording technology might be able to extend all the way beyond an areal density of one Tbit/in 2 by using the shingled recording scheme. - Research highlights: → This paper discusses the most advanced recording scheme, e.g., shingled recording process, for next generation magnetic data storage devices. → The paper shows that the write-ability of magnetic recording is sufficient in the shingled recording scheme even when the areal density is beyond 1.0 Tb/in 2 . → Our results also shows that the writer's edge write-ability is essential for reducing noise during the write process in shingled recording scheme. → The paper also demonstrates that a multiple and sequential write process ensures the normal erasure-ability in shingled recording scheme. → Our results also indicate that the noise nature in the write process still could be attributed to the hard-easy transition and imprint effect.

  11. "My Experience with Shingles." | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in its entirety, visit http://nihseniorhealth.gov/shingles/toc.html . Maryland resident Sue Spicer knows firsthand about ... other shingles information at http://nihseniorhealth.gov/shingles/toc.html Could you first describe your early symptoms? ...

  12. Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome and Shingles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome and Shingles Associated with a Combined Paralysis of Three Oculomotor Nerves: A Case Report. ... CASE DETAILS: A 40 years old patient was seen for a pain of the right side of the face and a complete immobility of the eyeball. The diagnosis of V1 shingles with a pan uveitis ...

  13. Latent Virus Reactivation in Astronauts and Shingles Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Donald H.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Castro, Victoria A.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    Spaceflight is a uniquely stressful environment with astronauts experiencing a variety of stressors including: isolation and confinement, psychosocial, noise, sleep deprivation, anxiety, variable gravitational forces, and increased radiation. These stressors are manifested through the HPA and SAM axes resulting in increased stress hormones. Diminished T-lymphocyte functions lead to reactivation of latent herpesviruses in astronauts during spaceflight. Herpes simplex virus reactivated with symptoms during spaceflight whereas Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivate and are shed without symptoms. EBV and VZV are shed in saliva and CMV in the urine. The levels of EBV shed in astronauts increased 10-fold during the flight; CMV and VZV are not typically shed in low stressed individuals, but both were shed in astronauts during spaceflight. All herpes viruses were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Culturing revealed that VZV shed in saliva was infectious virus. The PCR technology was extended to test saliva of 54 shingles patients. All shingles patients shed VZV in their saliva, and the levels followed the course of the disease. Viremia was also found to be common during shingles. The technology may be used before zoster lesions appear allowing for prevention of disease. The technology may be used for rapid detection of VZV in doctors offices. These studies demonstrated the value of applying technologies designed for astronauts to people on Earth.

  14. Recombinant zoster (shingles) vaccine, RZV - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... year in the United States get shingles. Shingles vaccine (recombinant) Recombinant shingles vaccine was approved by FDA in 2017 for the ... life-threatening allergic reaction after a dose of recombinant shingles vaccine, or has a severe allergy to any component ...

  15. FY1995 generic supercritical water technology; 1995 nendo generic technology to shite no chorinkai riyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the establishment of the basis of supercritical fluid technology, we perform elucidation of the specific feature of the supercritical fluid as a reaction media and development of some new process. In this study, we first studied the fluid structure of SCF through in-situ spectroscopy and MD simulation. As a result, significant hydrogen bonding amongst water molecules and a solvation structure around the solute were observed in the supercritical state. This fluid structure has new features different from that of high temperature steam or liquid water. We found that this is closely related to the difference of bulk properties of SCF and local one around the solute. On the basis of these fundamental findings and with the better understanding of the specific features of SCF as a reaction media, development of some new process had been conducted more efficiently and successfully. The processes being developed in this study include 1) waste biomass and plastic conversion to recover chemicals, 2) hydrogenation of heavy oil for desulphurization through partial oxidation 1 and 3) hydrothermal synthesis of metal oxide fine particles. (NEDO)

  16. Shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your health care provider can make the diagnosis by looking at your skin and asking about your medical history. Tests are rarely needed, but may include taking a skin sample to see if the skin is infected ...

  17. Facts about Chickenpox and Shingles for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in institutional settings. ♦ Inmates and staff of correctional institutions ♦ Military personnel. ♦ Nonpregnant women of childbearing age. ♦ Teachers ... failure, heart attack, type II diabetes and major depression. Antiviral medications can be used to treat shingles ...

  18. Integrating Recycled Glass Cullet in Asphalt Roof Shingles to Mitigate Heat Island Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The roof covering provides water shedding and ultraviolet protection, and there are six generic classifications roof coverings: asphalt shingles, clay ...M. N. Assimakopou, and G. Mihalakakou. 2011. "Solar cooling with aluminium pillared clays ." Elsevier, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 95 2363...Fallon, where he completed a deployment onboard the USS BOXER (LHD 4) to Guatemala, El Salvador, and Peru in support of the humanitarian and civic

  19. A Generic Danish Distribution Grid Model for Smart Grid Technology Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a generic Danish distribution grid model for smart grid technology testing based on the Bornholm power system. The frequency dependent network equivalent (FDNE) method has been used in order to accurately preserve the desired properties and characteristics...... as a generic Smart Grid benchmark model for testing purposes....... by comparing the transient response of the original Bornholm power system model and the developed generic model under significant fault conditions. The results clearly show that the equivalent generic distribution grid model retains the dynamic characteristics of the original system, and can be used...

  20. On-chip multi-wavelength laser sources fabricated using generic photonic integration technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latkowski, S.; Williams, K.A.; Bente, E.A.J.M.

    Generic photonic integration technology platforms allow for design and fabrication of large complexity application specific photonic integrated circuits. Monolithic active-passive integration on indium phosphide substrate naturally enables a reliable co-integration of optical gain elements and

  1. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR AQUEOUS CLEANER RECYCLING TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This generic verification protocol has been structured based on a format developed for ETV-MF projects. This document describes the intended approach and explain plans for testing with respect to areas such as test methodology, procedures, parameters, and instrumentation. Also ...

  2. HTGR Generic Technology Program. Semiannual report for the period ending September 30, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    This document reports the technical accomplishments on the HTGR Generic Technology Program at General Atomic during the second half of FY-80. It covers a period when the design direction of the National HTGR Program is in the process of an overall review. The HTGR Generic Technology Program activities have continued so as to provide the basic technology required for all HTGR applications. The activities include the need to develop an LEU fuel and the need to qualify materials and components for the higher temperatures of the gas turbines and process heat plants

  3. HTGR Generic Technology Program. Semiannual report for the period ending September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    The technical accomplishments on the HTGR Generic Technology Program at General Atomic during the second half of FY-79 are reported. The report covers a period when the major design direction of the National HTGR Program is in the process of changing from the HTGR-SC emphasis to an HTGR-GT emphasis in the near term. The HTGR Generic Technology Program activities have been redirected to ensure that the tasks covered are supportive of this changing emphasis in HTGR applications. The activities include the need to develop an MEU fuel, and the need to qualify materials and components for the higher temperatures of the gas turbine plant

  4. HTGR Generic Technology Program. Semiannual report for the period ending March 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This document reports the technical accomplishments on the HTGR Generic Technology Program at General Atomic during the first half of FY-79. It covers a period when the major design direction of the National HTGR Program is in the process of changing from the HTGR-SC emphasis to an HTGR-GT emphasis in the near term. The HTGR Generic Technology Program activities have been redirected to ensure that the tasks covered are supportive of this changing emphasis in HTGR applications. The activities include the need to develop a medium enriched uranium (MEU) fuel, and the need to qualify materials and components for the higher temperatures of the gas turbine plant.

  5. HTGR Generic Technology Program. Semiannual report for the period ending March 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    This document reports the technical accomplishments on the HTGR Generic Technology Program at General Atomic during the first half of FY-79. It covers a period when the major design direction of the National HTGR Program is in the process of changing from the HTGR-SC emphasis to an HTGR-GT emphasis in the near term. The HTGR Generic Technology Program activities have been redirected to ensure that the tasks covered are supportive of this changing emphasis in HTGR applications. The activities include the need to develop a medium enriched uranium (MEU) fuel, and the need to qualify materials and components for the higher temperatures of the gas turbine plant

  6. Wave energy: technology transfer and generic R and D recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarr, D.; Kollek, R.; Collier, D.

    2001-07-01

    Arup have reviewed the status of the industry by way of individual interviews with all teams currently active in the UK as well as by research of international activities in the area. A preliminary technology workshop was organised to identify and discuss key issues with the teams and other industries. The following technology areas were discussed: (1) Regulatory Environment, HSE, Design Codes and Verification; (2) Construction Methods and Project Cost Estimation; (3) Marine Operations; (4) Mooring Systems; (5) Operations and Maintenance; (6) Materials; (7) Hydraulic Systems; (8) Pneumatic Systems; (9) Subsea Cables and Connectors; (10) Control Systems; (11) Power Quality and Grid Connection. The recommendations were made bearing in mind the proposed programme of Wave Energy Converter (WEC) prototype and power station development and the perceived need for further cost reductions. The major conclusions of the study were: The Wave Energy Industry is poorly co-ordinated. At present, all teams are working independently and commercial considerations force them to keep their ideas secret. There remains a lack of investor confidence and hence industrial support for the industry. Teams tend to be relatively small working out of University Departments or SMEs with some industrial backing. No major technological barriers to the development of Wave Energy Prototypes have been identified. All the issues raised under design, construction, deployment and operation can be addressed by transfer of technology from other industries, especially the offshore industry. However, costs, risks and approvals will need to be addressed. However, some technology gaps have been identified, notably in the areas of mooring and cable connections detailing, hydraulic machines and grid connection and energy storage. (author)

  7. Assuring Quality in Promoting Generic Skills in the Higher College of Technology (HCT), Muscat: Challenges & Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Holi Ibrahim Holi

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores EFL teachers' perceptions in relation to the pedagogical and conceptual challenges that they face in promoting generic skills in the Higher College of Technology (HCT), Muscat, in the context of post foundation level provision. A questionnaire was administered to 17 EFL teachers at HCT, at post foundation levels to investigate…

  8. Integrated optical serializer designed and fabricated in a generic InP based technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stopinski, S.T.; Malinowski, M.; Piramidowicz, R.; Smit, M.K.; Leijtens, X.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents design and characterization results of an optical pulse serializer, realized as an Application Specific Photonic Integrated Circuit (ASPIC) in a novel, generic InPbased technology and fabricated in a multi-project wafer run. The measurement results show high-speed (32 Gbit/s)

  9. Installation, care, and maintenance of wood shake and shingle roofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony Bonura; Jack Dwyer; Arnie Nebelsick; Brent Stuart; R. Sam Williams; Christopher Hunt

    2011-01-01

    This article gives general guidelines for selection, installation, finishing, and maintenance of wood shake and shingle roofs. The authors have gathered information from a variety of sources: research publications on wood finishing, technical data sheets from paint manufacturers, installation instructions for shake and shingle roofs, and interviews with experts having...

  10. Installation, care, and maintenance of wood shake and shingle siding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Dwyer; Tony Bonura; Arnie Nebelsick; Sam Williams; Christopher G. Hunt

    2011-01-01

    This article gives general guidelines for selection, installation, finishing, and maintenance of wood shakes and shingles. The authors gathered information from a variety of sources: research publications on wood finishing, technical data sheets from paint manufacturers, installation instructions for shake and shingle siding, and interviews with experts having...

  11. Stopping Shingles (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Shingles, also known as herpes zoster, is a disease characterized by a painful skin rash, with blisters usually occurring on one side of the body. Each year, approximately one million people in the U.S. get the disease. In this podcast, Dr. Mark Pallansch discusses a newly approved vaccine to prevent shingles.

  12. Stopping Shingles (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-01-25

    Shingles, also known as herpes zoster, is a disease characterized by a painful skin rash with blisters. This podcast discusses a new vaccine to prevent shingles.  Created: 1/25/2018 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/25/2018.

  13. Emerging Technologies and Generic Assays for the Detection of Anti-Drug Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Partridge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-drug antibodies induced by biologic therapeutics often impact drug pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics response, clinical efficacy, and patient safety. It is critical to assess the immunogenicity risk of potential biotherapeutics in producing neutralizing and nonneutralizing anti-drug antibodies, especially in clinical phases of drug development. Different assay methodologies have been used to detect all anti-drug antibodies, including ELISA, radioimmunoassay, surface plasmon resonance, and electrochemiluminescence-based technologies. The most commonly used method is a bridging assay, performed in an ELISA or on the Meso Scale Discovery platform. In this report, we aim to review the emerging new assay technologies that can complement or address challenges associated with the bridging assay format in screening and confirmation of ADAs. We also summarize generic anti-drug antibody assays that do not require drug-specific reagents for nonclinical studies. These generic assays significantly reduce assay development efforts and, therefore, shorten the assay readiness timeline.

  14. (abstract) Generic Modeling of a Life Support System for Process Technology Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrall, J. F.; Seshan, P. K.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Ganapathi, G. B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a simulation model called the Life Support Systems Analysis Simulation Tool (LiSSA-ST), the spreadsheet program called the Life Support Systems Analysis Trade Tool (LiSSA-TT), and the Generic Modular Flow Schematic (GMFS) modeling technique. Results of using the LiSSA-ST and the LiSSA-TT will be presented for comparing life support systems and process technology options for a Lunar Base and a Mars Exploration Mission.

  15. Achieving generic competences through a cross-disciplinary research based course in Arctic Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Hansen, Claus Thorp; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2014-01-01

    In a research based course in Arctic Technology, different teaching activities were used to support learning of both technical and generic competences. The active learning was based around a 3-weeks field work period in Greenland in combination with lectures, assignments, project and peer group...... support the process of developing generic competences and are preparing the students to become professional engineers. For the future teaching of the course we have some suggestions for improvements: • Include peer-work as a learning objective and specify rubrics of how to give feedback to make it more...... work prior to and after the field work. The students represent a heterogeneous group of nationalities, previous experiences and scientific subjects. It was clearly seen by the learning outcome and assessment that students who used the offered feedback options during the course actively were more...

  16. What Everyone Should Know about Shingles Vaccine (Shingrix)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... containing mercury). Top of Page How Can I Pay For Shingrix? There are several ways shingles vaccine ... Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer file Text file Zip Archive ...

  17. Asphalt Roofing Shingles Into Energy Project Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, Rex, PE

    2008-04-28

    Based on a widely cited September, 1999 report by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, nearly 11 million tons of asphalt roofing shingle wastes are produced in the United States each year. Recent data suggests that the total is made up of about 9.4 million tons from roofing tear-offs and about 1.6 million tons from manufacturing scrap. Developing beneficial uses for these materials would conserve natural resources, promote protection of the environment and strengthen the economy. This project explored the feasibility of using chipped asphalt shingle materials in cement manufacturing kilns and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. A method of enhancing the value of chipped shingle materials for use as fuel by removing certain fractions for use as substitute raw materials for the manufacture of new shingles was also explored. Procedures were developed to prevent asbestos containing materials from being processed at the chipping facilities, and the frequency of the occurrence of asbestos in residential roofing tear-off materials was evaluated. The economic feasibility of each potential use was evaluated based on experience gained during the project and on a review of the well established use of shingle materials in hot mix asphalt. This project demonstrated that chipped asphalt shingle materials can be suitable for use as fuel in circulating fluidized boilers and cement kilns. More experience would be necessary to determine the full benefits that could be derived and to discover long term effects, but no technical barriers to full scale commercial use of chipped asphalt shingle materials in these applications were discovered. While the technical feasibility of various options was demonstrated, only the use of asphalt shingle materials in hot mix asphalt applications is currently viable economically.

  18. Stopping Shingles (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-01-25

    Shingles, also known as herpes zoster, is a disease characterized by a painful skin rash, with blisters usually occurring on one side of the body. Each year, approximately one million people in the U.S. get the disease. In this podcast, Dr. Mark Pallansch discusses a newly approved vaccine to prevent shingles.  Created: 1/25/2018 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/25/2018.

  19. Generic Modeling of a Life Support System for Process Technology Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrall, J. F.; Seshan, P. K.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Ganapathi, G. B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a simulation model called the Life Support Systems Analysis Simulation Tool (LiSSA-ST), the spreadsheet program called the Life Support Systems Analysis Trade Tool (LiSSA-TT), and the Generic Modular Flow Schematic (GMFS) modeling technique. Results of using the LiSSA-ST and the LiSSA-TT will be presented for comparing life support system and process technology options for a Lunar Base with a crew size of 4 and mission lengths of 90 and 600 days. System configurations to minimize the life support system weight and power are explored.

  20. Production of lumber, lath, and shingles in 1917

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin H. Smith; Albert H. Pierson

    1919-01-01

    In this bulletin, which is one of an annual series covering the period 1904 to 1917, inclusive, with the exception of 1914, are detailed statistics of the 1917 production of lumber, lath, and shingles in the continental United States, with comparative figures from previous annual reports. The collection and compilation of the statistics for the Western States was done...

  1. Asphalt and Wood Shingling. Roofing Workbook and Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Arthur

    This combination workbook and set of tests contains materials on asphalt and wood shingling that have been designed to be used by those studying to enter the roofing and waterproofing trade. It consists of seven instructional units and seven accompanying objective tests. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: shingling…

  2. The Spontaneous Combustion of Railway Ties and Asphalt Shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Geoffrey

    Many Low Carbon Fuels (LCFs) present unknown spontaneous combustion risks, which must be quantified before their use as fossil fuel replacements. Wood and coal spontaneous combustion is well understood; however, LCFs weather, and subsequent chemical changes could affect their spontaneous combustion properties. LCF spontaneous combustion could lead to accidental fires with possible loss of life, limb and property. The spontaneous combustion risks of two LCFs, discarded creosote-treated wooden railway ties and roofing asphalt shingles, were investigated with calorimetry and heat transfer experiments. Chemical changes due to weathering were studied with pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (py-GC/MS). Creosote-treated wooden railway tie dust, roofing asphalt shingle particles, poplar wood pellets, and petroleum coke self-heating were studied with isothermal calorimetry. Railway tie dust and asphalt shingle heat transfer were characterized with a guarded hot plate. Petroleum coke self-heating was consistent with coal, while both poplar pellets and railway tie dust were found to be more reactive compared to oven test results of similar materials. The observed increase in reactivity was probably a result of significant moisture contenint in the pellet and railway tie dust. Critical conditions for spontaneous combustion were evaluated with the Frank-Kamenetskii parameter, assuming an ambient temperature of 40°C and constant moisture content. Kamenetskii calculations indicate that a 1.6 m cube of railway tie dust, or a 58 m cube of asphalt particles, would be unstable and combust. LCF chemistry may have been affected by weathering, which would cause chemical changes that affect their spontaneous combustion properties. Therefore, railway tie wood and roofing asphalt shingle chemistry were investigated by identifying products of 250° and 550°C pyrolysis with py-GC/MS. Railway tie wood pyrolyzates did not show signs of weathering; in contrast, asphalt pyrolysis

  3. Restructuring upstream bioprocessing: technological and economical aspects for production of a generic microbial feedstock from wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, A A; Wang, R; Webb, C

    2004-03-05

    Restructuring and optimization of the conventional fermentation industry for fuel and chemical production is necessary to replace petrochemical production routes. Guided by this concept, a novel biorefinery process has been developed as an alternative to conventional upstream processing routes, leading to the production of a generic fermentation feedstock from wheat. The robustness of Aspergillus awamori as enzyme producer is exploited in a continuous fungal fermentation on whole wheat flour. Vital gluten is extracted as an added-value byproduct by the conventional Martin process from a fraction of the overall wheat used. Enzymatic hydrolysis of gluten-free flour by the enzyme complex produced by A. awamori during fermentation produces a liquid stream rich in glucose (320 g/L). Autolysis of fungal cells produces a micronutrient-rich solution similar to yeast extract (1.6 g/L nitrogen, 0.5 g/L phosphorus). The case-specific combination of these two liquid streams can provide a nutrient-complete fermentation medium for a spectrum of microbial bioconversions for the production of such chemicals as organic acids, amino acids, bioethanol, glycerol, solvents, and microbial biodegradable plastics. Preliminary economic analysis has shown that the operating cost required to produce the feedstock is dependent on the plant capacity, cereal market price, presence and market value of added-value byproducts, labor costs, and mode of processing (batch or continuous). Integration of this process in an existing fermentation plant could lead to the production of a generic feedstock at an operating cost lower than the market price of glucose syrup (90% to 99% glucose) in the EU, provided that the plant capacity exceeds 410 m(3)/day. Further process improvements are also suggested. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. 76 FR 8371 - Notice Correction; Generic Submission of Technology Transfer Center (TTC) External Customer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... Submission of Technology Transfer Center (TTC) External Customer Satisfaction Surveys (NCI) The Federal... project titled, ``Technology Transfer Center (TTC) External Customer Satisfaction Survey (NCI)'' was... will include multiple customer satisfaction surveys over the course of three years. At this time, only...

  5. Next-Generation Factory-Produced Cool Asphalt Shingles: Phase 1 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Ronnen M.; Chen, Sharon S.; Ban-Weiss, George A.; Gilbert, Haley E.; Berdahl, Paul H.; Rosado, Pablo J.; Destaillats, Hugo; Sleiman, Mohamad; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.

    2016-11-01

    As the least expensive category of high-slope roofing in the U.S., shingles are found on the roofs of about 80% of U.S. homes, and constitute about 80% (by product area) of this market. Shingles are also among the least reflective high-slope roofing products, with few cool options on the market. The widespread use of cool roofs in the two warmest U.S. climate zones could reduce annual residential cooling energy use in these zones by over 7%. This project targets the development of high-performance cool shingles with initial solar reflectance at least 0.40 and a cost premium not exceeding US$0.50/ft². Phase 1 of the current study explored three approaches to increasing shingle reflectance. Method A replaces dark bare granules by white bare granules to enhance the near-infrared reflectance attained with cool pigments. Method B applies a white basecoat and a cool-color topcoat to a shingle surfaced with dark bare granules. Method C applies a visually clear, NIR-reflecting surface treatment to a conventionally colored shingle. Method A was the most successful, but our investigation of Method B identified roller coating as a promising top-coating technique, and our study of Method C developed a novel approach based on a nanowire mesh. Method A yielded red, green, brown, and black faux shingles with solar reflectance up to 0.39 with volumetric coloration. Since the base material is white, these reflectances can readily be increased by using less pigment. The expected cost premium for Method A shingles is less than our target limit of $0.50/ft², and would represent less than a 10% increase in the installed cost of a shingle roof. Using inexpensive but cool (spectrally selective) iron oxide pigments to volumetrically color white limestone synthesized from sequestered carbon and seawater appears to offer high albedo at low cost. In Phase 2, we plan to refine the cool shingle prototypes, manufacture cool granules, and manufacture and market high-performance cool shingles.

  6. Generic Advantages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Generic Advantages. Scalability an incremental coverage. Standardization. Business Plan Flexibility. Lifecycle Flexibility. Reliability. Service Interoperability. Changed Industry dynamics.

  7. Microwave-assisted shingled magnetic recording simulations on an exchange-coupled composite medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T., E-mail: t-tanaka@ed.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Electronics, Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, Motoota 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Kashiwagi, S. [Department of Electronics, Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, Motoota 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Kanai, Y. [Department of Information and Electronics Engineering, Niigata Institute of Technology, Fujihashi 1719, Kashiwazaki, Niigata 945-1195 (Japan); Matsuyama, K. [Department of Electronics, Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, Motoota 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    The potential of microwave-assisted magnetic recording combined with the shingled recording scheme has been studied by simulating read/write processes on exchange-coupled composite media focusing on recording characteristics in the cross-track direction. Microwave fields enhance writability, especially at the track edge, resulting in lower noise and higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which enables higher track density in the shingled recording scheme. Read/write simulations of microwave-assisted shingled recording achieve 1.4 Mtracks/in. while retaining high SNR. Further increases in SNR and track density will require either a narrower reader or track edge noise reduction. - Highlights: • Signal recording of shingled magnetic recording using an asymmetric single pole type head combined with a microwave assistance was numerically demonstrated. • Writability is improved by microwave fields with a moderate frequency at the track edge of the shielded side, resulting in higher signal-to-noise ratio. • 1.41 Mtpi of track density is feasible for the recording scheme of shingled magnetic recording with microwave assistance.

  8. Microwave-assisted shingled magnetic recording simulations on an exchange-coupled composite medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.; Kashiwagi, S.; Kanai, Y.; Matsuyama, K.

    2016-01-01

    The potential of microwave-assisted magnetic recording combined with the shingled recording scheme has been studied by simulating read/write processes on exchange-coupled composite media focusing on recording characteristics in the cross-track direction. Microwave fields enhance writability, especially at the track edge, resulting in lower noise and higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which enables higher track density in the shingled recording scheme. Read/write simulations of microwave-assisted shingled recording achieve 1.4 Mtracks/in. while retaining high SNR. Further increases in SNR and track density will require either a narrower reader or track edge noise reduction. - Highlights: • Signal recording of shingled magnetic recording using an asymmetric single pole type head combined with a microwave assistance was numerically demonstrated. • Writability is improved by microwave fields with a moderate frequency at the track edge of the shielded side, resulting in higher signal-to-noise ratio. • 1.41 Mtpi of track density is feasible for the recording scheme of shingled magnetic recording with microwave assistance.

  9. Family Genericity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Type abstraction in object-oriented languages embody two techniques, each with its own strenghts and weaknesses. The first technique is extension, yielding abstraction mechanisms with good support for gradual specification. The prime example is inheritance. The second technique is functional abst...... the result as family genericity. The presented language design has been implemented....

  10. 18 MArch 2008 - Director, Basic and Generic Research Division, Research Promotion Bureau, Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Prof.Ohtake visiting ATLAS cavern with Spokesperson P. Jenni.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2008-01-01

    18 MArch 2008 - Director, Basic and Generic Research Division, Research Promotion Bureau, Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Prof.Ohtake visiting ATLAS cavern with Spokesperson P. Jenni.

  11. A novel technique for the production of cool colored concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul [Heat Island Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wood, Kurt; Skilton, Wayne; Petersheim, Jerry [Arkema, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The widespread use of solar-reflective roofing materials can save energy, mitigate urban heat islands and slow global warming by cooling the roughly 20% of the urban surface that is roofed. In this study we created prototype solar-reflective nonwhite concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing materials using a two-layer spray coating process intended to maximize both solar reflectance and factory-line throughput. Each layer is a thin, quick-drying, pigmented latex paint based on either acrylic or a poly(vinylidene fluoride)/acrylic blend. The first layer is a titanium dioxide rutile white basecoat that increases the solar reflectance of a gray-cement concrete tile from 0.18 to 0.79, and that of a shingle surfaced with bare granules from 0.06 to 0.62. The second layer is a ''cool'' color topcoat with weak near-infrared (NIR) absorption and/or strong NIR backscattering. Each layer dries within seconds, potentially allowing a factory line to pass first under the white spray, then under the color spray. We combined a white basecoat with monocolor topcoats in various shades of red, brown, green and blue to prepare 24 cool colored prototype tiles and 24 cool colored prototypes shingles. The solar reflectances of the tiles ranged from 0.26 (dark brown; CIELAB lightness value L{sup *}=29) to 0.57 (light green; L{sup *}=76); those of the shingles ranged from 0.18 (dark brown; L{sup *}=26) to 0.34 (light green; L{sup *}=68). Over half of the tiles had a solar reflectance of at least 0.40, and over half of the shingles had a solar reflectance of at least 0.25. (author)

  12. A pilot study to evaluate the application of a generic protein standard panel for quality control of biomarker detection technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdivia Hernan J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein biomarker studies are currently hampered by a lack of measurement standards to demonstrate quality, reliability and comparability across multiple assay platforms. This is especially pertinent for immunoassays where multiple formats for detecting target analytes are commonly used. Findings In this pilot study a generic panel of six non-human protein standards (50 - 10^7 pg/mL of varying abundance was prepared as a quality control (QC material. Simulated "normal" and "diseased" panels of proteins were prepared in pooled human plasma and incorporated into immunoassays using the Meso Scale Discovery® (MSD® platform to illustrate reliable detection of the component proteins. The protein panel was also evaluated as a spike-in material for a model immunoassay involving detection of ovarian cancer biomarkers within individual human plasma samples. Our selected platform could discriminate between two panels of the proteins exhibiting small differences in abundance. Across distinct experiments, all component proteins exhibited reproducible signal outputs in pooled human plasma. When individual donor samples were used, half the proteins produced signals independent of matrix effects. These proteins may serve as a generic indicator of platform reliability. Each of the remaining proteins exhibit differential signals across the distinct samples, indicative of sample matrix effects, with the three proteins following the same trend. This subset of proteins may be useful for characterising the degree of matrix effects associated with the sample which may impact on the reliability of quantifying target diagnostic biomarkers. Conclusions We have demonstrated the potential utility of this panel of standards to act as a generic QC tool for evaluating the reproducibility of the platform for protein biomarker detection independent of serum matrix effects.

  13. Development and testing of shingle-type solar cell modules. Quarterly report No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, N.F.

    1978-01-05

    The details of a shingle module design which produces in excess of 97 watts/m/sup 2/ of module area at 1 kW/m/sup 2/ insolation and at 60/sup 0/C are reported. This selected design employs a tempered glass coverplate to provide the primary solar cell structural support. The use of the B.F. Goodrich FLEXSEAL roofing system as the outer skin of the shingle substrate provides a high confidence of achieving the 15 year service life goal. The fabrication and testing of a preproduction module of this design has demonstrated that this selected approach will meet the environmental testing requirements imposed by the contract. Attempts to fabricate a preproduction module of an alternative design, which embeds the solar cell assembly within a methyl methacrylate casting, proved unsuccessful.

  14. Generic Reed Solomon Encorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Mursanto

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Reed Solomon (RS codes is a mechanism to detect and correct burst of errors in data transmission and storage systems. It provides a solid introduction to foundation mathematical concept of Galois Field algebra and its application. With the development of digital hardware technology, the RS concepts were brought into reality, i.e. the implementation of RS codec chips. This paper presents the development steps of a generic RS encoder using VHDL. The encoder is able to handle generic width of data, variable length of information, number of error as well as variable form of primitive polynomial and generator polynomial used in the system. The design has been implemented for FPGA chip Xilinx XC3S200-5FT256 and has a better performance than commercially available equivalent encoder.

  15. Drive-based recording analyses at >800 Gfc/in2 using shingled recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William Cross, R.; Montemorra, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Since the introduction of perpendicular recording, conventional perpendicular scaling has enabled the hard disk drive industry to deliver products ranging from ∼130 to well over 500 Gb/in 2 in a little over 4 years. The incredible areal density growth spurt enabled by perpendicular recording is now endangered by an inability to effectively balance writeability with erasure effects at the system level. Shingled magnetic recording (SMR) offers an effective means to continue perpendicular areal density growth using conventional heads and tuned media designs. The use of specially designed edge-write head structures (also known as 'corner writers') should further increase the AD gain potential for shingled recording. In this paper, we will demonstrate the drive-based recording performance characteristics of a shingled recording system at areal densities in excess of 800 Gb/in 2 using a conventional head. Using a production drive base, developmental heads/media and a number of sophisticated analytical routines, we have studied the recording performance of a shingled magnetic recording subsystem. Our observations confirm excellent writeability in excess of 400 ktpi and a perpendicular system with acceptable noise balance, especially at extreme ID and OD skews where the benefits of SMR are quite pronounced. We believe that this demonstration illustrates that SMR is not only capable of productization, but is likely the path of least resistance toward production drive areal density closer to 1 Tb/in 2 and beyond. - Research highlights: → Drive-based recording demonstrations at 805 Gf/in 2 has been demonstrated using both 95 and 65 mm drive platforms at roughly 430 ktpi and 1.87 Mfci. → Limiting factors for shingled recording include side reading, which is dominated by the reader crosstrack skirt profile, MT10 being a representative metric. → Media jitter and associated DC media SNR further limit areal density, dominated by crosstrack transition curvature, downtrack

  16. Shingles Immunity and Health Functioning in the Elderly: Tai Chi Chih as a Behavioral Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Irwin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the incidence and severity of herpes zoster (HZ or shingles increase markedly with increasing age in association with a decline in varicella zoster virus (VZV-specific immunity. Considerable evidence shows that behavioral stressors, prevalent in older adults, correlate with impairments of cellular immunity. Moreover, the presence of depressive symptoms in older adults is associated with declines in VZV-responder cell frequency (VZV-RCF, an immunological marker of shingles risk. In this review, we discuss recent findings that administration of a relaxation response-based intervention, tai chi chih (TCC, results in improvements in health functioning and immunity to VZV in older adults as compared with a control group. TCC is a slow moving meditation consisting of 20 separate standardized movements which can be readily used in elderly and medically compromised individuals. TCC offers standardized training and practice schedules, lending an important advantage over prior relaxation response-based therapies. Focus on older adults at increased risk for HZ and assay of VZV-specific immunity have implications for understanding the impact of behavioral factors and a behavioral intervention on a clinically relevant end-point and on the response of the immune system to infectious pathogens.

  17. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction infratechnology and generic technology development: Final report, October 1, 1985 to December 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1987-06-29

    During the first year of its research program, the Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science has made significant progress in many areas of coal liquefaction and coal structure research. Research topics for which substantial progress has been made include integrated coal structure and liquefaction studies, investigation of differential liquefaction processes, development and application of sophisticated techniques for structural analysis, computer analysis of multivariate data, biodesulfurization of coal, catalysis studies, co-processing of coal and crude oil, coal dissolution and extraction processes, coal depolymerization, determination of the liquefaction characteristics of many US coals for use in a liquefaction database, and completion of a retrospective technology assessment for direct coal liquefaction. These and related topics are discussed in considerably more detail in the remainder of this report. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base.

  18. Thermal load histories for North American roof assembles using various cladding materials including wood-thermoplastic composite shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Winandy

    2006-01-01

    Since 1991, thermal load histories for various roof cladding types have been monitored in outdoor attic structures that simulate classic North American light-framed construction. In this paper, the 2005 thermal loads for wood-based composite roof sheathing, wood rafters, and attics under wood-plastic composite shingles are compared to common North American roof...

  19. The generic article

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farkas, D.F.; Swart, Henriëtte de

    2005-01-01

    We take a fresh look at the connection between genericity and (in)definiteness by reconsidering a long-standing puzzle concerning the relation between definiteness and genericity. We contrast English on the one hand and Romance languages and Hungarian on the other, focusing on generic sentences

  20. Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome and Shingles Associated with a Combined Paralysis of Three Oculomotor Nerves: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atipo-Tsiba, P W; Kombo Bayonne, E S

    2016-05-01

    In countries with high prevalence of HIV/AIDS infection, particularly in black Africa, shingles is one of the main opportunistic infections during immunosuppression due to AIDS in young patients. If immunological weakness is important, usually when the CD4 cell count is less than 100 cells/mm(3), the risk of inflammatory reactions in the first three months after initiating of antiretroviral treatment (ART) is very high. This inflammatory reaction is called immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). This observation reports the first documented case of IRIS with V1 shingles in a young HIV patient at University Hospital of Brazzaville. A 40 years old patient was seen for a pain of the right side of the face and a complete immobility of the eyeball. The diagnosis of V1 shingles with a pan uveitis, and a paralysis of III, IV and VI nerves was made. The patiants HIV status was positive and CD4 cell count was 150 cells/mm(3). After two months of evolution under ART with a CD4 count of 850 cells /mm(3), the symptomatology was quickly complicated by significant inflammation causing a phtisis bulbi. CD4 cells count is an important indicator in the HIV/AIDS therapy. In some major forms of IRIS, momentary pause of anti retroviral treatment is sometimes necessary.

  1. Efficient Generic Functional Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alimarine, A.; Smetsers, J.E.W.

    2005-01-01

    Generic functions are defined by induction on the structural representation of types. As a consequence, by defining just a single generic operation, one acquires this operation over any particular data type. An instance on a specific type is generated by interpretation of the type's structure. A

  2. Optimizing Generic Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alimarine, A.; Smetsers, J.E.W.

    2004-01-01

    Generic functions are defined by induction on the structural representation of types. As a consequence, by defining just a single generic operation, one acquires this operation over any particular type. An instance on a specific type is generated by interpretation of the type's structure. A direct

  3. Enhancing Safety through Generic Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mockel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides insights into proactive safety management and mitigation. An analysis of accident reports reveals categories of supervening causes of accidents which can be directly linked to the concept of generic competencies (information management, communication and coordination, problem solving, and effect control. These findings strongly suggest adding the human element as another safety-constituting pillar to the concept of ship safety next to technology and regulation. We argue that the human element has unique abilities in dealing with critical and highly dynamic situations which can contribute to the system's recovery from non-routine or critical situations. By educating seafarers in generic competencies we claim to enable the people onboard to successfully deal with critical situations.

  4. Generic antibiotics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Shigeru; Watanabe, Akira

    2012-08-01

    Generic drugs have been used extensively in many developed countries, although their use in Japan has been limited. Generic drugs reduce drug expenses and thereby national medical expenditure. Because generic drugs provide advantages for both public administration and consumers, it is expected that they will be more widely used in the future. However, the diffusion rate of generic drugs in Japan is quite low compared with that of other developed countries. An investigation on generic drugs conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan revealed that 17.2 % of doctors and 37.2 % of patients had not used generic drugs. The major reasons for this low use rate included distrust of off-patent products and lower drug price margin compared with the brand name drug. The generic drugs available in the market include external drugs such as wet packs, antihypertensive agents, analgesics, anticancer drugs, and antibiotics. Among them, antibiotics are frequently used in cases of acute infectious diseases. When the treatment of these infections is delayed, the infection might be aggravated rapidly. The pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) theory has been adopted in recent chemotherapy, and in many cases, the most appropriate dosage and administration of antibiotics are determined for individual patients considering renal function; high-dosage antibiotics are used preferably for a short duration. Therefore, a highly detailed antimicrobial agent is necessary. However, some of the generic antibiotics have less antibacterial potency or solubility than the brand name products. We showed that the potency of the generic products of vancomycin and teicoplanin is lower than that of the branded drugs by 14.6 % and 17.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed that a generic meropenem drug for injection required about 82 s to solubilize in saline, whereas the brand product required only about 21 s. It was thought that the cause may be the difference in size of bulk

  5. Practicing the Generic (City)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2010-01-01

    Flanagan proposes that most locative media artworks neglect the particularities of spaces, their historical and political layers. Koolhaas, on the other hand, states that all urban areas are alike, that we are facing a global Generic City. The paper analyses digital media artist Esther Polak......’s NomadicMILK project in light of the generic and particular properties of space as laid out by Flanagan and Koolhaas in order to discuss the possible reconfiguring practices of locative media....

  6. Scripting XML with Generic Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atanassow, F.; Clarke, D.; Jeuring, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    A generic program is written once and works on values of many data types. Generic Haskell is a recent extension of the functional programming language Haskell that supports generic programming. This paper discusses how Generic Haskell can be used to implement XML tools whose behaviour depends on

  7. Scripting XML with Generic Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atanassow, F.; Clarke, D.; Jeuring, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    A generic program is written once and works on values of many data types. Generic Haskell is a recent extension of the functional programming language Haskell that supports generic programming. This paper discusses how Generic Haskell can be used to implement XML tools whose behaviour depends on

  8. Influence of writing and reading intertrack interferences in terms of bit aspect ratio in shingled magnetic recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobuhara, Hirofumi; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Masato; Nakamura, Yasuaki; Osawa, Hisashi; Muraoka, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of the writing and reading intertrack interferences (ITIs) in terms of bit aspect ratio (BAR) in shingled magnetic recording by computer simulation using a read/write model which consists of a writing process based on Stoner-Wohlfarth switching asteroid by a one-side shielded isosceles triangular write head and a reading process by an around shielded read head for a discrete Voronoi medium model. The results show that BAR should be 3 to reduce the influence of writing and reading ITIs, media noise, and additive white Gaussian noise in an assumed areal density of 4.61Tbpsi.

  9. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-01-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies. - Highlights: ► The history of phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is given. ► Generic PI treatments in use today are discussed. ► Suggestions for future research are presented. ► A dose of 250 Gy for most insects may suffice.

  10. Generic robot architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  11. Integration of generic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, D.

    1989-01-01

    The NRC has recognized the need to integrate generic issues (GIs). The GI process includes a number of phases, all of which should recognize the potential for overlap and conflict among related issues. In addition to the issues themselves, other related NRC and industry programs and activities need to be factored into the GI process. Integration has taken place, or is taking place, for a number of GIs. Each case of integration involves a specific set of circumstances and, as a result, the way in which integration proceeds can vary. This paper discusses the integration of issues in the generic issue process and provides a number of examples

  12. Rethinking generic skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Canning

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a critical analysis of the notion of generic or transversal skillscontained with European Union policy discourses. The author presents a conceptualframework that challenges the idea that generic skills are universal, transferable andautonomous. An alternative analysis is put forward that argues the case forcontextualising skills and knowledge within particular understandings and cultures thatare more collective than individualistic in nature. The arguments are framed withinwider cross-disciplinary debates in linguistics, geosemiotics and social-cultural theoryand build upon an earlier paper exploring core skills in the UK (Canning, 2007.

  13. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR DETERMINATION OF EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS FROM SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTIONS CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGHWAY, NONROAD, AND STATIONARY USE DIESEL ENGINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protocol describes the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program's considerations and requirements for verification of emissions reduction provided by selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technologies. The basis of the ETV will be comparison of the emissions and perf...

  14. Generic ICT Skills Profiles: Future Skills for Tomorrow's World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Co-operation Europe Ltd. (ICEL), Brussels, Belgium.

    This document describes generic skills profiles relevant to key jobs in information and communications technology (ICT). The profiles cover the main job areas for which the ICT industry is experiencing skills shortages. These types of information are provided for 18 generic job profiles: job description (vision, role, lifestyle); examples of job…

  15. Generic clearance values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, M.C.; Muniz, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document 'Safety Reports Series Nr 44' of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (author)

  16. Generic Clearance Values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, M.C.; Muniz, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on the one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document Safety Reports Series 44 of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (authors) [es

  17. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-07-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.

  18. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallman, Guy J [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Weslaco, TX (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies. (author)

  19. The generic strategy trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D

    1992-01-01

    Management experts claim that for a company to thrive, it must concentrate on a single generic strategy--on one thing it does better than its rivals. But specialization also has its disadvantages. The author suggests that a broader, mixed approach may be preferable.

