WorldWideScience

Sample records for generator startup process

  1. Electrical start-up for diesel fuel processing in a fuel-cell-based auxiliary power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsun, Remzi Can; Krupp, Carsten; Tschauder, Andreas; Peters, Ralf; Stolten, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    As auxiliary power units in trucks and aircraft, fuel cell systems with a diesel and kerosene reforming capacity offer the dual benefit of reduced emissions and fuel consumption. In order to be commercially viable, these systems require a quick start-up time with low energy input. In pursuit of this end, this paper reports an electrical start-up strategy for diesel fuel processing. A transient computational fluid dynamics model is developed to optimize the start-up procedure of the fuel processor in the 28 kWth power class. The temperature trend observed in the experiments is reproducible to a high degree of accuracy using a dual-cell approach in ANSYS Fluent. Starting from a basic strategy, different options are considered for accelerating system start-up. The start-up time is reduced from 22 min in the basic case to 9.5 min, at an energy consumption of 0.4 kW h. Furthermore, an electrical wire is installed in the reformer to test the steam generation during start-up. The experimental results reveal that the generation of steam at 450 °C is possible within seconds after water addition to the reformer. As a result, the fuel processor can be started in autothermal reformer mode using the electrical concept developed in this work.

  2. Resonance investigation of pump-turbine during startup process

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L. Y.; Wang, Z. W.; Kurosawa, S.; Nakahara, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The causes of resonance of a certain model pump-turbine unit during startup process were investigated in this article. A three-dimensional full flow path analysis model which contains spiral case, stay vanes, guide vanes, runner, gaps outside the runner crown and band, and draft tube was constructed. The transient hydraulic excitation force of full flow path was analyzed under five conditions near the resonance region. Based on one-way fluid- structure interaction (FSI) analysis model, the dynamic stress characteristics of the pump-turbine runner was investigated. The results of pressure pulsation, vibration mode and dynamic stress obtained from simulation were consistent with the test results. The study indicated that the hydraulic excitation frequency (Zg*fn) Hz due to rotor-stator interference corresponding to the natural frequency of 2ND+4ND runner mode is the main cause of resonance. The relationship among pressure pulsation, vibration mode and dynamic stress was discussed in this paper. The results revealed the underlying causes of the resonance phenomenon.

  3. Startup of Pumping Units in Process Water Supplies with Cooling Towers at Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, V. V., E-mail: vberlin@rinet.ru; Murav’ev, O. A., E-mail: muraviov1954@mail.ru; Golubev, A. V., E-mail: electronik@inbox.ru [National Research University “Moscow State University of Civil Engineering,” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Aspects of the startup of pumping units in the cooling and process water supply systems for thermal and nuclear power plants with cooling towers, the startup stages, and the limits imposed on the extreme parameters during transients are discussed.

  4. Ant Colony Search Algorithm for Optimal Generators Startup during Power System Restoration

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ketabi; Feuillet, R

    2010-01-01

    Generators startup sequence plays a significant role in achieving a suitable and effective restoration strategy. This paper outlines an ant colony search algorithm in order to determine the generator starting times during the bulk power system restoration. The algorithm attempts to maximize the system generation capability over a restoration period, where the dynamic characteristics of different types of units and system constraints are considered. Applying this method for the 39-bus New Engl...

  5. Optimization on start-up process of high-pressure rotor for large power steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Qiu-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper combines thermal-structure coupling technique and pattern search optimization algorithm to establish an optimization system for the start-up process of a turbine unit. Firstly, a finite element model for thermal-structure coupling calculation is established to accurately analyze the transient temperature field and thermal stress field, which can obtain the thermal stress distribution during start-up process. Afterwards, a program of optimization on rotor start-up process is exploited to improve the time allocation in each operating stage of start-up process, which minimizes the maximum equivalent stress of rotor. The maximum equivalent stress has reduced 25.7% after the optimization, which reveals obvious effect.

  6. Preheating of fluid in a supercritical Brayton cycle power generation system at cold startup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steven A.; Fuller, Robert L.

    2016-07-12

    Various technologies pertaining to causing fluid in a supercritical Brayton cycle power generation system to flow in a desired direction at cold startup of the system are described herein. A sensor is positioned at an inlet of a turbine, wherein the sensor is configured to output sensed temperatures of fluid at the inlet of the turbine. If the sensed temperature surpasses a predefined threshold, at least one operating parameter of the power generation system is altered.

  7. Ant Colony Search Algorithm for Optimal Generators Startup during Power System Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ketabi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Generators startup sequence plays a significant role in achieving a suitable and effective restoration strategy. This paper outlines an ant colony search algorithm in order to determine the generator starting times during the bulk power system restoration. The algorithm attempts to maximize the system generation capability over a restoration period, where the dynamic characteristics of different types of units and system constraints are considered. Applying this method for the 39-bus New England test system, and comparing the results with backtracking-search and P/t methods, it is found that proposed algorithm improved generation capability.

  8. An analysis of reactivity prediction during the reactor start-up process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajgl, Josef [CEZ a.s., Dukovany (Czech Republic); Krysl, Vaclav; Svarny, Jiri [SKODA JS a.s., Plzen (Czech Republic)

    2015-09-15

    The different VVER-440 core fuel loadings subcriticality evaluations are performed during the start-up process by boron dilution or control assembly withdrawn by macrocode MOBY-DICK calculations. The dynamic reactivity and quasicritical reactivity are compared and sensitivity of reactivity prediction at the low boundary of start-up interval (ρ = -0,01) has been provided on the basis of different modelling of ionization chamber (IC) response calculation. Special attention is paid to the impact of power distribution and spontaneous fission distribution form factor on IC response correction during control assembly movement. Precision and robustness of different corrections of IC signal processing in real core start-up processed IC signals was evaluated.

  9. Harvesting the results of the mentoring process of knowledge intensive startups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijman, Geertjan; van der Sijde, Peter; van Benthem, Jann W.L.

    2008-01-01

    Mentoring is often used by business development programs to assist startups. In this paper we look at the perceptions of protégés and mentors about this process, hereby different business development programs in Europe were incorporated. It was hypothesized that there is a relationship between

  10. The Phenomenon of Business Start-Ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Africa

    1990-01-01

    A study of four European countries (France, United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain) was conducted to gather data on the business start-up process and its impact on the generation of jobs, small business start-up support programs, training and counseling programs, and characteristics of successful business starters. (The original aim of the study was to…

  11. Development and optimization of new generation Start-Up Instrumentation systems (SUI) for domestic CANDU reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasimi, Elnara

    Due to the age and operating experience of Bruce Power units, equipment ageing and obsolescence has become one of the main challenges that need to be resolved for all systems, structures and components in order to ensure a safe and reliable production of energy. The research objectives of this thesis will focus on methodology for modernization of Start-Up Instrumentation (SUI), both in-core and Control Room equipment, using a new generation of detectors and cables in order to manage obsolescence. The main objective of this thesis is to develop a new systematic approach to SUI installation/replacement procedure development and optimization. Although some additional features, such as real-time data monitoring and storage/archiving solutions for SUI systems are also examined to take full advantage of today's digital technology, the objective of this thesis does not include detailed parametrical studies of detector or system performance. Instead, a number of technological, operational and maintenance issues associated with Start-Up Instrumentation systems at Bruce Power will be identified in this project and a structured approach to developing a replacement/installation procedure that can be standardized and used across all of the domestic CANDU stations is proposed. Finally, benefits of Hierarchical Control Chart (HCC) methodology for all stages of plant life management, such as system design, development, operation and maintenance are demonstrated. Keywords: Task Breakdown and Analysis methodology, installation/removal procedure development and optimization, risk-based analysis and optimization, Hierarchical Control Chart (HCC) methodology for system maintenance and troubleshooting, Start-Up Instrumentation (SUI), Ion Chambers, Fission Chambers, proportional counters, Shutdown System 1 (SDS1), Shutdown System 2 (SDS2).

  12. Checkout and start-up of the integrated DWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility) melter system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.E.; Hutson, N.D.; Miller, D.H.; Morrison, J.; Shah, H.; Shuford, J.A.; Glascock, J.; Wurzinger, F.H.; Zamecnik, J.R.

    1989-11-11

    The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is a one-ninth-scale demonstration of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation, melter, and off-gas systems. The IDMS will be the first engineering-scale melter system at SRL to process mercury and flowsheet levels of halides and sulfates. This report includes a summary of the IDMS program objectives, system and equipment descriptions, and detailed discussions of the system checkout and start-up. 10 refs., 44 figs., 20 tabs.

  13. Dynamics and Control During Start-up of Energy Integrated Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eden, Mario Richard; Koggersbøl, Arne; Hallager, L.;

    2000-01-01

    of a generated start-up sequence illustrates that safe and reliable start- ups are ensured. The main conclusions of the paper are that it is indeed possible to generate safe and reliable start-up sequences using qualitative process knowledge. However the selection of an optimal start-up sequence is not possible...

  14. Startup of the Anammox Process in a Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR) from Conventional Activated Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutwiński, P; Cema, G; Ziembińska-Buczyńska, A; Surmacz-Górska, J; Osadnik, M

    2016-12-01

      In this study, a laboratory-scale anammox process in a membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) was used to startup the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process from conventional activated sludge. Stable operation was achieved after 125 days. From that time, nitrogen load was gradually increased. After six months, the average nitrogen removal efficiency exceeded 80%. The highest obtained special anammox activity (SAA) achieved was 0.17 g (-N + -N) (g VSS × d)-1. Fluorescent in situ hybridization also proved the presence of the anammox bacteria, typically a genus of Brocadia anammoxidans and Kuenenia stuttgartiensis.

  15. Dynamics and Control During Start-Up of Energy Integrated Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    a systematic procedure for development of plant start-up sequences. The basis for the start-up procedure development is available qualitative process knowledge. Application of the start-up sequence generation procedure is demonstrated upon an energy integrated distillation plant. This plant illustrates some...

  16. Experience in design and startup of distillation towers in primary crude oil processing unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Y.N.; D' yakov, V.G.; Mamontov, G.V.; Sheinman, V.A.; Ukhin, V.V.

    1985-11-01

    This paper describes a refinery in the city of Mathura, India, with a capacity of 7 million metric tons of crude per year, designed and constructed to include the following units: AVT for primary crude oil processing; catalytic cracking; visbreaking; asphalt; and other units. A diagram of the atmospheric tower with stripping sections is shown, and the stabilizer tower is illustrated. The startup and operation of the AVT and visbreaking units are described, and they demonstrate the high reliability and efficiency of the equipment.

  17. Ammonia biofiltration and nitrous oxide generation during the start-up of gas-phase compost biofilters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Guilherme D. N.; Day V, George B.; Gates, Richard S.; Taraba, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Gas-Phase Biofiltration technology is widely utilized for treating ammonia gas (NH 3) with one of its potential detrimental by-products being nitrous oxide (N 2O), a potent greenhouse gas (100-y radiative forcing 298 times greater than carbon dioxide). The present work was conducted to investigate the relation between NH 3 removal during biofiltration and N 2O generation as a product of incomplete denitrification during the start-up of gas-phase compost biofilters. Four laboratory scale tubular biofilters in up flow mode (20 s residence-time) were studied for 21 days: 3 replicates were subjected to 16 ppm v (0.78 g m -2 h -1) of NH 3 and a statistical control not subjected to NH 3. Ammonia concentration differences between biofilter inlet (Bottom = 16 ppm v) and outlet (Top) and N 2O concentration differences between biofilter outlet (Top) and biofilter inlet (background concentrations at the bottom) were used to determine the extent of the correlation between NH 3 removal and N 2O generation. Correlations with CH 4 and CO 2 were also reported. The high Spearman correlation coefficients for the three replicates ( ρ = -0.845, -0.820, and -0.841, with P ≤ 0.0001 for replications A, B and C, respectively) suggested that availability of nitrate/nitrite owing to NH 3 nitrification favored conditions for N 2O generation as a sub-product of denitrification. The statistical control received no NH 3 inputs and did not generate N 2O. Therefore, the results indicated that the process of NH 3 removal was a trigger for N 2O production. Carbon dioxide and N 2O were moderately correlated. Methane and N 2O were weakly correlated and only for replicate C. No significant correlation was found for the Statistical Control between N 2O and CH 4.

  18. Startup and Operation of a Metal Hydride Based Isotope Separation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scogin, J.H.; Poore, A.S.

    1995-02-27

    Production scale separation of tritium from other hydrogen isotopes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC, has been accomplished by several methods. These methods include thermal diffusion (1957--1986), fractional absorption (1964--1968), and cryogenic distillation (1967-present). Most recently, the Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP), a metal hydride based hydrogen isotope separation system, began production in the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) on April 9, 1994. TCAP has been in development at the Savannah River Technology Center since 1980. The production startup of this semi-continuous gas chromatographic separation process is a significant accomplishment for the Savannah River Site and was achieved after years of design, development, and testing.

  19. Startup and operation of a metal hydride based isotope separation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scogin, J.H.; Poore, A.S. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Production scale separation of tritium from other hydrogen isotopes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC, USA, has been accomplished by several methods. These methods include thermal diffusion (1957-1986), fractional absorption (1964-1968), and cryogenic distillation (1967-present). Most recently, the Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP), a metal hydride based hydrogen isotope separation system, began production in the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) on April 9, 1994. TCAP has been in development at the Savannah River Technology Center since 1980. The production startup of this semi-continuous gas chromatographic separation process is a significant accomplishment for the Savannah River Site and was achieved after years of design, development, and testing. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Synchronous rapid start-up of the methanation and anammox processes in two-stage ASBRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Y.; Li, W. R.; Zhao, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The “methanation + anaerobic ammonia oxidation autotrophic denitrification” method was adopted by using anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs) and realized a satisfactory synchronous removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia-nitrogen (NH4 +-N) in wastewater after 75 days operation. 90% of COD was removed at a COD load of 1.2 kg/(m3•d) and 90% of TN was removed at a TN load of 0.14 kg/(m3•d). The anammox reaction ratio was estimated to be 1: 1.32: 0.26. The results showed that synchronous rapid start-up of the methanation and anaerobic ammonia oxidation processes in two-stage ASBRs was feasible.

  1. CSPonD demonstrative project: Start-up process of a 25 kW prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Antoni; Grange, Benjamin; Perez, Victor G.; Tetreault-Friend, Melanie; Codd, Daniel S.; Calvet, Nicolas; Slocum, Alexander S.

    2017-06-01

    The current concept of commercial concentrated solar power (CSP) plants, based on the concept of a solar field, receiver, storage and power block, experienced significant growth in the past decades. The power block is the most well know part of the plant, while solar field depends on the receiver technology. The dominant receiver technologies are parabolic troughs and central towers. Most thermal energy storage (TES) relies on two tanks of molten salts, one hot and one cold serviced by pumps and piping systems. In spite of the technical development level achieved by these systems, efficiency is limited, mainly caused by thermal losses in piping, parasitic losses due to electric tracing and pumping and receiver limitations. In order to mitigate the these issues, a new concept called Concentrated Solar Power on Demand (CSPonD), was developed, consisting of a direct absorption Solar Salt CSP receiver which simultaneously acts as TES tank. Currently, in the frame of the flagship collaborative project between the Masdar Institute (UAE) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA) a 25 kW demonstrative prototype is in its final building phase at the Masdar Institute Solar Platform. The present paper, explains the demonstration prototype based on the CSPonD concept, with emphasis on the planned start-up process for the facility.

  2. Oracle数据库启动过程研究与实践%Research and Operation of Oracle database startup process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文琼; 王乐球

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis Oracle database startup process,described Oracle database startup failure led to different reasons,to simulate a variety of fault,the fault handling process,so that readers better understanding Oracle database startup process.%分析了Oracle数据库启动过程,阐述了导致Oracle数据库启动故障的不同原因,模拟了各种故障,提出了故障的处理过程,使读者对Oracle数据库启动过程有更深入的了解。

  3. Control of a post-combustion CO2 capture plant during process start-up and load variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaspar, Jozsef; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

    2015-01-01

    capture. The study demonstrates that the implemented control structure keeps the carbon capture process at 90% CO2 removal rate with a deviation up to 8% during load variations. In addition, it reveals that the control structure brings the process to the desired set point in approximately 10 min during...... and control system design are crucial. In this paper, we present a dynamic mathematical model for the absorption and desorption columns in a carbon capture plant. Moreover, we implement a decentralized proportional-integral (PI) based control scheme and we evaluate the performance of the control structure...... for various operational procedures, e.g. start-up, load changes, noise on the flue gas flow rate and composition. Note that the carbon capture plant is based on the solvent storage configuration. To the authors knowledge, this is the first paper addressing the issue of start-up operation and control of carbon...

  4. Network effects on Entrepreneurial Processes: Start-ups in the Dutch ICT Industry 1990-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Hulsink (Wim); T. Elfring (Tom)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe value of networks as an integral part of the explanation of entrepreneurial success is widely acknowledged. It is unclear, however, in what way certain networks influence the success of start-up companies. The question of this paper is: 'in what way does the entrepreneur's network

  5. Deammonification process start-up after enrichment of anammox microorganisms from reject water in a moving-bed biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekker, Ivar; Rikmann, Ergo; Tenno, Toomas; Kroon, Kristel; Vabamäe, Priit; Salo, Erik; Loorits, Liis; Rubin, Sergio S C dC; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Tenno, Taavo

    2013-01-01

    Deammonification via intermittent aeration in biofilm process for the treatment of sewage sludge digester supernatant (reject water) was started up using two opposite strategies. Two moving-bed biofilm reactors were operated for 2.5 years at 26 (+/- 0.5 degree C with spiked influent(and hence free ammonia (FA)) addition. In the first start-up strategy, an enrichment of anammox biomass was first established, followed by the development of nitrifying biomass in the system (R1). In contrast, the second strategy aimed at the enrichment of anammox organisms into a nitrifying biofilm (R2). The first strategy was most successful, reaching higher maximum total nitrogen (TN) removal rates over a shorter start-up period. For both reactors, increasing FA spiking frequency and increasing effluent concentrations of the anammox intermediate hydrazine correlated to decreasing aerobic nitrate production (nitritation). The bacterial consortium of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria in the bioreactor was determined via denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing. In addition to a shorter start-up with a better TN removal rate, nitrite oxidizing bacteria (Nitrospira) were outcompeted by spiked ammonium feeding from R1.

  6. Start-up and stabilization of an Anammox process from a non-acclimatized sludge in CSTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Samik; Biswas, Rima; Nandy, Tapas

    2010-09-01

    Development of an Anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process using non-acclimatized sludge requires a long start-up period owing to the very slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria. This article addresses the issue of achieving a shorter start-up period for Anammox activity in a well-mixed continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) using non-acclimatized anaerobic sludge. Proper selection of enrichment conditions and low stirring speed of 30 +/- 5 rpm resulted in a shorter start-up period (82 days). Activity tests revealed the microbial community structure of Anammox micro-granules. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were found on the surface and on the outer most layers of granules while nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and Anammox bacteria were present inside. Fine-tuning of influent NO2(-)/NH4+ ratio allowed Anammox activity to be maintained when mixed microbial populations were present. The maximum nitrogen removal rate achieved in the system was 0.216 kg N/(m(3) day) with a maximum specific nitrogen removal rate of 0.434 g N/(g VSS day). During the study period, Anammox activity was not inhibited by pH changes and free ammonia toxicity.

  7. A dynamic process model of a natural gas combined cycle -- Model development with startup and shutdown simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liese, Eric [U.S. DOE; Zitney, Stephen E. [U.S. DOE

    2013-01-01

    Research in dynamic process simulation for integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCC) with carbon capture has been ongoing at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), culminating in a full operator training simulator (OTS) and immersive training simulator (ITS) for use in both operator training and research. A derivative work of the IGCC dynamic simulator has been a modification of the combined cycle section to more closely represent a typical natural gas fired combined cycle (NGCC). This paper describes the NGCC dynamic process model and highlights some of the simulator’s current capabilities through a particular startup and shutdown scenario.

  8. Designing the e-commerce order-to-delivery process : a guide for start-up companies

    OpenAIRE

    Pekonen, Totti

    2013-01-01

    The current financial situation with layoffs and cutbacks has spawned a myriad of start-ups in almost every sector imaginable. Harnessing the power of the internet is helping these companies grow with unprecedented speed using e-commerce. The order delivery process is a crucial part of any supply chain but designing one to suit e-commerce and to grow with the company, is a challenge. This thesis defines the different aspects of an e-commerce order-to-delivery process and discusses pos...

  9. Optical studies of the flow start-up processes in four convergent-divergent nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalka, Klaus O.

    1991-03-01

    In the context of design studies for the U.S. Large Blast/Thermal Simulator, BRL has sponsored optical studies of the flow start-up in convergent-divergent nozzles which have the flow-initiating diaphragm located in the nozzle throat. The experiments were performed in the 200 mm shock tube at the Ernst-Mach Institute in Freiburg (Breisgau), West-Germany. The scope of the studies included divergent nozzles with half cone angles of 6, 16, 45 and 90 deg tested at seven diaphragm pressure ratios ranging from 4 to 188 and resulting in shock strengths ranging from 1.4 to 4.4. Results were summarized in graphs of significant parameters, e.g., shock formation time, flow start-up period, flow expansion angle, and shock strength versus the driver pressure ratio and further compared with numerical results obtained with the BRL-Q1D hydrocode. The numerical-experimental comparison shows qualitative agreement. The flow phenomena are generally reproduced by the computations as long as they are not strongly dependent on viscous effects. The study shows that a pressure loss of 10 percent is connected to the presence of a large area discontinuity at the exit plane of the nozzle throat when no divergent nozzle is attached. Results suggest that a 45 deg divergent nozzle may present an acceptable compromise for minimizing these pressure losses by reducing the associated area discontinuities.

  10. The Effect of the Addition of Active Digester Effluent for Start-up Accelerator in Anaerobic Digestion of Soybean Curd Industry Waste Water (Basic Research for Biogas Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arini Wresta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production from soybean curd industry waste water was studied in laboratory scale to improve the application of anaerobic digestion process. The problem with the soybean curd waste water was the fact that it does not sufficiently contain anaerobic microorganisms required in biogas production. Therefore, it is necessary to add a well-developed population of anaerobic microorganisms to accelerate the start-up of the anerobic digestion. This research was aimed to verify the influence of the addition of active digester effluent into the soybean curd waste water batches in an anaerobic digestion process. Batch experiments were done in two digesters. The first digester was only fed with soybean curd waste water while the second digester was fed with soybean curd waste water and active digester effluent from a digester processing cow manure which was very rich in anaerobic microorganism consortium. The results indicated that soybean curd industry waste water did not contain methanogenic bacteria but there existed some acidogenic bacteria. The addition of active digester effluent accelerated the anaerobic digestion start-up and directed the process pathway towards methanogenic process so that more methane was obtained. The high methane content obtained (more than 64% volume was very potential for power generation. The capacity of soybean curd industry must be as high as 697.13 kg soybean per day to generate the electric energy of 8.4 kWh.

  11. Rapid startup and high rate nitrogen removal from anaerobic sludge digester liquor using a SNAP process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Sen; Nishiyama, Takashi; Fujii, Tatsuo; Bhatti, Zafar; Furukawa, Kenji

    2012-02-01

    In this study, a single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal reactor, packed with a novel acrylic fiber biomass carrier material (Biofix), was applied for nitrogen removal from sludge digester liquor. For rapid start-up, conventional activated sludge was added to the reactor soon after the attachment of anammox biomass on the Biofix carriers, which allowed conventional activated sludge to form a protective layer of biofilm around the anammox biomass. The Nitrogen removal efficiency reached 75% within 1 week at a nitrogen loading rate of 0.46 kg-N/m(3)/day for synthetic wastewater treatment. By the end of the synthetic wastewater treatment period, the maximum nitrogen removal rate had increased to 0.92 kg-N/m(3)/day at a nitrogen loading rate of 1.0 kg-N/m(3)/day. High nitrogen removal rate was also achieved during the actual raw digester liquor treatment with the highest nitrogen removal rate being 0.83 kg-N/m(3)/day at a nitrogen loading rate of 0.93 kg-N/m(3)/day. The thick biofilm on Biofix carriers allowed anammox bacteria to survive under high DO concentration of 5-6 mg/l resulting in stable and high nitrogen removal performance. FISH and CLSM analysis demonstrated that anammox bacteria coexisted and surrounded by ammonium oxidizing bacteria.

  12. The start-up of biohydrogen-producing process by bioaugmentation in the EGSB reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiangjing; Ren Nanqi; Xiang Wensheng; Guo Wanqian

    2006-01-01

    Expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor and bioaugmentation were employed to investigate biohydrogen production with molasses wastewater. The start-up experiments consisted of two stages. In the first stage (0~24d) seeded with activated sludge, the butyric acid type-fermentation formed when the initial expanding rate, organic loading rate (OLR), the initial redox potential (ORP) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were 10%, 10.0 kg COD/(m3·d), - 215 mV and 6.7 h, respectively. At the beginning of the second stage on day 25, the novel hydrogen-producing fermentative bacterial strain B49 (AF481148 in EMBL) were inoculated into the reactor under the condition of OLR 16. 0 kg COD/(m3·d), ORP and HRT about - 139 mV and 6.7 h, respectively, and then the reaction system transformed to ethanol-type fermentation gradually with the increase in OLR. When OLR, ORP and HRT were about 94.3 kg COD/(m3·d), -250 mV and 1.7 h, respectively, the system achieved the maximum hydrogen-producing rate of 282.6 mL H2/L reactor· h and hydrogen percentage of 51%~53% in the biogas.

  13. 转管武器启动过程中的问题研究%Study on Startup Process of Gatling Weapon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕文军; 王惠源; 陈辉

    2015-01-01

    简单分析了转管武器由静止状态加速到稳定射速这一加速度大、射速高的启动过程,以及启动时间的长短对可射时间、射击精度和持续射击的影响,并对转管武器启动时出现的问题提出几点改进措施。%This paper simply analyzes the gatling weapons startup process from the stationary state to the steady firing state ,which is of large acceleration and high rate of fire ,puts emphasis on the influences of startup time on shoot time ,firing accuracy and continuous feeding .At last ,it advances some views of improvements for the issues during startup of gatling weapons .

  14. An operational protocol for facilitating start-up of single-stage autotrophic nitrogen-removing reactors based on process stoichiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutlu, Ayten Gizem; Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Sin, Gürkan;

    2013-01-01

    Start-up and operation of single-stage nitritation–anammox sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) for completely autotrophic nitrogen removal can be challenging and far from trivial. In this study, a step-wise procedure is developed based on stoichiometric analysis of the process performance from nitro...

  15. Short-sludge age EBPR process – Microbial and biochemical process characterisation during reactor start-up and operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valverde Pérez, Borja; Wágner, Dorottya Sarolta; Lóránt, Bálint

    2016-01-01

    . In this paper, we report the start-up and operation of a short-SRT enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) system operated as a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with preclarified municipal wastewater, which is supplemented with propionate. The microbial community was analysed via 16S rRNA amplicon...... of the Thiothrix taxon proliferated in the reactor, thereby leading to filamentous bulking (sludge volume index up to SVI = 1100 mL/g). Phosphorus removal deteriorated during this period, likely due to the out-competition of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAO) by sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB...

  16. Prediction of the stability of BWR reactors during the start-up process; Prediccion de la estabilidad de reactores BWR durante el proceso de arranque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz E, J.A.; Castillo D, R. [ININ, Km. 36.5 Carretera Mexico-Toluca, 52045 Salazar, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Blazquez M, J.B. [Centro de Investigaciones Energetics, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Av Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    The Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) are susceptible of uncertainties of power when they are operated to low flows of coolant (W) and high powers (P), being presented this situation mainly in the start-up process. The start-up process could be made but sure if the operator knew the value of the stability index Decay reason (Dr) before going up power and therefore to guarantee the stability. The power and the flow are constantly measures, the index Dr could also be considered its value in real time. The index Dr depends on the power, flow and many other values, such as, the distribution of the flow axial and radial neutronic, the temperature of the feeding water, the fraction of holes and other thermohydraulic and nuclear parameters. A simple relationship of Dr is derived leaving of the pattern reduced of March-Leuba, where three independent variables are had that are the power, the flow and a parameter that it contains the rest of the phenomenology, that is to say all the other quantities that affect the value of Dr. This relationship developed work presently and verified its prediction with data of start-up of commercial reactors could be used for the design of a practical procedure practice of start-up, what would support to the operator to prevent this type of events of uncertainty. (Author)

  17. Start-up of the anammox process from the conventional activated sludge in a hybrid bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiumei Duan; Jiti Zhou; Sen Qiao; Xin Yin; Tian Tian; Fangdi Xu

    2012-01-01

    The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process was successfully started up from conventional activated sludge using a hybrid bioreactor within 2 months.The average removal efficiencies of ammonia and nitrite were both over 80%,and the maximum total nitrogen removal rate of 1.85 kg1 N/(m3·day) was obtained on day 362 with the initial sludge concentration of 0.7 g mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS)/L.Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation of the granular sludge in the hybrid reactor clearly showed a high degree of compactness and cell sphericity,and the cell size was quite uniform.Transmission electron microscope photos showed that cells were round or oval,the cellular diameter was 0.6-1.0 μm,and the percentage of the anammoxosome compartment was 51%-85% of the whole cell volume.Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (FISH) indicated that anammox bacteria became the dominant population in the community (accounting for more than 51% of total bacteria on day 250).Seven planctomycete 16S rRNA gene sequences were present in the 16S rRNA gene clone library generated from the biomass and affiliated to Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis and Candidatus Brocadia sp.,a new anammox species.In addition,the average effluent suspended solid (MLSS) concentrations of outlets Ⅰ (above the non-woven carrier) and Ⅱ (below the non-woven carrier) were 0.0009 and 0.0035 g/L,respectively.This showed that the non-woven carrier could catch the biomass effectively,which increased biomass and improved the nitrogen removal rate in the reactor.

  18. HGP-A Wellhead Generator, Proof-Of-Feasibility Project 3 MW Wellhead Generator, Start-Up Training and Operating Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The start-up manual is an information aid to initially familiarize plant operators with the plant operation and later be used as a reference manual while operating the plant. This start-up manual is supplemented by the Plant Data Manual which contains a detailed description of the philosophy of operation and equipment characteristics. The sequencing herein presents the necessary operating procedures which must be followed in order that a smooth start-up is obtained. The sequence includes, first conditioning the well and stabilizing the steam/water separations, and then bringing the operating machinery on line. The Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams and Electrical Drawings are included under Section 12.0 and are frequently referred to in the text. Information for ''trouble-shooting'' is provided in the maintenance and operations manuals on all the equipment.

  19. Experimental investigation of the start-up phase during direct chill and low frequency electromagnetic casting of 6063 aluminum alloy processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangjie; Zhang, Haitao; Zhao, Zhihao; Zhu, Qingfeng; Wang, Gaosong; Jiang, Huixue; Cui, Jianzhong

    2010-06-01

    On the basis of conventional hot-top casting and Casting, Refining and Electromagnetic process, a lower frequency electromagnetic field was applied during the conventional hot-top casting process. Nine thermocouples (type K) were introduced into the metal to study the temperature profile in the ingot during the start-up phase of casting process. The experimental results show that under the effect of the low frequency electromagnetic filed, the heat transfer is changed greatly and the film boiling disappears, which could restrain the formation of fine subsurface cracks; the sump is shallow, and the macrostructure of the ingot butt is fine during the start-up phase of direct chill casting process.

  20. Generative Processes: Thick Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallick, Karl

    2012-01-01

    This article presents techniques and theories of generative drawing as a means for developing complex content in architecture design studios. Appending the word "generative" to drawing adds specificity to the most common representation tool and clarifies that such drawings are not singularly about communication or documentation but are also…

  1. Planificación automatizada del arranque de generadores para la restauración de sistemas eléctricos de potencia ;Generator Start-Up automated planning for electric power system restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Francisco Aleaga Loaiza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La elección de la secuencia de arranque de los generadores afecta directamente a la capacidad de generación disponible en el proceso de restauración del sistema de potencia. En este artículo se utiliza un método basado en la planificación automatizada para calcular la secuencia de arranque de las unidades de generación en el proceso de restauración de sistemas eléctricos de potencia. Se presenta una formulación basada en acciones donde se involucran varios factores complejos tales como: la naturaleza combinatoria, el conocimiento de expertos, varias restricciones y condiciones cambiantes en el tiempo que deben cumplirse y la optimización de varios recursos numéricos. Los resultados de prueba sobre el sistema IEEE39-barras muestran que el método es muy eficiente en obtener planes precisos y optimizados para restaurar el sistema de generación utilizando un algoritmo de planificación automatizada basado en la búsqueda heurística con capacidades de razonamiento en tiempo continuo.The choice of generator startup sequence affects directly the available generation capacity in the power system restoration process. In this paper an automated planning based method is used to calculate the startup sequence generating units in the electric power system restoration process. An action-based formulation is presented where several complex factors are involved such us: the combinatorial nature, expert knowledge, several restrictions and changing conditions over time that must be met and the optimization of several numerical resources. The test result son theIEEE39-bus system show that the method is veryefficientto obtain accurate and optimized plans to restore the generation system using an automated planning algorithm based on heuristic search with capabilities of reasoning in continuous time.

