The effect of purely persuasive advertising on generic market entry and social welfare is analysed. An incumbent has the possibility to invest in advertising which affects the prescribing physician's perceived relative qualities of the brand-name and the generic version of the drug. Advertising creates product differentiation and can induce generic market entry which is deterred without differentiation due to strong Bertrand competition. However, over-investment in advertising can deter generic market entry under certain conditions and reduces welfare as compared to accommodated market entry.
Cardon, James H.; Pope, Rulon D.
This analysis begins with a definition and discussion of productive advertising. Then, following Dixit and Norman, persuasive advertising is used to study the welfare effects of generic advertising by marketing orders. The study first examines horizontal competition when the competing advertiser is a monopoly, and results show that the socially optimal level of advertising for a competitive marketing order is positive only if advertising raises monopoly output. Next, advertising choices of a ...
Frank M. Bass; Anand Krishnamoorthy; Ashutosh Prasad; Suresh P. Sethi
To increase the sales of their products through advertising, firms must integrate their brand-advertising strategy for capturing market share from competitors and their generic-advertising strategy for increasing primary demand for the category. This paper examines whether, when, and how much brand advertising versus generic advertising should be done. Using differential game theory, optimal advertising decisions are obtained for a dynamic duopoly with symmetric or asymmetric competitors. We ...
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Generic advertising. 230.135a Section 230.135a Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.135a Generic advertising. (a) For the purposes only of...
Full Text Available Introduction One of the main targets of planners, decision makers and governments is increasing society health with promotion and production of suitable and healthy food. One of the basic commodities that have important role in satisfaction of required human food is milk. So, some part of government and producer healthy budget allocate to milk consumption promotion by using generic advertising. If effectiveness of advertising budget on profitability is more, producer will have more willing to spend for advertising. Determination of optimal generic advertising budget is one of important problem in managerial decision making in producing firm as well as increase in consumption and profit and decrease in wasting and non-optimality of budget. Materials and Methods: In this study, optimal generic advertising budget intensity index (advertising budget share of production cost was estimated under two different scenarios by using equilibrium replacement model. In equilibrium replacement model, producer surplus are maximized in respect to generic advertising in retail level. According to market where two levels of farm and processing before retail exist and there is trade in farm and retail level, we present different models. Fixed and variable proportion hypothesis is another one. Finally, eight relations are presented for determination of milk generic advertising optimum budget. So, we use data from several resources such as previous studies, national (Iran Static center and international institute (Fao formal data and own estimation. Because there are several estimations in previous studies, we identify some scenarios (in two general scenarios for calculation of milk generic advertising optimum budget. Results and Discussion: Estimation of milk generic advertising optimum budget in scenario 1 shows that in case of one market level, fixed supplies and no trade, optimum budget is 0.4672539 percent. In case of one market level and no trade, optimum
Qi Jie; Ding Yongsheng; Chen Liang
By using the optimal profit adjusting strategies, a dynamic advertising competition model in duopoly is extended from Krishnamurthy's static model. Both generic and brand effects for advertising are considered. This model can create complex bifurcating and chaotic behavior for the generic advertising efforts, which lead to chaotic dynamics for the brand advertising and even for the whole system. The asymptotic properties of the symmetric system and the asymmetric system are also investigated, which reflect interactions between the two firms' advertising strategies and relationships between the brand and the generic advertising expenditures
Qi Jie [College of Information Sciences and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051 (China)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Ding Yongsheng [College of Information Sciences and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051 (China)], E-mail: email@example.com; Chen Liang [College of Information Sciences and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051 (China)
By using the optimal profit adjusting strategies, a dynamic advertising competition model in duopoly is extended from Krishnamurthy's static model. Both generic and brand effects for advertising are considered. This model can create complex bifurcating and chaotic behavior for the generic advertising efforts, which lead to chaotic dynamics for the brand advertising and even for the whole system. The asymptotic properties of the symmetric system and the asymmetric system are also investigated, which reflect interactions between the two firms' advertising strategies and relationships between the brand and the generic advertising expenditures.
... use of a fiber trademark shall require a full disclosure of the fiber content information required by... or generic name is used in non-required information in advertising, such fiber trademark or generic... advertising. 303.41 Section 303.41 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC...
Feldman, Roger; Lobo, Félix
We take on two subjects of controversy among economists-advertising and trademarks-in the context of the market for generic drugs. We outline a model in which trademarks for drug names reduce search costs but increase product differentiation. In this particular framework, trademarks may not benefit consumers. In contrast, the generic names of drugs or "International Nonproprietary Names" (INN) have unquestionable benefits in both economic theory and empirical studies. We offer a second model where advertising of a brand-name drug creates recognition for the generic name. The monopoly patent-holder advertises less than in the absence of a competitive spillover.
Hamilton, Stephen F.; Richards, Timothy J.; Stiegert, Kyle W.
The effect of advertising on market performance has been a long-standing debate. Advertising that increases the dispersion of consumers’ valuations for advertised goods raises the market power of firms, while advertising that decreases the dispersion of consumers’ valuations leads to narrower price-cost margins and superior performance in markets for advertised goods. Numerous challenges confound the empirical identification of advertising effects on market performance. This paper proposes a ...
Kuppens, AN H.
Across the globe, the use of English is a popular advertising technique. The ever expanding body of studies on this topic has revealed a number of explanations for the use of English in the advertising. It can be related to the larger marketing strategy of a campaign, to the cultural connotations English carries, or English can be used for…
Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.
Before and after the 3-year generic advertising campaign for fresh fish in Denmark, representative consumer samples were surveyed with regard to their attitudes towards fresh fish, perceived family norms, availability of fresh fish in shops, meal preparation skills, intentions to buy fresh fish...
Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim
Before and after the 3-year generic advertising campaign for fresh fish in Denmark, representative consumer samples were surveyed with regard to their attitudes towards fresh fish, perceived family norms, availability of fresh fish in shops, meal preparation skills, intentions to buy fresh fish...
Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.
Before and after the 3-year generic advertising campaign for fresh fish in Denmark, representative consumer samples were surveyed with regard to their attitudes towards fresh fish, perceived family norms, availability of fresh fish in shops, meal preparation skills, intentions to buy fresh fish...
Aylanda Dwi Nugroho
Full Text Available The Elizabeth Arden campaign with Catherine Zeta-Jones as the brand ambassador has deployed the semiotic resources of language and visual images. The analysis of this paper is based on the systemic functional linguistics (SFL proposed by Halliday (1985, 1994 and Halliday and Matthiessen (2004, which says that a text is understood to simultaneously function three metafunctions: Ideational, Interpersonal and Textual. O’Toole’s (1994 framework of analysing visual images, which follows the main concept of SFL, is also used in the analysis. A multimodal discourse analysis is then applied to analyse one of the series, Intervene, using Cheong’s framework (2004, which combined both frameworks to find the generic structure of this advertisement. Further, this paper also analyses the intersemiosis of the linguistic and the visual resources using Wee’s (2009 intersemiotic mechanisms. It concludes that the interplay of the language and the visual image has proved to be very effective in the meaning-making process of this print advertisement.
Joseph V. Balagtas; Sounghun Kim
We develop a multi-market equilibrium displacement model that allows demand linkages across downstream product markets, and supply linkages through the common use of a raw commodity as the key input. Applying the model to the dairy sector, we find that the effectiveness of producer-funded advertising depends on the demand relationships across dairy product markets (cross-price and cross-advertising elasticities) as well as the reallocation of milk toward the advertised market. We show that th...
Ron W. Ward
Full Text Available Information is essential to growing demand and maintaining efficiency throughout the supply chain for any commodity. The U.S. model for facilitating producers and first handlers having a proactive role in the flow of information about their products is through commodity checkoff programs. These industry administrated programs fund generic advertising and promotions usually through a mandatory assessment. Success of any of these programs depend on the administrative structure, the message, the ability to judge performance, and the overall equity in sharing in the program created benefits.
Sydney is Australia’s advertising capital and the relationship between the city and the advertising industry stretches back to the earliest years of European settlement. Advertising helped propel commercial activity in Sydney and the advertising industry has been no less active in shaping Sydney, illuminating the city’s skyline and streetscape, and influencing the lives of all Sydneysiders – from suburban consumers to esteemed artists. Moreover, advertising has promoted the city itself as a ...
Schmit, Todd M.; Dong, Diansheng; Chung, Chanjin; Kaiser, Harry M.; Gould, Brian W.
A two-step model with sample selection is applied to panel data of U.S. households to estimate at-home demand for fluid milk and cheese, incorporating advertising expenditures. The model consistently accounts for sample-selection bias, unobserved household heterogeneity, and temporal correlation. Generic advertising programs for fluid milk and cheese were effective at increasing conditional purchase quantities, with very little effect on the probability of purchase. In contrast to aggregate s...
Srivastava, Joydeep; Oza, Shweta S; Koukova, Nevena T
Generic advertising campaigns such as "Got Milk?" and "Pork: The Other White Meat" are intended to increase demand for the entire product category rather than demand for a specific brand. This research examines the influence of industry (or product category) sales trend and solicitation messages on voluntary contributions toward such campaigns. Based on the idea that the context in which decisions are made may induce goals, a theoretical framework is developed to suggest that a declining versus an increasing industry sales trend induces different goal orientations. Although contributing to a generic advertising campaign may be viewed as 1 means to achieve the induced goal, the means-goal association is likely to be stronger when the trend is declining rather than increasing. Further, the authors propose that a solicitation message that is congruent with the induced goal and the associated mean is likely to be most effective in increasing contributions relative to incongruent messages. Consistent with the framework, three studies demonstrate that voluntary contributions are higher when the industry sales trend is declining versus increasing, and the solicitation message that reinforces the association between the induced goal and the means to achieve the goal is most effective in increasing contributions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Vande Kamp, Philip R.; Kaiser, Harry M.
This study develops an approach to obtain optimal temporal advertising strategies when consumers' response to advertising is asymmetric. Using this approach, optimal strategies for generic fluid milk advertising in New York City are determined. Results indicate that pulsed advertising policies are significantly more effective in increasing demand than a uniform advertising policy. Sensitivity analyses show that the optimal advertising policies are insensitive to reasonable variations in inter...
Kinnucan, Henry W.
With the passage of the Dairy and Tobacco Adjustment Act of 1983, dairy farmer investment in product research, advertising and promotion in the United States increases from $60 million to $200 million annually. A key decision faced by the Boards managing these funds is how best to allocate advertising funds among the various dairy products. In this paper an economic model is developed that shows the allocation of funds to fluid milk and cheese that would maximize sales in a given market. the ...
Jeffrey Hyde; Brent Gloy
The case of strategic advertising response is examined for branded and generic meat products (beef, pork, and poultry). A dynamic conceptual model is developed to identify the determinants of advertising expenditures. A time-series model is then used to examine the competitive behavior of branded and generic meat advertisers. The results identify two types of advertising strategies those based upon changes in revenues and those based upon changes in competitor advertising expenditures. Most g...
Advertising agencies are the most significant organizations in the development of advertising and marketing worldwide. An advertising agency is an independent service company, composed of business, marketing and creative people, who develop, prepare, and place advertising in advertising media...... for their clients, the advertisers, who are in search of customers for their goods and services. Agencies thus mediate between three different but interlocking social groups: industry, media, and consumers. The history of advertising is largely the history of the advertising agencies that have served the needs....... This article is concerned with the origins, early developments, organization, compensation arrangements, and accounts of contemporary full-service advertising agencies....
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Generic Advantages. Scalability an incremental coverage. Standardization. Business Plan Flexibility. Lifecycle Flexibility. Reliability. Service Interoperability. Changed Industry dynamics.
History of internet advertising, types of internet advertising. Banner advertising, methods of payment for banner advertising, formats and technologies. Internet media market in Czech Republic, portals, servers, media agents, media agencies, SPIR association. Banner campaign, its planning, execution and evaluation. Videobanner campaign Nivea For Men, searching for the most effective format for videoadvertising on the internet.
Goldfarb, Avi; Tucker, Catherine Elizabeth
This chapter explores what makes online advertising different from traditional advertising channels. We argue that online advertising differs from traditional advertising channels in two important ways: measurability and targetability. Measurability is higher because the digital nature of online advertising means that responses to ads can be tracked relatively easily. Targetability is higher because data can be automatically tracked at an individual level, and it is relatively easy to show di...
Zamanzadeh, Ben; Ashish, Naveen; Ramakrishnan, Cartic; Zimmerman, John
We present the concept of Semantic Advertising which we see as the future of online advertising. Semantic Advertising is online advertising powered by semantic technology which essentially enables us to represent and reason with concepts and the meaning of things. This paper aims to 1) Define semantic advertising, 2) Place it in the context of broader and more widely used concepts such as the Semantic Web and Semantic Search, 3) Provide a survey of work in related areas such as context matchi...
Misleading advertising The topic of this rigorous thesis is "Misleading advertising". The theme of the thesis is current and attractive, because everybody comes across the advertising all the time and thus the advertisement influents each of our lives. One of the motives for writing this rigorous thesis was to mediate understanding of problems concerning with the misleading advertising and the unfair competition. The rigorous thesis is divided into six chapters. The first chapter deals with t...
Sergei Kovbasyuk; Marco Pagano
Speculators often advertise arbitrage opportunities in order to persuade other investors and thus accelerate the correction of mispricing. We show that in order to minimize the risk and the cost of arbitrage an investor who identifies several mispriced assets optimally advertises only one of them, and overweights it in his portfolio; a risk-neutral arbitrageur invests only in this asset. The choice of the asset to be advertised depends not only on mispricing but also on its "advertisability" ...
The aim of this project was to get an understanding of how companies adopt mobile as an advertising medium. The literature review aided in framing a draft of the factors that affect mobile advertising adoption and possible forms of mobile advertising. Considering the scope of the thesis work, branding strategy, service costs, personalization and privacy and platform were considered to be the factors that could affect the mobile advertising adoption. A few possible forms on mobile device we...
Type abstraction in object-oriented languages embody two techniques, each with its own strenghts and weaknesses. The first technique is extension, yielding abstraction mechanisms with good support for gradual specification. The prime example is inheritance. The second technique is functional abst...... the result as family genericity. The presented language design has been implemented....
This paper clarifies advertising systems unique to Japan. As typical of Japanese advertising systems, advertising expression tend to adopt soft sell and transformational type. The advertising expression is explained not only by the cultural value but also marketing behavior of advertisers and the characteristics of Advertising transactions. As to marketing behavior channel-oriented marketing behavior has an impact on advertising expressions. As to characteristics of Advertising transactions, ...
Simon P. Anderson; Régis Renault
Empirical evidence suggests that most advertisements contain little direct informa- tion. Many do not mention prices. We analyze a firm'ss choice of advertising content and the information disclosed to consumers. A firm advertises only product informa- tion, price information, or both; and prefers to convey only limited product information if possible. Extending the "persuasion" game, we show that quality information takes precedence over price information and horizontal product information.T...
Rhodes, Andrew; Wilson, Chris M
There is widespread evidence that some firms use false advertising to overstate the value of their products. We consider a model in which a policymaker is able to punish such false claims. We characterize an equilibrium where false advertising actively influences rational buyers, and analyze the effects of policy under different welfare objectives. We establish precise conditions where policy optimally permits a positive level of false advertising, and show how these conditions vary intuitive...
Miller, Sandra K.
The individualized learning package for secondary consumer education deals with consumer buying as influenced by advertising. The teacher's section of the package contains a statement of purpose and instructional objectives. Equipment and materials (specific textbooks, audiovisual aids, and sources for sample post-test advertisements) needed for…
Advertising should be viewed as a sales-building investment and not simply an element of business outlay that actually is a completely controllable expense. Suggestions deal with the sales budget, profiling the store and its customers, advertising media, promotional ideas, and consumer protection. (LBH)
A heavily illustrated discussion of the ways in which men and women are portrayed in advertisements is presented. The three essays which precede the 56 pages of illustrations discuss gender expressions, characteristics of public and private pictures, and gender commercials. The author notes that advertisements do not depict how men and women…
Díaz Pinedo, Edilfredo Eliot
Intelligent Advertisement diseña e implementa un sistema de publicidad para dispositivos móviles en un centro comercial, donde los clientes reciben publicidad de forma pasiva en sus dispositivos mientras están dentro.
Cornière (de), Alexandre
Search engines enable advertisers to target consumers based on the query they have entered. In a framework with horizontal product differentiation, imperfect product information and in which consumers incur search costs, I study a game in which advertisers have to choose a price and a set of relevant keywords. The targeting mechanism brings about three kinds of efficiency gains, namely lower search costs, better matching, and more intense product market price-competition. A monopolistic searc...
The thesis concerns itself with alcohol advertising. Alcohol is the most widespread habit-forming substance, yet its consumption is permitted in most countries all around the world, possibly restricted by the age of consumers only. Drinking alcohol cannot be either regulated or prohibited today. It has become commonplace for the majority of our lives. Being aware of its apparent risks, however, there is an effort to regulate at least alcohol advertising. The main objective of this work was to...
According to Kotler’s definition, advertising is “any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services through mass media such as newspapers, magazines, television or radio by an identified sponsor”.
Culture, Product Advertising, and Advertising Agency Operations. ... As a means of telling the market about a new product, advertising persuades and reminds the audience of their continuous support of the ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Advertising has come a long way today. More and more new medium is being explored each day to make a successful advertising campaign. Internet that has in recent times picked up as advertising medium has become the favorite of the advertiser in no time. Online advertisement, also called internet advertising uses the internet to deliver promotional marketing messages to consumers. It includes email marketing, search engine marketing, social media marketing, many types of display advertising (i...
S, venkatesh; N, senthilkumar
In global advertising ‘humor’ is the most effective emotion used in advertising compared to other emotional appeals. Advertisers and researchers more interested in Humor in advertising for more than 100 years. But there is no review paper for Impact of humor in advertising till twenty two years of time, in between period there was lot of research outcomes published about humor in advertising. The purpose of this paper to get detailed review about Impact of humor in advertising for 40 years an...
Sandage, C. H.; Fryburger, Vernon
The social and economic functions of advertising, its role in business, how it works, and how it is planned and created are the subject of this textbook. Sections include basic values and functions, background for planning advertising strategy, the advertising message, advertising media, testing advertising effectiveness, and the advertising…
Farkas, D.F.; Swart, Henriëtte de
We take a fresh look at the connection between genericity and (in)definiteness by reconsidering a long-standing puzzle concerning the relation between definiteness and genericity. We contrast English on the one hand and Romance languages and Hungarian on the other, focusing on generic sentences
Harper, Joseph; And Others
Presents a mathematical model for simulating a newspaper financial system. Includes the effects of advertising and circulation for predicting advertising linage as a function of population, income, and advertising rate. (RL)
The Bachelor Thesis Humour in advertisement is focused on creating humorous advertisements. The Thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part is about advertisement, psychology of advertisement, emotions and emotional appeals that are used in advertising, primarily appeal humour. The practical part includes analysis of the survey focused on the effectiveness of humour in advertisements, analysis of selected campaign and the results of own survey.
Jugenheimer, Donald W.
States that although many advertisers have intentions of utilizing the Internet for advertising, which can provide specific audience targeting and buyer/seller interactivity, few have been successful. Explains advantages and disadvantages of using the Internet for advertising purposes. Cites special problems with Internet advertising and successes…
Accompanied with the widespread commerce,the advertisement translation unavoidably will be a hot spot again.This paper will discuss usage and translation of pun in the advertisement translation.It will explain the definition of advertisement as well as pun and then give examples about the usage of pun in advertisement.
Accompanied with the widespread commerce,the advertisement translation unavoidably will be a hot spot again. This paper will discuss usage and translation of pun in the advertisement translation.It will explain the definition of advertisement as well as pun and then give examples about the usage of pun in advertisement.
Keisuke Hattori; Keisaku Higashida
This paper builds a model of strategic misleading advertising in duopolistic markets with horizontal product differentiation and advertising externality between firms. We investigate the effects of regulating misinformation on market competition, behaviour of firms, and social welfare. We show that the degree of advertising externality and the magnitude of advertising costs are crucial for determining the welfare effects of several regulations, including prohibiting misleading advertising, ed...
The article replies to the question, whether the advertisement can exist without ethical principles or ethics should be the basis of the advertisement. One can say that the ethical opinion of the advertisement does not depend on content and the form of advertising content exclusively, but also on recipientís consciousness. The advertisement appeals to the emotions more than to the intellect, thus restricting the area of conscious and based on rational premises choice, so it is morally bad. It...
Matthew N. O. Sadiku*, Shumon Alam, Sarhan M. Musa
Internet advertising (IA) is using the Internet to market products and services to a large audience. In the current era of Internet commerce, companies have chosen to use Internet advertising and the trend is irreversible. The goal of Internet advertising is to drive customers to your website. Understanding some key concepts of Internet advertising is crucial to creating a strategy that will suit one’s business. This paper provides a brief introduction to Internet or online advertising.
Full Text Available Norwegian fluid milk consumption has declined steadily over the last twenty years, despite the dairy industry spending increasing amounts of money on advertising. Using a two-stage model, we investigate whether advertising has increased the demand for milk. No effect of advertising on the demand for non-alcoholic beverages is found in the first stage. In the second stage, an almost ideal demand system including advertising expenditures on competing beverages is estimated. The effects of generic advertising within the beverage group are positive and significant for whole milk and negative and significant for lower fat milk. The own-advertising elasticity for the combined fluid milk group is 0.0008. This highly inelastic elasticity suggests that increased advertising will not be profitable for the producers. Several cross-advertising effects are statistically significant, emphasizing the usefulness of a demand system approach.
Full Text Available The article replies to the question, whether the advertisement can exist without ethical principles or ethics should be the basis of the advertisement. One can say that the ethical opinion of the advertisement does not depend on content and the form of advertising content exclusively, but also on recipients consciousness. The advertisement appeals to the emotions more than to the intellect, thus restricting the area of conscious and based on rational premises choice, so it is morally bad. It is not that the moral evil immanently underlines the advertisement, but it concerns the mechanisms which cause that the advertisement turns out to be effective. The only admissible form of the advertisement would be the reliable full information about the advantages and flaws of the concrete advertised product. The only admissible form of the advertisement would be the reliable full information about the advantages and defects of the concrete advertised product. The most serious difficulty connected with the ethical opinion of the advertisement is the fact that the advertisement is the indispensable link of the present economy, and everyone who accepts the free market and perceives the positives of the economic growth, should also accept the advertisement. The advertisement constitutes the element of the economic activity, so in consequence the responsibility first of all lies with enterprises for its far-reaching results.
Adheed Khalid Sharrad
Full Text Available BackgroundThe use of cheaper generic medicines is a strategy promotedin many countries to reduce rising health care costs. The aimof this study was to explore factors affecting generic medicineprescribing by physicians in Basrah, Iraq.MethodologyA purposive sample of ten physicians practicing in Basrahwas interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide.ResultsAnalysis of the interviews identified seven major themes:medicine prescribing practice, knowledge of therapeuticequivalency of generic medicine, patients’ acceptance ofgeneric medicine, counterfeit medicine, drug informationsource and effect of drug advertising on medicines choice,brand substitution practice by community pharmacists, and,finally strategies to improve generic medicine usefulness.Participants identified helpful strategies to increase genericprescribing including; physician and patient education ongeneric medicine; persuading physicians about the safety andefficacy of generic medicines; and finally educating seniormedical students on generic prescribing.ConclusionThe data suggest that participants were enthusiasticabout prescribing generic medicines. However physiciansinsist that pharmacists should not be allowed tosubstitute generic drugs without prior approval ofdoctors.
Alimarine, A.; Smetsers, J.E.W.
Generic functions are defined by induction on the structural representation of types. As a consequence, by defining just a single generic operation, one acquires this operation over any particular data type. An instance on a specific type is generated by interpretation of the type's structure. A
Alimarine, A.; Smetsers, J.E.W.
Generic functions are defined by induction on the structural representation of types. As a consequence, by defining just a single generic operation, one acquires this operation over any particular type. An instance on a specific type is generated by interpretation of the type's structure. A direct
Burkitt, Jennifer A; Saucier, Deborah M; Thomas, Nicole A; Ehresman, Crystal
Portraits typically exhibit leftward posing biases, with people showing more of their left cheek than their right. The current study investigated posing biases in print advertising to determine whether the product advertised affects the posing bias. As the posing bias may be decreasing over time, we also investigated changes in posing biases over a span of more than 100 years. The current investigation coded 2664 advertisements from two time periods; advertisements were coded for target group of advertisement (men, women, both) and posing bias (rightward, leftward, or central). Unlike other studies that typically observe a leftward posing bias, print advertisements exhibit a rightward posing bias, regardless of time-frame. Thus, print advertisements differ greatly from portraits, which may relate to the purpose of advertisements and the role of attractiveness in advertising.
YAKOUBI Mohamed Lamine
We will try to demonstrate, through the display of the various advertising creation strategies and their evolution, how the advertising communication passed from of a vision or a strategy focused on the product, to a vision focused on the brand. The first advertising strategy that was applied by advertising agencies is the＂Unique Selling Proposition＂;it focused only on the product advantages and its philosophy dominated the advertising world, throughout its various evolutions, till the nineties but this is without counting the introduction of the new advertising strategies that brought a more brand oriented philosophy to the ground.
The Bachelor Paper contains proposal and realization advertising campaign, including make charge for cost amount. The advertising campaign is made for chosen product of firm. Advertising campaign is planning by the medium of broadsheet and advertising on the Internet.