  20. Influencers of generic drug utilization: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jennifer N; Harris, Ilene; Frank, Gavriella; Kiptanui, Zippora; Qian, Jingjing; Hansen, Richard

    2017-08-04

    With an increase in prescription drug spending and rising drug costs there is a need to encourage the use of generic prescription drugs. However, maximizing generic drug use is not possible without the public's positive perception and meeting their informational needs about generic drugs. Thus, improving the public's confidence in, and knowledge of generic drugs on the market is critical. The objective of this systematic review is to examine and evaluate the studies focusing on the nature and extent of key factors influencing generic drug use in the United States in order to help guide policy, education and practice interventions. Using multiple search engines and key word screening criteria, empirical studies published in English between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2015 were identified. A qualitative synthesis of the evidence identified domains of key factors that influenced generic drug use across studies. Over 3000 citations met the key word screening criteria; 67 of these met inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Seven domains of factors that influence generic drug utilization were identified: 1) patient-related factors, 2) formulary management or cost containment, 3) healthcare policies, 4) promotional activities, 5) educational initiatives, 6) technology, and 7) physician-related factors. Patients, physicians, pharmacists, formulary managers, and policymakers play an important role in generic drug use. Understanding the factors influencing generic drug use can help guide future policy, education, and practice interventions to increase generic drug use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Generic and biosimilar medicines: quid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Simoens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Once intellectual property protection, data and marketing exclusivity of reference medicines have expired, generic medicines and biosimilar medicines can enter the off-patent market. This market entry is conditional on the approval of marketing authorization, pricing and reimbursement. Given that there tends to be confusion surrounding generic and biosimilar medicines, this Editorial introduces basic concepts related to generic and biosimilar medicines and presents the different studies and articles included in this supplement dedicated to generic and biosimilar medicines.

  2. Generics Pricing: The Greek Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karafyllis, Ioannis; Variti, Lamprini

    2017-01-01

    This paper explains and develops a methodological framework to help evaluate the performance of generic pharmaceutical policies and the correct evaluation of generics sales. Until today erroneous recording of generics does not help proper pricing and their penetration in the Greek market. This classifies Greece on the outliners in every study or comparison that is referred on papers or studies.

  3. Generic safety documentation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ''core'' upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information

  4. Comparison of generic-to-brand switchback patterns for generic and authorized generic drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Richard A.; Qian, Jingjing; Berg, Richard; Linneman, James; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Dutcher, Sarah K.; Raofi, Saeid; Page, C. David; Peissig, Peggy

    2018-01-01

    Background While generic drugs are therapeutically equivalent to brand drugs, some patients and healthcare providers remain uncertain about whether they produce identical outcomes. Authorized generics, which are identical in formulation to corresponding brand drugs but marketed as a generic, provide a unique post-marketing opportunity to study whether utilization patterns are influenced by perceptions of generic drugs. Objectives To compare generic-to-brand switchback rates between generics and authorized generics. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using claims and electronic health records data from a regional U.S. healthcare system. Ten drugs with authorized generics and generics marketed between 1999 and 2014 were evaluated. Eligible adult patients received a brand drug during the 6 months preceding generic entry, and then switched to a generic or authorized generic. Patients in this cohort were followed for up to 30 months from the index switch date to evaluate occurrence of generic-to-brand switchbacks. Switchback rates were compared between patients on authorized generics versus generics using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for individual drug effects, age, sex, Charlson comorbidity score, pre-index drug use characteristics, and pre-index healthcare utilization. Results Among 5,542 unique patients that switched from brand-to-generic or brand-to-authorized generic, 264 (4.8%) switched back to the brand drug. Overall switchback rates were similar for authorized generics compared with generics (HR=0.86; 95% CI 0.65-1.15). The likelihood of switchback was higher for alendronate (HR=1.64; 95% CI 1.20-2.23) and simvastatin (HR=1.81; 95% CI 1.30-2.54) and lower for amlodipine (HR=0.27; 95% CI 0.17-0.42) compared with other drugs in the cohort. Conclusions Overall switchback rates were similar between authorized generic and generic drug users, indirectly supporting similar efficacy and tolerability profiles for

  5. Generic patch inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Lawall, Julia

    2010-01-01

    A key issue in maintaining Linux device drivers is the need to keep them up to date with respect to evolutions in Linux internal libraries. Currently, there is little tool support for performing and documenting such changes. In this paper we present a tool, spdiff, that identifies common changes...... developers can use it to extract an abstract representation of the set of changes that others have made. Our experiments on recent changes in Linux show that the inferred generic patches are more concise than the corresponding patches found in commits to the Linux source tree while being safe with respect...

  6. Advertising and generic market entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königbauer, Ingrid

    2007-03-01

    The effect of purely persuasive advertising on generic market entry and social welfare is analysed. An incumbent has the possibility to invest in advertising which affects the prescribing physician's perceived relative qualities of the brand-name and the generic version of the drug. Advertising creates product differentiation and can induce generic market entry which is deterred without differentiation due to strong Bertrand competition. However, over-investment in advertising can deter generic market entry under certain conditions and reduces welfare as compared to accommodated market entry.

  7. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  8. The role of medical physicists in developing a generic research framework for the assessment of new radiation oncology technology and treatments in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, M.M.; Amin, R.; Cornes, D.A.; Duchesne, G.; Haworth, A.; Kron, T.; Burmeister, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: TROG Cancer Research has secured funding from the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing to develop and pilot an evaluation framework for new radiation oncology technologies and treatments. Four site specific projects will be undertaken to test the framework including IMRT for nasopharynx, anal canal and post-prostatectomy and IGRT for prostate fiducial markers. Multidisciplinary Expert Groups that include medical physicists, have been appointed for each site specific project. Each project will collect data from at least ten treatment centres who have been credentialed. The Framework will have the capacity to gather information to substantiate the clinical efficacy and cost effectiveness of new technologies and treatments in radiation oncology. The framework will be tested by gathering data to evaluate the superiority of IMRT and lGRT over other treatments and economic analysis will examine the potential trade-off between efficiency and the clinical gains to a patient. It is anticipated that the outcome of this research will inform future funding decisions. The involvement of medical physicists has been central to development of the framework, protocol development and the credentialing process. (author)

  9. Comparison of Generic-to-Brand Switchback Rates Between Generic and Authorized Generic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Richard A; Qian, Jingjing; Berg, Richard; Linneman, James; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Dutcher, Sarah K; Raofi, Saeid; Page, C David; Peissig, Peggy

    2017-04-01

    Generic drugs contain identical active ingredients as their corresponding brand drugs and are pharmaceutically equivalent and bioequivalent, whereas authorized generic drugs (AGs) contain both identical active and inactive ingredients as their corresponding brand drugs but are marketed as generics. This study compares generic-to-brand switchback rates between generic and AGs. Retrospective cohort study. Claims and electronic health record data from a regional U.S. health care system. The full cohort consisted of 5542 unique patients who received select branded drugs during the 6 months prior to their generic drug market availability (between 1999 and 2014) and then were switched to an AG or generic drug within 30 months of generic drug entry. For these patients, 5929 unique patient-drug combinations (867 with AGs and 5062 with generic drugs) were evaluated. Ten drugs with AGs and generics marketed between 1999 and 2014 were evaluated. The date of the first generic prescription was considered the index date for each drug, and it marked the beginning of follow-up to evaluate the occurrence of generic-to-brand switchback patterns over the subsequent 30 months. Switchback rates were compared between patients receiving AGs versus those receiving generics using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for individual drug effects, age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Score, pre-index drug use characteristics, and pre-index health care utilization. Among the 5542 unique patients who switched from brand to generic or brand to AG, 264 (4.8%) switched back to the brand drug. Overall switchback rates were similar for AGs compared with generics (hazard ratio [HR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-1.15). The likelihood of switchback was higher for alendronate (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.20-2.23) and simvastatin (HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.30-2.54) and lower for amlodipine (HR 0.27, 95% CI 0.17-0.42) compared with the other drugs evaluated. Overall switchback rates were similar

  10. Article choice in plural generics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farkas, D.F.; Swart, Henriëtte de

    2007-01-01

    We discuss two groups of languages where article use contrasts in generic plural sentences but is otherwise essentially similar. The languages in the first group (English and Dutch) use bare plurals in the expression of kind reference (‘Dinosaurs are extinct’) and in generic

  11. Generic Bluetooth Data Module

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aljuaied, Ali

    2002-01-01

    .... The emerging Bluetooth technology enables fast, efficient sensor communication, which eliminates wired connections and the associated manual tasks of initiating, checking, and changing sensor connections...

  12. Quality of generic medicines in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Aarti; Gauld, Robin; Norris, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Generic Medicines are an important policy option allowing for access to affordable, essential medicines. Quality of generic medicines must be guaranteed through the activities of national medicines regulatory authorities. Existing negative perceptions surrounding the quality of generic medicines ...

  13. Encouraging generic use can yield significant savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Christina

    2012-11-01

    Key findings. (1) Zero copayment for generic drugs is the greatest influencer of generic statin utilization. (2) Both higher copayments for generic drugs and lower copayments for competing brands are associated with a decreased probability of using generic statins. (3) Prior authorization and step therapy requirements for brand-name statins are associated with an increased use of generic drugs. (4) Greater use of generic statins should reduce costs for patients, plans, and Medicare.

  14. Generic antibiotic industries: Challenges and implied strategies with regulatory perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Venkatesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the discovery of antibiotics, the quality of human life greatly improved in the 20 th century. The discovery of penicillin transformed the medicine industry and initiated a search for a better antibiotic every time resulting in several synthetic and semi-synthetic antibiotics. Beginning with the 1937 sulfa drug tragedy, the drug regulations had a parallel growth along with the antibiotics and the antibiotic-based generic Pharma industries. This review article is focused on the scenario depicting current global Pharma industries based on generic antibiotics. Several regulatory aspects involved with these industries have been discussed along with the complexity of the market, issues that could affect their growth, their struggle for quality, and their compliance with the tightened regulations. With the skyrocketing commercialization of antibiotics through generics and the leveraging technologic renaissance, generic industries are involved in providing maximum safer benefits for the welfare of the people, highlighting its need today.

  15. Generic antibiotic industries: Challenges and implied strategies with regulatory perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, M.; Bairavi, V. G.; Sasikumar, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of antibiotics, the quality of human life greatly improved in the 20th century. The discovery of penicillin transformed the medicine industry and initiated a search for a better antibiotic every time resulting in several synthetic and semi-synthetic antibiotics. Beginning with the 1937 sulfa drug tragedy, the drug regulations had a parallel growth along with the antibiotics and the antibiotic-based generic Pharma industries. This review article is focused on the scenario depicting current global Pharma industries based on generic antibiotics. Several regulatory aspects involved with these industries have been discussed along with the complexity of the market, issues that could affect their growth, their struggle for quality, and their compliance with the tightened regulations. With the skyrocketing commercialization of antibiotics through generics and the leveraging technologic renaissance, generic industries are involved in providing maximum safer benefits for the welfare of the people, highlighting its need today.. PMID:21430959

  16. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  17. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Technology: A Powerful, Generic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    determined analyte (called template) in a polymeric matrix. The template directs the molecular positioning and orientation of the material's functional monomers. Cross-linking ensures polymer rigidity that “freezes” the 3-D molecular architecture of the ...

  18. The Generic Data Capture Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Edward B.; Barnes, William P.; Stallings, William H.

    1987-01-01

    The Generic Data Capture Facility, which can provide data capture support for a variety of different types of spacecraft while enabling operations costs to be carefully controlled, is discussed. The data capture functions, data protection, isolation of users from data acquisition problems, data reconstruction, and quality and accounting are addressed. The TDM and packet data formats utilized by the system are described, and the development of generic facilities is considered.

  19. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-09-09

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  20. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports

  1. COMPETENCIAS GENÉRICAS EN LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR TECNOLÓGICA MEXICANA: DESDE LAS PERCEPCIONES DE DOCENTES Y ESTUDIANTES (GENERIC COMPETENCES IN MEXICAN HIGHER TECHNOLOGICAL EDUCATION: FROM THE PERCEPTIONS OF TEACHERS AND STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Medina Palomera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Los modelos educativos, a nivel mundial, están sufriendo modificaciones hacia la implementación del enfoque en competencias. Tal es el caso del Sistema Nacional de Educación Superior Tecnológica en México. Dada la relevancia, se llevó a cabo un estudio para conocer la perspectiva que tienen los docentes y estudiantes sobre las competencias genéricas (CG. El trabajo se desarrolló mediante encuestas aplicadas en Institutos Tecnológicos a nivel nacional. En este artículo se presentan los resultados obtenidos sobre los siguientes tópicos: la importancia de las CG, la identificación de las esenciales, y la relación que tienen entre las diferentes categorías de carreras de los Institutos Tecnológicos. Se encontró que los docentes otorgan mayor importancia a las CG que los estudiantes; además, se advierte una concordancia de los resultados entre las CG esenciales tanto por los docentes como por los estudiantes; asimismo, se observan varias diferencias entre categorías de carreras. Se concluye que tanto académicos y estudiantes perciben positivamente la incorporación de las CG en los programas de estudio, dejando entrever un ambiente propicio para su implementación. Se propone, además, un estudio complementario. El análisis reveló que a cada carrera le corresponden diferentes CG esenciales.Abstract: The educational models around the world are undergoing modifications to the implementation of the competences approach. Such is the case of the National Higher Technological Education System in Mexico. Given the importance of this, conducted a study to determine the perspective which teachers and students on generic competences (CG. The work was developed through surveys completed in Institutes of Technology nationwide. This article presents the results obtained on the following topics: the importance of the CG, the identification of essential and the relationship they have between different categories of careers in research

  2. Generic Example Proving Criteria for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopp, David; Ely, Rob; Johnson­-Leung, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We review literature that discusses generic example proving and highlight ambiguities that pervade our research community's discourse about generic example arguments. We distinguish between pedagogical advice for choosing good examples that can serve as generic examples when teaching and advice for developing generic example arguments. We provide…

  3. Generic penetration in the retail antidepressant market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventimiglia, Jeffrey; Kalali, Amir H

    2010-06-01

    In this article, we explore the accelerated penetration of generic antidepressants in the United States market following the availability of generic citalopram and sertraline. Analysis suggests that overall, generic penetration into the antidepressant market has grown from approximately 41 percent in January 2004 to over 73 percent in January 2010. Similar trends are uncovered when branded and generic prescriptions are analyzed by specialty.

  4. Shingle 2.0: generalising self-consistent and automated domain discretisation for multi-scale geophysical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, Adam S.; Pietrzak, Julie D.

    2018-01-01

    The approaches taken to describe and develop spatial discretisations of the domains required for geophysical simulation models are commonly ad hoc, model- or application-specific, and under-documented. This is particularly acute for simulation models that are flexible in their use of multi-scale, anisotropic, fully unstructured meshes where a relatively large number of heterogeneous parameters are required to constrain their full description. As a consequence, it can be difficult to reproduce simulations, to ensure a provenance in model data handling and initialisation, and a challenge to conduct model intercomparisons rigorously. This paper takes a novel approach to spatial discretisation, considering it much like a numerical simulation model problem of its own. It introduces a generalised, extensible, self-documenting approach to carefully describe, and necessarily fully, the constraints over the heterogeneous parameter space that determine how a domain is spatially discretised. This additionally provides a method to accurately record these constraints, using high-level natural language based abstractions that enable full accounts of provenance, sharing, and distribution. Together with this description, a generalised consistent approach to unstructured mesh generation for geophysical models is developed that is automated, robust and repeatable, quick-to-draft, rigorously verified, and consistent with the source data throughout. This interprets the description above to execute a self-consistent spatial discretisation process, which is automatically validated to expected discrete characteristics and metrics. Library code, verification tests, and examples available in the repository at https://github.com/shingleproject/Shingle. Further details of the project presented at http://shingleproject.org.

  5. Retailing policies for generic medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso, Susana

    2005-06-01

    As there is general disagreement about the way generic medicines should be commercialized, two retailing policies are analyzed, taking into account their effects on the welfare of patients, government, pharmacies and physicians. In the first policy scenario, pharmacies are allowed to substitute generic medicines for branded ones, while in the second, substitution is forbidden. In both cases a pharmacies association is allowed to have a share in the production of generic medicines. The model predicts that under some conditions patients may prefer substitution by pharmacies but when doctors' decisions are binding, they are never "excessively bad". However, the policy choice belongs to the government, which prefers to allow for substitution more often than patients would like.

  6. Generic Graph Grammar: A Simple Grammar for Generic Procedural Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2012-01-01

    in a directed cyclic graph. Furthermore, the basic productions are chosen such that Generic Graph Grammar seamlessly combines the capabilities of L-systems to imitate biological growth (to model trees, animals, etc.) and those of split grammars to design structured objects (chairs, houses, etc.). This results...

  7. Harnessing the sun : use solar shingles to turn your cabin into a sleek, green power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, T.A.

    2009-03-15

    Solar roofing tiles are now being used by cottage owners to generate power. The Canadian photovoltaics (PV) industry has grown at an average annual rate of 25 per cent from 1992 to 2006. The price of solar equipment has dropped, and solar tiles are now an affordable option for cottage or homeowners in remote locations. The tiles are constructed of PV cells mounted on a composite roofing tile. The tiles are connected together in a series or as groups. Electrical lines for each group run to an inverter that converts DC power to AC power. AC lines are connected to AC electrical panels in the house. The tiles also perform the same function and are installed in the same manner as traditional roofing tiles. Solar roofing is common in countries such as Japan and Germany, where electricity are high. Studies have shown that Canada is between 10 and 15 years behind other developed countries in the application of solar technologies. The tiles typically cost approximately $12,500 per kW installed. Typical installations are approximately 3 kW and are capable of producing up to 4000 kWh of electricity per year. Each kW requires approximately 100 square feet of roof area to install. It was concluded that when combined with a feed-in tariff or subsidy program, the cost of the PV tiles can be recovered in 12 or 15 years. 2 figs.

  8. Generic Site Safety Report

    CERN Document Server

    International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna. ITER Joint Central Team

    2001-01-01

    The ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) are being conducted jointly by Euratom, Japan, and the Russian Federation, as Parties to the ITER EDA Agreement signed on 21 July 1992 and subsequently extended until July 20th 2001. (The United States of America was an ITER Party until September 30th 1999). The activities are conducted under the auspices of the IAEA by the ITER Joint Central Team and by the Home Teams (HT). The JCT is composed of qualified persons made available by each of the Parties in approximately equal numbers. The JCT members are located at the ITER Joint Work Sites (JWS) in Naka (Japan), Garching (Germany), and formerly in San Diego (USA). The Home Teams are established and organized by each Party for performing the tasks of the work programme for the EDA, assigned to them in approximately equal shares. Home Teams in each of the Parties perform specific design tasks, and perform research and development in technology (physics R&D is contributed voluntarily). The Home Team Leaders (HTL) ...

  9. Generic Software Architecture for Launchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carre, Emilien; Gast, Philippe; Hiron, Emmanuel; Leblanc, Alain; Lesens, David; Mescam, Emmanuelle; Moro, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    The definition and reuse of generic software architecture for launchers is not so usual for several reasons: the number of European launcher families is very small (Ariane 5 and Vega for these last decades); the real time constraints (reactivity and determinism needs) are very hard; low levels of versatility are required (implying often an ad hoc development of the launcher mission). In comparison, satellites are often built on a generic platform made up of reusable hardware building blocks (processors, star-trackers, gyroscopes, etc.) and reusable software building blocks (middleware, TM/TC, On Board Control Procedure, etc.). If some of these reasons are still valid (e.g. the limited number of development), the increase of the available CPU power makes today an approach based on a generic time triggered middleware (ensuring the full determinism of the system) and a centralised mission and vehicle management (offering more flexibility in the design and facilitating the long term maintenance) achievable. This paper presents an example of generic software architecture which could be envisaged for future launchers, based on the previously described principles and supported by model driven engineering and automatic code generation.

  10. Testing properties of generic functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansson, P.; Jeuring, J.T.; Cabenda, L.; Engels, G.; Kleerekoper, J.; Mak, S.; Overeem, M.; Visser, Kees

    2007-01-01

    A datatype-generic function is a family of functions indexed by (the structure of) a type. Examples include equality tests, maps and pretty printers. Property based testing tools like QuickCheck and Gast support the de¯nition of properties and test-data generators, and they check if a

  11. Generic component failure data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, S.A.; Calley, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses comprehensive component generic failure data base which has been developed for light water reactor probabilistic risk assessments. The Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) was used to generate component failure rates. Using this approach, most of the failure rates are based on actual plant data rather then existing estimates

  12. 'Genericism' in Danish welfare professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Verner

    and skills in the basic disciplines of the professions also termed as disciplinary and procedural knowledge '. Thus the main research question for this paper is: What consequences do recent reform actions in Danish welfare education concerning generic competence have on developing professional knowledge...

  13. Might generic OCs create contraceptive price war?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    Genora 1/35 and 1/50, the 1st generic oral contraceptives (OCs) in the world, are now being marketed in the US. Clinicians interviewed by "Contraceptive Technology Update" (CTU) offer differing opinions as to what this new OC may mean in the marketplace. Products of Rugby Laboratories, the pills are copy products of Ortho Pharmaceutical's ON 1/35 and ON 1/50 formulations. Most clinicians believe that Genora's success or failure in the OC market depends on its eventual retail price. The price difference of $3-$4 may be sufficiently substantial for retailers to charge less for the generic OCs. If that is the case, many doctors may prescribe a pill which will save their patients $4/month. Dr. Mildred Hanson, a Minneapolis gynecologist/obstetrician, feels any cost savings from Genora will have a significant impact on the OC market. She suggests that the less expensive OCs will catch the attention of health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and the business of women who participate in such health plans. Yet James Burns, director of family planning services for the Hartford City Health Department, thinks that even a full-scale retail price war won't have much effect from a clinic standpoint. He reports that clinics are able to obtain contraceptive supplies rather inexpensively through the contracting system. Hanson also expressed doubt over the potential popularity of Genora 1/50 as clinical concerns about the effects of combined OCs on serum lipid levels and carbohydrate metabolism have resulted in a nationwide push toward OCs containing less than 50 micrograms of estrogen. He indicated concern that declines in pharmaceutical house products from pricing competition with generic pills might have a negative impact on contraceptive research and development. Dick Haskitt, director of business planning for Syntex Laboratories, Inc., who will produce the OCs for Rugby, reports that their market research shows that people are very interested in having a generic OC available

  14. Exploring knowledge, perceptions and attitudes about generic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring knowledge, perceptions and attitudes about generic medicines among final-year health science students. ... had knowledge deficits about the safety, quality and efficacy of generic medicines. The dissemination of information about generic medicines may strengthen future knowledge, attitudes and perceptions.

  15. Comparing approaches to generic programming in Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinze, R.; Jeuring, J.T.; Löh, A.

    2006-01-01

    The last decade has seen a number of approaches to generic programming: PolyP, Functorial ML, `Scrap Your Boilerplate', Generic Haskell, `Generics for the Masses', etc. The approaches vary in sophistication and target audience: some propose full-blown pro- gramming languages, some suggest

  16. Comparing approaches to generic programming in Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinze, R.; Jeuring, J.T.; Löh, A.

    2006-01-01

    The last decade has seen a number of approaches to data- type-generic programming: PolyP, Functorial ML, `Scrap Your Boiler- plate', Generic Haskell, `Generics for the Masses', etc. The approaches vary in sophistication and target audience: some propose full-blown pro- gramming languages, some

  17. Proceedings Workshop on Generic Programming (WGP2000)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, J.T.

    2000-01-01

    This report contains the papers selected for presentation at the 2nd Workshop on Generic Programming (WGP2000), which was held on July 6, 2000 in Ponte de Lima, Portugal. Generic programming is about making programs more adaptable by making them more general. Generic programs often embody

  18. Shingles (Herpes Zoster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... woman’s unborn baby. Babies less than 1 month old and people who have a weak immune system ... Publications Connect With Us Contact Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal ...

  19. Chickenpox and Shingles Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wu, A. (© 2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests , Fourth Edition: Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, MO. Pp 1623. Forbes, B. et. al. (© 2007). Bailey & Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology , Twelfth Edition: Mosby Elsevier Press, St. Louis, MO. ...

  20. Automated analysis in generic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerholm, Edvard

    This thesis studies automated methods for analyzing hardness assumptions in generic group models, following ideas of symbolic cryptography. We define a broad class of generic and symbolic group models for different settings---symmetric or asymmetric (leveled) k-linear groups --- and prove ''computational soundness'' theorems for the symbolic models. Based on this result, we formulate a master theorem that relates the hardness of an assumption to solving problems in polynomial algebra. We systematically analyze these problems identifying different classes of assumptions and obtain decidability and undecidability results. Then, we develop automated procedures for verifying the conditions of our master theorems, and thus the validity of hardness assumptions in generic group models. The concrete outcome is an automated tool, the Generic Group Analyzer, which takes as input the statement of an assumption, and outputs either a proof of its generic hardness or shows an algebraic attack against the assumption. Structure-preserving signatures are signature schemes defined over bilinear groups in which messages, public keys and signatures are group elements, and the verification algorithm consists of evaluating ''pairing-product equations''. Recent work on structure-preserving signatures studies optimality of these schemes in terms of the number of group elements needed in the verification key and the signature, and the number of pairing-product equations in the verification algorithm. While the size of keys and signatures is crucial for many applications, another aspect of performance is the time it takes to verify a signature. The most expensive operation during verification is the computation of pairings. However, the concrete number of pairings is not captured by the number of pairing-product equations considered in earlier work. We consider the question of what is the minimal number of pairing computations needed to verify structure-preserving signatures. We build an

  1. Generic supercritical water technology; Generic technology to shite no chorinkaisui riyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, K; Ajiri, M; Inomata, H; Smith, R; Hakuta, Y [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yokoyama, C [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). The Institute forChemical Reaction Science; Chin, L [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the measurement and analysis for clarifying solution structure of supercritical water and exhibition mechanism of solvent functions. It also describes the development of new processes using supercritical water as reaction solvent. The PVT measurements were conducted in the supercritical region using pure water and NaCl aqueous solution, to confirm the reduction of molar volume of the electrolyte solution. The hydration structure was examined in the supercritical aqueous solution by the molecular dynamic simulation. As a result, presence of hydrogen bond structure, where the contribution of two branching hydrogen bond can not be ignored, was suggested under the supercritical condition. Characteristics of supercritical aqueous solutions are analyzed through in-situ Raman and scattered X-ray spectral measurements. Moreover, this paper introduces developments of some processes in the supercritical water, such as decomposition of wasted polymers, recovery of chemical materials, reforming of heavy hydrocarbons by contact hydrogenation, and synthesis of fine powders of metal oxide by reaction crystallization.

  2. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott Leroy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harp, Dylan Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-20

    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  3. GLAD: a generic lattice debugger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Today, numerous simulation and analysis codes exist for the design, commission, and operation of accelerator beam lines. There is a need to develop a common user interface and database link to run these codes interactively. This paper will describe a proposed system, GLAD (Generic LAttice Debugger), to fulfill this need. Specifically, GLAD can be used to find errors in beam lines during commissioning, control beam parameters during operation, and design beam line optics and error correction systems for the next generation of linear accelerators and storage rings. (author)

  4. Generic maximum likely scale selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    in this work is on applying this selection principle under a Brownian image model. This image model provides a simple scale invariant prior for natural images and we provide illustrative examples of the behavior of our scale estimation on such images. In these illustrative examples, estimation is based......The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...

  5. Generic Performance Measures. Chapter 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daube-Witherspoon, M. E. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The generic nuclear medicine imager, whether a gamma camera, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system or positron emission tomography (PET) scanner, comprises several main components: a detection system, a form of collimation to select γ rays at specific angles, electronics and a computing system to create the map of the radiotracer distribution. This section discusses these components in more detail. The first stage of a generic nuclear medicine imager is the detection of the γ rays emitted by the radionuclide. In the case of PET, the radiation of interest are the 511 keV annihilation photons that result from the interaction of the positron emitted by the radionuclide with an electron in the tissue. For general nuclear medicine and SPECT, there is one or sometimes more than one γ ray of interest, with energies in the range of <100 to >400 keV. The γ rays are detected when they interact and deposit energy in the crystal(s) of the imaging system. There are two main types of detector: crystals that give off light that can be converted to an electrical signal when the γ ray interacts (‘scintillators’) and semiconductors, crystals that generate an electrical signal directly when the γ ray deposits energy in the crystal. Scintillation detectors include NaI(Tl), bismuth germanate (BGO) and lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO); semiconductor detectors used in nuclear medicine imagers include cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). Radiation detectors are described in more detail in Chapter 6.

  6. Prioritization of generic safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrit, R.; Minners, W.; VanderMolen, H.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents the priority rankings for generic safety issues related to nuclear power plants. The purpose of these rankings is to assist in the timely and efficient allocation of NRC resources for the resolution of those safety issues that have a significant potential for reducing risk. The report focuses on the prioritization of generic safety issues. Issues primarily concerned with the licensing process or environmental protection and not directly related to safety have been excluded from prioritization. The prioritized issues include: TMI Action Plan items under development; previously proposed issues covered by Task Action Plans, except issues designated at Unresolved Safety Issues (USIs) which had already been assigned high priority; and newly-proposed issues. Future supplements to this report will include the prioritization of additional issues. The safety priority rankings are HIGH, MEDIUM, LOW, and DROP and have been assigned on the basis of risk significance estimates, the ratio of risk to costs and other impacts estimated to result if resolutions of the safety issues were implemented, and the consideration of uncertainties and other quantitative or qualitative factors. To the extent practical, estimates are quantitative

  7. Generic communications index: User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, R.S.; Steinbrecher, D.H.; Hennick, A.

    1987-12-01

    This report is a manual for providing information required to use a special computer program developed by the NRC for indexing generic communications. The program is written in a user-friendly menu driven form using dBASE III programming language. It facilitates use of the required dBASE III search and sort capabilities to access records in a database called Generic Communications Index. This index is made up of one record each for all bulletins, circulars, and information notices, including revisions and supplements, from 1971, when such documentation started, through 1986 (or to the latest update). The program is designed for use by anyone modestly acquainted with the general use of IBM-compatible personal computers. The manual contains both a brief overview and a detailed description of the program, as well as detailed instructions for getting started using the program on a personal computer with either a two-floppy disk or a hard disk system. Included at the end are a brief description of how to handle problems which might occur, and notes on the makeup of the program and database files for help in adding records of communications for future years

  8. Skin rash during treatment with generic itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuono, Antonio; Palleria, Caterina; Scicchitano, Francesca; Squillace, Aida; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gallelli, Luca

    2014-04-01

    Generic drugs have the same active substance, the same pharmaceutical form, the same therapeutic indications and a similar bioequivalence with the reference medicinal product (branded). Although a similar efficacy is postulated, some cases of clinical inefficacy during treatment with generic formulations have been reported. In this case, we describe a woman with onychomycosis that developed a skin rash during treatment with a generic formulation of itraconazole. Drug administration and its re-challenge confirmed the association between itraconazole and skin rash. Both Naranjo probability scale and World Health Organization causality assessment scale documented a probable association between generic-itraconazole and skin rash. The switch from generic formulation to brand one induced an improvement of symptoms. Since we are unable to evaluate the role of each excipient in the development of skin rash, we cannot rule out their involvement. However, more data are necessary to better define the similarities or differences between branded and generic formulations.

  9. Generic medicines and generic substitution: contrasting perspectives of stakeholders in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, A; Usher, C; Lynch, M; Hall, M; Hemeryk, L; Spillane, S; Gallagher, P; Barry, M

    2015-12-15

    The Health (Pricing and Supply of Medical Goods) Act 2013 passed into law in July 2013 and legislated for generic substitution in Ireland. The aim of the study was to ascertain the knowledge and perceptions of stakeholders i.e. patients, pharmacists and prescribers, of generic medicines and to generic substitution with the passing of legislation. Three stakeholder specific questionnaires were developed to assess knowledge of and perceptions to generic medicines and generic substitution. Purposive samples of patients, prescribers and pharmacists were analysed. Descriptive quantitative and qualitative analyses were undertaken. A total of 762 healthcare professionals and 353 patients were recruited. The study highlighted that over 84% of patients were familiar with generic medicines and are supportive of the concept of generic substitution. Approximately 74% of prescribers and 84% of pharmacists were supportive of generic substitution in most cases. The main areas of concern highlighted by the healthcare professionals that might impact on the successful implementation of the policy, were the issue of bioequivalence with generic medicines, the computer software systems used at present in general practitioner (GP) surgeries and the availability of branded generics. The findings from this study identify a high baseline rate of acceptance to generic medicines and generic substitution among patients, prescribers and pharmacists in the Irish setting. The concerns of the main stakeholders provide a valuable insight into the potential difficulties that may arise in its implementation, and the need for on-going reassurance and proactive dissemination of the impact of the generic substitution policy. The existing positive attitude to generic medicines and generic substitution among key stakeholders in Ireland to generic substitution, combined with appropriate support and collaboration should result in the desired increase in rates of prescribing, dispensing and use of generic

  10. Generic domain models in software engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiden, Neil

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines three research directions related to domain-specific software development: (1) reuse of generic models for domain-specific software development; (2) empirical evidence to determine these generic models, namely elicitation of mental knowledge schema possessed by expert software developers; and (3) exploitation of generic domain models to assist modelling of specific applications. It focuses on knowledge acquisition for domain-specific software development, with emphasis on tool support for the most important phases of software development.

  11. PROBLEM OF GENERIC REPLACEMENT: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Tolpygina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main differences between original and generic drugs as well as registration criteria for generics are described. Possible reasons of discrepancy in bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence of original and generic drugs are reviewed. The examples of such a discrepancy as a result of comparative clinical trails (enalapril maleate are discussed. Approaches to planning of comparative trails on drug therapeutic equivalence are presented. 

  12. Determinants of generic drug substitution in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lufkin Thomas M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since generic drugs have the same therapeutic effect as the original formulation but at generally lower costs, their use should be more heavily promoted. However, a considerable number of barriers to their wider use have been observed in many countries. The present study examines the influence of patients, physicians and certain characteristics of the generics' market on generic substitution in Switzerland. Methods We used reimbursement claims' data submitted to a large health insurer by insured individuals living in one of Switzerland's three linguistic regions during 2003. All dispensed drugs studied here were substitutable. The outcome (use of a generic or not was modelled by logistic regression, adjusted for patients' characteristics (gender, age, treatment complexity, substitution groups and with several variables describing reimbursement incentives (deductible, co-payments and the generics' market (prices, packaging, co-branded original, number of available generics, etc.. Results The overall generics' substitution rate for 173,212 dispensed prescriptions was 31%, though this varied considerably across cantons. Poor health status (older patients, complex treatments was associated with lower generic use. Higher rates were associated with higher out-of-pocket costs, greater price differences between the original and the generic, and with the number of generics on the market, while reformulation and repackaging were associated with lower rates. The substitution rate was 13% lower among hospital physicians. The adoption of the prescribing practices of the canton with the highest substitution rate would increase substitution in other cantons to as much as 26%. Conclusions Patient health status explained a part of the reluctance to substitute an original formulation by a generic. Economic incentives were efficient, but with a moderate global effect. The huge interregional differences indicated that prescribing behaviours and

  13. Skin rash during treatment with generic itraconazole

    OpenAIRE

    De Vuono, Antonio; Palleria, Caterina; Scicchitano, Francesca; Squillace, Aida; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gallelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Generic drugs have the same active substance, the same pharmaceutical form, the same therapeutic indications and a similar bioequivalence with the reference medicinal product (branded). Although a similar efficacy is postulated, some cases of clinical inefficacy during treatment with generic formulations have been reported. In this case, we describe a woman with onychomycosis that developed a skin rash during treatment with a generic formulation of itraconazole. Drug administration and its re...

  14. Generic Hurricane Extreme Seas State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof; Skourup, Jesper; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Extreme sea states, which the IEC 61400-3 (2008) standard requires for the ultimate limit state (ULS) analysis of offshore wind turbines are derived to establish the design basis for the conceptual layout of deep water floating offshore wind turbine foundations in hurricane affected areas....... Especially in the initial phase of floating foundation concept development, site specific metocean data are usually not available. As the areas of interest are furthermore not covered by any design standard, in terms of design sea states, generic and in engineering terms applicable environmental background...... data is required for a type specific conceptual design. ULS conditions for different return periods are developed, which can subsequently be applied in siteindependent analysis and conceptual design. Recordings provided by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), of hurricanes along...

  15. 76 FR 57767 - Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0204] Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... FR 54507), that requested public comment on Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011- XX: Seismic Risk...

  16. Toward a Computer-Aided Synthesis and Design of Biorefinery Networks: Data Collection and Management Using a Generic Modeling Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2014-01-01

    that are needed among others to support the superstructure-based optimization studies. To this end, we first formulate an integrated thermochemical and biochemical biorefinery superstructure and then use a generic modeling approach to represent each processing technology in the superstructure. The generic model...

  17. A Generic Approach to Parameter Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karafotias, G.; Smit, S.K.; Eiben, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    On-line control of EA parameters is an approach to parameter setting that offers the advantage of values changing during the run. In this paper, we investigate parameter control from a generic and parameter-independent perspective. We propose a generic control mechanism that is targeted to

  18. Once more the generic name Passerina Vieillot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1910-01-01

    The note on the generic name of the Snow-bunting by Dr. E. Hartert in this part of our periodical gives me cause to revert to the subject of my note on the generic name Passerina Vieillot and to state here, that I stand to what I have said about the rejection of this name in Zoology (Notes Leyden

  19. South African patient's acceptance of generic drugs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mechanism in this regard for final consumers, insurance providers, and ... facilities are viewed as inferior, treated with sus- picion and ... to choose a generic drug if the decision was supported by their doctor ... The effect of brand to generic and ...

  20. Brand vs generic adverse event reporting patterns: An authorized generic-controlled evaluation of cardiovascular medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatawi, Y; Rahman, Md M; Cheng, N; Qian, J; Peissig, P L; Berg, R L; Page, C D; Hansen, R A

    2018-06-01

    Some public scepticism exists about generics in terms of whether brand and generic drugs produce identical outcomes. This study explores whether adverse event (AE) reporting patterns are similar between brand and generic drugs, using authorized generics (AGs) as a control for possible generic drug perception biases. Events reported to the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System from the years 2004-2015 were analysed. Drugs were classified as brand, AG or generic based on drug and manufacturer names. Reports were included if amlodipine, losartan, metoprolol extended release (ER) or simvastatin were listed as primary or secondary suspect drugs. Disproportionality analyses using the reporting odds ratio (ROR) assessed the relative rate of reporting labelled AEs compared to reporting these AEs with all other drugs. The Breslow-Day test compared RORs across brand, AG and generic. Interrupted time series analysis evaluated the impact of generic entry on reporting trends. Generics accounted for significant percentages of total U.S. reports, but AGs accounted for smaller percentages of reports, including for amlodipine (14.26%), losartan (1.48%), metoprolol ER (0.35%) and simvastatin (0.70%). Whereas the RORs were significantly different for multiple brand vs generic comparisons, the AG vs generic comparisons yielded fewer statistically significant findings. Namely, only the ROR for AG differed from generic for amlodipine with peripheral oedema (P brand and generic compared with AG and generic. Use of AGs as a control for perception biases against generics is useful, but this approach can be limited by small AG report numbers. Requiring the manufacturer name to be printed on the prescription bottle or packaging could improve the accuracy of assignment for products being reported. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Influence of vegetation on the infilling of a macrotidal embayment: examples from salt marshes and shingle spit of the Baie de Somme (North France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bot, Sophie; Forey, Estelle; Lafite, Robert; Langlois, Estelle

    2015-04-01

    As many estuaries in the English Channel, the Baie de Somme is currently filling with a mean seabed elevation between 1.3 and 1.8 cm/yr. Embankments and polders, as well as sea level rise, increase this natural accretion process, which leads to important modifications of environment uses. Interactions between vegetation and sediment dynamics constitute a key-point to consider, in order to better understand the infilling processes in estuaries. To estimate the effect of vegetation on these processes, two particular environments have been studied in the bay: (i) the mid salt marsh covered with Halimione portulacoides, associated with a silty sedimentation, and (ii) the shingle spit, that closes the bay from the South, on which the sea kale (Crambe maritime), a protected pioneer species, develops. Salt marshes progress with a rate of 5-10 m/yr (mean value calculated on the 1947-2011 period). Sedimentological analysis have been conducted on 9 cores (50cm long) collected in three Halimione communities of the bay. They are associated with a silty-dominated (38-84 micrometer) sedimentation under the influence of decantation processes. Rhythmicity is observed in the sedimentation, due to the repetition of a two-layer pattern, that includes a dark layer composed of vegetal rests and that would represent annual sedimentation. Annual sedimentation rates (0.7 to 5.8 cm/yr) are consistent with mean values previously recorded. The shingle spit progresses to the North under the influence of the littoral drift at a rate of 7 m/yr (mean value calculated on the 1947-2011 period). Sea kales are observed on parts formed since several years, above the level of the highest astronomical tides. TLS surveys and sedimentation bars have allowed to measure erosion/sedimentation volumes at the scale of the spit and of sea kale individuals, during spring 2013. Individuals of this species facilitate the trapping of sand, transported by winds from the intertidal flats. Sea kale thus contributes

  2. [Generic drugs: good or bad? Physician's knowledge of generic drugs and prescribing habits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, A J; Martos, F; Leiva, F; Sánchez de la Cuesta, F

    2003-01-01

    In this article we analyze the responses of 1220 Spanish physicians who participated in a survery about generic drugs. A previously validated questionnaire was sent to physicians through the Spanish Medical Councils of the different provinces. Four items were analyzed: what doctors know about generic drugs (knowledge); physicians' prescribing habits concerning these drugs (attitude and professional competence); how prescription of generic drugs effects pharmaceutical costs amd, finally, what doctors believe a generic drug should be. The influence of physician-related variables (age, type of contract, specialty, workload, etc.) on prescribing of generic drugs was also analyzed. In view of the results, we believe that to rationalize expenditure through and appropriate policy on generic drugs Spanish health authorities should offer more and better training and information (clear and independent) about what generic drugs are.

  3. Generic impact statement for commercial radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unruh, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    ERDA is preparing a generic environmental impact statement on the treatment and disposal of waste resulting from commercial reactors and post fission operations in the light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle. Expert contributions will be provided by many of the ERDA national laboratories and contractors. The waste management aspects of the statement will be based on available technology as presented in the recently issued ''Alternatives for Managing Waste from Reactors and Post Fission Operations in the LWR Fuel Cycle,'' ERDA-76-43 Document. This 1500 page, five volume Technical Alternative Document (TAD) describes the status of technology (to September, 1975) for handling post fission radioactive waste generated by the production of electricity by nuclear power light water reactor-generator systems. The statement will be generic in nature discussing typical or hypothetical facilities in typical or hypothetical environments. It is not intended to replace environmental statements required in support of specific projects nor for Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing procedures. A major purpose of the generic statement is to inform the public and to solicit comments on the ERDA program for: (1) the final disposition of commercial radioactive waste, (2) waste treatment, (3) waste interim storage, and (4) transportation of waste. The statement will discuss the ERDA contingency program to provide retrievable storage of such waste if they should be transferred to Federal custody prior to the availability of the geologic isolation facilities for terminal disposal. The generic statement will not address radioactive waste resulting from U.S. Defense Programs, the mining or milling of uranium, the management of waste from the breeder reactor program, waste from other nations, nor will it include an evaluation of the impact of waste resulting from power sources other than light water reactors

  4. Generic Local Hamiltonians are Gapless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movassagh, Ramis

    2017-12-01

    We prove that generic quantum local Hamiltonians are gapless. In fact, we prove that there is a continuous density of states above the ground state. The Hamiltonian can be on a lattice in any spatial dimension or on a graph with a bounded maximum vertex degree. The type of interactions allowed for include translational invariance in a disorder (i.e., probabilistic) sense with some assumptions on the local distributions. Examples include many-body localization and random spin models. We calculate the scaling of the gap with the system's size when the local terms are distributed according to a Gaussian β orthogonal random matrix ensemble. As a corollary, there exist finite size partitions with respect to which the ground state is arbitrarily close to a product state. When the local eigenvalue distribution is discrete, in addition to the lack of an energy gap in the limit, we prove that the ground state has finite size degeneracies. The proofs are simple and constructive. This work excludes the important class of truly translationally invariant Hamiltonians where the local terms are all equal.