  2. Finding competitive intelligence on Internet start-up companies: a study of secondary resource use and information-seeking processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports findings from a study of CI activities involving Internet start-up companies in the telecommunications industry. The CI gathering was conducted by graduate students in library and information science in the context of a class project for a real business client, itself a small Internet start-up company. The primary objective of the study was to provide empirical insights into the applicability of specific types of secondary information resources to finding competitive intelligence information on small Internet start-up companies. An additional objective was to identify the characteristics of research strategies applied in the collection of CI on Internet start-ups from the perspective of current conceptual frameworks of information-seeking behaviour presented in the library and information science literature. This study revealed some interesting findings regarding the types of secondary information resources that can be used to find competitive intelligence on small, Internet start-up companies. The study also provided insight into the characteristics of the overall information-seeking strategies that are applied in this type of competitive intelligence research.

  3. Rapid start-up of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process for nitrogen removal from wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The dissertation is associated with the field of biological wastewater treatment and more precisely focus on nitrogen removal from wastewater. The nutrients removal (mainly N and P) from wastewater is necessary in order to avoid the eutrophication of the surface waters. Nitrogen compounds (NH4+, NO2- and NO3-) removal is commonly performed by means of biological processes due to the lower cost as compared to chemical treatment. The conventional nitrogen removal process consists of two steps, ...

  4. Inhibition of start-up inrush current of static var generator%静止无功发生器启动冲击电流的抑制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾永乐; 王伟

    2016-01-01

    静止无功发生器(Static Var Generator ,SVG)多采用双闭环 PI 控制。这种控制方式下,SVG 启动瞬间会产生过大的冲击电流。分析了冲击电流产生的原因,在此基础上,设计直流电压逐步升高和电容能量外环控制相结合的方法,以降低冲击电流。通过 Matlab/Simulink 仿真对此方法进行仿真研究。最后,通过研制的 SVG 实验平台,对设计的方法进行实验验证。仿真和实验结果表明,该方法能够有效抑制启动冲击电流,SVG 装置能够精确地补偿负载所产生的无功功率。%Dual closed-loop PI control is always used for SVG. On this occasion, SVG is easy to generate inrush current during start-up period. This paper analyzes the cause of inrush current's generating. Therefore, a method that combines with the DC voltage increasing through step be step and capacitor energy outer loop control is designed to reduce magnitude of the inrush current. The simulation model of SVG is established in Matlab/Simulink to verify the proposed method. Finally, an experimental prototype of parallel SVG is developed to verify the method. The results from the simulation and experiment show that this method can effectively restrain the start-up inrush current and the SVG device can accurately compensate the reactive power generated by loads.

  5. Unravelling start-up processes with the help of sequence analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, A.M.; van der Putten, K.

    2014-01-01

    Our sequence analyses of the PSED2 database, the largest available dataset on venture creation processes, demonstrate two points. First, they show when and how to use the numerous variants of this method. To this end, we develop a decision tree that makes the analytical choices to be taken explicit.

  6. Flow generating processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanen, van H.A.J.; Fendeková, M.; Kupczyk, E.; Kasprzyk, A.; Pokojski, W.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter starts with an overview of how climatic water deficits affect hydrological processes in different type of catchments. It then continues with a more comprehensive description of drought relevant processes. Two catchments in climatologically contrasting regions are used for illustrative p

  7. Lean start-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Tanev, Stoyan

    2016-01-01

    The risk of launching new products and starting new firms is known to be extremely high. The Lean Start-up approach is a way of reducing these risks and enhancing the chances for success by validating the products and services in the market with customers before launching it in full scale. The main...... point is to develop a Minimum Viable Product that can be tested by potential customers and then pivot the idea if necessary around these customer evaluations. This iterative process goes through a number of stages with the purpose of validating the customers’ problems, the suggested solution...

  8. DOE final report, phase one startup, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasen, W.G.

    1998-01-07

    This document is to validate that the WRAP facility is physically ready to start up phase 1, and that the managers and operators are prepared to safely manage and operate the facility when all pre-start findings have been satisfactorily corrected. The DOE Readiness Assessment (RA) team spent a week on-site at Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 (WRAP-1) to validate the readiness for phase 1 start up of facility. The Contractor and DOE staff were exceptionally cooperative and contributed significantly to the overall success of the RA. The procedures and Conduct of Operations areas had significant discrepancies, many of which should have been found by the contractor review team. In addition the findings of the contractor review team should have led the WRAP-1 management team to correcting the root causes of the findings prior to the DOE RA team review. The findings and observations include many issues that the team believes should have been found by the contractor review and corrective actions taken. A significantly improved Operational Readiness Review (ORR) process and corrective actions of root causes must be fully implemented by the contractor prior to the performance of the contractor ORR for phase 2 operations. The pre-start findings as a result of this independent DOE Readiness Assessment are presented.

  9. An operation protocol for facilitating start-up of single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removing reactors based on process stoichiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutlu, A. Gizem; Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Sin, Gürkan

    2012-01-01

    Start-up and operation of single-stage nitritation/anammox reactor employing complete autotrophic nitrogen can be difficult. Keeping the performance criteria and monitoring the microbial community composition may not be easy or fast enough to take action on time. In this study, a control strategy...

  10. Physics of Tokamak Plasma Start-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Dennis

    2012-10-01

    This tutorial describes and reviews the state-of-art in tokamak plasma start-up and its importance to next step devices such as ITER, a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility and a Tokamak/ST demo. Tokamak plasma start-up includes breakdown of the initial gas, ramp-up of the plasma current to its final value and the control of plasma parameters during those phases. Tokamaks rely on an inductive component, typically a central solenoid, which has enabled attainment of high performance levels that has enabled the construction of the ITER device. Optimizing the inductive start-up phase continues to be an area of active research, especially in regards to achieving ITER scenarios. A new generation of superconducting tokamaks, EAST and KSTAR, experiments on DIII-D and operation with JET's ITER-like wall are contributing towards this effort. Inductive start-up relies on transformer action to generate a toroidal loop voltage and successful start-up is determined by gas breakdown, avalanche physics and plasma-wall interaction. The goal of achieving steady-sate tokamak operation has motivated interest in other methods for start-up that do not rely on the central solenoid. These include Coaxial Helicity Injection, outer poloidal field coil start-up, and point source helicity injection, which have achieved 200, 150 and 100 kA respectively of toroidal current on closed flux surfaces. Other methods including merging reconnection startup and Electron Bernstein Wave (EBW) plasma start-up are being studied on various devices. EBW start-up generates a directed electron channel due to wave particle interaction physics while the other methods mentioned rely on magnetic helicity injection and magnetic reconnection which are being modeled and understood using NIMROD code simulations.

  11. Tokamak Start-up under Assistance of RF Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方瑜德

    2004-01-01

    To improve the start-up behavior of tokamak discharges and realize the low loop voltage start-up is required by performance of large scale, full superconductor tokamaks. In recent years, some kinds of RF wave have been used to assist the start-up and some exciting results have been gained. This paper introduce the investigation on both in physical principle and experimental research of the start-up process, in which high frequency RF waves were used to assist it.

  12. Sulfur plant start-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, Hank; Grigson, Susan [Ortloff Engineers Ltd. (United States)

    2002-02-01

    The authors discuss an Ortloff sulfur plant design concept using the Claus reaction that differs from accepted 'industry practice': cold reactor bed start-up. The process is designed to eliminate catalyst sulfation, heat damage and furnace overheating in sulfur recovery units. (UK)

  13. Control of a post-combustion CO2 capture plantduring process start-up and load variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaspar, Jozsef; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic and flexible operation of a carbon capture plant is important as thermal power plants must be operated very flexibly to accommodate large shares of intermittent energy sources such as wind and solar energy. To facilitate such operation, dynamic models for simulation, optimization...... and control system design are crucial. In this paper, we present a dynamic mathematical model for the absorption and desorption columns in a carbon capture plant. Moreover, we implement a decentralized proportional-integral (PI) based control scheme and we evaluate the performance of the control structure...... for various operational procedures, e.g. start-up, load changes, noise on the flue gas flow rate and composition. Note that the carbon capture plant is based on the solvent storage configuration. To the authors knowledge, this is the first paper addressing the issue of start-up operation and control of carbon...

  14. An operation protocol for facilitating start-up of single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removing reactors based on process stoichiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutlu, A. Gizem; Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Sin, Gürkan

    2012-01-01

    Start-up and operation of single-stage nitritation/anammox reactor employing complete autotrophic nitrogen can be difficult. Keeping the performance criteria and monitoring the microbial community composition may not be easy or fast enough to take action on time. In this study, a control strategy...... is developed based on stoichiometric analysis of monitored nitrogen species. This analysis can serve as a strong decision-making tool to take appropriate actions with respect to the operational conditions to accelerate start up or attainment of near complete nitritation-anammox performance....

  15. Loop Heat Pipe Startup Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2016-01-01

    A loop heat pipe must start successfully before it can commence its service. The startup transient represents one of the most complex phenomena in the loop heat pipe operation. This paper discusses various aspects of loop heat pipe startup behaviors. Topics include the four startup scenarios, the initial fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir that determines the startup scenario, factors that affect the fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir, difficulties encountered during the low power startup, and methods to enhance the startup success. Also addressed are the pressure spike and pressure surge during the startup transient, and repeated cycles of loop startup and shutdown under certain conditions.

  16. Two-port network model and startup criteria for thermoacoustic oscillators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU XingHua; ZHANG XiaoQing; WANG HuiLing; SHU ShuiMing

    2009-01-01

    The startup process of a thermoacoustic engine is a self-excited oscillation process generated in in-homogeneous acoustic media. To reveal these coupling relations between various influential factors is an important task of basic research on thermoacoustics. In this paper thermoacoustic engines are re-garded as thermoacoustic oscillators consisting of the active network and the passive network. Ac-cordingly, the two-port Y-parameter for relevant component is derived, and standing wave and traveling wave thermoacoustic engine are described by the negative-resistance and feedback model, respec-tively. The relevant two-port network topology is given as well. The startup criteria for thermoacoustic oscillators are obtained by using Nyquist instability criterion. The model prediction of startup parame-ters, particularly, startup frequency and mode characteristic are in agreement with that of experimental results reported in the literature. Moreover, with topological graphs it is verified that standing wave engines would start up in a negative-resistance state and there would exist high frequency modes in thermoacoustic-Stirling engines. By investigating into the frequency response of thermoacoustic sys-tem, this method proposed can achieve such an objective that these effects of operating and structural parameters of engine on startup modes and startup temperature can be revealed in an analytical way.Thus this approach to test and check thermal stability can be provided in a design phase, instead of using empirical frequency to design thermoacoustic systems.

  17. Learning as a Generative Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittrock, M. C.

    2010-01-01

    A cognitive model of human learning with understanding is introduced. Empirical research supporting the model, which is called the generative model, is summarized. The model is used to suggest a way to integrate some of the research in cognitive development, human learning, human abilities, information processing, and aptitude-treatment…

  18. Analysis of the Time Influence Factors when Startup of the Emergency Diesel Generator of Nuclear Power Plant%核电厂应急柴油机启动时间影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国强; 邱毓

    2012-01-01

    When startup of the emergency diesel generator in the nuclear power plant, the ready signal appears indicating the successful startup of the diesel generator and it can be on load at anytime. Based on the safety criteria of the emergency diesel generator for nuclear power plant, the time from the beginning of the start order to the appearance of the ready signal must less than 10 seconds. By dealing with the ready signal problem in Ling'Ao Ⅱ , the time influence factors for the startup of the emergency diesel generator were studied.%核电厂应急柴油机启动完成(Ready)信号的发出表示柴油机启动完成,随时可以带负荷.根据核电厂应急柴油机的安全准则,Ready信号发出时间必须小于10 s.通过对岭澳核电站二期应急柴油机Ready信号时间问题的处理,研究了核电厂应急柴油机启动时间的影响因素.

  19. Employer branding in startups : case startup Company CupoUnion

    OpenAIRE

    Sirotina, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the Employer Branding in startups. The research was held within a Human Resources department of the startup company CupoUnion Ltd. The objectives of this study can be divided into theoretical and practical ones. The theoretical objective was to figure out, whether it makes sense for startups to invest money in employer branding. And, if it does, how startup companies can build their employer brand considering unique context and special circumstances of startups operatio...

  20. Employer branding in startups : case startup Company CupoUnion

    OpenAIRE

    Sirotina, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the Employer Branding in startups. The research was held within a Human Resources department of the startup company CupoUnion Ltd. The objectives of this study can be divided into theoretical and practical ones. The theoretical objective was to figure out, whether it makes sense for startups to invest money in employer branding. And, if it does, how startup companies can build their employer brand considering unique context and special circumstances of startups operatio...

  1. Strategies for merging microbial fuel cell technologies in water desalination processes: Start-up protocol and desalination efficiency assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjas, Zulema; Esteve-Núñez, Abraham; Ortiz, Juan Manuel

    2017-07-01

    Microbial Desalination Cells constitute an innovative technology where microbial fuel cell and electrodialysis merge in the same device for obtaining fresh water from saline water with no energy-associated cost for the user. In this work, an anodic biofilm of the electroactive bacteria Geobacter sulfurreducens was able to efficiently convert the acetate present in synthetic waste water into electric current (j = 0.32 mA cm-2) able to desalinate water. .Moreover, we implemented an efficient start-up protocol where desalination up to 90% occurred in a desalination cycle (water production:0.308 L m-2 h-1, initial salinity: 9 mS cm-1, final salinity: treatment method combined with other well established desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis (RO) or reverse electrodialysis.

  2. Start-Up Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Verheul, Ingrid; Thurik, Roy

    2000-01-01

    textabstractFemale and male entrepreneurs differ in the way they finance their businesses. This can be attributed to the type of business and the type of management and experience (indirect effect). Female start-ups may also experience other barriers based upon discriminatory effects (direct effect). Whether gender has an impact on size and composition of start-up capital, is the subject of the present paper. To test for these direct and indirect effects data of 2000 Dutch starting entreprene...

  3. Attention to installation and start-up process of the hydraulic system in hydraulic press%锻压液压机"五位一体"液压系统的安调提要

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海燕; 陆红

    2012-01-01

    本文以简约实用的形式,归纳总结了锻压液压机在安装调试中的注意事项,并对可能出现的安调故障提供了针对性的解决方法.%The matters which should pay attention to the installation and start-up process of the hydraulic press have been summarized simply and practically in the text. The specific solutions to the errors which may occur during the installation and start-up process have been put forward.

  4. Comparison of start-up strategies and process performance during semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of sugarcane filter cake co-digested with bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes F; Nikolausz, Marcell; Radetski, Claudemir M; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2016-02-01

    The anaerobic digestion of sugarcane filter cake and the option of co-digestion with bagasse were investigated in a semi-continuous feeding regime to assess the main parameters used for large-scale process designing. Moreover, fresh cattle manure was considered as alternative inoculum for the start-up of biogas reactors in cases where digestate from a biogas plant would not be available in remote rural areas. Experiments were carried out in 6 lab-scale semi-continuous stirred-tank reactors at mesophilic conditions (38±1°C) while the main anaerobic digestion process parameters monitored. Fresh cattle manure demonstrated to be appropriate for the start-up process. However, an acclimation period was required due to the high initial volatile fatty acids concentration (8.5gL(-1)). Regardless the mono-digestion of filter cake presented 50% higher biogas yield (480mLgVS(-1)) than co-digestion with bagasse (320mLgVS(-1)) during steady state conditions. A large-scale co-digestion system would produce 58% more biogas (1008m(3)h(-1)) than mono-digestion of filter cake (634m(3)h(-1)) due to its higher biomass availability for biogas conversion. Considering that the biogas production rate was the technical parameter that displayed the most relevant differences between the analyzed substrate options (0.99-1.45m(3)biogasm(3)d(-1)). The decision of which substrate option should be implemented in practice would be mainly driven by the available construction techniques, since economically efficient tanks could compensate the lower biogas production rate of co-digestion option.

  5. Comparison of Start-up and restart processes of thermophilic anaerobic filters in waste water treatment plants; Comparacion de los procesos de arranque y rearranque de filtros anerobios termofilicos en las EDARs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Garcia, M.; Romero Garcia, L.I.; Sales Marquez, D. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Tecnologia de Alimentos y Tecnologias del Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad de Cadiz (Spain)

    1996-06-01

    An important number of agro-industries introduces the problem of the seasonal wastewaters. This causes interruptions and a necessary re-start-up of the purification plants. The present work compares and contrasts the start-up and the re-start-up of upflow stationary fixed film reactor (USFF) for the treatment of distillery wastewater based upon laboratory research, under three strategies of different operation: both re-start-up after two years and one month of inactivity and start-up the process. The outputs of the re-start-up studies indicates that the reactors with a mature bio film of high biomass immobilized concentration introduce an evolution of setting in progress very similar to the of reactors start-up with low densities of microorganisms immobilized. In consequence, the support highly colonized should contain elevated quantities of inactive biomass due problems of substrate diffusion in the interior of the bio film. (Author) 9 refs.

  6. Editorial: Startups (February 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dru Lavigne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bob Sutor, Vice President of the Open Source and Linux division at IBM, recently stated that "there doesn't seem to be very many good guides about the nuts and bolts of starting an open source business". He speculates that one reason is that "there is no one way to start and run a business that involves open source". The authors in this issue of the OSBR are serial entrepreneurs, startup founders, and professionals who provide services to and interact daily with startups.

  7. Software Startups - A Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Unterkalmsteiner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Software startup companies develop innovative, software-intensive products within limited time frames and with few resources, searching for sustainable and scalable business models. Software startups are quite distinct from traditional mature software companies, but also from micro-, small-, and medium-sized enterprises, introducing new challenges relevant for software engineering research. This paper's research agenda focuses on software engineering in startups, identifying, in particular, 70+ research questions in the areas of supporting startup engineering activities, startup evolution models and patterns, ecosystems and innovation hubs, human aspects in software startups, applying startup concepts in non-startup environments, and methodologies and theories for startup research. We connect and motivate this research agenda with past studies in software startup research, while pointing out possible future directions. While all authors of this research agenda have their main background in Software Engineering or Computer Science, their interest in software startups broadens the perspective to the challenges, but also to the opportunities that emerge from multi-disciplinary research. Our audience is therefore primarily software engineering researchers, even though we aim at stimulating collaborations and research that crosses disciplinary boundaries. We believe that with this research agenda we cover a wide spectrum of the software startup industry current needs.

  8. Start-Up Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Verheul (Ingrid); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractFemale and male entrepreneurs differ in the way they finance their businesses. This can be attributed to the type of business and the type of management and experience (indirect effect). Female start-ups may also experience other barriers based upon discriminatory effects (direct

  9. Start-up success of freelancers New microeconometric evidence from the German Socio-Economic Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Merz, Joachim; Paic, Peter

    2006-01-01

    If certain start-up characteristics will indicate a business success, knowing such characteristics could generate more successful start-ups and more efficient start-up counseling. Our study will contribut e to this by quantifying individual success determinants of freelance start-ups. The data base for the microeconometric analyses of the survival of the first three years is a revised German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) for 1992 until 2002, which allows to incorporate institutional, personal a...

  10. Strategies, Uncertainty and Performance of Small Business Startups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Gelderen (Marco); M. Frese (Michael); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractPersonal strategies of owners/founders of small business startups are related to performance and to environmental uncertainty. This is done using a longitudinal data set of some 50 Dutch startups. The results suggest a dynamic process between strategy and performance. A discrimination is

  11. DISP: Optimizations towards Scalable MPI Startup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Huansong [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Pophale, Swaroop S [ORNL; Gorentla Venkata, Manjunath [ORNL; Yu, Weikuan [Florida State University, Tallahassee

    2016-01-01

    Despite the popularity of MPI for high performance computing, the startup of MPI programs faces a scalability challenge as both the execution time and memory consumption increase drastically at scale. We have examined this problem using the collective modules of Cheetah and Tuned in Open MPI as representative implementations. Previous improvements for collectives have focused on algorithmic advances and hardware off-load. In this paper, we examine the startup cost of the collective module within a communicator and explore various techniques to improve its efficiency and scalability. Accordingly, we have developed a new scalable startup scheme with three internal techniques, namely Delayed Initialization, Module Sharing and Prediction-based Topology Setup (DISP). Our DISP scheme greatly benefits the collective initialization of the Cheetah module. At the same time, it helps boost the performance of non-collective initialization in the Tuned module. We evaluate the performance of our implementation on Titan supercomputer at ORNL with up to 4096 processes. The results show that our delayed initialization can speed up the startup of Tuned and Cheetah by an average of 32.0% and 29.2%, respectively, our module sharing can reduce the memory consumption of Tuned and Cheetah by up to 24.1% and 83.5%, respectively, and our prediction-based topology setup can speed up the startup of Cheetah by up to 80%.

  12. Impact of startup scheme on Francis runner life expectancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, M; Tahan, S A; Bocher, P [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ecole de technologie superieure (ETS) 1100, rue Notre-Dame Ouest, Montreal (Canada); Thibault, D, E-mail: martin.gagnon.8@ens.etsmtl.c [Institut de recherche d' Hydro-Quebec (IREQ), 1800, boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, J3X 1S1 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    Francis runners are subject to complex dynamic forces which might lead to eventual blade cracking and the need for corrective measure. Damage due to cracks in runner blades are usually not a safety issues but might generate unexpected down time and high repair cost. Avoiding the main damaging operating conditions is often the only option left to plant operators to maximize the life expectancy of their runner. The startup scheme is one of the available parameter which is controlled by the end user and could be used to minimize the damage induced to the runner. In this study, two startup schemes have been used to investigate life expectancy of Francis runner using in situ measurements. The results obtained show that the induced damage during the startup event could be significantly reduced with change to the startup scheme. In our opinion, an optimization of the startup scheme with regard to fatigue damage could extend significantly the life expectancy and the reliability of Francis runner.

  13. The process of generative inquiry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandee, D.P.

    2013-01-01

    Appreciative inquiry is an approach to action research that intends to create knowledge for social innovation. Such knowledge has the generative capacity to interrupt habitual practice and to create an inspiring sense of possibility that energizes novel action. How can appreciative inquiry live up t

  14. Markov processes, semigroups and generators

    CERN Document Server

    Kolokoltsov, Vassili N

    2011-01-01

    This work offers a highly useful, well developed reference on Markov processes, the universal model for random processes and evolutions. The wide range of applications, in exact sciences as well as in other areas like social studies, require a volume that offers a refresher on fundamentals before conveying the Markov processes and examples for applications. This work does just that, and with the necessary mathematical rigor.

  15. Online Rule Generation Software Process Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sudeep Marwaha; Alka Aroa; Satma M C; Rajni Jain; R C Goyal

    2013-01-01

    .... The software process model for rule generation using decision tree classifier refers to the various steps required to be executed for the development of a web based software model for decision rule generation...

  16. Start-up of the SHARON and ANAMMOX process in landfill bioreactors using aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidising biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalini, S Sri; Joseph, Kurian

    2013-12-01

    The main aim of this study is to analyse the feasibility to use aerobic ammonium oxidising bacteria (AOB) and anammox/AnAOB biomass enriched from mined municipal solid waste for in situ SHARON and ANAMMOX processes in laboratory scale landfill bioreactors (LFBR) for ammonia nitrogen removal. For this purpose, three LFBRs were operated as Control (without biomass seed), SHARON (with AOB biomass seed) and ANAMMOX (with anammox biomass seed) for 315 days. Results showed nitrogen loading rate of 1.0 kg N/d was effectively removed in SHARON and ANAMMOX LFBR. In SHARON LFBR, partial nitritation efficiency reached up to 98.5% with AOB population of MPN of 5.1 × 10(6)/mL obtained. ANAMMOX LFBR gave evolution of 95% of nitrogen gas as the end product confirmed the ANAMMOX process. Nitrogen transformations, biomass development and hydrazine and hydroxylamine formation authenticated the enriched AOB and anammox biomass activity in landfill bioreactors.

  17. Unintended purge during the start-up process of a syringe pump: report of a case presented with vascular collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbood, Arash; Kazemi, Asif Parviz; Akbari, Kamal

    2010-12-01

    The case of a 50 year-old woman who developed a sudden decrease in arterial pressure while she was being prepared for surgery for a fractured lumbar spine in the prone position, is reported. She was receiving propofol, remifentanil, and sodium nitroprusside via three syringe pumps through an intravenous cannula at the dorsum of her left hand. The cause of the vascular collapse was the purge of the syringe pumps during the self-check process.

  18. 基于混合整数二元规划的机组启动次序策略研究%Generator unit startup sequence strategy based on mixed integer dual programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗宗杰

    2012-01-01

    When the power grid blackout, making the power system restore normal operation quickly and efficiently can not only reduce the equipment damage of the power generation side, but also improve the load restoration speed of the power side. This paper focuses on the ability of the units which have not self-starting time limit, total system capacity constraints, start power limit, and the constraints of unit restoration priority, and gets the unit start sequence strategy for system restoration process through the mixed binary integer programming algorithm. It is concluded that: in a given recovery time, this strategy can get the optimal order of the system unit startup under the premise of ensuring the safe operation of the unit and the maximum generation capacity of system, and can reduce the post-reconstruction and load restoration time directly.%当电网大停电之后,运行人员快速高效地把电力系统恢复到正常运行状态,不仅可以降低发电侧的设备损害程度,还可提高用电侧负荷的恢复速度.重点分析了没有自启动能力的机组时间限制、系统总容量限制、启动功率限制、机组恢复优先权限制等条件,通过混合二元整数规划算法得到系统恢复过程中机组启动次序的策略.结论表明:在给定恢复时间内,采用这种策略能在保证机组的安全运行和系统的最大发电容量的前提下,得到系统机组启动的最优次序,可直接减少后期系统重构和负荷恢复的时间.

  19. Influence of dissolved oxygen concentration on the start-up of the anammox-based process: ELAN®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, N; Val del Río, A; Vázquez-Padín, J R; Gutiérrez, R; Fernández-González, R; Icaran, P; Rogalla, F; Campos, J L; Méndez, R; Mosquera-Corral, A

    2015-01-01

    The anammox-based process ELAN® was started-up in two different sequencing batch reactor (SBR) pilot plant reactors treating municipal anaerobic digester supernatant. The main difference in the operation of both reactors was the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in the bulk liquid. SBR-1 was started at a DO value of 0.4 mg O2/L whereas SBR-2 was started at DO values of 3.0 mg O2/L. Despite both reactors working at a nitrogen removal rate of around 0.6 g N/(L d), in SBR-1, granules represented only a small fraction of the total biomass and reached a diameter of 1.1 mm after 7 months of operation, while in SBR-2 the biomass was mainly composed of granules with an average diameter of 3.2 mm after the same operational period. Oxygen microelectrode profiling revealed that granules from SBR-2 where only fully penetrated by oxygen with DO concentrations of 8 mg O2/L while granules from SBR-1 were already oxygen penetrated at DO concentrations of 1 mg O2/L. In this way granules from SBR-2 performed better due to the thick layer of ammonia oxidizing bacteria, which accounted for up to 20% of all the microbial populations, which protected the anammox bacteria from non-suitable liquid media conditions.

  20. FICHe Digital Health startup portfolio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    The FICHe (Future Internet CHallenge eHealth) project challenged European SMEs and start-ups to develop innovative applications and businesses in the eHealth market using FIWARE technology. 80 SMEs and start-ups entered the challenge and were offered mentoring, training, technical support, a real li

  1. FFTF startup: status and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noordhoff, B.H.; Moore, C.E.

    1980-03-01

    Startup testing on the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) during the past three years has progressed beyond initial criticality toward the principal goal of power demonstration in 1980. An overview is presented of technical results to date and project plans to achieve power demonstration and complete the startup test program.

  2. Generated dynamics of Markov and quantum processes

    CERN Document Server

    Janßen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book presents Markov and quantum processes as two sides of a coin called generated stochastic processes. It deals with quantum processes as reversible stochastic processes generated by one-step unitary operators, while Markov processes are irreversible stochastic processes generated by one-step stochastic operators. The characteristic feature of quantum processes are oscillations, interference, lots of stationary states in bounded systems and possible asymptotic stationary scattering states in open systems, while the characteristic feature of Markov processes are relaxations to a single stationary state. Quantum processes apply to systems where all variables, that control reversibility, are taken as relevant variables, while Markov processes emerge when some of those variables cannot be followed and are thus irrelevant for the dynamic description. Their absence renders the dynamic irreversible. A further aim is to demonstrate that almost any subdiscipline of theoretical physics can conceptually be put in...

  3. Single-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable waste: comparison of start-up, reactor stability and process performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Rangaraj; Torrijos, Michel; Sousbie, Philippe; Lugardon, Aurelien; Steyer, Jean Philippe; Delgenes, Jean Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Single-phase and two-phase digestion of fruit and vegetable waste were studied to compare reactor start-up, reactor stability and performance (methane yield, volatile solids reduction and energy yield). The single-phase reactor (SPR) was a conventional reactor operated at a low loading rate (maximum of 3.5 kgVS/m3 d), while the two-phase system consisted of an acidification reactor (TPAR) and a methanogenic reactor (TPMR). The TPAR was inoculated with methanogenic sludge similar to the SPR, but was operated with step-wise increase in the loading rate and with total recirculation of reactor solids to convert it into acidification sludge. Before each feeding, part of the sludge from TPAR was centrifuged, the centrifuge liquid (solubilized products) was fed to the TPMR and centrifuged solids were recycled back to the reactor. Single-phase digestion produced a methane yield of 0.45 m3 CH4/kg VS fed and VS removal of 83%. The TPAR shifted to acidification mode at an OLR of 10.0 kgVS/m3 d and then achieved stable performance at 7.0 kgVS/m3 d and pH 5.5-6.2, with very high substrate solubilization rate and a methane yield of 0.30 m3 CH4/kg COD fed. The two-phase process was capable of high VS reduction, but material and energy balance showed that the single-phase process was superior in terms of volumetric methane production and energy yield by 33%. The lower energy yield of the two-phase system was due to the loss of energy during hydrolysis in the TPAR and the deficit in methane production in the TPMR attributed to COD loss due to biomass synthesis and adsorption of hard COD onto the flocs. These results including the complicated operational procedure of the two-phase process and the economic factors suggested that the single-phase process could be the preferred system for FVW.

  4. Using genetic algorithm to learn neural network identifier for modeling gyro startup drift rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Studies the modeling of gyro startup drift rate from acquired experimental gyro startup drift rate data and the nonlinear dynamic models of gyro startup drift rate related temperature established by time-delay neural network which enables the gyro temperature drift rate to be compensated in the process of startup and the gyro instant startup to be implemented. And introduces an improved genetic algorithm to learn the weights of neural network identifier to avoid stacking into the local minimal value and achieve rapid convergence.

  5. Online Rule Generation Software Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeep Marwaha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For production systems like expert systems, a rule generation software can facilitate the faster deployment. The software process model for rule generation using decision tree classifier refers to the various steps required to be executed for the development of a web based software model for decision rule generation. The Royce’s final waterfall model has been used in this paper to explain the software development process. The paper presents the specific output of various steps of modified waterfall model for decision rules generation.

  6. Rapid start-up of the anammox process: Effects of five different sludge extracellular polymeric substances on the activity of anammox bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianbo; Wang, Sihui; Lian, Jing; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liu, Yunman; Song, Yuanyuan

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the rapid start-up of the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) strategy by inoculating different biomass ratios of denitrifying granular sludge and anammox bacteria. The results demonstrated that two reactors (R1 and R2) were rapidly and successfully started-up on days 25 and 28, respectively, with nitrogen removal rates (NRRs) of 0.70kg/(m(3)·d) and 0.72kg/(m(3)·d) at biomass ratios of 10:1 (R1) and 50:1 (R2). The explanation for rapid start-up was found by examining the effect of five different sludge extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on the activity of anammox bacteria in the batch experiments. Batch experiments results first demonstrated that the denitrification sludge EPS (DS-EPS) enhanced the anammox bacteria activity the most, and NO2(-)-N, NH4(+)-N removal rates were 1.88- and 1.53-fold higher than the control with optimal DS-EPS volume of 10mL. The rapid start-up strategy makes possible the application of anammox to practical engineering.

  7. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant having a bootstrap start-up system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, Michael T

    2016-10-04

    The bootstrap start-up system (42) achieves an efficient start-up of the power plant (10) that minimizes formation of soot within a reformed hydrogen rich fuel. A burner (48) receives un-reformed fuel directly from the fuel supply (30) and combusts the fuel to heat cathode air which then heats an electrolyte (24) within the fuel cell (12). A dilute hydrogen forming gas (68) cycles through a sealed heat-cycling loop (66) to transfer heat and generated steam from an anode side (32) of the electrolyte (24) through fuel processing system (36) components (38, 40) and back to an anode flow field (26) until fuel processing system components (38, 40) achieve predetermined optimal temperatures and steam content. Then, the heat-cycling loop (66) is unsealed and the un-reformed fuel is admitted into the fuel processing system (36) and anode flow (26) field to commence ordinary operation of the power plant (10).

  8. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant having a bootstrap start-up system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lines, Michael T

    2016-10-04

    The bootstrap start-up system (42) achieves an efficient start-up of the power plant (10) that minimizes formation of soot within a reformed hydrogen rich fuel. A burner (48) receives un-reformed fuel directly from the fuel supply (30) and combusts the fuel to heat cathode air which then heats an electrolyte (24) within the fuel cell (12). A dilute hydrogen forming gas (68) cycles through a sealed heat-cycling loop (66) to transfer heat and generated steam from an anode side (32) of the electrolyte (24) through fuel processing system (36) components (38, 40) and back to an anode flow field (26) until fuel processing system components (38, 40) achieve predetermined optimal temperatures and steam content. Then, the heat-cycling loop (66) is unsealed and the un-reformed fuel is admitted into the fuel processing system (36) and anode flow (26) field to commence ordinary operation of the power plant (10).