Fujimura, Shigeru; Watanabe, Akira
Generic drugs have been used extensively in many developed countries, although their use in Japan has been limited. Generic drugs reduce drug expenses and thereby national medical expenditure. Because generic drugs provide advantages for both public administration and consumers, it is expected that they will be more widely used in the future. However, the diffusion rate of generic drugs in Japan is quite low compared with that of other developed countries. An investigation on generic drugs conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan revealed that 17.2 % of doctors and 37.2 % of patients had not used generic drugs. The major reasons for this low use rate included distrust of off-patent products and lower drug price margin compared with the brand name drug. The generic drugs available in the market include external drugs such as wet packs, antihypertensive agents, analgesics, anticancer drugs, and antibiotics. Among them, antibiotics are frequently used in cases of acute infectious diseases. When the treatment of these infections is delayed, the infection might be aggravated rapidly. The pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) theory has been adopted in recent chemotherapy, and in many cases, the most appropriate dosage and administration of antibiotics are determined for individual patients considering renal function; high-dosage antibiotics are used preferably for a short duration. Therefore, a highly detailed antimicrobial agent is necessary. However, some of the generic antibiotics have less antibacterial potency or solubility than the brand name products. We showed that the potency of the generic products of vancomycin and teicoplanin is lower than that of the branded drugs by 14.6 % and 17.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed that a generic meropenem drug for injection required about 82 s to solubilize in saline, whereas the brand product required only about 21 s. It was thought that the cause may be the difference in size of bulk
The question addressed in this review is whether aggregate alcohol advertising increases alcohol consumption among college students. Both the level of alcohol-related problems on college campuses and the level of alcohol advertising are high. Some researchers have concluded that the cultural myths and symbols used in alcohol advertisements have powerful meanings for college students and affect intentions to drink. There is, however, very little empirical evidence that alcohol advertising has any effect on actual alcohol consumption. The methods used in this review include a theoretical framework for evaluating the effects of advertising. This theory suggests that the marginal effect of advertising diminishes at high levels of advertising. Many prior empirical studies measured the effect of advertising at high levels of advertising and found no effect. Those studies that measure advertising at lower, more disaggregated levels have found an effect on consumption. The results of this review suggest that advertising does increase consumption. However, advertising cannot be reduced with limited bans, which are likely to result in substitution to other available media. Comprehensive bans on all forms of advertising and promotion can eliminate options for substitution and be potentially more effective in reducing consumption. In addition, there is an increasing body of literature that suggests that alcohol counteradvertising is effective in reducing the alcohol consumption of teenagers and young adults. These findings indicate that increased counteradvertising, rather than new advertising bans, appears to be the better choice for public policy. It is doubtful that the comprehensive advertising bans required to reduce advertising would ever receive much public support. New limited bans on alcohol advertising might also result in less alcohol counteradvertising. An important topic for future research is to identify the counteradvertising themes that are most effective with
Offers suggestions to high school newspaper staffs for designing effective advertisements for local businesses and then selling them to the businesses. Notes that carefully planned advertisements can increase the appeal and value of a publication. (GW)
Hansen, Lone Koefoed
Flanagan proposes that most locative media artworks neglect the particularities of spaces, their historical and political layers. Koolhaas, on the other hand, states that all urban areas are alike, that we are facing a global Generic City. The paper analyses digital media artist Esther Polak......’s NomadicMILK project in light of the generic and particular properties of space as laid out by Flanagan and Koolhaas in order to discuss the possible reconfiguring practices of locative media....
Alina Irina GHIRVU
This paper proposes a model of advertising competition based on the Cournot oligopoly model using a dynamic system, the equilibrium points of which can be determined analytically. We consider several cases for explaining the way in which firms will adapt their own advertising volume, depending on the number and the advertising volume of their competitors, in the context of an online video game used for advertising purposes. The dynamic setup is given by online Internet connection ...
Michael P. Stone
Attorney advertising routinely targets tort victims. In this paper, a theoretical model is developed which incorporates advertising intensity, litigation costs, and an endogenous number of lawsuits. Since advertising induces victims to bring suit, it increases the level of injurer care. However, litigation costs are also incurred. At the optimum, the marginal benefit of deterrence equals the sum of the marginal costs of litigation and advertising. It is shown that even though blanket prohibit...
Egli, Alain (Autor/in)
Firms face a prisoner's dilemma when advertising in a competitive environment. In a Hotelling framework with persuasive advertisingfirms counteract this prisoner's dilemma with targeting. The firms even solve the prisoner's problem if targeted advertising is effective enough. Advertising turns from wasteful competition into profits. This is in contrast to wasteful competition as argument for regulations. A further result is maximum advertising differentiation: thefirms target their advertisin...
Пурчельянова, Н. Ю.
The essence of successful advertising is to convince people that a product is meant for them. By purchasing it, they will receive some benefit (lifestyle, status, convenience, etc.). However, when an advertising campaign is taken abroad different values as to what enhances status or gives convenience exist. These differences make the original advertising campaign defunct. It is therefore critical to any cross cultural advertising campaign that an understanding of a particular culture is acqui...
The article analyzes the new method of mobile advertising. Advertising in mobile applications - a subspecies of mobile marketing, where advertising is distributed using mobile phones and smartphones. Ad placement is going on inside of applications and games for smartphones. It has a high potential due to the large number of mobile phone users (over 6.5 billion in 2013).
Presents a lesson plan to help students understand that political advertisements often mislead, lie, or appeal to emotion. Suggests that the lesson will enable students to examine political advertisements analytically. Includes a worksheet to be used by students to analyze individual political advertisements. (DK)
I am concerned to make the case for the rights and liberties to communicate commercial advertising messages to children. Consequenlly, I am amused by the identification of advertising with witchcraft; witches ceased to be burned a long time ago. However, this comparison, illustrates the excessive concern shown about how strangely influential advertising is.
Examines the relationship between linguistic plurality and the rationale of advertising decisions. The article presents a simple model of sales to different language groups as a function of the level of advertising in each language, language attitudes, incomes, and an advertising response function. The model is intended as a benchmark, and several…
Business Advertisements Management System The main goal of the project was to create a business advertisements management system, where users could easily create and find business advertisements. To accomplish this goal exist- ing systems were analyzed as well as their limitations. The end result is a working system which is able to store and proccess huge amount of data.
On the grounds of theoretical and empirical studies, the article analyses some interaction between the advertisement agencies and advertisement provider during the development of creative advertisement strategy. The following assumptions justifying the importance of interaction have been developed: namely, the need to integrate the knowledge and competence of advertisement agencies and advertisement provider, creativity of advertisement agencies and possible objective approach to the business...
Atanassow, F.; Clarke, D.; Jeuring, J.T.
A generic program is written once and works on values of many data types. Generic Haskell is a recent extension of the functional programming language Haskell that supports generic programming. This paper discusses how Generic Haskell can be used to implement XML tools whose behaviour depends on
Atanassow, F.; Clarke, D.; Jeuring, J.T.
A generic program is written once and works on values of many data types. Generic Haskell is a recent extension of the functional programming language Haskell that supports generic programming. This paper discusses how Generic Haskell can be used to implement XML tools whose behaviour depends on
Graskemper, Joseph P
Advertising in dentistry has steadily increased since the 1970s to become a leading choice of many dentists to promote their practices. The manner in which advertising progresses within the profession affects all dentists and how patients perceive dentistry as a profession. This paper presents ethical concepts that should be followed when dentists are pursuing practice promotion through advertising. It also raises questions that, hopefully, will increase attention and discussion on dental advertising. The paper concludes that ethical advertising is easily achieved by promoting patient education while not placing the dentist's self-interests ahead of the patient's. With this approach, dentistry may continue to be one of the most trusted professions.
Alina Irina GHIRVU
Full Text Available This paper proposes a model of advertising competition based on the Cournot oligopoly model using a dynamic system, the equilibrium points of which can be determined analytically. We consider several cases for explaining the way in which firms will adapt their own advertising volume, depending on the number and the advertising volume of their competitors, in the context of an online video game used for advertising purposes. The dynamic setup is given by online Internet connection that allows interaction and communication and the high level of technology that permits nowadays real-time advertising insertions.
Full Text Available Context : It is observed in studies done for western medical journals that insufficient information related to drug is usually provided in the drug advertisements published in them. Aims : As data for advertisements published in Indian Medical Journals were lacking, this study was designed with the aim of evaluating drug advertisements published in Indian Medical Journals for adequacy of information on drug and references given to support the claim made in the advertisements. Settings and Design : Cross-sectional survey. Methods and Materials : All medical journals related to clinical practice subscribed by the Central Library of Government Medical College, Surat, (Indian Journal of Pediatrics [IJP], Indian Pediatrics [IP], Journal of the Association of Physicians of India [JAPI], Journal of Indian Medical Association [JIMA], Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine [IJCCM], Indian Journal of Medical and Pediatric Oncology [IJMPO], Indian Journal of Gastroenterology [IJG], Indian Journal of Ophthalmology [IJO], and Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India [JOGI] were evaluated for adequacy of reporting of various parameters in drug advertisements published in these journals on the basis of "World Heath Organization (WHO" criteria. References mentioned to support claims were also evaluated. Statistical Analysis Used : Descriptive statistics was used to describe data as frequencies, percentages, and 95% confidence interval around the percentage. Results : Generic name was mentioned in 90% advertisements. Indications were mentioned in 84% advertisements. Dose, precautions, and contraindications were mentioned in 24%, 17%, and 16% advertisements, respectively. Adverse effects and postal address of pharmaceutical company was mentioned in 19% and 74% advertisements, respectively. Price was mentioned in only 5% advertisements. Only 28% claims were supported by references. Most common references were Journal articles (75%. Conclusion : Drug
Full Text Available Advertising has reached new dimensions in incorporating and exploiting patterns of message transmission on certain products and services offered to the market. Therefore, advertising has become the subject of an important multidisciplinary approach, scientific analysis and research. Multiplying the cognition from different domains of human activity along with technical and scientific innovations, the advertisment has become one of the most intense communication codes which are realized in a constant interaction between an individual and the world. In order to be present in consumer's consciousness and subconsciousness, advertising simoulaneously uses our ethical, moral, mental, social communication and other cognition. The word and the language, as important media used in advertising, play an important role. The aim of this study is to analyze the linguistic code of an advertisment and language strategies of advertisers. The objective of linguistic analysis of advertisments is to confirm that the advertisment is a part of multimedial discourse which is not realized its linguistic code, but all other paralinguistic elements are present. The analysis will be carried out on a corpus consisting of advertisments published in daily newspapers from 2000-2002. The linguistic features will be analyzed as well as the relation of linguistic code with other paralinguistic codes used in advertising.
Hallman, Guy J.
The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies. - Highlights: ► The history of phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is given. ► Generic PI treatments in use today are discussed. ► Suggestions for future research are presented. ► A dose of 250 Gy for most insects may suffice.
This article analyses the concept of advertising and the theoretical aspect of advertising strategy. Advertising can be defined as various means of dissemination of information on goods and services, promoting their use to potential users impersonally. Advertising strategies for selecting the location of a typical advertising plan diagram can be defined as decisions related to the target audience coverage, creative advertising message strategy selection and dissemination of the advertising st...
Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID
The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.
O'Malley, A James; Frank, Richard G; Kaddis, Atheer; Rothenberg, Barbara M; McNeil, Barbara J
To evaluate the effectiveness of four alternative interventions (member mailings, advertising campaigns, free generic drug samples to physicians, and physician financial incentives) used by a major health insurer to encourage its members to switch to generic drugs. Using claim-level data from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan, we evaluated the success of four interventions implemented during 2000-2003 designed to increase the use of generic drugs among its members. Around 13 million claims involving seven important classes of drugs were used to assess the effectiveness of the interventions. For each intervention a control group was developed that most closely resembled the corresponding intervention group. Logistic regression models with interaction effects between the treatment group (intervention versus control) and the status of the intervention (active versus not active) were used to evaluate if the interventions had an effect on the generic dispensing rate (GDR). Because the mail order pharmacy was considered more aggressive at converting prescriptions to generics, separate generic purchasing models were fitted to retail and mail order claims. In secondary analyses separate models were also fitted to claims involving a new condition and claims refilled for preexisting conditions. The interventions did not appear to increase the market penetration of generic drugs for either retail or mail order claims, or for claims involving new or preexisting conditions. In addition, we found that the ratio of copayments for brand name to generic drugs had a large positive effect on the GDR. The interventions did not appear to directly influence the GDR. Financial incentives expressed to consumers through benefit designs have a large influence on their switching to generic drugs and on the less-costly mail-order mode of purchase.
The NRC has recognized the need to integrate generic issues (GIs). The GI process includes a number of phases, all of which should recognize the potential for overlap and conflict among related issues. In addition to the issues themselves, other related NRC and industry programs and activities need to be factored into the GI process. Integration has taken place, or is taking place, for a number of GIs. Each case of integration involves a specific set of circumstances and, as a result, the way in which integration proceeds can vary. This paper discusses the integration of issues in the generic issue process and provides a number of examples
Full Text Available The paper provides a critical analysis of the notion of generic or transversal skillscontained with European Union policy discourses. The author presents a conceptualframework that challenges the idea that generic skills are universal, transferable andautonomous. An alternative analysis is put forward that argues the case forcontextualising skills and knowledge within particular understandings and cultures thatare more collective than individualistic in nature. The arguments are framed withinwider cross-disciplinary debates in linguistics, geosemiotics and social-cultural theoryand build upon an earlier paper exploring core skills in the UK (Canning, 2007.
Babar, Z U D; Kan, S W; Scahill, S
The objective of this paper was to undertake a narrative review of the literature regarding strategies and interventions promoting the acceptance and uptake of generic medicines. A literature search was performed between November 2011 and January 2012 to identify published full text original research articles documenting interventions to promote the use of generic medicines. Keywords used were: "generic medicine", "generic drug", "intervention", "promotion", "acceptance", "uptake", "generic/therapeutic substitution" and their related root words. The electronic databases comprised of Embase (1980 - present), Google, Google Scholar, Medline (1948 - present), PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Springer Link and The Cochrane Library. An interpretative narrative synthesis was undertaken and emergent themes analysed and reported. Eighteen studies were included in the final analysis. There were seven main themes which including; education, financial incentives, advertising to promote generic medicines, free generic medicine trials, administrative forms and medicines use review (MUR). These themes were further classified into subthemes. Education was subdivided into consumer and physician education. Financial incentives included the influence of financial incentives on both consumers and physicians. The subthemes in the financial incentives category included the changes in co-payment for consumers, reward payment for physicians and fund-holding schemes. Advertising included the sub-themes of print media and the use of anthropomorphic images, while free generic medicines trial was made up of free vouchers for generic medicines and generic medicines sampling system. The studies have mixed results; some interventions in some settings were useful, while others were not. Not all interventions consistently improved the uptake of generic medicines. There was limited literature available and further work is required to develop a range of interventions to support the uptake of generic
Jul 26, 2012 ... market about a new product, advertising persuades and reminds the audience ... The relevance of this topic can also be shown by the true story of the Gerber ... product was the product; people thought they were being.
Quercia, Daniele; Di Lorenzo, Giusy; Calabrese, Francesco; Ratti, Carlo
Television and newspapers sit at the top of many agency marketing plans, while outdoor advertising stays at the bottom. The reason for this is that it’s difficult to account for who views a billboard, so there is no way of consistently determining the effectiveness of outdoor advertising. As a result, agencies do not consider the medium and allocate their money elsewhere. To change this situation, one needs to create new credible audience measurements for the outdoor marketing industry. He...
Bossio, M.C.; Muniz, C.C.
This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document 'Safety Reports Series Nr 44' of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (author)
Bossio, M.C.; Muniz, C.C.
This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on the one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document Safety Reports Series 44 of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (authors) [es
Hallman, Guy J.
The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.
Hallman, Guy J [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Weslaco, TX (United States)
The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies. (author)
Management experts claim that for a company to thrive, it must concentrate on a single generic strategy--on one thing it does better than its rivals. But specialization also has its disadvantages. The author suggests that a broader, mixed approach may be preferable.
Full Text Available Advertising is often critiqued for not respecting rules of ethics both in the process of advertisement design and in the way it influences society. The main concern of advertisers as representatives of companies that seek profit making is to increase sales, win new clients, increase the demand for the product they want to be presented in as nice and colorful advertisement as possible. They pretend that their product is the best, has unique qualities, better than their competitor´s, it has a better cost and brings much more benefits. That is the reason why the great challenge in advertising is to create sales efficient and at the same time moral and true advertising messages.
This communication reports the latest trends of advertising on social media. Social media advertising means to gain traffic or attention of online users through social media sites. Today, when a user thinks about buying something, he first comes to the internet, searches for that product, compares its price with other competing brands and takes a decision, which one to buy. In this write-up, author has discussed many aspects concerning advertising through social media, viz., what is social me...
This work is devoted to the Russian language advertising, which examines in an independent system. It aims are analyzing the text of Russian advertising in terms of its information and formal structure. It focuses on a specific aesthetic qualities of language, which the text uses. Work is further focused on the categorization of neologisms and neologisation of the Russian advertising. Next focus is on loanwords from the English language. Used research methods are descriptive and comparative. ...
This thesis examines advertisement in fashion blogs. The theoretical part of the research discusses blogs and the social media in general, analyzes the decision-making process of the fashion consumer, along with general consumer behavior, and then examines ethical issues and the various advertising and marketing tools used in blogs. The objective of this thesis is to ascertain how blog readers are reacting to the growing amount of advertisement currently present in fashion blogs and the ...
Andrea Galeotti; Jose Luis Moraga
textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit random advertising --to induce an unequal distribution of information in the market-- and random pricing --to obtain profits from badly informed buyers--. We characterize a positive profits equilibrium...
A consistent advertising budget does not guarantee a successful advertising campaign. Two companies can spend the same amount of work and get results that completely different. Research demonstrates that creative messages may have greater importance for the success of advertising campaigns than money spent. No matter how big the budget, this activity can be successful only if the ads attract attention and effectively communicate messages.
Francisca Hanna , Febrianti
Advertising campaign merupakan serangkaian bentuk iklan melalui berbagai media dan berpusat pada satu tema dalam satu waktu. Tujuan utama advertising campaign adalah menyampaikan pesan dalam suatu tema yang diluncurkan kepada masyarakat sehingga tema tersebut menjadi ciri khas produk. Peluncuran tema campaign oleh Coca Cola dan Pepsi yang merupakan rival dalam kategori beverage merupakan obyek dari penelitian ini. Kesuksesan sebuah tema advertising campaign dilihat dengan menggunakan paramet...
This dissertation covers two areas of research that expand our knowledge on children’s advertising literacy (i.e., advertising-related knowledge). The first part addresses the development of children’s advertising literacy into adult-like levels. The second part focuses on the role of advertising literacy in reducing children’s susceptibility to advertising effects. In doing so, this dissertation not only deepens the existing theoretical and empirical insights on children’s advertising litera...
A. A. Sogorin
The basic directions of advertising studying as part of the research subject of separate social and humanitarian sciences. The definition of advertising is given. It’s considered as a holistic socioeconomic phenomenon, which consists of three basic components: advertising as a product, the final incarnation in the material and ideal forms of the customer’s ideas; advertising as an activity that is advertising as a profession; advertising as an integral part of the social space of the individ...
Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.
In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.
Adina Claudia NEAMŢU
Full Text Available Campaign and especially advertising campaign represents one of the variables of the marketing mix, an important one, being difficult to separate its contribution from the one of the other elements. Irrespective of the specific object that is behind an advertising company, the investment will be retrieved only if the right information is transmitted to the right persons in the right way. This is difficult to accomplish if the advertising responsible in that firm do not understand appropriately: the market nature; the product nature; the distribution channels nature; the communication channels nature – available advertising supports and their features
Full Text Available Once intellectual property protection, data and marketing exclusivity of reference medicines have expired, generic medicines and biosimilar medicines can enter the off-patent market. This market entry is conditional on the approval of marketing authorization, pricing and reimbursement. Given that there tends to be confusion surrounding generic and biosimilar medicines, this Editorial introduces basic concepts related to generic and biosimilar medicines and presents the different studies and articles included in this supplement dedicated to generic and biosimilar medicines.
This paper studies the effect of a change in the marginal costs of advertising on advertising expenditures of firms and consumer prices across industries. It makes use of a unique policy change that caused a decrease of the taxation on advertising expenditures in parts of Austria and a simultaneous increase in other parts. Advertising expenditures move immediately in the opposite direction to the marginal costs of advertising. Simultaneously the price reaction to advertising is negative in so...
Ulrich Doraszelski; Sarit Markovich
Can advertising lead to a sustainable competitive advantage? To answer this question, we propose a dynamic model of advertising competition where firms repeatedly advertise, compete in the product market, and make entry as well as exit decisions. Within this dynamic framework, we study two different models of advertising: In the first model, advertising influences the goodwill consumers extend towards a firm ("goodwill advertising"), whereas in the second model it influences the share of cons...
Duygu Aydın; Aşina Gülerarslan; Süleyman Karaçor; Tarık Doğan
Sharing motivations of viral advertisements by consumers and the impacts of these advertisements on the perceptions for brand will be questioned in this study. Three fundamental questions are answered in the study. These are advertisement watching and sharing motivations of individuals, criteria of liking viral advertisement and the impact of individual attitudes for viral advertisement on brand perception respectively. This study will be carried out via a viral advertise...
I compare the outcome when firms semicollude on advertising to the outcome in the Grossman and Shapiro (1984) model of informative advertising. I show that advertising is lower but prices and profits are higher under semicollusion on advertising. I also show that semicollusion on advertising is detrimental to welfare. Although firms earn higher profits when colluding on advertising, fewer consumers are informed, and as a result, welfare is lower. Compared to semicollusion on price, semicollus...
Karafyllis, Ioannis; Variti, Lamprini
This paper explains and develops a methodological framework to help evaluate the performance of generic pharmaceutical policies and the correct evaluation of generics sales. Until today erroneous recording of generics does not help proper pricing and their penetration in the Greek market. This classifies Greece on the outliners in every study or comparison that is referred on papers or studies.
Full Text Available Reed Solomon (RS codes is a mechanism to detect and correct burst of errors in data transmission and storage systems. It provides a solid introduction to foundation mathematical concept of Galois Field algebra and its application. With the development of digital hardware technology, the RS concepts were brought into reality, i.e. the implementation of RS codec chips. This paper presents the development steps of a generic RS encoder using VHDL. The encoder is able to handle generic width of data, variable length of information, number of error as well as variable form of primitive polynomial and generator polynomial used in the system. The design has been implemented for FPGA chip Xilinx XC3S200-5FT256 and has a better performance than commercially available equivalent encoder.
This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ''core'' upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information
Hansen, Richard A.; Qian, Jingjing; Berg, Richard; Linneman, James; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Dutcher, Sarah K.; Raofi, Saeid; Page, C. David; Peissig, Peggy
Background While generic drugs are therapeutically equivalent to brand drugs, some patients and healthcare providers remain uncertain about whether they produce identical outcomes. Authorized generics, which are identical in formulation to corresponding brand drugs but marketed as a generic, provide a unique post-marketing opportunity to study whether utilization patterns are influenced by perceptions of generic drugs. Objectives To compare generic-to-brand switchback rates between generics and authorized generics. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using claims and electronic health records data from a regional U.S. healthcare system. Ten drugs with authorized generics and generics marketed between 1999 and 2014 were evaluated. Eligible adult patients received a brand drug during the 6 months preceding generic entry, and then switched to a generic or authorized generic. Patients in this cohort were followed for up to 30 months from the index switch date to evaluate occurrence of generic-to-brand switchbacks. Switchback rates were compared between patients on authorized generics versus generics using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for individual drug effects, age, sex, Charlson comorbidity score, pre-index drug use characteristics, and pre-index healthcare utilization. Results Among 5,542 unique patients that switched from brand-to-generic or brand-to-authorized generic, 264 (4.8%) switched back to the brand drug. Overall switchback rates were similar for authorized generics compared with generics (HR=0.86; 95% CI 0.65-1.15). The likelihood of switchback was higher for alendronate (HR=1.64; 95% CI 1.20-2.23) and simvastatin (HR=1.81; 95% CI 1.30-2.54) and lower for amlodipine (HR=0.27; 95% CI 0.17-0.42) compared with other drugs in the cohort. Conclusions Overall switchback rates were similar between authorized generic and generic drug users, indirectly supporting similar efficacy and tolerability profiles for
The majority of the media in the United States is funded through revenues derived from the sale of advertising space. The problem that arises from this situation is fundamentally an economic one: if advertisers are paying the bills for the media, how much control over content should they have? This report offers a review of instances in which…
This paper examines print advertisements in Malaysia to determine how advertisers seek to achieve their primary goal of persuading or influencing an audience by the use of both language and visuals. It describes the main component moves and rhetorical strategies used by writers to articulate the communicative purpose of the genre and the language…
G.L. Urban (Glen); G. Liberali (Gui); E. MacDonald (Erin); R. Bordley (Robert); J. Hauser (J.)
textabstractResearchers and practitioners devote substantial effort to targeting banner advertisements to consumers, but they focus less effort on how to communicate with consumers once targeted. Morphing enables a website to learn, automatically and near optimally, which banner advertisements to
A. Galeotti; J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)
textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit
Moorman, M.; Belch, M.A.; Belch, G.E.
Most traditional advertising effect models are based on the premise that advertising is attended to and processed consciously. However, recent neuroscientific research shows that most information is unconsciously attended to, processed, and stored in memory. The concept of unconscious processing is
Full Text Available Advertising may be examined as a particular form of rhetoric the aims of which are the same as of rhetoric, namely to affect mind, will, feelings, and to persuade. The theory of rhetoric, the main object of which is discourse not only in narrow meaning (as verbal expression of ideas (i.e. to say text, but also in broad meaning – as a communicative act between the addresser and the addressee since its interdisciplinary nature provides the right tools to explore the advertising discourse. The theory of rhetoric is successfully applied in development of advertising discourse, because it helps to foresee the communicative act between the addresser and the addressee. Advertising and rhetoric are combined by many common elements, but the same goal is the most important: both, rhetoric and advertising seek for persuasion through verbal and non-verbal measures. The paper deals with the analysis of the inventive level of advertising discourse, i.e., eristic arguments, spread of ways of proofing / persuasion. Eristic argumentation is a dominant argumentation type in advertising. This method of persuasion is a way to create truth visibility although it is just superficial. The most typical schemes of eristic argumentation used in advertising are as follows: argumentum ad vanitatem (appeal to the vanity of the addressee, argumentum ad verecundiam (appeal to the authority, argumentum baculinum (method of “whip” argument, argumentum ad novitatem (appeal to novelty. The article shows the usage of eristic arguments in Lithuanian commercial ads.
Puntoni, S.; Hooge, de I.E.; Verbeke, W.J.M.I.