  5. Generic physical protection logic trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle

  6. Generic physical protection logic trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.

  7. Generic theory for channel sinuosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Eli D; Constantine, José Antonio

    2013-05-21

    Sinuous patterns traced by fluid flows are a ubiquitous feature of physical landscapes on Earth, Mars, the volcanic floodplains of the Moon and Venus, and other planetary bodies. Typically discussed as a consequence of migration processes in meandering rivers, sinuosity is also expressed in channel types that show little or no indication of meandering. Sinuosity is sometimes described as "inherited" from a preexisting morphology, which still does not explain where the inherited sinuosity came from. For a phenomenon so universal as sinuosity, existing models of channelized flows do not explain the occurrence of sinuosity in the full variety of settings in which it manifests, or how sinuosity may originate. Here we present a generic theory for sinuous flow patterns in landscapes. Using observations from nature and a numerical model of flow routing, we propose that flow resistance (representing landscape roughness attributable to topography or vegetation density) relative to surface slope exerts a fundamental control on channel sinuosity that is effectively independent of internal flow dynamics. Resistance-dominated surfaces produce channels with higher sinuosity than those of slope-dominated surfaces because increased resistance impedes downslope flow. Not limited to rivers, the hypothesis we explore pertains to sinuosity as a geomorphic pattern. The explanation we propose is inclusive enough to account for a wide variety of sinuous channel types in nature, and can serve as an analytical tool for determining the sinuosity a landscape might support.

  8. Generic adversary characteristics: summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.B. Jr.; Davidson, J.J.; Jones, H.B.; Fulwiler, C.H.; Mullen, S.A.

    1978-07-01

    The adversaries studied were found to be complex, often unpredictable, and dynamic. The adversary typically goes through a complex decision-making process between the time a potential target is identified and the moment the decision to act is made. This study analyzes the adversary characteristics, and the following conclusions are made: one of the least likely methods of attack is an overt armed assault. Terrorists and psychotics depend upon a high degree of personal dedication. No single generic adversary group or individual exhibits strength in every characteristic. Physical danger appears to have some deterrent effect on all adversaries except the psychotics. Organized and professional criminals often try to recruit insiders. Disoriented persons, white-collar criminals, and disgruntled employees tend to operate as insiders. Professional criminals, many terrorist groups, some extremist protest groups, and certain disoriented persons plan carefully before initiating a criminal mission. Organized crime and miscellaneous criminal adversaries rely on deception and ruse to bypass security. After the decision to commit a crime, the resources deployed by terrorists or organized criminals will be a function of their perception of the operational requirements of the crime. The nature of ''threat'' is dynamic; adversary behavior and capability appear to be related to prevailing political, economic, and social conditions

  9. 78 FR 22553 - Generic Drug Facilities, Sites, and Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ...] Generic Drug Facilities, Sites, and Organizations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION.... Generic drug facilities, certain sites, and organizations identified in a generic drug submission are... active pharmaceutical ingredients and certain other sites and organizations that support the manufacture...

  10. 78 FR 59911 - Generic Information Collection for Land Management Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Generic Information Collection for Land Management... organizations on the proposed information collection, Generic Information Collection for Land Management... related to forest management. The intent of this generic information collection request (ICR) is to...

  11. A multicenter experience with generic tacrolimus conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt-Potter, Lisa M; Sadaka, Basma; Tichy, Eric M; Rogers, Christin C; Gabardi, Steven

    2011-09-27

    The first generic tacrolimus product gained Food and Drug Administration approval in August 2009. This prospective, observational trial sought to determine the need for dose titrations and measure drug cost savings on conversion to generic tacrolimus. Transplant recipients on stable tacrolimus doses were converted from brand to generic tacrolimus on a mg:mg basis. Data were collected at the time of generic conversion (study arm) and at a time point exactly 6 months before conversion (control arm) for all subjects. Seventy conversions from four centers are reported. Subjects were a mean of 70 months after kidney (n=37), liver (n=28), or multiorgan (n=5) transplant. In the study arm, mean tacrolimus doses were 4.4 and 4.5 mg/d and mean tacrolimus trough concentrations were 5.8 and 5.9 ng/mL before and after conversion, respectively. In the control arm, mean tacrolimus doses were 4.6 and 4.6 mg/d and mean tacrolimus trough concentrations were 6.1 and 5.9 ng/mL before and after the control time point, respectively. Dose titrations occurred in five patients (7%) in the control arm and 15 patients (21%) in the study arm (P=0.028). Mean monthly drug costs were $645 for brand, $593 for generic, and $595 for generic after dose titrations. Mean monthly patient copays were $38 for brand and $15 for generic. These cumulative data show that dose requirements and trough levels are similar between brand and generic tacrolimus and that generic substitution allows for savings. However, postconversion monitoring is prudent as patients may require dose titration.

  12. Generic Penetration of the SSRI Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascade, Elisa F; Kalali, Amir H

    2008-04-01

    In this article, we investigate the penetration of generic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the US market and the implications for patient out-of-pocket expense. The data suggest that generic penetration into the SSRI market has grown from approximately nine percent in 2000, the year that the patent for Prozac((R)) expired, to 72 percent in 2007. For December, 2007, the difference in patient out-of-pocket expense for branded vs. generic agents was, on average, $55.42 for patients paying by cash (i.e., they had no prescription drug insurance) and $22.39 for patients with insurance coverage.

  13. Impacts of Generic Competition and Benefit Management...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Impacts of Generic Competition and Benefit Management Practices on Spending for Prescription Drugs - Evidence from Medicares Part D...

  14. Brand and generic medications: Are they interchangeable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jazairi, Abdulrazak S.; Blhareth, S.; Eqtefan, Iyad S.; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A.

    2008-01-01

    Generic substitution has become a common practice since the late 1970s in the United States. At that time, many of these generics caused bioavailability problems, which fueled suspicions about their efficacy and safety and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standards for bioequivalence. In Saudi Arabia, the increasing number of local products raised several concerns with regard to switching from brands to generics. Our objective was to review and examine the basis of the controversy surrounding brand and generic interchangeability and to explore a practical approach in pursuing a switch. Articles indexed initially under terms such as generic medications, generic substitution, bioequivalence and bioinequivalence were identified. These terms were used to search the indexing service, MEDLINE (1966-2006). References from the extracted articles and additional data sources, including the Code of Federal Regulations and Regulatory Guidelines from the FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and research were also reviewed. Foe most drugs, bioequivalence testing generally should enable clinicians to routinely substitute generic for innovator products. However, for narrow therapeutic, critical dose drugs, or for highly variable drugs, safe switching between products can not be assured. These drugs need special precautions and blood level monitoring upon switching. FDA firmly believes that approved generic and brand drugs can be dispensed with the full expectation that the consumer will receive the same clinical benefit. Performing the switch process is an advisable practice to reduce health care costs in countries with strong post-marketing surveillance program, but caution is to be exercised when narrow therapeutic index drugs or highly variable drugs are prescribed. (author)

  15. Generic medicine and prescribing: A quick assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainul Haque

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generic drugs are copies of brand-name drugs that have exactly the same dosage, intended use, effects, side effects, route of administration, risks, safety, and strength as the original drug. In other words, their pharmacological effects are exactly the same as those of their brand-name counterparts. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA describes that generic drugs are essential possibilities that allow better access to healthcare for all Americans. They are replicas of brand-name drugs and are the identical as those of brand-name drugs in dosage form, safety, strength, route of administration, quality, performance features, and anticipated to use. Healthcare authorities and users can be guaranteed that FDA-approved generic drug products have met the same stiff principles as the innovator drug. The company that made Bayer aspirin fought in court enthusiastically to keep generic versions off the shelves, in the 1920s. The company lost in court, and consumers suddenly had an array of choices in generic aspirin. The Supreme Court of India uttering ‘the Supreme Court's ruling will prevent companies from further seeking unwarranted patents on HIV and other essential medicines.’ Generic medicine cannot be sold at a price higher than the branded medicine, so it is regularly a low-priced option. Thereafter, both the end user and the government who pay for part of the price of the medicine under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme in Australia are benefitted. The treatment of diseases using essential drugs, prescribed by their generic names, has been emphasised by the WHO and many national health policies. Although there are some improvements in generic medicine prescribing, it has been advised by the WHO that ‘countries should intensify efforts to measure and regularly monitor medicine prices and availability, and adopt policy measures to address the issues identified.’

  16. Sharing, samples, and generics: an antitrust framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Michael A

    Rising drug prices are in the news. By increasing price, drug companies have placed vital, even life-saving, medicines out of the reach of consumers. In a recent development, brand firms have prevented generics even from entering the market. The ruse for this strategy involves risk-management programs known as Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies ("REMS"). Pursuant to legislation enacted in 2007, the FDA requires REMS when a drug's risks (such as death or injury) outweigh its rewards. Brands have used this regime, intended to bring drugs to the market, to block generic competition. Regulations such as the federal Hatch-Waxman Act and state substitution laws foster widespread generic competition. But these regimes can only be effectuated through generic entry. And that entry can take place only if a generic can use a brand's sample to show that its product is equivalent. More than 100 generic firms have complained that they have not been able to access needed samples. One study of 40 drugs subject to restricted access programs found that generics' inability to enter cost more than $5 billion a year. Brand firms have contended that antitrust law does not compel them to deal with their competitors and have highlighted concerns related to safety and product liability in justifying their refusals. This Article rebuts these claims. It highlights the importance of samples in the regulatory regime and the FDA's inability to address the issue. It shows how a sharing requirement in this setting is consistent with Supreme Court caselaw. And it demonstrates that the brands' behavior fails the defendant-friendly "no economic sense" test because the conduct literally makes no sense other than by harming generics. Brands' denial of samples offers a textbook case of monopolization. In the universe of pharmaceutical antitrust behavior, other conduct--such as "pay for delay" settlements between brands and generics and "product hopping" from one drug to a slightly modified

  17. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic drug...

  18. 76 FR 54507 - Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0204] Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic... functions. SSCs in operating nuclear power plants are designed either in accordance with, or have been... nuclear reactors. The background information relevant to this GL includes the individual plant...

  19. [Analysis of generic drug supply in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboulet, F; Haramburu, F; Latry, Ph

    2003-09-01

    The list of generic medicines (LGM), published since 1997 by the Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Produits de Santé (AFFSSaPS), the French Medicine Agency, concerns a special part of the medicines reimbursed by the National Health Insurance (Social Security). The objectives of the present study were: i) to describe the components of this list, based on pharmaceutical, economical and therapeutic characteristics, ii) to study differences between generic and reference products (formulations, excipients, prices, etc.), iii) to analyze information on excipients provided to health care professionals. The 21st version of the LGM (April 2001) was used. Therapeutic value was retrieved from the 2001 AFSSaPS report on the therapeutic value of 4490 reimbursed medicines. Information on excipients in the LGM and the Vidal dictionary (reference prescription book in France) was compared. The products included in the LGM represent 20% of all reimbursed medicines. The mean price differences between generics and their reference products vary between 30 and 50% for more than two thirds of the generic groups. The therapeutic value of the products of the LGM was judged important in 71% of cases (vs 63% for the 4409 assessed medicines) and insufficient in 13% of cases (vs 19%). Information on excipients is often missing and sometimes erroneous. Although the LGM is regularly revised and thus the generic market in perpetual change, the 2001 cross description of this pharmaceutical market provides much informations and raises some concern.

  20. Mixed WTO ruling on generic drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R

    2000-01-01

    On 17 March 2000, the World Trade Organization upheld the provision in Canada's patent laws that allows generic drug manufacturers to develop (but not sell) their cheaper versions of patented medicines before the 20-year patients expire. The decision prevents pharmaceutical companies from enjoying market monopolies beyond their patent terms, avoiding what would otherwise be even lengthier delays in the sale of cheaper, generic drugs in Canada. This decision is of significance not only to Canada, but also to other WTO member countries and to all individuals who use pharmaceutical products. However, the decision is not all positive: the WTO also ruled that Canada is violating international agreements by letting generic manufacturers stockpile their versions of patented drugs before patents expire. This article explains the issues, the arguments, and the decision.

  1. Generic Module for Collecting Data in Smart Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, A.; Ramirez, F.; Estrada, H.; Torres, L. A.

    2017-09-01

    The Future Internet brings new technologies to the common life of people, such as Internet of Things, Cloud Computing or Big Data. All this technologies have change the way people communicate and also the way the devices interact with the context, giving rise to new paradigms, as the case of smart cities. Currently, the mobile devices represent one of main sources of information for new applications that take into account the user context, such as apps for mobility, health, of security. Several platforms have been proposed that consider the development of Future Internet applications, however, no generic modules can be found that implement the collection of context data from smartphones. In this research work we present a generic module to collect data from different sensors of the mobile devices and also to send, in a standard manner, this data to the Open FIWARE Cloud to be stored or analyzed by software tools. The proposed module enables the human-as-a-sensor approach for FIWARE Platform.

  2. GENERIC MODULE FOR COLLECTING DATA IN SMART CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Martinez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Future Internet brings new technologies to the common life of people, such as Internet of Things, Cloud Computing or Big Data. All this technologies have change the way people communicate and also the way the devices interact with the context, giving rise to new paradigms, as the case of smart cities. Currently, the mobile devices represent one of main sources of information for new applications that take into account the user context, such as apps for mobility, health, of security. Several platforms have been proposed that consider the development of Future Internet applications, however, no generic modules can be found that implement the collection of context data from smartphones. In this research work we present a generic module to collect data from different sensors of the mobile devices and also to send, in a standard manner, this data to the Open FIWARE Cloud to be stored or analyzed by software tools. The proposed module enables the human-as-a-sensor approach for FIWARE Platform.

  3. Using generic tool kits to build intelligent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David J.

    1994-01-01

    The Intelligent Systems and Robots Center at Sandia National Laboratories is developing technologies for the automation of processes associated with environmental remediation and information-driven manufacturing. These technologies, which focus on automated planning and programming and sensor-based and model-based control, are used to build intelligent systems which are able to generate plans of action, program the necessary devices, and use sensors to react to changes in the environment. By automating tasks through the use of programmable devices tied to computer models which are augmented by sensing, requirements for faster, safer, and cheaper systems are being satisfied. However, because of the need for rapid cost-effect prototyping and multi-laboratory teaming, it is also necessary to define a consistent approach to the construction of controllers for such systems. As a result, the Generic Intelligent System Controller (GISC) concept has been developed. This concept promotes the philosophy of producing generic tool kits which can be used and reused to build intelligent control systems.

  4. Benefits of Digital Equipment Generic Qualification Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, James E.; Steiman, Samuel C.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control obsolescence issues, there have been numerous activities during recent years relating to the qualification of digital equipment. Some of these activities have been 'generic' in nature in that the qualification was not limited to plant specific applications, but was intended to cover a broad base of potential applications of the digital equipment. These generic qualifications have been funded by equipment manufacturers and by utility groups and organizations. The generic activities sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have been pilot projects for an overall generic qualification approach. The primary benefit resulting from the generic qualification work to date is that a number of digital platforms and digital devices are now available for use in various nuclear safety-related applications. Many of the tests and evaluations necessary to support plant specific applications have been completed. The amount of data and documentation that each utility must develop on a case by case basis has been significantly reduced. There are also a number of additional benefits resulting from these industry efforts. The challenges and difficulties in qualifying digital equipment for safety-related applications are now more clearly understood. EPRI has published a lessons learned document (EPRI Report 1001452, Generic Qualification of Commercial Grade Digital Devices: Lessons Learned from Initial Pilots, which covers several different qualification areas, including device selection, project planning, vendor surveys and design reviews, and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) qualification. Application of the experience and lessons learned from the EPRI pilot activities should help reduce the effort and cost required for future qualification work. Most generic qualification activities for commercial equipment have been conducted using the approach of EPRI TR-106439, Guideline on Evaluation and Acceptance

  5. Generic tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taube, D; Jones, G; O'Beirne, J

    2014-01-01

    The availability of a wide range of immunosuppressive therapies has revolutionized the management of patients who have undergone solid organ transplantation (SOT). However, the cost of immunosuppressive drugs remains high. This situation has led to the development of generic equivalents, which...... innovator tacrolimus drug (Prograf) in both healthy volunteers and kidney transplant patients. Clinical experience with this generic tacrolimus formulation has also been established in both de novo and conversion patients who have undergone kidney and liver transplantation, as well as in conversion of other...

  6. The SENSEI Generic In Situ Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayachit, Utkarsh [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Whitlock, Brad [Intelligent Light, Rutherford, NJ (United States); Wolf, Matthew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Loring, Burlen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Geveci, Berk [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Lonie, David [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Bethel, E. Wes [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-11

    The SENSEI generic in situ interface is an API that promotes code portability and reusability. From the simulation view, a developer can instrument their code with the SENSEI API and then make make use of any number of in situ infrastructures. From the method view, a developer can write an in situ method using the SENSEI API, then expect it to run in any number of in situ infrastructures, or be invoked directly from a simulation code, with little or no modification. This paper presents the design principles underlying the SENSEI generic interface, along with some simplified coding examples.

  7. Generic magnetic fusion reactor cost assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Fusion Energy Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory discusses ''generic'' magnetic fusion reactors. The author comments on DT burning magnetic fusion reactor models being possibly operational in the 21st century. Representative parameters from D-T reactor studies are given, as well as a shematic diagram of a generic fusion reactor. Values are given for winding pack current density for existing and future superconducting coils. Topics included are the variation of the cost of electricity (COE), the dependence of the COE on the net electric power of the reactor, and COE formula definitions

  8. Associations between generic substitution and patients' attitudes, beliefs and experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Andersen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Generic substitution has been implemented in many countries, but knowledge about patients’ attitudes, beliefs and experiences is still sparse. Aim To assess associations between generic switching and patients’ attitudes, beliefs and experiences with previous generic switching...... on generic medicine and confidence in the healthcare system. Only prescriptions issued by the general practitioners were included. For each patient we focused on one purchase of a generically substitutable drug (index drug). Patients were identified by means of a dispensing database. Results Earlier generic...... switches within the index ATC code were statistically significantly associated with experience of a generic switch (adjusted OR 5.93 95% CI 4.70; 7.49). Having had more than 5 earlier switches within other ATC codes and having negative views on generic medicines reduced the odds of experiencing a generic...

  9. Spacecraft control center automation using the generic inferential executor (GENIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Jonathan; Luczak, Ed; Stump, Doug

    1996-01-01

    The increasing requirement to dramatically reduce the cost of mission operations led to increased emphasis on automation technology. The expert system technology used at the Goddard Space Flight Center (MD) is currently being applied to the automation of spacecraft control center activities. The generic inferential executor (GENIE) is a tool which allows pass automation applications to be constructed. The pass script templates constructed encode the tasks necessary to mimic flight operations team interactions with the spacecraft during a pass. These templates can be configured with data specific to a particular pass. Animated graphical displays illustrate the progress during the pass. The first GENIE application automates passes of the solar, anomalous and magnetospheric particle explorer (SAMPEX) spacecraft.

  10. Selection and Review of Measurement Item to Study Students' Generic Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Seri Bunian; Rahman, Saemah; Mokhtar, Seri Intan; Husain, Mohd Yusof

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to review the GS (generic skills) instruments used for engineering students. A total of 455 respondents were involved in this study. The variables presented in this study were the information management skills, communication skill, team working skill, problem-solving skill, lifelong learning skill, technology utilization…

  11. Towards Generic Interaction Styles for Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Stienstra, Marcelle

    2008-01-01

    a wider range of interactive products. In this paper we report on five years of continued research into interaction styles for telephones, kitchen equipment, HiFi products and medical devices, and we show how it is indeed possible and beneficial to formulate a set of generic interaction styles....

  12. Crystallization Kinetics within a Generic Modelling Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisler, Kresten Troelstrup; von Solms, Nicolas; Gernaey, Krist

    2013-01-01

    An existing generic modelling framework has been expanded with tools for kinetic model analysis. The analysis of kinetics is carried out within the framework where kinetic constitutive models are collected, analysed and utilized for the simulation of crystallization operations. A modelling...... procedure is proposed to gain the information of crystallization operation kinetic model analysis and utilize this for faster evaluation of crystallization operations....

  13. Baldrige Theory into Practice: A Generic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Mohammed

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The education system globally has moved from a push-based or producer-centric system to a pull-based or customer centric system. Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award (MBQA) model happens to be one of the latest additions to the pull based models. The purpose of this paper is to develop a generic framework for MBQA that can be used by…

  14. Generic Checklist for Day Care Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Services Monitoring Transfer Consortium.

    This guide presents the results of research on day care monitoring methods conducted by the Children's Services Monitoring Transfer Consortium. It suggests a set of generic predictor items that can be used to monitor day care providers' compliance with standards. The predictor items are at the licensing or minimal compliance level and have been…

  15. Climate Change: Generic Implications for Agriculture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Climate Change: Generic Implications for Agriculture. Increasing carbon dioxide: Good for most crops. Increase in mean temperature: orter ... Increasing rainfall intensity and dry days- more floods and droughts: Higher production variability. Himalayan glaciers to recede: irrigation in IGP gradually becomes less dependable ...

  16. A Generic Solution Approach to Nurse Rostering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Dohn; Mason, Andrew; Ryan, David

    In this report, we present a solution approach to the nurse rostering problem. The problem is defined by a generic model that is able to capture close to all of the problem characteristics that we have seen in the literature and in the realistic problems at hand. The model is used directly in the...

  17. The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Haspelmath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics provide a style sheet that can be used by any linguistics journal or edited book, or for teaching purposes. They regulate aspects of text-structure style such as typographic highlighting, citation style, use of capitalization, and bibliographic style (based on the LSA's Unified Stylesheet for linguistics).

  18. Generic hyper-diversity in Stachybotriaceae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lombard, L.; Houbraken, J.; Decock, C.; Samson, R.A.; Meijer, M.; Réblová, Martina; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P. W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 36, SI Jun (2016), s. 156-246 ISSN 0031-5850 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/0038 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biodegraders * generic concept * human and plant pathogens Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 7.511, year: 2016

  19. Generic Principles for Resolving Intergroup Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ronald J.

    1994-01-01

    Provides an initial statement of generic principles deemed effective for addressing protracted social conflicts between identity groups. These principles are compatible with certain values for societal organization and approaches to social change, raising questions of value differences between intervenors and the host culture(s). Three case…

  20. Intermediates and Generic Convergence to Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcondes de Freitas, Michael; Wiuf, Carsten; Feliu, Elisenda

    2017-01-01

    Known graphical conditions for the generic and global convergence to equilibria of the dynamical system arising from a reaction network are shown to be invariant under the so-called successive removal of intermediates, a systematic procedure to simplify the network, making the graphical conditions...

  1. Generic Certificates. Agricultural Economic Report Number 594.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glauber, Joseph W.

    The Food Security Act of 1985 authorizes the U.S. Department of Agriculture to issue generic certificates in lieu of cash payments due to program participants and merchants of agricultural products under provisions of several programs. The certificates may be used to acquire stocks held as collateral on government loans or owned by the Commodity…

  2. A Generic Communication Protocol for Remote Laboratories: an Implementation on e-lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, Rafael B.; Fernandes, H.; Duarte, Andre S.; Pereira, Tiago; Fortunato, Joao [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Pereira, Jose [Linkare TI - Tecnologias de Informacao Lda, Lisboa (Portugal); Dias, Francisco [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-07-01

    The remote laboratories at IST (Instituto Superior Tecnico), e-lab, serve as a valuable tool for education and training based on remote control technologies. Due to the high number and increase of remotely operated experiments a generic protocol was developed to perform the communication between the software driver and the respective experimental setup in an easier and more unified way. The training in these fields of students and personnel can take advantage of such infrastructure with the purpose of deploying new experiments in a faster way. More than 10 experiments using the generic protocol are available on-line in a 24 x 7 way. (authors)

  3. Development of a fast and flexible generic process for the reduction of nitro compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas-Santo, K.; Vankayala, B.; Dittmeyer, R.

    slurry catalyst was designed that can be adapted for reduction of a range of nitro compounds. The generic process provides the possibilities of swapping out a reactor or work up technology as required. The equipments of the generic process should be also able to operate at wider range of operational......The hydrogenation of aromatic nitro substrates is a frequently used reaction in the multi-step fabrication of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Today most pharmaceutical production processes are performed in batch mode. In the frame of the C2-campaign speed is an important factor during...... the production of a multitude of possible API’s. A generic reactor set-up able to be adapted for the transformation of a specific substrate would reduce the development time and thereby the campaign time significantly. In the frame of the EU-project F3-Factory such a flexible and continuous reaction system...

  4. Monte Carlo simulations for generic granite repository studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, Joon H [SNL; Wang, Yifeng [SNL

    2010-12-08

    In a collaborative study between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the DOE-NE Office of Fuel Cycle Technologies Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign project, we have conducted preliminary system-level analyses to support the development of a long-term strategy for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. A general modeling framework consisting of a near- and a far-field submodel for a granite GDSE was developed. A representative far-field transport model for a generic granite repository was merged with an integrated systems (GoldSim) near-field model. Integrated Monte Carlo model runs with the combined near- and farfield transport models were performed, and the parameter sensitivities were evaluated for the combined system. In addition, a sub-set of radionuclides that are potentially important to repository performance were identified and evaluated for a series of model runs. The analyses were conducted with different waste inventory scenarios. Analyses were also conducted for different repository radionuelide release scenarios. While the results to date are for a generic granite repository, the work establishes the method to be used in the future to provide guidance on the development of strategy for long-term disposal of high-level radioactive waste in a granite repository.

  5. Cost assessment of a generic magnetic fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, J.; Dory, R.A.; Cohn, S.M.; Delene, J.G.; Parsly, L.F.; Ashby, D.E.T.F.; Reiersen, W.T.

    1986-03-01

    A generic reactor model is used to examine the economic viability of generating electricity by magnetic fusion. The simple model uses components that are representative of those used in previous reactor studies of deuterium-tritium-burning tokamaks, stellarators, bumpy tori, reversed-field pinches (RFPs), and tandem mirrors. Conservative costing assumptions are made. The generic reactor is not a tokamak; rather, it is intended to emphasize what is common to all magnetic fusion rectors. The reactor uses a superconducting toroidal coil set to produce the dominant magnetic field. To this extent, it is not as good an approximation to systems such as the RFP in which the main field is produced by a plasma current. The main output of the study is the cost of electricity as a function of the weight and size of the fusion core - blanket, shield, structure, and coils. The model shows that a 1200-MW(e) power plant with a fusion core weight of about 10,000 tonnes should be competitive in the future with fission and fossil plants. Studies of the sensitivity of the model to variations in the assumptions show that this result is not sensitively dependent on any given assumption. Of particular importance is the result that a fusion reactor of this scale may be realized with only moderate advances in physics and technology capabilities

  6. Generic penetration in the retail atypical antipsychotic market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenderts, Susan; Kalali, Amir H; Buckley, Peter

    2010-03-01

    In this article, we explore the penetration of generic atypical antipsychotics in the United States market before and after the availability of generic risperidone in July 2008. Analysis suggests that, overall, generic penetration into the atypical antipsychotic market has grown from approximately three percent in January 2008 to more than 25 percent in December 2009. Similar trends are uncovered when branded and generic prescriptions are analyzed by specialty.

  7. 40 CFR 721.9973 - Zirconium dichlorides (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Zirconium dichlorides (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9973 Zirconium dichlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as zirconium dichlorides (PMNs P...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2083 - Polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hydroxylamine (generic). 721.2083 Section 721.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2083 Polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (generic). (a... generically as a polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (PMN P-97-878) is subject to reporting under...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5350 - Substituted nitrile (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted nitrile (generic name... Substances § 721.5350 Substituted nitrile (generic name). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted nitrile (PMN P-83...

  10. 40 CFR 721.555 - Alkyl amino nitriles (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). 721... Substances § 721.555 Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl amino nitriles (PMNs P-96...

  11. A developmental analysis of generic nouns in Southern Peruvian Quechua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheim, Bruce; Gelman, Susan A; Escalante, Carmen; Huayhua, Margarita; Puma, Rosalía

    2010-01-01

    Generic noun phrases (e.g., "Cats like to drink milk") are a primary means by which adults express generalizations to children, yet they pose a challenging induction puzzle for learners. Although prior research has established that English speakers understand and produce generic noun phrases by preschool age, little is known regarding the cross-cultural generality of generic acquisition. Southern Peruvian Quechua provides a valuable comparison because, unlike English, it is a highly inflected language in which generics are marked by the absence rather than the presence of any linguistic markers. Moreover, Quechua is spoken in a cultural context that differs markedly from the highly educated, middle-class contexts within which earlier research on generics was conducted. We presented participants from 5 age groups (3-6, 7-9, 10-12, 14-35, and 36-90 years of age) with two tasks that examined the ability to distinguish generic from non-generic utterances. In Study 1, even the youngest children understood generics as applying broadly to a category (like "all") and distinct from indefinite reference ("some"). However, there was a developmental lag before children understood that generics, unlike "all", can include exceptions. Study 2 revealed that generic interpretations are more frequent for utterances that (a) lack specifying markers and (b) are animate. Altogether, generic interpretations are found among the youngest participants, and may be a default mode of quantification. These data demonstrate the cross-cultural importance of generic information in linguistic expression.

  12. 40 CFR 721.9959 - Polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9959 Polyurethane polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (PMN P-01...

  13. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate polymer...

  14. [The patents game. Generic and biosimilar drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamañán, E; González, D; Armada, E; Ruano, M; Álvarez-Sala, R; Herrero, A

    2016-01-01

    The protection provided by patents on medicines has a limited duration. The expiry of patents expiration allows copies of the drugs to be released, competing with original. At first, they were identical to the original, known as generic drugs, but in recent years, due to the marketing of biological therapies and the expiry of many of their patents, biosimilar drugs have also emerged. These are not exact copies of the original, but, like generic drugs, biosimilar drugs have to demonstrate equivalence to the reference drugs in quality, safety and efficacy. Nevertheless, despite their importance and contribution to sustainability of health system, doctors are sometimes unaware of differences between them, and their impact in terms of clinical and economic effects. An attempt is made to review and clarify certain aspects often unknown by physicians, despite their involvement in their use. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Generic Structure Potential of Christian Apologetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwu Inya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Religious texts have been examined by scholars from different theoretical standpoints. However, a close survey of the literature reveals that little attention has been paid to Christian apologetics from a linguistic perspective. Also, an examination of studies along the lines of Generic Structure Potential (henceforth GSP shows that the genre status of Christian apologetics has not been indicated. This gap provides the motivation for this paper, which investigates the GSP of Christian apologetics. Twenty texts written by various key contemporary apologetic writers were purposively selected for the study. The following generic structure potential catalogue was generated:The paper reveals that the elements of the GSP concertedly work to advance, argue for or defend the Christian belief system. The paper also suggests that the model could be applied to other forms of apologetic instances.

  16. Generic Sensor Failure Modeling for Cooperative Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Georg; Zug, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    The advent of cooperative systems entails a dynamic composition of their components. As this contrasts current, statically composed systems, new approaches for maintaining their safety are required. In that endeavor, we propose an integration step that evaluates the failure model of shared information in relation to an application’s fault tolerance and thereby promises maintainability of such system’s safety. However, it also poses new requirements on failure models, which are not fulfilled by state-of-the-art approaches. Consequently, this work presents a mathematically defined generic failure model as well as a processing chain for automatically extracting such failure models from empirical data. By examining data of an Sharp GP2D12 distance sensor, we show that the generic failure model not only fulfills the predefined requirements, but also models failure characteristics appropriately when compared to traditional techniques. PMID:29558435

  17. An Internet of Things Generic Reference Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhalerao, Dipashree M.; Riaz, Tahir; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2013-01-01

    Internet of things Network is a future application of Internet. This network has three major basic blocks as business process or Application, core network or internetwork and peripheral network as Things or objects. The assembly has the basic intention of connecting all physical and virtual things......, and keeping track of all these things for monitoring and controlling some information. IoT architecture is studied from software architecture, overall system architecture and network architecture point of view. Paper puts forward the requirements of software architecture along with, its component...... and deployment diagram, process and interface diagram at abstract level. Paper proposes the abstract generic IoT reference and concrete abstract generic IoT reference architectures. Network architecture is also put up as a state of the art. Paper shortly gives overviews of protocols used for IoT. Some...

  18. U.S. NRC's generic issues program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, J.V.; Foster, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has a Generic Issues Program (GIP) to address Generic Issues (GI). A GI is defined as 'a regulatory matter involving the design, construction, operation, or decommissioning of several, or a class of, NRC licensees or certificate holders that is not sufficiently addressed by existing rules, guidance, or programs'. This rather legalistic definition has several practical corollaries: First, a GI must involve safety. Second, the issue must involve at least two plants, or it would be a plant-specific issue rather than a GI. Third, the potential safety question must not be covered by existing regulations and guidance (compliance). Thus, the effect of a GI is to potentially change the body of regulations and associated guidance (e.g., regulatory guides). The GIP was started in 1976, thus it is a relatively mature program. Approximately 850 issues have been processed by the program to date. More importantly, even after 30 years, new GIs continue to be proposed. The entire set of Generic Issues (GIs) is updated annually in NUREG-0933, 'A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues'. GIs normally involve complex questions of safety and regulation. Efficient and effective means of addressing these issues are very important for regulatory effectiveness. If an issue proves to pose a genuine, significant safety question, then swift, effective, enforceable, and cost-effective action needs to be taken. Conversely, if an issue is of little safety significance, the issue should be dismissed in an expeditious manner, avoiding unnecessary expenditure of resources and regulatory burden or uncertainty. This paper provides a summary of the 5-stage program, from identification through the regulatory assessment stage. The paper also includes a discussion of the program's seven criteria, sources of proposed GIs, recent improvements, publicly available information, historical performance, and status of current GIs. (authors)

  19. Molten salts processes and generic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Toru; Minato, Kazuo

    2001-01-01

    Development of dry separation process (pyrochemical process) using molten salts for the application of spent-nuclear fuel reprocessing requires a rather complete fundamental database as well as process simulation technique with wide applicability. The present report concerns recent progress and problems in this field taking behaviors of co-electrodeposition of UO 2 and PuO 2 in molten salts as an example, and using analytical simulation of local equilibrium combined with generic diffusion. (S. Ohno)

  20. Savannah River Site generic data base development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure database for the Savannah River Site (SRS). Additionally, guidelines were developed further for more advanced applications of database values. A representative list of components and failure modes for SRS risk models was generated by reviewing existing safety analyses and component failure data bases and from suggestions from SRS safety analysts. Then sources of data or failure rate estimates were identified and reviewed for applicability. A major source of information was the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability, or NUCLARR. This source includes an extensive collection of failure data and failure rate estimates for commercial nuclear power plants. A recent Idaho National Engineering Laboratory report on failure data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was also reviewed. From these and other recent sources, failure data and failure rate estimates were collected for the components and failure modes of interest. For each component failure mode, this information was aggregated to obtain a recommended generic failure rate distribution (mean and error factor based on a lognormal distribution). Results are presented in a table in this report. A major difference between generic database and previous efforts is that this effort estimates failure rates based on actual data (failure events) rather than on existing failure rate estimates. This effort was successful in that over 75% of the results are now based on actual data. Also included is a section on guidelines for more advanced applications of failure rate data. This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure database for the Savannah River site (SRS). Additionally, guidelines were developed further for more advanced applications of database values

  1. Molten salts processes and generic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Toru; Minato, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    Development of dry separation process (pyrochemical process) using molten salts for the application of spent-nuclear fuel reprocessing requires a rather complete fundamental database as well as process simulation technique with wide applicability. The present report concerns recent progress and problems in this field taking behaviors of co-electrodeposition of UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} in molten salts as an example, and using analytical simulation of local equilibrium combined with generic diffusion. (S. Ohno)

  2. Agricultural Market Structure, Generic Advertising, and Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Cardon, James H.; Pope, Rulon D.

    2003-01-01

    This analysis begins with a definition and discussion of productive advertising. Then, following Dixit and Norman, persuasive advertising is used to study the welfare effects of generic advertising by marketing orders. The study first examines horizontal competition when the competing advertiser is a monopoly, and results show that the socially optimal level of advertising for a competitive marketing order is positive only if advertising raises monopoly output. Next, advertising choices of a ...

  3. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  4. Generic superweak chaos induced by Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Harush, Moti; Dana, Itzhack

    2016-05-01

    We introduce and study the "kicked Hall system" (KHS), i.e., charged particles periodically kicked in the presence of uniform magnetic (B ) and electric (E ) fields that are perpendicular to each other and to the kicking direction. We show that for resonant values of B and E and in the weak-chaos regime of sufficiently small nonintegrability parameter κ (the kicking strength), there exists a generic family of periodic kicking potentials for which the Hall effect from B and E significantly suppresses the weak chaos, replacing it by "superweak" chaos (SWC). This means that the system behaves as if the kicking strength were κ2 rather than κ . For E =0 , SWC is known to be a classical fingerprint of quantum antiresonance, but it occurs under much less generic conditions, in particular only for very special kicking potentials. Manifestations of SWC are a decrease in the instability of periodic orbits and a narrowing of the chaotic layers, relative to the ordinary weak-chaos case. Also, for global SWC, taking place on an infinite "stochastic web" in phase space, the chaotic diffusion on the web is much slower than the weak-chaos one. Thus, the Hall effect can be relatively stabilizing for small κ . In some special cases, the effect is shown to cause ballistic motion for almost all parameter values. The generic global SWC on stochastic webs in the KHS appears to be the two-dimensional closest analog to the Arnol'd web in higher dimensional systems.

  5. Generic legislation of new psychoactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Nutt, David; van den Brink, Wim

    2013-03-01

    New psychoactive drugs (NPDs, new psychoactive substances) enter the market all the time. However, it takes several months to ban these NPDs and immediate action is generally not possible. Several European countries and drug enforcement officers insist on a faster procedure to ban NPDs. Introduction of generic legislation, in which clusters of psychotropic drugs are banned in advance, has been mentioned as a possible solution. Here we discuss the pros and cons of such an approach. First, generic legislation could unintentionally increase the expenditures of enforcement, black market practices, administrative burden and health risks for users. Second, it may have a negative impact on research and the development of new treatments. Third, due to the complexity of generic legislation, problems in the enforcement are anticipated due to lack of knowledge about the chemical nomenclature. Finally, various legal options are already available to ban the use, sale and trade of NPDs. We therefore conclude that the currently used scientific benefit-risk evaluation should be continued to limit the adverse health effects of NPDs. Only in emergency cases, where fatal incidents (may) occur, should this approach be overruled.

  6. Generic programming for deterministic neutron transport codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plagne, L.; Poncot, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of neutron transport codes via generic programming techniques. Two different Boltzmann equation approximations have been implemented, namely the Sn and SPn methods. This implementation experiment shows that generic programming allows us to improve maintainability and readability of source codes with no performance penalties compared to classical approaches. In the present implementation, matrices and vectors as well as linear algebra algorithms are treated separately from the rest of source code and gathered in a tool library called 'Generic Linear Algebra Solver System' (GLASS). Such a code architecture, based on a linear algebra library, allows us to separate the three different scientific fields involved in transport codes design: numerical analysis, reactor physics and computer science. Our library handles matrices with optional storage policies and thus applies both to Sn code, where the matrix elements are computed on the fly, and to SPn code where stored matrices are used. Thus, using GLASS allows us to share a large fraction of source code between Sn and SPn implementations. Moreover, the GLASS high level of abstraction allows the writing of numerical algorithms in a form which is very close to their textbook descriptions. Hence the GLASS algorithms collection, disconnected from computer science considerations (e.g. storage policy), is very easy to read, to maintain and to extend. (authors)

  7. Generic Switching and Non-Persistence among Medicine Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette; Andersen, Morten; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Generic substitution means that one medicinal product is replaced by another product containing the same active substance. It is strictly regulated with respect to its bioequivalence, and all products must have undergone appropriate studies. Although generic substitution is widely...... implemented, it still remains to be answered how generic switch influences persistence to long-term treatment, and if it is modified by patients' concerns about medicine and views on generic medicine. This study focuses on users of antidepressants and antiepileptics, and their experience of generic switching....... METHODS: The study was an observational cohort study. By use of a prescription database, we identified patients who had redeemed prescriptions on generically substitutable drugs, and a questionnaire was mailed to them. We analyzed predictors of discontinuation in relation to generic switch and patients...

  8. Advances on generic exemption levels and generic clearance levels in the argentinean regulatory field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñiz, C.C.; Bossio, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of optimizing the regulatory effort in Argentina, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) evaluated two worldwide concepts used in the radioactive waste management field: “Generic Exemption Levels” and “Generic Clearance Levels”. The objective of this paper is to present the progress made in the past two years in relation to these topics and to present the results of the specific requests received from users of radioactive material. Since the approval of both Generic Levels, the ARN received two exemption requests. The first one, regarding the practice of dismantling lighting rods with 241 Am. The other case regards the international trade, distribution, usage and final disposal of lighting products with radioactive material ( 85 Kr and 232 Th). Concerning clearance, there has not been any request yet. However, in the future the ARN expects to receive this kind of requests from nuclear power plants and other facilities related to the nuclear fuel cycle. (authors) [es

  9. A generic coordinate system and a set of generic variables for MFE database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miner, W.H. Jr.; Ross, D.W.; Solano, E.R.; Valanju, P.M.; Wiley, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last several years, profile data from nine different tokamaks have been stored in the magnetic fusion energy database (MFEDB). These data sets have come from a variety of sources and most are given in different coordinate systems. In order to attempt any intermachine analysis, it is convenient to transform these data sets into one generic coordinate system and to choose a uniform set of variable names. The authors describe the data sets from each tokamak indicating the source of the data and the coordinate system in which it is given. Next, they discuss the generic coordinate that has been adopted and show how it is implemented for each tokamak. Finally, the generic naming convention that has been adopted is discussed. It follows closely that which was used by Christiansen et al. for the ITER Global Energy Confinement H-Mode Database. For further clarification, they discuss the characteristics of the magnetic geometry given a Fourier representation of the magnetic equilibria

  10. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  11. Consumer choice between common generic and brand medicines in a country with a small generic market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraeyman, Jessica; Peeters, Lies; Van Hal, Guido; Beutels, Philippe; De Meyer, Guido R Y; De Loof, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Generic medicines offer an opportunity for governments to contain pharmaceutical expenditures, since generics are generally 10%-80% lower in price than brand medicines. Belgium has a small generic market that takes up 15% of the total pharmaceutical market in packages sold. To determine the knowledge of consumers about the different available packages of a common over-the-counter medicine (acetaminophen) with regard to price advantage, quality, and effectiveness in a country with a small generic market. We conducted an online survey in the general Flemish population using a questionnaire with 25 statements. The questionnaire also contained 2 informative interventions. First, we showed the price per package and per tablet that the patient would pay in the pharmacy. Second, we provided the respondent with general information about generic medication (equivalence, effectiveness, price, and recognition). Before and after the interventions, we probed for preferences and knowledge about the different packages. Multivariate logistic models were used to examine the independent effects of consumer characteristics on responses to the survey statements. We obtained a sample of 1,636 respondents. The general attitude towards generic medication was positive-only 5% would rather not use a generic. Nevertheless, only 17% of the respondents were able to recognize a generic medicine. Older consumers (aged 60 years and above) were more often confused about the different packages (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.76-3.80, P ≤ 0.001). Consumers without a higher education degree tended to be more doubtful about the difference in effectiveness and quality between the different brands (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.44-0.79, P ≤ 0.001). Consumer recognition of the name of the active substance of acetaminophen was poor. When different brands were displayed, possible price advantage seemed to be an important motive to switch to a cheaper brand. Consumers generally found medicines

  12. Generic drugs: myths, facts, and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marzo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioequivalence (BE has always been an important pharmaceutical area, particularly (but not solely in Mediterranean region, where the use of generic drugs is a relatively recent development. The lack of new therapeutic molecules has concentrated primary research in the hands of a few large pharmaceutical companies. For smaller companies, this has created opportunities for the development of new formulations of existing drugs (orodispersible tablets that dissolve in the mouth, extended-release tablets, transdermal delivery systems, generic drugs. These applications take advantage of the Abridged New Drug Application (ANDA procedure, which exempts them from a series of expensive investigations and limits the requirement for clinical testing to bioequivalence trials. Since 1991, bioequivalence trials have been regulated by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA and European Medicines Agency (EMA guidelines that provide precise indications on the most specific procedures to be adopted. In spite of these guidelines, however, some aspects of the process have not been fully defined, the most important of which regards the management of endogenous substances. Additional problems are how to manage bioequivalence protocols with drugs that have long half-lives and those whose clearance is characterized by high intrinsic variability. The view that bioequivalence data would be more reliable if they were based on studies in target populations is a myth to be discredited. The present paper reviews issues relative to pharmacokinetics (PK, bioavailability (BA, and bioequivalence, also from an historical viewpoint, and includes a stimulating “questions and answers” section on some key aspects of the bioequivalence of generic drugs.