  9. Single-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable waste: Comparison of start-up, reactor stability and process performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesh, Rangaraj [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France); Torrijos, Michel, E-mail: michel.torrijos@supagro.inra.fr [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France); Sousbie, Philippe [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France); Lugardon, Aurelien [Naskeo Environnment, 52 rue Paul Vaillant Couturier, F-92240 Malakoff (France); Steyer, Jean Philippe; Delgenes, Jean Philippe [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Single-phase and two-phase systems were compared for fruit and vegetable waste digestion. • Single-phase digestion produced a methane yield of 0.45 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS and 83% VS removal. • Substrate solubilization was high in acidification conditions at 7.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and pH 5.5–6.2. • Energy yield was lower by 33% for two-phase system compared to the single-phase system. • Simple and straight-forward operation favored single phase process over two-phase process. - Abstract: Single-phase and two-phase digestion of fruit and vegetable waste were studied to compare reactor start-up, reactor stability and performance (methane yield, volatile solids reduction and energy yield). The single-phase reactor (SPR) was a conventional reactor operated at a low loading rate (maximum of 3.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d), while the two-phase system consisted of an acidification reactor (TPAR) and a methanogenic reactor (TPMR). The TPAR was inoculated with methanogenic sludge similar to the SPR, but was operated with step-wise increase in the loading rate and with total recirculation of reactor solids to convert it into acidification sludge. Before each feeding, part of the sludge from TPAR was centrifuged, the centrifuge liquid (solubilized products) was fed to the TPMR and centrifuged solids were recycled back to the reactor. Single-phase digestion produced a methane yield of 0.45 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS fed and VS removal of 83%. The TPAR shifted to acidification mode at an OLR of 10.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and then achieved stable performance at 7.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and pH 5.5–6.2, with very high substrate solubilization rate and a methane yield of 0.30 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg COD fed. The two-phase process was capable of high VS reduction, but material and energy balance showed that the single-phase process was superior in terms of volumetric methane production and energy yield by 33%. The lower energy yield of the two-phase system was due to the loss of

  10. High Falls generation station expansion approvals process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litschko, C. [Lakeland Holding, Bracebridge, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Lakeland Holding Ltd. is the parent company for Lakeland Power Distribution Ltd., Bracebridge Generation Ltd., and Lakeland Energy Ltd. This PowerPoint presentation highlighted the High Falls generation expansion process. During construction of the High Falls plant, a concrete foundation was built beside the plant for future expansion. The expansion process involves building a 1,500 kilowatt generator to supply electricity to as many as 1600 households. The presentation described the context and background for the expansion and presented information on the water power generation plants. It presented site specifications as well as the approvals process by which final approval was granted in 2004. Observations and lessons learned from the approval process were identified. figs.

  11. Managing Constraint Generators in Retail Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Mia Borch; Haug, Anders

    Retail design concepts are complex designs meeting functional and aesthetic demands. During a design process a retail designer has to consider various constraint generators such as stakeholder interests, physical limitations and restrictions. Obviously the architectural site, legislators...

  12. A MEMS stronglink with multi-try function used for PC startup in authentication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Sheng-yong; CHEN Wen-yuan; ZHANG Wei-ping; XIAO Qi-jun; TAN Shun-yi; FENG Min-hua

    2009-01-01

    The stronglink with multi-try function based on MEMS technology and the PC startup in authentication system have been designed and fabricated. The generation principle and structure of UQS code are introduced, which consists of two groups of metal counter-meshing gears, two pawl/ratchet mechanisms, two driving micromotors and two resetting micromotors. The energy-coupling element is a photoelectric sensor with a circular and notched plate. It is fabricated using the UV-LiGA process and precision mechanical engineering. The PC startup authentication system is controlled by BIOS program, which is written into the chip according with special format. The program in BIOS output signals controls the running of stronglink to finish the process of authentication. The device can run more than 10000 times before a stop. The driving voltage is 12 V, and the normal decoding time is 3 s.

  13. Strategy in Generative Planning of Turning Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports on the process and operations planning system ROUND and the strategies which underlie the decision making processes in the planning of turning operations. At first, an outline is given about the environment for which generative systems like ROUND are being developed. The

  14. Strategy in Generative Planning of Turning Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, van F.J.A.M.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports on the process and operations planning system ROUND and the strategies which underlie the decision making processes in the planning of turning operations. At first, an outline is given about the environment for which generative systems like ROUND are being developed. The differenc

  15. Strategy in Generative Planning of Turning Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports on the process and operations planning system ROUND and the strategies which underlie the decision making processes in the planning of turning operations. At first, an outline is given about the environment for which generative systems like ROUND are being developed. The differenc

  16. Universal portfolios generated by weakly stationary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Choon Peng; Pang, Sook Theng

    2014-12-01

    Recently, a universal portfolio generated by a set of independent Brownian motions where a finite number of past stock prices are weighted by the moments of the multivariate normal distribution is introduced and studied. The multivariate normal moments as polynomials in time consequently lead to a constant rebalanced portfolio depending on the drift coefficients of the Brownian motions. For a weakly stationary process, a different type of universal portfolio is proposed where the weights on the stock prices depend only on the time differences of the stock prices. An empirical study is conducted on the returns achieved by the universal portfolios generated by the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process on selected stock-price data sets. Promising results are demonstrated for increasing the wealth of the investor by using the weakly-stationary-process-generated universal portfolios.

  17. Novel start-up circuit with enhanced power-up characteristic for bandgap references

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuan Vu, Cao; Wisland, Dag T.; Lande, Tor Sverre

    This paper presents a new start-up circuit for low-power bandgap reference (BGR) voltage generators. The BGR is designed for providing a stable 0.3 V power supply for application in low power wireless sensor nodes. The BGR has an enhanced power-up characteristic and demonstrates a reduction...... of the total stand-by current. Simulated results confirm that the proposed start-up circuit does not affect the performance of the BGR even though the supply voltage (VDD) is higher and has more stable power-up characteristic than the conventional start-up circuits. The new start-up circuit is designed with 65...

  18. Novel start-up circuit with enhanced power-up characteristic for bandgap references

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuan Vu, Cao; Wisland, Dag T.; Lande, Tor Sverre;

    This paper presents a new start-up circuit for low-power bandgap reference (BGR) voltage generators. The BGR is designed for providing a stable 0.3 V power supply for application in low power wireless sensor nodes. The BGR has an enhanced power-up characteristic and demonstrates a reduction...... of the total stand-by current. Simulated results confirm that the proposed start-up circuit does not affect the performance of the BGR even though the supply voltage (VDD) is higher and has more stable power-up characteristic than the conventional start-up circuits. The new start-up circuit is designed with 65...

  19. Generative inspection process planner for integrated production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.W. (Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Kansas City, MO (USA). Kansas City Div.); Gyorog, D.A. (Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-04-01

    This work describes the design prototype development of a generative process planning system for dimensional inspection. The system, IPPEX (Inspection Process Planning EXpert), is a rule-based expert system for integrated production. Using as advanced product modeler, relational databases, and artificial intelligence techniques, IPPEX generates the process plan and part program for the dimensional inspection of products using CMMs. Through an application interface, the IPPEX system software accesses product definition from the product modeler. The modeler is a solid geometric modeler coupled with a dimension and tolerance modeler. Resource data regarding the machines, probes, and fixtures are queried from databases. IPPEX represents inspection process knowledge as production rules and incorporates an embedded inference engine to perform decision making. The IPPEX system, its functional architecture, system architecture, system approach, product modeling environment, inspection features, inspection knowledge, hierarchical planning strategy, user interface formats, and other fundamental issues related to inspection planning and part programming for CMMs are described. 27 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Towards automatic planning for manufacturing generative processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALTON,TERRI L.

    2000-05-24

    Generative process planning describes methods process engineers use to modify manufacturing/process plans after designs are complete. A completed design may be the result from the introduction of a new product based on an old design, an assembly upgrade, or modified product designs used for a family of similar products. An engineer designs an assembly and then creates plans capturing manufacturing processes, including assembly sequences, component joining methods, part costs, labor costs, etc. When new products originate as a result of an upgrade, component geometry may change, and/or additional components and subassemblies may be added to or are omitted from the original design. As a result process engineers are forced to create new plans. This is further complicated by the fact that the process engineer is forced to manually generate these plans for each product upgrade. To generate new assembly plans for product upgrades, engineers must manually re-specify the manufacturing plan selection criteria and re-run the planners. To remedy this problem, special-purpose assembly planning algorithms have been developed to automatically recognize design modifications and automatically apply previously defined manufacturing plan selection criteria and constraints.

  1. W and Z boson Productions in CMS at LHC startup

    CERN Document Server

    Dobur, Didar

    2009-01-01

    We report on potential for measurement of W and Z boson production, as well as the production in association with jets. Of particular interest are jet multiplicity and $P_{\\rm T}$ distributions. The 10 to $100~{\\rm pb}^{-1}$ datasets expected in the startup year of operation of LHC are likely to already provide information beyond the reach of the Tevatron collider both in jet multiplicity and $P_{\\rm T}$ range. We are especially interested in understanding the ratios of W+jets to Z+jets distributions by comparing them to next-to-leading order Monte Carlo generators, as these processes present a formidable background for searches of new physics phenomena.

  2. Implementation of an Automatic System for the Monitoring of Start-up and Operating Regimes of the Cooling Water Installations of a Hydro Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Pădureanu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The safe operation of a hydro generator depends on its thermal regime, the basic conditions being that the temperature in the stator winding fall within the limits of the insulation class. As the losses in copper depend on the square current in the stator winding, it is necessary that the cooling water debit should be adapted to the values of these losses, so that the winding temperature falls within the range of the values prescribed in the specifications. This paper presents an efficient solution of commanding and monitoring the water cooling installations of two high-power hydro generators.

  3. 78 FR 38001 - Reconsideration of Certain Startup/Shutdown Issues: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... startup system (like a startup boiler feed pump, if applicable) and transitions to bring emission controls... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil- Fired Electric Utility Steam Generating Units and Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Electric Utility, Industrial-...

  4. Impact of chemical plant start-up emissions on ambient ozone concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Sijie; Wang, Sujing; Xu, Qiang; Ho, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Flare emissions, especially start-up flare emissions, during chemical plant operations generate large amounts of ozone precursors that may cause highly localized and transient ground-level ozone increment. Such an adverse ozone impact could be aggravated by the synergies of multiple plant start-ups in an industrial zone. In this paper, a systematic study on ozone increment superposition due to chemical plant start-up emissions has been performed. It employs dynamic flaring profiles of two olefin plants' start-ups to investigate the superposition of the regional 1-hr ozone increment. It also summaries the superposition trend by manipulating the starting time (00:00-10:00) of plant start-up operations and the plant distance (4-32 km). The study indicates that the ozone increment induced by simultaneous start-up emissions from multiple chemical plants generally does not follow the linear superposition of the ozone increment induced by individual plant start-ups. Meanwhile, the trend of such nonlinear superposition related to the temporal (starting time and operating hours of plant start-ups) and spatial (plant distance) factors is also disclosed. This paper couples dynamic simulations of chemical plant start-up operations with air-quality modeling and statistical methods to examine the regional ozone impact. It could be helpful for technical decision support for cost-effective air-quality and industrial flare emission controls.

  5. Light duty utility arm startup plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1998-03-11

    This Startup Plan encompasses activities necessary to perform startup and operation of the LDUA in Facility Group 3 tanks and complete turnover to CPO. The activities discussed in this plan will occur prior to, and following the US Department Energy, Richland Operations Office Operational Readiness Review. This startup plan does not authorize or direct any specific field activities or authorize a change of configuration. As such, this startup plan need not be Unresolved Safety Question (USQ) screened.

  6. Fuel Cell Power Model Version 2: Startup Guide, System Designs, and Case Studies. Modeling Electricity, Heat, and Hydrogen Generation from Fuel Cell-Based Distributed Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D.; Penev, M.; Saur, G.; Becker, W.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-06-01

    This guide helps users get started with the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Version 2, which is a Microsoft Excel workbook that analyzes the technical and economic aspects of high-temperature fuel cell-based distributed energy systems with the aim of providing consistent, transparent, comparable results. This type of energy system would provide onsite-generated heat and electricity to large end users such as hospitals and office complexes. The hydrogen produced could be used for fueling vehicles or stored for later conversion to electricity.

  7. Start-Up Processes’ Efficiency of Turbine Jet Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowski Antoni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents diagnoses of example start-up processes of drive units built in military aircraft operated in the Dęblin's “School of Eaglets” during the flight. The significance of this process is very important, especially from the point of view of flight safety, especially as it concerns the training aircraft, on which officer cadets-candidates for pilots are trained. The diagnosis of the start-up process was conducted using data from on-board flight recorders recorded during a flight training, whose aim was an emergency launch of particular drive units, and with the help of the so-called phase mapping of the selected operating parameters of the particular flight drive systems. The standard diagram of typical start-up systems was shown, while presenting their base subassemblies. At the end, the obtained results and the main problems that need intervention were commented, as well as further preventive activities were proposed.

  8. Improvement of operational efficiency based on fast startup plant concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumann, Ulrich; Kurz, Harald; Meinecke, Gero; Pickard, Andreas

    2010-09-15

    The power generation sector is currently confronted with new challenges relating to the conservation of dwindling fuel reserves. At the same time we must reduce CO2 emissions in order to counteract global warming. This paper shows that power plant operation, which employs shutdowns during periods of low load demand coupled with the optimization of startup procedures are a key to reducing CO2 emissions and to conserving resources. The startup technology developed by Siemens also offers grid support in the event of naturally occurring failures of renewable energy sources. Additionally, plant profitability is improved due to the resulting savings in fuel.

  9. A Sales Execution Strategy Guide for Technology Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Gilbert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of startups fail to consider sales execution as part of their overall strategy. This article demonstrates how a sales execution strategy can help a company take a product or service to market more efficiently and effectively by focusing on the customers that are key to generating revenue. Combined with techniques for recruiting effectively and measuring sales outcomes, a sales execution strategy helps technology startups exceed growth aspirations and potentially reduce or even eliminate the requirement for external investment. In this article, we first describe the focus of assistance currently given to startups and the reasons why sales execution strategies are often overlooked. Next, we outline recommendations for developing, implementing, and supporting a sales execution strategy. Finally, we summarize the key points presented in the article.

  10. Auto-Generated Semantic Processing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rodney; Hupf, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Auto-Generated Semantic Processing (AGSP) Services is a suite of software tools for automated generation of other computer programs, denoted cross-platform semantic adapters, that support interoperability of computer-based communication systems that utilize a variety of both new and legacy communication software running in a variety of operating- system/computer-hardware combinations. AGSP has numerous potential uses in military, space-exploration, and other government applications as well as in commercial telecommunications. The cross-platform semantic adapters take advantage of common features of computer- based communication systems to enforce semantics, messaging protocols, and standards of processing of streams of binary data to ensure integrity of data and consistency of meaning among interoperating systems. The auto-generation aspect of AGSP Services reduces development time and effort by emphasizing specification and minimizing implementation: In effect, the design, building, and debugging of software for effecting conversions among complex communication protocols, custom device mappings, and unique data-manipulation algorithms is replaced with metadata specifications that map to an abstract platform-independent communications model. AGSP Services is modular and has been shown to be easily integrable into new and legacy NASA flight and ground communication systems.

  11. Generative supervised classification using Dirichlet process priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Manuel; Tourneret, Jean-Yves

    2010-10-01

    Choosing the appropriate parameter prior distributions associated to a given bayesian model is a challenging problem. Conjugate priors can be selected for simplicity motivations. However, conjugate priors can be too restrictive to accurately model the available prior information. This paper studies a new generative supervised classifier which assumes that the parameter prior distributions conditioned on each class are mixtures of Dirichlet processes. The motivations for using mixtures of Dirichlet processes is their known ability to model accurately a large class of probability distributions. A Monte Carlo method allowing one to sample according to the resulting class-conditional posterior distributions is then studied. The parameters appearing in the class-conditional densities can then be estimated using these generated samples (following bayesian learning). The proposed supervised classifier is applied to the classification of altimetric waveforms backscattered from different surfaces (oceans, ices, forests, and deserts). This classification is a first step before developing tools allowing for the extraction of useful geophysical information from altimetric waveforms backscattered from nonoceanic surfaces.

  12. Optimising Start-Up of a Crankshaft Press Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Skladchikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to decrease energy consumption as well as acceleration and heat time of the engine of main drive crankshaft press when starting it up. Modern crankshaft press designs include a flywheel connected to the engine by a belt drive. The flywheel performing a process operation spends the reserved kinetic energy. By virtue thereof it should possess the significant moment of inertia. It defines duration of acceleration process. High starting currents of engines lead to their vigorous heating and energy consumption at acceleration.The literature describes the way for eliminating these shortcomings, which is confined to the start-up of the asynchronous engine with a phase rotor when the circuit of each rotor phase includes an additional stepped resistance. However, there are no proved recommendations to specified resistance values and duration of engine acceleration at each step.Research used mathematical modeling and process optimization of three-stage acceleration of engine possessing a flywheel with the following optimization criteria: energy consumption at start-up, an equivalent (heating current of engine, acceleration time. Values of additional resistance and start-up time at each step are chosen to be parameters of optimization.Obtained results show, that optimization of drive start-up allows us to reduce time of acceleration from 27.3s up to 11.24s, energy consumption from 4405930 Joule up to 2538400 Joule, and an equivalent (heating current from 60.34 up to 14.01 А.As a result of research it is found, that a preferable start-up is the press drive start-up in modes with optimum time of flywheel acceleration and an optimum equivalent current, as the most efficient according to all optimization criteria.

  13. Investigation of the Start-up Strategy for a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Based Auxiliary Power Unit under Transient Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. von Spakovsky

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available

    A typical approach to the synthesis/design optimization of energy systems is to only use steady state operation and high efficiency (or low total life cycle cost at full load as the basis for the synthesis/design. Transient operation as reflected by changes in power demand, shut-down, and start-up are left as secondary tasks to be solved by system and control engineers once the synthesis/design is fixed. However, start-up and shut-down may be events that happen quite often and, thus, may be quite important in the creative process of developing the system. This is especially true for small power units used in transportation applications or for domestic energy supplies, where the load demand changes frequently and peaks in load of short duration are common. The duration of start-up is, of course, a major factor which must be considered since rapid system response is an important factor in determining the feasibility of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC based auxiliary power units (APUs. Start-up and shut-down may also significantly affect the life span of the system due to thermal stresses on all system components. Therefore, a proper balance must be struck between a fast response and the costs of owning and operating the system so that start-up or any other transient process can be accomplished in as short a time as possible yet with a minimum in fuel consumption.

    In this research work we have been studying the effects of control laws and strategies and transients on system performance. The results presented in this paper are based on a set of transient models developed and implemented for the components of a 5 kWe net power SOFC based APU and for the high-fidelity system which results from their integration. The simulation results given below are for two different start-up approaches: one with steam recirculation and component pre-heating and the second without either. These start-up simulations were performed for fixed values of a number of

  14. An enhanced tokamak startup model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Rajiv; Artaud, Jean-François

    2017-01-01

    The startup of tokamaks has been examined in the past in varying degree of detail. This phase typically involves the burnthrough of impurities and the subsequent rampup of plasma current. A zero-dimensional (0D) model is most widely used where the time evolution of volume averaged quantities determines the detailed balance between the input and loss of particle and power. But, being a 0D setup, these studies do not take into consideration the co-evolution of plasma size and shape, and instead assume an unchanging minor and major radius. However, it is known that the plasma position and its minor radius can change appreciably as the plasma evolves in time to fill in the entire available volume. In this paper, an enhanced model for the tokamak startup is introduced, which for the first time takes into account the evolution of plasma geometry during this brief but highly dynamic period by including realistic one-dimensional (1D) effects within the broad 0D framework. In addition the effect of runaway electrons (REs) has also been incorporated. The paper demonstrates that the inclusion of plasma cross section evolution in conjunction with REs plays an important role in the formation and development of tokamak startup. The model is benchmarked against experimental results from ADITYA tokamak.

  15. Generic User Process Interface for Event Generators

    CERN Document Server

    Boos, E; Giele, W T; Hinchliffe, Ian; Huston, J; Ilyin, V A; Kanzaki, J; Kato, K; Kurihara, Y; Lönnblad, L; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Mrenna, S; Paige, Frank E; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Seymour, Michael H; Sjöstrand, Torbjörn; Webber, Bryan R; Zeppenfeld, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    Generic Fortran common blocks are presented for use by High Energy Physics event generators for the transfer of event configurations from parton level generators to showering and hadronization event generators.

  16. Production of jets accompanied by W and Z bosons at LHC startup

    CERN Document Server

    Dobur, Didar

    2009-01-01

    We report on potential for measurement of W and Z boson production accompanied by jets. Of particular interest are jet multiplicity and $P_{\\rm T}$ distributions. The 10 to 100 $pb^{-1}$ datasets expected in the startup year of operation of LHC are likely to already provide information beyond the reach of the Tevatron collider both in jet multiplicity and $P_{\\rm T}$ range. We are especially interested in understanding the ratios of W+jets to Z+jets distributions by comparing them to next-to-leading order Monte Carlo generators, as these processes present a formidable background for searches of new physics phenomena.

  17. Startup of anaerobic fluidized bed reactors with acetic acid as the substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Y; Shieh, W K

    1993-02-05

    The startup of anaerobic fluidized bed reactors, which use Manville R-633 beads as the growth support media, acetate enriched bacterial culture as the inoculum, and acetic acid as the sole substrate, is studied. Tow startup strategies are evaluated: one based on maximum and stable substrate utilization and another based on maximum substrate loading controlled by reactor pH. The startup process is characterized using a number of operational parameters.The reactors again excellent total organic carbon (TOC) removal (i.e., > 97% at a feed concentration of 5000 mg TOC/L) and stable methane production (i.e., 0.90 L CH(4)/g TOC, where TOC(r) is TOC removed) at a early stage of the startup process, regardless of the strategies applied. The loading can be increased rapidly without the danger of being overloaded. Significant losses of growth support media and biomass caused by gas effervescence at higher loadings limits the maximum loading that can be safely applied during startup process.A high reactor immobilized biomass inventory is achievable using the porous growth support media (e.g., Manville 633 beads). A rapid increase in loading creates a substrate rich environment that yields more viable reactor biomass. Both substrate utilization rate (batch and continuous) and immobilized biomass inventory stabilize concomitantly at the late stage of the startup process, indicating the attainment of steady-state conditions in reactors. Therefore, they are better parameters that TOC removal and methane production for characterizing the entire startup process of aerobic fluidized bed reactor.The strategy based on maximum substrate loading controlled by reactor pH significantly shortens the startup time. In this case, the reactor attains steady-state conditions approximately 140 days after startup. On the other hand, a startup time of 200 days is required when the strategy based maximum substrate utilization is adopted.

  18. The Emergence of the Lean Global Startup as a New Type of Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Stavnsager Rasmussen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the interplay between international entrepreneurship, innovation networks, and early internationalization research by emphasizing the need to conceptualize and introduce a new type of firm: the lean global startup. It discussed two different paths in linking the lean startup and born-global internationalization strategies. The first path refers to generic lean startups that have undertaken a rapid internationalization strategy (i.e., lean-to-global startups. The second path refers to startups that have started operating on global scale since their inception and adopted the lean startup approach by seamlessly synergizing their global and lean product development activities. The article emphasizes several aspects that could be used as part of the theoretical foundation for conceptualizing lean global startups as a special new type of firm: i the emergent nature of their business models, including the challenges of partnership development on a global scale; ii the inherently relational nature of the global resource allocation processes; iii the integration of the entrepreneurial, effectuation, and global marketing perspectives; iv the need to deal with a high degree of uncertainty, including the uncertainty associated with cross-border business operations; and v linking the ex-ante characteristics of lean startups with the ex-post characteristics of born-global firms in order to develop a technology adoption marketing perspective that considers the “crossing the chasm” process as a successful entry into a global market niche.

  19. RT-PLG: Real Time Process Log Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yahya, Bernardo Nugroho; Khosiawan, Yohanes; Choi, Woosik;

    2016-01-01

    . This paper aims to develop a real time process log generator for the usage of streaming process mining tool. The real time process log generator (RT-PLG) is constructed in an independent tool. Afterward, the RT-PLG is utilized to generate a synthetic log for streaming process mining. The tool has been...... evaluated using an existing simulation model....

  20. Solenoid-free plasma start-up in spherical tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, R.; Shevchenko, V. F.

    2014-10-01

    The central solenoid is an intrinsic part of all present-day tokamaks and most spherical tokamaks. The spherical torus (ST) confinement concept is projected to operate at high toroidal beta and at a high fraction of the non-inductive bootstrap current as required for an efficient reactor system. The use of a conventional solenoid in a ST-based fusion nuclear facility is generally believed to not be a possibility. Solenoid-free plasma start-up is therefore an area of extensive worldwide research activity. Solenoid-free plasma start-up is also relevant to steady-state tokamak operation, as the central transformer coil of a conventional aspect ratio tokamak reactor would be located in a high radiation environment but would be needed only during the initial discharge initiation and current ramp-up phases. Solenoid-free operation also provides greater flexibility in the selection of the aspect ratio and simplifies the reactor design. Plasma start-up methods based on induction from external poloidal field coils, helicity injection and radio frequency current drive have all made substantial progress towards meeting this important need for the ST. Some of these systems will now undergo the final stages of test in a new generation of large STs, which are scheduled to begin operations during the next two years. This paper reviews research to date on methods for inducing the initial start-up current in STs without reliance on the conventional central solenoid.

  1. 硅基沸石滤料A/O生物滤池挂膜启动的研究%Study on the Start-up of A/O Biofilm Process With Silicon-based Zeolite Filter Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟婷; 刘振亮; 于衍真

    2014-01-01

    通过研究分析硅基沸石滤料A/O生物滤池的挂膜启动,以及考察系统出水CODCr、氨氮和总氮浓度在挂膜启动过程中的变化,分析挂膜启动的发展进程,寻求判断挂膜启动完成的合理理化指标,以期为A/O生物滤池的挂膜启动提供理论依据。%The start-up of A/O bio-filter was studied and reasonable indexs for the judgment of the start-up were found to provide the theory basis for the start-up of A/O bio-filter with silicon-based zeolite filter material. The study makes use of the natural start-up compound with inoculum start-up. The start-up of A/O bio-filter with silicon-based zeolite filter material was investigated by measuring the concentrations of CODCr, ammonia and total nitrogen in the effluent.

  2. Accelerating Research Innovation by Adopting the Lean Startup Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisa Still

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Converting scientific expertise into marketable products and services is playing an increasingly important role in the launching of new ventures, the growth of existing firms, and the creation of new jobs. In this article, we explore how the lean startup paradigm, which validates the market for a product with a business model that can sustain subsequent scaling, has led to a new process model to accelerate innovation. We then apply this paradigm to the context of research at universities and other research organizations. The article is based on the assumption that the organizational context matters, and it shows how a deeper understanding of the research context could enable an acceleration of the innovation process. We complement theoretical examples with a case example from VTT Technical Research Institute of Finland. Our findings show that many of the concepts from early-acceleration phases – and the lean startup paradigm – can also be relevant in innovation discussions within the research context. However, the phase of value-proposition discovery is less adequately addressed, and that of growth discovery, with its emphasis on building on a scalable, sustainable business does not seem to be addressed with the presented innovation approaches from the research context. Hence, the entrepreneurial activities at the research context differ from those in startups and internal startups in established organizations.

  3. 计及火电机组启动过程的网架并行恢复策略%A Parallel Restoration Strategy for Power Network Considering the Start-up Process of Thermal Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周敏; 刘艳

    2011-01-01

    在以火电机组为主构成的系统中,机组的启动恢复时间将决定大停电后网架重建的速度.文中采用电厂集控运行仿真机对火电机组的启动过程进行了研究,建立了机组累积启动时间与机组停机时间之间的关系.在此基础上,提出了一种网架并行恢复策略,即以每一恢复阶段的可用启动功率为约束,将待恢复的机组节点作为优先级别最高的负荷节点.采用Prim算法优化寻找尽可能多的并行恢复路径.针对IEEE 30节点系统的验证结果表明:所获得的重构顺序能够最大限度地利用启动功率,争取多台机组、多条路径的同时恢复,有效压缩了网架重构的时间,有助于快速、有序地组织系统的重构操作.%In power systems mainly consisting of thermal units, the time for units' start-up and restoration determines the duration of network reconfiguration following large-area blackout. Centralized-operation simulator for power plant is first employed to investigate the starting process of thermal units thereby establishing the relationship between start-up time and the cumulative downtime corresponding to typical unit types. Based on this, a parallel restoration strategy is proposed for reconstructing a power network. According to this strategy, the unit nodes are regarded as the load nodes with the highest priority and while being processed together with other load nodes. After available crank power in each stage is used as constraints, parallel restoration paths are optimized with Prim algorithm. Case studies with the IEEE 30-bus system verify that the reconfiguration scheme achieved can make full use of the crank power thereby restoring multi units and paths simultaneously so that the duration is reduced effectively. This is essential for organizing restoration scenarios rapidly and systematically following a large-scale blackout.

  4. LISP based simulation generators for modeling complex space processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Fan T.; Schroer, Bernard J.; Dwan, Wen-Shing

    1987-01-01

    The development of a simulation assistant for modeling discrete event processes is presented. Included are an overview of the system, a description of the simulation generators, and a sample process generated using the simulation assistant.

  5. Optimization of turbine startup: Some experimental results from a propeller runner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, M.; Jobidon, N.; Lawrence, M.; Larouche, D.

    2014-03-01

    The turbine startup is a transient event generating high amplitude stress cycles in runner blades which might reduce significantly the life expectancy of the runner. Our goal is to use the increased range of possibilities offered by newer governing system to optimize the wicket gates control pattern in order to reduce the amplitude of the strain transient in the runner blade during startup. In this paper, we present our success in defining an optimal wicket gates control pattern for the startup of a newly commissioned propeller runner.

  6. Start-up analysis for marketing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, M J; Baloff, N

    1984-01-01

    The complex start-up effect on utilization of health care services is too often overlooked or underestimated by marketing planners, leading to a range of negative consequences for both the users of services and the provider organization. Start-up analysis allows accurate estimation of these utilization effects for coordinated strategic planning among marketing finance, and operations.

  7. Lean and global technology start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Zijdemans, Erik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the authors introduce the concept of Lean Global Start-up (LGS) as a way of emphasizing the impossibility for new technology start-ups to deal separately with business development, innovation and early internationalization. For a newly established technology firm the task of being...... of their products and the insights from business supporting organizations....

  8. Adaption of microbial community during the start-up stage of a thermophilic anaerobic digester treating food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Wang, Xing; Deng, Ya-Yue; He, Xiao-Lan; Li, Zheng-Wei; Li, Qiang; Qin, Han; Chen, Jing-Tao; He, Ming-Xiong; Zhang, Min; Hu, Guo-Quan; Yin, Xiao-Bo

    2016-10-01

    A successful start-up enables acceleration of anaerobic digestion (AD) into steady state. The microbial community influences the AD performance during the start-up. To investigate how microbial communities changed during the start-up, microbial dynamics was analyzed via high-throughput sequencing in this study. The results confirmed that the AD was started up within 25 d. Thermophilic methanogens and bacterial members functioning in hydrolysis, acidogenesis, and syntrophic oxidation became predominant during the start-up stage, reflecting a quick adaption of microorganisms to operating conditions. Such predominance also indicated the great contribution of these members to the fast start-up of AD. Redundancy analysis confirmed that the bacterial abundance significantly correlated with AD conditions. The stable ratio of hydrogenotrophic methanogens to aceticlastic methanogens is also important to maintain the stability of the AD process. This work will be helpful to understand the contribution of microbial community to the start-up of AD.

  9. Dampak Mentoring Pada Keberhasilan Start-Up Business: Studi Kasus Pada Start-Up Business di Indonesia [Mentoring the Impact of Success of a Start-Up Business: A Case Study of a Start-Up Business in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Yanita Setyawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is a highly developed science today, as well as in the world of education in Indonesia. Teaching entrepreneurship at the university level, especially at some universities in Surabaya, the second largest city in Indonesia, shows the positive impact that there were 74.03% of start-up businesses that survived and thrived in 2014. Based on the previous observation, some business start-ups are accompanied by a mentor. Mentoring is a process of forming and maintaining lasting relationships that develop intensively among seniors with juniors. The mentoring function includes career and psychosocial functions. The main purpose of this research is to study the relationship between mentoring and the success of a start-up business. This study is a quantitative descriptive study using a random sampling method to obtain 100 samples. The tool used to collect data was a questionnaire. The methodology used to analyze the quantitative description to test the hypothesis. The results of this study indicate that mentoring influences the success of a start-up business that was owned by university students in Surabaya, Indonesia by 32% and 78% was influenced by other variables.

  10. A SURVIVABILITY MODEL FOR SAUDI ICT STARTUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Almakenzi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Innovation and entrepreneurship are critical elements in the transition to the knowledge-based economy and future competition. Unfortunately, innovation tends to be absent in Arab states for many reasons. To promote innovation in Saudi Arabia, for instance, it is necessary to support inventors’ ideas to turn inventions into start-up companies, which are companies in their early stage. At the same time, it seems that there is a need for more academic research to study the success factors of Saudi information and communication technology (ICT start-up companies. ICT start-ups are important to the economy because they are needed for the progress of all industries. Therefore, this study will identify the factors that lead to successful ICT start-up projects. Then, it will develop a model for the best practices in the interplay among the defined factors that will increase the opportunity to initiate successful start-ups. This research involves a factor analysis study based on a quantitative method to measure the interdependences among the success factors for ICT start-ups. The identified factors are verified using a sample of Saudi start-up companies. The study will contribute to enhancing the technological content to diversify the Saudi economy in order to prepare for the post-oil era. The study result is a survivability model for Saudi-incubated ICT startups. The resulting model has two phases, as follows: (1 the incubation period, which includes the relationships among three factors leading to constant and successful updates and upgrades of the ICT startup business model; and (2 the postincubation period, which include relationships among the three factors that help to deal with the changing nature of the market and the emergence of competing products. This solution can be applied within startups with similar conditions.