Abstract Consumer embarrassment is a concern for many advertisers. Yet little is known about ad-induced embarrassment. The authors investigate when and why consumers experience embarrassment as a result of exposure to socially sensitive advertisements. The theory distinguishes between viewing
This dissertation covers two areas of research that expand our knowledge on children’s advertising literacy (i.e., advertising-related knowledge). The first part addresses the development of children’s advertising literacy into adult-like levels. The second part focuses on the role of advertising
By definition a product identified by its official chemical name rather than an advertised brand name is called a generic. If a drug exert its pharmacological effects at the same site, have the same potency, same dosage form and same bioavailability as a brand name, reference listed drug (RLD), is considered as a generic. However inactive ingredients can differ between brand name and generic. It is through the regulations of the FDA that the generics gained many ground in the drug market, they currently account to more than 42% of the total prescription in the USA. These regulations include the abbreviated new drug application (ANDA) for the registration process and drug substitution at the pharmacy level without patient or physician consent. This coupled with a keen interest of third party payers and the health authorities to reduce the high transplant health budget (over 2 Billion US $) made it a necessity to introduce the generics into the field of transplantation. Using the above mentioned definition we can theoretically say that all anti-lymphocytes, produced in the same animal species, are generic of each. Moreover, monoclonal antibodies that are directed against the same target and have the same bioavailability are also consider generics to each other. Of all the immunosuppressive drugs that have been introduced into the field of transplantation none has been as dominant as Cyclosporine. Cyclosporine became and still is the backbone for any immunosuppressive protocol. In the year 1992, Consupren, the first, non-FDA approved, generic to Sandimmun was introduced. Although Consupren was not bioequivalent to Neoral, however, long-term results in kidney transplantation have been similar for both drugs. The introduction of Consupren resulted in a near 40% reduction in the total cost of immunosuppressive therapy. Interestingly the cost of the brand name drug Neoral was also reduced by 20%. The cost reduction allowed the introduction of the new immunosuppressive
Full text: Now in its fourth year, BNFL's advertising strategy continues to evolve and build upon the communication achievements of previous years. The case study this year will reflect upon progress so far and will concentrate specifically on the 1998 campaign development. It will begin by briefly reiterating the role we believe advertising plays in the communications mix and by recapping on the theoretical framework upon which the strategy continues to be based. Last year, I presented a case study on the development of BNFL's second television advertisement and supporting media. This year, I will present opinion research data which indicates that BNFL has, indeed, begun to detach itself from the contentious debate which surrounds the nuclear industry in general. Verbatim comments from respondents demonstrate that BNFL is now being perceived more widely within the UK as a successful corporate entity. The presentation will concentrate on the decision-making and research process which led us to select the content of our third advertising campaign. One key consideration being the impact of BNR:s merger with Magnox Electric plc and how their activity was incorporated into the overall advertising strategy. Having established key image characteristics through describing BNFL's scientific achievements and, more recently, BNFL's fuel recycling capabilities, the presentation will outline why this time we have opted for a total capability' advertisement whilst endeavouring to retain the five key image criteria which are at the heart of the strategy. Specific areas covered will include our clearance of the advertisement through the UK's advertising regulatory bodies (the Broadcast Advertising Clearance Centre (BACC) and the Independent Television Commission (ITQ). This in itself will demonstrate the importance of gaining detailed substantiation and legal clearance of the advertising claims made. Finally, we will share our experiences of each production phase, not least, the
Nilssen, Tore; Sørgard, Lars
We consider a model of strategic informative advertising where the advertising is done on TV and where the TV channels' advertising prices are endogenously determined. We discuss how these prices, and the advertising firms' advertising efforts, vary with the two key parameters of the model: the degree of product differentiation in the product market and a measure of the relative sizes of the TV channels' viewer bases. We find, in particular, that the larger the size difference among the TV ch...
Goldfarb, Avi; Tucker, Catherine Elizabeth
The authors examine whether the growth of the Internet has reduced the effectiveness of government regulation of advertising. They combine nonexperimental variation in local regulation of offline alcohol advertising with data from field tests that randomized exposure to online advertising for 275 different online advertising campaigns to 61,580 people. The results show that people are 8% less likely to say that they will purchase an alcoholic beverage in states that have alcohol advertising b...
Andersen, Jesper; Lawall, Julia
A key issue in maintaining Linux device drivers is the need to keep them up to date with respect to evolutions in Linux internal libraries. Currently, there is little tool support for performing and documenting such changes. In this paper we present a tool, spdiff, that identifies common changes...... developers can use it to extract an abstract representation of the set of changes that others have made. Our experiments on recent changes in Linux show that the inferred generic patches are more concise than the corresponding patches found in commits to the Linux source tree while being safe with respect...
Machovec, George S.
Discusses the growth of the Internet and the attitudes of users toward advertising, provides examples of kinds of advertising used on electronic networks, and lists several companies that help advertisers use the Internet. Fifteen guidelines are suggested to help advertisers use the Internet in a reasonable and appropriate way. (Contains 11…
Moraga-González, José Luis
We present a price signalling model with informative advertising. A costly advertisement informs of the good's quality directly and therefore the seller determines the fraction of informed buyers endogenously. We show that informative advertising only occurs in pooling equilibria. For an advertising
This article is based on the relationship of media and advertising creative for the report, Through the analysis of the nature and characteristics of various advertising media, from video, print, advertising, outdoor this four aspects explain the relationship between media and advertising creative. Fully understand the media for advertising creative, make the best combination of media and advertising, make advertising creative into real productivity.
Children are particularly interesting to the media and advertising, since they are more receptive to advertisement than adults during adolescence. The problem of advertising is mainly unhealthy food, but for child’s healthy growth and development a balanced diet and physical activity are most needed. The objectives of the thesis were to explore children's magazines and to determine the frequency of food advertising, and to present the phenomenon of food advertisements through different period...
At first, marketing practitioners and academics consider standardized approaches to marketing and advertising strategies in globalization, and then some studies proved that the standardization of advertising across culture is not valid. Therefore, cross cultural advertising takes local culture into account when conveying messages in advertisements. Cross cultural understanding is very important in order to produce successful localized advertising that would reflect the cultural values and nor...
Hassan Ali Al-Ababneh
The article is devoted to the study of one of the most important concepts and marketing events which is advertising. The author studies the history of the formation of modern advertising and covers the main interpretations of the concept of advertising. The article presents the data on the chronology of the formation of the key objectives of the advertising process and the basic classification of types of advertising, its purpose and place in the marketing mix. It sets out the ...
Yuxin Chen; Yogesh V. Joshi; Jagmohan S. Raju; Z. John Zhang
In mature markets with competing firms, a common role for advertising is to shift consumer preferences towards the advertiser in a tug-of-war, with no effect on category demand. In this paper, we analyze the effect of such “combative” advertising on market power. We show that, depending on the nature of consumer response, combative advertising can reduce price competition to benefit competing firms. However, it can also lead to a procompetitive outcome where individual firms advertise to incr...
Benedetto Molinari; Francesco Turino
This paper provides new empirical evidence of quarterly U.S. aggregate advertising expenditures, showing that advertising has a well defined pattern over the Business Cycle. To understand this pattern we develop a general equilibrium model where targeted advertising increases the marginal utility of the advertised good. Advertising intensity is endogenously determined by profit maximizing firms. We embed this assumption into an otherwise standard model of business cycle with monopolistic comp...
Moriarty, Sandra Ernst
Reviews advertising typography in general interest, special interest, and trade magazines and concludes that special interest magazine ads are making the most effort to be fashionable, but also have the greatest chance of having functional problems. (FL)
Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W
This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube.
Jessen, Iben Bredahl; Graakjær, Nicolai Jørgensgaard
Sound seems to be a neglected issue in the study of web ads. Web advertising is predominantly regarded as visual phenomena–commercial messages, as for instance banner ads that we watch, read, and eventually click on–but only rarely as something that we listen to. The present chapter presents...... an overview of the auditory dimensions in web advertising: Which kinds of sounds do we hear in web ads? What are the conditions and functions of sound in web ads? Moreover, the chapter proposes a theoretical framework in order to analyse the communicative functions of sound in web advertising. The main...... argument is that an understanding of the auditory dimensions in web advertising must include a reflection on the hypertextual settings of the web ad as well as a perspective on how users engage with web content....
Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)
This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.
In time when internet is becoming one of the major channels for sales and spreading information, organizations, companies and individuals face challenges on how to present their websites to wider audience as well as attract new visitors. In this thesis we have presented paid online advertising, which can be used by any website owner, even individual, to drive visitors to their websites in an easy and fast way. We have also presented main advertising channels, major global and local players, t...
This article presents strategies for advertising the medical practice. The emphasis is on breaking out of the old rules of how one should advertise and delves into asking questions that lead to a true strategy unique to one's medical practice and offerings. The article discusses the myriad ways to think about and create a patient-centered approach, turning from "here is what we offer" to instead "what you want we offer." Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Denis Kislov, Yevgenia Horobei
Goal of the paper. The goal of this article is to define the nature, specific features and factors pertaining to the advertising agency marketing management. One of the tools is the use of non-standard approaches to management of advertising agencies, which under certain conditions makes it possible to improve the situation and to bring the agency to a new higher level as well as to improve the efficiency of its functioning in the conditions of transformational economy of Ukraine. Methodol...
Rosa Branca Esteves
This article is a first look at the dynamic effects of customer poaching in homogeneous product markets, where firms need to invest in advertising to generate awareness. When a firm can recognize customers with different past purchasing histories, it may send them targeted advertiseraents with different prices. It is shown that only the firm that advertises the highest price in the first period will engage in price discrimination, and that poaching clearly benefits the discriminating firm, Th...
Lovitskii, Vladimir; McCaffery, Colin; Thrasher, Michael; Traynor, David; Wright, Peter
Mobile advertising is a rapidly growing sector providing brands and marketing agencies the opportunity to connect with consumers beyond traditional and digital media and instead communicate directly on their mobile phones. Mobile advertising will be intrinsically linked with mobile search, which has transported from the internet to the mobile and is identified as an area of potential growth. The result of mobile searching show that as a general rule such search result exceed 1...
Ramona Olivia ŞTEFĂNESCU-MIHĂILĂ
Advertising industry is more and more often associated to brilliant minds in areas such as: psychology, sociology, anthropology, who turned a job into a full time task of “penetrating the collective public mind, (...) its manipulation, exploitation and control”. That is why, ever since its beginnings, the advertising industry was admonished by social critics for taking materialism to the highest levels; to replace inner happiness and intrinsic motivation with the wish to be productive in soci...
Bogdan ANASTASIEI; Raluca CHIOSA
Emotions can transcend cultural, linguistic, demographic, and social boundaries. Emotions affect information processing and create a positive attitude toward the ad, which becomes associated with the brand. Objectives. This study investigates the role of pleasure (P), arousal (A) and domination (D) emotions in mobile’s photo camera advertisement and how each of them is influencing consumer attitude towards the advertisement and brand. Prior Work. Holbrook and Batra (1987) develope...
Hansen, Richard A; Qian, Jingjing; Berg, Richard; Linneman, James; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Dutcher, Sarah K; Raofi, Saeid; Page, C David; Peissig, Peggy
Generic drugs contain identical active ingredients as their corresponding brand drugs and are pharmaceutically equivalent and bioequivalent, whereas authorized generic drugs (AGs) contain both identical active and inactive ingredients as their corresponding brand drugs but are marketed as generics. This study compares generic-to-brand switchback rates between generic and AGs. Retrospective cohort study. Claims and electronic health record data from a regional U.S. health care system. The full cohort consisted of 5542 unique patients who received select branded drugs during the 6 months prior to their generic drug market availability (between 1999 and 2014) and then were switched to an AG or generic drug within 30 months of generic drug entry. For these patients, 5929 unique patient-drug combinations (867 with AGs and 5062 with generic drugs) were evaluated. Ten drugs with AGs and generics marketed between 1999 and 2014 were evaluated. The date of the first generic prescription was considered the index date for each drug, and it marked the beginning of follow-up to evaluate the occurrence of generic-to-brand switchback patterns over the subsequent 30 months. Switchback rates were compared between patients receiving AGs versus those receiving generics using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for individual drug effects, age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Score, pre-index drug use characteristics, and pre-index health care utilization. Among the 5542 unique patients who switched from brand to generic or brand to AG, 264 (4.8%) switched back to the brand drug. Overall switchback rates were similar for AGs compared with generics (hazard ratio [HR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-1.15). The likelihood of switchback was higher for alendronate (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.20-2.23) and simvastatin (HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.30-2.54) and lower for amlodipine (HR 0.27, 95% CI 0.17-0.42) compared with the other drugs evaluated. Overall switchback rates were similar
Full Text Available Emotions can transcend cultural, linguistic, demographic, and social boundaries. Emotions affect information processing and create a positive attitude toward the ad, which becomes associated with the brand. Objectives. This study investigates the role of pleasure (P, arousal (A and domination (D emotions in mobile’s photo camera advertisement and how each of them is influencing consumer attitude towards the advertisement and brand. Prior Work. Holbrook and Batra (1987 developed their own emotional scale based on these three dimensions (PAD, showing that these emotions mediate consumer responses to advertising. Approach. A 1*4 factorial experiment design method was adopted in order to measure the impact of independent variables (emotion type on dependent variables (attitude toward ad, attitude toward brand. Results. The results revealed that emotions like Pleasure (loving, friendly, grateful and Arousal (active, interested, excited, entertained influence consumers' attitudes towards brand and advertising. Value. Marketers need to understand the role of pleasure and arousal emotions when making advertising campaign; an effective promotion leads to persuading consumers. The results indicate that marketing practitioners should measure affective responses when testing an advertisement, as long as this action would predict brand attitude.
Full Text Available Research has revealed that much of what happens in our minds as a result of language use is still hidden from our conscious awareness. Advertisers know this phenomenon better. They use the manipulation of language to suggest something about their products without directly claiming it to be true. Although the advertisers use colours, symbols, and imagery in advertisements, “the most direct way to study ads is through an analysis of the language employed” as all the other aspects are meant to reinforce the language message. Ads are designed to have an effect on consumers while being laughed at, belittle and all but ignored. Some modern advertisements appear to be almost dissuading consumers from the product – but this is just a modern technique. This paper is going to analyze a series of language techniques used by advertisers to arrest our attention, to arouse our interest, to stimulate desire for a product and ultimately to motivate us to buy it. Once we become familiar with the language strategies used in advertising messages we will be more able to make our own buying decisions.
Farkas, D.F.; Swart, Henriëtte de
We discuss two groups of languages where article use contrasts in generic plural sentences but is otherwise essentially similar. The languages in the first group (English and Dutch) use bare plurals in the expression of kind reference (‘Dinosaurs are extinct’) and in generic
Tom Coupe; Olena Gnezdilova
We use panel data on advertising expenditures to check the influence of tobacco advertising bans on the advertising industry. We find no clear evidence of a negative effect of tobacco bans on total per capita advertising expenditures.
Full Text Available Journal advertising is one of the main sources of medicines information to doctors. Despite the availability of regulations and controls of drug promotion worldwide, information on medicines provided in journal advertising has been criticized in several studies for being of poor quality. However, no attempt has been made to systematically summarise this body of research. We designed this systematic review to assess all studies that have examined the quality of pharmaceutical advertisements for prescription products in medical and pharmacy journals.Studies were identified via searching electronic databases, web library, search engine and reviewing citations (1950 - February 2006. Only articles published in English and examined the quality of information included in pharmaceutical advertisements for prescription products in medical or pharmacy journals were included. For each eligible article, a researcher independently extracted the data on the study methodology and outcomes. The data were then reviewed by a second researcher. Any disagreements were resolved by consensus. The data were analysed descriptively. The final analysis included 24 articles. The studies reviewed advertisements from 26 countries. The number of journals surveyed in each study ranged from four to 24 journals. Several outcome measures were examined including references and claims provided in advertisements, availability of product information, adherence to codes or guidelines and presentation of risk results. The majority of studies employed a convenience-sampling method. Brand name, generic name and indications were usually provided. Journal articles were commonly cited to support pharmaceutical claims. Less than 67% of the claims were supported by a systematic review, a meta-analysis or a randomised control trial. Studies that assessed misleading claims had at least one advertisement with a misleading claim. Two studies found that less than 28% of claims were unambiguous
Patrice de Rendinger
Full Text Available The fundamental concept is that public space is not a private property. So, a facade (the outer skin, the last millimeter belongs to the town, not to the owner of the building. Changing the rendering, a window, adding or removing anything from a facade requires a permission delivered by the town's authority.In places like Paris, Bordeaux, Marseilles, Lyon, Strasbourg… everywhere one can find a registrated building such as a cathedral, a castle, or a group of ancient buildings, a national administration is controlling this permission. This administration is called «historical monuments administration» and is locally lead by a specialized architect.In the late seventies, French government decided to reduce advertising on the roads and on the city walls. Advertising on the road was leading to a confusion reducing the efficacy of the roadsigns and direction signs, which is dangerous. The reduction was under control of a national administration: the ministry of equipment in charge of the roads design. Advertising on the walls with publicity boards was under control of the cities. Every city has a townplanning regulation. Many cities included forbidding advertisement boards on the walls in this regulation.A couple of firms, but mainly once (Decaux found clever to give a hand to the cities to control advertising. Decaux developed a line of bus stop shelters including advertisements and advertising panels and paid the cities the right to put rather smaller publicities on the public domain.Now Decaux is no more alone on this market and the cities are comparing offers.Marseille turned to a foreign advertising firm who pays three times the price Decaux paid… for half of the advertising surface. Freiburg erased totally the public domain advertisements, selling the tramways and bus coachwork as advertising spaces. Paris is reopening the advertising market before the end of Deacaux's contract and will pay Deacaux a huge amount
Salim, Ali; Alikhani, Nima
This report has been produced as a result of a Thesis assignment conducted at Ericsson. Itspurpose is to give an overview of the Mobile Advertising industry. In this report an overviewof mobile advertising is presented and thru which channels advertising could be used. Thenthree mobile advertising campaigns are shown and described with background, strategy andresults. The different global markets, the different actors in the value chain and how the onlinebehavior has changed are analyzed. The...
James D. Griffith
Full Text Available Female escorts represent an occupational group that charges a fee for sex, which can be regarded as an extreme form of short-term mating. The present study examined if the fees charged by escorts are related to traits typically associated with female short-term mate value. A total of 2,925 advertisements for female escorts offering sexual services in the United States were examined, as a customized software program was used to download all the advertisements from an online escort directory. The advertisement content was coded, and relationships between advertised physical characteristics and the hourly rate charged by female escorts were examined. The analyses showed that higher fees were associated with female escorts who advertised a waist-to-hip ratio near 0.7, lower weight and body mass index, younger age, and photographic displays of breast and buttocks nudity. The findings provide evidence that evolutionarily relevant traits associated with female short-term mate value are systematically related to fees charged for sexual services.
This thesis was written in order to develop advertising for the manor hotel Karolineburg, located in Kajaani, Finland, by using a social network as advertising media. This work also had for goal to show the possibility of social advertising and the benefits it can bring along. According to the situation of the company, findings and results revealed positive aspects of the work done.
Rozendaal, E.; Lapierre, M.A.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.; Buijzen, M.
It is widely assumed that advertising literacy makes children less susceptible to advertising effects. However, empirical research does not provide convincing evidence for this view. In this article, we explain why advertising literacy as it is currently defined (i.e., conceptual knowledge of
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT NAVY ADVERTISING : TARGETING GENERATION Z December......study recommends improvements for Navy advertising efficiency by examining characteristics of recruits defined as Generation Z. Data gathered from five
@@ Definition of Advertising English Advertising is the nonpersonal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, service or ideas by identi- fied sponsors though various media (丁静, 2005:138 ).
Bagherjeiran, Abraham; Bhatt, Rushi P.; Parekh, Rajesh; Chaoji, Vineet
Online social networks offer opportunities to analyze user behavior and social connectivity and leverage resulting insights for effective online advertising. This chapter focuses on the role of social network information in online display advertising.
Patel, Aarti; Gauld, Robin; Norris, Pauline
Generic Medicines are an important policy option allowing for access to affordable, essential medicines. Quality of generic medicines must be guaranteed through the activities of national medicines regulatory authorities. Existing negative perceptions surrounding the quality of generic medicines ...
Full Text Available Many times, we have had a chance to hear that marketing communications are something that can move ahead of time. However, there are many areas in which they are moving slowly than time, without consideration of provided conditions. One of these areas is gender portraying, that is, accepted roles of women and men in the society. We cannot deny that gentle movements have been made towards their more realistic presentation, but a persistent claim that results from recent researches is that marketing communications and particularly advertising, as instrument that most directly reflects this theme, has remained rather resistant to changes in the society. Consequently values that have been built in brands with help of advertising are rather obsolete. Differently speaking, advertising has a showdown with stereotyping - as an assignment of a (usually negative label to certain groups of people based on a certain belief about how these people tend to behave in the society.
Full Text Available Each and every day, the TV programmes are interrupted by advertising spots which offer us a range of products as varied as they are tempting. It is enough to buy them and, as the authors of these spots guarantee, we quickly get rid of cold, the portal vein will perfectly function, we lose weight while eating, using the appropriate tooth paste will keep us away from dentists and a certain cream will get our face a couple of years younger. And all these at financial offers often apparently hard to refuse. This work aims at analyzing where the information stops, by giving the eventual buyer the possibility to choose, and where starts, through persuasion techniques, mostly subliminal, cleverly instrumented, the manipulation of advertising consumers? There is ethics in advertising, but is it fully observed and managed according to the financial interest of the seller? On the other hand, can we also talk about a tacit complicity of the buyer?
While, D; Kelly, S; Huang, W; Charlton, A
To investigate uptake of smoking in a cohort of 11 to 12 year olds related to awareness of advertised cigarette brands named. Self completed questionnaires administered to whole classes of schoolchildren in June 1993 and June 1994. Primary, middle, and secondary schools in the north and south of England. 1450 pupils aged 11 and 12 years at the time of the first survey. Onset of smoking and brands smoked by the second survey related to cigarette brands named in the first one. Less advertised brands were used as the base for calculating odds ratios. Girls who named the most advertised brands-namely, Benson and Hedges alone (odds ratio = 2.50, 95% confidence interval = 1.18 to 5.30) or Benson and Hedges and Silk Cut (2.15, 1.04 to 4.42) in the first survey were at greatest risk of taking up smoking by the second one. The difference was similar but not significant for boys. Boys and girls who named the least advertised brands in the first survey were at no greater risk of taking up smoking by the second survey than those who named no brands (boys odds ratio = 0.49 (0.24 to 1.01); girls 0.79 (0.38 to 1.62)). New smokers were more likely to smoke any available brand (29.5%) or a less advertised brand such as Embassy (24.6%) than the most advertised ones, Benson and Hedges (19.7%) and Silk Cut (14.8%). Established smokers were more selective, only 15% smoking any available brand and 38.3% smoking Benson and Hedges. Cigarette advertising appears to increase children's awareness of smoking at a generic level and encourages them to take up the behaviour, beginning with any cigarettes which are available and affordable.
Lopez, Rigoberto A.; Liu, Yizao; Zhu, Chen
This study examines the effects of television advertising on consumer demand for carbonated soft drinks using a random coefficients logit model (BLP) with household and advertising data from seven U.S. cities over a three year period. We find that advertising decreases the price elasticity of demand, indicating that advertising plays predominantly a persuasive, therefore anti-competitive role in this market. Further results show that brand spillover effects are significant and that measuring ...
Chandra, Ambarish; Kaiser, Ulrich
We examine the scope and value of targeted advertising in the magazine industry. We use data on reader characteristics at individual media, in contrast to previous work that has needed to infer this information from aggregate data. Our results show a strong relationship between subscriber characteristics and advertising prices. Advertisers clearly value more homogenous groups of readers, measured according to income, gender and age. Our results explain recent trends of declining advertising e...
The dissertation studies two topics in economics of advertising in the framework of Industrial Organization. Particularly, it considers a role of advertising in the markets with network externalities in consumption and advertising as a strategic response of incumbent to new entry. The first chapter investigates the incentives for a monopolistic firm producing a good with network externalities to advertise when consumers face imperfect information and therefore must search to realize their act...
Focke, Florens; Ruenzi, Stefan; Ungeheuer, Michael
We investigate the impact of product market advertising on investor attention and financial market outcomes. Using daily advertising data allows us to identify short-term effects of advertising. We measure daily investor attention based the company's number of Wikipedia page views. We show that TV and newspaper advertising positively impacts short-term investor attention. It also positively impacts turnover and liquidity, but the effects are not economically significant. Most importantly, ass...
The bachelor thesis deals with exploitation of original attitudes in advertising. The thesis solves answers, what role plays the factor of originality in advertising, when and why firms use that factor, how creators work with it, how consumers perceive the factor and what other elements it generally contains. The bachelor thesis qualifies relationship of advertising and originality, describes and probes practical situations, when originality in advertising can be used as a serious competitive...
TANASE, George Cosmin
Advertising is the most visible and most important instrument of the marketing communications mix. Large sums of money are spent on advertising, and no other marketing phenomenon is subject to so much public debate and controversy. Huge amounts of research are devoted to the question of what makes advertising effective and to the role of advertising characteristics on its effectiveness. As is the case with other communications instruments, special attention has to be devoted to the different ...
Population’s Awareness and Advertising Previous studies on advertising have focused on measuring its effects in product markets : the consensus is that...needed that would have an immediate effect. Since about half of the HSGs generated by advertising accrue after the second year, the proper strategy is...1 June 1973. 4. Clarke, D.G., "Econometric Measurement of the Duration of Advertising Effect on Sales," Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. III
This paper examines the effects of increased transparency over online news sources, e.g. due to news aggregators, on online news outlets and the advertising industry. The role of news aggregators is controversially discussed, where the discussion widely points on user side effect. The present paper widens the discussion on the advertising side and shows that aggregators can help to better target advertising messages to a more homogenous group of users and, in turn, may both benefit advertiser...
George E. Monahan
A stochastic, sequential model is developed to determine optimal advertising expenditures as a function of product maturity and past advertising. Random demand for the product depends upon an aggregate measure of current and past advertising called "goodwill," and the position of the product in its life cycle measured by sales-to-date. Conditions on the parameters of the model are established that insure that it is optimal to advertise less as the product matures. Additional characteristics o...
Promotional activities are very often based on advertising and diverse types of public relations. In order to attract consumers' attention and achieve communication goals set by the corporate strategy, advertisers frequently use rhetorical elements in advertising discourse. The advertisers try to convey a desired message and to communicate with the recipient of the message by using various rhetorical figures. It is argued that understanding the structure and function of rhetorical figur...
A.S. Teletov; T.Ye. Ivanova
The aim of article. The article shows that today more and more citizens supply from advertising. Children's perception of the world is radically different from the adults’ perception. Modern advertising industry affects children's audience more and more. The aim of the article is to analyze the impact of advertising on children's audience with further proposals. The results of the analysis. Some social critics believe that advertising provides new information that helps to be more adaptive...
Key findings. (1) Zero copayment for generic drugs is the greatest influencer of generic statin utilization. (2) Both higher copayments for generic drugs and lower copayments for competing brands are associated with a decreased probability of using generic statins. (3) Prior authorization and step therapy requirements for brand-name statins are associated with an increased use of generic drugs. (4) Greater use of generic statins should reduce costs for patients, plans, and Medicare.
M.A. (Communication) The information age we find ourselves in require a different approach to advertising than the traditional advertising approach we are used to. Messages will no longer be placed in order to reach a mass audience, but to reach a very closely defined audience. Products and services will be customised to meet individual needs and the relationship with the consumer will be the key to success in a global economy. We are moving towards a many-to-many model of communication. T...