  13. Generic evolution of mixing in heterogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreuzy, J.; Carrera, J.; Dentz, M.; Le Borgne, T.

    2011-12-01

    Mixing in heterogeneous media results from the competition bewteen flow fluctuations and local scale diffusion. Flow fluctuations quickly create concentration contrasts and thus heterogeneity of the concentration field, which is slowly homogenized by local scale diffusion. Mixing first deviates from Gaussian mixing, which represents the potential mixing induced by spreading before approaching it. This deviation fundamentally expresses the evolution of the interaction between spreading and local scale diffusion. We characterize it by the ratio γ of the non-Gaussian to the Gaussian mixing states. We define the Gaussian mixing state as the integrated squared concentration of the Gaussian plume that has the same longitudinal dispersion as the real plume. The non-Gaussian mixing state is the difference between the overall mixing state defined as the integrated squared concentration and the Gaussian mixing state. The main advantage of this definition is to use the full knowledge previously acquired on dispersion for characterizing mixing even when the solute concentration field is highly non Gaussian. Using high precision numerical simulations, we show that γ quickly increases, peaks and slowly decreases. γ can be derived from two scales characterizing spreading and local mixing, at least for large flux-weighted solute injection conditions into classically log-normal Gaussian correlated permeability fields. The spreading scale is directly related to the longitudinal dispersion. The local mixing scale is the largest scale over which solute concentrations can be considered locally uniform. More generally, beyond the characteristics of its maximum, γ turns out to have a highly generic scaling form. Its fast increase and slow decrease depend neither on the heterogeneity level, nor on the ratio of diffusion to advection, nor on the injection conditions. They might even not depend on the particularities of the flow fields as the same generic features also prevail for

  14. Deriving GENERIC from a Generalized Fluctuation Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaij, Richard; Lazarescu, Alexandre; Maes, Christian; Peletier, Mark

    2018-02-01

    Much of the structure of macroscopic evolution equations for relaxation to equilibrium can be derived from symmetries in the dynamical fluctuations around the most typical trajectory. For example, detailed balance as expressed in terms of the Lagrangian for the path-space action leads to gradient zero-cost flow. We expose a new such fluctuation symmetry that implies GENERIC, an extension of gradient flow where a Hamiltonian part is added to the dissipative term in such a way as to retain the free energy as Lyapunov function.

  15. The Northeast Utilities generic plant computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzner, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of computer manufacturers' equipment monitors plant systems in Northeast Utilities' (NU) nuclear and fossil power plants. The hardware configuration and the application software in each of these systems are essentially one of a kind. Over the next few years these computer systems will be replaced by the NU Generic System, whose prototype is under development now for Millstone III, an 1150 Mwe Pressurized Water Reactor plant being constructed in Waterford, Connecticut. This paper discusses the Millstone III computer system design, concentrating on the special problems inherent in a distributed system configuration such as this. (auth)

  16. Generic Wing-Body Aerodynamics Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Terry L.; Olsen, Thomas H.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The wing-body aerodynamics data base consists of a series of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations about a generic wing body configuration consisting of a ogive-circular-cylinder fuselage and a simple symmetric wing mid-mounted on the fuselage. Solutions have been obtained for Nonlinear Potential (P), Euler (E) and Navier-Stokes (N) solvers over a range of subsonic and transonic Mach numbers and angles of attack. In addition, each solution has been computed on a series of grids, coarse, medium and fine to permit an assessment of grid refinement errors.

  17. Specialization of Generic Array Accesses After Inlining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Tokuda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We have implemented an optimization that specializes type-generic array accesses after inlining of polymorphic functions in the native-code OCaml compiler. Polymorphic array operations (read and write in OCaml require runtime type dispatch because of ad hoc memory representations of integer and float arrays. It cannot be removed even after being monomorphized by inlining because the intermediate language is mostly untyped. We therefore extended it with explicit type application like System F (while keeping implicit type abstraction by means of unique identifiers for type variables. Our optimization has achieved up to 21% speed-up of numerical programs.

  18. Modeling of Generic Slung Load System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; la Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the result of the modelling and verification of a generic slung load system using a small-scale helicopter. The model is intended for use in simulation, pilot training, estimation, and control. The model is derived using a redundant coordinate formulation based on Gauss...... slackening and tightening as well as aerodynamic coupling between the helicopter and the load. Furthermore, it is shown how the model can be easily used for multi-lift systems either with multiple helicopters or multiple loads. A numerical stabilisation algorithm is introduced and finally the use...... of the model is illustrated through simulations and flight verifications.  ...

  19. Entry decisions in the generic pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, F M

    1999-01-01

    Data on all generic drug entries in the period 1984-1994 are used to estimate which markets heterogeneous potential entrants will decide to enter. I find that organizational experience predicts entry. Firms tend to enter markets with supply and demand characteristics similar to the firm's existing drugs. Larger revenue markets, markets with more hospital sales, and products that treat chronic conditions attract more entry. The simultaneous nature of entry leads to an additional interpretation: specialization is profitable because of the severe risk to profits when a market is "overentered." However, I am unable to make any conclusions about the efficiency of entry decisions.

  20. Developing A Generic Optical Avionic Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiang; An, Yi; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2011-01-01

    We propose a generic optical network design for future avionic systems in order to reduce the weight and power consumption of current networks on board. A three-layered network structure over a ring optical network topology is suggested, as it can provide full reconfiguration flexibility...... and support a wide range of avionic applications. Segregation can be made on different hierarchies according to system criticality and security requirements. The structure of each layer is discussed in detail. Two network configurations are presented, focusing on how to support different network services...... by such a network. Finally, three redundancy scenarios are discussed and compared....

  1. Generic device controller for accelerator control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariotti, R.; Buxton, W.; Frankel, R.; Hoff, L.

    1987-01-01

    A new distributed intelligence control system has become operational at the AGS for transport, injection, and acceleration of heavy ions. A brief description of the functionality of the physical devices making up the system is given. An attempt has been made to integrate the devices for accelerator specific interfacing into a standard microprocessor system, namely, the Universal Device Controller (UDC). The main goals for such a generic device controller are to provide: local computing power; flexibility to configure; and real time event handling. The UDC assemblies and software are described

  2. Rigidity of complete generic shrinking Ricci solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yawei; Zhou, Jundong; Wang, Xue

    2018-01-01

    Let (Mn , g , X) be a complete generic shrinking Ricci soliton of dimension n ≥ 3. In this paper, by employing curvature inequalities, the formula of X-Laplacian for the norm square of the trace-free curvature tensor, the weak maximum principle and the estimate of the scalar curvature of (Mn , g) , we prove some rigidity results for (Mn , g , X) . In particular, it is showed that (Mn , g , X) is isometric to Rn or a finite quotient of Sn under a pointwise pinching condition. Moreover, we establish several optimal inequalities and classify those shrinking solitons for equalities.

  3. Generic Patch Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2008-01-01

    A key issue in maintaining Linux device drivers is the need to update drivers in response to evolutions in Linux internal libraries. Currently, there is little tool support for performing and documenting such changes. In this paper we present a tool, spfind, that identifies common changes made...... developers can use it to extract an abstract representation of the set of changes that others have made. Our experiments on recent changes in Linux show that the inferred generic patches are more concise than the corresponding patches found in commits to the Linux source tree while being safe with respect...

  4. The generic Gröbner walk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Lauritzen, Niels; Fukuda, Komei

    2005-01-01

    perturbation of this line. This usually involves both time and space demanding arithmetic of integers much larger than the input numbers. In this paper we show how the explicit line may be replaced by a formal line using Robbiano's characterization of group orders on . This gives rise to the generic Gröbner...... walk involving only Gröbner basis conversion over facets and computations with marked polynomials. The infinite precision integer arithmetic is replaced by term order comparisons between (small) integral vectors. This makes it possible to compute with infinitesimal numbers and perturbations...

  5. Performance Assessments of Generic Nuclear Waste Repositories in Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, E. R.; Sevougian, S. D.; Mariner, P. E.; Hammond, G. E.; Frederick, J.

    2017-12-01

    Simulations of deep geologic disposal of nuclear waste in a generic shale formation showcase Geologic Disposal Safety Assessment (GDSA) Framework, a toolkit for repository performance assessment (PA) whose capabilities include domain discretization (Cubit), multiphysics simulations (PFLOTRAN), uncertainty and sensitivity analysis (Dakota), and visualization (Paraview). GDSA Framework is used to conduct PAs of two generic repositories in shale. The first considers the disposal of 22,000 metric tons heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear fuel. The second considers disposal of defense-related spent nuclear fuel and high level waste. Each PA accounts for the thermal load and radionuclide inventory of applicable waste types, components of the engineered barrier system, and components of the natural barrier system including the host rock shale and underlying and overlying stratigraphic units. Model domains are half-symmetry, gridded with Cubit, and contain between 7 and 22 million grid cells. Grid refinement captures the detail of individual waste packages, emplacement drifts, access drifts, and shafts. Simulations are run in a high performance computing environment on as many as 2048 processes. Equations describing coupled heat and fluid flow and reactive transport are solved with PFLOTRAN, an open-source, massively parallel multiphase flow and reactive transport code. Additional simulated processes include waste package degradation, waste form dissolution, radioactive decay and ingrowth, sorption, solubility, advection, dispersion, and diffusion. Simulations are run to 106 y, and radionuclide concentrations are observed within aquifers at a point approximately 5 km downgradient of the repository. Dakota is used to sample likely ranges of input parameters including waste form and waste package degradation rates and properties of engineered and natural materials to quantify uncertainty in predicted concentrations and sensitivity to input parameters. Sandia National

  6. Extension algorithm for generic low-voltage networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwitz, S.; Olk, C.

    2018-02-01

    Distributed energy resources (DERs) are increasingly penetrating the energy system which is driven by climate and sustainability goals. These technologies are mostly connected to low- voltage electrical networks and change the demand and supply situation in these networks. This can cause critical network states. Network topologies vary significantly and depend on several conditions including geography, historical development, network design or number of network connections. In the past, only some of these aspects were taken into account when estimating the network investment needs for Germany on the low-voltage level. Typically, fixed network topologies are examined or a Monte Carlo approach is used to quantify the investment needs at this voltage level. Recent research has revealed that DERs differ substantially between rural, suburban and urban regions. The low-voltage network topologies have different design concepts in these regions, so that different network topologies have to be considered when assessing the need for network extensions and investments due to DERs. An extension algorithm is needed to calculate network extensions and investment needs for the different typologies of generic low-voltage networks. We therefore present a new algorithm, which is capable of calculating the extension for generic low-voltage networks of any given topology based on voltage range deviations and thermal overloads. The algorithm requires information about line and cable lengths, their topology and the network state only. We test the algorithm on a radial, a loop, and a heavily meshed network. Here we show that the algorithm functions for electrical networks with these topologies. We found that the algorithm is able to extend different networks efficiently by placing cables between network nodes. The main value of the algorithm is that it does not require any information about routes for additional cables or positions for additional substations when it comes to estimating

  7. A prioritization of generic safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrit, R.; Riggs, R.; Milstead, W.; Pittman, J.

    1991-07-01

    This report presents the priority rankings for generic safety issues and related to nuclear power plants. The purpose of these rankings is to assist in the timely and efficient allocation of NRC resources for the resolution of those safety issues that have a significant potential for reducing risk. The report focuses on the prioritization of generic safety issues. Issues primarily concerned with the licensing process or environmental protection and not directly related to safety have been excluded from prioritization. The prioritized issues include: TMI Action Plan items under development; previously proposed issues covered by Task Action Plans, except issues designated as Un-resolved Safety Issues (USIs) which had already been assigned high priority; and newly-proposed issues. Future supplements to this report will include the prioritization of additional issues. The safety priority rankings are High, Medium, Low, and Drop and have been assigned on the basis of risk significance estimates, the ratio of risk to costs and other impacts estimated to result if resolutions of the safety issues were implemented, and the consideration of uncertainties and other quantitative or qualitative factors. To the extent practical, estimates are quantitative. 1310 refs

  8. The importance of being first: evidence from Canadian generic pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Aidan

    2002-12-01

    This paper uses pooled cross-section data on Canadian ethical drug sales to examine the effect of entry timing on sales of generic drugs. The data is for all drugs for which the first generic competitor entered during the years 1994-1997. It is found that the first generic entrant has a lasting competitive advantage: being first into the market appears to lead to an increase of around 30% in market share (among generics) over a period of at least 4 years. This finding has considerable implications for the current policy of allowing brandname drug companies to issue pseudo-generic equivalents as a preemptive strike against true generic competitors. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Contact Geometry of Hyperbolic Equations of Generic Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis The

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the contact geometry of scalar second order hyperbolic equations in the plane of generic type. Following a derivation of parametrized contact-invariants to distinguish Monge-Ampère (class 6-6, Goursat (class 6-7 and generic (class 7-7 hyperbolic equations, we use Cartan's equivalence method to study the generic case. An intriguing feature of this class of equations is that every generic hyperbolic equation admits at most a nine-dimensional contact symmetry algebra. The nine-dimensional bound is sharp: normal forms for the contact-equivalence classes of these maximally symmetric generic hyperbolic equations are derived and explicit symmetry algebras are presented. Moreover, these maximally symmetric equations are Darboux integrable. An enumeration of several submaximally symmetric (eight and seven-dimensional generic hyperbolic structures is also given.

  10. Introducing a Generic Concept for an Online IT-Benchmarking System

    OpenAIRE

    Ziaie, Pujan;Ziller, Markus;Wollersheim, Jan;Krcmar, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    While IT benchmarking has grown considerably in the last few years, conventional benchmarking tools have not been able to adequately respond to the rapid changes in technology and paradigm shifts in IT-related domains. This paper aims to review benchmarking methods and leverage design science methodology to present design elements for a novel software solution in the field of IT benchmarking. The solution, which introduces a concept for generic (service-independent) indicators is based on and...

  11. Impact of generic substitution decision support on electronic prescribing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Shane P; Chen, Qingxia; Johnson, Kevin B

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of generic substitution decision support on electronic (e-) prescribing of generic medications. The authors analyzed retrospective outpatient e-prescribing data from an academic medical center and affiliated network for July 1, 2005-September 30, 2008 using an interrupted time-series design to assess the rate of generic prescribing before and after implementing generic substitution decision support. To assess background secular trends, e-prescribing was compared with a concurrent random sample of hand-generated prescriptions. Proportion of generic medications prescribed before and after the intervention, evaluated over time, and compared with a sample of prescriptions generated without e-prescribing. The proportion of generic medication prescriptions increased from 32.1% to 54.2% after the intervention (22.1% increase, 95% CI 21.9% to 22.3%), with no diminution in magnitude of improvement post-intervention. In the concurrent control group, increases in proportion of generic prescriptions (29.3% to 31.4% to 37.4% in the pre-intervention, post-intervention, and end-of-study periods, respectively) were not commensurate with the intervention. There was a larger change in generic prescribing rates among authorized prescribers (24.6%) than nurses (18.5%; adjusted OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.63). Two years after the intervention, the proportion of generic prescribing remained significantly higher for e-prescriptions (58.1%; 95% CI 57.5% to 58.7%) than for hand-generated prescriptions ordered at the same time (37.4%; 95% CI 34.9% to 39.9%) (p<0.0001). Generic prescribing increased significantly in every specialty. Implementation of generic substitution decision support was associated with dramatic and sustained improvements in the rate of outpatient generic e-prescribing across all specialties.

  12. Generic task problem descriptions: Category B, C, and D tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    This document contains information relating to Category B, C, and D generic technical activities. The specific information provided for each task includes the reactor type to which the generic issue applies, the NRC division with lead responsibility and a description of the problem to be addressed by the task. Also provided in this document is a listing of Category A generic technical activities and definitions of Priority Categories A, B, C, and D

  13. Guide for generic application of Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwan, C.A.; Toomey, G.E.; Morgan, T.A.; Darling, S.S.

    1991-02-01

    Previously completed reliability centered maintenance (RCM) studies form the basis for developing or refining a preventive maintenance program. This report describes a generic methodology that will help utilities optimize nuclear plant maintenance programs using RCM techniques. This guide addresses the following areas: history of the generic methodology development process, and use of the generic methodology for conducting system-to-system and component-to-component evaluations. 2 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Encouraging the use of generic medicines: implications for transition economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Derek R; Kanavos, Panos

    2002-08-01

    Generic drugs have a key role to play in the efficient allocation of financial resources for pharmaceutical medicines. Policies implemented in the countries with a high rate of generic drug use, such as Canada, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States, are reviewed, with consideration of the market structures that facilitate strong competition. Savings in these countries are realized through increases in the volume of generic drugs used and the frequently significant differences in the price between generic medicines and branded originator medicines. Their policy tools include the mix of supply-side measures and demand-side measures that are relevant for generic promotion and higher generic use. On the supply-side, key policy measures include generic drug marketing regulation that facilitates market entry soon after patent expiration, reference pricing, the pricing of branded originator products, and the degree of price competition in pharmaceutical markets. On the demand-side, measures typically encompass influencing prescribing and dispensing patterns as well as introducing a co-payment structure for consumers/patients that takes into consideration the difference in cost between branded and generic medicines. Quality of generic medicines is a pre-condition for all other measures discussed to take effect. The paper concludes by offering a list of policy options for decision-makers in Central and Eastern European economies in transition.

  15. Generic substitution of antiretrovirals: patients' and health care providers' opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieran, Jennifer A; O'Reilly, Eimear; O'Dea, Siobhan; Bergin, Colm; O'Leary, Aisling

    2017-10-01

    There is interest in introducing generic antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) into high-income countries in order to maximise efficiency in health care budgets. Studies examining patients' and providers' knowledge and attitudes to generic substitution in HIV are few. This was a cross-sectional, observational study with a convenience sample of adult HIV-infected patients and health care providers (HCPs). Data on demographics, knowledge of generic medicine and facilitators of generic substitution were collected. Descriptive and univariate analysis was performed using SPSS V.23™. Questionnaires were completed by 66 patients. Seventy-one per cent would have no concerns with the introduction of generic ARVs. An increase in frequency of administration (61%) or pill burden (53%) would make patients less likely to accept generic ARVs. There were 30 respondents to the HCP survey. Concerns included the supply chain of generics, loss of fixed dose combinations, adherence and use of older medications. An increase in dosing frequency (76%) or an increase in pill burden (50%) would make HCPs less likely to prescribe a generic ARV. The main perceived advantage was financial. Generic substitution of ARVs would be acceptable to the majority of patients and HCPs. Reinvesting savings back into HIV services would facilitate the success of such a programme.

  16. Brand loyalty, patients and limited generic medicines uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Font, Joan; Rudisill, Caroline; Tan, Stefanie

    2014-06-01

    The sluggish development of European generic drug markets depends heavily on demand side factors, and more specifically, patients' and doctors' loyalty to branded products. Loyalty to originator drugs, to the point where originator prices rise upon generic entry has been described as the 'generics paradox'. Originator loyalty can emerge for a plethora of reasons; including costs, perceptions about quality and physician advice. We know very little about the behavioural underpinnings of brand loyalty from the consumer or patient standpoint. This paper attempts to test the extent to which patients are brand loyal by drawing upon Spain's 2002 Health Barometer survey as it includes questions about consumer acceptance of generics in a country with exceptionally low generic uptake and substitution at the time of the study. Our findings suggest that at least 13% of the population would not accept generics as substitutes to the originator. These results confirm evidence of brand loyalty for a minority. Alongside high levels of awareness of generics, we find that low cost-sharing levels explain consumer brand loyalty but their impact on acceptance of generic substitution is very small. Higher cost-sharing and exempting fewer patients from cost-sharing have the potential to encourage generic acceptance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Transforming Cobol Legacy Software to a Generic Imperative Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moraes, DinaL

    1999-01-01

    .... This research develops a transformation system to convert COBOL code into a generic imperative model, recapturing the initial design and deciphering the requirements implemented by the legacy code...

  18. Towards Using a Generic Robot as Training Partner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Stengaard; Savarimuthu, Thiusius Rajeeth; Nielsen, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate how a generic industrial robot can be used as a training partner, for upper limb training. The motion path and human/robot interaction of a non-generic upper-arm training robot is transferred to a generic industrial robot arm, and we demonstrate that the robot arm can...... implement the same type of interaction, but can expand the training regime to include both upper arm and shoulder training. We compare the generic robot to two affordable but custom-built training robots, and outline interesting directions for future work based on these training robots....

  19. A generic approach for vertical integration of nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latu-Romain, E; Gilet, P; Noel, P; Garcia, J; Ferret, P; Rosina, M; Feuillet, G; Levy, F; Chelnokov, A

    2008-01-01

    We report on the collective integration technology of vertically aligned nanowires (NWs). Si and ZnO NWs have been used in order to develop a generic technological process. Both mineral and organic planarizations of the as-grown nanowires have been achieved. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) oxides, spin on glass (SOG), and polymer have been investigated as filling materials. Polishing and/or etching of the composite structures have been set up so as to obtain a suitable morphology for the top and bottom electrical contacts. Electrical and optical characterizations of the integrated NWs have been performed. Contacts ohmicity has been demonstrated and specific contact resistances have been reported. The photoconducting properties of polymer-integrated ZnO NWs have also been investigated in the UV-visible range through collective electrical contacts. A small increase of the resistivity in the ZnO NWs under sub-bandgap illumination has been observed and discussed. A comparison of the photoluminescence (PL) spectra at 300 K of the as-grown and SOG-integrated ZnO nanowires has shown no significant impact of the integration process on the crystal quality of the NWs

  20. A generic approach for vertical integration of nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latu-Romain, E; Gilet, P; Noel, P; Garcia, J; Ferret, P; Rosina, M; Feuillet, G; Levy, F; Chelnokov, A [CEA-LETI, MINATEC, 17 rue des Martyrs, Grenoble (France)

    2008-08-27

    We report on the collective integration technology of vertically aligned nanowires (NWs). Si and ZnO NWs have been used in order to develop a generic technological process. Both mineral and organic planarizations of the as-grown nanowires have been achieved. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) oxides, spin on glass (SOG), and polymer have been investigated as filling materials. Polishing and/or etching of the composite structures have been set up so as to obtain a suitable morphology for the top and bottom electrical contacts. Electrical and optical characterizations of the integrated NWs have been performed. Contacts ohmicity has been demonstrated and specific contact resistances have been reported. The photoconducting properties of polymer-integrated ZnO NWs have also been investigated in the UV-visible range through collective electrical contacts. A small increase of the resistivity in the ZnO NWs under sub-bandgap illumination has been observed and discussed. A comparison of the photoluminescence (PL) spectra at 300 K of the as-grown and SOG-integrated ZnO nanowires has shown no significant impact of the integration process on the crystal quality of the NWs.

  1. ISART: A Generic Framework for Searching Books with Social Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xu-Cheng; Zhang, Bo-Wen; Cui, Xiao-Ping; Qu, Jiao; Geng, Bin; Zhou, Fang; Song, Li; Hao, Hong-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Effective book search has been discussed for decades and is still future-proof in areas as diverse as computer science, informatics, e-commerce and even culture and arts. A variety of social information contents (e.g, ratings, tags and reviews) emerge with the huge number of books on the Web, but how they are utilized for searching and finding books is seldom investigated. Here we develop an Integrated Search And Recommendation Technology (IsArt), which breaks new ground by providing a generic framework for searching books with rich social information. IsArt comprises a search engine to rank books with book contents and professional metadata, a Generalized Content-based Filtering model to thereafter rerank books with user-generated social contents, and a learning-to-rank technique to finally combine a wide range of diverse reranking results. Experiments show that this technology permits embedding social information to promote book search effectiveness, and IsArt, by making use of it, has the best performance on CLEF/INEX Social Book Search Evaluation datasets of all 4 years (from 2011 to 2014), compared with some other state-of-the-art methods.

  2. A generic approach for vertical integration of nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latu-Romain, E; Gilet, P; Noel, P; Garcia, J; Ferret, P; Rosina, M; Feuillet, G; Lévy, F; Chelnokov, A

    2008-08-27

    We report on the collective integration technology of vertically aligned nanowires (NWs). Si and ZnO NWs have been used in order to develop a generic technological process. Both mineral and organic planarizations of the as-grown nanowires have been achieved. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) oxides, spin on glass (SOG), and polymer have been investigated as filling materials. Polishing and/or etching of the composite structures have been set up so as to obtain a suitable morphology for the top and bottom electrical contacts. Electrical and optical characterizations of the integrated NWs have been performed. Contacts ohmicity has been demonstrated and specific contact resistances have been reported. The photoconducting properties of polymer-integrated ZnO NWs have also been investigated in the UV-visible range through collective electrical contacts. A small increase of the resistivity in the ZnO NWs under sub-bandgap illumination has been observed and discussed. A comparison of the photoluminescence (PL) spectra at 300 K of the as-grown and SOG-integrated ZnO nanowires has shown no significant impact of the integration process on the crystal quality of the NWs.

  3. Generic Adaptively Secure Searchable Phrase Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissel Zachary A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years searchable symmetric encryption has seen a rapid increase in query expressiveness including keyword, phrase, Boolean, and fuzzy queries. With this expressiveness came increasingly complex constructions. Having these facts in mind, we present an efficient and generic searchable symmetric encryption construction for phrase queries. Our construction is straightforward to implement, and is proven secure under adaptively chosen query attacks (CQA2 in the random oracle model with an honest-but-curious adversary. To our knowledge, this is the first encrypted phrase search system that achieves CQA2 security. Moreover, we demonstrate that our document collection preprocessing algorithm allows us to extend a dynamic SSE construction so that it supports phrase queries. We also provide a compiler theorem which transforms any CQA2-secure SSE construction for keyword queries into a CQA2-secure SSE construction that supports phrase queries.

  4. Generic Automated Multi-function Finger Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarpardaz, M.; Tarkian, M.; Sirkett, D.; Ölvander, J.; Feng, X.; Elf, J.; Sjögren, R.

    2016-11-01

    Multi-function fingers that are able to handle multiple workpieces are crucial in improvement of a robot workcell. Design automation of multi-function fingers is highly demanded by robot industries to overcome the current iterative, time consuming and complex manual design process. However, the existing approaches for the multi-function finger design automation are unable to entirely meet the robot industries’ need. This paper proposes a generic approach for design automation of multi-function fingers. The proposed approach completely automates the design process and requires no expert skill. In addition, this approach executes the design process much faster than the current manual process. To validate the approach, multi-function fingers are successfully designed for two case studies. Further, the results are discussed and benchmarked with existing approaches.

  5. Towards a generic user support system (GUS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, W.J.; Wilson, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    One relevant issue confronting the operator of a nuclear power plant is information and task overload. The goal, then, of the various developers is to improve the current situations by creating an environment where the operator can perform at optimum capacity. This is to be accomplished by providing tools and techniques which reduce operator involvement in low level tasks (freeing up time for higher level cognitive tasks) and assist in information and knowledge manipulation so that high level tasks can be performed more efficiently. This paper reviews the operational environment of nuclear plants from the viewpoint of engineering design and from the viewpoint of the operators and technical support staff. Principles are advanced for a generic operator companion. These design principles are being applied to a test case: the Point Lepreau NGS secondary side central sampling system. 6 refs., 6 figs

  6. Generic Entity Resolution in Relational Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidló, Csaba István

    Entity Resolution (ER) covers the problem of identifying distinct representations of real-world entities in heterogeneous databases. We consider the generic formulation of ER problems (GER) with exact outcome. In practice, input data usually resides in relational databases and can grow to huge volumes. Yet, typical solutions described in the literature employ standalone memory resident algorithms. In this paper we utilize facilities of standard, unmodified relational database management systems (RDBMS) to enhance the efficiency of GER algorithms. We study and revise the problem formulation, and propose practical and efficient algorithms optimized for RDBMS external memory processing. We outline a real-world scenario and demonstrate the advantage of algorithms by performing experiments on insurance customer data.

  7. Crystallization Kinetics within a Generic Modeling Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisler, Kresten Troelstrup; von Solms, Nicolas; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2014-01-01

    of employing a well-structured model library for storage, use/reuse, and analysis of the kinetic models are highlighted. Examples illustrating the application of the modeling framework for kinetic model discrimination related to simulation of specific crystallization scenarios and for kinetic model parameter......A new and extended version of a generic modeling framework for analysis and design of crystallization operations is presented. The new features of this framework are described, with focus on development, implementation, identification, and analysis of crystallization kinetic models. Issues related...... to the modeling of various kinetic phenomena like nucleation, growth, agglomeration, and breakage are discussed in terms of model forms, model parameters, their availability and/or estimation, and their selection and application for specific crystallization operational scenarios under study. The advantages...

  8. Dream content: Individual and generic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Allan; Kahn, David

    2007-12-01

    Dream reports were collected from normal subjects in an effort to determine the degree to which dream reports can be used to identify individual dreamers. Judges were asked to group the reports by their authors. The judges scored the reports correctly at chance levels. This finding indicated that dreams may be at least as much like each other as they are the signature of individual dreamers. Our results suggest that dream reports cannot be used to identify the individuals who produced them when identifiers like names and gender of friends and family members are removed from the dream report. In addition to using dreams to learn about an individual, we must look at dreams as telling us about important common or generic aspects of human consciousness.

  9. Generic analysis of kinetically driven inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, Rio

    2018-04-01

    We perform a model-independent analysis of kinetically driven inflation (KDI) which (partially) includes generalized G-inflation and ghost inflation. We evaluate the background evolution splitting into the inflationary attractor and the perturbation around it. We also consider the quantum fluctuation of the scalar mode with a usual scaling and derive the spectral index, ignoring the contribution from the second-order products of slow-roll parameters. Using these formalisms, we find that within our generic framework the models of KDI which possess the shift symmetry of scalar field cannot create the quantum fluctuation consistent with the observation. Breaking the shift symmetry, we obtain a few essential conditions for viable models of KDI associated with the graceful exit.

  10. Generic Properties of Random Gene Regulatory Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyuan; Bianco, Simone; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Tang, Chao

    2013-12-01

    Modeling gene regulatory networks (GRNs) is an important topic in systems biology. Although there has been much work focusing on various specific systems, the generic behavior of GRNs with continuous variables is still elusive. In particular, it is not clear typically how attractors partition among the three types of orbits: steady state, periodic and chaotic, and how the dynamical properties change with network's topological characteristics. In this work, we first investigated these questions in random GRNs with different network sizes, connectivity, fraction of inhibitory links and transcription regulation rules. Then we searched for the core motifs that govern the dynamic behavior of large GRNs. We show that the stability of a random GRN is typically governed by a few embedding motifs of small sizes, and therefore can in general be understood in the context of these short motifs. Our results provide insights for the study and design of genetic networks.

  11. Generic Skills from Qur'anic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddig Ahmad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Generic skills are defined as a set of skills that are directly related and needed for the working environment. Employers prefer to recruit officials who are competent in interpersonal communication, leadership skill, team work, oral and written skills. They are reluctant to employ graduates lacking certain necessary skills. This reveals the fact that there is a serious gap between the skills that are required by the employers and the skills that the graduates possess. Therefore, this research is focused on five aspects of generic skills namely; communication, team work, problem solving, lifelong learning and self-esteem. From Qur’anic perspective, the same terms have been used except minor differences in using various terms. The thematic approach is used when discussing these aspects from the Qur’an. The findings showed that the ways of effective communication are represented by terms of qawl sadid, qawl ma`ruf, qawl baligh, qawl maysur, qawl karim and qawl layyin. For collective work, ta`aruf and tafahum, as the pre-requisites, should be practiced via ta`awun and takaful. For problem solving, four methods are adapted from the Qur’an such as reflection of the past, observation, demonstration and asking questions. For lifelong learning, the establishment of learning institutions and the self-motivation of learners are two pre-requisites that should be undertaken for its accomplishment. They could be practiced through open learning system, consultation and hands-on learning. Last but not least, for personality development could be built up through physical training, spiritual training and mental training.

  12. Generic implications of ATWS events at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant: generic implications. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This report is the first of two volumes. It documents the work of an interoffice, interdisciplinary NRC Task Force established to determine the generic implications of two anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 on February 22 and 25, 1983. A second report will document the NRC actions to be taken based on the work of the Task Force. The Task Force was established to address three questions: (1) Is there a need for prompt action for similar equipment in other facilities. (2) Are NRC and its licensees learning the sefety-management lessons, and, (3) How should the priority and content of the ATWS rule be adjusted. A number of short-term actions were taken through Bulletins and an Information Notice. Intermediate-term actions to address the generic issues will be addressed in the separate report and implemented through appropriate regulatory mechanisms

  13. Systematic identification of crystallization kinetics within a generic modelling framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli Bin; Meisler, Kresten Troelstrup; Gernaey, Krist

    2012-01-01

    A systematic development of constitutive models within a generic modelling framework has been developed for use in design, analysis and simulation of crystallization operations. The framework contains a tool for model identification connected with a generic crystallizer modelling tool-box, a tool...

  14. When Does an Argument Use a Generic Example?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopp, David A.; Ely, Rob

    2016-01-01

    We offer criteria that an observer can use to determine whether an argument that uses an example to argue for a general claim appeals to that example generically. We review existing literature on generic example and note the strengths of each contribution, as well as inconsistencies among uses of the term. We offer several examples from the…

  15. 77 FR 60125 - Generic Drug Facilities, Sites and Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ...] Generic Drug Facilities, Sites and Organizations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice..., and certain sites and organizations identified in a generic drug submission, that they must provide... and Innovation Act (FDASIA). This notice is intended to help organizations ascertain if they need to...

  16. Is bioavailability altered in generic versus brand anticonvulsants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Slobodan M; Ignjatovic Ristic, Dragana

    2015-03-01

    Therapeutic window of anticonvulsants is not a wide one, with phenytoin being one extreme, which can be classified as a narrow therapeutic index drug, since its ratio between the least toxic and the least effective concentration is less than twofold. In order to obtain marketing authorization, a generic anticonvulsant should demonstrate relative bioequivalence with its brand-name counterpart. However, although bioequivalent, generic anticonvulsants still do not have the same bioavailability as brand-name drugs, which may lead to larger fluctuations of steady-state plasma concentrations, and sometimes to loss of seizure control if a patient is switched from brand-name to generic or from generic to generic anticonvulsant. Generic anticonvulsants are effective, safe and affordable drugs for treatment of epilepsy, and patients could be successfully treated with them from the very beginning. It is switching from brand-name to generic anticonvulsant or from one generic anticonvulsant to another that should be avoided in clinical practice, since subtle differences in bioavailability may disturb optimal degree of seizure control to which the patient was previously successfully titrated.

  17. Policies and perceptions on generic drugs: The case of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulou, Sofia-Sotiria; Katsaliaki, Korina

    2018-01-01

    The increase in the consumption of generic drugs to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure is a challenge for many countries, especially during the economic crisis. The purpose of the present study is to review the Greek market of generic drugs and the decisions that shape it, to determine the factors that affect Greek patients' and doctors' attitudes about generic substitution and present a set of measures for all stakeholders based on the findings of the secondary and primary analysis. The study includes (a) an analysis of international and national reports and legislation on drugs policies and (b) a questionnaire survey of 242 hospital patients and 85 doctors regarding their perceptions on generics. A small increase in the volume of generics is recorded, yet not followed by sales value, over the recent years that the measures for promoting generics prescription took effect. Distrust from both patients and doctors was observed toward generics' effectiveness and toward the appropriateness of the regulatory authorities' quality controls. The study presents a structured set of viable measures, applicable to many countries, for promoting generic drug consumption that can lead to economic efficiency without degrading the health care quality.

  18. Generic medicines: solutions for a sustainable drug market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold; Godman, Brian; Simoens, Steven

    2013-10-01

    Generic medicines offer equally high-quality treatment as originator medicines do at much lower prices. As such, they represent a considerable opportunity for authorities to obtain substantial savings. At the moment, the pharmaceutical landscape is changing and many pharmaceutical companies have altered their development and commercial strategies, combining both originator and generic divisions. In spite of this, the generic medicines industry is currently facing a number of challenges: delayed market access; the limited price differential with originator medicines; the continuous downwards pressure on prices; and the negative perception regarding generic medicines held by some key stakeholder groups. This could jeopardize the long-term sustainability of the generic manufacturing industry. Therefore, governments must focus on demand-side policies, alongside policies to accelerate market access, as the generic medicines industry will only be able to deliver competitive and sustainable prices if they are ensured a high volume. In the future, the generic medicines industry will increasingly look to biosimilars and generic versions of orphan drugs to expand their business.

  19. Generic maintenance immunosuppression in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensor, Christopher R; Trofe-Clark, Jennifer; Gabardi, Steven; McDevitt-Potter, Lisa M; Shullo, Michael A

    2011-11-01

    Survival after solid organ transplantation has increased in the era of tacrolimus and mycophenolate. This increased survival could be due in part to the broad clinical use of these potent and specific agents for maintenance immunosuppression. These drugs have enhanced specificity and potency for T and B lymphocytes compared with their predecessors, cyclosporine and azathioprine. Between 2008 and 2010, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved several generic formulations of both tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. Deciding whether generic products can be safely substituted for the innovator product is a clinical dilemma similar to that which occurred when generic formulations of cyclosporine became available. We describe the concerns regarding generic immunosuppression use, summarize expert opinion and consensus statements in transplantation, analyze the potential impact of generic substitution, and provide estimates of populations affected based on generic drug market penetration. Formulary considerations such as cost, availability, and potential drug ordering and drug selection errors are described, and transplant coordinator and patient perspectives are reviewed. Finally, general recommendations about the use of generic maintenance immunosuppression in solid organ transplant recipients are provided. Although more research is needed to confirm clinical and therapeutic equivalence and pharmacoeconomic benefit, generic immunosuppressants can be safely substituted for innovator products as long as patients consistently receive the same product, patients and clinicians are aware of when substitutions occur, and enhanced therapeutic drug monitoring is provided during the transition.

  20. Potential cost savings from generic medicines – protecting the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the difference between brand and generic medicines listed for that algorithm, and also as the median of differences between generic medicines for the same condition. Results: Three of the algorithms .... Protecting the PMBs, as a key element of the new community-rated medical schemes environment, is therefore vital.

  1. 76 FR 79198 - Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0381] Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... meeting entitled ``Generic Drug User Fee.'' The document published with an inadvertent error in the Dates...

  2. Generic medicines: Perceptions of Physicians in Basrah, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adheed Khalid Sharrad

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe use of cheaper generic medicines is a strategy promotedin many countries to reduce rising health care costs. The aimof this study was to explore factors affecting generic medicineprescribing by physicians in Basrah, Iraq.MethodologyA purposive sample of ten physicians practicing in Basrahwas interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide.ResultsAnalysis of the interviews identified seven major themes:medicine prescribing practice, knowledge of therapeuticequivalency of generic medicine, patients’ acceptance ofgeneric medicine, counterfeit medicine, drug informationsource and effect of drug advertising on medicines choice,brand substitution practice by community pharmacists, and,finally strategies to improve generic medicine usefulness.Participants identified helpful strategies to increase genericprescribing including; physician and patient education ongeneric medicine; persuading physicians about the safety andefficacy of generic medicines; and finally educating seniormedical students on generic prescribing.ConclusionThe data suggest that participants were enthusiasticabout prescribing generic medicines. However physiciansinsist that pharmacists should not be allowed tosubstitute generic drugs without prior approval ofdoctors.

  3. 17 CFR 230.135a - Generic advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Generic advertising. 230.135a Section 230.135a Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.135a Generic advertising. (a) For the purposes only of...

  4. Development of a generic virus behavioural detector: a preview ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Generic Virus Behavioral Detector (GVBD) is a system (program) that monitors various system activities; reading and writing block of disks and memory and the use of Interrupts. A technique for its realisation is presented. Key Words: Computer virus, interrupts, handlers, GVBD (Generic Virus Behavioral Detector).

  5. Evaluation of generic and branded herbicides : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    As with other generic brand products in the marketplace, generic herbicides often have a lower initial product cost than : their brand-name counterparts. While the purchase price of herbicides is important to TxDOT, it is essential to look at : more ...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10036 - Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10036 Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... based polymer (PMN P-02-406) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section 721.10151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (PMN P-07-642) is subject to reporting under this section...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10146 - Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10146 Section 721.10146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10146 Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as partially fluorinated condensation polymer (PMN P-07-87) is subject to reporting under this...

  9. Developing competitive and sustainable Polish generic medicines market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven

    2009-10-01

    To descriptively analyze the policy environment surrounding the Polish generic medicines retail market. The policy analysis was based on an international literature review. Also, a simulation exercise was carried out to compute potential savings from substituting generic for originator medicines in Poland using IMS Health pharmaceutical intelligence data. Poland has a mature, high-volume, low-value generic medicines market, primarily driven by the establishment of the reference price at the price of the cheapest medicine in combination with pricing regulation and the low level of medicine prices. The practice of discounting in the distribution chain implies that the National Health Fund and patients do not capture the potential savings from a generic medicines market where companies compete on price. This high-volume market has benefited in the past from the limited availability of originator medicines and a short data exclusivity period, even though there are no incentives for physicians to prescribe generic medicines and a financial disincentive for pharmacists to dispense generic medicines. Increased generic substitution would be expected to reduce public expenditure on originator medicines by 21%. To develop a competitive and sustainable market, Poland needs to consider moving away from competition by discount to competition by price. This could be achieved by replacing maximum distribution margins by fixed margins. Also, Poland may wish to raise reference prices as a temporary measure to boost market entry for medicine classes with few generic medicines.