  11. Challenges for Success in Startups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Richard

    2000-03-01

    The basic challenges to a startup company such as IME have stemmed from the need to balance the business world's goal of fast entry into the market place with the necessity for a solid foundation in technology. Our technology base is broad - indeed it has the makings of a new industry - and the lure of quick commercial success in a specific application could easily make IME vulnerable to the R&D might of giant international companies. The essential challenges for success play out in business/technology decision tradeoffs: (i) preserving equity and viability while keeping R&D momentum and establishing intellectual property, (ii) attracting investors while maintaining focus on long-range goals, and (iii) developing a complete team while protecting capital resources. This balancing act keeps the company agile and resilient, qualities that large corporations could emulate with profit.

  12. A Study in generative process : The art of theorizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandee, D.P.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation is an inquiry in the process of generativity. The study was inspired by the notion that generative process is vital for the continuous renewal of possibility in our personal, social and organized existence. Generativity is defined in the following two dimensions: an idea, event, or

  13. Startup and stability of thermophilic anaerobic digestion of OFMSW

    KAUST Repository

    El-Fadel, Mutasem E.

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is promoted as an energy source and more recently as a greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation measure. In this context, AD systems operating at thermophilic temperatures (55-60°C)-compared to mesophilic temperatures (35-40°C)-have the unique feature of producing hygienic soil conditioners with greater process efficiency, higher energy yield, and more GHG savings. Startup of AD systems is often constrained by the lack of acclimated seeds, leading to process instability and failure. The authors focus on strategies to startup thermophilic digesters treating OFMSW in the absence of acclimated seeds and examines constraints associated with process stability and ways to overcome them. Relevant gaps in the literature and future research needs are delineated. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  14. Lean Startup and Lean Canvas Using for Innovative Product Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Buchalcevová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, new approaches to product development have emerged that focus on idea generation techniques and customer itself. One of them is the Lean Startup method that is described in this article along with the Lean Canvas method. The main goal of the article is to demonstrate the application of both methods to an innovative product development focused on providing interactive trips for families with children. The development of the product during individual phases is described and application of the Lean Startup and Lean Canvas principles is demonstrated. Finally, benefits of both methods contributing to the product success are discussed. Similar case studies start emerging worldwide, however in the Czech context are quite rare.

  15. Gasification combined cycle power generation - process alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Korhonen, M.

    1988-01-01

    Interest in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants has recently increased also in Finland. The IGCC systems offer the potential of superior efficiency and environmental performance over conventional pulverized coal or peat fired boilers. Potential applications are both large-scale electricity production from coal and medium-scale combined heat and electricity production. In the latter case, the gasification process should also be applicable to peat and wood. Several IGCC processes have been developed in USA and in Europe. These processes differ from each other in many respects. Nearest to commercialization are processes, which employ oxygen gasification and cold gas cleanup. The Cool Water plant, which was brought into operation in 1984 in USA, has demonstrated the feasibility of an IGCC system using Texaco entrained-bed gasifier. Several pressurized fluidized-bed and fixed-bed gasification processes have also reached a pilot or demonstration stage with a wide variety of coals from lignite to hard coal. Pressurized fluidized-bed gasification of peat (Rheinbraun-HTW-process) will also be demonstrated at the peat ammonia plant of Kemira Oy, which will be commissioned in 1988 in Oulu, Finland. Oxygen gasification and cold gas cleanup are, however, economically viable only in large-scale applications. Technology is being developed to simplify the IGCC system, in order to reduce its capital costs and increase its efficiency. Air gasification combined with ho gas cleanup seems to have a great potential of improving the competitiveness of the IGCC system.

  16. Long Pulse EBW Start-up Experiments in MAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko V.F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Start-up technique reported here relies on a double mode conversion (MC for electron Bernstein wave (EBW excitation. It consists of MC of the ordinary (O mode, entering the plasma from the low field side of the tokamak, into the extraordinary (X mode at a mirror-polarizer located at the high field side. The X mode propagates back to the plasma, passes through electron cyclotron resonance (ECR and experiences a subsequent X to EBW MC near the upper hybrid resonance (UHR. Finally the excited EBW mode is totally absorbed at the Doppler shifted ECR. The absorption of EBW remains high even in cold rarefied plasmas. Furthermore, EBW can generate significant plasma current giving the prospect of a fully solenoid-free plasma start-up. First experiments using this scheme were carried out on MAST [1]. Plasma currents up to 33 kA have been achieved using 28 GHz 100kW 90ms RF pulses. Recently experimental results were extended to longer RF pulses showing further increase of plasma currents generated by RF power alone. A record current of 73kA has been achieved with 450ms RF pulse of similar power. The current drive enhancement was mainly achieved due to RF pulse extension and further optimisation of the start-up scenario.

  17. 匹配厌氧氨氧化的SHARON工艺启动研究%STUDY ON START-UP OF A SHARON REACTOR MATCHED WITH ANAMMOX PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟琼; 方丽

    2012-01-01

    One of the most sustainable and successful technologies developed recently for high concentration ammonium wastewater treatment is well known as SHARON-ANAMMOX process, which partially oxidized ammonium to nitrite and subsequently anammox to nitrogen gas. One of the key points of this process is to accumulate nitrosomas in SHARON reactor and at the same time to control the conversion ratio of nitrite to ammonium around 50% , which meets the requirements for the following ANAMMOX process. At influent pH 7.6, and ammonium nitrogen 750 mg/L, the SHARON reactor was successfully started up, and an about 50% conversion ratio of nitrite to ammonium was also reached. Further investigation indicated that with increasing influant pH and ammonium concentration, the system kept running stable.%氧化部分氨氮到亚硝酸氮,然后进行完全自养厌氧氨氧化反应,即称SHARON-ANAMMOX工艺,该工艺是近年开发的针对高浓度氨氮废水生物处理较为经济合理的技术之一。其过程控制的关键是第一步亚硝化(SHARON)工艺积累亚硝酸菌,并使氨氮氧化到亚硝酸氮的转化率控制在50%左右,以最合理满足厌氧氨氧化对底物的需求。在进水pH=7.6,ρ(氨氮)=750 mg/L时顺利启动了SHARON反应器,氨氮的转化率达50%左右。研究结果表明,进一步提高氨氮浓度和进水pH,反应器可以维持稳定运行。

  18. Method for generating two coupled Gaussian stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Jamali, Tayeb

    2016-01-01

    Most processes in nature are coupled; however, extensive null models for generating such processes still lacks. We present a new method to generate two coupled Gaussian stochastic processes with arbitrary correlation functions. This method is developed by modifying the Fourier filtering method. The robustness of this method is proved by generating two coupled fractional Brownian motions and extending its range of application to Gaussian random fields.

  19. Start-up of single-stage partial nitrification-anammox process treating low-strength swage and its restoration from nitrate accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Liang; Yang, Yandong; Peng, Yongzhen; Li, Baikun; Wang, Shuying; Zhang, Qian

    2016-10-01

    A single-stage partial nitrification-anammox (PN/A) reactor treating low-strength swage was operated for 288days to investigate the recovery of nitrogen removal from nitrate accumulation. The reactor was quickly started up by inoculating anammox sludge. However, nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) abundance gradually increased on day 25, leading to high effluent nitrate concentration. Two strategies were executed to control the effluent nitrate. In strategy I, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was kept low (0.17±0.08mg/L), but nitrate production increased from 4.71 to 38.18mg-N/L. In strategy II, intermittent aeration operation mode (aeration 7min/anoxic 21min) was adopted, which significantly lowered the nitrate concentration to 1.3mg-N/L, indicating the NOB was inhibited. The high nitrogen removal rate of 73mg-N/(L·d) was achieved. The evolution of bacterial activity and abundance verified the changes of the nitrogen removal performance and proved the intermittent aeration strategy could successfully solve the problem of nitrate build-up in the PN/A process.

  20. Corporate leadership and start-up entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Coulson-Thomas, Colin

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on a paper prepared by Colin Coulson-Thomas for the 2016 Dubai Global Convention on Leadership for Business Excellence. It examines the role of leadership in relation to start-up enterprises.

  1. Is there a lean future for global startups?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2017-01-01

    This article integrates insights from the latest research on the lean startup entrepreneurial method, born-global firms, and global startups. It contributes to the clarification of terminology referring to the global aspects of startups, summarizes insights from previous literature focusing on gl......-based global startup research and practice. The analysis should benefit both researchers and practitioners in technology entrepreneurship, international entrepreneurship, and global innovation management.......This article integrates insights from the latest research on the lean startup entrepreneurial method, born-global firms, and global startups. It contributes to the clarification of terminology referring to the global aspects of startups, summarizes insights from previous literature focusing...... on global startups, and further substantiates the articulation of the need for considering the lean global startup as a new type of firm. The main message is that the lessons learned from the emergence of lean startup entrepreneurship offer a basis for promoting a similar lean phase in technology...

  2. 基于路网分相区特性的制氧系统二次启动设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Second Start-up of Oxygen Generation System When Train Passing Neutral Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈渝; 石梅生; 向逾; 王济虎; 虞毅华; 梁永廷; 李伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To put forward a design scheme for the power supply and the second start-up of the oxygen-generation system when the train passes the neutral section. Methods The oxygen-generation system was provided uninterrupted self-contained power supply at the neutral section. Results The feasibility of the scheme for the uninterrupted power supply and the second start-up of the oxygen-generation system at the neutral section was proved by the static and dynamic trials, and thus the automatic oxygen generation could be realized in the proceeding train. Conclusion Proper design for power supply can eliminate the influences of the neutral section on the oxygen-generation system.%目的:基于铁道路网分相区断电特性,提出制氧系统在列车运行途中的供电和二次启动设计方案.方法:采用分相区对制氧主机提供不间断独立供电方式.结果:经地面静态和铁路线上动态试验证明,制氧系统在路网分相区断电条件下,能自动完成制氧系统的二次启动和待机持续供电,实现了列车运行中的全自动制氧功能.结论:适宜的供电方式设计,可避免路网分相区断电对制氧系统的影响.

  3. NPR Physics Startup Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, C.E.

    1962-04-25

    The New Production Reactor, as compared to existing Hanford reactors, employs new and unique design concepts. To properly evaluate these design concepts and their effects on reactor operations, nuclear safety, and reactor life, a comprehensive testing program is planned; this program, with its objectives and restrictions, is discussed in this report. It has been developed along the same line as the C and K Reactors test, programs, and is expected to require a total time of 6--8 weeks of round-the-clock testing. This estimate includes fuel loading time, but does not include time allotments for engineering acceptance tests prior to power operation nor does it include any of the time necessary for engineering and physics tests during the extensive power ascension program. The main body of this report is presented in three parts. The first section describes startup hazards and restrictions, reactor and component safety provisions prior to loading, and the itemized listing of quantities to be measured. The second includes preliminary material and plant conditions and a brief description of the individual tests. The third section (the Appendix), written in procedure language, comprises a rather detailed description of each individual test on a tentative basis; final test details and procedures, which will lie within the boundaries authorized by this document wil1 be established through joint efforts of Operational Physics and NPR Operations sub-section personnel.

  4. The LEP startup Plan, 1998

    CERN Document Server

    Collier, Paul

    1998-01-01

    The startup planning for LEP in 1998 is presented. Operation this year is planned with the 102/90o lattice. The machine will be commissioned with this optics and operation for physics at 45 GeV fo r the Zo calibration data will be attempted. The 90/90o lattice, as a 'backup' solution for the Zo running, will only be commissioned in case of dire need. As usual there have been changes to the machine during the shutdown. The most important of which is the re-arrangement of IP6 with the installation of 8 new SC-RF modules there. IP6 and IP2 are now similar. 36 CU-RF cavities have been removed from the machine. In addition the polarisation wiggler positions have been changed in IP3 and IP7 to protect the separators from synchrotron radiation produced by the wigglers. Finally the vertical aperture of the vacuum chamber in all four experiments has been reduced to 55 mm.

  5. Partida de um reator anaeróbio horizontal para tratamento de efluentes do processamento dos frutos do cafeeiro Start-up of an anaerobic horizontal-flow reactor for treating wastewater from a coffee fruits processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson C. Borges

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar a partida e a adaptação de um reator anaeróbio horizontal de leito fixo (RAHLF no tratamento de águas residuárias do processamento primário dos frutos do cafeeiro (ARC. O reator foi construído com tubos de PVC de 0,2 m de diâmetro e 3,2 m de comprimento. O sistema foi preenchido com cubos de espuma de poliuretano para imobilização de biomassa ativa. O reator apresentou volume total de 0,1 m³ e volume útil equivalente a 0,04 m³. Em média, houve remoção de 49% da matéria orgânica, com o reator trabalhando sob carga orgânica volumétrica média de 2,66 kg m-3 d-1, medida como DQO. A suplementação de alcalinidade, somada à inoculação prévia de biomassa, proporcionou partida estável do RAHLF, confirmada pelo consumo de ácidos voláteis e adaptação da microbiota ao resíduo. O sistema apresentou resistência às variações de vazão e de carga orgânica observadas, e os teores de fenol e potássio monitorados não causaram inibição da atividade biológica no RAHLF. O maior controle sobre as variações de carga é fator importante na continuidade dos estudos.This study aimed to evaluate the start-up and the adaptation of an anaerobic horizontal-flow immobilized biomass (HAIB reactor in order to treat wastewater from a primary processing of coffee fruits. The reactor was built with PVC tubes of 0.2 m in diameter and 3.2 m in length. The system was filled with cubes of polyurethane foam for immobilization of active biomass. The reactor presented a total capacity of 0.1 m³ and reaction volume equal to 0.04 m³. 49% of organic matter. Removal efficiency was observed, with medium organic volumetric loads equal to 2.66 kg m-3 d-1 (as chemical oxygen demand. The supplementary addition of alkalinity and the previous biomass inoculation provided a stable start-up of the reactor, as confirmed by the reduction of volatile acids and an adaptation of the present microbiology community

  6. Sediment generation and provenance: processes and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracciolo, L.; Garzanti, E.; von Eynatten, H.; Weltje, G. J.

    2016-05-01

    The ability to trace sediments from their sources to sedimentary basins is a prerequisite for quantitative analysis of Earth-surface dynamics. The comparatively recent revival of sedimentary provenance analysis goes hand-in-hand with the ever expanding range of analytical tools available for quantifying sediment properties (isotopic, mineral, chemical, and petrographic composition, grain-size and shape distributions, age spectra, etc.), and for interpreting such data in paleo-geographic, -tectonic and -climatic terms. The breakdown of sediment budgets into source-specific contributions - one of the most important tasks of provenance analysis - permits quantification of rates of surface processes in the geological past ("deep time"), even in cases where the source areas themselves have been destroyed by global tectonics. Quantitative sedimentary provenance analysis is therefore crucial to the reconstruction of ancient sediment-routing systems, the fundamental units of mass transfer at the Earth's surface.

  7. Patent Value: A Business Perspective for Technology Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela de Wilton

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last year, news headlines have highlighted record patent infringement settlements, multibillion dollar auctions of large corporate patent portfolios, and ongoing patent battles between key technology industry players. Despite this acknowledgment of the significant value of patents for large corporations, many small technology companies are understandably more focused on the near-term costs of obtaining a patent rather than future value. Costs may seem prohibitive to an early stage technology startup. Some software startups question whether patents are relevant to their business. In practice, effective intellectual property (IP strategy and management is dependent on many factors, such as technology or industry sector, size and maturity of the business, technology lifecycle, and the business and market environment. IP strategy must be aligned to business strategy from the outset. By considering IP in the broader context of the overall business plan and the competitive environment, opportunities for generating increased return on R&D investment and added business value through patents or other forms of IP can be recognized early on. This approach ensures that a decision about whether or not to patent is driven by business reasons rather than budget constraints. This article examines the costs and benefits of patents from the perspective of early-stage technology startups and growing businesses, and it provides some general guidance on best practices for developing an IP and patent activity plan and for building a patent portfolio that appropriately supports business objectives.

  8. Mathematical modeling and analysis of heat pipe start-up from the frozen state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, J.H.; Faghri, A. [Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States); Chang, W.S.; Mahefkey, E.T. [Wright Research and Development Center, Wright-Patterson, OH (United States)

    1989-08-01

    The start-up process of a frozen heat pipe is described and a complete mathematical model for the start-up of the frozen heat pipe is developed based on the existing experimental data, which is simplified and solved numerically. The two-dimensional transient model for the wall and wick is coupled with the one-dimensional transient model for the vapor flow when vaporization and condensation occur at the interface. A parametric study is performed to examine the effect of the boundary specification at the surface of the outer wall on the successful start-up from the frozen state. For successful start-up, the boundary specification at the outer wall surface must melt the working substance in the condenser before dry-out takes place in the evaporator.

  9. Mathematical modeling and analysis of heat pipe start-up from the frozen state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J. H.; Faghri, A.; Chang, W. S.; Mahefkey, E. T.

    1990-01-01

    The start-up process of a frozen heat pipe is described and a complete mathematical model for the start-up of the frozen heat pipe is developed based on the existing experimental data, which is simplified and solved numerically. The two-dimensional transient model for the wall and wick is coupled with the one-dimensional transient model for the vapor flow when vaporization and condensation occur at the interface. A parametric study is performed to examine the effect of the boundary specification at the surface of the outer wall on the successful start-up from the frozen state. For successful start-up, the boundary specification at the outer wall surface must melt the working substance in the condenser before dry-out takes place in the evaporator.

  10. Environmental mitigation for SCC initiation of BWR core internals by hydrogen injection during start-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dozaki, K.; Abe, A.; Nagata, N.; Takiguchi, H. [The Japan Atomic Power Co. (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Hydrogen injection into the reactor water has been applied to many BWR power stations. Since hydrogen injected accelerates recombination of oxidant generated by water radiolysis, oxidant concentration, such as dissolved oxygen concentration in reactor water can be reduced. As the result of the reduction of oxidant concentration, Electrochemical Corrosion Potential (ECP) at the surface of structural material can be lowered. Lowered ECP moderates Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) sensitivity of structural materials, such as stainless steels. As usual, hydrogen injection system begins to work after the plant start-up is finished, when the condition of normal operation is established. Accordingly, Hydrogen Water Chemistry (HWC) does not cover all the period of plant operation. As far as SCC crack growth is considered, loss of HWC during plant start-up does not result in significant crack growth, because of duration of plant start-up is much shorter than that of plant normal operation, when HWC condition is being satisfied. However, the reactor water environment and load conditions during a plant start-up may contribute to the initiation of SCC. It is estimated that the core internals are subjected to the strain rate that may cause susceptibility to SCC initiation during start-up. Dissolved oxygen (DO) and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) has a peak, and ECP is in high levels during start-up. Therefore it is beneficial to perform hydrogen injection during start-up as well in order to suppress SCC initiation. We call it HWC During Start-up (HDS) here. (orig.)

  11. Materials-based process tolerances for neutron generator encapsulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Ryan S.; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Stavig, Mark Edwin

    2007-10-01

    Variations in the neutron generator encapsulation process can affect functionality. However, instead of following the historical path in which the effects of process variations are assessed directly through functional tests, this study examines how material properties key to generator functionality correlate with process variations. The results of this type of investigation will be applicable to all generators and can provide insight on the most profitable paths to process and material improvements. Surprisingly, the results at this point imply that the process is quite robust, and many of the current process tolerances are perhaps overly restrictive. The good news lies in the fact that our current process ensures reproducible material properties. The bad new lies in the fact that it would be difficult to solve functional problems by changes in the process.

  12. Start-Up of the Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy DeGroff, MPH

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionIn 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded five sites to implement the Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP. An evaluation is being conducted that includes a multiple case study. Case study results for the start-up period, the time between initial funding and screening initiation, provide details about the program models and start-up process and reveal important lessons learned.MethodsThe multiple case study includes all five CRCSDP sites, each representing a unique case. Data were collected from August 2005 through September 2006 from documents, observations, and more than 70 interviews with program staff and stakeholders.ResultsSites differed by geographic service area, screening modality selected, and service delivery structure. Program models were influenced by two factors: preexisting infrastructure and the need to adapt programs to fit local service delivery structures. Several sites modeled program components after their National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program. Medical advisory boards convened by all sites provided clinical support for developing program policies and quality assurance plans. Partnerships with comprehensive cancer control programs facilitated access to financial and in-kind resources.ConclusionThe program models developed by the CRCSDP sites offer a range of prototypes. Case study results suggest benefits in employing a multidisciplinary staff team, assembling a medical advisory board, collaborating with local partners, using preexisting resources, designing programs that are easily incorporated into existing service delivery systems, and planning for adequate start-up time.

  13. AUDIT OF INNOVATIVE IDEAS AS THE PREVIOUS STAGE OF THE BUSINESS-PLAN OF START-UP PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zhylinska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of feasibility reasoning of venture capital investment for the implementation of innovative ideas is revealed. The main elements of the methodology for feasibility of start-up projects, based on the concept of combination of life cycle of the market, product innovation and startup companies, are characterized. The comparative analysis of methods feasibility study and business plan start-up project is made, the importance of innovative ideas audit in future economic information generation and investment decisions of informal venture capital investors are shown.

  14. Start-up of an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor treating synthetic carbohydrate rich wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshanew, Martha M; Frunzo, Luigi; Luongo, Vincenzo; Pirozzi, Francesco; Lens, Piet N L; Esposito, Giovanni

    2016-12-15

    The present work studied the start-up process of a mesophilic (37 ± 2 °C) anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 days using synthetic carbohydrate rich wastewater. Anox Kaldness-K1 carriers were used as biofilm carrier material. The reactor performance and biofilm formation were evaluated during the process. The start-up process at lower liquid recirculation flow rate enhanced the biofilm formation and reactor performance. The organic substrate composition had a major impact on early colonization of methanogenic archaea onto the surface of the Kaldness carriers during the start-up process. Specific organic substrates favouring the growth of methanogenic archaea, such as acetate, are preferred in order to facilitate the subsequent biofilm formation and AFBR start-up. The supply of 'bio-available' nutrients and trace elements, in particular iron, had an important role on optimal methanogenic activity and speeding-up of the biofilm development on the Kaldness carriers. This paper provides possible strategies to optimize the various operational parameters that influence the initial biofilm formation and development in an AFBR and similar high rate anaerobic reactors, hence can be used to reduce the long time required for process start-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Fragile Success of Team Start-ups

    OpenAIRE

    Stam, Erik; Schutjens, Veronique

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the benefits and pitfalls of starting a firm with an entrepreneurial team, drawing on a longitudinal empirical analysis of the life course of 90 team start-ups and 1196 solo start-ups in the Netherlands. In the first three years of their existence, team start-ups perform better than solo start-ups on several success indicators. However, after this start phase, entrepreneurial teams face particular problems in realizing further growth. These team-specific bottlenecks can...

  16. Tokamak startup with electron cyclotron heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holly, D J; Prager, S C; Shepard, D A; Sprott, J C

    1980-04-01

    Experiments are described in which the startup voltage in a tokamak is reduced by approx. 60% by the use of a modest amount of electron cyclotron resonance heating power for preionization. A 50% reduction in volt-second requirement and impurity reflux are also observed.

  17. Startup of an industrial adiabatic tubular reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijs, J.W.; Berg, van den H.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamic behaviour of an adiabatic tubular plant reactor during the startup is demonstrated, together with the impact of a feed-pump failure of one of the reactants. A dynamic model of the reactor system is presented, and the system response is calculated as a function of experimentally-determine

  18. The Lean and Global Start-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager

    Ventures research and research with a focus on the Lean Start-up company. It is our intention in this paper to give a short presentation of the two research streams and show how they can be merged into one with a focus on newly established technology oriented firms that are lean and global from...

  19. Light duty utility arm startup plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1998-09-01

    This plan details the methods and procedures necessary to ensure a safe transition in the operation of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. The steps identified here outline the work scope and identify responsibilities to complete startup, and turnover of the LDUA to Characterization Project Operations (CPO).

  20. Novel Fabrication Process for Micro Thermoelectric Generators (μTEGs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, U.; Jaklin, J.; Rostek, R.; Kröner, M.; Woias, P.

    2015-12-01

    A cost effective bottom-up process for the fabrication of micro thermoelectric generators (μTEGs) was developed. It is based on a novel fabrication method involving a selectively sacrificial photoresist for the sequential galvanostatic electrodeposition of thermoelectric materials. The use of an industrial pick and placer (P&P) for dispensing the second photoresist allows for accurate and flexible μTEG designs. The process makes use of Ordyl® as a negative dry film photoresist template and sequential lamination steps for shaping all thermoelectric legs and contacts. All structures of the μTEG are generated in one photoresist multi-layer - this represents the most significant advantage of the process. The process uses a minimum of clean room processing for the preparation of pre-structured substrates for electrodeposition and therefore provides a cost-effective, highly flexible fabrication platform for research and development.

  1. Bootstrap finance: the art of start-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhide, A

    1992-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is more popular than ever: courses are full, policymakers emphasize new ventures, managers yearn to go off on their own. Would-be founders often misplace their energies, however. Believing in a "big money" model of entrepreneurship, they spend a lot of time trying to attract investors instead of using wits and hustle to get their ideas off the ground. A study of 100 of the 1989 Inc. "500" list of fastest growing U.S. start-ups attests to the value of bootstrapping. In fact, what it takes to start a business often conflicts with what venture capitalists require. Investors prefer solid plans, well-defined markets, and track records. Entrepreneurs are heavy on energy and enthusiasm but may be short on credentials. They thrive in rapidly changing environments where uncertain prospects may scare off established companies. Rolling with the punches is often more important than formal plans. Striving to adhere to investors' criteria can diminish the flexibility--the try-it, fix-it approach--an entrepreneur needs to make a new venture work. Seven principles are basic for successful start-ups: get operational fast; look for quick break-even, cash-generating projects; offer high-value products or services that can sustain direct personal selling; don't try to hire the crack team; keep growth in check; focus on cash; and cultivate banks early. Growth and change are the start-up's natural environment. But change is also the reward for success: just as ventures grow, their founders usually have to take a fresh look at everything again: roles, organization, even the very policies that got the business up and running.

  2. Study on Start-up Process of UASB Reactor For Treating Cellulosic Ethanol Wastewater%UASB处理纤维素乙醇废水的启动运行研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾; 郭宏山; 李宝忠; 朱卫

    2014-01-01

    以厌氧UASB反应器处理纤维乙醇废水为研究对象,探讨分析了UASB的启动和稳定运行过程。结果表明,采用城市污水处理厂的厌氧消化污泥作为接种污泥,在COD有效容积负荷为0.33~1.11 kgCOD/(m3·d)的条件下,UASB反应器成功启动,COD的去除率达到70%以上。启动初期,出水pH会明显高于进水,污泥呈先减少后增加的趋势,当增加进水SO42-浓度到7250 mg/L,COD/ SO42-比值2.7∶1时,会导致纤维素乙醇废水UASB处理系统的崩溃。UASB反应器运行稳定后,污泥浓度增至30~40 g/L,MLVSS/MLSS比值也达到90%左右,在HRT为14~41 h,回流比3∶1~13∶1,有效容积负荷3.45~14.67 kg COD/(m3·d)的条件下,对纤维乙醇生产废水均能保持90%以上的COD去除率,出水COD小于1000 mg/L。%Taking treatment of cellulosic ethanol wastewater by UASB reactor as a researching object,the start-up process of UASB reactor was analyzed and discussed. The results show that, taking anaerobic digestion sludge from urban sewage treatment plants as started sludge, under the effective volumetric loading rate 0.33~1.11 kg COD/(m3.d) conditions,the UASB reactor can be successfully started, and COD removal efficiency can reach more than 70%. At the initial period of start-up,the effluent pH value is significantly higher than the influent pH value ,and the sludge decreases at the beginning and then increases. As the concentration of SO42-is increased to 7 250 mg/L and COD/SO42-ratio is 2.7:1, UASB treatment system for cellulosic ethanol wastewater will collapse. As the UASB reactor is in stable operation,the sludge concentration increases to 30~40 g/L, MLVSS/MLSS ratio reaches about 90%.Under the conditions of HRT 14~41 h, reflux ratio of 3:1 to 13:1 and effective volumetric loading rate 3.45~14.67 kg COD/(m3.d), UASB reactor can maintain more than 90%COD removal rate for cellulosic ethanol wastewater, effluent COD is less than 1000 mg/L.

  3. Optimize Cardiac Catheterization Startup Process Gradually by Modern Information Means%利用现代化信息手段逐步优化导管室启动流程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艳飞; 龚志华; 向定成

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac catheterization can timely launch of D - to - B time one of the important factors. Our chest pain center (CPC) was set up before and after has experienced three different forms of cardiac catheterization startup mode, respectively, including traditional cardiac catheterization startup mode, remote real-time transmission Based on ecg one-click launch international models and core believe in chest pain group, three models in different degree, effectively promote shortening the time of D - to - B, including WeChat group of model is more advantageous to reducing cardiac catheterization activation time.%导管室能否及时启动是影响D-to-B时间的重要因素之一。广州军区总医院胸痛中心(CPC)成立前后共经历了三种不同形式的导管室启动模式,分别包括传统导管室启动模式、远程实时传输心电图基础上的一键式启动导管室模式和胸痛中心微信群模式,三种模式在不同程度上有效促进缩短D-to-B时间,其中微信群模式更有利于缩短导管室激活时间。

  4. A simple and effective method to achieve the successful start-up of a current reference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Lei; Wang Yujun; Zhang Xiaoxing; DaiYujie; Lü Yingjie

    2012-01-01

    Start-up design is a critical issue in current reference as it is very closely related to production yield.However,its function is difficult to predict using normal transaction simulations before the device is put into diffusion.In this paper,we discuss a simple and effective simulation approach which ensures a successful start-up process in a self-biased temperature independent current reference.The circuit is implemented in a class-D power amplifier with a 0.35 μm BiCMOS process and the experimental result validates that,by using this method,the start-up success rate can be greatly improved to 100%.

  5. Process Alternatives for Second Generation Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Furlan, Felipe; Giordano, Roberto C.; Costa, Caliane B. B.

    2015-01-01

    on the economic feasibility of the process. For the economic scenario considered in this study, using bagasse to increase ethanol production yielded higher ethanol production costs compared to using bagasse for electric energy production, showing that further improvements in the process are still necessary.......In ethanol production from sugarcane juice, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel for the boiler, to meet the steam and electric energy demand of the process. However, a surplus of bagasse is common, which can be used either to increase electric energy or ethanol production. While the first option uses...... already established processes, there are still many uncertainties about the techno-economic feasibility of the second option. In this study, some key parameters of the second generation ethanol production process were analyzed and their influence in the process feasibility assessed. The simulated process...

  6. Branch Point Withdrawal in Elongational Startup Flow by Time-Resolved Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Ruocco, N.

    2016-05-27

    We present a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) investigation of a blend composed of a dendritic polymer and a linear matrix with comparable viscosity in start-up of an elongational flow at Tg + 50. The two-generation dendritic polymer is diluted to 10% by weight in a matrix of a long well-entangled linear chains. Both components consist of mainly 1,4-cis-polyisoprene but differ in isotopic composition. The resulting scattering contrast is sufficiently high to permit time-resolved measurements of the system structure factor during the start-up phase and to follow the retraction processes involving the inner sections of the branched polymer in the nonlinear deformation response. The outer branches and the linear matrix, on the contrary, are in the linear deformation regime. The linear matrix dominates the rheological signature of the blend and the influence of the branched component can barely be detected. However, the neutron scattering intensity is predominantly that of the (branched) minority component so that its dynamics is clearly evident. In the present paper, we use the neutron scattering data to validate the branch point withdrawal process, which could not be unambiguously discerned from rheological measurements in this blend. The maximal tube stretch that the inner branches experience, before the relaxed outer arm material is incorporated into the tube is determined. The in situ scattering experiments demonstrate for the first time the leveling-off of the strain as the result of branch point withdrawal and chain retraction directly on the molecular level. We conclude that branch point motion in the mixture of architecturally complex polymers occurs earlier than would be expected in a purely branched system, presumably due to the different topological environment that the linear matrix presents to the hierarchically deep-buried tube sections. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  7. Reactor operating procedures for startup of continuously-operated chemical plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijs, J.W.; Kösters, P.H.; Berg, van den H.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Rules are presented for the startup of an adiabatic tubular reactor, based on a qualitative analysis of the dynamic behavior of continuously-operated vapor- and liquid-phase processes. The relationships between the process dynamics, operating criteria, and operating constraints are investigated, sin

  8. High-Order Harmonic Generation in the Ionization Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jing; CHEN Shi-Gang; LIU Jie

    2000-01-01

    Based on the nonperturbative quantum electrodynamics scattering theory for multiphoton ionization developed recently, high-order harmonic generated in the ionization process is discussed. The influence of the Coulomb potential is treated as a perturbation in the expansion of the transition matrix. It is deduced that the harmonic photons are emitted in the resonant process during ionization and the width of the harmonic peaks is just the ionization rate of the atom.