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine internet advertising, to understand its strengths and weaknesses, to compare the content and potential of traditional media with Web sites and to describe the specific types of internet advertising. The paper also tries to present some facts and figures regarding internet advertising.
Πέκκα - Οικονόμου, Βικτωρία; Σολδάτος, Γεράσιμος Θ.
This paper utilizes a signaling-game approach to advertising and concludes that advertising is a means of increasing profits and not an instrument of consumer preferences manipulation. It also concludes that advertised brands should offer to the consumer something original and if not, then offer what more or less the rival do.
Hassan Ali Al-Ababneh
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of one of the most important concepts and marketing events which is advertising. The author studies the history of the formation of modern advertising and covers the main interpretations of the concept of advertising. The article presents the data on the chronology of the formation of the key objectives of the advertising process and the basic classification of types of advertising, its purpose and place in the marketing mix. It sets out the classification and content of the basic concepts of marketing. The article considers the potential effectiveness of the basic types of advertising communications, and especially the impact of these promotional activities on the perception of the end user. Particular attention is paid to the study of certain promising areas of advertising, namely, advertising at airports and in airplanes, it is a special case of transit advertising. The author describes the identified advantages and disadvantages of this direction of marketing communications as well as the analysis of statistical data on the effectiveness of advertising at airports and in airplanes. It is suggested to consider this type of advertising as promising and effective in the conditions of modern times because there is the tendency to increase the dynamic potential users of the specified mode of transport and, as a consequence, it is possible with certainty to predict the transformation of potential passengers into real consumers of the studied type of advertising
Chen, Sherry Yong
This paper explores the function of bilingual advertising by analyzing a case study of bilingual advertising in the Chinatown of Melbourne, Australia. The use of bilingual advertising in an immigrant setting differentiates itself from those in Asian settings where English is not used by dominant proportion of speakers in the society, and this…
This paper is an analysis of advertisement translation under skopos theory.It is explained that the nature of advertisement translation under skopos theory is reconstructing the information of the source text to persuade target audience.Three translation strategies are put forward in translating advertisements.
Full Text Available Advertising design is a discursive planning that does not only build an identity as brand value or graphic development, but also as Semiotics suggests, it produces a narrative level outlining the advertising story. The use of media, construction of characters, storytelling, organization of advertisement, are all expressions of this narrative level which in turn depends on a “context” or expression process from which they are built. This article aims to identify the different forms of narrative production in relation to three types of advertising discourse (Discourse Phase 1, Phase 2 and hyperadvertising as well as evaluate its contrasts and expressions within the advertising communication and consumer society.
Aiken, Alexandra; Lam, Tina; Gilmore, William; Burns, Lucy; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Lenton, Simon; Lloyd, Belinda; Lubman, Dan; Ogeil, Rowan; Allsop, Steve
We investigated young people's exposure to alcohol advertising, their intentions to consume and purchase alcohol products following the viewing of advertisements, and whether they perceived the actors in the advertisements as being under the age of 25 years. Face-to-face interviews were completed with 351 risky drinking 16-19-year-old Australians, with a sub-sample (n=68) responding to a range of alcohol advertisements in an in-depth interview. Participants were exposed to alcohol advertisements from an average of seven specific contexts in the past 12 months, with younger adolescents more likely to recall TV and outdoor billboards (n=351). Positive perception of advertisements was associated with increased intention to use and to purchase advertised products (n=68). A liqueur advertisement actor was perceived by 94% as being under 25 years-old, and almost 30% thought the advertisement was marketed at people younger than 18 years of age. Young people's perceptions of alcohol advertising are not necessarily in line with expert/industry assessment; products are sometimes marketed in a way that is highly appealing to young people. Greater appeal was associated with increased intention to consume and to purchase products. Implications for public health: These results indicate deficiencies in the effectiveness of current advertising codes in regard to protecting the health and wellbeing of adolescents. © 2018 The Authors.
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Buijzen, Moniek; Schuurman, Joris; Bomhof, Elise
In a diary-survey study in 234 households with children aged 4-12 years, we investigated the associations between children's exposure to food advertising and their consumption of (a) advertised food brands, (b) advertised energy-dense food product categories, and (c) food products overall. Relations were examined using multiple hierarchical regression analysis, while controlling for various child (i.e., age, sex, television viewing time) and family variables (i.e., family income and consumption-related communication styles). Results showed that children's exposure to food advertising was significantly related to their consumption of advertised brands (beta=.21) and energy-dense product categories (beta=.19). The relation between advertising exposure and overall food consumption only held in lower-income families (beta=.19). In addition, consumption-related family communication was an important moderator of the relations between advertising and the food consumption variables. Socio-oriented family communication (i.e., striving for harmony and conformity) was particularly successful in reducing these relations. In conclusion, consistent with communication theories predicting spill-over effects of advertising, the impact of television food advertising exceeded the advertised brand and generalized to more generic unhealthy consumption patterns. Theoretical and societal consequences, as well as the important role of the family are discussed.
Connell, Edward B.; Barnes, William P.; Stallings, William H.
The Generic Data Capture Facility, which can provide data capture support for a variety of different types of spacecraft while enabling operations costs to be carefully controlled, is discussed. The data capture functions, data protection, isolation of users from data acquisition problems, data reconstruction, and quality and accounting are addressed. The TDM and packet data formats utilized by the system are described, and the development of generic facilities is considered.
The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.
The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports
Burrell, Andrew; Beard, Roger
This paper explores primary school children's ability to engage with "the power of the text" by tackling persuasive writing in the form of an advertisement. It is eclectically framed within genre theory and rhetorical studies and makes use of linguistic tools and concepts. The paper argues that writing research has not built upon earlier…
Larson, Charles U.
Kenneth Burke's concepts of identification, the five terms of dramatism, and strategic uses of ambiguity can be successfully taught to undergraduates if appropriate and familiar examples are used. Print and electronic advertising offer the instructor an up-to-date, familiar, and abundant source of classroom examples. Market segmentation models…
Methods for establishing an advertising budget are reviewed. They include methods based on percentage of sales or profits, unit of sales, and objective and task. Also discussed are ways to allocate a promotional budget. The most common breakdowns are: departmental budgets, total budget, calendar periods, media, and sales area. (JMD)
Denis Kislov, Yevgenia Horobei
Full Text Available Goal of the paper. The goal of this article is to define the nature, specific features and factors pertaining to the advertising agency marketing management. One of the tools is the use of non-standard approaches to management of advertising agencies, which under certain conditions makes it possible to improve the situation and to bring the agency to a new higher level as well as to improve the efficiency of its functioning in the conditions of transformational economy of Ukraine. Methodology. Monitoring of the marketing behavior of agencies that promote advertising services. The results of monitoring and analysis demonstrated that the majority of agencies have a disorganized approach to the agency marketing, which results in sporadic activities related to the use and organization of agency marketing. Only individual agencies begin to form their own marketing strategy for the implementation of which marketing budgets are allocated. The main marketing functions of a Ukrainian advertising agency have been identified. Practical value. Rapid development of technologies, sophistication and increased variety of goods and services, reduction of their life cycle, higher customer demands, the growth of volume and speed of obtaining information, increased competition – all these changes that are taking place in the external environment make the Ukrainian companies that provide advertising services search for new approaches to ensure better adaptation to these conditions. Uncertainty, unpredictability and instability of the external environment will continue to grow. Therefore, the companies that provide advertising services need to constantly adapt not only to the existing conditions but also ensure that they are able to quickly react in the future. The basic precondition for success is stability of the quality that is achieved through strategic planning, fine-tuned search system, efficient management, which encourages creation of a position of quality
Full Text Available Modern consumer is inhabitant of a "Global Village" as well as of its own national culture which largely influences his creation of a system of values, beliefs and style of life in general. According to adopted values and styles, consumers from different cultures have different buying behavior, different needs and preferences related to a product and they have their favorite advertising styles. As advertising reflects culture, symbols and rituals which are used are even more emphasized and strengthen cultural values, which are then used as a strong advertising style characteristic. Global advertisers are increasingly faced with different environment meaning. A fact that has been proved in practice is that standardized approach to advertising does not transmit values in a correct way, so the advertisers that want to achieve long term success must differentiate their brands to competitors'. In modern market environment strategy "Think globally, act locally" proved to be adequate for advertising in modern international market.
VIRGIL - ION POPOVICI
Full Text Available In DEX, commercial advertising is defined as the (commercial activity which aimes by advertising (by prints, radio, television, movies, etc., to point out public interest on certain goods, books, show, the use of services etc. A famous, advertised product remains in our memory. Many of us ask somehow annoyed: How some of the brands remain in our memory, although we believe that we are not strongly influenced by advertisements? Interest publicity led to the creation of specialized agencies and organizations at a very broad diversification methods but advertising means.With advertising, the companies using various methods and means of popularizing notify the assortment of goods offered for sale population, of its quality, how to use and the price. In this regard propaganda to persuade consumers through various forms of advertising seeks not only to ensure its capture attention and conversion of formats such motivations in buying certain actions.
Goel, Rajeev K
Using state-level panel data for the USA spanning three decades, this research estimates the demand for cigarettes. The main contribution lies in studying the effects of cigarette advertising disaggregated across five qualitatively different groups. Results show cigarette demand to be near unit elastic, the income effects to be generally insignificant and border price effects and habit effects to be significant. Regarding advertising effects, aggregate cigarette advertising has a negative effect on smoking. Important differences across advertising media emerge when cigarette advertising is disaggregated. The effects of public entertainment and Internet cigarette advertising are stronger than those of other media. Anti-smoking messages accompanying print cigarette advertising seem relatively more effective. Implications for smoking control policy are discussed.
Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix
The emergence of the wired Internet and mobile telecommunication networks is creating new opportunities for advertisers to generate new revenue streams through mobile users. As consumer adoption of mobile technology continues to increase, it is only a question of time when mobile advertising...... becomes an important part of marketing strategies. The development of mobile advertising, however, will be dependent on acceptance and usability issues in order to ensure permission-based advertising. Growing concerns about the protection of the users' privacy have been raised since mobile advertising may...... become extremely intrusive practices in an intimate personal space. This article focuses on the evaluation of legal problems raised by this novel form of advertising. It is assumed that a technological design, which is in line with the legal framework, will ensure that the benefits of mobile advertising...
Keywords: Semiotic, printed advertisement, sign, icon, symbol, index, connotation, myth Printed advertisement has a promotional function as medium to advertise aproduct. It implicitly persuades people to create demand of product which is being advertised. In this study, the writer uses printed advertisement of McDonald's fast food company as the object. The printed advertisement was analyzed by usingSemiotics study. There are seven printed advertisements that were analyzes in this study. All ...
Yopp, David; Ely, Rob; Johnson-Leung, Jennifer
We review literature that discusses generic example proving and highlight ambiguities that pervade our research community's discourse about generic example arguments. We distinguish between pedagogical advice for choosing good examples that can serve as generic examples when teaching and advice for developing generic example arguments. We provide…
Ventimiglia, Jeffrey; Kalali, Amir H
In this article, we explore the accelerated penetration of generic antidepressants in the United States market following the availability of generic citalopram and sertraline. Analysis suggests that overall, generic penetration into the antidepressant market has grown from approximately 41 percent in January 2004 to over 73 percent in January 2010. Similar trends are uncovered when branded and generic prescriptions are analyzed by specialty.
Czechowski, Jessica L; Tjia, Jennifer; Triller, Darren M
To describe the history of generic prescription pricing programs at major pharmacy chains and their potential implications on prescribing, quality of care, and patient safety. Publicly available generic prescription discount program drug lists as of May 1, 2009. Fierce competition among major pharmacy chains such as Walgreens, CVS, and Walmart has led to a generic prescription pricing war with unclear public health implications. Introduced in 2006, currently 7 of the 10 largest pharmacy chains advertise a version of a deeply discounted medication (DDM) program, accounting for more than 25,000 locations nationally. By early 2008, almost 70 million Americans had used these programs. Although DDM programs lower drug costs for many patients, DDM formularies include potentially ineffective or harmful medications, have the potential to influence physician prescribing behavior, and may impair pharmacists' ability to review complete drug-dispensing records. DDMs are widespread but have the potential for unintended consequences on patients, providers, and the health care system. A systematic review of DDMs needs to evaluate the clinical, economic, and system-level implications of such programs.
Tiggemann, Marika; Brown, Zoe
The experiment investigated the impact on women's body dissatisfaction of different forms of label added to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 340 female undergraduate students who viewed 15 fashion advertisements containing a thin and attractive model. They were randomly allocated to one of five label conditions: no label, generic disclaimer label (indicating image had been digitally altered), consequence label (indicating that viewing images might make women feel bad about themselves), informational label (indicating the model in the advertisement was underweight), or a graphic label (picture of a paint brush). Although exposure to the fashion advertisements resulted in increased body dissatisfaction, there was no significant effect of label type on body dissatisfaction; no form of label demonstrated any ameliorating effect. In addition, the consequence and informational labels resulted in increased perceived realism and state appearance comparison. Yet more extensive research is required before the effective implementation of any form of label. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available At first, marketing practitioners and academics consider standardized approaches to marketing and advertising strategies in globalization, and then some studies proved that the standardization of advertising across culture is not valid. Therefore, cross cultural advertising takes local culture into account when conveying messages in advertisements. Cross cultural understanding is very important in order to produce successful localized advertising that would reflect the cultural values and norms of intended audience. Challenge in cross cultural advertising is the problem of communicating to people of diverse cultural background. Cross cultural solutions are applied in areas such as language, communication style, images and cultural values. Cross cultural advertising is simply about using common sense and analyzing how the different elements of an advertising campaign are impacted by culture and modifying them to best speak to the target audience. Other challenges are determining between standardization and adaptation of cultural values content of advertising when facing different people from diverse cultures. In academic side, the challenge is preparing students to design advertisements that communicate effectively to diverse cultures.
Hutchison, Jennifer; Thomas, Nicole A; Elias, Lorin
It has been reliably shown that light is assumed to come from above. There is also some suggestion that light from the left might be preferred. Leftward lighting biases have been observed across various mediums such as paintings, portraits, photographs, and advertisements. As advertisements are used to persuade the public to purchase products, it was of interest to better understand whether leftward lighting would influence future intention to purchase. Participants gave preference ratings for pairs of advertisements with opposing lighting directions. Attitude towards the advertisement and the brand as well as future purchase intention was then rated. Overall, participants indicated that they preferred advertisements with leftward lighting and were more likely to purchase these products in the future than when the same products were lit from the right. Findings are consistent with previously observed leftward lighting biases and suggest that advertisements with a leftward lighting bias might be more effective.
Ahmed, Sofia B; Grace, Sherry L; Stelfox, Henry Thomas; Tomlinson, George; Cheung, Angela M
Women with cardiovascular disease are treated less aggressively than men. The reasons for this disparity are unclear. Pharmaceutical advertisements may influence physician practices and patient care. To determine if female and male patients are equally likely to be featured in cardiovascular advertisements. We examined all cardiovascular advertisements from US editions of general medical and cardiovascular journals published between 1 January 1996 and 30 June 1998. For each unique advertisement, we recorded the total number of journal appearances and the number of appearances in journals' premium positions. We noted the gender, age, race and role of both the primary figure and the majority of people featured in the advertisement. Nine hundred and nineteen unique cardiovascular advertisements were identified of which 254 depicted a patient as the primary figure. A total of 20%[95% confidence interval (CI) 15.3-25.5%] of these advertisements portrayed a female patient, while 80% (95% CI 74.5-84.7%) depicted a male patient, P advertisements appeared 249 times (13.3%; 95% CI 8.6-18.9%) while male patient advertisements appeared 1618 times (86.7%; 95% CI 81.1-91.4%), P advertisements also had significantly fewer mean appearances than male patient advertisements in journals' premium positions (0.82 vs. 1.99, P=0.02). Similar results were seen when the advertisements were analysed according to predominant gender. Despite increasing emphasis on cardiovascular disease in women, significant under-representation of female patients exists in cardiovascular advertisements. Physicians should be cognizant of this gender bias.
Advertising design is a discursive planning that does not only build an identity as brand value or graphic development, but also as Semiotics suggests, it produces a narrative level outlining the advertising story. The use of media, construction of characters, storytelling, organization of advertisement, are all expressions of this narrative level which in turn depends on a “context” or expression process from which they are built. This article aims to identify the different forms of narrativ...
Full Text Available Traditional advertising media used as a main TV, radio and print media. When the Internet has become one of the most important channels of communication between people, advertising has proposed to use this new medium to promote products and services on the market. Currently, more than 50% of the western countries population and share increasingly larger of population from other countries have Internet access, which creates a huge potential for online advertising.
A. A. Sogorin
Full Text Available The basic directions of advertising studying as part of the research subject of separate social and humanitarian sciences. The definition of advertising is given. It’s considered as a holistic socioeconomic phenomenon, which consists of three basic components: advertising as a product, the final incarnation in the material and ideal forms of the customer’s ideas; advertising as an activity that is advertising as a profession; advertising as an integral part of the social space of the individual. The boundaries of the social and humanitarian scientific field are defined. Accordingly, the study presents the main aspects of advertising in terms of art learning, sociology, cultural studies, history, psychology, political science, philosophy and linguistics. It is proved that the study of sociohumanitarian field is characterized with a permanent disciplinary interaction in the case study of advertising (the pairing of linguistics and psychology, political science and psychology, sociology and psychology. The chief strategies of advertising research within social and humanitarian fields include: a single basic approach strategy: the recognition of advertising as a twoway communication process; communication strategy: the rejection of research within the subject of a separate discipline, active interaction with the related sciences on the subject of the study; application of the principle of mutual academic enrichment; future strategy: focus on new technologies, methods, implementation of schemes of advertising in the social space, the attempts of futurological analysis. The article demonstrates the importance of interdisciplinary scientific cooperation in the study of advertising as a social phenomenon.
The Internet has revolutionized the way knowledge is currently produced, stored and disseminated. A few finger clicks on a keyboard can save time and many hours of search in libraries or shopping in stores. Online trademarks with an (e-) prefix such as e-library, e-business, e-health etc., are increasingly part of our daily professional vocabularies. However, the Internet has also produced multiple negative side effects, ranging from an unhealthy dependency to a dehumanization of human relationships. Fraudulent, unethical and scam practices are also flourishing through for example misleading online advertising methods. Some social and professional networks gather users' profiles for selling and advertising purposes, sometimes by making it technically difficult to unsubscribe. Here, I discuss some of these unethical aspects and propose some potential solutions to reduce them.
Since its inception the Children's Advertising Review Unit has turned to research in order to better evaluate children's advertisements, to develop guidelines for children's advertisers and to resolve some perplexing questions about certain types of advertising content. Although some work has been done in advertising directed toward children, most…
The target of the thesis is an evaluation of current advertising offers and budgeting system characteristic of a particular organization. Object of study is advertising on various radio stations, satisfaction with the work of companies, advertising agencies and then to their advertising and consumers look to advertising.
Jugenheimer, Donald W.
A questionnaire survey of 300 advertising practitioners was used to determine the degree of job and career satisfaction among advertising practitioners. The subjects were separated according to whether they worked for advertising agencies, advertisers, or advertising media; 100 subjects in each area were selected from the prestigious directories…
... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 230.8 Section 230.8 Banks and... SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.8 Advertising. (a) Misleading or inaccurate advertisements. An advertisement... obtain the advertised annual percentage yield. For tiered-rate accounts, the minimum balance required for...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 5..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Advertising of Distilled Spirits § 5.66 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of a...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 7..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Advertising of Malt Beverages § 7.55 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of a...
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 707.8 Section 707.8 Banks and... Advertising. (a) Misleading or inaccurate advertisements. An advertisement must not: (1) Be misleading or... balance required to earn the advertised annual percentage yield. For tiered-rate accounts, the minimum...
Nicoleta -Andreea Neacşu
Full Text Available Marketing communication has evolved steadily in the direction of increasing complexity and increasing volume of funds needed to run their own actions. More than ever, consumers are exposed to an overwhelming variety of sources and communication tehniques, the information received being numerous, diverse and polyvalent. The desire to make more efficient the marketing communication activity urges the broadcasters to encode messages, to use effective means of propagation in order to obtain a high degree of control on receptors and to influence the consumption attitudes. Between the means used for this purpose, manipulation tehniques are well known. This paper highlights the main conclusions drawn as a result of a quantitative marketing research on the adult population from Braşov in order to identify the attitudes and opinions of consumers from Braşov regarding the manipulation techniques used by commercial practices and advertising.The results of the research have shown that 82% of the respondents buy products in promotional offers, and 18% choose not to buy these products and 61% of the respondents consider that they have not been manipulated not even once, while only 39% believe that they have been manipulated at least once through advertising or commercial practices. Advertisements on TV have a strong influence on consumers, 81% of the respondents considering that at least once they have bought a product because of a TV commercial.
Full Text Available 21th century advertising might just be the most powerful weapon a marketer haves and a quite efficient one if we think about the way it changed our world. But all that power comes with great responsibility: used accordingly by planning everything in the smallest detail possible it can be the best thing that ever happen to a company, used without any kind of strategy it can very well be a large scale disaster. Because of the great costs that advertising is much too often associated with and also the long term affects it haves on the consumer a company should never start an advertising campaign without knowing every single last detail concerning their product and consumers. The study of the promotional message will show its capacity to gain the attention of the targeted audience, to stand out from other messages, to be associated with the product/service it promotes, to generate a positive reaction towards that specific product/service and to encourage its purchasing.
Maria Helena Cruz Pistori
Full Text Available This article analyzes two advertisements from the same brand, but produced in different local media: France and Brazil. It aims to pursue the interrelation and nexus needed between the verbal, visual and extraverbal dimensions to produce and understand the effects of persuasive sense. Concepts from ancient and modern Rhetoric, as well as dialogic discourse analysis notions and categories, inspired in the works of Bakhtin and the Circle, are the article’s theoretical-methodological basis. In the chosen advertisements, we observe the tense way they reflect and refract reality and how this is expressed in concrete utterances, constructed according to genre coercions. By analyzing the produced meaning effects, we especially highlight the presence of persuasion in different dialogic relationships allowed by the texts, audience importance in effect construction of text persuasive meaning, and proximity between advertisement and epidictic genre in ancient rhetoric. Persuasive dialogic relationships express broad and different spheres of human activity, in connection with the organization of social life, space and time; in fact, they are not aimed at product purchase, but at access to a way of life, which is linked to ideological values of privilege.
M. A. Nikolaeva
Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of social advertising in promoting the ideas of a sobrietology – the science exploring the negative phenomena affecting human consciousness, investigating the conformities of human society, where the sobriety is a vitally important norm and value, and taking psychoactive substances is limited to the non-affecting the individual and society minimum. Sobrietology emphasizes psychic processes, interpersonal pedagogical interactions and social prospects of a healthy nation. This field of human knowledge can guarantee the necessary assistance to teachers in counteracting the tobacco smoking, taking alcohol, narcotics and toxic substances. The authors denote the structural aspects of sobrientology, its pedagogical guidelines and demonstrate the possible ways of social advertising in educational sphere, developing the ideals of moral and physical health, and steady socially adequate behavior patterns. Social advertising is regarded as the relevant new resource in propagating the healthy and sober life style, and providing the grounds for personal growth. It combines the informational, communicative, educational, patriotic and image-making functions and possesses a powerful potential of influencing people’s consciousness and behavior. In the authors’ opinion, this sort of informational activity is quite perspective and efficient for promoting the ideas of sobriety, sustaining the moral norms and values, and carrying the state anti-alcohol and anti-narcotic policy.
M. A. Nikolaeva
Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of social advertising in promoting the ideas of a sobrietology – the science exploring the negative phenomena affecting human consciousness, investigating the conformities of human society, where the sobriety is a vitally important norm and value, and taking psychoactive substances is limited to the non-affecting the individual and society minimum. Sobrietology emphasizes psychic processes, interpersonal pedagogical interactions and social prospects of a healthy nation. This field of human knowledge can guarantee the necessary assistance to teachers in counteracting the tobacco smoking, taking alcohol, narcotics and toxic substances. The authors denote the structural aspects of sobrientology, its pedagogical guidelines and demonstrate the possible ways of social advertising in educational sphere, developing the ideals of moral and physical health, and steady socially adequate behavior patterns. Social advertising is regarded as the relevant new resource in propagating the healthy and sober life style, and providing the grounds for personal growth. It combines the informational, communicative, educational, patriotic and image-making functions and possesses a powerful potential of influencing people’s consciousness and behavior. In the authors’ opinion, this sort of informational activity is quite perspective and efficient for promoting the ideas of sobriety, sustaining the moral norms and values, and carrying the state anti-alcohol and anti-narcotic policy.
As there is general disagreement about the way generic medicines should be commercialized, two retailing policies are analyzed, taking into account their effects on the welfare of patients, government, pharmacies and physicians. In the first policy scenario, pharmacies are allowed to substitute generic medicines for branded ones, while in the second, substitution is forbidden. In both cases a pharmacies association is allowed to have a share in the production of generic medicines. The model predicts that under some conditions patients may prefer substitution by pharmacies but when doctors' decisions are binding, they are never "excessively bad". However, the policy choice belongs to the government, which prefers to allow for substitution more often than patients would like.
Henderson, Joan; Miller, Graeme; Pan, Ying; Britt, Helena
To assess the effect of pharmaceutical advertising embedded in clinical software on the prescribing behaviour of general practitioners. Secondary analysis of data from a random sample of 1336 Australian GPs who participated in Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health, a national continuous cross-sectional survey of general practice activity, between November 2003 and March 2005. The prescribing behaviour of participants who used the advertising software was compared with that of participants who did not, for seven pharmaceutical products advertised continually throughout the study period. Prescription for advertised product as a proportion (%) of prescriptions for all pharmaceutical products in the same generic class or group. GP age, practice location, accreditation status, patient bulk-billing status and hours worked were significantly associated (P advertising software. We found no significant differences, either before or after adjustment for these confounders, in the prescribing rate of Lipitor (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.90; P = 0.26); Micardis (AOR, 0.98; P = 0.91); Mobic (AOR, 1.02; P = 0.89); Norvasc (AOR, 1.02; P = 0.91); Natrilix (AOR, 0.80; P = 0.32); or Zanidip (AOR, 0.88; P = 0.47). GPs using advertising software prescribed Nexium significantly less often than those not using advertising software (AOR, 0.78; P = 0.02). When all advertised products were combined and compared with products that were not advertised, no difference in the overall prescribing behaviour was demonstrated (AOR, 0.96; P = 0.42). Exposure to advertisements in clinical software has little influence on the prescribing behaviour of GPs.
Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas
in a directed cyclic graph. Furthermore, the basic productions are chosen such that Generic Graph Grammar seamlessly combines the capabilities of L-systems to imitate biological growth (to model trees, animals, etc.) and those of split grammars to design structured objects (chairs, houses, etc.). This results...