  10. Do All Ducks Lay Eggs? The Generic Overgeneralization Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Khemlani, Sangeet; Glucksberg, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Generics are statements such as "tigers are striped" and "ducks lay eggs". They express general, though not universal or exceptionless, claims about kinds (Carlson & Pelletier, 1995). For example, the generic "ducks lay eggs" seems true even though many ducks (e.g. the males) do not lay eggs. The universally quantified version of the statement…

  11. The Impact of Information on Doctors’ Attitudes Toward Generic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggeliki V. Tsaprantzi MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the impact of information on doctors’ attitudes and perceptions toward generics. A cross-sectional survey based on a specially designed 21-item questionnaire was conducted. The survey involved doctors of different specialties working in a public hospital in Greece. The analysis includes descriptive and inferential statistics, reliability and validity tests, as well as structural equation modeling to evaluate the causal model. Statistical analysis was accomplished by using SPSS 20 and Amos 20. A total of 134 questionnaires out of 162 were received, providing a response rate of 82.71%. A number of significant associations were found between information and perceptions about generic medicines with demographic characteristics. It seems that the provision of quality information on generic drugs influences doctors’ attitudes and prescription practices toward generic drugs. This is not a static process but a rather dynamic issue involving information provision policies for strengthening the proper doctors’ attitudes toward generic drugs.

  12. Generic policy in Bulgaria: a policy of failure or success?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assena Stoimenova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Generic medicines play a key role in managing the financial resources for pharmaceuticals in every country. This study analysed the generic policy legislative framework in Bulgaria with the aim to identify whether the policy implementation can be considered successful in the light of an international review of such policies introduced in other countries, or on the contrary, it has failed to deliver the main benefits. Legislative analysis, desktop study and macroeconomic overview of the Bulgarian pharmaceutical market were included. The study showed that only 3 out of 11 important policy elements are implemented in the country. Bulgaria has one of the highest shares of generics, an average of 81.39% (volume, for the studied period (2006–2014. However, further research is needed to evaluate the success of the existing generic policy in Bulgaria, as the market share of generic drugs is not the only measure of the policy efficiency.

  13. An audit of generic prescribing in a general surgical department.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gleeson, M

    2013-01-17

    BACKGROUND: The Health Service Executive introduced a generic prescription policy to reduce costs. Despite this, generic prescription rates remain low. AIM: To audit in-patient prescription practice in a single surgical department and identify potential savings which could be realised by adherence to the generic prescribing policy. METHODS: Surgical in-patient charts were obtained at the point of discharge and their drug prescription information was recorded. RESULTS: 51 % of prescriptions involved a trade-name prescription where an appropriate generic equivalent existed. The cost implications for hospital and community patients were found to be greatly affected by substitution policies that exist at hospital pharmacy level. CONCLUSION: There is a need to promote greater adherence to generic prescribing amongst hospital doctors in line with international best practice. It can have a positive impact in terms of safe prescribing and can have cost implications at both hospital and community level.

  14. Generic substitution: micro evidence from register data in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, Dag Morten; Furu, Kari; Locatelli, Marilena; Strøm, Steinar

    2011-02-01

    The importance of prices, doctor and patient characteristics, and market institutions for the likelihood of choosing generic drugs instead of the more expensive original brand-name version are examined. Using an extensive dataset extracted from The Norwegian Prescription Database containing all prescriptions dispensed to individuals in February 2004 and 2006 on 23 different drugs (chemical substances) in Norway, we find strong evidence for the importance of both doctor and patient characteristics for the choice probabilities. The price difference between brand and generic versions and insurance coverage both affect generic substitution. Moreover, controlling for the retail chain affiliation of the dispensing pharmacy, we find that pharmacies play an important role in promoting generic substitution. In markets with more recent entry of generic drugs, brand-name loyalty proves to be much stronger, giving less explanatory power to our demand model.

  15. Generic switching of warfarin and risk of excessive anticoagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellfritzsch, Maja; Rathe, Jette; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Generic switching of warfarin was recently repealed in Denmark, as adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports suggested risk of excessive anticoagulation following switches from branded to generic warfarin. We investigated this putative association in a formalized pharmacoepidemiological analysis....... METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study based on Danish healthcare registries, including data from the introduction of generic warfarin until the repeal (January 2011-April 2015). We followed Danish warfarin users over time and compared the rate of incident hospitalizations due to excessive...... anticoagulation (i.e. increased INR or any bleeding requiring hospitalization) in periods following a recent switch to generic warfarin to the rate in periods without a recent switch. RESULTS: We included 105,751 warfarin users, filling a total of 1,539,640 prescriptions for warfarin (2.5% for generic warfarin...

  16. Associations between generic substitution and patient-related factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette

    Associations between generic substitution and patient-related factors Jette Østergaard Rathe1, Pia V. Larsen1, Morten Andersen2, Janus L. Thomsen3, Maja S. Paulsen1, Jens Søndergaard1 1. Research Unit of General Practice, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark 2. Centre...... for Pharmacoepidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Medicine Solna, Stockholm, Sweden 3. Danish Quality Unit of General Practice, Odense, Denmark Background Generic substitution means that chemically equivalent but less expensive drugs are dispensed in place of a brand name product. Although generic medicines...... by definition are bioequivalent to their brand name counterparts there are concerns about whether generic substitution is always accompanied by clinical equivalence in terms of effectiveness and that it may cause concerns and thereby causing some skepticism towards generic substitution. There is, however...

  17. Generic Argillite/Shale Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liange; Colon, Carlos Jové; Bianchi, Marco; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-08

    properties (parameters) used in these models are different, which not only make inter-model comparisons difficult, but also compromise the applicability of the lessons learned from one model to another model. The establishment of a reference case would therefore be helpful to set up a baseline for model development. A generic salt repository reference case was developed in Freeze et al. (2013) and the generic argillite repository reference case is presented in this report. The definition of a reference case requires the characterization of the waste inventory, waste form, waste package, repository layout, EBS backfill, host rock, and biosphere. This report mainly documents the processes in EBS bentonite and host rock that are potentially important for performance assessment and properties that are needed to describe these processes, with brief description other components such as waste inventory, waste form, waste package, repository layout, aquifer, and biosphere. A thorough description of the generic argillite repository reference case will be given in Jové Colon et al. (2014).

  18. Generic dynamic wind turbine models for power system stability analysis: A comprehensive review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honrubia-Escribano, A.; Gómez-Lázaro, E.; Fortmann, J.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, international working groups, mainly from the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), have made a major effort to develop generic —also known as simplified or standard— dynamic wind turbine models to be used for power...... system stability analysis. These models are required by power system operators to conduct the planning and operation activities of their networks since the use of detailed manufacturer models is not practical. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the work done in this field, based on the results...... obtained by IEC and WECC working groups in the course of their research, which have motivated the publication of the IEC 61400-27 in February 2015. The final published versions of the generic models developed according to the existing four wind turbine technology types are detailed, highlighting...

  19. Internationalization of healthcare applications: a generic approach for PACS workstations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, R; Engelmann, U; Schroeter, A; Meinzer, H P

    2004-01-01

    Along with the revolution of information technology and the increasing use of computers world-wide, software providers recognize the emerging need for internationalized, or global, software applications. The importance of internationalization comes from its benefits such as addressing a broader audience, making the software applications more accessible, easier to use, more flexible to support and providing users with more consistent information. In addition, some governmental agencies, e.g., in Spain, accept only fully localized software. Although the healthcare communication standards, namely, Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) and Health Level Seven (HL7) support wide areas of internationalization, most of the implementers are still protective about supporting the complex languages. This paper describes a generic internationalization approach for Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) workstations. The Unicode standard is used to internationalize the application user interface. An encoding converter was developed to encode and decode the data between the rendering module (in Unicode encoding) and the DICOM data (in ISO 8859 encoding). An integration gateway was required to integrate the internationalized PACS components with the different PACS installations. To introduce a pragmatic example, the described approach was applied to the CHILI PACS workstation. The approach has enabled the application to handle the different internationalization aspects transparently, such as supporting complex languages, switching between different languages at runtime, and supporting multilingual clinical reports. In the healthcare enterprises, internationalized applications play an essential role in supporting a seamless flow of information between the heterogeneous multivendor information systems.

  20. LISSAT Analysis of a Generic Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, H; Elayat, H A; O'Connell, W J; Szytel, L; Dreicer, M

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in developing tools and methods for use in designing and evaluating safeguards systems for current and future plants in the nuclear power fuel cycle. The DOE is engaging several DOE National Laboratories in efforts applied to safeguards for chemical conversion plants and gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants. As part of the development, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed an integrated safeguards system analysis tool (LISSAT). This tool provides modeling and analysis of facility and safeguards operations, generation of diversion paths, and evaluation of safeguards system effectiveness. The constituent elements of diversion scenarios, including material extraction and concealment measures, are structured using directed graphs (digraphs) and fault trees. Statistical analysis evaluates the effectiveness of measurement verification plans and randomly timed inspections. Time domain simulations analyze significant scenarios, especially those involving alternate time ordering of events or issues of timeliness. Such simulations can provide additional information to the fault tree analysis and can help identify the range of normal operations and, by extension, identify additional plant operational signatures of diversions. LISSAT analyses can be used to compare the diversion-detection probabilities for individual safeguards technologies and to inform overall strategy implementations for present and future plants. Additionally, LISSAT can be the basis for a rigorous cost-effectiveness analysis of safeguards and design options. This paper will describe the results of a LISSAT analysis of a generic centrifuge enrichment plant. The paper will describe the diversion scenarios analyzed and the effectiveness of various safeguards systems alternatives

  1. GALE: a generic open source extensible adaptation engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bra, Paul; Knutov, Evgeny; Smits, David; Stash, Natalia; Ramos, Vinicius F. C.

    2013-06-01

    This paper motivates and describes GALE, the Generic Adaptation Language and Engine that came out of the GRAPPLE EU FP7 project. The main focus of the paper is the extensible nature of GALE. The purpose of this description is to illustrate how a single core adaptation engine can be used for different types of adaptation, applied to different types of information items and documents. We illustrate the adaptive functionality on some examples of hypermedia documents. In April 2012, David Smits defended the world's first adaptive PhD thesis on this topic. The thesis, available for download and direct adaptive access at http://gale.win.tue.nl/thesis, shows that a single source of information can serve different audiences and at the same time also allows more freedom of navigation than is possible in any paper or static hypermedia document. The same can be done for course texts, hyperfiction, encyclopedia, museum, or other cultural heritage websites, etc. We explain how to add functionality to GALE if desired, to adapt the system's behavior to whatever the application requires. This stresses our main objective: to provide a technological base for adaptive (hypermedia) system researchers on which they can build extensions for the specific research they have in mind.

  2. Technology Roadmapping for Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, O.

    2003-01-01

    Technology roadmapping can be an effective strategic technology planning tool. This paper describes a process for customizing a generic technology roadmapping process. Starting with a generic process reduces the learning curve and speeds up the roadmap development. Similarly, starting with a generic domain model provides leverage across multiple applications or situations within the domain. A process that combines these two approaches facilitates identifying technology gaps and determining common core technologies that can be reused for multiple applications or situations within the domain. This paper describes both of these processes and how they can be integrated. A core team and a number of technology working groups develop the technology roadmap, which includes critical system requirements and targets, technology areas and metrics for each area, and identifies and evaluates possible technology alternatives to recommend the most appropriate ones to pursue. A generalized waste management model, generated by considering multiple situations or applications in terms of a generic waste management model, provides the domain requirements for the technology roadmapping process. Finally, the paper discusses lessons learns from a number of roadmapping projects

  3. Developing a generic environmental safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has been charged with implementing the United Kingdom government's policy for the long-term management of higher activity radioactive waste by planning, building and operating a geological disposal facility (GDF). Within the NDA, we - the Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (RWMD) - are tasked with the development of a GDF. The UK government has also decided that a process of voluntarism and partnership will be followed to identify a suitable site for the GDF. To date there is no volunteer community and the site selection process to find a volunteer host community is under review. RWMD has an ongoing role to provide advice to UK radioactive waste producers on the conditioning and packaging of wastes and to undertake disposability assessments of waste packaging proposals to determine their suitability for eventual disposal in a GDF. We also need to demonstrate our confidence that a GDF would be safe. Therefore RWMD has published a generic Environmental Safety Case (ESC) (NDA, 2010) to demonstrate that we are confident that a GDF could be developed to meet the guidelines set down by the environmental regulators (EA/NIEA, 2009) in a range of geological settings. The ESC includes reference case calculations that are used as a benchmark for disposability assessments. (author)

  4. Modeling generic aspects of ideal fibril formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, D., E-mail: denis.michel@live.fr [Universite de Rennes1-IRSET, Campus de Beaulieu Bat. 13, 35042 Rennes (France)

    2016-01-21

    Many different proteins self-aggregate into insoluble fibrils growing apically by reversible addition of elementary building blocks. But beyond this common principle, the modalities of fibril formation are very disparate, with various intermediate forms which can be reshuffled by minor modifications of physico-chemical conditions or amino-acid sequences. To bypass this complexity, the multifaceted phenomenon of fibril formation is reduced here to its most elementary principles defined for a linear prototype of fibril. Selected generic features, including nucleation, elongation, and conformational recruitment, are modeled using minimalist hypotheses and tools, by separating equilibrium from kinetic aspects and in vitro from in vivo conditions. These reductionist approaches allow to bring out known and new rudiments, including the kinetic and equilibrium effects of nucleation, the dual influence of elongation on nucleation, the kinetic limitations on nucleation and fibril numbers, and the accumulation of complexes in vivo by rescue from degradation. Overlooked aspects of these processes are also pointed: the exponential distribution of fibril lengths can be recovered using various models because it is attributable to randomness only. It is also suggested that the same term “critical concentration” is used for different things, involved in either nucleation or elongation.

  5. Generic implications of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sege, G.

    1989-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff's assessment of the generic implications of the Chernobyl accident led to the conclusion that no immediate changes in the NRC's regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors are needed. However, further consideration of certain issues was recommended. This paper discusses those issues and the studies being addressed to them. Although 24 tasks relating to light water reactor issues are identified in the Chernobyl follow-up research program, only four are new initiatives originating from Chernobyl implications. The remainder are limited modifications of ongoing programs designed to ensure that those programs duly reflect any lessons that may be drawn from the Chernobyl experience. The four new study tasks discussed include a study of reactivity transients, to reconfirm or bring into question the adequacy of potential reactivity accident sequences hitherto selected as a basis for design approvals; analysis of risk at low power and shutdown; a study of procedure violations; and a review of current NRC testing requirements for balance of benefits and risks. Also discussed, briefly, are adjustments to ongoing studies in the areas of operational controls, design, containment, emergency planning, and severe accident phenomena

  6. Validation of Generic Models for Variable Speed Operation Wind Turbines Following the Recent Guidelines Issued by IEC 61400-27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Honrubia-Escribano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerable efforts are currently being made by several international working groups focused on the development of generic, also known as simplified or standard, wind turbine models for power system stability studies. In this sense, the first edition of International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 61400-27-1, which defines generic dynamic simulation models for wind turbines, was published in February 2015. Nevertheless, the correlations of the IEC generic models with respect to specific wind turbine manufacturer models are required by the wind power industry to validate the accuracy and corresponding usability of these standard models. The present work conducts the validation of the two topologies of variable speed wind turbines that present not only the largest market share, but also the most technological advances. Specifically, the doubly-fed induction machine and the full-scale converter (FSC topology are modeled based on the IEC 61400-27-1 guidelines. The models are simulated for a wide range of voltage dips with different characteristics and wind turbine operating conditions. The simulated response of the IEC generic model is compared to the corresponding simplified model of a wind turbine manufacturer, showing a good correlation in most cases. Validation error sources are analyzed in detail, as well. In addition, this paper reviews in detail the previous work done in this field. Results suggest that wind turbine manufacturers are able to adjust the IEC generic models to represent the behavior of their specific wind turbines for power system stability analysis.

  7. 78 FR 74175 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... precision requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response...: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on... Information Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback...

  8. 76 FR 59379 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Research in Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ...-XXXX. Type of Review: Generic Clearance Request. Title: Generic Clearance for Research in Development... information collected through qualitative evaluation methods will inform the disclosure form's design and... Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Research in Development of...

  9. Innovation strategies for generic drug companies: moving into supergenerics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Malcolm S F

    2010-04-01

    Pharmaceutical companies that market generic products generally are not regarded as innovators, but rather as companies that produce copies of originator products to be launched at patent expiration. However, many generics companies have developed excellent scientific innovative skills in an effort to circumvent the defense patents of originator companies. More patents per product, in terms of both drug substances (process patents and polymorph patents) and formulations, are issued to generics companies than to companies that are traditionally considered to be 'innovators'. This quantity of issued patents highlights the technical knowledge and skill sets that are available in generics companies. In order to adopt a completely innovative model (ie, the development of NCEs), a generics company would require a completely new set of skills in several fields, including a sufficient knowledge base, project and risk management experience, and capability for clinical data evaluation. However, with relatively little investment, generics companies should be able to progress into the so-called 'supergeneric' drug space - an area of innovation that reflects the existing competencies of both innovative and generics companies.

  10. Generic drug policy in Australia: a community pharmacy perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecroft, Grahame

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a commentary, from a community pharmacy perspective, on the policy environment for the pharmacy sector in Australia, with a particular focus on present challenges arising from proposals to achieve substantial PBS cost savings from an anticipated surge of new generic drugs. Some $2 billion of medicines currently on the PBS will come off patent in the next 4 years. This growth comes from a low base where generics currently account for only 15% of the total PBS budget. Remuneration for PBS dispensing is fixed through five year agreements with the government, so trading terms on generics are important for the cross-subsidy of other dispensing activities and professional services. These trading terms (discounts provided by generics suppliers) have become part of the overall cost and revenue structure of pharmacies. Despite these arrangements, generic substitution rates in Australia are lower than in most comparable countries, which the government views as an opportunity to promote generic use. The future of generic drug supply via the PBS is important to allow consumers access to medications at the lowest possible price and to provide space for PBS listing of new and expensive drugs. But considerations of PBS reform need to take account of the role and viability of community pharmacy sector as provider of pharmaceuticals in a timely and efficient manner to Australian residents. PMID:17543112

  11. Impact of alternative interventions on changes in generic dispensing rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, A James; Frank, Richard G; Kaddis, Atheer; Rothenberg, Barbara M; McNeil, Barbara J

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of four alternative interventions (member mailings, advertising campaigns, free generic drug samples to physicians, and physician financial incentives) used by a major health insurer to encourage its members to switch to generic drugs. Using claim-level data from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan, we evaluated the success of four interventions implemented during 2000-2003 designed to increase the use of generic drugs among its members. Around 13 million claims involving seven important classes of drugs were used to assess the effectiveness of the interventions. For each intervention a control group was developed that most closely resembled the corresponding intervention group. Logistic regression models with interaction effects between the treatment group (intervention versus control) and the status of the intervention (active versus not active) were used to evaluate if the interventions had an effect on the generic dispensing rate (GDR). Because the mail order pharmacy was considered more aggressive at converting prescriptions to generics, separate generic purchasing models were fitted to retail and mail order claims. In secondary analyses separate models were also fitted to claims involving a new condition and claims refilled for preexisting conditions. The interventions did not appear to increase the market penetration of generic drugs for either retail or mail order claims, or for claims involving new or preexisting conditions. In addition, we found that the ratio of copayments for brand name to generic drugs had a large positive effect on the GDR. The interventions did not appear to directly influence the GDR. Financial incentives expressed to consumers through benefit designs have a large influence on their switching to generic drugs and on the less-costly mail-order mode of purchase.

  12. Differences in rates of switchbacks after switching from branded to authorized generic and branded to generic drug products: cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpatwari, Ameet; Dejene, Sara; Khan, Nazleen F; Lii, Joyce; Rogers, James R; Dutcher, Sarah K; Raofi, Saeid; Bohn, Justin; Connolly, John; Fischer, Michael A; Kesselheim, Aaron S; Gagne, Joshua J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To compare rates of switchbacks to branded drug products for patients switched from branded to authorized generic drug products, which have the same active ingredients, appearance, and excipients as the branded product, with patients switched from branded to generic drug products, which have the same active ingredients as the branded product but may differ in appearance and excipients. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Private (a large commercial health plan) and public (Medicaid) insurance programs in the US. Participants Beneficiaries of a large US commercial health insurer between 2004 and 2013 (primary cohort) and Medicaid beneficiaries between 2000 and 2010 (replication cohort). Main outcome measures Patients taking branded products for one of the study drugs (alendronate tablets, amlodipine tablets, amlodipine-benazepril capsules, calcitonin salmon nasal spray, escitalopram tablets, glipizide extended release tablets, quinapril tablets, and sertraline tablets) were identified when they switched to an authorized generic or a generic drug product after the date of market entry of generic drug products. These patients were followed for switchbacks to the branded drug product in the year after their switch to an authorized generic or a generic drug product. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals after adjusting for demographics, including age, sex, and calendar year. Inverse variance meta-analysis was used to pool adjusted hazard ratios across all drug products. Results A total of 94 909 patients switched from branded to authorized generic drug products and 116 017 patients switched from branded to generic drug products and contributed to the switchback analysis. Unadjusted incidence rates of switchback varied across drug products, ranging from a low of 3.8 per 100 person years (for alendronate tablets) to a high of 17.8 per 100 person years (for amlodipine

  13. Business engineering. Generic Software Architecture in an Object Oriented View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela MURESAN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The generic software architecture offers a solution for the the information system's development and implementation. A generic software/non-software model could be developed by integrating the enterprise blueprint concept (Zachman and the object oriented paradigm (Coad's archetype concept. The standardization of the generic software architecture for various specific software components could be a direction of crucial importance, offering the guarantee of the quality of the model and increasing the efficiency of the design, development and implementation of the software. This approach is also useful for the implementation of the ERP systems designed to fit the user’s particular requirements.

  14. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Indirect coal liquefaction, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    A comprehensive review of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology, including fixed, fluidized, and bubble column reactors, was undertaken in order to develop an information base before initiating the design of the Fischer-Tropsch indirect liquefaction PDU as a part of the Generic Coal Conversion Facilities to be built at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The pilot plant will include a fixed bed and slurry bubble column reactor for the F-T mode of operation. The review encompasses current status of both these technologies, their key variables, catalyst development, future directions, and potential improvement areas. However, more emphasis has been placed on the slurry bubble column reactor since this route is likely to be the preferred technology for commercialization, offering process advantages and, therefore, better economics than fixed and fluidized bed approaches.

  15. Generic model of a community-based microgrid integrating wind turbines, photovoltaics and CHP generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Xiandong; Wang, Yifei; Qin, Jianrong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Proposes a generic microgrid model comprising hybrid distributed generation units. ► Examines DG performance due to both environmental condition changes and electrical faults. ► Addresses island and grid connected modes of operation for DG units. ► We demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed residential microgrid system. - Abstract: Development and deployment of low-carbon energy technologies has been a national strategy of both the UK and China for a number of years, including the use of renewable generation technologies and the improvement of energy efficiency of operations and activities. The paper addresses several issues of generic importance to a residential microgrid system such as network modelling, advanced control and integration of intelligent monitoring techniques. The system, comprising representative distributed generation technologies of photovoltaics, wind turbines and combined heat and power, has been simulated by PSCAD/EMTDC under different operational scenarios. Studies include the effect of environmental condition changes, control systems and power electronics on wind turbines and PV cells, and the mixture of wind/solar/CHP energy generation under dominance of each technology. The performance and dynamics of the system are examined against symmetrical and asymmetrical electrical faults to seek an optimal isolation and restoration of the distributed generation unit from the connected grid system. Modelling these system interactions has demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed residential microgrid system

  16. Does educational intervention improve doctors’ knowledge and perceptions of generic medicines and their generic prescribing rate? A study from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Zhi Yen; Alrasheedy, Alian A.; Saleem, Fahad; Mohamad Yahaya, Abdul Haniff; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the impact of an educational intervention on doctors’ knowledge and perceptions towards generic medicines and their generic (international non-proprietary name) prescribing practice. Methods: This is a single-cohort pre-/post-intervention pilot study. The study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Perak, Malaysia. All doctors from the internal medicine department were invited to participate in the educational intervention. The intervention consisted of an interactive lecture, an educational booklet and a drug list. Doctors’ knowledge and perceptions were assessed by using a validated questionnaire, while the international non-proprietary name prescribing practice was assessed by screening the prescription before and after the intervention. Results: The intervention was effective in improving doctors’ knowledge towards bioequivalence, similarity of generic medicines and safety standards required for generic medicine registration (p = 0.034, p = 0.034 and p = 0.022, respectively). In terms of perceptions towards generic medicines, no significant changes were noted (p > 0.05). Similarly, no impact on international non-proprietary name prescribing practice was observed after the intervention (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Doctors had inadequate knowledge and misconceptions about generic medicines before the intervention. Moreover, international non-proprietary name prescribing was not a common practice. However, the educational intervention was only effective in improving doctors’ knowledge of generic medicines. PMID:26770747

  17. Chemical freezeout parameters within generic nonextensive statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Abdel; Yassin, Hayam; Abo Elyazeed, Eman R.

    2018-06-01

    The particle production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions seems to be created in a dynamically disordered system which can be best described by an extended exponential entropy. In distinguishing between the applicability of this and Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) in generating various particle-ratios, generic (non)extensive statistics is introduced to the hadron resonance gas model. Accordingly, the degree of (non)extensivity is determined by the possible modifications in the phase space. Both BG extensivity and Tsallis nonextensivity are included as very special cases defined by specific values of the equivalence classes (c, d). We found that the particle ratios at energies ranging between 3.8 and 2760 GeV are best reproduced by nonextensive statistics, where c and d range between ˜ 0.9 and ˜ 1 . The present work aims at illustrating that the proposed approach is well capable to manifest the statistical nature of the system on interest. We don't aim at highlighting deeper physical insights. In other words, while the resulting nonextensivity is neither BG nor Tsallis, the freezeout parameters are found very compatible with BG and accordingly with the well-known freezeout phase-diagram, which is in an excellent agreement with recent lattice calculations. We conclude that the particle production is nonextensive but should not necessarily be accompanied by a radical change in the intensive or extensive thermodynamic quantities, such as internal energy and temperature. Only, the two critical exponents defining the equivalence classes (c, d) are the physical parameters characterizing the (non)extensivity.

  18. Generic Drugs: The Same Medicine for Less Money

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about brand-name drugs. Resources Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs can help you find lower-cost generic drugs. ... produced by Consumers Union and Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs , a public information project supported by grants from ...

  19. Optimal, Generic Planning of Maintenance and Inspection of Steel Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2002-01-01

    Fatigue damage is an important deterioration mechanism for steel bridges. This paper describes a simplified and generic approach for reliability and risk based inspection planning of fatigue sensitive structural details. Fatigue sensitive details are categorized according to their loading charact...

  20. Generic methods for aero-engine exhaust emission prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakariyants, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the thesis, generic methods have been developed for aero-engine combustor performance, combustion chemistry, as well as airplane aerodynamics, airplane and engine performance. These methods specifically aim to support diverse emission prediction studies coupled with airplane and engine

  1. Generic radiation safety design for SSRL synchrotron radiation beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, James C. [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States)]. E-mail: james@slac.stanford.edu; Fasso, Alberto [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Khater, Hesham [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Prinz, Alyssa [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Rokni, Sayed [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    To allow for a conservative, simple, uniform, consistent, efficient radiation safety design for all SSRL beamlines, a generic approach has been developed, considering both synchrotron radiation (SR) and gas bremsstrahlung (GB) hazards. To develop the methodology and rules needed for generic beamline design, analytic models, the STAC8 code, and the FLUKA Monte Carlo code were used to pre-calculate sets of curves and tables that can be looked up for each beamline safety design. Conservative beam parameters and standard targets and geometries were used in the calculations. This paper presents the SPEAR3 beamline parameters that were considered in the design, the safety design considerations, and the main pre-calculated results that are needed for generic shielding design. In the end, the rules and practices for generic SSRL beamline design are summarized.

  2. Generic immunosuppression in transplantation: current evidence and controversial issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hajj, Sandra; Kim, Miae; Phillips, Karen; Gabardi, Steven

    2015-05-01

    The overall success of organ transplantation in the 21st century has been predicated, in part, on the use of newer, more potent, and selective immunosuppressive agents. However, the high cost of lifelong immunosuppression represents a financial burden for many patients. In the past 15 years, regulatory agencies in Europe and America have approved several generic immunosuppressants. One concern is whether the conversion between innovator and generic immunosuppressants will prove to be problematic. This manuscript aims to compare and contrast the bioequivalence requirements among regulatory authorities in the USA, Europe, and Canada, evaluate published studies of generic immunosuppressants in transplant recipients, summarize consensus statements made by transplant organizations and discuss how to engage patients in discussion regarding the choice between innovator and generic immunosuppressants.

  3. Generic communications index. Listings of communications 1971-1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagemeyer, D; Towle, H

    1991-05-01

    As part of its program to feed back information on operating experience to industry, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issues generic communications called bulletins (about 5/yr), circulars (now discontinued), generic letters (about 20/yr), and information notices (about 100/yr). The report presents an updated Generic Communications Index (GCI; previously published in NUREG/CR-4690, Vol. 1, December 1987) of all such communications from 1971, when such documentation started, to 1989. The GCI consists of records, one for each communication, containing fields for identification number, title, NRC technical contact, general system or topic, specific component or topic, cause or defect, potential effect, remarks, and vendors involved. To facilitate information retrieval, the report also contains topical listings of generic communications numbers. (author)

  4. Patients' concern about their medicine after a generic switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette; Søndergaard, Jens; Jarbøl, Dorte E

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the possible association between patients' concerns about their medicine and generic switch. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey was carried out comprising responses from 2217 randomly selected persons aged 20 years or older and living in the Region of Southern...... Denmark, who had redeemed generically substitutable drugs in September 2008. For each patient, we focused on the purchase of one generically substitutable drug (index drug). We applied the specific concerns subscale from the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire (BMQ) to analyse lack of confidence....... RESULTS: No statistically significant associations were found between concerns about the index medicine and the generic switch (-0.02 95% CI: -0.10; 0.05). Viewing medicines as harmful in general was associated with increased concerns (BMQ general harm: 0.39 95% CI: 0.30; 0.47 and BMQ general overuse: 0...

  5. A generic reclassification of the Afrotropical Bolboceratini (Coleoptera: Geotrupidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, J.

    1984-01-01

    The generic classification of the Afrotropical Bolboceratini is discussed. Fourteen genera are recognized, five of them new: Bolboceratellus, Bolbodius, Bolboceratex, Namibiobolbus and Meridiobolbus. Microbolbus Vulcano et al. is synonymized with Mimobolbus Vulcano et al. Bolbaffroides and

  6. Knowledge mobilisation in healthcare: a critical review of health sector and generic management literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlie, Ewan; Crilly, Tessa; Jashapara, Ashok; Peckham, Anna

    2012-04-01

    The health policy domain has displayed increasing interest in questions of knowledge management and knowledge mobilisation within healthcare organisations. We analyse here the findings of a critical review of generic management and health-related literatures, covering the period 2000-2008. Using 29 pre-selected journals, supplemented by a search of selected electronic databases, we map twelve substantive domains classified into four broad groups: taxonomic and philosophical (e.g. different types of knowledge); theoretical discourse (e.g. critical organisational studies); disciplinary fields (e.g. organisational learning and Information Systems/Information Technology); and organisational processes and structures (e.g. organisational form). We explore cross-overs and gaps between these traditionally separate literature streams. We found that health sector literature has absorbed some generic concepts, notably Communities of Practice, but has not yet deployed the performance-oriented perspective of the Resource Based View (RBV) of the Firm. The generic literature uses healthcare sites to develop critical analyses of power and control in knowledge management, rooted in neo-Marxist/labour process and Foucauldian approaches. The review generates three theoretically grounded statements to inform future enquiry, by: (a) importing the RBV stream; (b) developing the critical organisational studies perspective further; and (c) exploring the theoretical argument that networks and other alternative organisational forms facilitate knowledge sharing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimation of Engine Intake Air Mass Flow using a generic Speed-Density method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtíšek Michal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of real driving emissions (RDE from internal combustion engines under real-world operation using portable, onboard monitoring systems (PEMS is becoming an increasingly important tool aiding the assessment of the effects of new fuels and technologies on environment and human health. The knowledge of exhaust flow is one of the prerequisites for successful RDE measurement with PEMS. One of the simplest approaches for estimating the exhaust flow from virtually any engine is its computation from the intake air flow, which is calculated from measured engine rpm and intake manifold charge pressure and temperature using a generic speed-density algorithm, applicable to most contemporary four-cycle engines. In this work, a generic speed-density algorithm was compared against several reference methods on representative European production engines - a gasoline port-injected automobile engine, two turbocharged diesel automobile engines, and a heavy-duty turbocharged diesel engine. The overall results suggest that the uncertainty of the generic speed-density method is on the order of 10% throughout most of the engine operating range, but increasing to tens of percent where high-volume exhaust gas recirculation is used. For non-EGR engines, such uncertainty is acceptable for many simpler and screening measurements, and may be, where desired, reduced by engine-specific calibration.

  8. DISCOURSE AWARENESS IN IMPROVING NON-NATIVE STUDENTS’ ABILITY IN GENERIC WRITING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain AL SHAROUFI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the importance of teaching discourse patterns to non-native university students. I used particular discourse patterns in teaching generic writing to undergraduate students at the Gulf University for Science and Technology, GUST, in Kuwait. The assumption of this study was that undergraduate non-native students should be aware of the importance of discourse patterns in generic writing. This hidden tactic is not obvious unless consciously taught to them. To study the importance of generic patterns, I opted to teach discourse patterns that are used in newspaper editorials, the rationale of which was that students would grasp discourse patterns and apply them to their own writing. I chose two groups of students randomly, one of which was an experimental group and the second of which was a control group. I conducted a detailed analysis afterwards to examine the validity of my assumption. I taught the experimental group the chosen model of analysis, and instructed the control group to read sample editorials, and write their own editorials afterwards. The results of this experiment were substantial. Based on the level of compliance with the suggested format, triads, movements, and artifacts in newspaper editorials, students in the experimental group were evaluated on a scale of 0 to 10. The performance of the experimental group was above average, 75.3%, in comparison to the control group that complied quite poorly with the chosen model, < 30 %.

  9. The generics in transplantation and the rules on their use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Marwan

    2003-06-01

    By definition a product identified by its official chemical name rather than an advertised brand name is called a generic. If a drug exert its pharmacological effects at the same site, have the same potency, same dosage form and same bioavailability as a brand name, reference listed drug (RLD), is considered as a generic. However inactive ingredients can differ between brand name and generic. It is through the regulations of the FDA that the generics gained many ground in the drug market, they currently account to more than 42% of the total prescription in the USA. These regulations include the abbreviated new drug application (ANDA) for the registration process and drug substitution at the pharmacy level without patient or physician consent. This coupled with a keen interest of third party payers and the health authorities to reduce the high transplant health budget (over 2 Billion US $) made it a necessity to introduce the generics into the field of transplantation. Using the above mentioned definition we can theoretically say that all anti-lymphocytes, produced in the same animal species, are generic of each. Moreover, monoclonal antibodies that are directed against the same target and have the same bioavailability are also consider generics to each other. Of all the immunosuppressive drugs that have been introduced into the field of transplantation none has been as dominant as Cyclosporine. Cyclosporine became and still is the backbone for any immunosuppressive protocol. In the year 1992, Consupren, the first, non-FDA approved, generic to Sandimmun was introduced. Although Consupren was not bioequivalent to Neoral, however, long-term results in kidney transplantation have been similar for both drugs. The introduction of Consupren resulted in a near 40% reduction in the total cost of immunosuppressive therapy. Interestingly the cost of the brand name drug Neoral was also reduced by 20%. The cost reduction allowed the introduction of the new immunosuppressive

  10. The short-term impact of Ontario's generic pricing reforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Law

    Full Text Available Canadians pay amongst the highest generic drug prices in the world. In July 2010, the province of Ontario enacted a policy that halved reimbursement for generic drugs from the public drug plan, and substantially lowered prices for private purchases. We quantified the impact of this policy on overall generic drug expenditures in the province, and projected the impact in other provinces had they mimicked this pricing change.We used quarterly prescription generic drug dispensing data from the IMS-Brogan CompuScript Audit. We used the price per unit in both the pre- and post-policy period and two economics price indexes to estimate the expenditure reduction in Ontario. Further, we used the post-policy Ontario prices to estimate the potential reduction in other provinces.We estimate that total expenditure on generic drugs in Ontario during the second half of 2010 was between $181 and $194 million below what would be expected if prices had remained at pre-policy level. Over half of the reduction in spending was due to savings on just 10 generic ingredients. If other provinces had matched Ontario's prices, their expenditures over during the latter half of 2010 would have been $445 million lower.We found that if Ontario's pricing scheme were adopted nationally, overall spending on generic drugs in Canada would drop at least $1.28 billion annually--a 5% decrease in total prescription drug expenditure. Other provinces should seriously consider both changes to their generic drug prices and the use of more competitive bulk purchasing policies.

  11. Comparative effectiveness of generic versus brand-name antiepileptic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Joshua J; Kesselheim, Aaron S; Choudhry, Niteesh K; Polinski, Jennifer M; Hutchins, David; Matlin, Olga S; Brennan, Troyen A; Avorn, Jerry; Shrank, William H

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare treatment persistence and rates of seizure-related events in patients who initiate antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy with a generic versus a brand-name product. We used linked electronic medical and pharmacy claims data to identify Medicare beneficiaries who initiated one of five AEDs (clonazepam, gabapentin, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin, zonisamide). We matched initiators of generic versus brand-name versions of these drugs using a propensity score that accounted for demographic, clinical, and health service utilization variables. We used a Cox proportional hazards model to compare rates of seizure-related emergency room (ER) visit or hospitalization (primary outcome) and ER visit for bone fracture or head injury (secondary outcome) between the matched generic and brand-name initiators. We also compared treatment persistence, measured as time to first 14-day treatment gap, between generic and brand-name initiators. We identified 19,760 AED initiators who met study eligibility criteria; 18,306 (93%) initiated a generic AED. In the matched cohort, we observed 47 seizure-related hospitalizations and ER visits among brand-name initiators and 31 events among generic initiators, corresponding to a hazard ratio of 0.53 (95% confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.96). Similar results were observed for the secondary clinical endpoint and across sensitivity analyses. Mean time to first treatment gap was 124.2 days (standard deviation [sd], 125.8) for brand-name initiators and 137.9 (sd, 148.6) for generic initiators. Patients who initiated generic AEDs had fewer adverse seizure-related clinical outcomes and longer continuous treatment periods before experiencing a gap than those who initiated brand-name versions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Generic trajectory representation and trajectory following for wheeled robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten; Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole

    2014-01-01

    will drive. Safe: Avoid fatal collisions. Based on a survey of existing methods and algorithms the article presents a generic way to represent constraints for different types of robots, a generic way to represent trajectories using Bëzier curves, a method to convert the trajectory so it can be driven...... in a smooth motion, a method to create a safe velocity profile for the robot, and a path following controller....

  13. Generic and Brand Advertising Strategies in a Dynamic Duopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Frank M. Bass; Anand Krishnamoorthy; Ashutosh Prasad; Suresh P. Sethi

    2005-01-01

    To increase the sales of their products through advertising, firms must integrate their brand-advertising strategy for capturing market share from competitors and their generic-advertising strategy for increasing primary demand for the category. This paper examines whether, when, and how much brand advertising versus generic advertising should be done. Using differential game theory, optimal advertising decisions are obtained for a dynamic duopoly with symmetric or asymmetric competitors. We ...

  14. GENERIC DRUG IN GLOBAL MARKET AND REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Kumar*, Bharti Mangla2, Satbir Singh, Arapna Rana

    2017-01-01

    Different regulatory authorities regulate the drug development in various countries of the world. Various Regulatory authority for generic drug application Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA), Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA), Health Product and Food Branch (HPFB) Central Drug Standard of Organization (CDSO). Generic manufacturers may file an abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) that incorporates the safety/effectiveness data submitted by ori...

  15. Consumers' views on generic medicines: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassali, Mohamed A A; Shafie, Asrul A; Jamshed, Shazia; Ibrahim, Mohamed I M; Awaisu, Ahmed

    2009-04-01

    To review the literature on consumers' knowledge, attitudes and opinions of the use of generic medicines. A narrative review of studies conducted from 1970 to 2008 on consumers perceptions and views towards generic medicines was performed. An extensive literature search was undertaken using indexing services available at the authors' institution library. The following keywords were used for the search: brand, generic, multisource, medications, medicines, drugs, pharmaceuticals and consumers, customers, and patients. Electronic databases searched were Medline, Inside Web, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, Springer Link, JSTOR, Proquest, Ebsco Host and Google Scholar. These electronic databases were searched for full text papers published in English from 1970 to October 2008. Twenty studies were identified. Eleven were from the USA, four were from Europe, two were from Canada and one each was from Australia, Brazil and Malaysia. In general, consumers showed mixed reactions towards the use of generic medicines. This was evident from the divergence of views observed by country development level, consumers' socioeconomic characteristics, drug product characteristics, pharmaceutical reimbursement system, policy environment, contact with health care professionals, past experience with medications, and knowledge of the seriousness of a medical condition. Patient confidence and knowledge pertaining to generic medicines use have increased over the past four decades, especially in developed countries. Mass educational efforts, financial incentives, and greater communication among patients and health care professionals were seen as major drivers to the uptake of generic medicines among consumers.

  16. Leveraging consumer's behaviour to promote generic drugs in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbini, Cristina; Luceri, Beatrice; Vergura, Donata Tania

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to fill the lack of knowledge regarding a more grounded exploration of the consumer's decision-making process in the context of generic drugs. In this perspective, a model, within the theoretical framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), for studying the consumers' purchase intention of generic drugs was developed. An online survey on 2,222 Italian people who bought drugs in the past was conducted. The proposed model was tested through structural equation modelling (SEM). Almost all the constructs considered in the model, except the perceived behavioural control, contribute to explain the consumer's purchase intention of generic drugs, after controlling for demographic variables (age, income, education). Specifically, attitude, subjective norm, past behaviour, self-identity and trust in the pharmacist have a positive influence on the intention to buy generic drugs. On the contrary, perceived risk towards products and brand sensitivity act negatively. The results of the present study could be useful to public policy makers in developing effective policies and educational campaigns aimed at promoting generic drugs. Specifically, marketing efforts should be directed to inform consumers about the generic drugs' characteristics to mitigate the perceived risk towards these products and to raise awareness during their decision-making process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Generic drugs: Review and experiences from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cost of pharmaceuticals, as a percentage of total healthcare spending, has been rising worldwide. This has resulted in strained national budgets and a high proportion of people without access to essential medications. Though India has become a global hub of generic drug manufacturing, the expected benefits of cheaper drugs are not translating into savings for ordinary people. This is in part due to the rise of branded generics, which are marketed at a price point close to the innovator brands. Unbranded generic medicines are not finding their way into prescriptions due to issues of confidence and perception, though they are proven to be much cheaper and comparable in efficacy to branded medicines. The drug inventory of unbranded generic manufacturers fares reasonably when reviewed using the World Health Organization-Health Action International (WHO-HAI tool for analysing drug availability. Also, unbranded generic medicines are much cheaper when compared to the most selling brands and they can bring down the treatment costs in primary care and family practice. We share our experience in running a community pharmacy for an urban health center in the Pathanamthitta district of Kerala State, which is run solely on generic medicines. The drug availability at the community pharmacy was 73.3% when analyzed using WHO-HAI tool and the savings for the final consumers were up to 93.1%, when compared with most-selling brand of the same formulation.