  9. Lean Startup: A success factor? A quantitative study of how use of the Lean Startup framework affects the success of Norwegian high-tech startups.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Lean Startup is a framework for entrepreneurship that has gained considerable popularity among entrepreneurs, yet the framework has not been thoroughly scrutinized in academic circles. This thesis aims to fill this gap in two ways. First, by comparing Lean Startup to more established models on entrepreneurship in a theoretical perspective. Second, by conducting an empirical study of how Lean Startup influences entrepreneurial success in practice. In our theoretical review, we found that while...

  10. Generating and Using Examples in the Proving Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandefur, J.; Mason, J.; Stylianides, G. J.; Watson, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on our analysis of data from a dataset of 26 videotapes of university students working in groups of 2 and 3 on different proving problems. Our aim is to understand the role of example generation in the proving process, focusing on deliberate changes in representation and symbol manipulation. We suggest and illustrate four aspects of…

  11. Start-up analysis for automotive PEM fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Francesco, M.; Arato, E.

    The development of fuel cell cars can play an important role in resolving transport problems, due to the high environmental compatibility and high efficiency of this kind of vehicle. Among the different types of fuel cells, proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are considered the best solution for automotive applications at the moment. In this work, constructive criteria are discussed with the aim of obtaining a power generation module adaptable to a wide range of cars. A particular problem in accomplishing the overall project is represented by the definition of the compressor system for air feeding. In this work, the design approach to the problem will be delineated: some options are reviewed and the best solution is analysed. The transient response of the system (fuel cell and compressor) is investigated in order to optimise the start-up running through a model of a fuel cell stack and a compressor simulation. The model and its results are proposed as a work procedure to solve the problem, by varying external conditions: in fact, to perform the system start-up under stable conditions, the air relative humidity and temperature must be maintained in a proper range of values. The approach here presented has been utilised for the definition of the characteristics of the power module and layout of a middle-size hybrid city bus in the framework of a project promoted by the European Union.

  12. Membrane-based processes for sustainable power generation using water

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.

    2012-08-15

    Water has always been crucial to combustion and hydroelectric processes, but it could become the source of power in membrane-based systems that capture energy from natural and waste waters. Two processes are emerging as sustainable methods for capturing energy from sea water: pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis. These processes can also capture energy from waste heat by generating artificial salinity gradients using synthetic solutions, such as thermolytic salts. A further source of energy comes from organic matter in waste waters, which can be harnessed using microbial fuel-cell technology, allowing both wastewater treatment and power production. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of Startup Fuel Options for the GNEP Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon Carmack (062056); Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu (103171); David Alberstein

    2008-02-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Program (GNEP) includes a program element for the development and construction of an advanced sodium cooled fast reactor to demonstrate the burning (transmutation) of significant quantities of minor actinides obtained from a separations process and fabricated into a transuranic bearing fuel assembly. To demonstrate and qualify transuranic (TRU) fuel in a fast reactor, an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) prototype is needed. The ABR would necessarily be started up using conventional metal alloy or oxide (U or U, Pu) fuel. Startup fuel is needed for the ABR for the first 2 to 4 core loads of fuel in the ABR. Following start up, a series of advanced TRU bearing fuel assemblies will be irradiated in qualification lead test assemblies in the ABR. There are multiple options for this startup fuel. This report provides a description of the possible startup fuel options as well as possible fabrication alternatives available to the program in the current domestic and international facilities and infrastructure.

  14. The Impact of Institutional Settings on Learning Behavior by Venture Capitalists and Start-Ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gatti, Anna; Vendelø, Morten Thanning

    2005-01-01

    capitalists represent an institutionalized type of organization with formalized rules and standards, codified be-havior and roles (Suchman, 1995; Suchman et al., 2001). European venture capitalists and start-ups may imitate behavior and rules developed in Silicon Valley, and thus, a second research objective...... differen-ces in local institutional settings affect learning and adaptation by European venture ca-pitalists and start-ups, and thus, affect the processes of field formation. For example, it has been observed that institutional settings can facilitate or discourage learning from direct experience (Herriot...... et al., 1985). Thus, depending on the institutional settings venture capitalists and start-ups may rely on diffusion of experience in various degrees. Experiences can diffuse from the US, where venture capitalism as an entrepreneurial form evolved in Silicon Valley in the 1970s. In the US venture...

  15. Marketing plan for business start-up

    OpenAIRE

    Kaisar, Jabed

    2016-01-01

    The marketing plan for the startup company concentrates on the affordable and effective marketing strategies for the new company with the limited budget for marketing. In this thesis, the shoe company named Jalkani is selected as the case study for the marketing plan. In the age of Internet, the marketing becomes more complex with the combination of the traditional advertising (paid advertisements in newspapers, billboard, or television) and the model digital marketing. The costs for each ...

  16. Declarative Business Process Modelling and the Generation of ERP Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz-Møller, Nicholas Poul; Hølmer, Christian; Hansen, Michael R.

    We present an approach to the construction of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems, which is based on the Resources, Events and Agents (REA) ontology. This framework deals with processes involving exchange and flow of resources in a declarative, graphically-based manner describing what the major entities are rather than how they engage in computations. We show how to develop a domain-specific language on the basis of REA, and a tool which automatically can generate running web-applications. A main contribution is a proof-of-concept showing that business-domain experts can generate their own applications without worrying about implementation details.

  17. The Correlation Function of Multiple Dependent Poisson Processes Generated by the Alternating Renewal Process Method

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Don H

    2008-01-01

    We derive conditions under which alternating renewal processes can be used to construct correlated Poisson processes. The pairwise correlation function is also derived, showing that the resulting correlations can be negative. The technique and the analysis can be extended to the generation of two or more dependent renewal processes.

  18. Generative design visualize, program, and create with processing

    CERN Document Server

    Bohnacker, Hartmut; Laub, Julia; Lazzeroni, Claudius

    2012-01-01

    Generative design is a revolutionary new method of creating artwork, models, and animations from sets of rules, or algorithms. By using accessible programming languages such as Processing, artists and designers are producing extravagant, crystalline structures that can form the basis of anything from patterned textiles and typography to lighting, scientific diagrams, sculptures, films, and even fantastical buildings. Opening with a gallery of thirty-five illustrated case studies, Generative Design takes users through specific, practical instructions on how to create their own visual experiments by combining simple-to-use programming codes with basic design principles. A detailed handbook of advanced strategies provides visual artists with all the tools to achieve proficiency. Both a how-to manual and a showcase for recent work in this exciting new field, Generative Design is the definitive study and reference book that designers have been waiting for.

  19. Generation of low-temperature air plasma for food processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, Olga; Demidova, Maria; Astafiev, Alexander; Pinchuk, Mikhail; Balkir, Pinar; Turantas, Fulya

    2015-11-01

    The project is aimed at developing a physical and technical foundation of generating plasma with low gas temperature at atmospheric pressure for food industry needs. As known, plasma has an antimicrobial effect on the numerous types of microorganisms, including those that cause food spoilage. In this work an original experimental setup has been developed for the treatment of different foods. It is based on initiating corona or dielectric-barrier discharge in a chamber filled with ambient air in combination with a certain helium admixture. The experimental setup provides various conditions of discharge generation (including discharge gap geometry, supply voltage, velocity of gas flow, content of helium admixture in air and working pressure) and allows for the measurement of the electrical discharge parameters. Some recommendations on choosing optimal conditions of discharge generation for experiments on plasma food processing are developed.

  20. Optimal design method for force in vibration control of multi-body system with quick startup and brake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Hua-ping; PENG Ya-qing

    2005-01-01

    A kind of active vibration control method was presented through optimal design of driving load of multi-body system with quick startup and brake. Dynamical equation of multi-body system with quick startup and brake was built, and mathematical model of representing vibration control was also set up according to the moving process from startup to brake. Then optimization vibration control model of system driving load was founded by applying theory of optimization control, which takes rigid body moving variable of braking moment as the known condition, and vibration control equation of multi-body system with quick startup and brake was converted into boundary value problem of differential equation. The transient control algorithm of vibration was put forward, which is the analysis basis for the further research. Theoretical analysis and calculation of numerical examples show that the optimal design method for the multi-body system driving load can decrease the vibration of system with duplication.

  1. Solvent pre-wetting as an effective start-up method for point-of-use filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Toru; Sugiyama, Shinichi; Nakamura, Takashi; Momota, Makoto; Sevegney, Michael; Tsuzuki, Shuichi; Numaguchi, Toru

    2012-03-01

    An effective filter start-up method has been required by device manufacturers, mainly in order to reduce waste volume of lithography process chemicals, which become more expensive as lithography technology advances. Remaining air was monitored during static-pressure-driven filter start-up. As a result, 3500 ml of the resist was needed to eliminate remaining air. For improvement, cyclohexanone pre-wetting was applied prior to the resist introduction. As a result, the resist volume needed for the solvent displacement was 1900 ml, approximately half the volume required for staticpressure- driven start-up. Other solvents were evaluated for the pre-wetting start-up method. Results, in descending order of performance were PGME (best) Hansen solubility parameter distance between each solvent and nylon 6,6 material.

  2. Reliability Analysis and Standardization of Spacecraft Command Generation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila; Grenander, Sven; Evensen, Ken

    2011-01-01

    center dot In order to reduce commanding errors that are caused by humans, we create an approach and corresponding artifacts for standardizing the command generation process and conducting risk management during the design and assurance of such processes. center dot The literature review conducted during the standardization process revealed that very few atomic level human activities are associated with even a broad set of missions. center dot Applicable human reliability metrics for performing these atomic level tasks are available. center dot The process for building a "Periodic Table" of Command and Control Functions as well as Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) models is demonstrated. center dot The PRA models are executed using data from human reliability data banks. center dot The Periodic Table is related to the PRA models via Fault Links.

  3. Radially polarized annular beam generated through a second-harmonic-generation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shunichi; Kozawa, Yuichi

    2009-10-15

    A radially polarized beam with an annular intensity pattern was generated through a second-harmonic-generation process by focusing an azimuthally polarized Ti:sapphire pulsed laser beam to a c-cut beta-barium borate (BBO) crystal. The annular intensity pattern of the second-harmonic wave had a nearly sixfold symmetry as a result of the nonlinear susceptibility tensor of the BBO crystal. The width of the annulus was as narrow as less than 1/40th of its radius.

  4. Progress and Processes for Generating NOAA's Climate Data Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, S. S.; Glance, W. J.; Bates, J. J.; Kearns, E. J.

    2011-12-01

    NOAA established a satellite Climate Data Record Program (CDRP) at its National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) to provide a systematic reprocessing capability which will generate sustained and authoritative climate information from 30+ years of satellite data. CDRP implements a unique approach in archiving not only the data products themselves, but also the software, ancillary data, and enough documentation to allow any user with the processing power, to reproduce the data. Best practices, such as a common maturity matrix, software guidelines, and format standards, are employed to facilitate both the transition of research algorithms to operational software, and the long-term maintenance of the software. Throughout the implementation and execution of the program, CDRP seeks to adhere to production guidelines from Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and World Meteorological Organization's (WMO's) Sustained, Coordinated Processing of Environmental Satellite Data for Climate Monitoring (SCOPE-CM activity. Elements of the CDR Adaptive Processing System (CAPS) are described, along with the system's implementation approach, performance expectations, and plans for growth to accommodate increased CDR processing. In addition, a cost model has been implemented to capture the cost of CDR generation and maintenance, considering variables such as CDR complexity, source, and maturity at the beginning of the process.

  5. A double-stage start-up structure to limit the inrush current used in current mode charge pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Liu; Xinquan, Lai; Hanxiao, Du; Yuan, Chi

    2016-06-01

    A double-stage start-up structure to limit the inrush current used in current-mode charge pump with wide input range, fixed output and multimode operation is presented in this paper. As a widely utilized power source implement, a Li-battery is always used as the power supply for chips. Due to the internal resistance, a potential drop will be generated at the input terminal of the chip with an input current. A false shut down with a low supply voltage will happen if the input current is too large, leading to the degradation of the Li-battery's service life. To solve this problem, the inrush current is limited by introducing a new start-up state. All of the circuits have been implemented with the NUVOTON 0.6 μm CMOS process. The measurement results show that the inrush current can be limited below 1 A within all input supply ranges, and the power efficiency is higher than the conventional structure. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61106026).

  6. Construction and start-up of a 250 kW natural gas fueled MCFC demonstration power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, R.A.; Carter, J.; Rivera, R.; Otahal, J. [San Diego Gas & Electric, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) is participating with M-C Power in the development and commercialization program of their internally manifolded heat exchanger (IMHEX{reg_sign}) carbonate fuel cell technology. Development of the IMHEX technology base on the UNOCAL test facility resulted in the demonstration of a 250 kW thermally integrated power plant located at the Naval Air Station at Miramar, California. The members of the commercialization team lead by M-C Power (MCP) include Bechtel Corporation, Stewart & Stevenson Services, Inc., and Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries (IHI). MCP produced the fuel cell stack, Bechtel was responsible for the process engineering including the control system, Stewart & Stevenson was responsible for packaging the process equipment in a skid (pumps, desulfurizer, gas heater, turbo, heat exchanger and stem generator), IHI produced a compact flat plate catalytic reformer operating on natural gas, and SDG&E assumed responsibility for plant construction, start-up and operation of the plant.

  7. Distributed situation management processing: enabling next generation C2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkelberger, Kirk A.

    1996-06-01

    Increased use of joint task force concepts is expanding the battlespace and placing higher demands on interoperability. But simultaneous downsizing of forces is increasing the workload on warfighters; while there is a demand for increased decision aiding there has not been a corresponding increase in computational resources. Force wide situation management, the proactive command and control (C2) of the battlespace enabled by broad situation awareness and a deep understanding of mission context, is not likely given today's computational capability, system architecture, algorithmic, and datalink limitations. Next generation C2, e.g. decentralized, `rolling' etc., could be significantly enhanced by distributed situation management processing techniques. Presented herein is a sampling of core technologies, software architectures, cognitive processing algorithms, and datalink requirements which could enable next generation C2. Dynamic, adaptive process distribution concepts are discussed which address platform and tactical application computational capability limitations. Software and datalink architectures are then presented which facilitate situation management process distribution. Finally, required evolution of current algorithms and algorithms potentially enabled within these concepts are introduced.

  8. CONSERVATION AREA START-UPS: COMBINING THEORY AND PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    NORMAN S. WRIGHT; JEFF CANEEN; NATHAN ALEXANDER; ANDREW GOMEZ

    2010-01-01

    Business start-ups by indigenous people in wildlife conservation areas are prone to failure. Funding issues have been identified as a contributing cause of the disappointing results. A great deal has been written about capital structure both in the start-up literature and the corporate literature, but the applicability of this research to small, indigenous start-ups in and around conservation areas is lacking. Although current practice dictates a reliance on equity, we apply the relevant corp...

  9. Bim Automation: Advanced Modeling Generative Process for Complex Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, F.; Fai, S.; Brumana, R.

    2017-08-01

    The new paradigm of the complexity of modern and historic structures, which are characterised by complex forms, morphological and typological variables, is one of the greatest challenges for building information modelling (BIM). Generation of complex parametric models needs new scientific knowledge concerning new digital technologies. These elements are helpful to store a vast quantity of information during the life cycle of buildings (LCB). The latest developments of parametric applications do not provide advanced tools, resulting in time-consuming work for the generation of models. This paper presents a method capable of processing and creating complex parametric Building Information Models (BIM) with Non-Uniform to NURBS) with multiple levels of details (Mixed and ReverseLoD) based on accurate 3D photogrammetric and laser scanning surveys. Complex 3D elements are converted into parametric BIM software and finite element applications (BIM to FEA) using specific exchange formats and new modelling tools. The proposed approach has been applied to different case studies: the BIM of modern structure for the courtyard of West Block on Parliament Hill in Ottawa (Ontario) and the BIM of Masegra Castel in Sondrio (Italy), encouraging the dissemination and interaction of scientific results without losing information during the generative process.

  10. UNICOS CPC6: Automated Code Generation for Process Control Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Adiego, B; Prieto Barreiro, I

    2011-01-01

    The Continuous Process Control package (CPC) is one of the components of the CERN Unified Industrial Control System framework (UNICOS) [1]. As a part of this framework, UNICOS-CPC provides a well defined library of device types, amethodology and a set of tools to design and implement industrial control applications. The new CPC version uses the software factory UNICOS Application Builder (UAB) [2] to develop CPC applications. The CPC component is composed of several platform oriented plugins PLCs and SCADA) describing the structure and the format of the generated code. It uses a resource package where both, the library of device types and the generated file syntax, are defined. The UAB core is the generic part of this software, it discovers and calls dynamically the different plug-ins and provides the required common services. In this paper the UNICOS CPC6 package is introduced. It is composed of several plug-ins: the Instance generator and the Logic generator for both, Siemens and Schneider PLCs, the SCADA g...

  11. Impeller radial force evolution in a large double-suction centrifugal pump during startup at the shut-off condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Zhichao [College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Fujun, E-mail: wangfj@cau.edu.cn [College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Safety and Energy Saving Technology for Water Supply Network System, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Yao, Zhifeng [College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Safety and Energy Saving Technology for Water Supply Network System, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Tao, Ran [College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Xiao, Ruofu [College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Safety and Energy Saving Technology for Water Supply Network System, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Huaicheng [Shanghai Liancheng (Group) Co., Ltd., Shanghai 201812 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Conclude the characteristics of transient radial force in the startup process for a large double-suction centrifugal pump. • The overall direction of the radial force during startup process is also confirmed. • A formula used to calculate the transient radial force during startup process is proposed. • A relationship between radial force variation and axial vortex development in blade channel during the startup process is established. The mechanism of the radial force evolution is revealed. - Abstract: Double-suction centrifugal pumps play an important role in the main feedwater systems of nuclear power plant. The impeller radial force in a centrifugal pump varies dramatically during startup at the shut-off condition. In this study, the startup process of a large double-suction centrifugal pump is investigated using CFD. During testing, the impeller speed is accelerated from zero to its rated speed in 1.0 s (marked as t{sub 0}) and is then maintained at the rated speed. The results show that the radial force increase lags behind the impeller speed increase. At 0–0.4t{sub 0}, the radial force is small (approaching zero). At 0.4–1.4t{sub 0}, the radial force increases rapidly. After 1.4t{sub 0}, the average radial force stabilizes and reaches its maximum value of 55,619 N. The observed maximum radial force value during startup is approximately nine times as high as the radial force under rated condition. During startup, the overall radial force direction is proximate to the radial line located 25° from the volute tongue along circumferential direction. A transient radial force formula is proposed to evaluate the changes in radial force during startup. The streamline distribution in impeller passages and the impeller outlet pressure profile varying over time are produced. The relationship between radial force evolution and the varying axial-to-spiral vortex structure is analyzed. The radial force change mechanism is revealed. This research

  12. Experiences with Direct Steam Generation at the Kanchanaburi Solar Thermal Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger, Dirk; Krüger, Joachim; Pandian, Yuvaraj; O'Connell, Bryan; Feldhoff, Jan Fabian; Karthikeyan, Ramkumar; Hempel, Sören; Muniasamy, Karthik; Hirsch, Tobias; Eickhoff, Martin; Hennecke, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 the parabolic trough power plant TSE1 has started operation in Thailand. As a novelty it uses the direct steam generation (DSG) process, evaporating and super heating water and steam directly in the solar field. During the commissioning phase and first months of operation the start-up procedure has been optimised for the solar field and turbine system resulting in a reduced start-up time. The DSG process can be controlled well in the evaporator and super heater section securing a safe...

  13. Startup of air-cooled condensers and dry cooling towers at low temperatures of the cooling air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, O. O.; Ptakhin, A. V.; Kondratev, A. V.; Shifrin, B. A.; Yankov, G. G.

    2016-05-01

    The problems of startup and performance of air-cooled condensers (ACC) and dry cooling towers (DCT) at low cooling air temperatures are considered. Effects of the startup of the ACC at sub-zero temperatures are described. Different options of the ACC heating up are analyzed, and examples of existing technologies are presented (electric heating, heating up with hot air or steam, and internal and external heating). The use of additional heat exchanging sections, steam tracers, in the DCT design is described. The need for high power in cases of electric heating and heating up with hot air is noted. An experimental stand for research and testing of the ACC startup at low temperatures is described. The design of the three-pass ACC unit is given, and its advantages over classical single-pass design at low temperatures are listed. The formation of ice plugs inside the heat exchanging tubes during the start-up of ACC and DCT at low cooling air temperatures is analyzed. Experimental data on the effect of the steam flow rate, steam nozzle distance from the heat-exchange surface, and their orientation in space on the metal temperature were collected, and test results are analyzed. It is noted that the surface temperature at the end of the heat up is almost independent from its initial temperature. Recommendations for the safe start-up of ACCs and DCTs are given. The heating flow necessary to sufficiently heat up heat-exchange surfaces of ACCs and DCTs for the safe startup is estimated. The technology and the process of the heat up of the ACC with the heating steam external supply are described by the example of the startup of the full-scale section of the ACC at sub-zero temperatures of the cooling air, and the advantages of the proposed start-up technology are confirmed.

  14. Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System Startup Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerken, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    This Startup Plan provides a discussion of organizational responsibilities, work planning, quality assurance (QA), personnel qualifications, and testing requirements for the Cross-Site Transfer System.

  15. Initial transient process in a simple helical flux compression generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xian-Jun

    2006-01-01

    An analytical scheme on the initial transient process in a simple helical flux compression generator, which includes the distributions of both the magnetic field in the hollow of an armature and the conducting current density in the stator, is developed by means of a diffusion equation. A relationship between frequency of the conducting current, root of the characteristic function of Bessel equation and decay time in the armature is given. The skin depth in the helical stator is calculated and is compared with the approximate one which is widely used in the calculation of magnetic diffusion. Our analytical results are helpful to understanding the mechanism of the loss of magnetic flux in both the armature and stator and to suggesting an optimal design for improving performance of the helical flux compression generator.

  16. Collaborative process control: Observation of tracks generated by PLM system

    CERN Document Server

    Elkadiri, Soumaya; Delattre, Miguel; Bouras, Abdelaziz

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at analyzing the problems related to collaborative work using a PLM system. This research is mainly focused on the organisational aspects of SMEs involved in networks composed of large companies, subcontractors and other industrial partners. From this analysis, we propose the deployment of an approach based on an observation process of tracks generated by PLM system. The specific contributions are of two fold. First is to identify the brake points of collaborative work. The second, thanks to the exploitation of generated tracks, it allows reducing risks by reacting in real time to the incidents or dysfunctions that may occur. The overall system architecture based on services technology and supporting the proposed approach is described, as well as associated prototype developed using an industrial PLM system.

  17. Efficient biased random bit generation for parallel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slone, D.M.

    1994-09-28

    A lattice gas automaton was implemented on a massively parallel machine (the BBN TC2000) and a vector supercomputer (the CRAY C90). The automaton models Burgers equation {rho}t + {rho}{rho}{sub x} = {nu}{rho}{sub xx} in 1 dimension. The lattice gas evolves by advecting and colliding pseudo-particles on a 1-dimensional, periodic grid. The specific rules for colliding particles are stochastic in nature and require the generation of many billions of random numbers to create the random bits necessary for the lattice gas. The goal of the thesis was to speed up the process of generating the random bits and thereby lessen the computational bottleneck of the automaton.

  18. Improving startup performance with carbon mesh anodes in separator electrode assembly microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2013-04-01

    In a separator electrode assembly microbial fuel cell, oxygen crossover from the cathode inhibits current generation by exoelectrogenic bacteria, resulting in poor reactor startup and performance. To determine the best approach for improving startup performance, the effect of acclimation to a low set potential (-0.2V, versus standard hydrogen electrode) was compared to startup at a higher potential (+0.2V) or no set potential, and inoculation with wastewater or pre-acclimated cultures. Anodes acclimated to -0.2V produced the highest power of 1330±60mWm-2 for these different anode conditions, but unacclimated wastewater inocula produced inconsistent results despite the use of this set potential. By inoculating reactors with transferred cell suspensions, however, startup time was reduced and high power was consistently produced. These results show that pre-acclimation at -0.2V consistently improves power production compared to use of a more positive potential or the lack of a set potential. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Plasma system for start-up of pulverized fuel-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyjakon, A.K. [Wroclaw Univ. of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland). Inst. of Power Engineering and Fluid Mechanics

    2009-07-01

    Pulverized coal combustion requires preliminary heating of the combustion chamber. Conventional heavy oil start-up systems are used during the boiler kindling, resulting in pollution, additional maintenance and high cost. This paper described the advantages of a plasma start-up system for the ignition and stabilization of a pulverized coal flame in coal-fired steam boiler. In a plasma start-up system, the heat source for ignition and stabilization of the pulverized coal combustion is a plasma at a temperature of 5,000 to 10,000 degrees C. The plasma interaction involves rapid heating of coal particles and thermal decomposition of the organic compounds resulting in fast release of the volatile matter and destruction of particles below 5 {mu}m. It also involves thermal dissociation of gaseous products with radical generation and gas ionization. The highly reactive mixture that is produced promotes flame propagation in the presence of oxygen. A continuous plasma discharge in a pulverized burner stabilizes the dust flame. This paper described the advantages associated with the use of a plasma start-up system, such as the possibility of limiting pollutant emissions to the atmosphere. It also presented laboratory study results on the influence of the fuels such as lignite, bituminous coal, wood and carbonaceous shale and their properties on the operational range of the plasma assisted pulverized coal burner. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  20. PCDD/F emissions during startup and shutdown of a hazardous waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Wang, Chao; Cen, Kefa; Ni, Mingjiang; Li, Xiaodong

    2017-08-01

    Compared with municipal solid waste incineration, studies on the PCDD/F emissions of hazardous waste incineration (HWI) under transient conditions are rather few. This study investigates the PCDD/F emission level, congener profile and removal efficiency recorded during startup and shutdown by collecting flue gas samples at the bag filter inlet and outlet and at the stack. The PCDD/F concentration measured in the stack gas during startup and shutdown were 0.56-4.16 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3) and 1.09-3.36 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3), respectively, far exceeding the present codes in China. The total amount of PCDD/F emissions, resulting from three shutdown-startup cycles of this HWI-unit is almost equal to that generated during one year under normal operating conditions. Upstream the filter, the PCDD/F in the flue gas is mainly in the particle phase; however, after being filtered PCDD/F prevails in the gas phase. The PCDD/F fraction in the gas phase even exceeds 98% after passing through the alkaline scrubber. Especially higher chlorinated PCDD/F accumulate on inner walls of filters and ducts during these startup periods and could be released again during normal operation, significantly increasing PCDD/F emissions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. From Jam to Start-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bering Kjæhr, Emil; Lyngbye Hvid Jensen, Jane; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Production workshops such as game jams are popular ways of letting participants acquire hands-on knowledge and experience in producing an artifact or game prototype in a very limited timespan. Some of the games made at these production workshops are later published with great success, and create...... the foundation for new start-up companies. There are, however, an even larger group of very creative and innovative games and artifacts with great potential that go unpublished. This potentially leads to a loss of entrepreneurial opportunities and ultimately the jobs and careers such games could have fostered...

  2. Modeling of DSBs Generation and Repair Process under Ion Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Jin-peng; SHAO Shi-huang; XIE Jin-li; BAI Hui

    2007-01-01

    Under acute perturbations from outside, cell can trigger the self-defense mechanisms in fighting against these genome stresses. To simulate the investigation of the complicated mechanisms of cellular responding DNA damage at single cell level, a model of the double strand breaks (DSBs) generation and repair process is proposed under continuous effect of acute IR. Under different IR dose domains, this model can be used to simulate the complicated interactions among vital components within the cell, and the plausible outcomes of cellular response in fighting against DNA damage.

  3. Start-up of thermophilic-dry anaerobic digestion of OFMSW using adapted modified SEBAC inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdéz-Güelfo, L A; Alvarez-Gallego, C; Sales Márquez, D; Romero García, L I

    2010-12-01

    The work presented here concerns the start-up and stabilization stages of a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) semicontinuously fed for the treatment of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) through anaerobic digestion at thermophilic temperature range (55 degrees C) and dry conditions (30% Total Solids). The procedure reported involves two novel aspects with respect to other start-up and stabilization protocols reported in the literature. The novel aspects concern the adaptation of the inoculum to both the operating conditions (thermophilic and dry) and to the type of waste by employing a modified SEBAC (Sequential Batch Anaerobic Composting) system and, secondly, the direct start-up of the process in a thermophilic temperature regime and feeding of the system from the first day of operation. In this way a significant reduction in the start-up time and stabilization is achieved i.e. 110 days in comparison to 250 days for the processes reported by other authors for the same type of waste and digester. The system presents suitable operational conditions to stabilize the reactor at SRT of 35 days, with a maximum biogas production of 1.944 LR/L.d with a CH(4) and CO(2) percentage of 25.27% and 68.15%, respectively. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Feller processes: the next generation in modeling. Brownian motion, Levy processes and beyond.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Böttcher

    Full Text Available We present a simple construction method for Feller processes and a framework for the generation of sample paths of Feller processes. The construction is based on state space dependent mixing of Lévy processes. Brownian Motion is one of the most frequently used continuous time Markov processes in applications. In recent years also Lévy processes, of which Brownian Motion is a special case, have become increasingly popular. Lévy processes are spatially homogeneous, but empirical data often suggest the use of spatially inhomogeneous processes. Thus it seems necessary to go to the next level of generalization: Feller processes. These include Lévy processes and in particular brownian motion as special cases but allow spatial inhomogeneities. Many properties of Feller processes are known, but proving the very existence is, in general, very technical. Moreover, an applicable framework for the generation of sample paths of a Feller process was missing. We explain, with practitioners in mind, how to overcome both of these obstacles. In particular our simulation technique allows to apply Monte Carlo methods to Feller processes.

  5. Feller processes: the next generation in modeling. Brownian motion, Lévy processes and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Björn

    2010-12-03

    We present a simple construction method for Feller processes and a framework for the generation of sample paths of Feller processes. The construction is based on state space dependent mixing of Lévy processes. Brownian Motion is one of the most frequently used continuous time Markov processes in applications. In recent years also Lévy processes, of which Brownian Motion is a special case, have become increasingly popular. Lévy processes are spatially homogeneous, but empirical data often suggest the use of spatially inhomogeneous processes. Thus it seems necessary to go to the next level of generalization: Feller processes. These include Lévy processes and in particular brownian motion as special cases but allow spatial inhomogeneities. Many properties of Feller processes are known, but proving the very existence is, in general, very technical. Moreover, an applicable framework for the generation of sample paths of a Feller process was missing. We explain, with practitioners in mind, how to overcome both of these obstacles. In particular our simulation technique allows to apply Monte Carlo methods to Feller processes.

  6. Fully solution-processed, transparent organic power-generating polarizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wei-Yu; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Chen, Yang-Fang

    2017-03-01

    We fabricate transparent organic power-generating polarizer by all solution process. Based on the conventional indium–tin-oxide-coated glass as the bottom cathode, the subsequent layers are prepared by a combination of solution processing methods. Sprayed silver nanowires film serves as the top anode and can transmit greater than 80% of the visible light with sheet resistance of 16 Ω/□. By adopting the quasi-bilayer structure for the photoactive layer composed of rubbed polymer donors to produce anisotropic optical property underneath fullerene acceptors, the finished device demonstrates a power conversion efficiency of 1.36% with unpolarized light, a dichroic ratio of 3.2, and a high short circuit current ratio of 2.6 with polarized light. Our proposed fabrication procedures of devices take into account not only the cost-effective production, but also the flexibility of devices for applying in flexible, scalable circuits to advance the development of future technology.

  7. Arbitrary Waveform Generator for Quantum Information Processing with Trapped Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, R; Britton, J W; Sawyer, B C; Amini, J

    2013-01-01

    Atomic ions confined in multi-electrode traps have been proposed as a basis for scalable quantum information processing. This scheme involves transporting ions between spatially distinct locations by use of time-varying electric potentials combined with laser or microwave pulses for quantum logic in specific locations. We report the development of a fast multi-channel arbitrary waveform generator for applying the time-varying electric potentials used for transport and for shaping quantum logic pulses. The generator is based on a field-programmable gate array controlled ensemble of 16-bit digital-to-analog converters with an update frequency of 50 MHz and an output range of $\\pm$10 V. The update rate of the waveform generator is much faster than relevant motional frequencies of the confined ions in our experiments, allowing diabatic control of the ion motion. Numerous pre-loaded sets of time-varying voltages can be selected with 40 ns latency conditioned on real-time signals. Here we describe the device and de...

  8. Startup Time, Startup Power and Startup Loss in Reduced-voltage Startup of Induction Motor%异步电机降压起动的起动时间、起动功率和起动损耗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦达; 李明辉; 曹玉泉

    2011-01-01

    为了限制异步电机较大的起动电流,经常采用降压起动的方法.但目前对异步电机降压起动的问题研究较少.以电机理论为基础,利用电机的机械特性曲线,分析了异步电机降压Uσ起动时的起动时间、起动功率和起动损耗.设Uσ与额定电压UN之比为降压系数σ(0<σ<1),与额定电压UN起动时相比,降压Uσ起动时的起动时间tσ增大到1/σ2,起动功率△Pσ减小到1/σ2,起动损耗△W不变,降压起动不能节能.%In order to limit the larger starting current of induction motor, re duced-voltage startup is used frequently, but up to now, studies of reduced-voltage startup for induction motors have been relatively scarce.Therefore based on the electric theory, and using torque-speed characteristic curve of induction motor, the startup time, startup power and startup loss of induction motor are analyzed when the reduced-voltage Uσ startup.Set the ratio of Uσ to rated-voltage UN is reduced-voltage coefficient σ(0 < σ < 1 ), compared with the rated-voltageUN startup, can get that the reduced-voltage Uσ startup time tσincreased to 1/(σ2) times, startup power APσ reduced to 1/(σ2), startup loss △ W is unchanged, reduced-voltage startup can not be energy-saving.