Czerw, Aleksandra; Marek, Ewelina Maria
Similarly to other European countries, the Polish pharmaceutical market is in the phase of maturity characterized by limited speed of increase in sales. In connection with escalation of the competitive struggle, being the result of globalization and development of enterprises producing generic medications, the most important aim for pharmaceutical companies has been to maintain profitability on the right level. To perform this task, companies producing medications have to carry out proper marketing actions. The marketing elements include, apart from the product, the price and the distribution, also promotion which is inextricably linked with advertising. It is a special type of information message that aims at evoking a specific consumer's attitude and belief. Advertising of medicinal products is subject to detailed legislative and non-legislative regulations. The aim of the article is to present legal regulations within the scope of advertising of medicinal products and violations of these regulations based on example decisions of the Main Pharmaceutical Inspector issued in the years 2008-2010. Abundant rulings of the Main Pharmaceutical Inspector prove that both advertisements addressed to public attention and those addressed to specialists often diverge from the criteria determined by the Pharmaceutical Law. In the face of still increasing violations of the provisions of the Pharmaceutical Law act, it seems that introducing a ban on advertising or any possible financial sanctions is not a sufficient punishment for advertisers. Thus, an introduction of other, more rigorous legal regulations as a deterrent for those involved in illegal advertising of medicinal products ought to be considered.
Aduss, E.L.; Bisconti, A.S.
Advertising is one component of the US nuclear industry's co-ordinated communications programme aimed at assuring an understanding of nuclear energy's role and benefits. This communication programme, conducted by the US Council for Energy Awareness (USCEA), includes many media and public relations activities, a variety of publications aimed at key audiences, reports, technical analyses, as well as advertising. Advertising enables USCEA to disseminate key information to very broad audiences continuously and consistently
This paper provides empirical evidence that managers adjust firm advertising expenditures to influence investor behavior and short-term stock prices. First, this paper shows that increased advertising spending is associated with individual investor buying and a contemporaneous rise in abnormal stock returns, which is then reversed in subsequent years. Second, there is a significant rise in firm advertising expenditures prior to insider sales and seasoned equity offerings. This large increase ...
Sousa, Luís Ventura de; Malheiro, Benedita; Foss, Jerry
This paper describes a multi-agent brokerage platform for near real time advertising personalisation organised in three layers: user interface, agency and marketplace. The personalisation is based on the classification of viewer profiles and advertisements (ads). The goal is to provide viewers with a personalised advertising alignment during programme intervals. The enterprise interface agents upload new ads and negotiation profiles to producer agents and new user and negotiation profiles to ...
Holst, Asger Bach; Jeppesen, Annika; Turunen, Marcus
This project investigates the opinions about Native Advertising, among RUC-students who study journalism. In qualitative interviews a number of students point out advantages and disadvantages of Native Advertising as they see them, as well as they reflect upon if they eventually can see themselves work with Native Advertising.A selection of their responds are analysed with the use of a pragmatic argument analysis. The outcome of the analysis is the base of a discussion, which also include the...
Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J
Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were sur...
Ouwersloot Hans; Tudorica Anamaria
Brand Personality is one of the core dimensions of brand equity. Brand personality refers to the emotional side of a brand image. It is created by all experiences of consumers with a brand, but advertising plays a dominant role in personality creation. In this paper we explore the mechanism that builds brand personality with the help of advertising. We integrate advertising models with the theory of brand personality. Our integrated framework leads to a number of propositions that set an agen...
I consider an oligopoly model where, prior to price competition, firms invest in persuasive advertising and induce brand loyalty in consumers who would otherwise buy the cheapest alternative on the market. This setting, in which persuasive advertising is introduced to homogenous product markets, provides an alternative explanation for price dispersion phenomena. Despite ex-ante symmetry, the equilibrium profile of advertising outlays is asymmetric. It follows that endogenously determine...
Full Text Available Promotional activities are very often based on advertising and diverse types of public relations. In order to attract consumers' attention and achieve communication goals set by the corporate strategy, advertisers frequently use rhetorical elements in advertising discourse. The advertisers try to convey a desired message and to communicate with the recipient of the message by using various rhetorical figures. It is argued that understanding the structure and function of rhetorical figures in advertising requires a "text- and reader-aware approach". The use of rhetorical figures in advertising has been overlooked in consumer research. This paper shows that the use of rhetorical elements in the advertising discourse is very frequent, but at the same time it is questioned if the function of the rhetorical figures is just a communication with the target market (which is a base of communication models and if the consequences of linguistic influences are much more serious. The complex nature of advertising language with various rhetorical figures (thropes and schemes do not just stimulate recipients to demonstrate a desirable behavior, but indirectly it constructs a concept of desirable lifestyle and it induces them to identify themselves with the explained model. Moreover, the analyzed corpus included advertising slogans of social responsible companies as well as advertising campaigns with elements of diverse ideologies. In the time of digitization and a rapid information flow, consumer's attention is less dedicated to the advertising messages. Therefore, it should be expected that in the future advertisers will have to adjust linguistic, audio and visual techniques to the unfocused message recipients.
S. B. Kalmykov
Full Text Available Purpose: the The purpose of the publication is development of existing criterial assessment in social advertising sphere. The next objectives are provided for its achievement: to establish research methodology, to develop the author’s version of necessary notional apparatus and conceptual generalization, to determine the elements of social advertising quality, to establish the factors of its quality, to conduct the systematization of existing criteria and measuring instruments of quality assessment, to form new criteria of social advertising quality, to apply received results for development of criterial assessment to determine the further research perspectives. Methods: the methodology of research of management of social advertising interaction with target audience, which has dynamic procedural character with use of sociological knowledge multivariate paradigmatic status, has been proposed. Results: the primary received results: the multivariate paradigmatic research basis with use of works of famous domestic and foreign scientists in sociology, qualimetry and management spheres; the deﬁnitions of social advertising, its quality, sociological quality provision system, target audience behavior model during social advertising interaction are oﬀered; the quality factors with three groups by level of eﬀect on consumer are established; the systematization of existing quality and its measure instruments assessment criteria by detected social advertising quality elements are conducted; the two new criteria and its management quality assessment measuring instruments in social advertising sphere are developed; the one of the common groups of production quality criteria – adaptability with considering of new management quality criteria and conducted systematization of existing social advertising creative quality assessment criteria development; the perspective of further perfection of quality criterial assessment based on social advertising
The rapid proliferation of mobile devices such as cellular phones has created a new communication channel for marketing. Currently, cellular phones are mostly used for Short Messaging Service (SMS) advertising. The aim of this study is to explore the factors that underline undergraduates’ attitudes toward SMS advertising. The results obtained indicated factors such as entertainment, informativeness, irritation, reliability, general attitude and permission and incentive-based advertising. The ...
Advertising language takes form under the influence of linguistics,psychology and sociology,etc,and its way of choosing words and building sentences are quite different from normal English.And as a practical language,advertising English has its specific functions,and it has been distinguished from normal English as an independent language,and it has plentiful values.This paper aims to discuss some linguistic characteristics of advertising English.
The research object of the master thesis is internet advertising effectiveness measurement. The goal of the work is after making theoretical studies of internet advertising effectiveness measurement (theoretical articles, practical researches and cetera), formulate the conceptual IAEM model and examine it empirically. The main tasks of the work are: to analyze internet advertising, it’s features, purposes, spread formats, functions, advantages and disadvantages; present the effectiveness of i...
Kohli, Erol; Buller, Allison
US consumers spend more than $20 billion/year on over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. Although generic and brand name OTC drugs share the same active ingredients and undergo the same rigorous Food and Drug Administration approval process, brand name formulations continue to lead the OTC drug market with a higher market share. There is a limited amount of publicly available information regarding consumer perceptions and awareness about generic and brand name OTC drugs. The main objective of this research was to understand what factors influence US consumers to purchase generic versus brand name OTC drugs. The researchers used a 20-question, self-administered, multiple-choice survey to collect data on the factors influencing consumers' preferences for generic versus brand name OTC drugs. Results revealed that the single most influential factor for participants when purchasing OTC drugs was lower cost. Although economic factors play an important role in influencing consumers to choose generic formulations, a variety of other factors including advertisements, duration of the OTC effectiveness, severity of sickness, preferable form of OTC medication, safety of the OTC, relief of multiple symptoms, and preferred company will persuade others to pay more for brand name drugs. Ultimately, increased awareness and use of generic OTC drugs may result in substantial cost savings for consumers.
Full Text Available The article analyzes the extent to which predictions based on the theory of evolutionary aesthetics are utilized by the advertising industry. The purpose of a comprehensive content analysis of print advertising is to determine whether the items indicated by evolutionists such as animals, flowers, certain types of landscapes, beautiful humans, and some colors are part of real advertising strategies. This article has shown that many evolutionary hypotheses (although not all of them are supported by empirical data. Along with these hypotheses, some inferences from Bourdieu’s cultural capital theory were tested. It turned out that advertising uses both biological schemata and cultural patterns to make an image more likable.
Rossiter, John R.; Percy, Larry
In this article, highly experienced advertising academics and advertising research consultants John R. Rossiter and Larry Percy present and discuss what they believe to be the seven most important methodological guidelines that need to be implemented to improve the practice of advertising research....... Their focus is on methodology, defined as first choosing a suitable theoretical framework to guide the research study and then identifying the advertising responses that need to be studied. Measurement of those responses is covered elsewhere in this special issue in the article by Bergkvist and Langner. Most...
In this technology education activity, students learn the importance of advertising, conduct a day-long survey of advertising strategies, and design and produce a tabletop point-of-purchase advertisement. (JOW)
J. Loef (Joost); G. Antonides (Gerrit); W.F. van Raaij (Fred)
textabstractSeveral authors have proposed frameworks to help advertisers predict and plan advertising effectiveness. Rossiter and Percy's advertising grid (1997) recommends that the ad appeal should match the purchase motivation or attitude base. They suggest that for utilitarian brands
Fedorchak, Oleksiy; Kedebecz, Kristina
The essence of factors of the success of advertising campaigns is investigated. The stages of conducting and stages of evaluation of the effectiveness of advertising campaigns are determined. Also defined goals and objectives of advertising campaigns.
Carre, Emilien; Gast, Philippe; Hiron, Emmanuel; Leblanc, Alain; Lesens, David; Mescam, Emmanuelle; Moro, Pierre
The definition and reuse of generic software architecture for launchers is not so usual for several reasons: the number of European launcher families is very small (Ariane 5 and Vega for these last decades); the real time constraints (reactivity and determinism needs) are very hard; low levels of versatility are required (implying often an ad hoc development of the launcher mission). In comparison, satellites are often built on a generic platform made up of reusable hardware building blocks (processors, star-trackers, gyroscopes, etc.) and reusable software building blocks (middleware, TM/TC, On Board Control Procedure, etc.). If some of these reasons are still valid (e.g. the limited number of development), the increase of the available CPU power makes today an approach based on a generic time triggered middleware (ensuring the full determinism of the system) and a centralised mission and vehicle management (offering more flexibility in the design and facilitating the long term maintenance) achievable. This paper presents an example of generic software architecture which could be envisaged for future launchers, based on the previously described principles and supported by model driven engineering and automatic code generation.
Jansson, P.; Jeuring, J.T.; Cabenda, L.; Engels, G.; Kleerekoper, J.; Mak, S.; Overeem, M.; Visser, Kees
A datatype-generic function is a family of functions indexed by (the structure of) a type. Examples include equality tests, maps and pretty printers. Property based testing tools like QuickCheck and Gast support the de¯nition of properties and test-data generators, and they check if a
Eide, S.A.; Calley, M.B.
This report discusses comprehensive component generic failure data base which has been developed for light water reactor probabilistic risk assessments. The Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) was used to generate component failure rates. Using this approach, most of the failure rates are based on actual plant data rather then existing estimates
and skills in the basic disciplines of the professions also termed as disciplinary and procedural knowledge '. Thus the main research question for this paper is: What consequences do recent reform actions in Danish welfare education concerning generic competence have on developing professional knowledge...
Layanan mobile advertising terus mengalami perkembangan seiring dengan perkembangan sarana telekomunikasi mobile. Peluang mobile advertising ini sangat besar, akan tetapi peluang tersebut belum dimanfaatkan dengan maksimal. Mobil advertising terdiri dari beragam tipe, seperti SMS, MMS, E-mail, Search, Banner Display, Content Sponsorship dan Video. Sementara itu model Mobile advertising terdiri dari pull advertising dan push advertising. Di penelitian ini diteliti tentang pengaruh mobile adver...
梁瀬, 和男; Kazuo, YANASE
In the deep depression of Japanese Economy, "advertising directly effective for selling" is now desired eagerly in many companies. Moreover, the drastic retrenchment in advertising budget strictly asks its efficiency and effective advertisng. As a result, the efficient accomplishment of advertising purpose may force intellectual property which comes into advertising works belong to advertisers. It is ideal for advertisers, ad agencies and prouction companies to make an agreement in document w...
Crampes, Claude; Haritchabalet, Carole; Jullien, Bruno
This paper presents a model of media competition with free entry when media operators are financed both from advertisers and customers. The relation between advertising receipts and sales receipts, which are both complementary and antagonist, is different if media operators impose a price or a quantity to advertisers. When consumers dislike advertising, media operators are better off setting an advertising price than an advertising quantity. We establish a relationship between the equilibrium...
This paper is dedicated to the development of Latvian advertisement market, as well as Latvian internet advertisement development and its capabilities in international level. The main task of the paper is to define theoretical aspects of advertisement, as well as to define the present situation in Latvian advertisement market and to find out the most advantageous mass media for advertisement, which will be able to increase the profit of advertisers. The research emphasizes the importance of i...
Huppertz, John W; Bowman, R Alan; Bizer, George Y; Sidhu, Mandeep S; McVeigh, Colleen
To test whether hospital advertising expenditures predict HCAHPS global ratings. We examined media advertising expenditures by 2,142 acute care hospitals in 209 markets in the United States. Data on hospital characteristics, location, and revenue came from CMS reports; system ownership was obtained from the American Hospital Association. Advertising data came from Kantar Media. HCAHPS data were obtained from HospitalCompare. Regression models examined whether hospitals' advertising spending predicts HCAHPS global measures and whether market concentration moderated this association. Hospital advertising spending was calculated by adding each individual hospital's expenditures to the amount spent by its parent health system, proportionally allocated by hospital revenue. Health system market share was used to estimate market concentration. These data were compared to hospitals' HCAHPS measures. In competitive markets (HHI below 1,000), hospital advertising predicted HCAHPS global measures. A 1-percent increase in advertising was associated with a 1.173-percent increase in patients rating the hospital a "9" or "10" on the HCAHPS survey and a 1.540-percent increase in patients who "definitely" would recommend the hospital. In concentrated markets, this association was not significant. In competitive markets, hospitals that spend more on advertising earn higher HCAHPS ratings on global measures. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
The purpose of these guidelines is to acquaint SEIA members with basic principles of Federal Trade Commission (FTC) law related to advertising and sales representations in order to assist SEIA members in insuring that their advertising is fair and accurate when assessed against FTC standards, thereby avoiding potentially costly FTC action. The following are discussed: the nature of advertising, when is an advertisement deceptive, advertising of product certification and testing results, substantiation for advertising claims, advertising of tax credits, warranty advertising, potential liabilities under the FTC Act, and recommendations for avoiding FTC action. (MHR)
Full Text Available Since advertisement is an important strategy of firms to improve market share, this paper highlights duopoly advertisement under the Hotelling model. A model of advertisement under spatial duopoly is established, and corresponding effects of brand values and transportation costs are all captured. This study presents the proportion of sales revenue spending on advertisement. The condition for free-rider in advertisement investment is discussed. Under firms with the identical brand values, if firms' advertisement points to corresponding consumers, price and advertisement investment are all reduced. Therefore, advertisement is discussed under spatial competition in this work.
Gottlieb, Stephen S.
Providing a basic overview of issues related to advertising and the consumer, this digest discusses the omnipresence of advertisements, suggesting ways for consumers to recognize advertising appeals. Deceptive advertising is discussed, with particular attention paid to financial advertising. (RS)
Singh, Sukhdev; Bedi, Navkiran Kaur
Every text has a communicative purpose that it performs by dividing itself into generic stages. These stages are assigned specific goals and have differing linguistic structures. This paper makes an attempt to investigate whether there is a definable co-relation between linguistic features and stages in the genre of look-good advertisements. It…
Craig, Robert L.
The article develops an argument for the control of commercial and political advertising in the United States and a return to a journalism of public service and in support of democratic principles of communication. Based on a number of previous studies, the author describes and analyzes the impact of a business culture on the traditional role of the media, the expectations of journalism, and the rights of citizen to be informed by a range of ideas and in the spirit of a democratic existence. ...
With increases in consumer focused advertising for prescription drugs, the Federal Drug Administration has renewed efforts to protect the public from false advertising. In 1982, it charged that the press kits Eli Lilly and Company distributed to reporters on its new antiarthritis drug, Oraflex, misrepresented the product. It recommended that Lilly…
Ducoffe, Robert Hal
The Supreme Court tentatively extended First Amendment protection to commercial speech, but left the issue of defining and regulating deceptive advertising to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), which has employed tools such as the cease-and-desist order, affirmative disclosure, and corrective advertising. The FTC Act did not define deception, but…
Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix
become extremely intrusive practices in an intimate personal space. This article focuses on the evaluation of legal problems raised by this novel form of advertising. It is assumed that a technological design, which is in line with the legal framework, will ensure that the benefits of mobile advertising...
Describes advertising sales strategies to help faculty advisers of community college newspapers increase revenues. Argues that sales representatives should know their product well and maintain demographic information on the paper's readership. Includes strategies for organizing advertising staff, searching for potential clients, and taking charge…
Frank M. Bass; Norris Bruce; Sumit Majumdar; B. P. S. Murthi
Models of advertising response implicitly assume that the entire advertising budget is spent on disseminating one message. In practice, managers use different themes of advertising (for example, price advertisements versus product advertisements) and within each theme they employ different versions of an advertisement. In this study, we evaluate the dynamic effects of different themes of advertising that have been employed in a campaign. We develop a model that jointly considers the effects o...
Lindstädt, Nadine; Budzinski, Oliver
Newspapers have experienced declining circulation figures and declining advertising revenues for several years. In particular, declining advertising figures put a threat on newspapers – this is especially severe in the US where 73% of their revenues are generated through advertising. On the advertising side many companies have expanded their advertising expenditure towards online. Consequently, there are concerns about online advertising substituting newspaper advertising – in the same way as...
Full Text Available Where would the world be without advertising? Stuart Henderson Britt strongly believed in it. Hesaid: “Doing business without advertising is like winking at a girl in the dark. You know what youare doing, but she doesn’t.” The work reviews the evolution of advertising, highlighting theuncontestable part played by it within organizations and society in general and it focuses on anessential element of it, that is the advertising print. The purpose of this paperwork is to highlight thenecessary rules for the making of a quality print, with the help of a comparative study on prints ofeight organizations. The print represents an exercise of writing and design, in words and images, fortransmitting the advertising message. The fulfillment of this task depends on the perspicacity,imagination and the creativity of the maker.
Full Text Available ADVERTISEMENT POLICY - 2016Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH, the official publication of Indian Association of Preventive and Social Medicine (IAPSM published from Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, India is an indexed journal published quarterly. The open access policy of the journals ensure good visibility of the online content of the journals. The journal with high circulation and visibility, thus offer excellent media for promotion of your products, services or conferences of academic or research interest through advertisement. The journal has the potential to deliver the message to the targeted audience regularly with each issue. The cost of investment per view is substantially low for our print as well as electronic journals.Your advertisements in our journal will keep your products getting boost every quarter in the nook and corner of the country through our journal which is the forefront of community health. The journal is indexed and abstracted in more than 70 databases worldwide including SCOPUS, Index Medicus SEAR, Bioline International, DOAJ, WHO HINARI, Indian Science Abstract, etc. Apart from the print advertisement, we also consider advertisement on web, bulk subscriptions, gift subscriptions or reprint purchases for distribution.Note: Indian Journal of Community Health does not give medical advice and will not be able to respond to inquiries about specific diseases, medical or surgical conditions, diagnosis, treatments or contact of another person. Advertisement Rate – 2016Category INRInside Full Back Cover (color15,000Inside Full Back Cover (B & W10,000Full Page (Color10,000Half Page (Color5,000Full Page (B & W5,000Half Page (B & W2,000 Sponsorship Rate - Supplementary IssueThe cost towards publishing a single special issue of IJCH is Rs. 75,000/- per issue. The above mentioned cost is based on the following specifications i.e. Page size 8.5" X 11", Printing Offset printing, Pages - 90 b/w + 10 full color pages + 4
Exploring knowledge, perceptions and attitudes about generic medicines among final-year health science students. ... had knowledge deficits about the safety, quality and efficacy of generic medicines. The dissemination of information about generic medicines may strengthen future knowledge, attitudes and perceptions.
Hinze, R.; Jeuring, J.T.; Löh, A.
The last decade has seen a number of approaches to generic programming: PolyP, Functorial ML, `Scrap Your Boilerplate', Generic Haskell, `Generics for the Masses', etc. The approaches vary in sophistication and target audience: some propose full-blown pro- gramming languages, some suggest
Hinze, R.; Jeuring, J.T.; Löh, A.
The last decade has seen a number of approaches to data- type-generic programming: PolyP, Functorial ML, `Scrap Your Boiler- plate', Generic Haskell, `Generics for the Masses', etc. The approaches vary in sophistication and target audience: some propose full-blown pro- gramming languages, some
This report contains the papers selected for presentation at the 2nd Workshop on Generic Programming (WGP2000), which was held on July 6, 2000 in Ponte de Lima, Portugal. Generic programming is about making programs more adaptable by making them more general. Generic programs often embody
Full Text Available This article provides insights into proactive safety management and mitigation. An analysis of accident reports reveals categories of supervening causes of accidents which can be directly linked to the concept of generic competencies (information management, communication and coordination, problem solving, and effect control. These findings strongly suggest adding the human element as another safety-constituting pillar to the concept of ship safety next to technology and regulation. We argue that the human element has unique abilities in dealing with critical and highly dynamic situations which can contribute to the system's recovery from non-routine or critical situations. By educating seafarers in generic competencies we claim to enable the people onboard to successfully deal with critical situations.
Pérez-Latre, F.J. (Francisco Javier)
The changing role of advertising is altering the behavior of advertisers with significant implications for advertising-supported media. Advertisers are struggling to understand changes in audience media usage and to changes in attention paid to commercial messages. In order to maintain relevance, media firms need to lead the way in helping advertising understand and adjust to the changes.
This thesis studies automated methods for analyzing hardness assumptions in generic group models, following ideas of symbolic cryptography. We define a broad class of generic and symbolic group models for different settings---symmetric or asymmetric (leveled) k-linear groups --- and prove ''computational soundness'' theorems for the symbolic models. Based on this result, we formulate a master theorem that relates the hardness of an assumption to solving problems in polynomial algebra. We systematically analyze these problems identifying different classes of assumptions and obtain decidability and undecidability results. Then, we develop automated procedures for verifying the conditions of our master theorems, and thus the validity of hardness assumptions in generic group models. The concrete outcome is an automated tool, the Generic Group Analyzer, which takes as input the statement of an assumption, and outputs either a proof of its generic hardness or shows an algebraic attack against the assumption. Structure-preserving signatures are signature schemes defined over bilinear groups in which messages, public keys and signatures are group elements, and the verification algorithm consists of evaluating ''pairing-product equations''. Recent work on structure-preserving signatures studies optimality of these schemes in terms of the number of group elements needed in the verification key and the signature, and the number of pairing-product equations in the verification algorithm. While the size of keys and signatures is crucial for many applications, another aspect of performance is the time it takes to verify a signature. The most expensive operation during verification is the computation of pairings. However, the concrete number of pairings is not captured by the number of pairing-product equations considered in earlier work. We consider the question of what is the minimal number of pairing computations needed to verify structure-preserving signatures. We build an
Macklin, M. Carole, Ed.; Carlson, Les, Ed.
This book presents cutting-edge research designed to stimulate and inform the debate over advertising to the children's market and the effects such advertising has on children. Perspectives are organized in sections to address what children know and think about advertising, how advertising works with children, and what issues are at the forefront…
Rauwers, F.; van Noort, G.; Verlegh, P.; Voorveld, H.; Eisend, M.
Consumers are exposed to a large volume of advertising messages on a daily basis. This excess of commercial messages is called advertising clutter. Marketers are searching for new innovative advertising strategies to break through this clutter and creative media advertising is considered as one of
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertisement determinations. 136... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Designation of Source and Advertisement § 136.309 Advertisement determinations. (a) The Director, NPFC, determines for each incident the type, geographic scope...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale advertisement. 223.227... DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products Advertisement and Bids § 223.227 Sale advertisement. (a) The Forest Service shall advertise any special forest products sales with an appraised value...
Advertising addresses to create consumers' affection and cognition; besides, affect buying behaviour. Advertising also used to create long-term image's product or to trigger sales. It can be formed if we can understand costumer's behaviour which created the advertising itself. The advertising consumer's approval will be influential to goods or services offered.
This book summarizes and appraises current knowledge and practice in the field of advertising research. The material is presented under the following chapter headings: aim and scope, how advertising communicates, how advertising sells, theme research, selecting target audiences, copy research, studies of advertising frequency, media research,…
was a multipurpose project dealing with advertising effectiveness, advertising strategy efficiency, management of the advertising program and planning...and development of new marketing strategies and segmentation. It is clearly impossible for a project with this breadth of objectives to also satisfy...achieving the broader objective. Likewise, advertising derives its objectives from marketing which when accomplished will lead to the achievement of
This paper investigates the possibility of using Japanese advertising language as a teaching tool in the second language classroom. First, it reviews the aims of advertising and the advantages of learning advertising language in the classroom based on previous research. Next, it discusses language strategies used in Japanese advertising,…
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising costs. 215.12 Section 215.12 Indians BUREAU... LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.12 Advertising costs. All advertising costs, publication fees, expenses incurred for abstracts of lease title, and other expenses incurred in connection with the advertising and...
... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 213.7 Section 213.7 Banks and... (REGULATION M) § 213.7 Advertising. (a) General rule. An advertisement for a consumer lease may state that a... paragraph (d)(1) of this section shall also state the following items: (i) That the transaction advertised...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 4..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Advertising of Wine § 4.65 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative adverstising shall not be disparaging of a competitor's product. (b...
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising disclosures. 259.2 Section 259.2... ADVERTISING FOR NEW AUTOMOBILES § 259.2 Advertising disclosures. (a) No manufacturer or dealer shall make any express or implied representation in advertising concerning the fuel economy of any new automobile 1...
... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscriminatory advertising. 338.3 Section... POLICY FAIR HOUSING Advertising § 338.3 Nondiscriminatory advertising. (a) Any bank which directly or through third parties engages in any form of advertising of any loan for the purpose of purchasing...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.17 Section 655... States (H-2B Workers) § 655.17 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted to satisfy the... employment which are not less favorable than those to be offered to the H-2B workers. All advertising must...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.1303 Section... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1303 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted... the H-2A workers. All advertising must contain the following information: (a) The employer's name and...
Full Text Available Native advertising is described both as a new way for promoters to engage audiences and as a new, clever, source of revenue for publishers and media agencies. The debates around its morality and the need for a wide accepted framework are often viewed as calls for creativity. Aside from the various forms, strategies and the need for clarification, the fact that native advertising works and its revenue estimates increase annually transforms the new type of ad into a clear objective for companies, marketers and publishers. Native advertising stopped being a buzzword and started being a marketing reality.
Full Text Available The roots of advertisement are connected with reclamations, claims and arguments. No surprise that many people treat it with distrust, suspicion and irritation.Nobody loves advertisement (except its authors and those who order it, nobody watches it, everybody despises it and get annoyed because of it. But newspapers, magazines, television and city economy in general cannot do without it. One keeps on arguing whether to prohibit advertisement, to restrict its expansion, to bring in stricter regulations on advertisement…If something attracts attention, intrigues, promises to make dreams true and arouses desire to join - it should be considered as advertisement. This definition allows saying with no doubts: yes, advertisement did existed in the most ancient strongest cultures. Advertisement is as old as the humane civilization. There have always been the objects to be advertised, and different methods appeared to reach those goals.Advertisement techniques and topics appear, get forgotten and appear again in other places and other times. Sometimes the author of advertisement image has no idea about his forerunners and believes he is the discoverer. A skillful designer with high level of professionalism deliberately uses images from past centuries. The professional is easily guided by historical prototypes.But there is another type of advertisement, its prototypes cannot be found in museums. It does not suppose any respect, because it is built on scornful attitude towards the spectator.However, basically the advertisement is made by professional designers, and in this case ignorance is inadmissible. Even if we many times appeal to Irkutsk designers to work on raising their cultural level of advertisements, anyhow, orders will be always made by those who pay. Unless Its Majesty Ruble stands for Culture, those appeals are of no use.
Fu, Yutao; Liu, Jihong; Zhang, Qi; Geng, Yuting
Since more and more advertisements swarm into radios, it is necessary to establish an audio advertising dataset which could be used to analyze and classify the advertisement. A method of how to establish a complete audio advertising dataset is presented in this paper. The dataset is divided into four different kinds of advertisements. Each advertisement's sample is given in *.wav file format, and annotated with a txt file which contains its file name, sampling frequency, channel number, broadcasting time and its class. The classifying rationality of the advertisements in this dataset is proved by clustering the different advertisements based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The experimental results show that this audio advertisement dataset offers a reliable set of samples for correlative audio advertisement experimental studies.
Full Text Available Growing number of advertising agencies, substantial increase of advertising budgets of both local and international companies in Serbia and proliferation of advertising messages targeting Serbian consumers in recent years have contributed to a belief that advertising in Serbia has been a brand new phenomenon brought in during its transition to a market economy. The truth however is quite different. Therefore, the paper aims to show and discuss historical evidence confirming that advertising practice in Serbia is more than two centuries old. In this paper, the history of advertising in Serbia is followed since 1791, when the first print advertisement offering calendar to families and farmers in Serbia appeared in a newspaper. Four periods of advertising development have been described: 1 early beginnings, 2 interwar period, 3 socialist advertising and 4 advertising in transition.
The increase fragmentation of mass-media and the decline on television efficiency in promotion and market targeting, determined the appearance and development of new methods, more efficient for communicating with consumers, especially for gaining attention of those who are not for the moment consumers of a specific brand. The attempt of finding new promotion methods, video games found a place as a new advertising environment. In-game advertising is remarkable due to its numerous benefits, fir...
The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effect of alcohol advertising on motor vehicle fatalities. The concept of an industry level advertising response function is developed and other empirical issues in estimating the effects of advertising are reviewed. The data set consists of quarterly observations, from 1986 to 1989, for 75 advertising markets in the United States and includes 1200 observations. Since motor vehicle fatalities and alcohol advertising are jointly determin...
Indah Dwi Pratama; Ujang Sumarwan; Hari Wijayanto
One factor that can interfere with the absorption rate of viewers on television advertisement is advertising avoidance which shows the difference between the number of viewers who watch advertisement programs and the number of viewers who watch television programs. The factors that affect advertising avoidance include the demography of the viewers (gender, age, area of residence, and social economic status, or SES), advertising attributes (the television stations, order of ads, genre of the p...
Aqualo, Nobel; Indrawati, Toti; Setiawan, Fery
Advertising industry has a good prospects when compared with the past and the present. This research is done for look at the feasibility of the advertising industry with Break Even Point analysis. This study consists of 48 advertising industry existing Pekanbaru in 2012. As for the resulting product is silk screening, billboard, banner, and advertismenrt (web line advertising). The results of the study showed that the total production which is derived from business advertising to average prod...
Growing number of advertising agencies, substantial increase of advertising budgets of both local and international companies in Serbia and proliferation of advertising messages targeting Serbian consumers in recent years have contributed to a belief that advertising in Serbia has been a brand new phenomenon brought in during its transition to a market economy. The truth however is quite different. Therefore, the paper aims to show and discuss historical evidence confirming that advertising p...
How does advertising position itself in consumer culture? In what ways does it 'create' desire and wants? This richly illustrated, incisive text produces the most complete critical introduction to advertising culture.\\ud \\ud Advertising in Modern and Postmodern Times: \\ud provides a comprehensive discussion of the main theories\\ud shows you how real adverts work, together with reproductions of advertising images and copy\\ud demonstrates how advertising constructs subjects\\ud provides an instr...
Anthony Dukes; Esther Gal–Or
Exclusive advertising on a given media outlet is usually profitable for an advertiser because consumers are less aware of competing products. However, for such arrangements to exist, media must benefit as well. We examine conditions under which such exclusive advertising contracts benefit both advertisers and media outlets (referred to as ) by illustrating that exclusive equilibria arise in a theoretical model of the media, advertisers, and consumers who participate in both the product and me...
Predrag Jovanović; Tamara Vlastelica; Slavica Cicvarić Kostić
Companies use various appeals in their advertising practice to impact consumers’ attitudes and purchase intention by an advertisement. Advertising appeals can be divided into rational or emotional, depending on whether companies want to influence the rational or the emotional motives of the consumer to purchase of the advertised product. Since there is no general pattern for the use of appeals and the success of an advertising message, this study aims to explore the impact of the emotional an...
Chung, Chanjin; Kaiser, Harry M.
This article develops a varying-parameter advertising model which specifies advertising parameters as a function of variables representing advertising strategies and market environments to explain the varying nature of the advertising responses. Unlike prior models, this model allows researchers to examine the sources of change in advertising effectiveness over time. The model is applied to the New York City fluid milk market for the period from January 1986 through June 1995. Results indicat...
Most mobile applications depend on advertising when funding their operations nowadays, and in September 2015, the image-sharing mobile application Instagram introduced advertisements to its users on a global basis. The advertisements were welcomed with enthusiasm by the online advertising industry. However, many users found the targeting of the advertisements to be poor and irrelevant to their interests. The aim of the thesis was to examine Finnish Instagram users’ attitudes and experienc...
With the growth of mobile market, mobile advertising and mobile game advertising are becoming more and more important. On one hand, mobile advertising is able to deliver relevant ads to targeted users based on their locations and behaviors. On the other hand, as the number of mobile game players and free-to-play mobile games are increasing, mobile game advertising forms one important way of monetization. It is important to increase the advertising effectiveness while producing friendly user e...
Full Text Available In this paper we shall consider grosso modo actual opinions regarding advertising and advertising ethics. The emergence of the Internet aroused hope that advertising ethics is not the ultimate oxymoron (Beltramini, 2003. In spite of a negative connotation that postmodernism and globalization added to advertising theory and practice, the appearance of the Internet has really changed business philosophy regarding advertising and emphasized its ethical dimension. Results of our research confirm this thesis.
Internet display advertising has grown into a multi-billion dollar a year global industry and direct response campaigns account for about three-quarters of all Internet display advertising. In such campaigns, advertisers reach out to a target audience via some form of a visual advertisement (hereinafter also called “ad”) to maximize short-term sales revenue. In this study, we formulate an advertiser’s revenue maximization problem in direct response Internet display advertisement campaigns as ...
Internet advertising (also known as online advertising) is the delivery of advertising messages and marketing communications through the Web. It has presented sustainable revenue growth since its inception in the mid-1990s. Internet advertising takes a multitude of forms, ranging from the “traditional” banners to today's rich media ads. Due to its wide success, internet advertising currently constitutes a significant marketing channel for a large number of firms, ranging from news agenci...
My study aims at introducing the theory of vagu eness,analyzing its linguistic realizations in advertising language from semantics,pragmatics,as well as psychology angles.The major purpose of this article is to draw advertisers' attention to the application of vagueness in advertising and make full use of th e psychology factors and to give them better knowledge of vague advertising so as to prepare them for the production of more successful advertisements.
Bury, Belinda; Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy
In an effort to combat the known negative effects of exposure to unrealistic thin ideal images, there is increasing worldwide pressure on fashion, media and advertising industries to disclose when images have been digitally altered. The current study used eye tracking technology to investigate experimentally how digital alteration disclaimer labels impact women's visual attention to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 60 female undergraduate students who viewed four thin ideal advertisements with either no disclaimer, a generic disclaimer, or a specific more detailed disclaimer. It was established that women did attend to the disclaimers. The nature of the disclaimer had no effect on time spent looking at particular body parts, but did affect the direction of gaze following reading of the disclaimer. This latter effect was found to be greater for women high on trait appearance comparison. Further research is paramount in guiding effective policy around the use of disclaimer labels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Painter, Scott Leroy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harp, Dylan Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.
Within marketing and advertising, transcreation constitutes a fairly new domain, which has experienced extensive growth during the last decade or so. More and more companies provide transcreation alongside other services like translation and localisation. In academic circles, the term transcreation...
Brown, R G
Advertising is part of the effort to attract attention of consumers to products, in this case, pet foods. It is generally benign in its effect, but it can be misleading, although rarely deliberately so. It uses a specialized vocabulary, which must be mastered if one is to understand what is intended. For all of the expense and effort, advertising figures directly in relatively few decisions to purchase. Its main intention is to call our attention to a particular pet food and to give that product an image. If the pet food does not perform in the consumer's hands, then all of the advertising on earth will not be persuasive. On the other hand, if a product performs well, the word-of-mouth will be positive and that mode of advertising is one of the most effective.
Full Text Available This article examines the text of the English-language advertising as a special type of discourse, which morphological and syntactic features are directly dependent on the target audience, which this type of text is created for, and provides some observations made in the course of practical linguistic studies of English advertisement texts. A proportional system of the most general male and female social roles is worked out here that helps to analyze different types of advertisement texts according to their grammatical functions, which helps not only to detect their impact in our everyday life but also gives a field for the further development of advertisement as a type of discourse.
Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar Georg
The result of this contribution is a categorization and thus a description model for mobile advertising campaigns using the morphological method. For identification of the characteristics 32 case studies were analysed and relevant literature was sighted.
Chua, Gin Nie; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Awaisu, Ahmed
The objective of this study was to evaluate the general practitioners' (GPs') knowledge and perceptions towards generic medicines in a northern state of Malaysia. A postal cross-sectional survey involving registered GPs in Penang, Malaysia was undertaken. A 23-item questionnaire was developed, validated and administered on the GPs. Eighty-seven GPs responded to the survey (response rate 26.8%). The majority of the respondents (85.1%) claimed that they actively prescribed generic medicines in their practice. On the other hand, only 4.6% of the respondents correctly identified the Malaysia's National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau's bioequivalence standard for generic products. There were misconceptions among the respondents about the concepts of "bioequivalence", "efficacy", "safety", and "manufacturing standards" of generic medicines. GPs in this survey believed that a standard guideline on brand substitution process, collaboration with pharmacists, patient education and information on safety and efficacy of generic medicines were necessary to ensure quality use of generics. Furthermore, advertisements and product bonuses offered by pharmaceutical companies, patient's socio-economic factors as well as credibility of manufacturers were factors reported to influence their choice of medicine. Although it appeared that GPs have largely accepted the use of generic medicines, they still have concerns regarding the reliability and quality of such products. GPs need to be educated and reassured about generic products approval system in Malaysia concerning bioequivalence, quality, and safety. The current findings have important implications in establishing generic medicines policy in Malaysia. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Today, numerous simulation and analysis codes exist for the design, commission, and operation of accelerator beam lines. There is a need to develop a common user interface and database link to run these codes interactively. This paper will describe a proposed system, GLAD (Generic LAttice Debugger), to fulfill this need. Specifically, GLAD can be used to find errors in beam lines during commissioning, control beam parameters during operation, and design beam line optics and error correction systems for the next generation of linear accelerators and storage rings. (author)
Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo
in this work is on applying this selection principle under a Brownian image model. This image model provides a simple scale invariant prior for natural images and we provide illustrative examples of the behavior of our scale estimation on such images. In these illustrative examples, estimation is based......The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...
DALIA PETCU; SORIN SUCIU; VASILE GHERHEŞ; CIPRIAN OBRAD
Our article maintains that advertising communication, as a form of commercial communication, is an important part of public communication. Ads are not just forms of promoting products or services, but also modern forms of speech that contribute significantly to the formation of the individual’s identity in contemporary societies. The study aims to identify and analyze the presence of gender stereotypes in Romanian media advertising.
Shanghai-based Internet analysis and consulting company iResearch released its China Advertising Online Research Report 2005 in March. The report indicates that the market value of online advertising in China reached 3.13 billion yuan in 2005, up 77.1 percent over the previous year. The market observer predicts a 48 percent growth to 4.6 billion yuan for 2006.
Native advertising is described both as a new way for promoters to engage audiences and as a new, clever, source of revenue for publishers and media agencies. The debates around its morality and the need for a wide accepted framework are often viewed as calls for creativity. Aside from the various forms, strategies and the need for clarification, the fact that native advertising works and its revenue estimates increase annually transforms the new type of ad into a clear ob...
De Reyck, B.; Degraeve, Z.
We describe a broadcast scheduling system developed for a precision marketing firm specialized in location-sensitive permission-based mobile advertising using SMS (Short Message Service) text messaging. Text messages containing advertisements were sent to registered customers when they were shopping in one of two shopping centers in the vicinity of London. The ads typically contained a limited-time promotional offer. The company's problem was deciding which ads to send out to which customers ...
Modern consumer is inhabitant of a "Global Village" as well as of its own national culture which largely influences his creation of a system of values, beliefs and style of life in general. According to adopted values and styles, consumers from different cultures have different buying behavior, different needs and preferences related to a product and they have their favorite advertising styles. As advertising reflects culture, symbols and rituals which are used are even more emphasized and st...
C D Beaumont; K Geary; C Halliburton; D Clifford; R Rivers
In this paper the topic of advertising assessment is revisited, given the widespread availability of low-cost microcomputer modelling developments. It is recognised that when regression analysis became popular in the 1970s with the advent of the mainframe computer, much hype and little marketing benefit ensued. It is argued that simply speeding up the old practices of the 1970s, which rightly fell from favour, will provide no benefit to the advertising industry. 'What is new', the 'benefits' ...
S, venkatesh; N, senthilkumar
The use of humour in advertising is the effective way of communication in any emotion to sell the products. Humor increase attention and attract more consumers so it became an effective advertising in any medium of advertising. Researchers and Advertisers more interested towards humor advertising more than century, but no review paper regarding impact of humor in radio and print advertising are published. Aim of this paper to get detailed review on impact of humor in radio and print advertisi...
Kim, Gho; Lee, Jang-Han
This research was conducted to examine the level of consumers' visual attention to Internet advertising. It was predicted that consumers' search type would influence visual attention to advertising. Specifically, it was predicted that more attention to advertising would be attracted in the exploratory search condition than in the goal-directed search condition. It was also predicted that there would be a difference in visual attention depending on the advertisement type (advertising type: text vs. pictorial advertising). An eye tracker was used for measurement. Results revealed that search condition and advertising type influenced advertising effectiveness.
Tonnac, Alain de
As many other companies involved in the nuclear business, Framatome was initially concentrating on corporate advertisements in business newspapers and magazines. The first goal was to concentrate on our traditional nuclear core business, while selecting the protection of the environment at large, and particularly the greenhouse effect, one of the most sensible issues of the moment. The 1997 campaign was shaped around the need to motivate European decision makers, while maintaining a domestic consensus towards nuclear power for the future resumption of constructions. The brief elaborated for Ad agencies was roughly threefold: elaborate simple messages, unquestionable, and explained with serenity; put emphasis on the benefits of nuclear power for the environment; establish a balanced comparison between nuclear and fossil fuels. A pre-test was conducted with about 100 people, half of which from the energy sector, and politicians, mainly members of the French and European Parliaments, the other half from the general public. Being accustomed to a usually discrete, if not 'ashamed' nuclear communication, people were generally surprised by such an optimistic tone about nuclear power, but agreed, on average. The campaign lasted one month (spread over June-July 97), and the three selected ads appeared successively in the form of a colour double page. Beyond nuclear magazines, the media plan included French daily newspapers le Figaro, le Monde, les Echos, Liberation, and weekly magazines: le Point, le Nouvel Observateur, I'Express, etc. All of them are intended for middle to high social class readers. In addition, some advertisements were inserted in The European Voice, a weekly publication reaching Brussels Commission and European parliament members. As an average, the campaign was perceived as dynamic (69%), and original (61%). But credibility and conviction were poor (resp 33%, 26%), probably because it was coincident with La Hague being on the carpet. On the other hand
Loyal promotion of the pharmaceutical industry has been challenged by stakeholders. Drug advertising is the easiest point to assess. Based on the agency theory, our objective was to describe the governance of advertising control when it was misleading and the terms of penalties within the framework of the contradictory process between the industry and the regulatory authorities. We conducted a thorough analysis of the contents of the minutes of the Board of Control of advertising from April 2007 to May 2010. The amounts of penalties were analyzed according to three criteria: the timing of the examination procedure (first session versus second session), the nature of the penalty (ban versus notice of change) and the company's defense strategy (written response versus presence of company representatives). Thirty-nine reports involving 62 projects to ban advertisements were analyzed. The first two causes of penalties were off label promotion and non-objective use of study results to support claims. The Committee issued 47 advertising bans (76%) and 15 formal notices of change (24%). When the defense strategy of the company involved the presence of representatives, there was a significant reduction of votes in favor of a ban (68% versus 81%, Pstrategy did not influence the nature of the penalty (Chi(2)=2.05; P=n.s). These results should be put into perspective considering the fact that the qualitative composition of the commission was not free of potential conflicts of interest and that, moreover, only 10% of the penalty projects were reviewed. In addition, advertising control does not address the issue of the loyalty of the sales forces. Finally, our results open perspectives for research and managerial applications for the governance of advertising controls. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Daube-Witherspoon, M. E. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
The generic nuclear medicine imager, whether a gamma camera, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system or positron emission tomography (PET) scanner, comprises several main components: a detection system, a form of collimation to select γ rays at specific angles, electronics and a computing system to create the map of the radiotracer distribution. This section discusses these components in more detail. The first stage of a generic nuclear medicine imager is the detection of the γ rays emitted by the radionuclide. In the case of PET, the radiation of interest are the 511 keV annihilation photons that result from the interaction of the positron emitted by the radionuclide with an electron in the tissue. For general nuclear medicine and SPECT, there is one or sometimes more than one γ ray of interest, with energies in the range of <100 to >400 keV. The γ rays are detected when they interact and deposit energy in the crystal(s) of the imaging system. There are two main types of detector: crystals that give off light that can be converted to an electrical signal when the γ ray interacts (‘scintillators’) and semiconductors, crystals that generate an electrical signal directly when the γ ray deposits energy in the crystal. Scintillation detectors include NaI(Tl), bismuth germanate (BGO) and lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO); semiconductor detectors used in nuclear medicine imagers include cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). Radiation detectors are described in more detail in Chapter 6.
Emrit, R.; Minners, W.; VanderMolen, H.
This report presents the priority rankings for generic safety issues related to nuclear power plants. The purpose of these rankings is to assist in the timely and efficient allocation of NRC resources for the resolution of those safety issues that have a significant potential for reducing risk. The report focuses on the prioritization of generic safety issues. Issues primarily concerned with the licensing process or environmental protection and not directly related to safety have been excluded from prioritization. The prioritized issues include: TMI Action Plan items under development; previously proposed issues covered by Task Action Plans, except issues designated at Unresolved Safety Issues (USIs) which had already been assigned high priority; and newly-proposed issues. Future supplements to this report will include the prioritization of additional issues. The safety priority rankings are HIGH, MEDIUM, LOW, and DROP and have been assigned on the basis of risk significance estimates, the ratio of risk to costs and other impacts estimated to result if resolutions of the safety issues were implemented, and the consideration of uncertainties and other quantitative or qualitative factors. To the extent practical, estimates are quantitative
Dean, R.S.; Steinbrecher, D.H.; Hennick, A.
This report is a manual for providing information required to use a special computer program developed by the NRC for indexing generic communications. The program is written in a user-friendly menu driven form using dBASE III programming language. It facilitates use of the required dBASE III search and sort capabilities to access records in a database called Generic Communications Index. This index is made up of one record each for all bulletins, circulars, and information notices, including revisions and supplements, from 1971, when such documentation started, through 1986 (or to the latest update). The program is designed for use by anyone modestly acquainted with the general use of IBM-compatible personal computers. The manual contains both a brief overview and a detailed description of the program, as well as detailed instructions for getting started using the program on a personal computer with either a two-floppy disk or a hard disk system. Included at the end are a brief description of how to handle problems which might occur, and notes on the makeup of the program and database files for help in adding records of communications for future years
De Vuono, Antonio; Palleria, Caterina; Scicchitano, Francesca; Squillace, Aida; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gallelli, Luca
Generic drugs have the same active substance, the same pharmaceutical form, the same therapeutic indications and a similar bioequivalence with the reference medicinal product (branded). Although a similar efficacy is postulated, some cases of clinical inefficacy during treatment with generic formulations have been reported. In this case, we describe a woman with onychomycosis that developed a skin rash during treatment with a generic formulation of itraconazole. Drug administration and its re-challenge confirmed the association between itraconazole and skin rash. Both Naranjo probability scale and World Health Organization causality assessment scale documented a probable association between generic-itraconazole and skin rash. The switch from generic formulation to brand one induced an improvement of symptoms. Since we are unable to evaluate the role of each excipient in the development of skin rash, we cannot rule out their involvement. However, more data are necessary to better define the similarities or differences between branded and generic formulations.
The Turkish Family Health and Planning Foundation set out with the support of the US Agency for International Development in 1988 to develop a contraceptive social marketing program. It was designed to increase the availability and use of condoms and low-dose pills, while maximizing the participation of the private sector. The program would build a market using existing infrastructure; collaborate and participate with 4 major pharmaceutical companies; use all commercial products and nothing donated; and negotiate for commercial product prices without subsidy. Full cost recovery and self-sufficient operation was projected to be realized by the 4th year of sales. The OK condom brand was created for the program and marketed through television, open air advertisements, gifts, and sponsorship from mid-1991. 4.46 million units were sold over the period May-December 1991 and 5.76 million over January-November 1992; these figures were 127% and 115% above sales targets, respectively. The OK brand dominated the market of everusers with 41.1% having employed the brand. Data suggest that the condoms are effectively being used by the urban and comparatively poor segments of society. Sales volumes were so robust that the commercial sector expanded the product line on its own to offer OK Extra.
O'Leary, A; Usher, C; Lynch, M; Hall, M; Hemeryk, L; Spillane, S; Gallagher, P; Barry, M
The Health (Pricing and Supply of Medical Goods) Act 2013 passed into law in July 2013 and legislated for generic substitution in Ireland. The aim of the study was to ascertain the knowledge and perceptions of stakeholders i.e. patients, pharmacists and prescribers, of generic medicines and to generic substitution with the passing of legislation. Three stakeholder specific questionnaires were developed to assess knowledge of and perceptions to generic medicines and generic substitution. Purposive samples of patients, prescribers and pharmacists were analysed. Descriptive quantitative and qualitative analyses were undertaken. A total of 762 healthcare professionals and 353 patients were recruited. The study highlighted that over 84% of patients were familiar with generic medicines and are supportive of the concept of generic substitution. Approximately 74% of prescribers and 84% of pharmacists were supportive of generic substitution in most cases. The main areas of concern highlighted by the healthcare professionals that might impact on the successful implementation of the policy, were the issue of bioequivalence with generic medicines, the computer software systems used at present in general practitioner (GP) surgeries and the availability of branded generics. The findings from this study identify a high baseline rate of acceptance to generic medicines and generic substitution among patients, prescribers and pharmacists in the Irish setting. The concerns of the main stakeholders provide a valuable insight into the potential difficulties that may arise in its implementation, and the need for on-going reassurance and proactive dissemination of the impact of the generic substitution policy. The existing positive attitude to generic medicines and generic substitution among key stakeholders in Ireland to generic substitution, combined with appropriate support and collaboration should result in the desired increase in rates of prescribing, dispensing and use of generic
This paper outlines three research directions related to domain-specific software development: (1) reuse of generic models for domain-specific software development; (2) empirical evidence to determine these generic models, namely elicitation of mental knowledge schema possessed by expert software developers; and (3) exploitation of generic domain models to assist modelling of specific applications. It focuses on knowledge acquisition for domain-specific software development, with emphasis on tool support for the most important phases of software development.
S. N. Tolpygina
Full Text Available The main differences between original and generic drugs as well as registration criteria for generics are described. Possible reasons of discrepancy in bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence of original and generic drugs are reviewed. The examples of such a discrepancy as a result of comparative clinical trails (enalapril maleate are discussed. Approaches to planning of comparative trails on drug therapeutic equivalence are presented.