  18. [Generic drugs and the consumption trends of antihypertensives in Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrada El Azizi, Ghizlane; Ahid, Samir; Ghanname, Imane; Ghannam, Imane; Belaiche, Abdelmajid; Hassar, Mohammed; Cherrah, Yahia

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the evolution of consumption of antihypertensive drugs generic among 1991-2010, to assess the impacts after the institution of Mandatory Health Insurance and the marketing of generic drugs. We used sales data from the Moroccan subsidiary of IMS Health Intercontinental Marketing Service. Consumption of generic antihypertensive drugs increased from 0.08 to 10.65 DDD/1 000 inhabitants/day between 1991 and 2010. In 2010, generic of the calcium channel blockers (CCBs) represented 4.08 DDD/1 000 inhabitants/day (82.09%), followed by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) by 2.40 DDD/1 000 inhabitants/day (48.29%). The generics market of CCBs is the most dominant and represented in 2010, 79.21% in volume and 62.58% in value. In developing countries like Morocco, the generic drug is a key element for access to treatment especially for the poor population. © 2013 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  19. IAEA's experience in compiling a generic component reliability data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomic, B.; Lederman, L.

    1988-01-01

    Reliability data are an essential part of probabilistic safety assessment. The quality of data can determine the quality of the study as a whole. It is obvious that component failure data originated from the plant being analyzed would be most appropriate. However, in few cases complete reliance on plant experience is possible, mainly because of the rather limited operating experience. Nuclear plants, although of different design, often use fairly similar components, so some of the experience could be combined and transferred from one plant to another. In addition information about component failures is available also from experts with knowledge on component design, manufacturing and operation. That bring us to the importance of assessing generic data. (Generic is meant to be everything that is not plant specific regarding the plant being analyzed). The generic data available in the open literature, can be divided in three broad categories. The first one includes data base used in previous analysis. These can be plant specific or updated from generic with plant specific information (latter case deserve special attention). The second one is based on compilation of plants' operating experience usually based on some kind of event reporting system. The third category includes data sources based on expert opinions (single or aggregate) or combination of expert opinions and other nuclear and non-nuclear experience. This paper reflects insights gained in compiling data from generic data sources and highlights advantages and pitfalls of using generic component reliability data in PSAs

  20. Using Service Oriented Architecture in a Generic Virtual Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Poulsen, Bjarne; Træholt, Chresten

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to find and describe a suitable software framework that can be used to help implement the concept of a Generic Virtual Power Plant in the future power system. The Generic Virtual Power Plant concept, along with the utilization of distributed energy resources, has many...... the Generic Virtual Power Plant, an array of different software design principles, patterns and architectures must be applied. Especially Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) can aid in implementing the Generic Virtual Power Plant.......The purpose of this paper is to find and describe a suitable software framework that can be used to help implement the concept of a Generic Virtual Power Plant in the future power system. The Generic Virtual Power Plant concept, along with the utilization of distributed energy resources, has many...... interesting properties that can influence the future shape of power markets. The concept holds many promises including cheaper power to the consumer, a more flexible and responsive power production and the support of a more environment-friendly development. In order to realize a software solution supporting...

  1. Generic device controller for accelerator control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariotti, R.; Buxton, W.; Frankel, R.; Hoff, L.

    1987-01-01

    Distributed intelligence for accelerator control systems has become possible as a result of advances in microprocessor technology. A system based on distributed intelligence is inherently versatile, readily expandable, and reduces both information flow across the system and software complexity in each unit

  2. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Process release---Direct coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The direct liquefaction portion of the PETC generic direct coal liquefaction process development unit (PDU) is being designed to provide maximum operating flexibility. The PDU design will permit catalytic and non-catalytic liquefaction concepts to be investigated at their proof-of-the-concept stages before any larger scale operations are attempted. The principal variations from concept to concept are reactor configurations and types. These include thermal reactor, ebullating bed reactor, slurry phase reactor and fixed bed reactor, as well as different types of catalyst. All of these operating modes are necessary to define and identify the optimum process conditions and configurations for determining improved economical liquefaction technology.

  3. Preliminary analysis of the operating characteristics of a generic repository receiving facility: Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    The operating characteristics of a repository receiving facility structured around current technology and practices have been reviewed. Cask turnaround times and operator doses were estimated. Large throughout and long-term receiving operations at a nuclear waste repository result in an unprecedented number of casks being handled. While the current generation of material-handling equipment is adequate to process the casks, personnel radiation exposures for the generic facility analyzed are unacceptably high. This emphasizes the need for development of occupational radiation exposure control concepts for application in repository receiving facilities. 3 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Technology Catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is responsible for remediating its contaminated sites and managing its waste inventory in a safe and efficient manner. EM's Office of Technology Development (OTD) supports applied research and demonstration efforts to develop and transfer innovative, cost-effective technologies to its site clean-up and waste management programs within EM's Office of Environmental Restoration and Office of Waste Management. The purpose of the Technology Catalogue is to provide performance data on OTD-developed technologies to scientists and engineers assessing and recommending technical solutions within the Department's clean-up and waste management programs, as well as to industry, other federal and state agencies, and the academic community. OTD's applied research and demonstration activities are conducted in programs referred to as Integrated Demonstrations (IDs) and Integrated Programs (IPs). The IDs test and evaluate.systems, consisting of coupled technologies, at specific sites to address generic problems, such as the sensing, treatment, and disposal of buried waste containers. The IPs support applied research activities in specific applications areas, such as in situ remediation, efficient separations processes, and site characterization. The Technology Catalogue is a means for communicating the status. of the development of these innovative technologies. The FY93 Technology Catalogue features technologies successfully demonstrated in the field through IDs and sufficiently mature to be used in the near-term. Technologies from the following IDs are featured in the FY93 Technology Catalogue: Buried Waste ID (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho); Mixed Waste Landfill ID (Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico); Underground Storage Tank ID (Hanford, Washington); Volatile organic compound (VOC) Arid ID (Richland, Washington); and VOC Non-Arid ID (Savannah River Site, South Carolina)

  5. Comparison of Outcomes Following a Switch From a Brand to an Authorized Versus Independent Generic Drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, R A; Qian, J; Berg, R L; Linneman, J G; Seoane-Vazquez, E; Dutcher, S; Raofi, S; Page, C D; Peissig, P L

    2018-02-01

    Authorized generics are identical in formulation to brand drugs, manufactured by the brand company but marketed as a generic. Generics, marketed by generic manufacturers, are required to demonstrate pharmaceutical and bioequivalence to the brand drug, but repetition of clinical trials is not required. This retrospective cohort study compared outcomes for generics and authorized generics, which serves as a generic vs. brand proxy that minimizes bias against generics. For the seven drugs studied between 1999 and 2014, 5,234 unique patients were on brand drugs prior to generic entry and 4,900 (93.6%) switched to a generic. During the 12 months following the brand-to-generic switch, patients using generics vs. authorized generics were similar in terms of outpatient visits, urgent care visits, hospitalizations, and medication discontinuation. The likelihood of emergency department (ED) visits was slightly higher for authorized generics compared with generics. These data suggest that generics were clinically no worse than their proxy brand comparators. © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  6. Generics, Supergenerics and Patent Strategies--SMi's 13th Annual Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Catherine

    2010-07-01

    SMi's 13th Annual Meeting on Generics, Supergenerics and Patent Strategies, held in London, included topics covering new trends in the generics field, the difficulties faced by companies in entering the generics market and recent developments in IP. This conference report highlights selected presentations on generics in India, protecting pharmaceutical products in China, changes in generics law and litigation in the US and Europe, challenges for market selection and entry for generics companies, the influence of changes in the healthcare market on the generics industry, supergenerics, and biosimilars.

  7. Generic icons – yes or no?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krunoslav Bedi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The information society has become increasingly dependant on programs that are subjected to frequent evolutive, basic and logical changes for a variety of reasons whereas the visual design of the program/program interface mostly remains the same or gets slightly modified. The development of technology has become to such an extent a commonplace that the use of redesigned programs implies icons that are visually acceptable although representing obsolete technologies and that are eventually hard to change due to the habits developed by the program users. The research presents a study into the personal preference as to a particular icon, “Save” for example, and into the perception of the visual identities of today's programs under the circumstance of program icons being not compliant with the technological state-of-the-art. Based on the obtained results, the survey that included students attending web design and media technician courses and ECDL course participants who come in contact with computers and programming tools for the first time should enlighten both teachers and designers of programming interfaces about the way of linking the formal knowledge with a constructivist approach to designing and redesigning programs.

  8. A generic coding approach for the examination of meal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhead, Clara; Gibney, Michael J; Walsh, Marianne C; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R

    2015-08-01

    Meal pattern analysis can be complex because of the large variability in meal consumption. The use of aggregated, generic meal data may address some of these issues. The objective was to develop a meal coding system and use it to explore meal patterns. Dietary data were used from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (2008-2010), which collected 4-d food diary information from 1500 healthy adults. Self-recorded meal types were listed for each food item. Common food group combinations were identified to generate a number of generic meals for each meal type: breakfast, light meals, main meals, snacks, and beverages. Mean nutritional compositions of the generic meals were determined and substituted into the data set to produce a generic meal data set. Statistical comparisons were performed against the original National Adult Nutrition Survey data. Principal component analysis was carried out by using these generic meals to identify meal patterns. A total of 21,948 individual meals were reduced to 63 generic meals. Good agreement was seen for nutritional comparisons (original compared with generic data sets mean ± SD), such as fat (75.7 ± 29.4 and 71.7 ± 12.9 g, respectively, P = 0.243) and protein (83.3 ± 26.9 and 80.1 ± 13.4 g, respectively, P = 0.525). Similarly, Bland-Altman plots demonstrated good agreement (<5% outside limits of agreement) for many nutrients, including protein, saturated fat, and polyunsaturated fat. Twelve meal types were identified from the principal component analysis ranging in meal-type inclusion/exclusion, varying in energy-dense meals, and differing in the constituents of the meals. A novel meal coding system was developed; dietary intake data were recoded by using generic meal consumption data. Analysis revealed that the generic meal coding system may be appropriate when examining nutrient intakes in the population. Furthermore, such a coding system was shown to be suitable for use in determining meal-based dietary patterns. © 2015

  9. How Abbott’s Fenofibrate Franchise Avoided Generic Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Nicholas S.; Ross, Joseph S.; Jackevicius, Cynthia A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing debate concerning the efficacy of fenofibrate has overshadowed an important aspect of the drug’s history: Abbott, the maker of branded fenofibrate, has produced several bioequivalent reformulations, which dominate the market even though generic fenofibrate has been available for almost a decade. This continued use of branded formulations, which cost twice as much as generic versions of fenofibrate, imposes an annual cost of approximately $700 million on our healthcare system. Abbott maintained its dominance of the fenofibrate market, in part, through a complex switching strategy involving the sequential launch of branded reformulations that had not been shown to be superior to the first generation product and patent litigation that delayed the approval of generic formulations. The small differences in dose of the newer branded formulations prevented substitution with generics of older generation products. As soon as direct generic competition seemed likely at the new dose level where substitution would be allowed, Abbott would launch another reformulation and the cycle would repeat. Our objective, using the fenofibrate example, is to describe how current policy can allow pharmaceutical companies to maintain market share using reformulations of branded medications without demonstrating the superiority of next generation products. PMID:22493409

  10. Avoidance of generic competition by Abbott Laboratories' fenofibrate franchise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Nicholas S; Ross, Joseph S; Jackevicius, Cynthia A; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2012-05-14

    The ongoing debate concerning the efficacy of fenofibrate has overshadowed an important aspect of the drug's history: Abbott Laboratories, the maker of branded fenofibrate, has produced several bioequivalent reformulations that dominate the market, although generic fenofibrate has been available for almost a decade. This continued use of branded formulations, which cost twice as much as generic versions of fenofibrate, imposes an annual cost of approximately $700 million on the US health care system. Abbott Laboratories maintained its dominance of the fenofibrate market in part through a complex switching strategy involving the sequential launch of branded reformulations that had not been shown to be superior to the first-generation product and patent litigation that delayed the approval of generic formulations. The small differences in dose of the newer branded formulations prevented their substitution with generics of older-generation products. As soon as direct generic competition seemed likely at the new dose level, where substitution would be allowed, Abbott would launch another reformulation, and the cycle would repeat. Based on the fenofibrate example, our objective is to describe how current policy can allow pharmaceutical companies to maintain market share using reformulations of branded medications, without demonstrating the superiority of next-generation products.

  11. Method for developing cost estimates for generic regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The NRC has established a practice of performing regulatory analyses, reflecting costs as well as benefits, of proposed new or revised generic requirements. A method had been developed to assist the NRC in preparing the types of cost estimates required for this purpose and for assigning priorities in the resolution of generic safety issues. The cost of a generic requirement is defined as the net present value of total lifetime cost incurred by the public, industry, and government in implementing the requirement for all affected plants. The method described here is for commercial light-water-reactor power plants. Estimating the cost for a generic requirement involves several steps: (1) identifying the activities that must be carried out to fully implement the requirement, (2) defining the work packages associated with the major activities, (3) identifying the individual elements of cost for each work package, (4) estimating the magnitude of each cost element, (5) aggregating individual plant costs over the plant lifetime, and (6) aggregating all plant costs and generic costs to produce a total, national, present value of lifetime cost for the requirement. The method developed addresses all six steps. In this paper, we discuss on the first three

  12. A new generic system for the pantropical Caesalpinia group (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edeline Gagnon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Caesalpinia group is a large pantropical clade of ca. 205 species in subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae in which generic delimitation has been in a state of considerable flux. Here we present new phylogenetic analyses based on five plastid and one nuclear ribosomal marker, with dense taxon sampling including 172 (84% of the species and representatives of all previously described genera in the Caesalpinia group. These analyses show that the current classification of the Caesalpinia group into 21 genera needs to be revised. Several genera (Poincianella, Erythrostemon, Cenostigma and Caesalpinia sensu Lewis, 2005 are non-monophyletic and several previously unclassified Asian species segregate into clades that merit recognition at generic rank. In addition, the near-completeness of our taxon sampling identifies three species that do not belong in any of the main clades and these are recognised as new monospecific genera. A new generic classification of the Caesalpinia group is presented including a key for the identification of genera, full generic descriptions, illustrations (drawings and photo plates of all genera, and (for most genera the nomenclatural transfer of species to their correct genus. We recognise 26 genera, with reinstatement of two previously described genera (Biancaea Tod., Denisophytum R. Vig., re-delimitation and expansion of several others (Moullava, Cenostigma, Libidibia and Erythrostemon, contraction of Caesalpinia s.s. and description of four new ones (Gelrebia, Paubrasilia, Hererolandia and Hultholia, and make 75 new nomenclatural combinations in this new generic system.

  13. Generic nuclear power plant component failure data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Goes, A.G. de; Gibelli, S.M.O.

    1988-11-01

    This report consist in the development of a generic nuclear power plant component failure data bank. This data bank was implemented in a PC-XT microcomputer, IBM compatible, using the Open Access II program. Generic failure data tables for Westinghouse nuclear power plants and for general PWR power plants are presented. They are the final product of a research which included a preselection and a selection of data collected from the available sources in the library of CNEN (National Nuclear Energy Commission) and from the CIN/CNEN (Neclear Information Center). Futhermore, a proposal of evaluating models of average failure rates of pumps and valves are also presented. Through the electronic data bank one can easily have a generic view of failure rate ranges as well as failure models foe a certain component. It is very importante to develop procedures to collect and store generic failure data that can be quickly accessed, in order to update the Probabilistic Safety Study of Angra-1 and to used in studies which may have component failures of nuclear power plant safety systems. In the future, data specialization can be achieved by means of statistical calculations involving specific data collected from the operational experience of Angra-1 nuclear power plant and the generic data bank. (author) [pt

  14. The generic drug user fee amendments: an economic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Ernst R; Murphy, Stephen J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Since the vast majority of prescription drugs consumed by Americans are off patent (‘generic’), their regulation and supply is of wide interest. We describe events leading up to the US Congress's 2012 passage of the Generic Drug User Fee Amendments (GDUFA I) as part of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA). Under GDUFA I, generic manufacturers agreed to pay approximately $300 million in fees each year of the five-year program. In exchange, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) committed to performance goals. We describe GDUFA I’s FDA commitments, provisions, goals, and annual fee structure and compare it to that entailed in the authorization and implementation of GDUFA II on October 1, 2017. We explain how user fees required under GDUFA I erected barriers to entry and created scale and scope economies for incumbent manufacturers. Congress changed user fees under GDUFA II in part to lessen these incentives. In order to initiate and sustain user fees under GDUFA legislation, FDA requires the submission of self-reported data on generic manufacturers including domestic and foreign facilities. These data are public and our examination of them provides an unprecedented window into the recent organization of generic drug manufacturers supplying the US market. Our results suggest that generic drug manufacturing is increasingly concentrated and foreign. We discuss the implications of this observed market structure for GDUFA II’s implementation among other outcomes. PMID:29707218

  15. How should we build a generic open-source water management simulator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem, M.; Meier, P.; Rheinheimer, D. E.; Padula, S.; Matrosov, E.; Selby, P. D.; Knox, S.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing water needs for agriculture, industry and cities mean effective and flexible water resource system management tools will remain in high demand. Currently many regions or countries use simulators that have been adapted over time to their unique system properties and water management rules and realities. Most regions operate with a preferred short-list of water management and planning decision support systems. Is there scope for a simulator, shared within the water management community, that could be adapted to different contexts, integrate community contributions, and connect to generic data and model management software? What role could open-source play in such a project? How could a genericuser-interface and data/model management software sustainably be attached to this model or suite of models? Finally, how could such a system effectively leverage existing model formulations, modeling technologies and software? These questions are addressed by the initial work presented here. We introduce a generic water resource simulation formulation that enables and integrates both rule-based and optimization driven technologies. We suggest how it could be linked to other sub-models allowing for detailed agent-based simulation of water management behaviours. An early formulation is applied as an example to the Thames water resource system in the UK. The model uses centralised optimisation to calculate allocations but allows for rule-based operations as well in an effort to represent observed behaviours and rules with fidelity. The model is linked through import/export commands to a generic network model platform named Hydra. Benefits and limitations of the approach are discussed and planned work and potential use cases are outlined.

  16. IAEA's experience in compiling a generic component reliability data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomic, B.; Lederman, L.

    1991-01-01

    Reliability data are essential in probabilistic safety assessment, with component reliability parameters being particularly important. Component failure data which is plant specific would be most appropriate but this is rather limited. However, similar components are used in different designs. Generic data, that is all data that is not plant specific to the plant being analyzed but which relates to components more generally, is important. The International Atomic Energy Agency has compiled the Generic Component Reliability Data Base from data available in the open literature. It is part of the IAEA computer code package for fault/event tree analysis. The Data Base contains 1010 different records including most of the components used in probabilistic safety analyses of nuclear power plants. The data base input was quality controlled and data sources noted. The data compilation procedure and problems associated with using generic data are explained. (UK)

  17. Formulation of Generic Simulation Models for Analyzing Construction Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Rustom

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available While there are several techniques for analyzing the impact of claims on time schedule and productivity,very few are considered adequate and comprehensive to consider risks and uncertainties.A generic approach for claims analysis using simulation is proposed. The formulation of the generic methodology presented in this paper depends on three simulation models;As-Planned Model (APM,As-Built Model (ABM, and What-Would-HaveBeenModel(WWHBM. The proposed generic methodology as presented in this paper provides a good basis as a more elaborate approach to better analyze claims and their impacts on project time and productivity utilizing discrete event simulation.The approach proposed allows for scenario analysis to account for the disputed events and workflow disruptions. The proposed models will assist claimants in presenting their cases effectively and professionally.

  18. Development of a generic data base for failure rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosleh, A.; Apostolakis, G.

    1985-01-01

    The data analysis task in a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) involves the assessment of data needs, the collection of information, and, finally, the analysis of the data to generate estimates for various parameters. This paper describes a framework for developing a data base for component failure rates and presents mathematical methods for the analysis of various types of information. The discussion is focused on the development of generic data bases used in PRAs. For plants without an operating history, the generic distributions are used directly to calculate component unavailability. In the case of plants that have operated for some time, the generic distributions can be used as priors in Bayesian analysis and, thus, specialized by plant-specific experience

  19. Promoting and regulating generic medicines: Brazil in comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elize Massard da Fonseca

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Promoting the use of generic drugs can constitute a core instrument for countries’ national pharmaceutical policies, one that reduces drug expenditure while expanding health care access. Despite the potential importance of such policy measures and the differences among national practices, scholars embarking on comparative analysis lack a roadmap for determining which dimensions of generic drug policy to assess and compare. This report fills that gap by considering national rules and regulations across four dimensions deemed crucial to any evaluation: demonstrated therapeutic equivalence; pharmaceutical packaging and labeling; drug prescription; and drug substitution. Furthermore, this report examines how the diverse interests of public and private sector stakeholders might shape generic drug policy and its implementation. To illustrate the challenges and conflicts behind policy development and implementation, this report focuses on the case of Brazil.

  20. [Users sceptical about generic drugs: an anthropological approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarradon-Eck, A; Blanc, M-A; Faure, M

    2007-06-01

    Since the enactment of the 2002 legislative measures favoring the prescription of generic drugs, various quantitative studies have shown that approval by prescribers and users has risen in France. Nevertheless, scepticism remains as well as distrust towards these drugs focusing on their effectiveness compared with brand-name drugs, on potential dangers, and on the interruption they cause in prescription and consumption habits. Using a comprehensive approach, this article analyzes the social and cultural logic behind the negative image of generic drugs. The materials issued from an ethnographic study on the prescription of drugs for high blood pressure. Sixty-eight interviews were undertaken between April 2002 and October 2004 with people (39 women and 29 men, between the age of 40 and 95, 52 over the age of 60) treated for over a year for high blood pressure in rural areas in the Southeast of France. Thirteen people provided unsolicited opinions about generic drugs. Analysis of the information collected shows that users have various representations of generic drugs, including the idea of counterfeited and foreign drugs. These representations interfere with the adjustment process and the development of consumer loyalty. They are part of a set of social representations about drugs which form and express the user's reality. In these representations, the drug is an ambivalent object, carrier of both biological effectiveness and toxicity; it is also the metonymical extension of the prescriber, bestowing upon the prescription a symbolic value. By placing the generic drug in its network of symbolic and social meaning, this study highlights the coherence of the scepticism towards generic drugs by consumers (and prescribers) with a system of common opinion in which drugs are everyday things, personalized and compatible with users, symbolic exchange carriers in the physician-patient relationship, and in which confidence in the drug is also that given to the health care

  1. [Two cases of pulmonary aspergilosis, which deteriorated with generic itraconazole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Wakana; Shishikura, Yutaka; Nishimaki, Katsushi; Kikuchi, Tadashi; Sasamori, Kan; Kikuchi, Yoshihiro; Miki, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    We experienced two cases of pulmonary aspergillosis, which deteriorated during treatment with generic itraconazole (ITCZ) because of low plasma concentration. One case was chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and the other was allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). Treatment of both cases was started with a brand-name-ITCZ, and changed to a generic ITCZ. Deterioration of pulmonary aspergillosis occurred after 8 months and 9 months from change to generic ITCZ respectively. In the first case, the ITCZ-plasma concentration was 46.9 ng/mL and of OH-ITCZ 96.5 ng/mL with generic ITCZ at the dose of 300 mg/day, but increased to 1,559.7 ng/mL and to 2,485.0 ng/mL with the brand-name-ITCZ 300 mg/day, respectively. In the second case, the ITCZ-plasma concentration was 27.2 ng/mL and of OH-ITCZ 20.1 ng/mL with 150 mg/day for generic ITCZ, but reached 857.3 ng/mL and to 1,144.2 ng/ml with the brand-name-ITCZ 300 mg/day, respectively. After treatment failure, the first case was changed to voriconazole, then brand-name-ITCZ 300 mg/day, and the second case to the brand-name-ITCZ 300 mg/day, with successful clinical course. Plasma concentrations of ITCZ can differ significantly depending on the patient or type of ITCZ. The ITCZ-plasma concentration should be controlled after changing from a brand-name-ITCZ to a generic ITCZ.

  2. Binary mixtures of condensates in generic confining potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchi, P [Dipartimento di Matematica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Florio, G; Pascazio, S; Pepe, F V, E-mail: Francesco.Pepe@ba.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2011-12-16

    We study a binary mixture of Bose-Einstein condensates, confined in a generic potential, in the Thomas-Fermi approximation. We search for the zero-temperature ground state of the system, both in the case of fixed numbers of particles and fixed chemical potentials. For generic potentials, we analyze the transition from mixed to separated ground-state configurations as the inter-species interaction increases. We derive a simple formula that enables one to determine the location of the domain walls. Finally, we find criteria for the energetic stability of separated configurations, depending on the number and the position of the domain walls separating the two species. (paper)

  3. Binary mixtures of condensates in generic confining potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.; Pepe, F. V.

    2011-12-01

    We study a binary mixture of Bose-Einstein condensates, confined in a generic potential, in the Thomas-Fermi approximation. We search for the zero-temperature ground state of the system, both in the case of fixed numbers of particles and fixed chemical potentials. For generic potentials, we analyze the transition from mixed to separated ground-state configurations as the inter-species interaction increases. We derive a simple formula that enables one to determine the location of the domain walls. Finally, we find criteria for the energetic stability of separated configurations, depending on the number and the position of the domain walls separating the two species.

  4. Binary mixtures of condensates in generic confining potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, P; Florio, G; Pascazio, S; Pepe, F V

    2011-01-01

    We study a binary mixture of Bose–Einstein condensates, confined in a generic potential, in the Thomas–Fermi approximation. We search for the zero-temperature ground state of the system, both in the case of fixed numbers of particles and fixed chemical potentials. For generic potentials, we analyze the transition from mixed to separated ground-state configurations as the inter-species interaction increases. We derive a simple formula that enables one to determine the location of the domain walls. Finally, we find criteria for the energetic stability of separated configurations, depending on the number and the position of the domain walls separating the two species. (paper)

  5. Increasing generic engineering competences using coaching and personal feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Marker-Villumsen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    problem solving methodology. In order to create an environment for the students to practice their generic engineering competences they are throughout the course provided personal feedback by the teacher using a four step feedback model. The course was evaluated using the Course Evaluation Questionnaire...... objective, teaching activities and the assessment are presented and it is demonstrated how coaching and personal feedback – often used in the industry – is used to improve the generic engineering competences of the students in alignment with CDIO. The course is conducted as if it was a project in a company...

  6. A Generic Methodology for Superstructure Optimization of Different Processing Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertran, Maria-Ona; Frauzem, Rebecca; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a generic computer-aided methodology for synthesis of different processing networks using superstructure optimization. The methodology can handle different network optimization problems of various application fields. It integrates databases with a common data architecture......, a generic model to represent the processing steps, and appropriate optimization tools. A special software interface has been created to automate the steps in the methodology workflow, allow the transfer of data between tools and obtain the mathematical representation of the problem as required...

  7. Back-end interconnection. A generic concept for high volume manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosman, J.; Budel, T.; De Kok, C.J.G.M.

    2013-10-15

    The general method to realize series connection in thin film PV modules is monolithical interconnection through a sequence of laser scribes (P1, P2 and P3) and layer depositions. This method however implies that the deposition processes are interrupted several times, an undesirable situation in high volume processing. In order to eliminate this drawback we focus our developments on the so called 'back-end interconnection concept' in which series interconnection takes place AFTER the deposition of the functional layers of the thin film PV device. The process of making a back-end interconnection combines laser scribing, curing, sintering and inkjet processes. These different processes interacts with each other and are investigated in order to create processing strategies that are robust to ensure high volume production. The generic approach created a technology base that can be applied to any thin film PV technology.

  8. Methodological Considerations for Comparison of Brand Versus Generic Versus Authorized Generic Adverse Event Reports in the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Motiur; Alatawi, Yasser; Cheng, Ning; Qian, Jingjing; Peissig, Peggy L; Berg, Richard L; Page, David C; Hansen, Richard A

    2017-12-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS), a post-marketing safety database, can be used to differentiate brand versus generic safety signals. To explore the methods for identifying and analyzing brand versus generic adverse event (AE) reports. Public release FAERS data from January 2004 to March 2015 were analyzed using alendronate and carbamazepine as examples. Reports were classified as brand, generic, and authorized generic (AG). Disproportionality analyses compared reporting odds ratios (RORs) of selected known labeled serious adverse events stratifying by brand, generic, and AG. The homogeneity of these RORs was compared using the Breslow-Day test. The AG versus generic was the primary focus since the AG is identical to brand but marketed as a generic, therefore minimizing generic perception bias. Sensitivity analyses explored how methodological approach influenced results. Based on 17,521 US event reports involving alendronate and 3733 US event reports involving carbamazepine (immediate and extended release), no consistently significant differences were observed across RORs for the AGs versus generics. Similar results were obtained when comparing reporting patterns over all time and just after generic entry. The most restrictive approach for classifying AE reports yielded smaller report counts but similar results. Differentiation of FAERS reports as brand versus generic requires careful attention to risk of product misclassification, but the relative stability of findings across varying assumptions supports the utility of these approaches for potential signal detection.

  9. Endogenous versus exogenous generic reference pricing for pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoñanzas, F; Juárez-Castelló, C A; Rodríguez-Ibeas, R

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we carry out a vertical differentiation duopoly model applied to pharmaceutical markets to analyze how endogenous and exogenous generic reference pricing influence competition between generic and branded drugs producers. Unlike the literature, we characterize for the exogenous case the equilibrium prices for all feasible relevant reference prices. Competition is enhanced after the introduction of a reference pricing system. We also compare both reference pricing systems on welfare grounds, assuming two different objective functions for health authorities: (i) standard social welfare and (ii) gross consumer surplus net of total pharmaceutical expenditures. We show that regardless of the objective function, health authorities will never choose endogenous reference pricing. When health authorities are paternalistic, the exogenous reference price that maximizes standard social welfare is such that the price of the generic drug is the reference price while the price of the branded drug is higher than the reference price. When health authorities are not paternalistic, the optimal exogenous reference price is such that the price of the branded drug is the reference price while the price of the generic drug is lower than the reference price.

  10. The generic structures and lexico-grammaticality in English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To this end, the generic structures, as well as lexicogrammaticality systems inbuilt in introduction sections of English academic research papers of three different disciplines, linguistics, chemistry and software engineering, were explored. To collect the data, a corpus consisting of 90 papers, 30 for each discipline, published ...

  11. Semantic types of some generic relation arguments: Detection and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Katrenko, S.; Adriaans, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to detection of the semantic types of relation arguments employing the WordNet hierarchy. Using the SemEval-2007 data, we show that the method allows to generalize relation arguments with high precision for such generic relations as Origin-Entity, Content-Container, Instrument-Agency and some other.

  12. Semantic types of some generic relation arguments: Detection and evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katrenko, S.; Adriaans, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to detection of the semantic types of relation arguments employing the WordNet hierarchy. Using the SemEval-2007 data, we show that the method allows to generalize relation arguments with high precision for such generic relations as Origin-Entity, Content-Container,

  13. Towards emotion modeling based on gaze dynamics in generic interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Leimberg, Denis; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2005-01-01

    Gaze detection can be a useful ingredient in generic human computer interfaces if current technical barriers are overcome. We discuss the feasibility of concurrent posture and eye-tracking in the context of single (low cost) camera imagery. The ingredients in the approach are posture and eye region...

  14. Locality in Generic Instance Search from One Example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, R.; Gavves, E.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims for generic instance search from a single example. Where the state-of-the-art relies on global image representation for the search, we proceed by including locality at all steps of the method. As the first novelty, we consider many boxes per database image as candidate targets to

  15. GOoDA: The Generic Optimization Data Analyzer

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    To address this issue, a generic decomposition of how a microprocessor is using the consumed cycles allows code developers to quickly understand which of the myriad of microarchitectural complexities they are battling, without requiring a detailed knowledge of the microarchitecture. When this approach is intrinsically integrated into a performance data analysis tool,...

  16. A generic framework for extracting XML data from legacy databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiran, Ph.; Estiévenart, F.; Hainaut, J.L.; Houben, G.J.P.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a generic framework of which semantics-based XML data can be derived from legacy databases. It consists in first recovering the conceptual schema of the database through reverse engineering techniques, and then in converting this schema, or part of it, into XML-compliant data

  17. A proposal for generic competence assessment in a serious game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Bezanilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the design of a serious game for the teaching and assessment of generic competences, placing particular emphasis on the competences assessment aspect. Taking into account important aspects of competence assessment such as context, feedback and transparency, among other aspects, and using the University of Deusto's Generic Competences Assessment Model based on the defining of levels, indicators and descriptors as a reference point, a serious game has been designed for the development and evaluation of two Generic Competences: Problem Solving and Entrepreneurship, aimed at final-year undergraduate and first-year postgraduate students. The design process shows that having a Competence Assessment Model based on levels, indicators and descriptors is of great help in defining the game's scenarios and learning and assessment activities. Serious games can also be excellent resources to help in the development and assessment of generic competences, but not as a unique tool, since the concept of competence in itself is highly complex (integrating knowledge, skills, attitudes and values and some elements might require other methods and techniques for its development. It also reveals the difficulties of evaluating competences in general and through serious games in particular.

  18. A model for the generic alpha relaxation in viscous liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    2005-01-01

    Dielectric measurements on molecular liquids just above the glass transition indicate that alpha relaxation is characterized by a generic high-frequency loss varying as one over square root of frequency, whereas deviations from this come from one or more low-lying beta processes [Olsen et al., Phys...

  19. Generic nano-imprint process for fabrication of nanowire arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierret, A.; Hocevar, M.; Diedenhofen, S.L.; Algra, R.E.; Vlieg, E.; Timmering, E.C.; Verschuuren, M.A.; Immink, W.G.G.; Verheijen, M.A.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    A generic process has been developed to grow nearly defect-free arrays of (heterostructured) InP and GaP nanowires. Soft nano-imprint lithography has been used to pattern gold particle arrays on full 2inch substrates. After lift-off organic residues remain on the surface, which induce the growth of

  20. Analogical reasoning for reliability analysis based on generic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozin, Igor O

    1996-10-01

    The paper suggests using the systemic concept 'analogy' for the foundation of an approach to analyze system reliability on the basis of generic data, describing the method of structuring the set that defines analogical models, an approach of transition from the analogical model to a reliability model and a way of obtaining reliability intervals of analogous objects.

  1. Analogical reasoning for reliability analysis based on generic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozin, Igor O.

    1996-01-01

    The paper suggests using the systemic concept 'analogy' for the foundation of an approach to analyze system reliability on the basis of generic data, describing the method of structuring the set that defines analogical models, an approach of transition from the analogical model to a reliability model and a way of obtaining reliability intervals of analogous objects

  2. Generic versus discipline-specific writing interventions: Report on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Departing from a socio-constructivist perspective, the main purpose of the research on which this article reports was to indicate the effectiveness of both discipline-specific and generic approaches in teaching academic writing to undergraduate university students. A quasi-experimental design was followed, comparing the ...

  3. Lawsuits allege price fixing by generic drug makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Two years after high generic drug prices became a public controversy, Reuters is reporting that 20 states filed a lawsuit Thursday against Mylan, Teva Pharmaceuticals and four other generic drug makers (1. The suit alleges the companies conspired to fix prices or allocated markets to prop up prices. The civil lawsuit, led by antitrust investigators in Connecticut, comes one day after the U.S. Department of Justice filed criminal charges against two former executives of the generic drug maker, Heritage. The states attorneys general asked the court to order the companies to disgorge ill-gotten gains, which were not defined, pay attorneys' fees and stop collusion. Of the states in the Southwest only Nevada is participating in the lawsuit. The cases are part of a broader generic drug pricing probe that remains under way at the state and federal level, as well as in the U.S. Congress. In 2014, media reports of …

  4. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  5. Defining Generic Architecture for Cloud Infrastructure as a Service model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; de Laat, C.

    2011-01-01

    Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) is one of the provisioning models for Clouds as defined in the NIST Clouds definition. Although widely used, current IaaS implementations and solutions doesn’t have common and well defined architecture model. The paper attempts to define a generic architecture for

  6. A generic scale for assessment of attitudes towards social robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damholdt, Malene Flensborg; Olesen, Martin Hammershøj; Nørskov, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The research field into social robotics is expanding and with it the need for consistent methods for assessing attitudinal stance towards social robots. In this paper we describe the development and planned validation of the Attitudes towards social robots scale (ASOR-5): a generic questionnaire ...

  7. Defining generic architecture for Cloud IaaS provisioning model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; de Laat, C.; Mavrin, A.; Leymann, F.; Ivanov, I.; van Sinderen, M.; Shishkov, B.

    2011-01-01

    Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) is one of the provisioning models for Clouds as defined in the NIST Clouds definition. Although widely used, current IaaS implementations and solutions doesn’t have common and well defined architecture model. The paper attempts to define a generic architecture for

  8. Moving up and down in the generic multiverse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamkins, J.D.; Löwe, B.; Lodaya, K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the modal logic of the generic multiverse which is a bimodal logic with operators corresponding to the relations “is a forcing extension of” and “is a ground model of”. The fragment of the first relation is the modal logic of forcing and was studied by the authors in earlier work. The

  9. Generic adaptation framework for unifying adaptive web-based systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knutov, E.

    2012-01-01

    The Generic Adaptation Framework (GAF) research project first and foremost creates a common formal framework for describing current and future adaptive hypermedia (AHS) and adaptive webbased systems in general. It provides a commonly agreed upon taxonomy and a reference model that encompasses the

  10. Generic skills requirements (KSA model) towards future mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Statistics and Discriminant Analysis (DA) as required to achieve the objective of the study. This study will guide all future engineers, especially in the field of Mechanical Engineering in Malaysia to penetrate the job market according to the current market needs. Keywords: generic skills; KSA model; mechanical engineers; ...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  12. Effect of generic issues program on improving safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fard, M. R.; Kauffman, J. V.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) identifies (by its assessment of plant operation) certain issues involving public health and safety, the common defense and security, or the environment that could affect multiple entities under NRC jurisdiction. The Generic Issues Program (GIP) addresses the resolution of these Generic Issues (GIs). The resolution of these issues may involve new or revised rules, new or revised guidance, or revised interpretation of rules or guidance that affect nuclear power plant licensees, nuclear material certificate holders, or holders of other regulatory approvals. U.S. NRC provides information related to the past and ongoing GIP activities to the general public by the use of three main resources, namely NUREG-0933, 'Resolution of Generic Safety Issues, ' Generic Issues Management Control System (GIMCS), and GIP public web page. GIP information resources provide information such as historical information on resolved GIs, current status of the open GIs, policy documents, program procedures, GIP annual and quarterly reports and the process to contact GIP and propose a GI This paper provides an overview of the GIP and several examples of safety improvements resulting from the resolution of GIs. In addition, the paper provides a brief discussion of a few recent GIs to illustrate how the program functions to improve safety. (authors)

  13. A generic service interfacing approach for home networking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.; Lukkien, J.J.; Bosman, R.P.; Verhoeven, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a generic service interfacing approach which enables the interoperability of networked devices and the reusability of services. Services are specified through a set of interfaces which are language and deployment platform independent. External service orchestration is applied to

  14. Toward a generic model of trust for electronic commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, YH; Thoen, W

    2000-01-01

    The authors present a generic model of trust for electronic commerce consisting of two basic components, party trust and control trust, based on the concept that trust in a transaction with another party combines trust in the other parry and trust in the control mechanisms that ensure the successful

  15. Maximum potential cost-savings attributable to generic substitution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D. Husselmann

    community. ... Conclusions: Potential economic benefits can be generated with generic substitution. ... Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ... supply of safe, cost-effective drugs of acceptable quality to all citizens of South Africa, and the rational use of drugs by .... different types of schizophrenic diagnosis) with a claim.

  16. The Generic Integrity of Newspaper Editorials: A Systemic Functional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansary, Hasan; Babaii, Esmat

    2005-01-01

    One fruitful line of research has been to explore the local linguistic as well as global rhetorical patterns of particular genres in order to identify their recognizable structural identity, or what Bhatia (1999: 22) calls "generic integrity". In terms of methodology, to date most genre-based studies have employed one or the other of Swales'…

  17. Cosmological N-body simulations with generic hot dark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Jacob; Hannestad, Steen

    2017-01-01

    We have calculated the non-linear effects of generic fermionic and bosonic hot dark matter components in cosmological N-body simulations. For sub-eV masses, the non-linear power spectrum suppression caused by thermal free-streaming resembles the one seen for massive neutrinos, whereas for masses...

  18. Generic Software Architecture for Prognostics (GSAP) User Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubert, Christopher Allen; Daigle, Matthew John; Watkins, Jason; Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The Generic Software Architecture for Prognostics (GSAP) is a framework for applying prognostics. It makes applying prognostics easier by implementing many of the common elements across prognostic applications. The standard interface enables reuse of prognostic algorithms and models across systems using the GSAP framework.