  9. Mathematics for generative processes: Living and non-living systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannantoni, Corrado

    2006-05-01

    The traditional Differential Calculus often shows its limits when describing living systems. These in fact present such a richness of characteristics that are, in the majority of cases, much wider than the description capabilities of the usual differential equations. Such an aspect became particularly evident during the research (completed in 2001) for an appropriate formulation of Odum's Maximum Em-Power Principle (proposed by the Author as a possible Fourth Thermodynamic Principle). In fact, in such a context, the particular non-conservative Algebra, adopted to account for both Quality and quantity of generative processes, suggested we introduce a faithfully corresponding concept of "derivative" (of both integer and fractional order) to describe dynamic conditions however variable. The new concept not only succeeded in pointing out the corresponding differential bases of all the rules of Emergy Algebra, but also represented the preferential guide in order to recognize the most profound physical nature of the basic processes which mostly characterize self-organizing Systems (co-production, co-injection, inter-action, feed-back, splits, etc.).From a mathematical point of view, the most important novelties introduced by such a new approach are: (i) the derivative of any integer or fractional order can be obtained independently from the evaluation of its lower order derivatives; (ii) the exponential function plays an extremely hinge role, much more marked than in the case of traditional differential equations; (iii) wide classes of differential equations, traditionally considered as being non-linear, become "intrinsically" linear when reconsidered in terms of "incipient" derivatives; (iv) their corresponding explicit solutions can be given in terms of new classes of functions (such as "binary" and "duet" functions); (v) every solution shows a sort of "persistence of form" when representing the product generated with respect to the agents of the generating process

  10. Photochemical Process Modeling and Analysis of Ozone Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰; 邱彤; 陈丙珍

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution in modern city and industrial zones has become a serious public concern in recent years in China. Significance of air quality assessment and emission control strategy design is increasing. Most studies in China focus on particulate matter (PM), especially PM2.5, while few account for photochemical secondary air pol-lutions represented by ozone (O3). In this paper, a procedure for air quality simulation with comprehensive air quality model with extensions (CAMx) is demonstrated for studying the photochemical process and ozone generation in the troposphere. As a case study, the CAMx photochemical grid model is used to model ozone over southern part of Beijing city in winter, 2011. The input parameters to CAMx include emission sources, meteorology field data, terrain definition, photolysis status, initial and boundary conditions. The simulation results are verified by theoretical analysis of the ozone generation tendency. The simulated variation tendency of domain-wide average value of hourly ozone concentration coincides reasonably well with the theoretical analysis on the atmospheric photochemical process, demonstrating the effectiveness of the procedure. An integrated model system that cooperates with CAMx will be established in our future work.

  11. Probing the SELEX process with next-generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Schütze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SELEX is an iterative process in which highly diverse synthetic nucleic acid libraries are selected over many rounds to finally identify aptamers with desired properties. However, little is understood as how binders are enriched during the selection course. Next-generation sequencing offers the opportunity to open the black box and observe a large part of the population dynamics during the selection process. METHODOLOGY: We have performed a semi-automated SELEX procedure on the model target streptavidin starting with a synthetic DNA oligonucleotide library and compared results obtained by the conventional analysis via cloning and Sanger sequencing with next-generation sequencing. In order to follow the population dynamics during the selection, pools from all selection rounds were barcoded and sequenced in parallel. CONCLUSIONS: High affinity aptamers can be readily identified simply by copy number enrichment in the first selection rounds. Based on our results, we suggest a new selection scheme that avoids a high number of iterative selection rounds while reducing time, PCR bias, and artifacts.

  12. Process Technology Development of Ni Electroplating in Steam Generator Tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joung Soo; Kim, H. P.; Lim, Y. S.; Kim, S. S.; Hwang, S. S.; Yi, Y. S.; Kim, D. J.; Jeong, M. K.

    2009-11-15

    Operating nuclear power steam generator tubing material, Alloy 600, having superior resistance to corrosion has many experiences of damage by various corrosion mechanisms during long term operation period. In this research project, a new Ni electroplating technology to be applied to repair the damaged steam generator tubes has been developed. In this technology development, the optimum conditions for variables affecting the Ni electroplating process, optimum process conditions for maximum adhesion forces at interface between were established. The various mechanical properties (RT and HT tensile, fatigue, creep, burst, etc.) and corrosion properties (general corrosion, pitting, crevice corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, boric acid corrosion, doped steam) of the Ni plated layers made at the established optimum conditions have been evaluated and confirmed to satisfy the specifications. In addition, a new ECT probe developed at KAERI enable to detect defects from magnetic materials was confirmed to be used for Ni electroplated Alloy 600 tubes at the field. For the application of this developed technology to operating plants, a mock-up electroplating system has been designed and manufactured, and set up at Doosan Heavy Industry Co. and also its performance test has been done. At same time, the anode probe has been modified and improved to be used with the established mock-up system without any problem

  13. Electrosleeve process for in-situ nuclear steam generator repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, R.A. [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, ON (Canada); Moran, T.E. [Framatome Technologies Inc., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Renaud, E. [Babcock and Wilcox Industries Ltd., Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    Degradation of steam generator (SG) tubing by localized corrosion is a widespread problem in the nuclear industry that can lead to costly forced out-ages, unit de-rating, SG replacement or even the permanent shutdown of a reactor. In response to the onset of SG tubing degradation at Ontario Hydro's Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS) Unit 5, and the determined unsuitability of conventional repair methods (mechanically expanded or welded sleeves) for Alloy 400, an alternative repair technology was developed. Electrosleeve is a non-intrusive, low-temperature process that involves the electrodeposition of a nanocrystalline nickel microalloy forming a continuously bonded, structural layer over the internal diameter of the degraded region. This technology is designed to provide a long-term pressure boundary repair, fully restoring the structural integrity of the damaged region to its original state. This paper describes the Electrosleeve process for SG tubing repair and the unique properties of the advanced sleeve material. The successful installation of Electrosleeves that have been in service for more than three years in Alloy 400 SG tubing at the Pickering-5 CANDU unit, the more recent extension of the technology to Alloy 600 and its demonstration in a U.S. pressurized water reactor (PWR), is presented. A number of PWR operators have requested plant operating technical specification changes to permit Electrosleeve SG tube repair. Licensing of the Electrosleeve by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is expected imminently. (author)

  14. Business Startups: Cultural-Economic Controversy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejat Erk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine whether national cultural differencesand/or economic, macroeconomic indicators are dominantin explaining business startups in selected EU countries. Among Hofstede’snational cultural differences, we have used the individualismcollectivenessindexmeasuring preference behavior that promotes one’sself interest, while the power distance index measures tolerance of citizensin terms of social inequality in terms of superiors or subordinates;the uncertainty avoidance index reflects tolerance towards uncertaintyand ambiguity among citizens, while the masculinity index measureswhether the society is male centered (Hofstede 2003. The last variablein the model related to culture is the corruption index (TransparencyInternational 2008, which reflects how sensitive the nation is towardscorruption. Among the macroeconomic indicators we have looked atwhether the firm birth rate in an economy is strongly influenced bythe given average wage rate, overall productivity level among nations,index for profitability and real per capita GDP growth. Findings showthat with some exclusion, cultural factors are as important as economicindicators in explaining national business startups. Towards this end wehave used factor and principle component analysis towards explainingthe strength of the relationship among the variables.

  15. Electron beam generated plasmas for the processing of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, S. G.; Hernández, S. C.; Boris, D. R.; Petrova, Tz B.; Petrov, G. M.

    2017-09-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has developed a processing system based on an electron beam-generated plasma and applied it to the processing of graphene. Unlike conventional discharges produced by electric fields (DC, RF, microwave, etc), the plasma is driven by a high-energy (~few keV) electron beam, an approach that simplifies the relative production of species while providing comparatively high ion-to-radical production rates. The resulting plasmas are characterized by high charged particle densities (1010-1011 cm-3) and electron temperatures that are typically about 1.0 eV or lower. Accordingly, the flux to adjacent surfaces is generally dominated by ions with kinetic energies in the range of 1-5 eV, a value at or near the bond strength of most materials. This provides the potential for controllably engineering materials with monolayer precision, an attribute attractive for the processing of atomically thin material systems. This work describes the attributes of electron beam driven plasma processing system and its use in modification of graphene.

  16. Social capital of venture capitalists and start-up funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.T. Alexy (Oliver); J.H. Block (Jörn); P.G. Sandner (Philipp); A.L.J. Ter Wal (Anne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHow does the social capital of venture capitalists (VCs) affect the funding of start-ups? By building on the rich social capital literature, we hypothesize a positive effect of VCs' social capital, derived from past syndication, on the amount of money that start-ups receive. Specifically

  17. Viral startup a guide to designing viral loops

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Andrew Chen is a blogger and entrepreneur focused on consumer internet, metrics and user acquisition. He is an advisor/angel for early-stage startups including Appsumo, Cardpool (acquired by Safeway), Catchfree, Gravity, Mocospace, Launchbit, Qik (acquired by Skype), WeeWorld, Votizen, and is also a 500 Startups mentor.

  18. Genetic Counselors in Startup Companies: Redefining the Genetic Counselor Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabideau, Marina M; Wong, Kenny; Gordon, Erynn S; Ryan, Lauren

    2016-08-01

    Genetic counselors (GCs) have recently begun moving into non-clinic based roles in increasing numbers. A relatively new role for GCs is working for startup companies. Startups are newly established companies in the phase of developing and researching new scalable businesses. This article explores the experiences of four GCs working at different startup companies and aims to provide resources for GCs interested in learning more about these types of roles. The article describes startup culture, including a relatively flat organizational structure, quick product iterations, and flexibility, among other unique cultural characteristics. Financial considerations are described, including how to understand and evaluate a company's financial status, along with a brief explanation of alternate forms of compensation including stock options and equity. Specifically, the article details the uncertainties and rewards of working in a fast-paced startup environment that affords opportunities to try new roles and use the genetic counseling skill set in new ways. This article aims to aid GCs in determining whether a startup environment would be a good fit, learning how to evaluate a specific startup, and understanding how to market themselves for positions at startups.

  19. How Does Personal Bankruptcy Law Affect Start-ups?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerqueiro, G.M.; Penas, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effect of changes in U.S. state personal exemptions on the financing structure and performance of a representative sample of start-ups. An increase in the amount of borrower’s personal wealth protected in bankruptcy reduces the availability of bank credit to all start-ups. Owners of u

  20. Start-up Costs, Taxes and Innovative Entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Darnihamedani (Pourya); J.H. Block (Jörn); S.J.A. Hessels (Jolanda); A. Simonyan (Aram)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Prior research suggests that start-up costs and taxes negatively influence entry into entrepreneurship. Yet, no distinction is made regarding the type of entrepreneurship, particularly innovative versus non-innovative entrepreneurship. Start-up costs, being one-off

  1. Start-up performance of parabolic trough concentrating solar power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferruzza, Davide; Topel, Monika; Basaran, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Concentrating solar power plants, even though they can be integrated with thermal energy storage, are still subjected to cyclic start-up and shut-downs. As a consequence, in order to maximize their profitability and performance, the flexibility with respect to transient operations is essential....... In this regard, two of the key components identified are the steam generation system and steam turbine. In general it is desirable to have fast ramp-up rates during the start-up of a power plant. However ramp-up rates are limited by, among other things, thermal stresses, which if high enough can compromise...... generator to determine the optimal ramp rates. This paper presents a methodology to account for thermal stresses limitations during the power plant start up, aiming at identifying which components limit the ramp rates. A detailed dynamic model of a parabolic trough power plant was developed and integrated...

  2. Active vibration control of multibody system with quick startup and brake based on active damping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Hua-ping; TANG Yun-jun; TAO Gong-an

    2006-01-01

    A kind of active vibration control method was presented based on active damping and optimization design for driving load of multibody system with quick startup and brake. Dynamical equation of multibody system with quick startup and brake and piezoelectric actuators intelligent structure was built. The optimum driving load was calculated by applying the presented method. The self-sensing and self-tuning closed-loop active vibration control in quick startup and brake process was realized. The control algorithm, using local velocity negative feedback, i.e. the output of a sensor only affects the output of the actuator collocated, can induce damping effectively to actively suppress the system vibration. Based on the optimization design for driving load of multibody system with quick startup and bake, the active damping of piezoelectric actuators intelligent structure was used to farther suppress the vibration of system. Theoretical analysis and calculation of numerical show that the proposed method makes the vibration of system decrease more than the optimal design method for driving load of multibody system.

  3. Simplified Process for Manufacturing Macroscale Patterns to Enhance Voltage Generation by a Triboelectric Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ho Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a simple, yet effective and affordable, manufacturing process to enhance the overall efficiency of voltage generation by a triboelectric generator (TEG using 3D printers for energy-harvesting applications. The proposed method can be classified as macroscale surface patterning, in contrast to micro- and nanoscale patterning of TEG proposed in previous studies. Experiments were conducted using a designed test-bed system that allowed the control of external factors, such as the magnitude and frequency of the frictional force and the relative humidity, and an output voltage increase of up to 67% was obtained from a TEG with macroscale patterns that increased the surface area by 14%. The peak voltage generated by the TEG was as high as 18 V, and the addition of a designed analog circuit that uses no external power enabled storage of a DC voltage of 0.4 V. In comparison with previous methods that employ micro- or nanoscale patterns, the proposed patterning method is faster and more suitable for mass production.

  4. Sulfur Flow Analysis for New Generation Steel Manufacturing Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Chang-qing; ZHANG Chun-xia; HAN Xiao-wei; YIN Rui-yu

    2008-01-01

    Sulfur flow for new generation steel manufacturing process is analyzed by the method of material flow analysis,and measures for SO2 emission reduction are put forward as assessment and target intervention of the results.The results of sulfur flow analysis indicate that 90% of sulfur comes from fuels.Sulfur finally discharges from the steel manufacturing route in various steps,and the main point is BF and BOF slag desulfurization.In sintering process,the sulfur is removed by gasification,and sintering process is the main source of SO2 emission.The sulfur content of coke oven gas (COG) is an important factor affecting SO2 emission.Therefore,SO2 emission reduction should be started from the optimization and integration of steel manufacturing route,sulfur burden should be reduced through energy saving and consumption reduction,and the sulfur content of fuel should be controlled.At the same time,BF and BOF slag desulfurization should be optimized further and coke oven gas and sintering exhausted gas desulfurization should be adopted for SO2 emission reduction and reuse of resource,to achieve harmonic coordination of economic,social,and environmental effects for sustainable development.

  5. Solution-processed semiconductors for next-generation photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Arquer, F. Pelayo; Armin, Ardalan; Meredith, Paul; Sargent, Edward H.

    2017-01-01

    Efficient light detection is central to modern science and technology. Current photodetectors mainly use photodiodes based on crystalline inorganic elemental semiconductors, such as silicon, or compounds such as III-V semiconductors. Photodetectors made of solution-processed semiconductors — which include organic materials, metal-halide perovskites and quantum dots — have recently emerged as candidates for next-generation light sensing. They combine ease of processing, tailorable optoelectronic properties, facile integration with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors, compatibility with flexible substrates and good performance. Here, we review the recent advances and the open challenges in the field of solution-processed photodetectors, examining the topic from both the materials and the device perspective and highlighting the potential of the synergistic combination of materials and device engineering. We explore hybrid phototransistors and their potential to overcome trade-offs in noise, gain and speed, as well as the rapid advances in metal-halide perovskite photodiodes and their recent application in narrowband filterless photodetection.

  6. New generation of content addressable memories for associative processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, H. G., Jr.; Giambalov, Paul

    2000-05-01

    Content addressable memories (CAMS) store both key and association data. A key is presented to the CAN when it is searched and all of the addresses are scanned in parallel to find the address referenced by the key. When a match occurs, the corresponding association is returned. With the explosion of telecommunications packet switching protocols, large data base servers, routers and search engines a new generation of dense sub-micron high throughput CAMS has been developed. The introduction of this paper presents a brief history and tutorial on CAMS, their many uses and advantages, and describes the architecture and functionality of several of MUSIC Semiconductors CAM devices. In subsequent sections of the paper we address using Associative Processing to accommodate the continued increase in sensor resolution, number of spectral bands, required coverage, the desire to implement real-time target cueing, and the data flow and image processing required for optimum performance of reconnaissance and surveillance Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). To be competitive the system designer must provide the most computational power, per watt, per dollar, per cubic inch, within the boundaries of cost effective UAV environmental control systems. To address these problems we demonstrate leveraging DARPA and DoD funded Commercial Off-the-Shelf technology to integrate CAM based Associative Processing into a real-time heterogenous multiprocessing system for UAVs and other platforms with limited weight, volume and power budgets.

  7. New Solutions to the Funding Dilemma of Technology Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kousari

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the current funding challenges facing technology startups and describes new models based on smaller investments and collective action. First, the advantages and disadvantages of traditional startup funding models are presented, with an emphasis on venture capital and angel investment. Next, an overview of existing seed funds, or seed accelerators, shows how entrepreneurs can leverage this approach to access subsequent rounds of funding and create successful ventures. Then, an overview of crowd funding is provided, including examples of companies that have adopted this approach to funding startups and their founders. Finally, the article presents the basis of a new approach that uses crowd funding as means of attracting investors to collectives. In these business ecosystems, startups are exposed to less risk and investors can benefit from attractive returns by investing in these promising startups.

  8. Electrically heated DPF start-up strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2012-04-10

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine has a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates in the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates. Heat generated by combustion of particulates in the heater induces combustion of particulates within the DPF. A control module selectively enables current flow to the electrical heater for an initial period of a DPF regeneration cycle, and limits exhaust flow while the electrical heater is heating to a predetermined soot combustion temperature.

  9. Review of Catalytic Hydrogen Generation in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D. C.

    2004-12-31

    This report was prepared to fulfill the Phase I deliverable for HLW/DWPF/TTR-98-0018, Rev. 2, ''Hydrogen Generation in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell'', 6/4/2001. The primary objective for the preliminary phase of the hydrogen generation study was to complete a review of past data on hydrogen generation and to prepare a summary of the findings. The understanding was that the focus should be on catalytic hydrogen generation, not on hydrogen generation by radiolysis. The secondary objective was to develop scope for follow-up experimental and analytical work. The majority of this report provides a summary of past hydrogen generation work with radioactive and simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste sludges. The report also includes some work done with Hanford waste sludges and simulants. The review extends to idealized systems containing no sludge, such as solutions of sodium formate and formic acid doped with a noble metal catalyst. This includes general information from the literature, as well as the focused study done by the University of Georgia for the SRS. The various studies had a number of points of universal agreement. For example, noble metals, such as Pd, Rh, and Ru, catalyze hydrogen generation from formic acid and formate ions, and more acid leads to more hydrogen generation. There were also some points of disagreement between different sources on a few topics such as the impact of mercury on the noble metal catalysts and the identity of the most active catalyst species. Finally, there were some issues of potential interest to SRS that apparently have not been systematically studied, e.g. the role of nitrite ion in catalyst activation and reactivity. The review includes studies covering the period from about 1924-2002, or from before the discovery of hydrogen generation during simulant sludge processing in 1988 through the Shielded Cells qualification testing for Sludge Batch 2. The review of prior studies is followed by a

  10. An efficient start-up circuitry for de-energized ultra-low power energy harvesting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörmann, Leander B.; Berger, Achim; Salzburger, Lukas; Priller, Peter; Springer, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Cyber-physical systems often include small wireless devices to measure physical quantities or control a technical process. These devices need a self-sufficient power supply because no wired infrastructure is available. Their operational time can be enhanced by energy harvesting systems. However, the convertible power is often limited and discontinuous which requires the need of an energy storage unit. If this unit (and thus the whole system) is de-energized, the start-up process may take a significant amount of time because of an inefficient energy harvesting process. Therefore, this paper presents a system which enables a safe and fast start-up from the de-energized state.

  11. Ensilage of pineapple processing waste for methane generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, D Swaroopa; Nand, Krishna

    2004-01-01

    Pineapple peel wastes, which are seasonal, comprise of peels and rags. Their disposal poses a serious environmental pollution problem. Since pineapple peel is rich in cellulose, hemicellulose and other carbohydrates it was found to be a potential substrate for methane generation by anaerobic digestion. Ensilaging of pineapple peel resulted in the conversion of 55% carbohydrates into volatile fatty acids. The ensilage of pineapple processing wastes reduced the biological oxygen demand by 91%. Biogas digester fed with ensilaged pineapple peel resulted in the biogas yield of 0.67 m3/kg volatile solids (VS) added with methane content of 65% whereas fresh and dried pineapple peels gave biogas yields of 0.55% and 0.41 m3/kg VS added and methane content of 51% and 41% respectively.

  12. Next Generation Strong Lensing Time Delay Estimation with Gaussian Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hojjati, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Strong gravitational lensing forms multiple, time delayed images of cosmological sources, with the "focal length" of the lens serving as a cosmological distance probe. Robust estimation of the time delay distance can tightly constrain the Hubble constant as well as the matter density and dark energy. Current and next generation surveys will find hundreds to thousands of lensed systems but accurate time delay estimation from noisy, gappy lightcurves is potentially a limiting systematic. Using a large sample of blinded lightcurves from the Strong Lens Time Delay Challenge we develop and demonstrate a Gaussian Process crosscorrelation technique that delivers an average bias within 0.1% depending on the sampling, necessary for subpercent Hubble constant determination. The fits are accurate (80% of them within 1 day) for delays from 5-100 days and robust against cadence variations shorter than 6 days. We study the effects of survey characteristics such as cadence, season, and campaign length, and derive requiremen...

  13. Plan for the Startup of HA-21I Furnace Operations at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIS, H.T.

    2000-02-17

    Achievement of Thermal Stabilization mission elements require the installation and startup of three additional muffle furnaces for the thermal stabilization of plutonium and plutonium bearing materials at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The release to operate these additional furnaces will require an Activity Based Startup Review. The conduct of the Activity Based Startup Review (ABSR) was approved by Fluor Daniel Hanford on October 15, 1999. This plan has been developed with the objective of identifying those activities needed to guide the controlled startup of five furnaces from authorization to unrestricted operations by adding the HA-211 furnaces in an orderly and safe manner after the approval to Startup has been given. The Startup Plan provides a phased approach that bridges the activities between the completion of the Activity Based Startup Review authorizing the use of the three additional furnaces and the unrestricted operation of the five thermal stabilization muffle furnaces. The four phases are: (1) the initiation of five furnace operations using three empty (simulated full) boat charges from HA-211 and two full charges from HC-21C; (2) three furnace operations (one full charge from HA-211 and two full charges from HC-21C); (3) four furnace operations (two full charges from HA-211 and two full charges from HC-21C); and (4) integrated five furnace operations and unrestricted operations. Phase 1 of the Plan will be considered as the cold runs. This Plan also provides management oversight and administrative controls that are to be implemented until unrestricted operations are authorized. It also provides a formal review process for ensuring that all preparations needed for full five furnace operations are completed and formally reviewed prior to proceeding to the increased activity levels associated with five furnace operations. Specific objectives include: (1) To ensure that activities are conducted in a safe manner. (2) To provide supplemental

  14. Start-up Strategy for Continuous Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. da Costa

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The start-up of continuous bioreactors is solved as an optimal control problem. The choice of the dilution rate as the control variable reduces the dimension of the system by making the use of the global balance equation unnecessary for the solution of the optimization problem. Therefore, for systems described by four or less mass balance equations, it is always possible to obtain an analytical expression for the singular arc as a function of only the state variables. The steady state conditions are shown to satisfy the singular arc expression and, based on this knowledge, a feeding strategy is proposed which leads the reactor from an initial state to the steady state of maximum productivity

  15. Start-up performance of parabolic trough concentrating solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruzza, Davide; Topel, Monika; Basaran, Ibrahim; Laumert, Björn; Haglind, Fredrik

    2017-06-01

    Concentrating solar power plants, even though they can be integrated with thermal energy storage, are still subjected to cyclic start-up and shut-downs. As a consequence, in order to maximize their profitability and performance, the flexibility with respect to transient operations is essential. In this regard, two of the key components identified are the steam generation system and steam turbine. In general it is desirable to have fast ramp-up rates during the start-up of a power plant. However ramp-up rates are limited by, among other things, thermal stresses, which if high enough can compromise the life of the components. Moreover, from an operability perspective it might not be optimal to have designs for the highest heating rates, as there may be other components limiting the power plant start-up. Therefore, it is important to look at the interaction between the steam turbine and steam generator to determine the optimal ramp rates. This paper presents a methodology to account for thermal stresses limitations during the power plant start up, aiming at identifying which components limit the ramp rates. A detailed dynamic model of a parabolic trough power plant was developed and integrated with a control strategy to account for the start-up limitations of both the turbine and steam generator. The models have been introduced in an existing techno-economic tool developed by the authors (DYESOPT). The results indicated that for each application, an optimal heating rates range can be identified. For the specific case presented in the paper, an optimal range of 7-10 K/min of evaporator heating rate can result in a 1.7-2.1% increase in electricity production compared to a slower component (4 K/min).

  16. An integrated MEMS infrastructure for fuel processing: hydrogen generation and separation for portable power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varady, M. J.; McLeod, L.; Meacham, J. M.; Degertekin, F. L.; Fedorov, A. G.

    2007-09-01

    Portable fuel cells are an enabling technology for high efficiency and ultra-high density distributed power generation, which is essential for many terrestrial and aerospace applications. A key element of fuel cell power sources is the fuel processor, which should have the capability to efficiently reform liquid fuels and produce high purity hydrogen that is consumed by the fuel cells. To this end, we are reporting on the development of two novel MEMS hydrogen generators with improved functionality achieved through an innovative process organization and system integration approach that exploits the advantages of transport and catalysis on the micro/nano scale. One fuel processor design utilizes transient, reverse-flow operation of an autothermal MEMS microreactor with an intimately integrated, micromachined ultrasonic fuel atomizer and a Pd/Ag membrane for in situ hydrogen separation from the product stream. The other design features a simpler, more compact planar structure with the atomized fuel ejected directly onto the catalyst layer, which is coupled to an integrated hydrogen selective membrane.

  17. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  18. Triangle geometry processing for surface modeling and cartesian grid generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftosmis, Michael J [San Mateo, CA; Melton, John E [Hollister, CA; Berger, Marsha J [New York, NY

    2002-09-03

    Cartesian mesh generation is accomplished for component based geometries, by intersecting components subject to mesh generation to extract wetted surfaces with a geometry engine using adaptive precision arithmetic in a system which automatically breaks ties with respect to geometric degeneracies. During volume mesh generation, intersected surface triangulations are received to enable mesh generation with cell division of an initially coarse grid. The hexagonal cells are resolved, preserving the ability to directionally divide cells which are locally well aligned.

  19. Innovative Startup-Projects: Experience, Evaluation, Implementation Contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inshakov Maksim Olegovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Innovative companies in the conditions of global post-crisis economic recovery and increased economic activity become again a promising area for investments of large investment and venture capital funds, venture divisions of large transnational corporations, business angels and other private investors. This is confirmed by the data on the increase in the volume of venture capital market in the US and Europe and on a significant increase in the cost of the leading foreign and Russian start-up companies which are rated as of 2014 in the present article. The comparative analysis of the leading Russian and foreign start-ups showed the prevalence of companies engaged in the field of IT-Internet-Mobile and focused on the provision of various kinds of innovative services to consumers among the foreign participants of the rating. Among Russian startups-winners the companies of technological orientation (biological, medical, and “clean” technologies dominate. They reflect the increasing importance of start-ups in the innovative development of the Russian economy. Participation in such competitions and ratings is a favorable factor of promoting start-ups, increasing awareness of potential investors and consumers of start-up products. The importance of start-ups formation and the development of effective regional and national innovation systems update the studies related to the identification of the fundamental contradictions in the activities of Russian start-ups and to the development of recommendations for their resolution. The article identifies the key issues of economic, organizational, informational and marketing character causing the collapse of start-up projects in the Russian economy in modern conditions.

  20. Electron cyclotron plasma startup in the GDT experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, D. V.; Shalashov, A. G.; Gospodchikov, E. D.; Solomakhin, A. L.; Savkin, V. Ya.; Bagryansky, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    We report on a new plasma startup scenario in the gas dynamic trap (GDT) magnetic mirror device. The primary 5 MW neutral beam injection (NBI) plasma heating system fires into a sufficiently dense plasma target (‘seed plasma’), which is commonly supplied by an arc plasma generator. In the reported experiments, a different approach to seed plasma generation is explored. One of the channels of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating system is used to ionize the neutral gas and build up the density of plasma to a level suitable for NBI capture. After a short transition of approximately 1 ms the discharge becomes essentially similar to a standard one initiated by the plasma gun. This paper presents the discharge scenario and experimental data on the seed plasma evolution during ECRH, along with the dependencies on incident microwave power, magnetic configuration and pressure of a neutral gas. The characteristics of the consequent high-power NBI discharge are studied and differences from the conventional scenario are discussed. A theoretical model describing the ECR breakdown and the seed plasma accumulation in a large-scale mirror trap is developed on the basis of the GDT experiment.

  1. Electron-cyclotron plasma startup in the GDT experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Yakovlev, D V; Gospodchikov, E D; Solomakhin, A L; Savkin, V Ya; Bagryansky, P A

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports on a new plasma startup scenario in the Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) magnetic mirror device. The primary 5 MW neutral beam injection (NBI) plasma heating system fires into a sufficiently dense plasma target ("seed plasma"), which is commonly supplied by an arc plasma generator. In the reported experiments, a different approach to seed plasma generation is explored. One of the channels of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating system is used to ionize the neutral gas and build up the density of plasma to a level suitable for NBI capture. After a short transition (about 1 ms) the discharge becomes essentially similar to a standard one initiated by the plasma gun. The paper presents the discharge scenario and experimental data on the seed plasma evolution during ECR heating, along with the dependencies on incident microwave power, magnetic configuration and pressure of a neutral gas. The characteristics of consequent high-power NBI discharge are studied and differences to the conventional sce...

  2. Control Valve Trajectories for SOFC Hybrid System Startup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorrell, Megan; Banta, Larry; Rosen, William; Restrepo, Bernardo; Tucker, David

    2012-07-01

    Control and management of cathode airflow in a solid oxide fuel cell gas turbine hybrid power system was analyzed using the Hybrid Performance (HyPer) hardware simulation at the National Energy Technology (NETL), U.S. Department of Energy. This work delves into previously unexplored operating practices for HyPer, via simultaneous manipulation of bypass valves and the electric load on the generator. The work is preparatory to the development of a Multi-Input, Multi-Output (MIMO) controller for HyPer. A factorial design of experiments was conducted to acquire data for 81 different combinations of the manipulated variables, which consisted of three air flow control valves and the electric load on the turbine generator. From this data the response surface for the cathode airflow with respect to bypass valve positions was analyzed. Of particular interest is the control of airflow through the cathode during system startup and during large load swings. This paper presents an algorithm for controlling air mass flow through the cathode based on a modification of the steepest ascent method.

  3. Skill Heterogeneity in Startups and its Development over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Müller, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    at startup and how it evolves as the new venture matures. We use the population of Danish startups that were established in 1998 and track them until 2001. Main findings are that teams are relatively more homogeneous at startup compared to our benchmark, indicating that difficulties associated with workforce...... heterogeneity (like affective conflict or coordination cost) as well as “homophily” (people’s inclination to bound with others with similar characteristics) may overweigh the benefits of heterogeneity. While workforce heterogeneity does increase over time, the increase is smaller compared to our benchmark...

  4. University Knowledge Spillovers & Regional Start-up Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellerstedt, Karin; Wennberg, Karl; Frederiksen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    on entrepreneurship, we develop a theoretical framework which captures how both supply- and demand-side factors mold the regional bedrock for start-ups in knowledge-intensive industries. Using multilevel data of all knowledge-intensive start-ups across 286 Swedish municipalities between 1994 and 2002 we demonstrate...... demand-side and supply-side context than is the case for high-tech start-ups in general. Our study contributes to the growing stream of research that explains entrepreneurial activity as shaped by contextual factors, most notably academic institutions, such as universities that contribute to knowledge...

  5. Product innovation and commercialization in lean global start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Zijdemans, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the distinctive characteristics of product innovation and commercialization in Lean Global Start-up (LGS) – new technology firms which have adopted a lean and global path from or near to their inception. It suggests an uncertainty vs risk framework which allows integrating two...... research streams – Born Global (BG) firms and lean start-ups. In addition to its integrative theoretical value, the paper offers insights for lean start-up managers dealing with the challenges of a global start....