Lufkin Thomas M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since generic drugs have the same therapeutic effect as the original formulation but at generally lower costs, their use should be more heavily promoted. However, a considerable number of barriers to their wider use have been observed in many countries. The present study examines the influence of patients, physicians and certain characteristics of the generics' market on generic substitution in Switzerland. Methods We used reimbursement claims' data submitted to a large health insurer by insured individuals living in one of Switzerland's three linguistic regions during 2003. All dispensed drugs studied here were substitutable. The outcome (use of a generic or not was modelled by logistic regression, adjusted for patients' characteristics (gender, age, treatment complexity, substitution groups and with several variables describing reimbursement incentives (deductible, co-payments and the generics' market (prices, packaging, co-branded original, number of available generics, etc.. Results The overall generics' substitution rate for 173,212 dispensed prescriptions was 31%, though this varied considerably across cantons. Poor health status (older patients, complex treatments was associated with lower generic use. Higher rates were associated with higher out-of-pocket costs, greater price differences between the original and the generic, and with the number of generics on the market, while reformulation and repackaging were associated with lower rates. The substitution rate was 13% lower among hospital physicians. The adoption of the prescribing practices of the canton with the highest substitution rate would increase substitution in other cantons to as much as 26%. Conclusions Patient health status explained a part of the reluctance to substitute an original formulation by a generic. Economic incentives were efficient, but with a moderate global effect. The huge interregional differences indicated that prescribing behaviours and
De Vuono, Antonio; Palleria, Caterina; Scicchitano, Francesca; Squillace, Aida; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gallelli, Luca
Generic drugs have the same active substance, the same pharmaceutical form, the same therapeutic indications and a similar bioequivalence with the reference medicinal product (branded). Although a similar efficacy is postulated, some cases of clinical inefficacy during treatment with generic formulations have been reported. In this case, we describe a woman with onychomycosis that developed a skin rash during treatment with a generic formulation of itraconazole. Drug administration and its re...
Ferner, R E; Scott, D K
Advertisers are increasingly using symbols to circumvent logical argument when trying to persuade people (the "targets" of the advertisement) to make choices that are not strictly rational. Symbols can convey covert meanings and awaken or exploit subconscious feelings, such as a desire for power or a fear of doing harm. Some of the ways in which pharmaceutical advertisements use these techniques are examined: advertising by contagion; adding to our worries; polarity of choices; teasers; idealisation. Rational prescribing should be based on logic, but advertisements do not depend on logical arguments for their most powerful effects: the advertisers may subvert us by appealing to our unconscious desires.
Meme plays an important role in the development of advertisement as a unit of culture.Its replication and transmission provide an effective means for creating advertisements and a new way for us to analyze advertising language.Two ways including memetic genotype and memetic phenotype for memes to be replicated and transmitted in the advertising language are analyzed.Then,how to successfully create commercial advertisements is explored.Finally,it is concluded that the concise,familiar,popular and original memes can contribute to successful commercial advertisements.
Marco, Catherine A
Promotion of prescription drugs represents a growing source of pharmaceutical marketing expenditures. This study was undertaken to identify the frequency of items containing pharmaceutical advertising in clinical emergency departments (EDs). In this observational study, emergency physician on-site investigators quantified a variety of items containing pharmaceutical advertising present at specified representative times and days, in clinical EDs. Measurements were obtained by 65 on-site investigators, representing 22 states. Most EDs in this study were community EDs (87% community and 14% university or university affiliate), and most were in urban settings (50% urban, 38% suburban, and 13% rural). Investigators measured 42 items per ED (mean = 42; median = 31; interquartile range of 14-55) containing pharmaceutical advertising in the clinical area. The most commonly observed items included pens (mean 15 per ED; median 10), product brochures (mean 5; median 3), stethoscope labels (mean 4; median 2), drug samples (mean 3; median 0), books (mean 3.4), mugs (mean 2.4), and published literature (mean 3.1). EDs with a policy restricting pharmaceutical representatives in the ED had significantly fewer items containing pharmaceutical advertising (median 7.5; 95% CI = 0 to 27) than EDs without such a policy (median 35; 95% CI = 27 to 47, p = 0.005, nonparametric Wilcoxon two-sample test). There were no differences in quantities of pharmaceutical advertising for EDs in community compared with university settings (p = 0.5), rural compared with urban settings (p = 0.3), or annual ED volumes (p = 0.9). Numerous items containing pharmaceutical advertising are frequently observed in EDs. Policies restricting pharmaceutical representatives in the ED are associated with reduced pharmaceutical advertising.
Person deixis is widely used in adverting language, the usage of person deixis in advertising language can reduce psychological distance between potential consumers and advertiser, have a conversation between potential consumers and advertiser and make an advertisement more believable.
Boerman, S.C.; Kruikemeier, S.; Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.J.
Advertisers are increasingly monitoring people's online behavior and using the information collected to show people individually targeted advertisements. This phenomenon is called online behavioral advertising (OBA). Although advertisers can benefit from OBA, the practice also raises concerns about
Wehmeyer, Christof; Skourup, Jesper; Frigaard, Peter
Extreme sea states, which the IEC 61400-3 (2008) standard requires for the ultimate limit state (ULS) analysis of offshore wind turbines are derived to establish the design basis for the conceptual layout of deep water floating offshore wind turbine foundations in hurricane affected areas....... Especially in the initial phase of floating foundation concept development, site specific metocean data are usually not available. As the areas of interest are furthermore not covered by any design standard, in terms of design sea states, generic and in engineering terms applicable environmental background...... data is required for a type specific conceptual design. ULS conditions for different return periods are developed, which can subsequently be applied in siteindependent analysis and conceptual design. Recordings provided by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), of hurricanes along...
Larson, Robin J; Schwartz, Lisa M; Woloshin, Steven; Welch, H Gilbert
Many academic medical centers have increased their use of advertising to attract patients. While the content of direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertisements (ads) has been studied, to our knowledge, advertising by academic medical centers has not. We aimed to characterize advertising by the nation's top academic medical centers. We contacted all 17 medical centers named to the US News & World Report 2002 honor roll of "America's Best Hospitals" for a semistructured interview regarding their advertising practices. In addition, we obtained and systematically analyzed all non-research-related print ads placed by these institutions in their 5 most widely circulating local newspapers during 2002. Of the 17 institutions, 16 reported advertising to attract patients; 1 stated, "We're just word of mouth." While all 17 centers confirmed the presence of an institutional review board process for approving advertising to attract research subjects, none reported a comparable process for advertising to attract patients. We identified 127 unique non-research-related print ads for the 17 institutions during 2002 (mean, 7.5; range, 0-39). Three ads promoted community events with institution sponsorship, 2 announced genuine public services, and 122 were aimed at attracting patients. Of the latter group, 36 ads (29.5%) promoted the medical center as a whole, while 65 (53.3%) promoted specific clinical departments and 21 (17.2%) promoted single therapeutic interventions or diagnostic tests. The most commonly used marketing strategies included appealing to emotions (61.5%), highlighting institution prestige (60.7%), mentioning a symptom or disease (53.3%), and promoting introductory lectures or special offers likely to lead to further business (47.5%). Of the 21 ads for single interventions, most were for unproved (38.1%) or cosmetic (28.6%) procedures. While more than half of these ads presented benefits, none quantified their positive claims and just 1 mentioned potential harms
Okumuş, Abdullah; Çetintürk, Naim; Çetin, Eyüp
Firms are trying to reach consumers with different advertisement applications for purpose of to give information, remind and convince customers. Traditional advertisement and advertorial which aim to increase reliability and convince of people found themselves with different publishing channels. This research examines the dimensions of two different types of advertisement and the differences between them. Both for exploring active elements and essentials of marketing and an advertising; impor...
... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0204] Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... FR 54507), that requested public comment on Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011- XX: Seismic Risk...
Diploma thesis provides an overview of legal and ethical regulation of advertising, defines the basic concepts in advertising, summarizes the functions and objectives of advertising and characterized various forms of advertising by the communication media. Through the questionnaire survey detects and analyzes the general attitudes towards advertising as specific views on ethically problematic advertisements.
Potolokova Mariia Olegovna
One of the fundamental functions of advertising is economic. From the moment when the company plans and implements launches its advertising campaign, a chain reaction of economic events. In this article we present a scheduling algorithm campaigns entrepreneurial structures.
G. Liberali (Gui)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Even though online advertising revenues have grown dramatically, click-through rates for banner advertising continue to decrease, raising hard questions regarding its effectiveness when targeting consumers. However, with the development of a new technique that
Burgess, J. (University College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography)
Nuclear industry advertising in the United Kingdom is becoming more and more frequent, and is often controversial. The content and impact of recent campaigns are considered, especially the advertisement which portrays nuclear power as beneficial to the greenhouse effect. (author).
Hall, Danika; Jones, Sandra; Iverson, Don
In Australia, where direct to consumer advertising of prescription medicines is prohibited, pharmaceutical companies can sponsor disease awareness advertising targeting consumers. This study examined the impact of disease awareness advertising exposure on older women's reported behavioural intentions. Women were approached in a shopping centre and randomly assigned mock advertisements for two health conditions. Disease information and sponsors were manipulated. Two hundred and forty-one women responded to 466 advertisements. Almost half reported an intention to ask their doctor for a prescription or referral as a result of seeing the advertisement, but more reported they would talk to their doctor and ask about treatments and tests. Participants were more likely to report an intention to ask for prescriptions if they perceived the health condition to be severe and themselves susceptible or if they had viewed advertisements containing limited information on the disease. Disease awareness advertising may stimulate demand for prescription medicine products. This has serious implications for general practitioners and regulators.
Advertising becomes an interesting tool for the accounting profession in the face of increased competition. Accounting firms today realize that advertising will play an important role in their overall success.
Cultural stereotypes in Nigerian print media advertisements. ... Abstract. This study set out to examine the extent to which cultural stereotype roles are depicted in print advertisements in Nigeria. It specifically ... AJOL African Journals Online.
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising. ...
The traditional Sznajd model, as well as its Ochrombel simplification for opinion spreading, are applied to marketing with the help of advertising. The larger the lattice is the smaller is the amount of advertising needed to convince the whole market
The traditional Sznajd model, as well as its Ochrombel simplification for opinion spreading, is applied to marketing with the help of advertising. The larger the lattice, the smaller the amount of advertising is needed to convince the whole market.
The State Administration for Industry and Commerce recently said it has suggested the addition of an article in the Advertising Law to make celebrities who represent fake products in deceptive advertising criminally responsible for their actions if it is confirmed
Bagwell, Kyle; Overgaard, Per Baltzer
This paper studies the role of advertising and prices as signals of quality in a purely static setting, where repeat purchases are suppressed altoghether, but where advertising affects demand directly. We first show, under standard regularity assumptions, that the high-quality firm will distort i...... complete information. Hence, empirically, a high price and a modest advertising budget may well signal high quality.......This paper studies the role of advertising and prices as signals of quality in a purely static setting, where repeat purchases are suppressed altoghether, but where advertising affects demand directly. We first show, under standard regularity assumptions, that the high-quality firm will distort its...... price upwards and its level of advertising downwards compared to the complete-information case. We then show, under relatively mild additional conditions, that the high-quality firm will choose a level of advertising below that of the low-quality firm, even if the high-quality firm advertises most under...
Folkvord, F.; Anschutz, D.J.; Boyland, E.J.; Kelly, B.; Buijzen, M.A.
Systematic research reviews have repeatedly shown that food advertising affects children's eating behavior. Given that most food advertising promotes unhealthy, palatable, and rewarding food products, it is considered to be a significant contributor to the current obesity epidemic. This review
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties. 6.84 Section 6.84 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms....84 Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties. (a) General. The act by...
Sweeney, John M.
At a time when few copywriting jobs are available for new graduates, enrollments in advertising are exploding. An advertising educator set out to change students' perceptions that in advertising only copywriting requires imagination by developing a course called "Advertising and Innovation" which was designed to force students to use…
Karafotias, G.; Smit, S.K.; Eiben, A.E.
On-line control of EA parameters is an approach to parameter setting that offers the advantage of values changing during the run. In this paper, we investigate parameter control from a generic and parameter-independent perspective. We propose a generic control mechanism that is targeted to
Oort, van E.D.
The note on the generic name of the Snow-bunting by Dr. E. Hartert in this part of our periodical gives me cause to revert to the subject of my note on the generic name Passerina Vieillot and to state here, that I stand to what I have said about the rejection of this name in Zoology (Notes Leyden
Purpose of the program is to develop base technology and to perform design and development common to the HTGR Steam Cycle, Gas Turbine, and Process Heat Plants. The generic technology program breaks into the base technology, generic component, pebble-bed study, technology transfer, and fresh fuel programs
mechanism in this regard for final consumers, insurance providers, and ... facilities are viewed as inferior, treated with sus- picion and ... to choose a generic drug if the decision was supported by their doctor ... The effect of brand to generic and ...
Layton, Roslyn; Khajeheian, Datis
quantitatively and qualitatively. The results are compared against demographic statistics for the country and a survey of residents in Tehran. This research finds that while women have a major presence on IRIB television programs and in advertising on non-televised media, women are strangely and significantly...... as modern, dynamic, and cosmopolitan.This research is indicative of a key question in media and feminist studies, whether advertising reflects or creates reality. While we see the salience of a number of theories, we suggest that the dissonance between the outmoded depiction of women in IRIB commercials...... versus reality is the result of long-standing advertising subsidy regime for state supported industries and firms....
Mastroianni, Patrícia C; Vaz, Amanda Cristina R; Noto, Ana Regina; Galduróz, José Carlos F
The goal of this study was to describe the human figures portrayed in psychoactive drug advertising in terms of gender, age, ethnic group, and social context. Content analysis for 86 new pieces of printed advertisements released in 2005 was carried out. Fisher exact test was used to analyze the association between categories. There was a preponderance of women (62.8%) who were four times more present in advertisements for antidepressants and anxyolitics than men. Most of the people shown were Caucasian (98.8%) young adults (72%). These people were pictured in leisure activities (46.5%), at home (29%), or in contact with nature (16.2%). The message conveyed was that the drugs treat routinely felt subjective symptoms of discomfort, inducing in an irrational appeal that may affect drug prescription.
Alatawi, Y; Rahman, Md M; Cheng, N; Qian, J; Peissig, P L; Berg, R L; Page, C D; Hansen, R A
Some public scepticism exists about generics in terms of whether brand and generic drugs produce identical outcomes. This study explores whether adverse event (AE) reporting patterns are similar between brand and generic drugs, using authorized generics (AGs) as a control for possible generic drug perception biases. Events reported to the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System from the years 2004-2015 were analysed. Drugs were classified as brand, AG or generic based on drug and manufacturer names. Reports were included if amlodipine, losartan, metoprolol extended release (ER) or simvastatin were listed as primary or secondary suspect drugs. Disproportionality analyses using the reporting odds ratio (ROR) assessed the relative rate of reporting labelled AEs compared to reporting these AEs with all other drugs. The Breslow-Day test compared RORs across brand, AG and generic. Interrupted time series analysis evaluated the impact of generic entry on reporting trends. Generics accounted for significant percentages of total U.S. reports, but AGs accounted for smaller percentages of reports, including for amlodipine (14.26%), losartan (1.48%), metoprolol ER (0.35%) and simvastatin (0.70%). Whereas the RORs were significantly different for multiple brand vs generic comparisons, the AG vs generic comparisons yielded fewer statistically significant findings. Namely, only the ROR for AG differed from generic for amlodipine with peripheral oedema (P brand and generic compared with AG and generic. Use of AGs as a control for perception biases against generics is useful, but this approach can be limited by small AG report numbers. Requiring the manufacturer name to be printed on the prescription bottle or packaging could improve the accuracy of assignment for products being reported. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Viral advertising is popular for its high viral transmission results online. Its increased impacts on the social media users have been noticed by the author. At the same time, viewers’ negative attitudes toward traditional advertisements become obvious which can be regarded as the phenomenon of advertisement avoidance. It arouses author’s interests to know how the viral advertising reduces the viewers’ negative emotions and its performances in branding online. This paper is going to look into...
Becker , Maren
Despite its long-standing history and many strong findings, research on advertising effectiveness still ranks high on the academic and practitioner agenda. With respect to the influence of advertising on sales, existing econometric response models mostly focus on the impact of advertising spending and scheduling. Comparatively less attention has been devoted to the specific advertising content. Even though, choosing appropriate content cues that grab consumers’ attention and persuade them bec...
Simon P. Anderson; Régis Renault
We extend the persuasion game to bring it squarely into the economics of advertising. We model advertising as exciting consumer interest into learning more about the product, and determine a firm's equilibrium choice of advertising content over quality information, price information, and horizontal match information. Equilibrium is unique whenever advertising is necessary. The outcome is a separating equilibrium with quality unravelling. Lower-quality firms need to provide more information. F...
A positive intention may be formed as a result of exposure to an advertisement, but if a memory malfunction interferes with that intention, the advertising will be ineffective.This paper considers the implications for advertisers of Daniel Schacter’s ‘seven sins of memory’: transcience, absent......-mindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias and persistence. Each of the ‘sins’ is explained in detail and advice provided for advertisers on how to avoid these pitfalls....
Rajala, Risto; Westerlund, Mika
The paper presents a hierarchical construct PLS structural equation model to analyze mobile advertisement acceptance. Hypotheses are established and tested about the hierarchical structure and the effects of the factors that precede consumers' behavioral intention to accept mobile advertisement....... The results suggest that valuable content and trust in advertisers are key predictors of mobile device users' acceptance of mobile advertising. In addition, subjective value of the ads and subjective norms mediate these antecedent-acceptance relationships. The results are invaluable to both scholars...
Morris, Yvonne; Randle, Paul
This Intervention provides a review of developments in the regulation of broadcast advertising within the UK. The piece focuses on the implications of media convergence on broadcast advertising, and provides a brief history and analysis of the regulation of broadcast advertising within the UK. The piece also reviews Advertising Codes and provides an overview of regulatory bodies such as OFCOM and the ASA, and their respective roles.
Keywords: Semiotic Analysis, Canon Camera, Advertisement. Advertisement is a medium to deliver message to people with the goal to influence the to use certain products. Semiotics is applied to develop a correlation within element used in an advertisement. In this study, the writer chose the Semiotic analysis of canon camera advertisement as the subject to be analyzed using semiotic study based on Peirce's theory. Semiotic approach is employed in interpreting the sign, symbol, icon, and index ...
Esteves, Rosa Branca; Resende, Joana
This paper investigates the effects of price discrimination by means of targeted advertising in a duopolistic market where the distribution of consumers’ preferences is discrete and where advertising plays two major roles. It is used by firms as a way to transmit relevant information to otherwise uninformed consumers and it is used as a price discrimination device. We compare the firms’ optimal marketing mix (advertising and pricing) when they adopt mass advertising/non-discrimination strateg...
Ruth, Nicolas; Spangardt, Benedikt
Research on music and advertising is diverse and unstructured. Looking at the most important factors that define related research, this article aims to introduce a typology of four research fields that reflect the interplay of the complex relationship between music and advertising. An analysis of relevant studies revealed diverse research gaps and clustered the main research traditions. Eventually, we identified four types of research, namely advertising with music, advertising with musicians...
assess levels of support provided by advertising agencies, and to recommend improved marketing strategies . The Eskew-Murphy Advertising Review made a...television advertisements in communicating the strategy . • The strata™ Sample and Evaluated Ads section provides details about the youth interviewed...relevant to understanding how closely the evaluated advertising executions are “on- strategy .” It also reviews the opportunities for improvements to
Elliott, Caroline; Simmons, Robert
The primary aim of this article is to estimate the multiple determinants of film advertising expenditures in four important media, namely television, press, outdoor and radio, in the UK. First, television advertising, the leading film advertising medium, is examined as part of a system of equations, capturing the interdependences between advertising, the number of screens on which films are initially shown and box office revenues. Then a reduced form model is put forward to reveal the determi...
Martí Parreño, José; Sanz Blas, Silvia; Ruiz Mafé, Carla; Aldás Manzano, Joaquín
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse key drivers of teenagers’ attitude toward mobile advertising and its effects on teenagers’ mobile advertising acceptance. Design/methodology/approach – A proposed model of affective (irritation and entertainment) and cognitive (perceived usefulness) antecedents of attitude toward mobile advertising and its effects on mobile advertising acceptance is analysed. The sample consisted of 355 Spanish teenagers. The model was tested us...
Henry Saffer; Dhaval Dave
The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of brand capital is used to explain the effects of advertising on consumption. The industry response function and the evidence from prior studies indicate that the empirical strategy should maximize the variance in the advertising data. The approach in this paper to maximizing the variance in advertising data is to employ cross sectional data. The Monitoring th...
Abstract. Present paper has been developed with the title of internet advertising effectiveness by using hierarchical model. Presenting the question: Today Internet is an important channel in marketing and advertising. The reason for this could be the ability of the Internet to reduce costs and people’s access to online services. Also advertisers can easily access a multitude of users and communicate with them at low cost . On the other hand, compared to traditional advertising, interne...
Beth A. Freeborn; Jason P. Hulbert
This paper outlines a pair of classroom activities designed to provide an intuitive foundation to the theoretical introduction of advertising in monopoly markets. The roles of both informative and persuasive advertising are covered. Each student acts as a monopolist and chooses the number of (costly) advertisements and price. The experiments are intended for intermediate microeconomics or industrial organization courses, though may be utilized in any course that covers advertising models.
Schimmelpfennig, Christian; Hollensen, Svend
Over the decades, the use of celebrities in advertising has increased. Research suggests that in western countries between 20% and 30% of all advertising used celebrities in the late 1990s. During the past 10 years, however, the use of celebrities in advertising has plunged. This paper discusses...... why advertisers are turning away from using major celebrities in their campaigns, and what alternative individuals may be used instead of the celebrities....
In this paper, I investigate the co-evolution of fast and slow strategy spread and game strategies in populations of spatially distributed agents engaged in a one off evolutionary dilemma game. Agents are characterized by a pair of traits, a game strategy (cooperate or defect) and a binary 'advertising' strategy (advertise or don't advertise). Advertising, which comes at a cost [Formula: see text], allows investment into faster propagation of the agents' traits to adjacent individuals. Import...
The research involves the following two parts: the first part is the analysis of the advertising language;the second part is to analyze the register, namely apply the advertising context to a wider social context to find a more effective communicative means. The stylistics enables one to make the discourse analysis of the advertising texts both from a microcosmic and a macroscopic perspective. The twofold demonstrative function points out a new theoretical way for advertising research.
advertisements in cross-culture communication come from different cultural background.the english and chinese advertisement slogan is a lively and distinctive field.differences of advertising slogan are becoming more important in the context of economic globalization.this paper,from the comparison of chinese and english advertisement slogan,language used in slogans,translation of slogan,mainly from the points of view of cross-culture to analysis the differences of tow language ads slogan.
With the development of the advertisement,people tend to study the stylistic analysis of it.However,in this paper,the focus will be on the songs in beverage advertisement.The analysis will be focused on the features of the beverage advertisement songs and the stylistics of it.The aim of the paper is to improve the people and the scholars' understanding of the beverage advertisement songs.
Sadia Aziz; Usman Ghani; Abdullah Niazi
Advertisers often make use of endorsers or representatives as trustworthy sources of persuasion for consumers' attitudes. Promotion of products through celebrities is a trendy advertising practice around the world. The present study judged the impact of celebrity credibility on advertising effectiveness in terms of consumer’s attitude towards the advertisement, attitude towards the brand and their purchase intention. This study also explored the differences of respondent’s responses towards t...
In marketing literature, click-through-rates are generally employed to measure the success of banner advertisements online. This measure has led to the banner blindness hypothesis, which posits that internet users ignore banner advertisements. However, this measurement does not take into account the consumer action which may result from memory for advertised brands. This study illustrates that although there may not be explicit memory for these advertisements, consumers can be primed for adve...
Barajas Zamora, Joel
The allocation of a given budget to online display advertising as a marketing channel has motivated the development of statistical methods to measure its effectiveness. Recent studies show that display advertising often triggers online users to search for more information on products. Eventually, many of these users convert at the advertiser’s website. A key challenge is to measure the effectiveness of display advertising when users are exposed to multiple unknown advertising channels.We deve...
José, Rui; Soares, Ana Maria
Advertising is often a key element in the business case for public display networks. However, the respective advertising models do not yet provide effective solutions to the key issues of campaign targeting and impact measurement that are now so common in web advertising. In this paper, we specifically discuss some of the directions and principles that may emerge in advertising models for public displays. We make this analysis combining some of the lessons from other media, ...
Full Text Available The ubiquity of advertising in everyday life and the importance of music demand a critical study on how brands use music for commercial purposes. In a context of convergence and participatory culture, it is necessary to develop new strategies, codes and narratives that brands and artists are creating to connect with consumers. Music is the basis of the collective experience and, in addition, it connects intensely and emotionally with the identity of groups that are its potential target. Brands use music to generate memorable experiences for consumers who reject traditional advertising forms. In addition, music, as a product of the cultural industry, needs marketing strategies to connect with fans.
João Marcos Mateus Kogawa
Full Text Available Current paper investigates the construction of a particular kind of statement called laconism. The discursive form is constructed by an enunciation modality that aggregates military, religious and economic spaces, and is characterized by ‘tell more in fewer words’. It is the hallmark of Greek civilization and typical of Christ’s universal phrases. The enunciation structure is basic and omnipresent in the myth construction within consumer society. Current investigation deals with the advertising discourse, more particularly, Coca-Cola advertisings, as a contemporary myth. French Discourse Analysis coupled to Foucault’s and Barthes’s works foreground the essay.
Lumby, M E
This content analysis of 1,111 paid ads in the Advocate identifies 17 self-descriptive categories in the "Personals" (PER) and "Models, Masseurs, and Escorts" (MME) sections of the "Trader Dick" supplement. Advertisers place primary emphases on sex and masculinity. Among MME, youthfulness, handsomeness, and sexiness are important, promoting versatility in place of specificity when mentioning sexual acts. PER advertisers, however, indicate concerns about age, race, and finding lovers. They also detail specific sexual interests and reject a variety of unacceptable behaviors.
Rutz, Linda Robinson
A study was conducted to determine how well the advertising industry portrays the changing work roles of women. Four advertising executives were interviewed to find out their feelings about the changes in women's work roles and what action they were taking to adapt advertising to these changes, while 11 women were interviewed with similar…
According to a 1981 survey, advertising practitioners place more importance on the accreditation of college advertising programs when it comes to evaluating a graduate of such a program than do the educators who must earn the accreditation. Only directors of advertising education programs in the communication-journalism area that are currently…
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertisements. 5.1 Section 5.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.1 Advertisements. Commercial notices or advertisements shall not be displayed, posted, or distributed on federally owned o...
Diel, Stan R.; Katsinas, Stephen
University and college institutional advertisements, which typically are broadcast as public service announcements during the halftime of football games, were the subject of a quantitative analysis focused on commonality in messaging and employment of the semiotic theory of brand advertising. Findings indicate advertisements focus on students'…
Abdelaal, Noureldin Mohamed; Sase, Amal Saleh
This study aimed at analyzing two advertisements, and investigating how advertisers use discourse and semiotics to make people and customers buy into their ideas, beliefs, or simply their products. The two advertisements analyzed are beauty products which have been selected from internet magazines. The methodology adopted in this study is…
Estrada, M.; Moliner, M. A.; Sanchez, J.