  19. Potential Cost Savings from Generic Medicines - Protecting the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a pro-generic policy since the introduction of the National Drug Policy in 1996. ... Medicines provided outside of hospitals accounted for 17% of medical aid ... in the chronic disease algorithms set out by the Council for Medical Schemes ...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10048 - Substituted anthraquinone (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and consumer activities. Requirements as specified in § 721.80(s) (4,500 kilograms). (ii) [Reserved... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted anthraquinone (generic). 721.10048 Section 721.10048 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10006 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.10006 Section 721.10006 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES...) of this section. (2) The significant new uses are: (i) Industrial, commercial, and consumer...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10087 - Substituted alkyl phosphine oxide (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... are: (i) Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities. Requirements as specified in § 721.80(s... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted alkyl phosphine oxide (generic). 721.10087 Section 721.10087 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10163 - Chloro fluoro alkane (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chloro fluoro alkane (generic). 721.10163 Section 721.10163 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC...)(2) of this section. (2) The significant new uses are: (i) Industrial, commercial, and consumer...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10003 - Manganese heterocyclic tetraamine complex (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manganese heterocyclic tetraamine complex (generic). 721.10003 Section 721.10003 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... section. (2) The significant new uses are: (i) Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9079 - Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities. Requirements as specified in § 721.80(s) (1,000 kg). (ii... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic). 721.9079 Section 721.9079 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10132 - Phosphoramidic acid, carbomonocyclic-, diphenylester (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoramidic acid, carbomonocyclic-, diphenylester (generic). 721.10132 Section 721.10132 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... significant new uses are: (i) Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities. Requirements as specified in...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10043 - Dineopentyl-4-substituted phthalate (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dineopentyl-4-substituted phthalate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10043 Dineopentyl-4-substituted phthalate (generic). (a) Chemical... as dineopentyl-4-substituted phthalate (PMN P-02-697) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  9. Generic Formal Framework for Compositional Analysis of Hierarchical Scheduling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudjadar, Jalil; Hyun Kim, Jin; Thi Xuan Phan, Linh

    We present a compositional framework for the specification and analysis of hierarchical scheduling systems (HSS). Firstly we provide a generic formal model, which can be used to describe any type of scheduling system. The concept of Job automata is introduced in order to model job instantiation...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  11. Biopharmaceutic Risk Assessment of Brand and Generic Lamotrigine Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithianathan, Soundarya; Raman, Siddarth; Jiang, Wenlei; Ting, Tricia Y; Kane, Maureen A; Polli, James E

    2015-07-06

    The therapeutic equivalence of generic and brand name antiepileptic drugs has been questioned by neurologists and the epilepsy community. A potential contributor to such concerns is pharmaceutical quality. The objective was to assess the biopharmaceutic risk of brand name Lamictal 100 mg tablets and generic lamotrigine 100 mg tablets from several manufacturers. Lamotrigine was characterized in terms of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), including aqueous solubility and Caco-2 permeability. A panel of pharmaceutical quality tests was also performed on three batches of Lamictal, three batches of Teva generic, and one batch of each of four other generics: appearance, identity, assay, impurity, uniformity of dosage units, disintegration, dissolution, friability, and loss on drying. These market surveillance results indicate that all brand name and generic lamotrigine 100 mg tablets passed all tests and showed acceptable pharmaceutical quality and low biopharmaceutic risk. Lamotrigine was classified as a BCS class IIb drug, exhibiting pH-dependent aqueous solubility and dissolution. At pH 1.2 and 4.5, lamotrigine exhibited high solubility, whereas lamotrigine exhibited low solubility at pH 6.8, including non-sink dissolution. Lamotrigine showed high Caco-2 permeability. The apparent permeability (Papp) of lamotrigine was (73.7 ± 8.7) × 10(-6) cm/s in the apical-to-basolateral (AP-BL) direction and (41.4 ± 1.6) × 10(-6) cm/s in the BL-AP direction, which were higher than metoprolol's AP-BL Papp of (21.2 ± 0.9) × 10(-6) cm/s and BL-AP Papp of (34.6 ± 4.6) × 10(-6) cm/s. Overall, lamotrigine's favorable biopharmaceutics from a drug substance perspective and favorable quality characteristics from a tablet formulation perspective suggest that multisource lamotrigine tablets exhibit a low biopharmaceutic risk.

  12. Adapting Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Framework to Teach Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getenet, Seyum Tekeher

    2017-01-01

    The technological pedagogical content knowledge framework is increasingly in use by educational technology researcher as a generic description of the knowledge requirements for teachers using technology in all subjects. This study describes the development of a mathematics specific variety of the technological pedagogical content knowledge…

  13. Some implications of in situ uranium mining technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.E.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Cole, R.J.; Keller, D.; Mellinger, P.J.; Wallace, R.W.

    1980-09-01

    A technology assessment was initiated in March 1979 of the in-situ uranium mining technology. This report explores the impediments to development and deployment of this technology and evaluates the environmental impacts of a generic in-situ facility. The report is divided into the following sections: introduction, technology description, physical environment, institutional and socioeconomic environment, impact assessment, impediments, and conclusions

  14. Analysis of the Italian generic medicines retail market: recommendations to enhance long-term sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold; Simoens, Steven

    2015-02-01

    Italy is among the European countries with the lowest uptake of generic medicines. This paper provides a perspective on the Italian generic medicines retail market. Fast market entrance of generic medicines in Italy is hindered by several factors: the existence of Complementary Protection Certificates in the past, the large market for copies and multiple cases of patent linkage. Prices of generic medicines in Italy are low compared to other European countries. To contain pharmaceutical expenditure, pharmaceutical companies are currently forced to pay back in case of overspending, which disproportionally penalizes small and fast growing companies, to which most generic companies belong to. Current demand-side policies do not successfully stimulate the use of generic medicines. The current market environment surrounding the Italian generic medicines retail market (i.e., low prices, low volumes) threatens its long-term sustainability. Recommendations to enhance the long-term sustainability of the Italian generic medicines retail market round off this perspective paper.

  15. A Generic Software Development Process Refined from Best Practices for Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soojin Park

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has emerged as more than just a piece of technology, it is rather a new IT paradigm. The philosophy behind cloud computing shares its view with green computing where computing environments and resources are not as subjects to own but as subjects of sustained use. However, converting currently used IT services to Software as a Service (SaaS cloud computing environments introduces several new risks. To mitigate such risks, existing software development processes must undergo significant remodeling. This study analyzes actual cases of SaaS cloud computing environment adoption as a way to derive four new best practices for software development and incorporates the identified best practices for currently-in-use processes. Furthermore, this study presents a design for generic software development processes that implement the proposed best practices. The design for the generic process has been applied to reinforce the weak points found in SaaS cloud service development practices used by eight enterprises currently developing or operating actual SaaS cloud computing services. Lastly, this study evaluates the applicability of the proposed SaaS cloud oriented development process through analyzing the feedback data collected from actual application to the development of a SaaS cloud service Astation.

  16. Clay Generic Disposal System Model - Sensitivity Analysis for 32 PWR Assembly Canisters (+2 associated model files).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Edgar [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC), as part of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy’s (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technology program (FCT) is investigating the disposal of high level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuela (SNF) in a variety of geologic media. The feasibility of disposing SNF and HLW in clay media has been investigated and has been shown to be promising [Ref. 1]. In addition the disposal of these wastes in clay media is being investigated in Belgium, France, and Switzerland. Thus, Argillaceous media is one of the environments being considered by UFDC. As identified by researchers at Sandia National Laboratory, potentially suitable formations that may exist in the U.S. include mudstone, clay, shale, and argillite formations [Ref. 1]. These formations encompass a broad range of material properties. In this report, reference to clay media is intended to cover the full range of material properties. This report presents the status of the development of a simulation model for evaluating the performance of generic clay media. The clay Generic Disposal System Model (GDSM) repository performance simulation tool has been developed with the flexibility to evaluate not only different properties, but different waste streams/forms and different repository designs and engineered barrier configurations/ materials that could be used to dispose of these wastes.

  17. Generic algorithms for high performance scalable geocomputing

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Kor; Schmitz, Oliver; Karssenberg, Derek

    2016-04-01

    During the last decade, the characteristics of computing hardware have changed a lot. For example, instead of a single general purpose CPU core, personal computers nowadays contain multiple cores per CPU and often general purpose accelerators, like GPUs. Additionally, compute nodes are often grouped together to form clusters or a supercomputer, providing enormous amounts of compute power. For existing earth simulation models to be able to use modern hardware platforms, their compute intensive parts must be rewritten. This can be a major undertaking and may involve many technical challenges. Compute tasks must be distributed over CPU cores, offloaded to hardware accelerators, or distributed to different compute nodes. And ideally, all of this should be done in such a way that the compute task scales well with the hardware resources. This presents two challenges: 1) how to make good use of all the compute resources and 2) how to make these compute resources available for developers of simulation models, who may not (want to) have the required technical background for distributing compute tasks. The first challenge requires the use of specialized technology (e.g.: threads, OpenMP, MPI, OpenCL, CUDA). The second challenge requires the abstraction of the logic handling the distribution of compute tasks from the model-specific logic, hiding the technical details from the model developer. To assist the model developer, we are developing a C++ software library (called Fern) containing algorithms that can use all CPU cores available in a single compute node (distributing tasks over multiple compute nodes will be done at a later stage). The algorithms are grid-based (finite difference) and include local and spatial operations such as convolution filters. The algorithms handle distribution of the compute tasks to CPU cores internally. In the resulting model the low-level details of how this is done is separated from the model-specific logic representing the modeled system

  18. 76 FR 21800 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Generic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... precision requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response... Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative... Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service...

  19. 76 FR 24920 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... precision requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response... Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service... Information Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback...

  20. 77 FR 17493 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; DOI Generic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... justify the proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods for assessing potential non...: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; DOI Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on... (Generic ICR): ``DOI Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service...

  1. 76 FR 35069 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... precision requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response...; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on... (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery...

  2. 75 FR 80542 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods for assessing potential...; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery... Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency...

  3. 77 FR 52708 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods for assessing potential...: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on... Information Collection request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback...

  4. 76 FR 12140 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods for assessing potential...; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery... Information Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback...

  5. 76 FR 19826 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods for assessing potential... Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY... (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery...

  6. 76 FR 17861 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods...; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery... Information Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback...

  7. 76 FR 25693 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response rate, methods... Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service... Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency...

  8. 77 FR 45629 - Animal Generic Drug User Fee Rates and Payment Procedures for Fiscal Year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ..., beginning with the letters ``AG'', from the upper right-hand corner of your completed Animal Generic Drug...] Animal Generic Drug User Fee Rates and Payment Procedures for Fiscal Year 2013 AGENCY: Food and Drug... payment procedures for fiscal year (FY) 2013 generic new animal drug user fees. The Federal Food, Drug...

  9. A Domain-Specific Language for Generic Interlocking Models and Their Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2017-01-01

    of this work is to provide a domain-specific language for generic models and an instantiator tool taking not only configuration data but also a generic model as input instead of using a hard-coded generator for instantiating only one fixed generic model and its properties with configuration data....

  10. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs P...

  11. Frequency and Informativeness of Gestural Cues Accompanying Generic and Particular Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Meredith; Gelman, Susan A.; Stilwell, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Generic noun phrases, or generics, refer to abstract categories ("Dogs" bark) rather than particular individuals ("Those dogs" bark). Study 1 investigated how parents use gestures in association with generic versus particular reference during naturalistic interactions with their 2- and 3-year-old children. Parents provided…

  12. Pointing As a Socio-Pragmatic Cue to Particular vs.Generic Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Meredith; Baldwin, Dare A.

    2013-01-01

    Generic noun phrases, or generics, refer to abstract kind categories ("Dogs" bark) rather than particular individuals ("Those dogs" bark). How do children distinguish these distinct kinds of reference? We examined the role of one socio-pragmatic cue, namely pointing, in producing and comprehending generic versus particular…

  13. Generic strategies: an evolutionary and comparative study of three views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Chaves

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses visions of three of the most renowned authors regarding generic strategies, making a comparison among those visions along the time. To perform such comparison, two distinct works of each author were selected and then it is pointed out how changes showed up from one moment to another. The selected authors are Ansoff, Miles et al. and Porter, all responsible for three of the most spread typologies for generic strategies. From a chronological point of view, these typologies have been originally proposed between 1965 and 1980 and revisited between 1985 and 1988. Despite time passed from then until today, these typologies are still fully adequate and completely applicable to organizations' present reality. Contributions of this study reside on detailed presentation of each typology's major characteristics, due to detailed and judicious bibliography revision.

  14. Generic safety insights for inspection of boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, J.C.; Taylor, J.H.; Fresco, A.N.; Hillman, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    As the number of operating nuclear power plants (NPP) increases, safety inspection has increased in importance. However, precisely what is important, and what is not important? What should one focus inspection efforts on. Over the last two years Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PR) techniques have been developed to aid in the inspection process. Broad interest in generic PRA-based methods has arisen in the past year, since only about 25% of the US nuclear power plants have completed PRAs, and also, inspectors want PRA-based tools for these plants. This paper describes the BNL program to develop generic BWR PRA-based inspection insights or inspection guidance designed to be applied to plants without PRAs

  15. Generic nano-imprint process for fabrication of nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierret, Aurelie; Hocevar, Moira; Algra, Rienk E; Timmering, Eugene C; Verschuuren, Marc A; Immink, George W G; Verheijen, Marcel A; Bakkers, Erik P A M [Philips Research Laboratories Eindhoven, High Tech Campus 11, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Diedenhofen, Silke L [FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics c/o Philips Research Laboratories, High Tech Campus 4, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Vlieg, E, E-mail: e.p.a.m.bakkers@tue.nl [IMM, Solid State Chemistry, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-02-10

    A generic process has been developed to grow nearly defect-free arrays of (heterostructured) InP and GaP nanowires. Soft nano-imprint lithography has been used to pattern gold particle arrays on full 2 inch substrates. After lift-off organic residues remain on the surface, which induce the growth of additional undesired nanowires. We show that cleaning of the samples before growth with piranha solution in combination with a thermal anneal at 550 deg. C for InP and 700 deg. C for GaP results in uniform nanowire arrays with 1% variation in nanowire length, and without undesired extra nanowires. Our chemical cleaning procedure is applicable to other lithographic techniques such as e-beam lithography, and therefore represents a generic process.

  16. Generic Reliability-Based Inspection Planning for Fatigue Sensitive Details

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Straub, Daniel; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2005-01-01

    of fatigue sensitive details in fixed offshore steel jacket platforms and FPSO ship structures. Inspection and maintenance activities are planned such that code based requirements to the safety of personnel and environment for the considered structure are fulfilled and at the same time such that the overall......The generic approach for planning of in-service NDT inspections is extended to cover the case where the fatigue load is modified during the design lifetime of the structure. Generic reliability-based inspection planning has been developed as a practical approach to perform inspection planning...... expected costs for design, inspections, repairs and failures are minimized. The method is based on the assumption of “no-finds” of cracks during inspections. Each fatigue sensitive detail is categorized according to their type of details (SN curves), FDF values, RSR values, inspection, repair and failure...

  17. Generic procedures for assessment and response during a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-08-01

    One of the most important aspects of managing a radiological emergency is the ability to promptly and adequately determine and take actions to protect members of the public and emergency workers. Radiological accident assessment must take account of all critical information available at any time and must be an iterative and dynamic process aimed at reviewing the response as more detailed and complete information becomes available. This manual provides the tools, generic procedures and data needed for an initial response to a non-reactor radiological accident. This manual is one out of a set of IAEA publications on emergency preparedness and response, including Method for the Development of Emergency Response Preparedness for Nuclear or Radiological Accidents (IAEA-TECDOC-953), Generic Assessment Procedures for Determining Protective Actions During a Reactor Accident (IAEA-TECDOC-955) and Intervention Criteria in a Nuclear or Radiation Emergency (Safety Series No. 109)

  18. Method for assigning sites to projected generic nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holter, G.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Shutz, M.E.; Young, J.R.

    1986-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a method for forecasting potential locations and startup sequences of nuclear power plants that will be required in the future but have not yet been specifically identified by electric utilities. Use of the method results in numerical ratings for potential nuclear power plant sites located in each of the 10 federal energy regions. The rating for each potential site is obtained from numerical factors assigned to each of 5 primary siting characteristics: (1) cooling water availability, (2) site land area, (3) power transmission land area, (4) proximity to metropolitan areas, and (5) utility plans for the site. The sequence of plant startups in each federal energy region is obtained by use of the numerical ratings and the forecasts of generic nuclear power plant startups obtained from the EIA Middle Case electricity forecast. Sites are assigned to generic plants in chronological order according to startup date.

  19. Method for assigning sites to projected generic nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holter, G.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Shutz, M.E.; Young, J.R.

    1986-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a method for forecasting potential locations and startup sequences of nuclear power plants that will be required in the future but have not yet been specifically identified by electric utilities. Use of the method results in numerical ratings for potential nuclear power plant sites located in each of the 10 federal energy regions. The rating for each potential site is obtained from numerical factors assigned to each of 5 primary siting characteristics: (1) cooling water availability, (2) site land area, (3) power transmission land area, (4) proximity to metropolitan areas, and (5) utility plans for the site. The sequence of plant startups in each federal energy region is obtained by use of the numerical ratings and the forecasts of generic nuclear power plant startups obtained from the EIA Middle Case electricity forecast. Sites are assigned to generic plants in chronological order according to startup date

  20. Hospitals plan to start their own generic drug company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The New York Times reports that groups representing more than 450 hospitals plan to form their own generic drug company (1. Intermountain Healthcare is leading the collaboration with several other large hospital groups, Ascension, SSM Health and Trinity Health, in consultation with the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, to form a not-for-profit drug company. The new firm is looking to create generic versions of about 20 existing drugs that the group says cost too much now or are in short supply. The article did not name the drugs targeted but expects the first of its pharmaceutical products to become available in 2019. Members of the consortium will contribute funds to finance the new drug company.

  1. Security Policy for a Generic Space Exploration Communication Network Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sheehe, Charles J.; Vaden, Karl R.

    2016-01-01

    This document is one of three. It describes various security mechanisms and a security policy profile for a generic space-based communication architecture. Two other documents accompany this document- an Operations Concept (OpsCon) and a communication architecture document. The OpsCon should be read first followed by the security policy profile described by this document and then the architecture document. The overall goal is to design a generic space exploration communication network architecture that is affordable, deployable, maintainable, securable, evolvable, reliable, and adaptable. The architecture should also require limited reconfiguration throughout system development and deployment. System deployment includes subsystem development in a factory setting, system integration in a laboratory setting, launch preparation, launch, and deployment and operation in space.

  2. What do people really think of generic medicines? A systematic review and critical appraisal of literature on stakeholder perceptions of generic drugs.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dunne, Suzanne S

    2015-07-01

    Considerable emphasis is presently being placed on usage of generic medicines by governments focussed on the potential economic benefits associated with their use. Concurrently, there is increasing discussion in the lay media of perceived doubts regarding the quality and equivalence of generic medicines. The objective of this paper is to report the outcomes of a systematic search for peer-reviewed, published studies that focus on physician, pharmacist and patient\\/consumer perspectives of generic medicines.

  3. Acceptability and confidence in antiretroviral generics of physicians and HIV-infected patients in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allavena, Clotilde; Jacomet, Christine; Pereira, Bruno; Morand-Joubert, Laurence; Bagheri, Haleh; Cotte, Laurent; Garaffo, Rodolphe; Gerbaud, Laurent; Dellamonica, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Switching brand name medications to generics is recommended in France in the interest of cost effectiveness but patients and physicians are sometimes not convinced that switching is appropriate. Some antiretroviral (ARV) generics (ZDV, 3TC, NVP) have been marketed in France since 2013. A multicentric cross-sectional survey was performed in September 2013 to evaluate the perception of generics overall and ARV generics in physicians and HIV-infected patients and factors associated to their acceptability. Adult HIV outpatients were asked to complete a self-questionnaire on their perception of generics. Physicians completed a questionnaire on the acceptability of generics and ARV generics. Socio-demographic data, medical history and HIV history were collected. 116 physicians in 33 clinics (68% in University Hospital) included 556 patients (France-native 77%, active employment 59%, covered by social Insurance 100%, homosexual/bisexual contamination 47%, median HIV duration 13 years, hepatitis coinfection 16%, on ARV therapy 95%). Overall, patients accepted and had confidence in generics in 76% and 55% of the cases, respectively. Switching ARVs for generics was accepted by 44% of the patients but only by 17% if the pill burden was going to increase. 75% of the physicians would prescribe generics, but this decreased to only 26% if the combo had to be broken. The main reasons for non-prescription of generics were previous brand name ARV-induced side effects (35%), refusal of generics overall (37%), lack of understanding of generics (26%), risk of non-observance of treatment (44%), anxiety (47%) and depressive symptoms (25%). In multivariate analysis, factors associated with the acceptability of ARV generics in patients were the use of generics overall (p<0.001) and in physicians, the absence of concern regarding the drug efficacy (p<0.001) and being aware that the patient would accept generics overall (p=0.03) and ARV generics (p=0.04). No factors related to

  4. Generic environmental impact statement for license renewal of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    Volume 2 of the Generic Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants contains the appendices. These include: (A) General characterisitics and environmental settings of domestic nuclear plants, (B) Definition of impact initiators, (C) Socioeconomics and case studies, (D) Aquatic organisms and human health, (E) Radiation protection considerations, (F) Methodology for assessing impacts to aquatic ecology and water resources, (G) Postulated accidents, and (H) Environmental statutes and regulations affecting license renewal

  5. Generic singular continuous spectrum for ergodic Schr\\"odinger operators

    OpenAIRE

    Avila, Artur; Damanik, David

    2004-01-01

    We consider Schr\\"odinger operators with ergodic potential $V_\\omega(n)=f(T^n(\\omega))$, $n \\in \\Z$, $\\omega \\in \\Omega$, where $T:\\Omega \\to \\Omega$ is a non-periodic homeomorphism. We show that for generic $f \\in C(\\Omega)$, the spectrum has no absolutely continuous component. The proof is based on approximation by discontinuous potentials which can be treated via Kotani Theory.

  6. Simulation system architecture design for generic communications link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Chit-Sang; Ratliff, Jim

    1986-01-01

    This paper addresses a computer simulation system architecture design for generic digital communications systems. It addresses the issues of an overall system architecture in order to achieve a user-friendly, efficient, and yet easily implementable simulation system. The system block diagram and its individual functional components are described in detail. Software implementation is discussed with the VAX/VMS operating system used as a target environment.

  7. Generic f(R) theories and classicality of their scalarons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gannouji, Radouane [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Sami, M., E-mail: samijamia@gmail.com [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Thongkool, I. [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad-211019 (India)

    2012-09-19

    We study quantum stability bound on the mass of scalaron in generic theories of f(R) gravity. We show that in these scenarios, the scalaron mass increases faster with local density of the environment than one-loop quantum correction to it thereby leading to violation of quantum bound on the chameleon mass. The introduction of quadratic curvature corrections in the action are shown to stabilize the model.

  8. Excipient Usage Technical Risk Assessment for Generic Solid Dose Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Babu Pazhayattil

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an assessment methodology for solid dose generic small molecule drug products. It addresses the ‘usage of the excipient’ portion of the trinomial by utilizing the systematic approach of Risk Identification, Risk Analysis and Risk Evaluation as per ICH Q9 Quality Risk Management outlined for developing risk control strategies. The assessment and maintenance of excipient risk profile is essential to minimize any potential risk associated to excipients impacting patients.

  9. Computer-aided modeling framework – a generic modeling template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    and test models systematically, efficiently and reliably. In this way, development of products and processes can be made faster, cheaper and more efficient. In this contribution, as part of the framework, a generic modeling template for the systematic derivation of problem specific models is presented....... The application of the modeling template is highlighted with a case study related to the modeling of a catalytic membrane reactor coupling dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene with hydrogenation of nitrobenzene...

  10. GENERIC Integrators: Structure Preserving Time Integration for Thermodynamic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öttinger, Hans Christian

    2018-04-01

    Thermodynamically admissible evolution equations for non-equilibrium systems are known to possess a distinct mathematical structure. Within the GENERIC (general equation for the non-equilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling) framework of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, which is based on continuous time evolution, we investigate the possibility of preserving all the structural elements in time-discretized equations. Our approach, which follows Moser's [1] construction of symplectic integrators for Hamiltonian systems, is illustrated for the damped harmonic oscillator. Alternative approaches are sketched.

  11. Pure versus hybrid: performance implications of Porter's generic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K; Subramanian, R; Yauger, C

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies the strategic types in the hospital industry based on the hospital's use of Porter's generic strategies in their pure and hybrid forms. The article also examines differences in performance of hospitals across strategic types. Results indicate that hospitals that follow a focussed cost leadership strategy, in general, have superior performance on a variety of performance measures, while hospitals that use a combination of cost leadership and differentiation perform the poorest. Implications of findings for hospital administrators are also discussed.

  12. Double covering of diffeomorphisms for superstrings in generic curved space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne'eman, Y.; Sijacki, D.

    1986-01-01

    The embedding of the superstring in a generic curved space involves the use of world-spinors behaving according to the (infinite) unitary representations of SL-bar(10,R), the double-covering of the linear group on R 10 . A supersymmetric extrension is provided by the embedding of GL-bar(10,R) in the supergroup GQ-bar(10,R) whose flat limit reproduces Poincare supersymmetry

  13. Generic boundary scattering in the open XXZ chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doikou, Anastasia

    2008-01-01

    The open critical XXZ spin chain with a general right boundary and a trivial diagonal left boundary is considered. Within this framework we propose a simple computation of the exact generic boundary S-matrix (with diagonal and non-diagonal entries), starting from the 'bare' Bethe ansatz equations. Our results as anticipated coincide with the ones obtained by Ghoshal and Zamolodchikov, after assuming suitable identifications of the bulk and boundary parameters

  14. A Generic Procedure for BRDF Normalization of Remotely Sensed Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Yuan

    2003-04-01

    A generic procedure for Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) normalization for airborne multispectral images has been developed and implemented as an add-on module of ENVI at the U.S. Department of Energy's Remote Sensing Laboratory. The main advantage of this procedure is that it does not require multiple image acquisitions over the same area for establishing empirical BRDF functions.

  15. Generic Safety Requirements for Developing Safe Insulin Pump Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Jetley, Raoul; Jones, Paul L; Ray, Arnab

    2011-01-01

    Background The authors previously introduced a highly abstract generic insulin infusion pump (GIIP) model that identified common features and hazards shared by most insulin pumps on the market. The aim of this article is to extend our previous work on the GIIP model by articulating safety requirements that address the identified GIIP hazards. These safety requirements can be validated by manufacturers, and may ultimately serve as a safety reference for insulin pump software. Together, these two publications can serve as a basis for discussing insulin pump safety in the diabetes community. Methods In our previous work, we established a generic insulin pump architecture that abstracts functions common to many insulin pumps currently on the market and near-future pump designs. We then carried out a preliminary hazard analysis based on this architecture that included consultations with many domain experts. Further consultation with domain experts resulted in the safety requirements used in the modeling work presented in this article. Results Generic safety requirements for the GIIP model are presented, as appropriate, in parameterized format to accommodate clinical practices or specific insulin pump criteria important to safe device performance. Conclusions We believe that there is considerable value in having the diabetes, academic, and manufacturing communities consider and discuss these generic safety requirements. We hope that the communities will extend and revise them, make them more representative and comprehensive, experiment with them, and use them as a means for assessing the safety of insulin pump software designs. One potential use of these requirements is to integrate them into model-based engineering (MBE) software development methods. We believe, based on our experiences, that implementing safety requirements using MBE methods holds promise in reducing design/implementation flaws in insulin pump development and evolutionary processes, therefore improving

  16. From generic to biosimilar drugs: why take an innovative pace?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Barei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The transition of the generic/biotechnology industry to innovation by investing in innovative R&D will enhance business expertise in biopharmaceutical development and manufacturing. The major impact of this evolution is on patient access to treatment and savings for the health care systems. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to investigate the innovative aspect of biosimilar and biobetter products, manufactured by some big generic companies. We will also try to explore the innovative business strategy, implementing this high risk product differentiation policy. METHODS: This qualitative research is conducted by a series of interviews with CEOs, physicians, and academics in different countries. The qualitative data obtained were analyzed by Nvivo9.2 software. A literature review has also contributed to our key findings. RESULTS: The results show that switching into biosimilars/biobetters is an innovative strategic choice, approved by some big generic pharmaceutical companies. The biosimilar/biobetter products can be considered innovative because of their value added quality. CONCLUSION: Expanding the product portfolio to biosimilars/biobetter can be considered as a long run strategy in the innovative business plans aiming to ensure the market access. Patients and their access to better treatments are major components of these innovative business models.

  17. A Generic Modeling Process to Support Functional Fault Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, William A.; Hemminger, Joseph A.; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Bis, Rachael A.

    2016-01-01

    Functional fault models (FFMs) are qualitative representations of a system's failure space that are used to provide a diagnostic of the modeled system. An FFM simulates the failure effect propagation paths within a system between failure modes and observation points. These models contain a significant amount of information about the system including the design, operation and off nominal behavior. The development and verification of the models can be costly in both time and resources. In addition, models depicting similar components can be distinct, both in appearance and function, when created individually, because there are numerous ways of representing the failure space within each component. Generic application of FFMs has the advantages of software code reuse: reduction of time and resources in both development and verification, and a standard set of component models from which future system models can be generated with common appearance and diagnostic performance. This paper outlines the motivation to develop a generic modeling process for FFMs at the component level and the effort to implement that process through modeling conventions and a software tool. The implementation of this generic modeling process within a fault isolation demonstration for NASA's Advanced Ground System Maintenance (AGSM) Integrated Health Management (IHM) project is presented and the impact discussed.

  18. Origami building blocks: Generic and special four-vertices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitukaitis, Scott; van Hecke, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Four rigid panels connected by hinges that meet at a point form a four-vertex, the fundamental building block of origami metamaterials. Most materials designed so far are based on the same four-vertex geometry, and little is known regarding how different geometries affect folding behavior. Here we systematically categorize and analyze the geometries and resulting folding motions of Euclidean four-vertices. Comparing the relative sizes of sector angles, we identify three types of generic vertices and two accompanying subtypes. We determine which folds can fully close and the possible mountain-valley assignments. Next, we consider what occurs when sector angles or sums thereof are set equal, which results in 16 special vertex types. One of these, flat-foldable vertices, has been studied extensively, but we show that a wide variety of qualitatively different folding motions exist for the other 15 special and 3 generic types. Our work establishes a straightforward set of rules for understanding the folding motion of both generic and special four-vertices and serves as a roadmap for designing origami metamaterials.

  19. Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Appendix B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volumes 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This report consists of Volume 2, which consists of the GALL literature review tables for the NUMARC Industry Reports reviewed for the report

  20. Generic versus brand-name North American topical glaucoma drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammo, Zaid N; Flanagan, John G; James, David F; Trope, Graham E

    2012-02-01

    To determine whether brand-name glaucoma drops differ from generic equivalents in bottle design, viscosity, surface tension, and volume in North America. Experimental study. We studied 5 bottles each of 11 kinds of glaucoma drops. Density-based calculations of drop volume were assessed using 0.1 mg analytic balance. Viscosity was measured using rotational rheometery. Bottle tip diameter was measured using 0.05 mm Vernier calipers. Surface tension was measured using a Fisher Scientific (Ottawa, ON) tensiometer. For the American brand-name Timoptic XE, the average drop volume was 38 ± 3.1 μL versus 24 ± 1.5 μL of Timolol GFS (p brand-name Timoptic XE, the average drop volume was 42 ± 4.0 μL versus 25 ± 2 μL of timolol maleate EX (p brand-name Timoptic drop volume was 28 ± 1.4 μL versus 35 ± 1.9 μL Apo-Timop (p brand-name Timoptic delivered significantly smaller drop volumes than generic Apo-Timop. Careful consideration should be given to drop viscosity and bottle design when generic ophthalmic products are evaluated for interchangeability and market entry. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Deeply discounted medications: Implications of generic prescription drug wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowski, Jessica L; Tjia, Jennifer; Triller, Darren M

    2010-01-01

    To describe the history of generic prescription pricing programs at major pharmacy chains and their potential implications on prescribing, quality of care, and patient safety. Publicly available generic prescription discount program drug lists as of May 1, 2009. Fierce competition among major pharmacy chains such as Walgreens, CVS, and Walmart has led to a generic prescription pricing war with unclear public health implications. Introduced in 2006, currently 7 of the 10 largest pharmacy chains advertise a version of a deeply discounted medication (DDM) program, accounting for more than 25,000 locations nationally. By early 2008, almost 70 million Americans had used these programs. Although DDM programs lower drug costs for many patients, DDM formularies include potentially ineffective or harmful medications, have the potential to influence physician prescribing behavior, and may impair pharmacists' ability to review complete drug-dispensing records. DDMs are widespread but have the potential for unintended consequences on patients, providers, and the health care system. A systematic review of DDMs needs to evaluate the clinical, economic, and system-level implications of such programs.

  2. Do higher-priced generic medicines enjoy a competitive advantage under reference pricing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Junoy, Jaume

    2012-11-01

    In many countries with generic reference pricing, generic producers and distributors compete by means of undisclosed discounts offered to pharmacies in order to reduce acquisition costs and to induce them to dispense their generic to patients in preference over others. The objective of this article is to test the hypothesis that under prevailing reference pricing systems for generic medicines, those medicines sold at a higher consumer price may enjoy a competitive advantage. Real transaction prices for 179 generic medicines acquired by pharmacies in Spain have been used to calculate the discount rate on acquisition versus reimbursed costs to pharmacies. Two empirical hypotheses are tested: the discount rate at which pharmacies acquire generic medicines is higher for those pharmaceutical presentations for which there are more generic competitors; and, the discount rate at which pharmacies acquire generic medicines is higher for those pharmaceutical forms for which the consumer price has declined less in relation to the consumer price of the brand drug before generic entry (higher-priced generic medicines). An average discount rate of 39.3% on acquisition versus reimbursed costs to pharmacies has been observed. The magnitude of the discount positively depends on the number of competitors in the market. The higher the ratio of the consumer price of the generic to that of the brand drug prior to generic entry (i.e. the smaller the price reduction of the generic in relation to the brand drug), the larger the discount rate. Under reference pricing there is intense price competition among generic firms in the form of unusually high discounts to pharmacies on official ex-factory prices reimbursed to pharmacies. However, this effect is highly distorting because it favours those medicines with a higher relative price in relation to the brand price before generic entry.

  3. Generic functional requirements for a NASA general-purpose data base management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Generic functional requirements for a general-purpose, multi-mission data base management system (DBMS) for application to remotely sensed scientific data bases are detailed. The motivation for utilizing DBMS technology in this environment is explained. The major requirements include: (1) a DBMS for scientific observational data; (2) a multi-mission capability; (3) user-friendly; (4) extensive and integrated information about data; (5) robust languages for defining data structures and formats; (6) scientific data types and structures; (7) flexible physical access mechanisms; (8) ways of representing spatial relationships; (9) a high level nonprocedural interactive query and data manipulation language; (10) data base maintenance utilities; (11) high rate input/output and large data volume storage; and adaptability to a distributed data base and/or data base machine configuration. Detailed functions are specified in a top-down hierarchic fashion. Implementation, performance, and support requirements are also given.

  4. Comparing Generic Drug Markets in Europe and the United States: Prices, Volumes, and Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Olivier J; Kanavos, Panos G; McKEE, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Policy Points: Our study indicates that there are opportunities for cost savings in generic drug markets in Europe and the United States. Regulators should make it easier for generic drugs to reach the market. Regulators and payers should apply measures to stimulate price competition among generic drugmakers and to increase generic drug use. To meaningfully evaluate policy options, it is important to analyze historical context and understand why similar initiatives failed previously. Rising drug prices are putting pressure on health care budgets. Policymakers are assessing how they can save money through generic drugs. We compared generic drug prices and market shares in 13 European countries, using data from 2013, to assess the amount of variation that exists between countries. To place these results in context, we reviewed evidence from recent studies on the prices and use of generics in Europe and the United States. We also surveyed peer-reviewed studies, gray literature, and books published since 2000 to (1) outline existing generic drug policies in European countries and the United States; (2) identify ways to increase generic drug use and to promote price competition among generic drug companies; and (3) explore barriers to implementing reform of generic drug policies, using a historical example from the United States as a case study. The prices and market shares of generics vary widely across Europe. For example, prices charged by manufacturers in Switzerland are, on average, more than 2.5 times those in Germany and more than 6 times those in the United Kingdom, based on the results of a commonly used price index. The proportion of prescriptions filled with generics ranges from 17% in Switzerland to 83% in the United Kingdom. By comparison, the United States has historically had low generic drug prices and high rates of generic drug use (84% in 2013), but has in recent years experienced sharp price increases for some off-patent products. There are policy

  5. Generic versus brand-name drugs used in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoli, Lamberto; Flacco, Maria Elena; Boccia, Stefania; D'Andrea, Elvira; Panic, Nikola; Marzuillo, Carolina; Siliquini, Roberta; Ricciardi, Walter; Villari, Paolo; Ioannidis, John P A

    2016-04-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficacy and adverse events, either serious or mild/moderate, of all generic versus brand-name cardiovascular medicines. We searched randomized trials in MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trial Register, and ClinicalTrials.gov (last update December 1, 2014). Attempts were made to contact the investigators of all potentially eligible trials. Two investigators independently extracted and analyzed soft (including systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, and others) and hard efficacy outcomes (including major cardiovascular adverse events and death), minor/moderate and serious adverse events. We included 74 randomized trials; 53 reported ≥1 efficacy outcome (overall sample 3051), 32 measured mild/moderate adverse events (n = 2407), and 51 evaluated serious adverse events (n = 2892). We included trials assessing ACE inhibitors (n = 12), anticoagulants (n = 5), antiplatelet agents (n = 17), beta-blockers (n = 11), calcium channel blockers (n = 7); diuretics (n = 13); statins (n = 6); and others (n = 3). For both soft and hard efficacy outcomes, 100 % of the trials showed non-significant differences between generic and brand-name drugs. The aggregate effect size was 0.01 (95 % CI -0.05; 0.08) for soft outcomes; -0.06 (-0.71; 0.59) for hard outcomes. All but two trials showed non-significant differences in mild/moderate adverse events, and aggregate effect size was 0.07 (-0.06; 0.20). Comparable results were observed for each drug class and in each stratified meta-analysis. Overall, 8 serious possibly drug-related adverse events were reported: 5/2074 subjects on generics; 3/2076 subjects on brand-name drugs (OR 1.69; 95 % CI 0.40-7.20). This meta-analysis strengthens the evidence for clinical equivalence between brand-name and generic cardiovascular drugs. Physicians could be reassured about prescribing generic cardiovascular drugs, and health care organization about endorsing their wider

  6. Generic Advertising Optimum Budget for Iran’s Milk Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shahbazi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the main targets of planners, decision makers and governments is increasing society health with promotion and production of suitable and healthy food. One of the basic commodities that have important role in satisfaction of required human food is milk. So, some part of government and producer healthy budget allocate to milk consumption promotion by using generic advertising. If effectiveness of advertising budget on profitability is more, producer will have more willing to spend for advertising. Determination of optimal generic advertising budget is one of important problem in managerial decision making in producing firm as well as increase in consumption and profit and decrease in wasting and non-optimality of budget. Materials and Methods: In this study, optimal generic advertising budget intensity index (advertising budget share of production cost was estimated under two different scenarios by using equilibrium replacement model. In equilibrium replacement model, producer surplus are maximized in respect to generic advertising in retail level. According to market where two levels of farm and processing before retail exist and there is trade in farm and retail level, we present different models. Fixed and variable proportion hypothesis is another one. Finally, eight relations are presented for determination of milk generic advertising optimum budget. So, we use data from several resources such as previous studies, national (Iran Static center and international institute (Fao formal data and own estimation. Because there are several estimations in previous studies, we identify some scenarios (in two general scenarios for calculation of milk generic advertising optimum budget. Results and Discussion: Estimation of milk generic advertising optimum budget in scenario 1 shows that in case of one market level, fixed supplies and no trade, optimum budget is 0.4672539 percent. In case of one market level and no trade, optimum

  7. Societal value of generic medicines beyond cost-saving through reduced prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold; Simoens, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview of the added societal value of generic medicines beyond their cost-saving potential through reduced prices. In addition, an observational case study will document the impact of generic entry on access to pharmacotherapy in The Netherlands and an illustrative exercise was carried out to highlight the budget impact of generic entry. A narrative literature review was carried out to explore the impact of generic medicines on access to pharmacotherapy, innovation and medication adherence. Data from the Medicines and Medical Devices Information Project database in The Netherlands were used for the case study in which the impact of generic medicine entrance on the budget and the number of users was calculated as an illustrative exercise. Generic medicines have an additional societal value beyond their cost-saving potential through reduced prices. Generic medicines increase access to pharmacotherapy, provide a stimulus for innovation by both originator companies and generic companies and, under the right circumstances, have a positive impact on medication adherence. Generic medicines offer more to society than just their cost-saving potential through reduced prices. As such, governments must not focus only on the prices of generic medicines as this will threaten their long-term sustainability. Governments must therefore act appropriately and implement a coherent set of policies to increase the use of generic medicines.

  8. Does the market share of generic medicines influence the price level?: a European analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylst, Pieter; Simoens, Steven

    2011-10-01

    After the expiry of patents for originator medicines, generic medicines can enter the market, and price competition may occur. This process generates savings to the healthcare payer and to patients, but knowledge about the factors affecting price competition in the pharmaceutical market following patent expiry is still limited. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the market share of generic medicines and the change of the medicine price level in European off-patent markets. Data on medicine volumes and values for 35 active substances were purchased from IMS Health. Ex-manufacturer prices were used, and the analysis was limited to medicines in immediate-release, oral, solid dosage forms. Countries included were Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the UK, which constitute a mix of countries with low and high generic medicines market shares. Data were available from June 2002 until March 2007. Market volume has risen in both high and low generic market share countries (+29.27% and +27.40%, respectively), but the cause of the rise is different for the two markets. In low generic market share countries, the rise was caused by the increased use of generic medicines, while in high market share countries, the rise was driven by the increased use of generic medicines and a shift of use from originator to generic medicines. Market value was substantially decreased in high generic market share countries (-26.6%), while the decrease in low generic market share countries was limited (-0.06%). In high generic market share countries, medicine prices dropped by -43.18% versus -21.56% in low market share countries. The extent to which price competition from generic medicines leads to price reductions appears to vary according to the market share of generic medicines. High generic market share countries have seen a larger decrease in medicine prices than low market share countries.

  9. A generic concept to overcome bandgap limitations for designing highly efficient multi-junction photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Li, Ning; Fecher, Frank W; Gasparini, Nicola; Ramirez Quiroz, Cesar Omar; Bronnbauer, Carina; Hou, Yi; Radmilović, Vuk V; Radmilović, Velimir R; Spiecker, Erdmann; Forberich, Karen; Brabec, Christoph J

    2015-07-16

    The multi-junction concept is the most relevant approach to overcome the Shockley-Queisser limit for single-junction photovoltaic cells. The record efficiencies of several types of solar technologies are held by series-connected tandem configurations. However, the stringent current-matching criterion presents primarily a material challenge and permanently requires developing and processing novel semiconductors with desired bandgaps and thicknesses. Here we report a generic concept to alleviate this limitation. By integrating series- and parallel-interconnections into a triple-junction configuration, we find significantly relaxed material selection and current-matching constraints. To illustrate the versatile applicability of the proposed triple-junction concept, organic and organic-inorganic hybrid triple-junction solar cells are constructed by printing methods. High fill factors up to 68% without resistive losses are achieved for both organic and hybrid triple-junction devices. Series/parallel triple-junction cells with organic, as well as perovskite-based subcells may become a key technology to further advance the efficiency roadmap of the existing photovoltaic technologies.

  10. Generic methods for design of small-bore pipe supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.L.; LaSalle, F.R.