  6. Start-up of a completely autotrophic nitrogen removal process in a three- dimensional electrode-biofilm reactor%三维电极生物膜反应器全程自养脱氮的启动研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭劲松; 杨琳; 陈猷鹏; 方芳; 唐金晶

    2012-01-01

    A completely autotrophic nitrogen removal process was started up in a three-dimensional electrode-biofilm reactor for artificial ammonia wastewater treatment. The titanium rod coated with a thin layer of ruthenium was used as anode to generate oxygen. In the aerobic area, NH4^+-N was oxidized to NO3^- -N or NO2^- -N by nitrifying bacteria. The active carbon fiber-felt was used as cathode to generate hydrogen. And in this anaerobic area, the denitrification was completed while hydrogen was acted as the electron donor. A lot of carbon particles were filled in tbe cathode area used as three- dimensional electrode. Nitrification and denitrification process were controlled by adjusting dissolved oxygen and pH values under the condition that the initial concentration of ammonia-nitrogen was 30 mg·L^-1 , the hydraulic retention time was 24h and the temperature was 30℃. After biofilm was formed and stabilized, the removal rate of NH4^+-N and TN achieved 97.8% and 92.4% respectively. It was indicated that the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal was started up successfully. The scanning electron microscopy showed that the bacteria on surface of activated carbon fiber felt were mainly short rod-shaped Pseudomonas, while the bacteria on the surface of the activated carbon particles were Micrococcus denitrificans. They both belong to hydrogen autotrophic denitrifying bacteria. In the reactor, the stable autotrophic nitrogen system was gradually established.%采用人工配制氨氮废水,对三维电极生物膜反应器进行全程自养脱氮的启动研究.反应器中阳极采用钌涂层钛棒,在阳极区电解水产氧供硝化菌进行硝化反应;阴极采用活性炭纤维毡,并在阴极区填充活性炭颗粒构建三维电极,在阴极区电解水产氢供反硝化菌完成反硝化过程.在进水NH4^+-N浓度30mg·L^-1、温度30℃、HRT为24h的试验条件下,通过调节DO和pH实现对硝化和反硝化反应的控制.结果

  7. Multiple runoff processes and multiple thresholds control agricultural runoff generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffarpour, Shabnam; Western, Andrew W.; Adams, Russell; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2016-11-01

    Thresholds and hydrologic connectivity associated with runoff processes are a critical concept for understanding catchment hydrologic response at the event timescale. To date, most attention has focused on single runoff response types, and the role of multiple thresholds and flow path connectivities has not been made explicit. Here we first summarise existing knowledge on the interplay between thresholds, connectivity and runoff processes at the hillslope-small catchment scale into a single figure and use it in examining how runoff response and the catchment threshold response to rainfall affect a suite of runoff generation mechanisms in a small agricultural catchment. A 1.37 ha catchment in the Lang Lang River catchment, Victoria, Australia, was instrumented and hourly data of rainfall, runoff, shallow groundwater level and isotope water samples were collected. The rainfall, runoff and antecedent soil moisture data together with water levels at several shallow piezometers are used to identify runoff processes in the study site. We use isotope and major ion results to further support the findings of the hydrometric data. We analyse 60 rainfall events that produced 38 runoff events over two runoff seasons. Our results show that the catchment hydrologic response was typically controlled by the Antecedent Soil Moisture Index and rainfall characteristics. There was a strong seasonal effect in the antecedent moisture conditions that led to marked seasonal-scale changes in runoff response. Analysis of shallow well data revealed that streamflows early in the runoff season were dominated primarily by saturation excess overland flow from the riparian area. As the runoff season progressed, the catchment soil water storage increased and the hillslopes connected to the riparian area. The hillslopes transferred a significant amount of water to the riparian zone during and following events. Then, during a particularly wet period, this connectivity to the riparian zone, and

  8. Decision Enhancement Services for Small and Medium Enterprise Start-Ups in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol, H G; Basaza, Habinka; Sprague, Ralph H.

    2012-01-01

    While start-up firms create a substantial economic impact on most economies, the failure rate of start-up firms seems to remain high due to inadequate agile decision services. Deciding to start-up mining Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) is a challenging task in Uganda. Research on SME start-up sup

  9. Refugee Business Start-ups in the North East of England: An Impossible Dream?

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Hilary; Fitzgerald, Ian; Hudson, Lucinda

    2013-01-01

    Objectives and prior work - For many asylum seekers just getting to the UK is an achievement, let alone obtaining refugee status. When ‘equality’ is achieved with other immigrant workers then the settlement process begins. For some this includes starting a business but there are a number of well documented barriers to business start-up for refugees as well as black minority ethic entrepreneurs, which have been highlighted in the North East region (BRKN, 2007). Given this Northumbria Universit...

  10. Creating a Business Plan for a Start-up Business Consultancy in Namibia

    OpenAIRE

    von Wietersheim, Julia

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this Thesis is to investigate the process of creating an extensive Business Plan and thereby to practically apply the theory studied during the Degree Programme of International Business. To achieve this objective, a practical business plan for a start-up Business Consultancy in Namibia (called VW-Business Consulting) is created, which at the same time provides a deeper understanding of the current demand for, and awareness of, business consulting companies in Namibia. An...

  11. Participatory Savings And Borrowing For Start-Up And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) ... Participatory Savings And Borrowing For Start-Up And Recapitalization Needs: Farmers ... be considered for more loans whenever they meet up with the conditions for such new contracts.

  12. CERN confident of LHC start-up in 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Delegates attending the 140th meeting of CERN Council heard a confident report from the Laboratory about the scheduled start-up of the world's highest energy particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collier (LHC), in 2007." (1 page)

  13. Start-up Funding via Equity Crowdfunding in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angerer, Martin; Brem, Alexander; Kraus, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    Entrepreneurs often struggle to find sufficient funding for their start-ups. A relatively new way for companies to attract capital is via an internet platform, locating investors who in return receive something in return for their ventures. Equity crowdfunding is one of several types of crowdfund......Entrepreneurs often struggle to find sufficient funding for their start-ups. A relatively new way for companies to attract capital is via an internet platform, locating investors who in return receive something in return for their ventures. Equity crowdfunding is one of several types...... of crowdfunding, and is also known as crowdinvesting in the German-speaking realm. This article predominantly advances the scientific knowledge regarding the success factors of equity crowdfunding for German start-ups. The study conducted nine qualitative interviews with start-ups and crowdinvesting platforms...

  14. Start-up Funding via Equity Crowdfunding in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angerer, Martin; Brem, Alexander; Kraus, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    Entrepreneurs often struggle to find sufficient funding for their start-ups. A relatively new way for companies to attract capital is via an internet platform, locating investors who in return receive something in return for their ventures. Equity crowdfunding is one of several types...... of crowdfunding, and is also known as crowdinvesting in the German-speaking realm. This article predominantly advances the scientific knowledge regarding the success factors of equity crowdfunding for German start-ups. The study conducted nine qualitative interviews with start-ups and crowdinvesting platforms....... Its first result is that German start-ups select crowdinvesting because (1) it is a funding opportunity and (2) it has an expected marketing effect. To organize the results of relevant success factors, the Crowdinvesting Success Model was designed by the researchers. This supports German entrepreneurs...

  15. Intellectual property and financing strategies for technology startups

    CERN Document Server

    Halt, Jr , Gerald B; Stiles, Amber R; Fesnak, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive, easy to understand guide for startup entities and developing companies, providing insight on the various sources of funding that are available, how these funding sources are useful at each stage of a company’s development, and offers a comprehensive intellectual property strategy that parallels each stage of development. The IP strategies offered in this book take into consideration the goals that most startups and companies have at each stage of development, as well as the limitations that exist at each stage (i.e., limited available resources earmarked for intellectual property asset development), and provides solutions that startups and companies can implement to maximize their return on intellectual property investments. This book also includes a number of descriptive examples, case studies and scenarios to illustrate the topics discussed, and is intended for use by startups and companies across all industries. Readers will garner an appreciation for the value that inte...

  16. Low start-up voltage dc–dc converter with negative voltage control for thermoelectric energy harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pui-Sun Lei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This Letter presents a low start-up voltage dc–dc converter for low-power thermoelectric systems which uses a native n-type MOS transistor as the start-up switch. The start-up voltage of the proposed converter is 300 mV and the converter does not need batteries to start up. The negative voltage control is proposed to reduce the leakage current caused by native n-type transistor and increase the efficiency. The proposed converter was designed using standard 0.18 µm CMOS process with chip size of 0.388 mm^2. The peak efficiency is 63% at load current of 1.5 mA. The proposed converter provides output voltage >1 V at maximum load current of 3.2 mA.

  17. University Start-ups: A Better Business Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehn, J.; Webley, P. W.

    2015-12-01

    Many universities look to start-up companies as a way to attract faculty, supporting research and students as traditional federal sources become harder to come by. University affiliated start-up companies can apply for a broader suite of grants, as well as market their services to a broad customer base. Often university administrators see this as a potential panacea, but national statistics show this is not the case. Rarely do universities profit significantly from their start-ups. With a success rates of around 20%, most start-ups end up costing the university money as well as faculty-time. For the faculty, assuming they want to continue in academia, a start-up is often unattractive because it commonly leads out of academia. Running a successful business as well as maintaining a strong teaching and research load is almost impossible to do at the same time. Most business models and business professionals work outside of academia, and the models taught in business schools do not merge well in a university environment. To mitigate this a new business model is proposed where university start-ups are aligned with the academic and research missions of the university. A university start-up must work within the university, directly support research and students, and the work done maintaining the business be recognized as part of the faculty member's university obligations. This requires a complex conflict of interest management plan and for the companies to be non-profit in order to not jeopardize the university's status. This approach may not work well for all universities, but would be ideal for many to conserve resources and ensure a harmonious relationship with their start-ups and faculty.

  18. Subsidizing Start-Ups: Policy Targeting and Policy Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Kösters, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Start-up subsidies are a frequently employed policy instrument, the use of which is justified by alleged market failure resulting from positive external effects and capital market imperfections. This article investigates whether the allocation of subsidies reflects a policy focus on addressing these market failure occurrences. However, using survey data from the East German state of Thuringia, logistic regressions reveal a rather random subsidization of start-ups. Furthermore, propensity scor...

  19. GUERRILLA MARKETING : A creative marketing method for start-ups

    OpenAIRE

    Zujewska, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this thesis work was to introduce guerrilla marketing as a valuable marketing method for small and medium size startup companies. The thesis presents the theoretical studies on the subject based on literature and case studies. The practical use of the theory is demonstrated in the marketing plan based on guerrilla marketing approach. The marketing plan was written based on the example of an existing startup company, mCASH. The company is located in Oslo, Norway. The thesis...

  20. Start-ups, Venture Capitalists and the Capital Gains Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2004-01-01

    A model of start-up finance with double moral hazard is proposed. Entrepreneurs have ideas but lack their own resources as well as commercial experience. Venture capitalists provide start-up finance and managerial support. Both types of agents thus jointly contribute to the firm's success, but neither type's effort is verifiable. We find that the market equilibrium is biased towards inefficiently low venture capital support. In this situation, the capital gains tax is particularly harmful. Th...

  1. Start-up Costs, Taxes and Innovative Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Darnihamedani, Pourya; Block, Jörn; Hessels, Jolanda; Simonyan, Aram

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Prior research suggests that start-up costs and taxes negatively influence entry into entrepreneurship. Yet, no distinction is made regarding the type of entrepreneurship, particularly innovative versus non-innovative entrepreneurship. Start-up costs, being one-off costs, may reduce the entry of entrepreneurs whose ideas are not very promising, thus increasing the proportion of innovative entrepreneurs. Taxes, being recurring costs, may reduce the “prize” of innov...

  2. Giving start-ups a helping hand

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The French-Swiss foundation for research and technology (FFSRT) joined forces with CERN to organise an information day on setting up new businesses, at the Globe of Science and Innovation. The participants heard talks by entrepreneurs who started out at CERN, sharing their experiences and difficulties.CERN is a hot-bed of high-tech skills and know-how, and the Organization works actively to transfer this expertise to society. Some such innovations can lead to new business start-ups, but it can be extremely difficult to obtain the information and support you need to find your way through the inevitable administrative labyrinth. By opening its doors to the Fondation franco-suisse pour la recherche et la technologie (FFSRT) and hosting this "Entrepreneurial Day" on 7 March, CERN has clearly flagged its desire to assist budding entrepreneurs. The day was jointly kicked off by Olga Hooft, General Manager of the FFSRT, and Maximilian Metzger, CERN’s Se...

  3. Load adaptive start-up scheme for synchronous boost DC-DC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guoding, Dai; Wenliang, Xiu; Yuezhi, Liu; Yawei, Qi; Zuqi, Dong

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a load adaptive soft-start scheme through which the inductor current of the synchronous boost DC-DC converter can trace the load current at the start-up stage. This scheme effectively eliminates the inrush-current and over-shoot voltage and improves the load capability of the converter. According to the output voltage, the start-up process is divided into three phases and at each phase the inductor current is limited to match the load. In the pre-charge phase, a step-increasing constant current gives a smooth rise of the output voltage which avoids inrush current and ensures the converter successfully starts up at different load situations. An additional ring oscillator operation phase enables the converter to start up as low as 1.4 V. When the converter enters into the system loop soft-start phase, an output voltage and inductor current detection methods make the transition of the phases smooth and the inductor current and output voltage rise steadily. Effective protection circuits such as short-circuit protection, current limit circuit and over-temperature protection circuit are designed to guarantee the safety and reliability of the chip during the start-up process. The proposed start-up circuit is implemented in a synchronous boost DC-DC converter based on TSMC 0.35 μm CMOS process with an input voltage range 1.4-4.2 V, and a steady output voltage 5 V, and the switching frequency is 1 MHz. Simulation results show that inrush current and overshoot voltage are suppressed with a load range from 0-2.1 A, and inductor current is as low as 259 mA when the output shorts to the ground.

  4. Model-based process management and process optimisation of industrial steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaestner, Wolfgang; Hampel, Rainer; Foerster, Tom; Freund, Matthias [Univ. of Applied Sciences Zittau/Goerlitz, Zittau (Germany). IPM; Haake, Dietmar; Kanisch, Heiko [Vattenfall Europe Generation AG, Cottbus (Germany); Altmann, Ulrich-Steffen; Mueller, Frank [CombTec GmbH, Zittau (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Within the framework of a joint project sponsored by BMBF the development of algorithms for the optimal process management of industrial steam generators was carried out. The research work was focussed on the reduction of high-temperature corrosion at the membrane walls of lignite-fired steam generators. In the result a system for demonstration of technology was installed successfully in a Vattenfall power plant in 2009. During the operation of the power plant the capability of the system to guarantee a stable and symmetric fire position was demonstrated. Current work is focussed on the further development and retrofitting of the system to apply it under real condition in a Vattenfall power plant. (orig.)

  5. Automatic generation of optimal business processes from business rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, B.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Iacob, Maria Eugenia

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, business process models are increasingly being used as a means for business process improvement. Business rules can be seen as requirements for business processes, in that they describe the constraints that must hold for business processes that implement these business rules.

  6. Non-inductive Plasma Start-up and Current Ramp-up in NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, R.; Jarboe, T. R.; Jardin, S. C.; Kessel, C. E.; Mueller, D.; Nelson, B. A.; Poli, F.; Taylor, G.; NSTX Research Team; Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Team

    2013-10-01

    Results from NSTX Transient Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) experiments have demonstrated generation of 300 kA start-up currents, and when these discharges were coupled to induction they attained 1 MA of plasma current consuming 65% of the inductive flux of standard inductive-only discharges in NSTX. The NSTX-U device, which is now under construction at PPPL, will have numerous improvements to enhance transient CHI start-up. These are: (1) factor of two increase in toroidal field, (2) more than 2.5 times the injector flux, (3) increased CHI voltage, (4) full lithium coverage to reduce low-Z impurities and (5) 1 MW ECH system for increasing the electron temperature of CHI discharges to allow direct coupling to NBI current drive using a new second more tangential neutral beam system. In support of NSTX-U objectives for full non-inductive start-up and current ramp-up, the TSC code has been used for a full discharge simulation in which a transient CHI discharge is used as the front end of the non-inductive current ramp-up simulation. This work supported by U.S. DOE Contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-FG02-99ER54519 AM08.

  7. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery Start-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; North, Tim; Bowens, Ebony; Balcer, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery Start-Up.The International Space Station (ISS) primary Electric Power System (EPS) was originally designed to use Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The electricity for the space station is generated by its solar arrays, which charge batteries during insolation for subsequent discharge during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. As the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-Ion ORU and cell life testing project. The first set of 6 Li-ion battery replacements were launched in December 2016 and deployed in January 2017. This paper will discuss the Li-ion battery on-orbit start-up and the status of the Li-Ion cell and ORU life cycle testing.

  8. Management of Constraint Generators in Fashion Store Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch Münster, Mia; Haug, Anders

    2017-01-01

    that constraints should be elicited close to their occurrence, and that doing so requires a solid understanding of relevant constraint generators. Research limitations/implications: The paper provides a structured basis for further research and identifies areas warranting further study. Although, the paper’s focus....../value: The paper: defines the most important constraint generators from the perspective of retail store designers, clarifies the types of constraints they generate, and provides guidelines for how to deal with constraint elicitation.......Purpose: Retail design concepts are complex designs meeting functional and aesthetic demands from various constraint generators. However, the literature on this topic is sparse and offers only little support for store designers to deal with such challenges. To address this issue, the purpose...

  9. How To Design A Triple Bottom Line Organization: A Start-Up Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Schroeder

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s business environment, where success for a start-up company is measured by early revenue and profit, it can be quite challenging to design a triple bottom line organization (people/planet/profit from the very beginning. We present a case study of a U.S.-based start-up firm and discuss its early challenges, developmental processes, and current success as a triple bottom line firm. The company’s founder and CEO, with no initial product, distribution, or revenue strategy, sought to develop a company that could provide the marketplace with a valuable product while also staying true to a corporate vision of positively affecting less fortunate people. Our analysis of the case suggests that the founder’s vision, passion, transparent communication, and leveraging of partners’ resources were key elements in building the firm. We draw implications of our case study for the designers of future triple bottom line organizations.

  10. Life Science Start-up Activities at the Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Gerda

    2014-12-01

    The universities of applied sciences (UAS) provide several values for the society and economy of a country. Besides education of high level professionals, transfer of knowledge from research to applications in industry or as new start-up companies is an important task. This is done in different ways in the various disciplines. In Life Sciences, a key industry branch in Switzerland, innovation is a competitive success factor and research findings from UAS/Life Sciences contribute to the valorization of new technologies to products, services and to business performance. In order to foster awareness for the innovation need of industry, UAS install processes and support for transfer of research and technology results to marketable applications. Furthermore they may facilitate contacts of researchers and students with entrepreneurs in order to animate start-up founding as a true alternative to being employed. Access to coaching and entrepreneurial training completes the essential basis.

  11. The Optimum Vibration Generator for the Technological Process in Casting Bays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruţa-Oana Hamat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The performing of some experimental investigations caucering theapplication of vibrations to the technological processes in foundries has required in the first place a vibration generator. By an analysis of the existent generator types it has been established that the optimum generator for these processes is the pneumatic ball-generator. In the work the principle of functioning of this kind of generator is treated and the dimensional and functional characteristics for two realized prototypes are given.

  12. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF RESIDUAL STRESSES GENERATED IN THE WIRE DRAWING PROCESS FOR DIFFERENT PROCESS PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Zottis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The drawing process of steel bars is usually used to check better dimensional accuracy and mechanical properties to the material. In the other hand, the major concern found in manufacturing axes through this process is the appearance of distortion of shape. Such distortions are directly linked to the accumulation of residual stresses generated during the processes. As a result, this paper aims to study the influence of process parameters such as shape of puller, speed and lubrication used in wire drawing analyzing the accumulation of residual stress after the process. The stress analysis was performed by FEM being used two simulation software: Simufact.formingGP and DeformTM. Through these analyzes, it was found that the shape of how the bar is pulled causes a reduction of up to 100 MPa in residual stresses in the center of the bar, which represents an important factor in the study of the possible causes of the distortion. As well as factors speed and homogeneity of lubrication significantly altered the profile of residual stresses in the bar.

  13. Pinon Pine power project nears start-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatar, G.A. [Sierra Pacific Power Co., Reno, NV (United States); Gonzalez, M. [Foster Wheeler USA Corp., Clinton, NJ (United States); Mathur, G.K. [M.W. Kellogg Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The IGCC facility being built by Sierra Pacific Power Company (SPPCo) at their Tracy Station in Nevada is one of three IGCC facilities being cost-shared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under their Clean Coal Technology Program. The specific technology to be demonstrated in SPPCo`s Round Four Project, known as the Pinon Pine IGCC Project, includes the KRW air blown pressurized fluidized bed gasification process with hot gas cleanup coupled with a combined cycle facility based on a new GE 6FA gas turbine. Construction of the 100 MW IGCC facility began in February 1995 and the first firing of the gas turbine occurred as scheduled on August 15, 1996 with natural gas. Mechanical completion of the gasifier and other outstanding work is due in January 1997. Following the startup of the plant, the project will enter a 42 month operating and testing period during which low sulfur western and high sulfur eastern or midwestern coals will be processed.

  14. Experience from start-ups of the first ANITA Mox plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensson, M; Ekström, S; Andersson Chan, A; Le Vaillant, E; Lemaire, R

    2013-01-01

    ANITA™ Mox is a new one-stage deammonification Moving-Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) developed for partial nitrification to nitrite and autotrophic N-removal from N-rich effluents. This deammonification process offers many advantages such as dramatically reduced oxygen requirements, no chemical oxygen demand requirement, lower sludge production, no pre-treatment or requirement of chemicals and thereby being an energy and cost efficient nitrogen removal process. An innovative seeding strategy, the 'BioFarm concept', has been developed in order to decrease the start-up time of new ANITA Mox installations. New ANITA Mox installations are started with typically 3-15% of the added carriers being from the 'BioFarm', with already established anammox biofilm, the rest being new carriers. The first ANITA Mox plant, started up in 2010 at Sjölunda wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Malmö, Sweden, proved this seeding concept, reaching an ammonium removal rate of 1.2 kgN/m³ d and approximately 90% ammonia removal within 4 months from start-up. This first ANITA Mox plant is also the BioFarm used for forthcoming installations. Typical features of this first installation were low energy consumption, 1.5 kW/NH4-N-removed, low N₂O emissions, Mox plant, started up at Sundets WWTP in Växjö, Sweden, reached full capacity with more than 90% ammonia removal within 2 months from start-up. By applying a nitrogen loading strategy to the reactor that matches the capacity of the seeding carriers, more than 80% nitrogen removal could be obtained throughout the start-up period.

  15. The extremal family generated by the Yule process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Ledet; Johansson, Björn

    1990-01-01

    We prove a theorem of de Finetti-type involving the pure birth of Yule process. The proof illustrates the usefulness of recently developed weak convergence criteria for point processes as well as uniform saddlepoint approximations. We also derive a stochastic intensity for the conditional...... probabilities given the sufficient statistics of the Yule process. © 1990....

  16. Critical Learning Episodes In The Evolution Of Business Start-Ups: Business Incubators In South-Eastern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Corradi (Ariane Agnes)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates the evolution of business start-ups in the first three to five years. Evolution is defined here as a non-continuous learning process of entrepreneurs that creates and changes organizational routines. Two concepts are central: critical learning episodes and

  17. Critical learning episodes in the evolution of Brazilian business start-ups: a theoretical and analytical tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Corradi (Ariane Agnes)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates critical learning episodes as landmarks in the evolution of business start-ups. A framework that combines individual learning processes with the Penrosian resource-based theory of the firm, and the concepts of search and routines from evolutionary economics provid

  18. Unlocking how start-ups create business value with mobile applications: Development of an App-enabled Business Innovation Cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehrenhard, Michel; Wijnhoven, Fons; Broek, van den Tijs; Zinck Stagno, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the business value that mobile applications (apps) can create, and how start-ups can leverage this value. We present a multiple-case study to both explain the process of app-enabled value creation and the type of value outcomes associated with the use of apps for business purpo

  19. Unlocking how start-ups create business value with mobile applications: Development of an App-enabled Business Innovation Cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehrenhard, Michel; Wijnhoven, Fons; Broek, van den Tijs; Zinck Stagno, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the business value that mobile applications (apps) can create, and how start-ups can leverage this value. We present a multiple-case study to both explain the process of app-enabled value creation and the type of value outcomes associated with the use of apps for business purpo

  20. Unlocking how start-ups create business value with mobile applications: Development of an App-enabled Business Innovation Cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehrenhard, Michel Léon; Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.; van den Broek, Tijs Adriaan; Zinck Stagno, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the business value that mobile applications (apps) can create, and how start-ups can leverage this value. We present a multiple-case study to both explain the process of app-enabled value creation and the type of value outcomes associated with the use of apps for business

  1. Multimedia and Training: Practice and Skills of European Producers, (Part 1) Results of the European Project "START-UP."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Christine Gardiol; Boder, Andre

    1992-01-01

    Describes the START-UP project developed by the European Community to identify educational and training multimedia producers in European countries and to define the methodologies that these producers use in developing their products. Highlights include production stages, multimedia skills, teamwork, decision making, learning processes, learner…

  2. Declarative Business Process Modelling and the Generation of ERP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Møller, Nicholas Poul; Hølmer, Christian; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2009-01-01

    the major entities are rather than how they engage in computations. We show how to develop a domain-specific language on the basis of REA, and a tool which automatically can generate running web-applications. A main contribution is a proof-of-concept showing that business-domain experts can generate...... their own applications without worrying about implementation details. In order to have a well-defined domain-specific language, a formal model of REA has been developed using the specification language Object-Z and this led to clarifications as well as the introduction of new concepts. The compiler for our...

  3. Generation of optical coherent state superpositions for quantum information processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Anders

    2012-01-01

    I dette projektarbejde med titlen “Generation of optical coherent state superpositions for quantum information processing” har målet været at generere optiske kat-tilstande. Dette er en kvantemekanisk superpositions tilstand af to koherente tilstande med stor amplitude. Sådan en tilstand er...

  4. Using Drawings and Generating Information in Mathematical Problem Solving Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunokawa, Kazuhiko

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how drawings can contribute to generating new information when solvers use drawings in solving mathematical problems. For this purpose, two episodes, in which drawings enabled a solver to find ideas useful for his solutions, were qualitatively and closely analyzed, especially focusing on what roles…

  5. Strategic Processing and Predictive Inference Generation in L2 Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahatame, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    Predictive inference is the anticipation of the likely consequences of events described in a text. This study investigated predictive inference generation during second language (L2) reading, with a focus on the effects of strategy instructions. In this experiment, Japanese university students read several short narrative passages designed to…

  6. Multi-enzyme catalyzed processes: Next generation biocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade Santacoloma, Paloma de Gracia; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist

    2011-01-01

    considerations for mathematical modeling are discussed for the specific case where the synthetic reactions are carried out in a single reactor, the so-called multienzyme ‘in-pot’ process. In addition, options for multienzyme ‘in-pot’ process improvements via process engineering and enzyme immobilization...... technology are described. Finally, enzyme modification via protein engineering is also discussed, such that a better compatibility of the enzymes in the reactor is achieved as a means of assisting the implementation of multienzyme ‘in-pot’ processes....

  7. On a difficulty in eigenfunction expansion solutions for the start-up of fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Ivan C.

    2015-11-01

    Most mathematics and engineering textbooks describe the process of ``subtracting off'' the steady state of a linear parabolic partial differential equation as a technique for obtaining a boundary-value problem with homogeneous boundary conditions that can be solved by separation of variables (i.e., eigenfunction expansions). While this method produces the correct solution for the start-up of the flow of, e.g., a Newtonian fluid between parallel plates, it can lead to erroneous solutions to the corresponding problem for a class of non-Newtonian fluids. We show that the reason for this is the non-rigorous enforcement of the start-up condition in the textbook approach, which leads to a violation of the principle of causality. Nevertheless, these boundary-value problems can be solved correctly using eigenfunction expansions, and we present the formulation that makes this possible (in essence, an application of Duhamel's principle). The solutions obtained by this new approach are shown to agree identically with those obtained by using the Laplace transform in time only, a technique that enforces the proper start-up condition implicitly (hence, the same error cannot be committed). Supported, in part, by NSF Grant DMS-1104047 and the U.S. DOE (Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396) through the LANL/LDRD Program.

  8. [Quick Start-up and Sustaining of Shortcut Nitrification in Continuous Flow Reactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng; Zhang Shi-ying; Song, Yin-ling; Xu, Yue-zhong; Shen, Yao-liang

    2016-04-15

    How to achieve fast and stable startup of shortcut nitrification has a very important practical value for treatment of low C/N ratio wastewater. Thus, the quick start-up and sustaining of shortcut nitrification were investigated in continuous flow reactor targeting at the current situation of urban wastewater treatment plant using a continuous flow process. The results showed that quick start-up of shortcut nitrification could be successfully achieved in a continuous flow reactor after 60 days' operation with intermittent aeration and controlling of three stages of stop/aeration time (15 min/45 min, 45 min/45 min and 30 min/30 min). The nitrification rates could reach 90% or 95% respectively, while influent ammonia concentrations were 50 or 100 mg · L⁻¹ with stop/aeration time of 30 min/30 min. In addition, intermittent aeration could inhibit the activity of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB), while short hydraulic retention time (HRT) may wash out NOB. And a combined use of both measures was beneficial to sustain shortcut nitrification.

  9. Using Social Media to Accelerate the Internationalization of Startups from Inception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Maltby

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A set of principles, processes, and tools that entrepreneurs can use to rapidly internationalize their technology startups from inception does not exist. This article discusses entrepreneurs’ use of online social media networks to rapidly internationalize their startups from inception. The article was inspired by how the founders of Dewak S.A. rapidly internationalized their technology startup. Dewak was founded by five unemployed Colombians in June 2008. Two years later, foreign sales comprised 95% of the firm’s revenue and provided the founders with full-time employment. Dewak’s only channel to market was via online social media networks. Recognizing that entrepreneurs can use social media to amplify their tacit knowledge and convert it into sellable products and services contributes to the development of a learning-based view of rapid internationalization from inception. The article provides entrepreneurs seeking to launch and grow global businesses with four recommendations that may save them time and money and increase the size of their addressable markets.

  10. Construction and startup experience for Milliken FGD Retrofit Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvilla, J.; Mahlmeister, M. [New York State Electric and Gas Corp., Binghamton, NY (United States); Buchanan, T.; Jackson, C. [Parsons Power Group, Inc., Reading, PA (United States); Watts, J. [USDOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Under Round 4 of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology program, New York State Electric & Gas Corp. (NYSEG), in partnership with Saarbereg-Stebbins Engineering and Manufacturing Company, has retrofitted a formic acid enhanced forced oxidation wet limestone scrubber on Units 1 & 2 at the Milliken Steam Electric Station. Units 1 & 2 are 1950`s vintage Combustion Engineering tangentially fired pulverized coal units which are rated at nominal 150 MW each and operate in balanced draft mode. The FGD system for Unit 2 was placed into operation in January 1995 and the Unit 1 system in June, 1995. The project incorporates several unique aspects including low pH operation, a ceramic tile-lined cocurrent/countercurrent, split module absorber, a wet stack supported on the roof of the FGD building, and closed loop, zero liquid discharge operation producing commercial grade gypsum, and calcium chloride brine. The project objectives include 98% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency while burning high sulfur coal, the production of marketable byproducts to minimize solid waste disposal, zero wastewater discharge and space-saving design. The paper provides a brief overview of the project design, discusses construction and startup issues and presents early operating results. Process capital cost and economics of this design, procure and construct approach are reviewed relative to competing technologies.

  11. Modeling of Droplet Generation in a Top Blowing Steelmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Bapin Kumar; Brooks, Geoff; Subagyo; Rhamdhani, M. Akbar; Li, Zushu

    2016-08-01

    Quantification of metal droplets ejected due to impinging gas jet on the surface of liquid metal is an important parameter for the understanding and for the modeling of the refining kinetics of reactions in slag-metal emulsion zone. In the present work, a numerical study has been carried out to critically examine the applicability of droplet generation rate correlation previously proposed by Subagyo et al. on the basis of dimensionless blowing number (N B). The blowing number was re-evaluated at the impingement point of jet with taking into account the temperature effect of change in density and velocity of the gas jet. The result obtained from the work shows that the modified blowing number N B,T at the furnace temperature of 1873 K (1600 °C) is approximately double in magnitude compared to N B calculated by Subagyo and co-workers. When N B,T has been employed to the Subagyo's empirical correlation for droplet generation, a wide mismatch is observed between the experimental data obtained from cold model and hot model experiments. The reason for this large deviation has been investigated in the current study, and a theoretical approach to estimate the droplet generation rate has been proposed. The suitability of the proposed model has been tested by numerically calculating the amount of metals in slag. The study shows that the weight of metals in emulsion falls in the range of 0 to 21 wt pct of hot metal weight when droplet generation rate has been calculated at ambient furnace temperature of 1873 K (1600 °C).

  12. An integrated approach to microalgae biomass generation and processing

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Liquid combustible fossil fuel empowers global society, yet is a non-renewable entity with time-constrained limits to supply. Advanced generation biofuel derived from microalgae could feasibly yield more than conventional biofuel crops, utilise non-agricultural land or the sea and remediate atmospheric carbon dioxide and anthropogenic waste. However, technical and economical limits have so far prevented the successful implementation of microalgae biofuels. This thesis exempl...

  13. A Prototype Expert System for Automatic Generation of Image Processing Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋茂强; FelixGrimm; 等

    1991-01-01

    A prototype expert system for generating image processing programs using the subroutine package SPIDER is described in this paper.Based on an interactive dialog,the system can generate a complete application program using SPIDER routines.

  14. Physics and optimization of plasma startup in the RFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, W.; Chapman, B. E.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Duff, J.; Ko, J.; Kumar, S. T. A.; Morton, L.; Munaretto, S.; Parke, E.; Reusch, J. A.; Sarff, J. S.; Waksman, J.; Brower, D. L.; Liu, W.