In this study we will analyze the attitude of older adults to advertisements, differentiating between advertisements that contain rhetorical figures (trope ads) and those that do not (explicit ads). We will also study their attitude toward the brand advertised according to their degree of involvement with the product. In the course of the…
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertisements. 1005.1 Section 1005.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.1 Advertisements. Commercial notices or advertisements shall not be displayed, posted, or distributed within the area administered by the Presidio...
Brown, Hubert W.; Barnes, Beth E.
Finds that while students (studying broadcast journalism or advertising) and practitioners (station news directors and agency media directors) were in agreement on the majority of opinion statements discussing advertising's influence on broadcast news content, except students were less bothered by advertising's influence on news content than were…
This paper offers techniques and strategies which high school and college teachers of speech communication can use for teaching units and/or courses in advertising. One such technique is role playing, which can involve the corporate chairperson, the executive coordinator, and chairpersons for magazine advertising, outdoor advertising, broadcast…
Chaudhry, S; Chaudhry, S; Chaudhry, K
The effect of any legislation depends on its implementation. Limited studies indicate that tobacco companies may tend to use such provision for surrogate advertising. The point of sale advertisement provision has been placed in the Indian Tobacco Control legislation. The study was undertaken to assess the Indian scenario in this regard. To assess if there are any violations related to provision of point of tobacco sale advertisements under India's comprehensive tobacco Control legislation in different parts of India. Boards over various shops showing advertisements of tobacco products were observed in the cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Trivandrum and Jaipur, between September 2005 and March 2006. The point of sale advertisements mushroomed after the implementation of 2004 tobacco control legislation. Tobacco advertisement boards fully satisfying the point of sale provision were practically non-existent. The most common violation of point of sale advertisements was the larger size of the board but with tobacco advertisement equal to the size indicated in the legislation and remaining area often showing a picture. Invariably two boards were placed together to provide the impression of a large single repetitive advertisement. More than two boards was not common. Tobacco advertisement boards were also observed on closed shops/ warehouses, shops not selling tobacco products and on several adjacent shops. The purpose of the point of sale advertisements seems to be surrogate advertisement of tobacco products, mainly cigarettes.
... REGULATIONS SPECIAL EVENT TOURS § 381.7 Advertising. No operator of a Special Event Tour or agent of such an operator shall conduct, or cause or allow to be conducted, any advertising, solicitation or other promotion... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 381.7 Section 381.7...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertisement. 162.606 Section 162.606 Indians BUREAU OF... § 162.606 Advertisement. Except as otherwise provided in this part, prior to granting a lease or permit.... Advertisements will call for sealed bids and will not offer preference rights. ...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertisment. 327.17 Section 327.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RULES AND... § 327.17 Advertisment. (a) Advertising and the distribution of printed matter is allowed within project...
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bait advertisement. 238.1 Section 238.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING... when the offer is not a bona fide effort to sell the advertised product. [Guide 1] ...
Lanfranco, Leonard W.
Students majoring in advertising can benefit from a study of that field in its historical context because such study helps them to understand current practices and to foresee future developments. One model of teaching advertising history within a required course about advertising and society begins with some basic definitions of the advertising…
The thesis deals with advertising expenditure major automotive brands, which are compared with their marketability. The thesis reflects the strategic marketing process and outlines the components of advertising. The aim of the work is to verify whether the investment in television advertising significantly and directly affects the marketability of vehicles, or there are some other factors.
.... If an advertisement for credit secured by a dwelling states a simple annual rate of interest and more than one simple annual rate of interest will apply over the term of the advertised loan, the advertisement shall disclose in a clear and conspicuous manner: (A) Each simple annual rate of interest that...
Zuk, Bill; Dalton, Robert
This paper examines the arguments for and against inclusion of advertising art in art education programs, and presents a case for the educational benefits of critically examining advertising art based on museum masterpieces. A search for examples of fine art masterpieces used in advertising art examined which masterpieces are commonly used in…
Cardinal, Bradley J.
Evaluated the advertising content contained in physical activity print materials. Analysis of print materials obtained from 80 sources (e.g., physicians' offices and fitness events) indicated that most materials contained some form of advertising. Materials coming from commercial product vendors generally contained more advertising than materials…
Costa, Tom; Doyle, Brooke
In this article, the authors discuss how children can learn from runaway slave advertisements. The advertisements for runaway slaves that masters placed in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century newspapers are among the documentary sources available to teachers for studying the lives of African-American slaves. Such advertisements often describe a…
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertisement. 152.26 Section 152.26 Indians BUREAU OF... Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.26 Advertisement. (a) Upon approval of an application for an advertised... unless for good cause a shorter period is authorized by the Secretary. (b) The notice of sale will...
Freeborn, Beth A.; Hulbert, Jason P.
The authors outline a pair of classroom activities designed to provide an intuitive foundation to the theoretical introduction of advertising in monopoly markets. The roles of both informative and persuasive advertising are covered. Each student acts as a monopolist and chooses the number of (costly) advertisements and the price. The experiments…
Conducted a content analysis of 10 years of feminine hygiene advertisements in "Seventeen" and "Teen" magazines. Finds that advertising copy in these magazines works to dispel myths about menstruation but that few black models are shown. Discusses advertising as an element of socialization for adolescent girls. (SLD)
Discusses ways to turn information from a business card into an advertisement to be placed in a student publication. Addresses visual interest, typography, and other design issues. Includes several sample advertisements and a classroom activity involving redesigning a business card into an advertisement. (RS)
... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 196.540 Section 196.540 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising. 1317.540 Section 1317.540 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 1253.540 Section 1253.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1253.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or...
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 10.32 Section 10... of Professional Responsibility § 10.32 Advertising. (a) Subject to § 10.31, a practitioner may advertise services through public media, including a telephone directory, legal directory, newspaper, or...
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Advertising. 36.540 Section 36.540 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING... Activities Prohibited § 36.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment...
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 19.540 Section 19.540 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to...
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 618.540 Section 618.540 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising limitations. 141.23 Section 141...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS General § 141.23 Advertising limitations. (a) The... certificate may not advertise that the school is certificated unless it clearly differentiates between courses...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 41.540 Section 41.540 Public... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or...
... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 17.540 Section 17.540 Domestic... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising. 3.540 Section 3.540 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation...
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 5.540 Section 5.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or...
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative advertising. 307.10 Section 307... REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMPREHENSIVE SMOKELESS TOBACCO HEALTH EDUCATION ACT OF 1986 Advertising Disclosures § 307.10 Cooperative advertising. The Act prohibits any manufacturer, packager, or importer of smokeless...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising. 146.540 Section 146.540 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 86.59 Section 86.59 Public Welfare... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or...
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscriminatory advertising. 626.6020 Section... § 626.6020 Nondiscriminatory advertising. (a) A Farm Credit institution that directly or through third parties engages in any form of advertising shall not use words, phrases, symbols, directions, forms, or...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 147.45 Section 147.45... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES AVIATION MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 147.45 Advertising... aviation maintenance technician school indicates in advertising that it is a certificated school, it shall...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 2555.540 Section 2555.540 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation...
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Product advertising. 32.6613 Section 32.6613... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6613 Product advertising. This... the purchase of products and services. This excludes nonproduct-related advertising, such as corporate...
... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 5.540 Section 5.540 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL... Prohibited § 5.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 8a.540 Section 8a.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 23.540 Section 23.540 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative advertising. 6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.52 Cooperative advertising. An arrangement in which an industry member participates...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Advertising. 101-4.540... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 1211.540 Section 1211.540 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation...
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 563.27 Section 563.27 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Operation and Structure § 563.27 Advertising. No savings association shall use advertising (which includes print...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising. 229.540 Section 229.540 Foreign... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or discrimination based on...
Fullerton, Jami A.; Kendrick, Alice; McKinnon, Lori Melton
A national survey of 1,045 advertising students measured opinions about the ethical nature of advertising and ethical dilemmas in the advertising business. More than nine out of ten students agreed that working for a company with high ethical standards was important. Students rated all twelve workplace dilemmas presented as somewhat unethical. For…
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 28.540 Section 28.540... Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising limitations. 142.31 Section 142...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS General § 142.31 Advertising limitations. (a) A certificate holder may not conduct, and may not advertise to conduct, any training, testing, and checking that...
... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 226.16 Section 226.16 Banks and... LENDING (REGULATION Z) Open-End Credit § 226.16 Advertising. (a) Actually available terms. If an... accordance with § 226.5a do not constitute advertising terms for purposes of the requirements of this section...
... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 15a.59 Section 15a.59 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM... Activities Prohibited § 15a.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment...
... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial advertising. 705.13 Section 705.13... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.13 Commercial advertising. (a) The Navy... personnel, facilities, equipment or supplies for advertising purposes must be referred to the Chief of...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.152 Section 655... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Post-Acceptance Requirements § 655.152 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted to satisfy the required recruitment activities under § 655.151 must...
... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Construction advertising. 710.311 Section 710.311...-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Project Development § 710.311 Construction advertising. The State must manage real... advertising for construction, the State shall develop ROW availability statements and certifications related...
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 113.540 Section 113.540 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FINANCIAL... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation...
L. Esteban; J.M. Hernandez; J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)
textabstractWe consider a market where a single seller must employ informative advertising to launch a new product of observable quality. The monopolist may use mass, targeted or customer directed advertising. We show that the choice of advertising strategy depends on the economic properties of the
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 106.59 Section 106.59 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation...
... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 25.540 Section 25.540 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Price advertising. 399.84 Section 399.84... STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Enforcement § 399.84 Price advertising. The Board considers any advertising or solicitation by a direct air carrier, indirect air carrier, or an...
... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Advertising. 1955.146 Section 1955.146 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.146 Advertising. (a... real estate brokers, it is the servicing official's responsibility to ensure adequate advertising of...
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscriminatory advertising. 528.4 Section... REQUIREMENTS § 528.4 Nondiscriminatory advertising. No savings association may directly or indirectly engage in any form of advertising that implies or suggests a policy of discrimination or exclusion in violation...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 1042.540 Section 1042.540 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1042.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 54.540 Section 54.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or...
Factors that influence advertising design ideation. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... inevitably, more than ever before, on advertisement to take products to the doorsteps of potential consumers. Consequently, local and global corporations employ all manner of advertising media to achieve their end.
This paper illustrates the definition of pun,especially its features, as well as the typical application of pun in English advertisements in order to emphasize its importance in daily usage both for advertisers and to target readers.It aims to demonstrate the importance of grasping the gist of pun in English advertisements.
With the strengthening of intercultural communication,advertisement translating becomes more and more impor tant in the field of commerce.Based on an analysis and comparison of English and Chinese advertisements,this paper discusses the strategies of translating advertisement from a pragmatic pernpective, including the speech act theory,the context theory and cultural consideration,etc.
Rozendaal, E.; Buijzen, M.; Valkenburg, P.
The aim of this study was to investigate children’s understanding of six popular tactics used by advertisers to elicit certain advertising effects, including ad repetition, product demonstration, peer popularity appeal, humour, celebrity endorsement and premiums. We first asked 34 advertisers of
Stout, Patricia A.; Moon, Young Sook
Analyzes full-page advertisements in four national magazines for the years 1980 to 1986. Finds (1) endorsements occurred in about half of the advertisements; (2) endorsers most used were celebrities; (3) advertisements with endorsers contain less information; and (4) celebrities most often endorsed personal care or apparel products. (RS)
Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis
To test the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking initiation. A longitudinal survey of 2102 adolescents, aged 10 to 17 years at baseline, who never smoked was conducted by using masked images of 6 cigarette advertisements and 8 other commercial products with all brand information digitally removed. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency and cued recall of brands for cigarette and other advertisements. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions were used to assess smoking initiation 9 months after the baseline assessment as a function of cigarette-advertisement exposure, other advertisement exposure, and baseline covariates. Thirteen percent (n = 277) of students initiated smoking during the observation period. Although the incidence of trying smoking was associated with increased exposure to cigarette advertisements (10% in the low, 12% in the medium, and 19% in the high cigarette-advertisement exposure tertile initiated smoking), exposure to other advertisements did not predict smoking initiation. Compared with low exposure to cigarette advertisements, high exposure remained a significant predictor of adolescent smoking initiation after controlling for baseline covariates (adjusted relative risk: 1.46 [95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.97]; P content-related effect of cigarette advertisements and underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and teen smoking; exposure to cigarette advertisements, but not other advertisements, is associated with smoking initiation.
Powell, Lisa M; Szczypka, Glen; Chaloupka, Frank J
Television viewing is hypothesized to contribute to obesity among children and adolescents through several mechanisms that include the displacement of physical activity, snacking while watching TV, and the influence of food advertising. This study drew on television ratings to examine the distribution of food advertising exposure among adolescents aged 12 through 17 based on 170 top-rated shows across network, cable and syndicated TV stations over the 9-month period from September 2003 to May 2004. A total of 238,353 30-second equivalent advertisements on the top-rated shows were assessed. Each advertisement was weighted by its rating to measure actual exposure to advertisements. The results showed that among total nonprogram content time, food-related products accounted for roughly one fifth of advertising exposure. Excluding TV promotions and public service announcements, as a proportion of all product advertising, total food-related advertising made up 26% of advertised products viewed by adolescents. By race, the proportion of advertising exposure to food products was 14% greater for African-American versus white adolescents and total exposure to food advertising would be even larger for African-American teens given that, on average, they watched more TV. Fast food was the most frequently viewed food product category comprising 23% of all food-related advertisements among adolescents. Food ads made up just over one quarter of TV ads viewed by adolescents with the most commonly viewed products of fast food, sweets, and beverage products well within the reach of their own purchasing power.
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Even though online advertising revenues have grown dramatically, click-through rates for banner advertising continue to decrease, raising hard questions regarding its effectiveness when targeting consumers. However, with the development of a new technique that matches banners to the cognitive style of viewers, the world of online advertising is about to change.
Muslim, Abdul Wahid
Advertising is very crucial in marketing. They are literally everywhere in the newspapers, magazines, on TV, on billboards, in the cinema or while surfing the Internet. In marketing campaigns, many techniques and approaches to attract customers. One of those approaches is sexual appeal. Sexy advertising can attract attention, increase retention and improve advertising consumer attitudes toward advertising. Sexual appeals in the media as an advertising strategy to inform a product with the int...
S, venkatesh; N, senthilkumar
Television advertising is a most common commercial activity used in advertising medium. Humor in advertising contains an important aspect on changing attitude of the consumer, improves buying behavior and creates new patterns for buying any goods and services. Humor in television advertising is the effective and convenient way to attract the any consumers because they are emotional based content and makes the consumer to special for satisfaction. Compared to all emotions humor advertising is ...
De Pauw, Pieter; Cauberghe, Veroline; Hudders, Liselot
As few studies focus on how children’s coping with advertising is affected by their environment, the present study uses multilevel analysis to explore the role of both primary (i.e. parents) and secondary socializing agents (i.e. classmates, teachers) in children’s advertising literacy. The results show that children’s cognitive advertising literacy and attitudes toward advertising are to a large extent determined by class-level processes. Their moral advertising literacy is a more individual...
García, A J; Martos, F; Leiva, F; Sánchez de la Cuesta, F
In this article we analyze the responses of 1220 Spanish physicians who participated in a survery about generic drugs. A previously validated questionnaire was sent to physicians through the Spanish Medical Councils of the different provinces. Four items were analyzed: what doctors know about generic drugs (knowledge); physicians' prescribing habits concerning these drugs (attitude and professional competence); how prescription of generic drugs effects pharmaceutical costs amd, finally, what doctors believe a generic drug should be. The influence of physician-related variables (age, type of contract, specialty, workload, etc.) on prescribing of generic drugs was also analyzed. In view of the results, we believe that to rationalize expenditure through and appropriate policy on generic drugs Spanish health authorities should offer more and better training and information (clear and independent) about what generic drugs are.
We prove that generic quantum local Hamiltonians are gapless. In fact, we prove that there is a continuous density of states above the ground state. The Hamiltonian can be on a lattice in any spatial dimension or on a graph with a bounded maximum vertex degree. The type of interactions allowed for include translational invariance in a disorder (i.e., probabilistic) sense with some assumptions on the local distributions. Examples include many-body localization and random spin models. We calculate the scaling of the gap with the system's size when the local terms are distributed according to a Gaussian β orthogonal random matrix ensemble. As a corollary, there exist finite size partitions with respect to which the ground state is arbitrarily close to a product state. When the local eigenvalue distribution is discrete, in addition to the lack of an energy gap in the limit, we prove that the ground state has finite size degeneracies. The proofs are simple and constructive. This work excludes the important class of truly translationally invariant Hamiltonians where the local terms are all equal.
Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle
Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.
Lazarus, Eli D; Constantine, José Antonio
Sinuous patterns traced by fluid flows are a ubiquitous feature of physical landscapes on Earth, Mars, the volcanic floodplains of the Moon and Venus, and other planetary bodies. Typically discussed as a consequence of migration processes in meandering rivers, sinuosity is also expressed in channel types that show little or no indication of meandering. Sinuosity is sometimes described as "inherited" from a preexisting morphology, which still does not explain where the inherited sinuosity came from. For a phenomenon so universal as sinuosity, existing models of channelized flows do not explain the occurrence of sinuosity in the full variety of settings in which it manifests, or how sinuosity may originate. Here we present a generic theory for sinuous flow patterns in landscapes. Using observations from nature and a numerical model of flow routing, we propose that flow resistance (representing landscape roughness attributable to topography or vegetation density) relative to surface slope exerts a fundamental control on channel sinuosity that is effectively independent of internal flow dynamics. Resistance-dominated surfaces produce channels with higher sinuosity than those of slope-dominated surfaces because increased resistance impedes downslope flow. Not limited to rivers, the hypothesis we explore pertains to sinuosity as a geomorphic pattern. The explanation we propose is inclusive enough to account for a wide variety of sinuous channel types in nature, and can serve as an analytical tool for determining the sinuosity a landscape might support.
Stewart, J.B. Jr.; Davidson, J.J.; Jones, H.B.; Fulwiler, C.H.; Mullen, S.A.
The adversaries studied were found to be complex, often unpredictable, and dynamic. The adversary typically goes through a complex decision-making process between the time a potential target is identified and the moment the decision to act is made. This study analyzes the adversary characteristics, and the following conclusions are made: one of the least likely methods of attack is an overt armed assault. Terrorists and psychotics depend upon a high degree of personal dedication. No single generic adversary group or individual exhibits strength in every characteristic. Physical danger appears to have some deterrent effect on all adversaries except the psychotics. Organized and professional criminals often try to recruit insiders. Disoriented persons, white-collar criminals, and disgruntled employees tend to operate as insiders. Professional criminals, many terrorist groups, some extremist protest groups, and certain disoriented persons plan carefully before initiating a criminal mission. Organized crime and miscellaneous criminal adversaries rely on deception and ruse to bypass security. After the decision to commit a crime, the resources deployed by terrorists or organized criminals will be a function of their perception of the operational requirements of the crime. The nature of ''threat'' is dynamic; adversary behavior and capability appear to be related to prevailing political, economic, and social conditions
Indah Dwi Pratama
Full Text Available One factor that can interfere with the absorption rate of viewers on television advertisement is advertising avoidance which shows the difference between the number of viewers who watch advertisement programs and the number of viewers who watch television programs. The factors that affect advertising avoidance include the demography of the viewers (gender, age, area of residence, and social economic status, or SES, advertising attributes (the television stations, order of ads, genre of the program, and advertising sector, and competition (DayPart. The study attempted to measure the level of advertising avoidance in Indonesia and its relation to various factors that influence it by using the secondary data generated by Nielsen Audience Measurement Indonesia through Television Audience Measurement (TAM. The methods utilized consisted of the t-test independent sample, one way ANOVA, Tukey, Kruskal Wallis, and Dunn Bonferoni. The result showed that the level of advertising avoidance in Indonesia reached by 23%, with relatively similar results to the other studies in various countries. The hypothesis test results also showed a significant relationship between the advertising avoidance and demographic variables, advertising attributes, and competitions affecting this avoidance. On one hand, the findings of the study are expected to be useful for the advertisers to plan their advertisements on television so that they become more effective and efficient. On the other hand, television stations can utilize these findings as a development strategy to expand their audience segmentation and to accommodate the needs of the advertisers more optimally.Keywords: advertising avoidance, television advertisement, TAM, ANOVA, Tukey
...] Generic Drug Facilities, Sites, and Organizations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION.... Generic drug facilities, certain sites, and organizations identified in a generic drug submission are... active pharmaceutical ingredients and certain other sites and organizations that support the manufacture...
... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Generic Information Collection for Land Management... organizations on the proposed information collection, Generic Information Collection for Land Management... related to forest management. The intent of this generic information collection request (ICR) is to...
Abd Rahim, Normaliza
Learning the Malay language has been a challenging task for foreign language learners. Learners have to learn Malay grammar structure rules in order to write simple sentences. The word choice is important in constructing a sentence. Therefore, the study focuses on the use of adjectives in television advertisements among Korean learners at Hankuk…
Referring to the INSIGHT trial published in The Lancet, Bayer Netherlands states in an advertisement in Dutch medical journals that nifedipine reduces cardiovascular events by 50% in patients with hypertension and at least one additional risk factor. However, the agent studied in the INSIGHT trial
D.H.R.V. Smeesters (Dirk); T. Mussweiler (Thomas); N. Mandel (Naomi)
textabstractThe size of the models you show in advertising affects how consumers feel about themselves and your products. A woman’s body image is an important source of her self-esteem, yet approximately 50% of girls and young women report being dissatisfied with their bodies.
Rohrer, Daniel Morgan
The right of privacy as it relates to advertising and the use of a person's name or likeness is discussed in this paper. After an introduction that traces some of the history of invasion of privacy in court decisions, the paper examines cases involving issues such as public figures and newsworthy items, right of privacy waived, right of privacy…
Evaluation; and from Colonels Donald Borden and William Graf of the Directorate of Advertising and Sales Promotion . Ani Haigazian provided valuable...because they include numerous non- media items, such as lead fulfillment, sales promotion , market research, printed bro- chures, and special programs
North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.
This document contains teacher materials for a 4-unit, 1-year marketing education course in advertising and sales promotion offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. The preface contains a rationale for the development of the course, a course description, course objectives, a list of the instructional units of the course, and a list of the…
This paper investigates the role of campaign advertising and the opportunity of legal restrictions on it. An electoral race is modeled as a signalling game with three classes of players: a continuum of voters, two candidates, and one interest group. The group has non-verifiable insider information
Moorman, M.; Neijens, P.C.; Smit, E.G.; Belch, M.A.; Belch, G.E.
Reach, frequency, and timing are key concepts in selecting TV, radio, newspapers, magazines, out-of-home, direct mail, Internet, and other media for advertising campaigns. We discuss these concepts and their role in media selection and media planning processes. We also describe media and audience
Hynes, Geraldine E.; Janson, Marius
A well-designed online advertisement is essential for effective communication with potential customers and contributes to successful e-commerce. However, creating online sales messages that appeal to a broad range of cultures can pose unique challenges. Internet ads must offer both a globally appealing and a culture-specific message that in turn…
Bronner, F.; van Velthoven, S.; Costa Pereira, F.; Veríssimo, J.; Neijens, P.C.
Studying moods and the effects that a mood has is an important topic in research into advertising. But nearly all data on mood effects are gathered in a forced exposure and lab context. In a real-life study we relate in this contribution mood to moments of media consumption. So we analyze at the
Tsai, Wan-Hsiu Sunny; Li, Cong
This study examined the moderating effects of acculturation modes (assimilated, integrated, and separated) on Hispanic consumers' responses to three advertising targeting strategies (Caucasian targeted, bicultural, and Hispanic targeted). The hypotheses were empirically tested in a 3 x 3 factorial experiment with 155 self-identified Hispanic adult…
Council of Better Business Bureaus, Inc., New York, NY. Clearinghouse for Research on Children's Advertising.
More than 600 entries are contained in this annotated bibliography of materials concerning the effects of television advertising on children. Entries are alphabetized by author and are divided into the following categories: special interest articles; general interest articles; books and pamphlets; government publications; transcripts of oral…
Full Text Available Even though advertising has great power, there are often to be heard the critics on methods and techniques used, and on the way it influences social values, consumer life style, their preferences and behavior. Critics often claim that advertising is false and misleading, very offensive and even irritating. Exploitation of some target groups is mentioned, where biggest critics are on advertising on for children. Many believe that advertising has to be only informal. Audience has to be free of persuasion, subjective and overwhelmed claims, offensive suggestions and advertisements which manipulate consumers in order to force them buy certain product.
Preyas S. Desai
Most franchisors charge an advertising fee in addition to the better known royalty and franchise fee. We study the role of the advertising fee in improving channel coordination. We begin our analysis with a simple case of one franchisor dealing with two identical franchisees and find that the advertising fee allows the franchisor to commit to a specific level of advertising spending at the time of contract acceptance. We also find that the lump-sum advertising fee is better than the sales-bas...
McDevitt-Potter, Lisa M; Sadaka, Basma; Tichy, Eric M; Rogers, Christin C; Gabardi, Steven
The first generic tacrolimus product gained Food and Drug Administration approval in August 2009. This prospective, observational trial sought to determine the need for dose titrations and measure drug cost savings on conversion to generic tacrolimus. Transplant recipients on stable tacrolimus doses were converted from brand to generic tacrolimus on a mg:mg basis. Data were collected at the time of generic conversion (study arm) and at a time point exactly 6 months before conversion (control arm) for all subjects. Seventy conversions from four centers are reported. Subjects were a mean of 70 months after kidney (n=37), liver (n=28), or multiorgan (n=5) transplant. In the study arm, mean tacrolimus doses were 4.4 and 4.5 mg/d and mean tacrolimus trough concentrations were 5.8 and 5.9 ng/mL before and after conversion, respectively. In the control arm, mean tacrolimus doses were 4.6 and 4.6 mg/d and mean tacrolimus trough concentrations were 6.1 and 5.9 ng/mL before and after the control time point, respectively. Dose titrations occurred in five patients (7%) in the control arm and 15 patients (21%) in the study arm (P=0.028). Mean monthly drug costs were $645 for brand, $593 for generic, and $595 for generic after dose titrations. Mean monthly patient copays were $38 for brand and $15 for generic. These cumulative data show that dose requirements and trough levels are similar between brand and generic tacrolimus and that generic substitution allows for savings. However, postconversion monitoring is prudent as patients may require dose titration.