    1981-01-01

    Large numbers of supports for small-bore, low-temperature pipe are utilized in nuclear power plants. These supports often must meet ASME code and project seismic design requirements. Detailed analysis for each support is time consuming and costly. This paper describes some economical generic methods developed to design and qualify supports for two-inch and smaller pipe operating at temperatures less than 300 0 F (185 0 C), on the Fast Flux Test Facility. Use of standard designs, standard support spacing tables, anchor bolt and baseplate considerations, and field qualification methods are discussed

  11. ATLAS Metadata Interface (AMI), a generic metadata framework

    CERN Document Server

    Fulachier, Jerome; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Metadata Interface (AMI) is a mature application of more than 15 years of existence. Mainly used by the ATLAS experiment at CERN, it consists of a very generic tool ecosystem for metadata aggregation and cataloguing. We briefly describe the architecture, the main services and the benefits of using AMI in big collaborations, especially for high energy physics. We focus on the recent improvements, for instance: the lightweight clients (Python, Javascript, C++), the new smart task server system and the Web 2.0 AMI framework for simplifying the development of metadata-oriented web interfaces.

  12. Poster: A modern Python interface for the Generic Mapping Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Uieda, Leonardo; Wessel, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Poster presentation at the AGU Fall Meeting 2017.Abstract: IN51B-0018Inkscape source files for the poster and a Jupyter notebook with the demo are on the Github repository: github.com/leouieda/agu2017 The demo notebook can be run online using the MyBinder service: agu2017demo.gmtpython.xyzAbstractFigures generated by The Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) are present in countless publications across the Earth sciences. The command-line interface of GMT lends the tool its flexibility bu...

  13. Multiword expressions acquisition a generic and open framework

    CERN Document Server

    Ramisch, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    ?This book is an excellent introduction to multiword expressions. It provides a unique, comprehensive and up-to-date overview of this exciting topic in computational linguistics. The first part describes the diversity and richness of multiword expressions, including many examples in several languages. These constructions are not only complex and arbitrary, but also much more frequent than one would guess, making them a real nightmare for natural language processing applications.  The second part introduces a new generic framework for automatic acquisition of multiword expressions from texts.

  14. ATLAS Metadata Interface (AMI), a generic metadata framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulachier, J.; Odier, J.; Lambert, F.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The ATLAS Metadata Interface (AMI) is a mature application of more than 15 years of existence. Mainly used by the ATLAS experiment at CERN, it consists of a very generic tool ecosystem for metadata aggregation and cataloguing. We briefly describe the architecture, the main services and the benefits of using AMI in big collaborations, especially for high energy physics. We focus on the recent improvements, for instance: the lightweight clients (Python, JavaScript, C++), the new smart task server system and the Web 2.0 AMI framework for simplifying the development of metadata-oriented web interfaces.

  15. Phase transitions in restricted Boltzmann machines with generic priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Adriano; Genovese, Giuseppe; Sollich, Peter; Tantari, Daniele

    2017-10-01

    We study generalized restricted Boltzmann machines with generic priors for units and weights, interpolating between Boolean and Gaussian variables. We present a complete analysis of the replica symmetric phase diagram of these systems, which can be regarded as generalized Hopfield models. We underline the role of the retrieval phase for both inference and learning processes and we show that retrieval is robust for a large class of weight and unit priors, beyond the standard Hopfield scenario. Furthermore, we show how the paramagnetic phase boundary is directly related to the optimal size of the training set necessary for good generalization in a teacher-student scenario of unsupervised learning.

  16. Generic sorting of raft lipids into secretory vesicles in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surma, Michal A; Klose, Christian; Klemm, Robin W

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has showed that ergosterol and sphingolipids become sorted to secretory vesicles immunoisolated using a chimeric, artificial raft membrane protein as bait. In this study, we have extended this analysis to three populations of secretory vesicles isolated using natural yeast plasma...... a complete lipid overview of the yeast late secretory pathway. We could show that vesicles captured with different baits carry the same cargo and have almost identical lipid compositions; being highly enriched in ergosterol and sphingolipids. This finding indicates that lipid raft sorting is a generic...

  17. PRA-Code Upgrade to Handle a Generic Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    During the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, a problem came up that could not be handled by most PRA computer codes. This problem deals with dependencies between sequential events in time. Two similar scenarios that illustrate this problem are LOOP nonrecovery and sequential wearout failures with units of time. The purpose of this paper is twofold: To explain the problem generically, and to show how the PRA code at the INEEL, SAPHIRE, has been modified to solve this problem correctly

  18. ATLAS Metadata Interface (AMI), a generic metadata framework

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)573735; The ATLAS collaboration; Odier, Jerome; Lambert, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Metadata Interface (AMI) is a mature application of more than 15 years of existence. Mainly used by the ATLAS experiment at CERN, it consists of a very generic tool ecosystem for metadata aggregation and cataloguing. We briefly describe the architecture, the main services and the benefits of using AMI in big collaborations, especially for high energy physics. We focus on the recent improvements, for instance: the lightweight clients (Python, JavaScript, C++), the new smart task server system and the Web 2.0 AMI framework for simplifying the development of metadata-oriented web interfaces.

  19. Development of an Enhanced Generic Data Mining Life Cycle (DMLC)

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Markus; Tierney, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    Data mining projects are complex and have a high failure rate. In order to improve project management and success rates of such projects a life cycle is vital to the overall success of the project. This paper reports on a research project that was concerned with the life cycle development for large scale data mining projects. The paper provides a detailed view of the design and development of a generic data mining life cycle called DMLC. The life cycle aims to support all members of data mini...

  20. Cosmological N -body simulations with generic hot dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandbyge, Jacob; Hannestad, Steen, E-mail: jacobb@phys.au.dk, E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade 120, DK–8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2017-10-01

    We have calculated the non-linear effects of generic fermionic and bosonic hot dark matter components in cosmological N -body simulations. For sub-eV masses, the non-linear power spectrum suppression caused by thermal free-streaming resembles the one seen for massive neutrinos, whereas for masses larger than 1 eV, the non-linear relative suppression of power is smaller than in linear theory. We furthermore find that in the non-linear regime, one can map fermionic to bosonic models by performing a simple transformation.

  1. Stability of generic thin shells in conformally flat spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirabi, Z. [Eastern Mediterranean Univ., Gazimagusa (Turkey). Dept. of Physics

    2017-07-15

    Some important spacetimes are conformally flat; examples are the Robertson-Walker cosmological metric, the Einstein-de Sitter spacetime, and the Levi-Civita-Bertotti-Robinson and Mannheim metrics. In this paper we construct generic thin shells in conformally flat spacetime supported by a perfect fluid with a linear equation of state, i.e., p = ωσ. It is shown that, for the physical domain of ω, i.e., 0 < ω ≤ 1, such thin shells are not dynamically stable. The stability of the timelike thin shells with the Mannheim spacetime as the outer region is also investigated. (orig.)

  2. Exploring community pharmacists' views on generic medicines: a nationwide study from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Chee Ping; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Bahari, Mohd Baidi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the Malaysian community pharmacists' views on generic medicines. A sample of 1419 Malaysian community pharmacies with resident pharmacists. A cross-sectional nationwide survey using a self-completed mailing questionnaire. Pharmacists' views on generic medicines including issues surrounding efficacy, safety, quality and bioequivalence. Responses were received from 219 pharmacies (response rate 15.4%). Only 50.2% of the surveyed pharmacists agreed that all products that are approved as generic equivalents can be considered therapeutically equivalent with the innovator medicines. Around 76% of respondents indicated that generic substitution of narrow therapeutic index medicines is inappropriate. The majority of the pharmacists understood that a generic medicine must contain the same amount of active ingredient (84.5%) and must be in the same dosage form as the innovator brand (71.7%). About 21% of respondents though that generic medicines are of inferior quality compared to innovator medicines. Most of the pharmacists (61.6%) disagreed that generic medicines produce more side-effects than innovator brand. Pharmacists graduated from Malaysian universities, twinning program and overseas universities were not differed significantly in their views on generic medicines. Additionally, the respondents appeared to have difficulty in ascertaining the bioequivalent status of the marketed generic products in Malaysia. The Malaysian pharmacists' have lack of information and/or trust in the generic manufacturing and/or approval system in Malaysia. This issue should be addressed by pharmacy educators and relevant government agencies.

  3. Factors affecting the opinions of family physicians regarding generic drugs – a questionnaire based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Lewek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A range of factors are believed to exert a negative influence on opinions of physicians about generic drugs.The aim of this study was to survey the opinions of primary care doctors on generics, and determine the factors which may affect them. A questionnaire comprising thirty eight questions was distributed among primary care doctors working in seventy out-patient clinics of the Lodzkie province, Poland, during the period of January 1, 2010 – December 31, 2010. A total of170 of 183 participants completed the survey (average age 48.5; 70.0% women: a 92.9%response rate. While 38.8% of physicians claimed that generics were worse than brand name drugs, 54.1% considered them to be better. However, 36.5% of the doctors did not choose generics for their own use. Two key opinions were identified among the responses concerning the effectiveness of generic drugs: use of generic drugs by the physician (p<0.001, and their opinion that pharmacists do inform patients about generic drugs (p<0.05. Although existing evidence confirms that generic and brand name drugs are equally effective, many physicians doubt this, which prevents them from being used as cost effective drug therapy. In order to increase healthcare savings through the use of generics, these factors should be addressed: for example, convincing a physician to adopt generics for personal use may be an efficient way to support more cost effective treatment of his patients.

  4. An evaluation of consumers' knowledge, perceptions and attitudes regarding generic medicines in Auckland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din; Stewart, Joanna; Reddy, Shiwangni; Alzaher, Woroud; Vareed, Prateeka; Yacoub, Nineweh; Dhroptee, Bandhana; Rew, Anne

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this project was to evaluate the perceptions, knowledge and attitudes regarding generic medicines. A cross-sectional study, with self administered questionnaires, was conducted to survey consumers visiting pharmacies in four regions of Auckland (North Shore, Waitakere, Central Auckland and South Auckland). Through stratified random sampling, approximately 10% of pharmacies from each region were selected, which turn out to be 30 pharmacies. Every alternate customer coming to the pharmacy, who was eligible to participate in the study, was asked by the researchers to complete the questionnaire. A total of 441 questionnaires were included in the analysis. Different response rates were obtained in different regions of Auckland. Of all respondents, 51.6% had previous knowledge of generic medicines. Pharmacists were the main source of information regarding generic medicines followed by doctors and media. A higher level of education had a direct relationship with having correct knowledge of generics (P = .002). Attitude of participants toward the use of generic medicines was determined by their knowledge of generics, whether it was recommended by a pharmacist and their type of illness. Participants were more prepared to change to a generic for a minor illness (79%) than for a major illness (58.7%). Those who had better knowledge were more likely than those with poor knowledge to say they would to use a generic in major illness (P = .001) as well as minor illness (P < .0001). Previous positive experiences with generics also determined consumers' willingness to use generics. Many consumers have misconceptions regarding generic medicines. Having knowledge about generics and the advice by doctors and pharmacists are key indicators to improve the quality use of generic medicines.

  5. Using design science in educational technology research projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Chard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Design science is a research paradigm where the development and evaluation of a technology artefact is a key contribution. Design science is used in many domains and this paper draws on those domains to formulate a generic structure for design science research suitable for educational technology research projects. The paper includes guidelines for writing proposals using the design science research methodology for educational technology research and presents a generic research report structure. The paper presents ethical issues to consider in design science research being conducted in educational settings and contributes guidelines for assessment when the research contribution involves the creation of a technology artefact.

  6. Development of the generic drug industry in the US after the Hatch-Waxman Act of 1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Boehm

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The key events in the development of the US generic drug industry after the Hatch-Waxman Act of 1984 are systematically reviewed, including the process of approval for generic drugs, bioequivalence issues including “switchability”, bioequivalence for complicated dosage forms, patent extension, generic drug safety, generic substitution and low-cost generics. The backlog in generic review, generic drug user fees, and “quality by design” for generic drugs is also discussed. The evolution of the US generic drug industry after the Hatch-Waxman Act in 1984 has afforded several lessons of great benefit to other countries wishing to establish or re-establish a domestic generic drug industry.

  7. Generic Bell inequalities for multipartite mulit-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, W.; Lee, J.; Kim, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We present generic Bell inequalities for multipartite multi-dimensional systems. They utilize the set of measurements, which are coincident with the generalized version of Greenberger, Horne and Zeilinger (GHZ) paradox. The inequalities that must be satisfied by any local realistic theories are violated by quantum mechanics for even-dimensional multipartite systems. It is also shown that the maximal violation of the inequality is obtained by the generalized GHZ state, which is true multi-body nonseparable state. As a special case for the multipartite two-dimensional systems, it can be shown that the inequality agrees with Bell-Mermin version of inequality. Large sets of variants are shown to naturally emerge from the generic Bell inequalities. We will discuss the particular variants of Bell inequalities that are violated for all the systems including odd-dimensional multipartite systems. Interestingly the variants can be reduced into the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality as well as Ardehali inequality. (author)

  8. Evolution of the Generic Lock System at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brian Bevins; Yves Roblin

    2003-01-01

    The Generic Lock system is a software framework that allows highly flexible feedback control of large distributed systems. It allows system operators to implement new feedback loops between arbitrary process variables quickly and with no disturbance to the underlying control system. Several different types of feedback loops are provided and more are being added. This paper describes the further evolution of the system since it was first presented at ICALEPCS 2001 and reports on two years of successful use in accelerator operations. The framework has been enhanced in several key ways. Multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) lock types have been added for accelerator orbit and energy stabilization. The general purpose Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) locks can now be tuned automatically. The generic lock server now makes use of the Proxy IOC (PIOC) developed at Jefferson Lab to allow the locks to be monitored from any EPICS Channel Access aware client. (Previously clients had to be Cdev aware.) The dependency on the Qt XML parser has been replaced with the freely available Xerces DOM parser from the Apache project

  9. Scaling Limits and Generic Bounds for Exploration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermolen, Paola; Jonckheere, Matthieu; Sanders, Jaron

    2017-12-01

    We consider exploration algorithms of the random sequential adsorption type both for homogeneous random graphs and random geometric graphs based on spatial Poisson processes. At each step, a vertex of the graph becomes active and its neighboring nodes become blocked. Given an initial number of vertices N growing to infinity, we study statistical properties of the proportion of explored (active or blocked) nodes in time using scaling limits. We obtain exact limits for homogeneous graphs and prove an explicit central limit theorem for the final proportion of active nodes, known as the jamming constant, through a diffusion approximation for the exploration process which can be described as a unidimensional process. We then focus on bounding the trajectories of such exploration processes on random geometric graphs, i.e., random sequential adsorption. As opposed to exploration processes on homogeneous random graphs, these do not allow for such a dimensional reduction. Instead we derive a fundamental relationship between the number of explored nodes and the discovered volume in the spatial process, and we obtain generic bounds for the fluid limit and jamming constant: bounds that are independent of the dimension of space and the detailed shape of the volume associated to the discovered node. Lastly, using coupling techinques, we give trajectorial interpretations of the generic bounds.

  10. THE GENERIC NAMES PROPOSED FOR HYMENOMYCETES—I "Cyphellaceae"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. DONK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. The present paper is the first of a series intended to deal from a nomenclatural point of view with all the generic names proposed for Hymenomycetes. For each name the following items are considered: (i its etymology and gender, (ii the original scope of the corresponding genus, and, in case of the name being- an isonym,also of the group covered by its basinym; (iii the type species, which when not originally designated, is selected; (iv its basinym, synisonyms, homonyms, typonyms,and variant spellings, if any, are indicated; (v its status under the Rules is determined;and (vi supplementary remarks are given when these are deemed useful.2. This first instalment deals with "Cyphellaceae," a group defined in a con-ventional, rather descriptive, manner, not as a taxonomic unit.3. A new generic name, Stromatoscypha Donk, is introduced for Porothelium(Pr. ex Fr. Fr.4. The following new combinations are made: Aleurodiscus digitalis (A. & S.ex Fr. Donk [basinym: Cyphella digitalis (A. & S. ex Fr.], and Stromatoscyphafimbriata (Pers. ex Fr. Donk [basinym: Polyporus fimbriatus (Pers. ex Fr.].

  11. EPRI spearheads generic PM recommendations for infrastructure equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, David H.; Hinchcliffe, Glenn R.; Benak, Mark S.; Bridges, Martin

    2007-01-01

    All companies have at their core a vast amount of similar equipment that would benefit from solid preventive maintenance (PM) recommendations that are generic and easily adapted to meet operational conditions. The re-emergence of PM optimization methods like Reliability Centered Maintenance, further illustrates that companies in all industries recognize the positive influence that a well-focused maintenance program has on the corporate bottom line. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has long been a leader in providing universally adaptable maintenance solutions to meet the evolving needs of its membership. Nearly ten years ago, EPRI began developing the PM Basis Database, a one-of-a-kind repository of PM recommendations for basic infrastructure components (such as pumps, motors, valves, compressors), derived from equipment experts. EPRI has now made available this comprehensive body of knowledge to all industries. This paper will explore the origins and structure of the database, how these generic PM recommendations benefit every industry, and how they may be obtained. (author)

  12. Generic Accounting and Reporting Software for Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaernry, C.

    2010-01-01

    This poster will give a general description of a generic accounting and reporting software for research reactors. The program has been designed to be a powerful working tool for the operator. The software is designed to be extremely easy to handle and at the same time give the operator the maximal power of searches, calculations and reports that a modern advanced system can produce. The systems are designed to take make the relevant accountancy for the site and perform the reporting to IAEA in Code 10. Generic software for accounting and reporting for research and other smaller facilities is something that has been asked for by many parties. Software like this could be distributed to facilities in need of a powerful accountancy and reporting system for a much lower cost than the systems that is now custom made for these facilities. This will greatly increase the quality of accountancy at these facilities and the quality of the reporting to IAEA and other state offices etc. The software is based on our advanced custom made software series 'STAR' that has been in use in many places for more than a decade with successful use. (author)

  13. GOoDA: The Generic Optimization Data Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calafiura, P; Vitillo, R A; Eranian, S; Levinthal, D; Kama, S

    2012-01-01

    Modern superscalar, out-of-order microprocessors dominate large scale server computing. Monitoring their activity, during program execution, has become complicated due to the complexity of the microarchitectures and their IO interactions. Recent processors have thousands of performance monitoring events. These are required to actually provide coverage for all of the complex interactions and performance issues that can occur. Knowing which data to collect and how to interpret the results has become an unreasonable burden for code developers whose tasks are already hard enough. It becomes the task of the analysis tool developer to bridge this gap. To address this issue, a generic decomposition of how a microprocessor is using the consumed cycles allows code developers to quickly understand which of the myriad of microarchitectural complexities they are battling, without requiring a detailed knowledge of the microarchitecture. When this approach is intrinsically integrated into a performance data analysis tool, it enables software developers to take advantage of the microarchitectural methodology that has only been available to experts. The Generic Optimization Data Analyzer (GOoDA) project integrates this expertise into a profiling tool in order to lower the required expertise of the user and, being designed from the ground up with large-scale object-oriented applications in mind, it will be particularly useful for large HENP codebases

  14. Generic simplified simulation model for DFIG with active crowbar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buendia, Francisco Jimenez [Gamesa Innovation and Technology, Sarriguren, Navarra (Spain). Technology Dept.; Barrasa Gordo, Borja [Assystem Iberia, Bilbao, Vizcaya (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    Simplified models for transient stability studies are a general requirement for transmission system operators to wind turbine (WTG) manufacturers. Those models must represent the performance of the WTGs for transient stability studies, mainly voltage dips originated by short circuits in the electrical network. Those models are implemented in simulation software as PSS/E, DigSilent or PSLF. Those software platforms allow simulation of transients in large electrical networks with thousands of busses, generators and loads. The high complexity of the grid requires that the models inserted into the grid should be simplified in order to allow the simulations being executed as fast as possible. The development of a model which is simplified enough to be integrated in those complex grids and represent the performance of WTG is a challenge. The IEC TC88 working group has developed generic models for different types of generators, among others for WTGs using doubly fed induction generators (DFIG). This paper will focus in an extension of the models for DFIG WTGs developed in IEC in order to be able to represent the simplified model of DFIG with an active crowbar, which is required to withstand voltage dips without disconnecting from the grid. This paper improves current generic model of Type 3 for DFIG adding a simplified version of the generator including crowbar functionality and a simplified version of the crowbar firing. In addition, this simplified model is validated by correlation with voltage dip field test from a real wind turbine. (orig.)

  15. [Performance of Slovak hospitals as related to Porter's generic strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavacka, S; Bacharova, L; Rusnakova, V; Wagner, R

    2001-01-01

    Porter's generic strategies characterize organizations in terms of their competitiveness, and are related to the performance of the organization. The aim of this study was to analyze the Porter's generic strategies and their effect on performance in the context of the Slovak hospital industry. Acute care hospitals with more than 30 beds were included into the study. National institutes providing specialized service were excluded from the study. Strategy and performance were evaluated on the basis of self-reported questionnaires, completed by chief administrators of hospitals (total 76 completed questionnaires were obtained, out of 81 distributed, i.e. 94% response rate). The cluster analysis was used for the identification of strategic orientation. Performance differences across strategic groups were tested using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). The hierarchical cluster analysis uncovered a four-group taxonomy of hospitals: the group "Focused Cost Leadership" included 33% of hospitals, the group "Stuck-in-the middle" 49%, the group "Wait and See" 13% and the group "Cost leadership" 5%. Significant differences in performance were related to the Porter's pure, or hybrid strategies, respectively. In terms of industry evolution, the Slovak hospital industry could be characterized as fragmented, having a large number of small and medium size mainly state owned hospitals, with absence of market leaders, and with high exit barriers (mainly social and political) that hold back consolidation. (Tab. 1, Ref. 35.).

  16. Performance implications of Porter's generic strategies in Slovak hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavacka, S; Bacharova, L; Rusnakova, V; Wagner, R

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the use of Porter's generic strategies and their effect on performance in the context of the Slovak hospital industry. Using mail survey the study first identified the natural taxonomy of four strategic types of Slovak hospitals, based on their use of Porter's generic strategies in pure form and in combination. Next the study examined whether different strategic types were associated with different levels of organisational performance, while controlling for such variables as size and location, which have been argued to influence the hospital performance. The findings indicate that hospitals which follow a "stuck-in-the-middle" strategy, in general, have superior performance on all used performance measures, while hospitals that place only low emphasis on cost leadership, differentiation and focus, labelled "wait and see" in this study, perform the poorest. The study concludes that the research provided body of knowledge relevant for the Slovak hospital industry, that may be used by hospital managers in the strategy formulation process as well as by the researches in exploring the influence of different contingencies on hospitals' strategic orientation.

  17. Environmental Technology Verification: Supplement to Test/QA Plan for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners; Bioaerosol Inactivation Efficiency by HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Air Cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center has selected general ventilation air cleaners as a technology area. The Generic Verification Protocol for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners is on the Environmental Technology Verification we...

  18. Predictors of generic substitution: The role of psychological, sociodemographic, and contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdowska, Aleksandra; Hermanowski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Escalating pharmaceutical costs have become a global challenge for both governments and patients. Generic substitution is one way of decreasing these costs. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with patients' choice between generic drugs and innovator drugs. The survey was conducted in June 2013, 1000 people from across Poland were chosen as a representative population sample. The outcome (a preference for generics/a preference for innovator pharmaceuticals/no preference) was modeled by multinomial logistic regression, adjusted for several variables describing patients' sensitivity to selected generic features (price, brand, and country of origin), to third-party opinions about generics (information on generics in the mass media, opinions of health professionals (i.e. physicians, pharmacists), relatives/friends), as well as patients' personal experiences and income per household. The results supported the predictive capacity of most independent variables (except for patient sensitivity to the country of origin and to the information on generics in the mass media), denoting patients' preferences toward generic substitution. Patient sensitivity to recommendations by physicians, generic brand, and household income were the strongest predictors of the choice between generic and innovator pharmaceuticals (P brand or their physician's opinion, as well as in respondents who were sensitive to recommendations by pharmacists or attached a greater value to a past experience with generics (their own experience or that of relatives/friends). In consideration of the foregoing, awareness-raising campaigns may be recommended, supported by a variety of systemic solutions and tools to encourage generic substitution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Generic medications for you, but brand-name medications for me.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenum, Amy J; Devoe, Jennifer E; Chisolm, Deena J; Wallace, Lorraine S

    2012-01-01

    Because generic medications are less expensive than brand-name medications, government and private insurers have encouraged and/or mandated the use of generics. This study aimed at evaluating perceptions about generic medications among English-speaking women of childbearing age currently enrolled in U.S. TennCare (Medicaid). We recruited a convenience sample of patients from the waiting room of a primary care/gynecology health clinic, with 80% recruitment rate among those approached. We orally administered a 25-item questionnaire to gather sociodemographic information and to assess beliefs regarding the efficacy, safety, cost, and preferences for personal use of generic medications. The average age of the women (n=172) was 28.8 ± 6.4 years, and most were white (82.0%) and currently married (58.1%). Nearly one-fifth (19.2%) had not completed high school. Most women believed that generic medications were less expensive (97.6%) and better value (60.5%) than brand-name medications, but only 45.3% preferred to take generics themselves. About a quarter (23.3%) believed that brand-name medications were more effective than generics, whereas 13.4% believed that generics caused more side effects. Few women reported that their doctor (29.7%) and/or pharmacist (35.5%) had ever talked to them about taking generics. Awareness of the benefits of generics did not equal preferences for personal use of generics among this sample of women enrolled in U.S. TennCare. Furthermore, women reported that providers-both physicians and pharmacists-infrequently discussed generic substitution with them. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Interventions promoting the acceptance and uptake of generic medicines: a narrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Z U D; Kan, S W; Scahill, S

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this paper was to undertake a narrative review of the literature regarding strategies and interventions promoting the acceptance and uptake of generic medicines. A literature search was performed between November 2011 and January 2012 to identify published full text original research articles documenting interventions to promote the use of generic medicines. Keywords used were: "generic medicine", "generic drug", "intervention", "promotion", "acceptance", "uptake", "generic/therapeutic substitution" and their related root words. The electronic databases comprised of Embase (1980 - present), Google, Google Scholar, Medline (1948 - present), PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Springer Link and The Cochrane Library. An interpretative narrative synthesis was undertaken and emergent themes analysed and reported. Eighteen studies were included in the final analysis. There were seven main themes which including; education, financial incentives, advertising to promote generic medicines, free generic medicine trials, administrative forms and medicines use review (MUR). These themes were further classified into subthemes. Education was subdivided into consumer and physician education. Financial incentives included the influence of financial incentives on both consumers and physicians. The subthemes in the financial incentives category included the changes in co-payment for consumers, reward payment for physicians and fund-holding schemes. Advertising included the sub-themes of print media and the use of anthropomorphic images, while free generic medicines trial was made up of free vouchers for generic medicines and generic medicines sampling system. The studies have mixed results; some interventions in some settings were useful, while others were not. Not all interventions consistently improved the uptake of generic medicines. There was limited literature available and further work is required to develop a range of interventions to support the uptake of generic

  1. Factors influencing the preference for purchasing generic drugs in a Southern Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Cruz Guttier

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with the preference for purchasing generic drugs in a medium-sized municipality in Southern Brazil. METHODS We have analyzed data from a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2012 with a sample of 2,856 adults (≥ 20 years old. The preference for purchasing generic drugs was the main outcome. The explanatory variables were the demographic and socioeconomic variables. Statistical analyses included Poisson regressions. RESULTS The preference for purchasing generic drugs was 63.2% (95%CI 61.4–64.9. The variables correlated with this preference in the fully adjusted models were: male (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.08; 95%CI 1.03–1.14, age of 20–39 years (PR = 1.10; 95%CI 1.02–1.20, low socioeconomic status (PR = 1.15; 95%CI 1.03–1.28, and good knowledge about generic drugs (PR= 4.66; 95%CI 2.89–7.52. Among those who preferred to purchase generic drugs, 55.1% have reported accepting to replace the prescribed drug (if not a generic with the equivalent generic drug. Another correlate of the preference for purchasing generic drugs was because individuals consider their quality equivalent to reference medicines (PR = 2.15; 95%CI 1.93–2.41. CONCLUSIONS Knowledge about generic drugs was the main correlate of the preference for purchasing generic drugs. The greater the knowledge or positive perception about generic drugs, the greater is the preference to purchase them. Therefore, educational campaigns for healthcare professionals and consumers appear to be the best strategy for expanding the use of generic drugs in Brazil.

  2. Factors influencing the preference for purchasing generic drugs in a Southern Brazilian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttier, Marília Cruz; Silveira, Marysabel Pinto Telis; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso

    2017-06-26

    The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with the preference for purchasing generic drugs in a medium-sized municipality in Southern Brazil. We have analyzed data from a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2012 with a sample of 2,856 adults (≥ 20 years old). The preference for purchasing generic drugs was the main outcome. The explanatory variables were the demographic and socioeconomic variables. Statistical analyses included Poisson regressions. The preference for purchasing generic drugs was 63.2% (95%CI 61.4-64.9). The variables correlated with this preference in the fully adjusted models were: male (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.08; 95%CI 1.03-1.14), age of 20-39 years (PR = 1.10; 95%CI 1.02-1.20), low socioeconomic status (PR = 1.15; 95%CI 1.03-1.28), and good knowledge about generic drugs (PR= 4.66; 95%CI 2.89-7.52). Among those who preferred to purchase generic drugs, 55.1% have reported accepting to replace the prescribed drug (if not a generic) with the equivalent generic drug. Another correlate of the preference for purchasing generic drugs was because individuals consider their quality equivalent to reference medicines (PR = 2.15; 95%CI 1.93-2.41). Knowledge about generic drugs was the main correlate of the preference for purchasing generic drugs. The greater the knowledge or positive perception about generic drugs, the greater is the preference to purchase them. Therefore, educational campaigns for healthcare professionals and consumers appear to be the best strategy for expanding the use of generic drugs in Brazil.

  3. 76 FR 28994 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; A Generic Submission for Formative Research, Pre...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... displays a currently valid OMB control number. Proposed Collection: Title: A Generic Submission for... advocates; members of the public; health care professionals; organizational representatives. Table 1...

  4. 78 FR 69703 - 10-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Generic Customer Satisfaction Surveys; Physical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5683-N-102] 10-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Generic Customer Satisfaction Surveys; Physical Inspection Pilot Program...

  5. Analysis of Knowledge Level and Perception on Singkawang City Community towards Generic Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forid Morison

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Survey data show that the use of generic medicines in Indonesia is relatively very small, which only amounted 7%. This is due to lack of knowledge and poor perceptions towards generic medicines. Knowledge level and perceptions towards generic medicines are inflenced by community characteristics and information resource regarding generic medicines. The aim of this study was to determine the association between community characteristic and information resources with knowledge level and perception towards generic medicines. This study was an analytical survey with cross-sectional descriptive approach on 142 selected respondents who were fulfi inclusion and exclusion criteria. This study was conducted in June 2014 at several randomly selected locations on Singkawang City. The study show that 76 respondents (53.5% had inadequate knowledge and 123 respondents (86.6% had a good perception towards generic medicines. There is signifiant relationship between ethnicity (p=0.000 and information resources (p=0.009 with knowledge level regarding generic medicines at signifiance level of p<0.05. Although good perceptions were noted among the respondents, widespread dissemination of information regarding generic medicines should be continued to increase generic medicines used.

  6. Pharmaceutical quality of docetaxel generics versus originator drug product: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Jérôme; Cohen, Mélanie; Sassiat, Patrick; Thiébaut, Didier

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of 31 commercially available generic formulations of docetaxel purchased in 14 countries by comparing their docetaxel content, impurity levels and pH versus those of the proprietary product Taxotere (Tx). Generic formulations were purchased in 14 countries in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America. Levels of docetaxel and impurities (chromatographic peaks above 0.05%) were obtained for each sample using reverse-phase liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The pH of aqueous solutions of generic docetaxel formulations and Tx was also measured. A global evaluation of quality was conducted on each product using a multicriteria desirability analysis based on standards defined by the International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines and the US Pharmacopeia paclitaxel injection monograph. Most generic formulations contained a lower than expected amount of docetaxel and/or a high level of impurities: 21 generic docetaxel formulations had an average mass of docetaxel that was generic docetaxel formulations had a total impurity content of >3.0%, almost twice the level of impurities in Tx 20 mg. In total, 33 impurities not present in Tx were detected in the generic samples. Desirability analysis demonstrated that none of the generic docetaxel formulations had composition characteristics similar to those of Tx. This study demonstrated that from an analytical point of view, 90% of the generic docetaxel formulations evaluated contained insufficient active drug, high levels of impurities or both. This has the potential to affect both efficacy and safety of the drug.

  7. Use of permanent magnets in accelerator technology: Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, K.

    1987-01-01

    Permanent magnet systems have some generic properties that, under some circumstances, make them not only mildy preferable over electromagnets, but make it possible to do things that can not be done with any other technology. After a general discussion of these generic advantages, some specific permanent magnet systems will be described. Special emphasis will be placed on systems that have now, or are likely to have in the future, a significant impact on how some materials research is conducted

  8. Generic Challenges and Automation Solutions in Manufacturing SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grube Hansen, David; Malik, Ali Ahmad; Bilberg, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Evermore research is conducted on smart manufacturing, digital manufacturing and other aspects of what is expected from the fourth industrial revolution known as Industry 4.0. Most of the research of Industry 4.0 is currently a better fit for large corporations than for SMEs, which in Europe...... of the project, identifies a correlation between the challenges, age and size of the companies. The identified correlation lay ground for an Industry 4.0 light concept, targeting the identified generic challenges of companies employing 10-50 people. The solutions presented are based on cloud computing, Internet...... however represent 98% of the manufacturing industry. In general, SMEs produce high-mix low-volume products, which require a high degree of flexibility. Historically flexibility and automation have been contradictory, but as automation becomes smarter, digitalized and less expensive, this may change which...

  9. Quantum process estimation via generic two-body correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohseni, M.; Rezakhani, A. T.; Barreiro, J. T.; Kwiat, P. G.; Aspuru-Guzik, A.

    2010-01-01

    Performance of quantum process estimation is naturally limited by fundamental, random, and systematic imperfections of preparations and measurements. These imperfections may lead to considerable errors in the process reconstruction because standard data-analysis techniques usually presume ideal devices. Here, by utilizing generic auxiliary quantum or classical correlations, we provide a framework for the estimation of quantum dynamics via a single measurement apparatus. By construction, this approach can be applied to quantum tomography schemes with calibrated faulty-state generators and analyzers. Specifically, we present a generalization of the work begun by M. Mohseni and D. A. Lidar [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 170501 (2006)] with an imperfect Bell-state analyzer. We demonstrate that for several physically relevant noisy preparations and measurements, classical correlations and a small data-processing overhead suffice to accomplish the full system identification. Furthermore, we provide the optimal input states whereby the error amplification due to inversion of the measurement data is minimal.

  10. Radiation analysis for a generic centralized interim storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, S.G.; Lopez, P.; Eble, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper documents the radiation analysis performed for the storage area of a generic Centralized Interim Storage Facility (CISF) for commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The purpose of the analysis is to establish the CISF Protected Area and Restricted Area boundaries by modeling a representative SNF storage array, calculating the radiation dose at selected locations outside the storage area, and comparing the results with regulatory radiation dose limits. The particular challenge for this analysis is to adequately model a large (6000 cask) storage array with a reasonable amount of analysis time and effort. Previous analyses of SNF storage systems for Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations at nuclear plant sites (for example in References 5.1 and 5.2) had only considered small arrays of storage casks. For such analyses, the dose contribution from each storage cask can be modeled individually. Since the large number of casks in the CISF storage array make such an approach unrealistic, a simplified model is required

  11. Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Volker; Stanoevska-Slabeva, Katarina

    The huge demand for situational and ad-hoc applications desired by the mass of business end users led to a new kind of Web applications, well-known as Enterprise Mashups. Users with no or limited programming skills are empowered to leverage in a collaborative manner existing Mashup components by combining and reusing company internal and external resources within minutes to new value added applications. Thereby, Enterprise Mashup environments interact as intermediaries to match the supply of providers and demand of consumers. By following the design science approach, we propose an interaction phase model artefact based on market transaction phases to structure required intermediary features. By means of five case studies, we demonstrate the application of the designed model and identify three generic business model types for Enterprise Mashups intermediaries (directory, broker, and marketplace). So far, intermediaries following a real marketplace business model don’t exist in context of Enterprise Mashups and require further research for this emerging paradigm.

  12. Generic distortion model for metrology under optical microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingjian; Li, Zhongwei; Zhong, Kai; Chao, YuhJin; Miraldo, Pedro; Shi, Yusheng

    2018-04-01

    For metrology under optical microscopes, lens distortion is the dominant source of error. Previous distortion models and correction methods mostly rely on the assumption that parametric distortion models require a priori knowledge of the microscopes' lens systems. However, because of the numerous optical elements in a microscope, distortions can be hardly represented by a simple parametric model. In this paper, a generic distortion model considering both symmetric and asymmetric distortions is developed. Such a model is obtained by using radial basis functions (RBFs) to interpolate the radius and distortion values of symmetric distortions (image coordinates and distortion rays for asymmetric distortions). An accurate and easy to implement distortion correction method is presented. With the proposed approach, quantitative measurement with better accuracy can be achieved, such as in Digital Image Correlation for deformation measurement when used with an optical microscope. The proposed technique is verified by both synthetic and real data experiments.

  13. Generic vortex modelling for horizontal-axis wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, D.H.

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes a generic free-wake calculation of wind turbine wakes. The expanding, helical, tip vortices are represented by a sequence of straight segments, the blades are modelled as lines of constant bound vorticity, and the hub vortices lie along the axis of rotation. It is shown that this model is consistent with the one-dimensional analysis that leads to the Lanchester-Betz limit, in that the velocity in the far-wake is uniform with radius. Particular attention is paid to turbines operating above the Lanchester-Betz limit. It is shown that the usual relationship between the velocity through the blades and in the far-wake breaks down when there is significant wake expansion, and an empirical modification to that relation is presented. For highly expanding wakes, the dynamics of the turbine depend sensitively on the behaviour of the tip vortices. (author)

  14. Complexity of generic biochemical circuits: topology versus strength of interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Mikhail; Bialek, William

    2016-12-01

    The historical focus on network topology as a determinant of biological function is still largely maintained today, illustrated by the rise of structure-only approaches to network analysis. However, biochemical circuits and genetic regulatory networks are defined both by their topology and by a multitude of continuously adjustable parameters, such as the strength of interactions between nodes, also recognized as important. Here we present a class of simple perceptron-based Boolean models within which comparing the relative importance of topology versus interaction strengths becomes a quantitatively well-posed problem. We quantify the intuition that for generic networks, optimization of interaction strengths is a crucial ingredient of achieving high complexity, defined here as the number of fixed points the network can accommodate. We propose a new methodology for characterizing the relative role of parameter optimization for topologies of a given class.

  15. Persistence-Driven Durotaxis: Generic, Directed Motility in Rigidity Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, Elizaveta A.; Raab, Matthew; Discher, Dennis E.; Storm, Cornelis

    2017-02-01

    Cells move differently on substrates with different rigidities: the persistence time of their motion is higher on stiffer substrates. We show that this behavior—in and of itself—results in a net flux of cells directed up a soft-to-stiff gradient. Using simple random walk models with varying persistence and stochastic simulations, we characterize the propensity to move in terms of the durotactic index also measured in experiments. A one-dimensional model captures the essential features and highlights the competition between diffusive spreading and linear, wavelike propagation. Persistence-driven durokinesis is generic and may be of use in the design of instructive environments for cells and other motile, mechanosensitive objects.

  16. Control Design for a Generic Commercial Aircraft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csank, Jeffrey; May, Ryan D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the control algorithms and control design process for a generic commercial aircraft engine simulation of a 40,000 lb thrust class, two spool, high bypass ratio turbofan engine. The aircraft engine is a complex nonlinear system designed to operate over an extreme range of environmental conditions, at temperatures from approximately -60 to 120+ F, and at altitudes from below sea level to 40,000 ft, posing multiple control design constraints. The objective of this paper is to provide the reader an overview of the control design process, design considerations, and justifications as to why the particular architecture and limits have been chosen. The controller architecture contains a gain-scheduled Proportional Integral controller along with logic to protect the aircraft engine from exceeding any limits. Simulation results illustrate that the closed loop system meets the Federal Aviation Administration s thrust response requirements

  17. Chaos in generically coupled phase oscillator networks with nonpairwise interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bick, Christian; Ashwin, Peter; Rodrigues, Ana [Centre for Systems, Dynamics and Control and Department of Mathematics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-15

    The Kuramoto–Sakaguchi system of coupled phase oscillators, where interaction between oscillators is determined by a single harmonic of phase differences of pairs of oscillators, has very simple emergent dynamics in the case of identical oscillators that are globally coupled: there is a variational structure that means the only attractors are full synchrony (in-phase) or splay phase (rotating wave/full asynchrony) oscillations and the bifurcation between these states is highly degenerate. Here we show that nonpairwise coupling—including three and four-way interactions of the oscillator phases—that appears generically at the next order in normal-form based calculations can give rise to complex emergent dynamics in symmetric phase oscillator networks. In particular, we show that chaos can appear in the smallest possible dimension of four coupled phase oscillators for a range of parameter values.

  18. Generic features of Einstein-Aether black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Takashi; Miyamoto, Umpei

    2008-01-01

    We reconsider spherically symmetric black hole solutions in Einstein-Aether theory with the condition that this theory has identical parametrized post-Newtonian parameters as those for general relativity, which is the main difference from the previous research. In contrast with previous study, we allow superluminal propagation of a spin-0 Aether-gravity wave mode. As a result, we obtain black holes having a spin-0 'horizon' inside an event horizon. We allow a singularity at a spin-0 horizon since it is concealed by the event horizon. If we allow such a configuration, the kinetic term of the Aether field can be large enough for black holes to be significantly different from Schwarzschild black holes with respect to Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass, innermost stable circular orbit, Hawking temperature, and so on. We also discuss whether or not the above features can be seen in more generic vector-tensor theories

  19. Generic 12-Bus Test System for Wind Power Integration Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamczyk, Andrzej Grzegorz; Altin, Müfit; Göksu, Ömer

    2012-01-01

    , inertial response, frequency control, damping of electromechanical oscillations, balanced and unbalanced fault management, etc. Hence, the power system components: conventional power plants with controls, transmission lines, transformers and loads should be represented accurately to achieve realistic power......High wind power penetration levels into power systems requires an appropriate power system model when assessing impact on the overall system stability. The model should capture the wide range of dynamics related to the wind integration studies, such as voltage control, synchronizing power control...... system characteristics. Additionally, the power system model should be simple and computationally manageable in order to simulate multiple scenarios with different control parameters in a reasonable time. In this paper, a generic power system model is presented in order to comprehend the wind integration...

  20. Generic testability and test methods guidelines for ASIC devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, K.; Takeda, H.

    1996-04-01

    Many industries are switching from analog equipment to digital equipment. This change has become desirable because digital devices have become cost-effective, easily available, highly reliable, easy to qualify and easy to test and replace when needed. The nuclear power industry is beginning to upgrade some of its instrumentation and control equipment from an analog design to digital design. A digital application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) device can be designed to perform the same functions as performed by analog modules. However, the ASIC must be designed for cost-effective testability and qualification. This report provides generic guidelines for designing cost-effective methods for testing and characterizing ASIC devices to accomplish qualification