    2015-05-01

    In the tokamak and reversed-field pinch (RFP), inductively driven toroidal plasma current provides the confining poloidal magnetic field and ohmic heating power, but the magnitude and/or duration of this current is limited by the available flux swing in the poloidal field transformer. A portion of this flux is consumed during startup as the current is initiated and ramped to its final target value, and considerable effort has been devoted to understanding startup and minimizing the amount of flux consumed. Flux consumption can be reduced during startup in the RFP by increasing the toroidal magnetic field, Bti, applied to initiate the discharge, but the underlying physics is not yet entirely understood. Toward increasing this understanding, we have for the first time in the RFP employed advanced, non-invasive diagnostics on the Madison Symmetric Torus to measure the evolution of current, magnetic field, and kinetic profiles during startup. Flux consumption during startup is dominantly inductive, but we find that the inductive flux consumption drops as Bti increases. The resistive consumption of flux, while relatively small, apparently increases with Bti due to a smaller electron temperature. However, the ion temperature increases with Bti, exceeding the electron temperature and thus reflecting non-collisional heating. Magnetic fluctuations also increase with Bti, corresponding primarily to low-n modes that emerge sequentially as the safety factor profile evolves from tokamak-like to that of the RFP.

  15. Memristor based startup circuit for self biased circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mangal; Singh, Amit Kumar; Rathi, Amit; Singhal, Sonal

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the design of a Memristor based startup circuit for self biased circuits. Memristor has many advantages over conventional CMOS devices such as low leakage current at nanometer scale, easy to manufacture. In this work the switching characteristics of memristor is utilized. First the theoretical equations describing the switching behavior of memristor are investigated. To prove the switching capability of Memristor, a startup circuit based on memristor is proposed which uses series combination of Memristor and capacitor. Proposed circuit is compared with the previously reported MOSFET based startup circuits. Comparison of different circuits was done to validate the results. Simulation results show that memristor based circuit can attain on (I = 12.94 µA) to off state (I = 1 .2 µA) in 25 ns while the MOSFET based startup circuits take on (I = 14.19 µA) to off state (I = 1.4 µA) in more than 90 ns. The benefit comes in terms of area because the number of components used in the circuit are lesser than the conventional startup circuits.

  16. The Rationality and Irrationality of Financing Green Start-Ups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Bergset

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Green start-ups contribute towards a transition to a more sustainable economy by developing sustainable and environmentally friendly innovation and bringing it to the market. Due to specific product/service characteristics, entrepreneurial motivation and company strategies that might differ from that of other start-ups, these companies might struggle even more than usual with access to finance in the early stages. This conceptual paper seeks to explain these challenges through the theoretical lenses of entrepreneurial finance and behavioural finance. While entrepreneurial finance theory contributes to a partial understanding of green start-up finance, behavioural finance is able to solve a remaining explanatory deficit produced by entrepreneurial finance theory. Although some behavioural finance theorists are suggesting that the current understanding of economic rationality underlying behavioural finance research is inadequate, most scholars have not yet challenged these assumptions, which constrict a comprehensive and realistic description of the reality of entrepreneurial finance in green start-ups. The aim of the paper is thus, first, to explore the specifics of entrepreneurial finance in green start-ups and, second, to demonstrate the need for a more up-to-date conception of rationality in behavioural finance theory in order to enable realistic empirical research in this field.

  17. Generation and monitoring of a discrete stable random process

    CERN Document Server

    Hopcraft, K I; Matthews, J O

    2002-01-01

    A discrete stochastic process with stationary power law distribution is obtained from a death-multiple immigration population model. Emigrations from the population form a random series of events which are monitored by a counting process with finite-dynamic range and response time. It is shown that the power law behaviour of the population is manifested in the intermittent behaviour of the series of events. (letter to the editor)

  18. Effect of pre-acclimation of granular activated carbon on microbial electrolysis cell startup and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBarge, Nicole; Yilmazel, Yasemin Dilsad; Hong, Pei-Ying; Logan, Bruce E

    2017-02-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can generate methane by fixing carbon dioxide without using expensive catalysts, but the impact of acclimation procedures on subsequent performance has not been investigated. Granular activated carbon (GAC) was used to pre-enrich electrotrophic methanogenic communities, as GAC has been shown to stimulate direct transfer of electrons between different microbial species. MEC startup times using pre-acclimated GAC were improved compared to controls (without pre-acclimation or without GAC), and after three fed batch cycles methane generation rates were similar (P>0.4) for GAC acclimated to hydrogen (22±9.3nmolcm(-3)d(-1)), methanol (25±9.7nmolcm(-3)d(-1)), and a volatile fatty acid (VFA) mix (22±11nmolcm(-3)d(-1)). However, MECs started with GAC but no pre-acclimation had lower methane generation rates (13±4.1nmolcm(-3)d(-1)), and MECs without GAC had the lowest rates (0.7±0.8nmolcm(-3)d(-1) after cycle 2). Microbes previously found in methanogenic MECs, or previously shown to be capable of exocellular electron transfer, were enriched on the GAC. Pre-acclimation using GAC is therefore a simple approach to enrich electroactive communities, improve methane generation rates, and decrease startup times in MECs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 40 CFR 761.187 - Reporting importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. 761.187 Section 761.187 Protection of Environment... Reporting importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. In addition to meeting the basic requirements of § 761.1(f) and the definition of excluded manufacturing process at § 761...

  20. Signal Processing for the Impedance Measurement on an Electrochemical Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hassane AGLZIM

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Improving the life time of batteries or fuel cells requires the optimization of components such as membranes and electrodes and enhancement of the flow of gases [1], [2]. These goals could be reached by using a real time measurement on loaded generator. The impedance spectroscopy is a new way that was recently investigated. In this paper, we present an electronic measurement instrumentation developed in our laboratory to measure and plot the impedance of a loaded electrochemical generator like batteries and fuel cells. Impedance measures were done according to variations of the frequency in a larger band than what is usually used. The electronic instrumentation is controlled by Hpvee® software which allows us to plot the Nyquist graph of the electrochemical generator impedance. The theoretical results obtained in simulation under Pspice® confirm the choice of the method and its advantage. For safety reasons, the experimental preliminary tests were done on a 12 V vehicle battery, having an input current of 330 A and a capacity of 40 Ah and are now extended to a fuel cell. The results were plotted at various nominal voltages of the battery (12.7 V, 10 V, 8 V and 5 V and with two imposed currents (0.6 A and 4 A. The Nyquist diagram resulting from the experimental data enable us to show an influence of the load of the battery on its internal impedance. The similitude in the graph form and in order of magnitude of the values obtained (both theoretical and practical enables us to validate our electronic measurement instrumentation. Different sensors (temperature, pressure were placed around the device under test (DUT. These influence parameters were permanently recorded. Results presented here concern a classic loaded 12 V vehicle battery. The Nyquist diagram resulting from the experimental data confirms the influence of the load of the DUT on its internal impedance.

  1. The Mesoscale Forecasting Process: Applying the Next Generation Mesoscale Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-05

    features (warm sector, squall lne, MCC, derecho , etc.). Combne these wth the juxtaposton of a jet streak (sotach max) and one has the three d...or modfy that structure based on observed errors at the synoptic scale. This is a difficult and labor - intensive process, but it usually gets the

  2. Advanced Material Intelligent Processing Center: Next Generation Scalable Lean Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    modular for multiple projects and adaptable as new materials and processing techniques emerge. The system was designed with Dassault Systemes CATIA ...and cable harness design was carried out with CATIA to maximize robot turn and extension. The workstation was designed to allow access to a flat tool

  3. Mini-RF Image Processing and Data Product Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, F. S.; Espiritu, R. C.; Patterson, G. W.; Stickle, A. M.; Cahill, J. T. S.

    2017-06-01

    Mini-RF on LRO currently operates in concert with the Arecibo Observatory and the Goldstone DSS-13 34 meter antenna to collect S- and X-band bistatic radar data of the lunar nearside. We describe the processing and archiving of those data.

  4. A Process for Reviewing and Evaluating Generated Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis

    2016-01-01

    Testing organization needs large numbers of high-quality items due to the proliferation of alternative test administration methods and modern test designs. But the current demand for items far exceeds the supply. Test items, as they are currently written, evoke a process that is both time-consuming and expensive because each item is written,…

  5. Quel contrôle de gestion pour les startups ?

    OpenAIRE

    Meyssonnier, François

    2015-01-01

    Une étude de huit PME fondées sur la science permet d’identifier les spécificités du contrôle de gestion des startups. Dans les startups émergentes le dirigeant n’utilise que des linéaments de contrôle de gestion essentiellement pour développer son approche cognitive du business model. Dans les startups en croissance le contrôle de gestion a un rôle de garde-fou et les outils de pilotage de la performance sont utilisés essentiellement de façon interactive et pour la prévision. Les principaux ...

  6. Team Heterogeneity in Startups and its Development over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Müller, Bettina

    We investigate the workforce heterogeneity of startups with respect to education, age and wages. Our explorative study uses data on the population of 1,614 Danish firms founded in 1998. We track these firms until 2001 which enables us to analyze changes in workforce composition over time. Such a ......We investigate the workforce heterogeneity of startups with respect to education, age and wages. Our explorative study uses data on the population of 1,614 Danish firms founded in 1998. We track these firms until 2001 which enables us to analyze changes in workforce composition over time...... as “homophily” (people’s inclination to bound with others with similar characteristics) hence appear to generally overweigh the benefits of heterogeneity (like greater variety in perspectives or more creativity). We also document that workforces become more heterogeneous over time startups add workers...

  7. Development of second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Bonk, D. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and its team members, Westinghouse, Gilbert/Commonwealth, and the Institute of Gas Technology are developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion technology capable of achieving net plant efficiency in excess of 45 percent based on the higher heating value of the coal. A three-phase program entails design and costing of a 500 MWe power plant and identification of developments needed to commercialize this technology (Phase 1), testing of individual components (Phase 2), and finally testing these components in an integrated mode (Phase 3). This paper briefly describes the results of the first two phases as well as the progress on the third phase. Since other projects which use the same technology are in construction or in negotiation stages-namely, the Power System Development Facility and the Four Rivers Energy Modernization Projects-brief descriptions of these are also included.

  8. Betaine suppressed Aβ generation by altering amyloid precursor protein processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiu-Ping; Qian, Xiang; Xie, Yue; Qi, Yan; Peng, Min-Feng; Zhan, Bi-Cui; Lou, Zheng-Qing

    2014-07-01

    Betaine was an endogenous catabolite of choline, which could be isolated from vegetables and marine products. Betaine could promote the metabolism of homocysteine in healthy subjects and was used for hyperlipidemia, coronary atherosclerosis, and fatty liver in clinic. Recent findings shown that Betaine rescued neuronal damage due to homocysteine induced Alzheimer's disease (AD) like pathological cascade, including tau hyperphosphorylation and amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition. Aβ was derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing, and was a triggering factor for AD pathological onset. Here, we demonstrated that Betaine reduced Aβ levels by altering APP processing in N2a cells stably expressing Swedish mutant of APP. Betaine increased α-secretase activity, but decreased β-secretase activity. Our data indicate that Betaine might play a protective role in Aβ production.

  9. Nano surface generation of grinding process using carbon nano tubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Prabhu; B K Vinayagam

    2010-12-01

    Nano surface finish has become an important parameter in the semiconductor, optical, electrical and mechanical industries. The materials used in these industries are classified as difficult to machine materials such as ceramics, glasses and silicon wafers. Machining of these materials up to nano accuracy is a great challenge in the manufacturing industry. Finishing of micro components such as micro-moulds, micro-lenses and micro-holes need different processing techniques. Conventional finishing methods used so far become almost impossible or cumbersome. In this paper, a nano material especially multi wall carbon nano tube is used in the machining process like grinding to improve the surface characteristics from micro to nano level.

  10. Preparations for the start-up of a research program in nuclear safeguards at Chalmers - Stage 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Yasunori; Pazsit, Imre

    2004-12-01

    This report gives an account of the work performed at the Dept. of Reactor Physics at Chalmers Univ. of Technology in the second stage of the preparations for the start-up of a research program in nuclear safeguards and nuclear material management. The program is aimed at utilizing the experimental facilities as well as the experience in reactor physics, criticality safety, signal processing and unfolding, and experimental nuclear techniques, in tackling problems in non-destructive assay (NDA) of nuclear materials. During the present project, the following three main subjects were dealt with: first tests and pilot measurements were performed with one of the two newly acquired {sup 252}Cf detectors that were obtained from JNC Japan; the second exercise of the ESARDA benchmark. which consisted of the evaluation of the pulse train generated by Los Alamos Laboratory for multiplicity counting was performed and reported to the organisers of the benchmark; the modified Monte-Carlo code MCNP-PoliMi was installed, tested and work started for generating (although outside the ESARDA benchmark), pulse train data as obtained from various neutron sources with or without the presence of fissile material, as detected with an Active Well Coincidence Counter.

  11. Female Hires and the Success of Start-up Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Andrea Maria; Zulehner, Christine

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationship between females among the first hires of start-up companies and business success. Our results show that firms with female first hires have a higher share of female workers at the end of the first year after entry. Further, we find that firms with female first hires are more successful and stay longer in the market. We conclude that our results support the hypothesis that gender-diversity in leading positions is an advantage for start-up firms.

  12. Team Heterogeneity in Startups and its Development over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Müller, Bettina

    We investigate the workforce heterogeneity of startups with respect to education, age and wages. Our explorative study uses data on the population of 1,614 Danish firms founded in 1998. We track these firms until 2001 which enables us to analyze changes in workforce composition over time...... as “homophily” (people’s inclination to bound with others with similar characteristics) hence appear to generally overweigh the benefits of heterogeneity (like greater variety in perspectives or more creativity). We also document that workforces become more heterogeneous over time startups add workers...

  13. Start-up business plan: organic food restaurant in Bilbao

    OpenAIRE

    Sharafutdinova, Alisa

    2016-01-01

    My thesis is a start-up business plan for a restaurant in Bilbao, Spain. This product-oriented thesis is a part of the Hospitality Management program of Haaga-Helia UAS. The purpose of this work is to build a theoretical framework about successful business plan writing and follow it up by writing a start-up business plan according to the studied theory. A business plan is a first important step for starting a business and the practice of writing it will be beneficial while helping me to ...

  14. Financement et gouvernance des start-ups en equitycrowdfunding

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Par rapport aux modes de financement traditionnels, l’equitycrowdfunding (ECF) introduit deux nouveaux acteurs : la plateforme et la foule. Cet article étudie leurs rôles et leurs spécificités dans le processus de financement et dans le design de la gouvernance de la start-up. Ce nouveau système est totalement ouvert, composé d’un très grand nombre de participants hétérogènes qui apportent des ressources financières mais aussi et surtout un retour à la start-up sur leur perception du projet. ...

  15. Start-up business plan: organic food restaurant in Bilbao

    OpenAIRE

    Sharafutdinova, Alisa

    2016-01-01

    My thesis is a start-up business plan for a restaurant in Bilbao, Spain. This product-oriented thesis is a part of the Hospitality Management program of Haaga-Helia UAS. The purpose of this work is to build a theoretical framework about successful business plan writing and follow it up by writing a start-up business plan according to the studied theory. A business plan is a first important step for starting a business and the practice of writing it will be beneficial while helping me to ...

  16. Transient CFD simulation of a Francis turbine startup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, J.; Morissette, J. F.; Giroux, A. M.

    2012-11-01

    To assess the life expectancy of hydraulic turbines, it is essential to obtain the loading on the blades, especially during transient operations known to be the most damaging. This paper presents a simplified CFD setup to model the startup phase of a Francis turbine while it goes from rest to speed no-load condition. The fluid domain included one distributor sector coupled with one runner passage. The guide vane motion and change in the angular velocity were included in a commercial code with user functions. Comparisons between numerical results and measurements acquired on a full-size turbine showed that most of the flow physics occurring during startup were captured.

  17. Building Big Flares: Constraining Generating Processes of Solar Flare Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse Jackson, T.; Kashyap, V.; McKillop, S.

    2015-12-01

    We address mechanisms which seek to explain the observed solar flare distribution, dN/dE ~ E1.8. We have compiled a comprehensive database, from GOES, NOAA, XRT, and AIA data, of solar flares and their characteristics, covering the year 2013. These datasets allow us to probe how stored magnetic energy is released over the course of an active region's evolution. We fit power-laws to flare distributions over various attribute groupings. For instance, we compare flares that occur before and after an active region reaches its maximum area, and show that the corresponding flare distributions are indistinguishable; thus, the processes that lead to magnetic reconnection are similar in both cases. A turnover in the distribution is not detectable at the energies accessible to our study, suggesting that a self-organized critical (SOC) process is a valid mechanism. However, we find changes in the distributions that suggest that the simple picture of an SOC where flares draw energy from an inexhaustible reservoir of stored magnetic energy is incomplete. Following the evolution of the flare distribution over the lifetimes of active regions, we find that the distribution flattens with time, and for larger active regions, and that a single power-law model is insufficient. This implies that flares that occur later in the lifetime of the active region tend towards higher energies. We conclude that the SOC process must have an upper bound. Increasing the scope of the study to include data from other years and more instruments will increase the robustness of these results. This work was supported by the NSF-REU Solar Physics Program at SAO, grant number AGS 1263241, NASA Contract NAS8-03060 to the Chandra X-ray Center and by NASA Hinode/XRT contract NNM07AB07C to SAO

  18. Start-up and characterization of nitrogen and COD removal from mature landfill leachatevia CANON process%CANON工艺处理实际晚期垃圾渗滤液的启动实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张方斋; 王淑莹; 彭永臻; 苗蕾; 曹天昊; 王众

    2016-01-01

    针对晚期垃圾渗滤液4NH+-N浓度高、C/N低、深度脱氮困难的问题,采用 CANON 工艺在曝气/缺氧搅拌循环交替的运行方式下,处理晚期垃圾渗滤液实现了深度脱氮。系统经过130 d的驯化培养后成功启动,长期试验研究结果表明,在进水COD、4NH+-N、TN浓度(mg·L−1)分别为2050±250、1625±75和2005±352情况下,出水COD、4NH+-N、TN浓度(mg·L−1)能达到407±14、8±4和19±4,总氮去除率达到了98.76%。在未投加外碳源的情况下,CANON工艺在曝气/缺氧搅拌的运行方式下实现了对晚期垃圾渗滤液的深度脱氮。此外,经荧光原位杂交(FISH)检测表明,在该运行方式下能够成功富集氨氧化菌和厌氧氨氧化菌,各占总菌数的19.5%±1.3%和42.7%±5.02%,为CANON工艺用于处理晚期垃圾渗滤液的工程应用提供参考。%The mature landfill leachate from sanitary landfill is difficult to treat because of complicated composition, high concentration of ammonia and low C/N. During this study, a CANON (completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite) process with an intermittent aeration/anaerobic mixing operational mode was applied to remove nitrogen from mature landfill leachate. After domestication of 130 d, the system was stable with the effluent COD,4NH+-N and TN (mg·L−1) of 407±14, 8±4 and 19±4 when the influent COD,4NH+-N and TN (mg·L−1) were 2050±250, 1625±75 and 2005±352, respectively. Nitrogen removal from mature landfill leachate could be realizedvia intermittent aeration/anaerobic mixing CANON process with 98.76% of total nitrogen removal efficiency. Besides, the FISH (Fluorescencein situ hybridization) results showed that under this operational mode, both aerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria and anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria accounted for 19.5%±1.3% and 42.7%±5.02%, respectively, which provided a reference for CANON treating mature landfill leachate in engineering

  19. Detecting Anomalous Process Behaviour using Second Generation Artificial Immune Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Twycross, Jamie; Whitbrook, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Artificial Immune Systems have been successfully applied to a number of problem domains including fault tolerance and data mining, but have been shown to scale poorly when applied to computer intrusion detec- tion despite the fact that the biological immune system is a very effective anomaly detector. This may be because AIS algorithms have previously been based on the adaptive immune system and biologically-naive mod- els. This paper focuses on describing and testing a more complex and biologically-authentic AIS model, inspired by the interactions between the innate and adaptive immune systems. Its performance on a realistic process anomaly detection problem is shown to be better than standard AIS methods (negative-selection), policy-based anomaly detection methods (systrace), and an alternative innate AIS approach (the DCA). In addition, it is shown that runtime information can be used in combination with system call information to enhance detection capability.

  20. High levels of melatonin generated during the brewing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Moreno, H; Calvo, J R; Maldonado, M D

    2013-08-01

    Beer is a beverage consumed worldwide. It is produced from cereals (barley or wheat) and contains a wide array of bioactive phytochemicals and nutraceutical compounds. Specifically, high melatonin concentrations have been found in beer. Beers with high alcohol content are those that present the greatest concentrations of melatonin and vice versa. In this study, gel filtration chromatography and ELISA were combined for melatonin determination. We brewed beer to determine, for the first time, the beer production steps in which melatonin appears. We conclude that the barley, which is malted and ground in the early process, and the yeast, during the second fermentation, are the largest contributors to the enrichment of the beer with melatonin. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Experiences with industrial solar process steam generation in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Dirk; Berger, Michael; Mokhtar, Marwan; Willwerth, Lisa; Zahler, Christian; Al-Najami, Mahmoud; Hennecke, Klaus

    2017-06-01

    At the Jordanian pharmaceuticals manufacturing company RAM Pharma a solar process heat supply has been constructed by Industrial Solar GmbH in March 2015 and operated since then (Figure 1). The collector field consists of 394 m² of linear Fresnel collectors supplying saturated steam to the steam network at RAM Pharma at about 6 bar gauge. In the frame of the SolSteam project funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) the installation has been modified introducing an alternative way to separate water and steam by a cyclone. This paper describes the results of experiments with the cyclone and compares the operation with a steam drum. The steam production of the solar plant as well as the fuel demand of the steam boiler are continuously monitored and results are presented in this paper.

  2. Power generation characteristics of tubular type SOFC by wet process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajiri, H.; Nakayama, T. [Kyushu Electric Power Company, Inc., Fukuoka (Japan); Kuroishi, M. [TOTO Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The development of a practical solid oxide fuel cell requires improvement of a cell performance and a cell manufacturing technology suitable for the mass production. In particular tubular type SOFC is thought to be superior in its reliability because its configuration can avoid the high temperature sealing and reduce the thermal stress resulting from the contact between cells. The authors have fabricated a tubular cell with an air electrode support by a wet processing technique, which is suitable for mass production in improving a power density. To enhance the power output of the module, the Integrated Tubular-Type (ITT) cell has been developed. This paper reports the performance of the single cells with various active anode areas and the bundle with series-connected 9-ITT cells with an active anode area of 840 cm{sup 2}.

  3. Nickel electroforming process for Inconel 600 stream generator tube repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Woon Suk; Lee, Dae Won; Wyi, Jung Il; Kim, Young Kuk [Inha University, Incheon (Korea); Jang, Si Sung [Jaeneung College, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    Ni-P alloy deposits have been extensively studied owing to their high hardness and good wear resistance in both the as-plated and heat-treated conditions. Most commercial coatings have been produced by electroless deposition. But the electroless process is expensive, and the process does not readily permit control of the phosphorus content in the deposits. From the mid-1990s, the Ni-P alloy deposits extensively have been studied to improve mechanical properties by reducing grain size. In this work, the effect of phosphorus on microstructures and mechanical properties in both the as-plated and heat-treated Ni-P alloy deposits were investigated. The effect of Fe addition were also investigated. The content of P in Ni-P deposits gradually increased from 0.2 to 0.9wt.% with increasing H{sub 3}PO{sub 3} concentration from 0.007M to 0.018M in the bath. The hardness of Ni-P deposits increased with increasing P content and then reached 500VHN (Vickers hardness) at Ni-0.9wt%P while the hardness of pure Ni deposit was 150VHN. From result of XRD analysis, the grain size was linearly decreased with increasing phosphorus content and it was 15nm at 0.9wt%P while pure Ni was about 25nm. The content of Fe in the Ni-P-Fe ternary alloy deposits linearly increased with increasing ferric sulfamate concentration, and it was obtained 35wt%Fe at 0.1M. The hardness of Ni-P-Fe deposits increased with increasing Fe content and obtained maximum 660VHN at 2.2wt%Fe. 21 refs., 38 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  4. Method for controlling start-up and steady state performance of a closed split flow recompression brayton cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasch, James Jay

    2017-02-07

    A method of resolving a balanced condition that generates control parameters for start-up and steady state operating points and various component and cycle performances for a closed split flow recompression cycle system. The method provides for improved control of a Brayton cycle thermal to electrical power conversion system. The method may also be used for system design, operational simulation and/or parameter prediction.

  5. The emergence of the lean global start-up as a new type of firm

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Tanev, Stoyan

    2015-01-01

    The present paper contributes to the interplay between international entrepreneurship, innovation networks and early internationalization research emphasizing the need to conceptualize and introduce a new type of firm – the Lean Global Start-up. It discussed two different paths in linking the lean start-up and born global internationalization strategies. The first path refers to generic lean start-ups that have undertaken a rapid internationalization strategy (Lean-to-Global Start-ups). The s...

  6. Accelerated formation of hydrogen-producing granules for the start-up of UASB reactors using vinasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César González-Ugalde

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen-producing granules formation was studied in a CSTR. The aim of this process is to later transfer the mixed liquor to a UASB reactor to reduce its start-up period. Vinasses from a national bioetha­nol-producing industry (from sugar cane were used as substrate and their anaerobic fermentation was carried out under mesophilic conditions. The seed sludge was collected from an UASB reactor oper­ated in an industrial wastewater treatment plant and it was heat treated to inactivate methanogenic bacteria. Total viable and non-viable material growth curves were generated and it was determined that the exponential growth phase of the thermally pre­treated mixed culture was between 20 and 120 h. Finally, the anaerobic fermentation of the vinasses in batch mode for 70 hours, and then in continuous CSTR mode for 7 days, showed to be an effective method for accelerating the formation of hydrogen-producing granules. Using this method, granules with an average size of 1.24 mm were achieved. The good efficiency of the process is attributed to high mass transfer in the CSTR reactor.

  7. Convergence on Self - Generated vs. Crowdsourced Ideas in Crisis Response: Comparing Social Exchange Processes and Satisfaction with Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeber, Isabella; Merz, Alexander B.; Maier, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Social media allow crowds to generate many ideas to swiftly respond to events like crises, public policy discourse, or online town hall meetings. This allows organizations and governments to harness the innovative power of the crowd. As part of this setting, teams that process crowd ideas must...... engage in social exchange processes to converge on a few promising ideas. Traditionally, teams work on self-generated ideas. However, in a crowdsourcing scenario, such as public participation in crisis response, teams may have to process crowd-generated ideas. To better understand this new practice......, it is important to investigate how converging on crowdsourced ideas affects the social exchange processes of teams and resulting outcomes. We conducted a laboratory experiment in which small teams working in a crisis response setting converged on self-generated or crowdsourced ideas in an emergency response...

  8. Laser materials processing of complex components: from reverse engineering via automated beam path generation to short process development cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgl, Richard; Brandstätter, Elmar

    2017-01-01

    The article presents an overview of what is possible nowadays in the field of laser materials processing. The state of the art in the complete process chain is shown, starting with the generation of a specific components CAD data and continuing with the automated motion path generation for the laser head carried by a CNC or robot system. Application examples from laser cladding and laser-based additive manufacturing are given.

  9. Laser materials processing of complex components. From reverse engineering via automated beam path generation to short process development cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgl, R.; Brandstätter, E.

    2016-03-01

    The article presents an overview of what is possible nowadays in the field of laser materials processing. The state of the art in the complete process chain is shown, starting with the generation of a specific components CAD data and continuing with the automated motion path generation for the laser head carried by a CNC or robot system. Application examples from laser welding, laser cladding and additive laser manufacturing are given.

  10. Research on the Combustion Characteristics of a Free-Piston Gasoline Engine Linear Generator during the Stable Generating Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxi Miao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The free-piston gasoline engine linear generator (FPGLG is a new kind of power plant consisting of free-piston gasoline engines and a linear generator. Due to the elimination of the crankshaft mechanism, the piston motion process and the combustion heat release process affect each other significantly. In this paper, the combustion characteristics during the stable generating process of a FPGLG were presented using a numerical iteration method, which coupled a zero-dimensional piston dynamic model and a three-dimensional scavenging model with the combustion process simulation. The results indicated that, compared to the conventional engine (CE, the heat release process of the FPGLG lasted longer with a lower peak heat release rate. The indicated thermal efficiency of the engine was lower because less heat was released around the piston top dead centre (TDC. Very minimal difference was observed on the ignition delay duration between the FPGLG and the CE, while the post-combustion period of the FPGLG was significantly longer than that of the CE. Meanwhile, the FPGLG was found to operate more moderately due to lower peak in-cylinder gas pressure and a lower pressure rising rate. The potential advantage of the FPGLG in lower NOx emission was also proven with the simulation results presented in this paper.

  11. The Performance Of Team Start-Ups In The First Phases Of The Life Course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Stam (Erik); V. Schutjens (Veronique)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis article describes the benefits and pitfalls of starting a firm with an entrepreneurial team, drawing on a longitudinal empirical analysis of the life course of 90 team start-ups and 1196 solo start-ups in the Netherlands. In the first three years of their existence, team start-ups p

  12. Our start-up could never have been successful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonger, S.

    2014-01-01

    In July 2013, TU Delft alumnus Jan van Kranendonk and his business partner Thomas de Leeuw decided to discontinue their start-up company Sunuru. The reason was that customers were not interested in their ingenious solar project. Van Kranendonk spoke about his failure during the Failcon event in Amst

  13. CERN confident of LHC start-up in 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    Vanden Broeck, Renilde

    2007-01-01

    "Delegates attending the 140th meeting of CERN Council today heard a confident report from the Laboratory about the scheduled start-up of the world's highest energy particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collier (LHC) in 2007. (1/2 page)

  14. CERN confident of LHC start-up in 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Delegates attending the 140th meeting of CERN Council today heard a confident report from the Laboratory about the scheduled start-up of the world's highest energy particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2007." (1/2 page)

  15. Start-Up Rhetoric in Eight Speeches of Barack Obama

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Daniel C.; Kowal, Sabine; Sabin, Edward J.; Lamia, John F.; Dannevik, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose in the following was to investigate the start-up rhetoric employed by U.S. President Barack Obama in his speeches. The initial 5 min from eight of his speeches from May to September of 2009 were selected for their variety of setting, audience, theme, and purpose. It was generally hypothesized that Barack Obama, widely recognized for…

  16. Characteristics Contributing to High-Technology Start-Up Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goslin, L.; Brown, W.; Palm, T.

    1993-01-01

    that the professional venture-capital-funded start-up firm will generally reflect the practices of perceptive management regarding: style, team approach, structure of the firm, market definition, culture, vision, and a formal strategy. Nevertheless, there are some questions about differences those characteristics...

  17. How do new product development startups handle missing expertise?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eris, O.; van den Eijnden, W.; Roling, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for how new product development focused startup firms (NPDSF) handle missing expertise. The dimensions of the framework are: strategies for handling missing expertise, channels used to acquire missing expertise, and a priori awareness, timing and nature of missing exp

  18. Evaluating effectiveness of project start-ups: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, J.I.M.; Burger, G.T.N.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper an exploratory study is reported about the effectiveness of project start-up (PSU) practices within a world-scale operating, high technology innovating and manufacturing company. The emphasis is on the focal position of both project owner and project manager. To uncover potential diffe

  19. Social Capital in Knowledge Intensive Start-Ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Madsen, Henning

    This paper addresses social capital in biotechnology, medico and information communication start-ups using both quantitative and qualitative data. It shows that founding teams are primarily composed of 'trusted alters' and that networking patterns are highly influenced by the entrepreneur...

  20. Characteristics Contributing to High-Technology Start-Up Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goslin, L.; Brown, W.; Palm, T.

    1993-01-01

    The factors contributing to the success of high technology start-up firms have received much discussion in current business literature. The discussion of the characteristics of success has been based on increasing substantiation by empirical research. The available information suggests that the p...

  1. University Knowledge Spillovers & Regional Start-up Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellerstedt, Karin; Wennberg, Karl; Frederiksen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This chapter investigates how regional start-up rates in the knowledge-intensive services and high-tech industries are influenced by knowledge spillovers from both universities and firm-based R&D activities. Integrating insights from economic geography and organizational ecology into the literatu...

  2. Start-up of a drinking water biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsay, Loren; Søborg, Ditte; Breda, Inês Lousinha Ribeiro

    When virgin filter media is placed in drinking water biofilters, a start-up period of some months typically ensues. During this period, the necessary inorganic coating and bacterial community are established on the filter medium, after which the treated water complies with drinking water criteria...

  3. Trends in the Crowdfunding of Educational Technology Startups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonenko, Pavlo D.; Lee, Brenda R.; Kleinheksel, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of active crowdfunding campaigns posted on ten crowdfunding platforms in May 2013 to provide a glimpse of the recent trends in the crowdfunding of educational technology startups. We describe the characteristics of the most successful crowdfunding campaigns in educational technology and identify the most popular…

  4. Evaluating effectiveness of project start-ups: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, Johannes I.M.; Burger, G.T.N.

    In this paper an exploratory study is reported about the effectiveness of project start-up (PSU) practices within a world-scale operating, high technology innovating and manufacturing company. The emphasis is on the focal position of both project owner and project manager. To uncover potential

  5. Success of Breast Cancer Startup Challenge Inspires Second Challenge | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Thomas Stackhouse, Joseph Conrad, and Michele Newton, Contributing Writers, and Rosemarie Truman, Guest Writer Sixty-one teams have been accepted into, and are now competing in, the Neuro Startup Challenge, a new collaboration established by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) with The Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI) and Heritage Provider Network, Inc.

  6. Acetate enhances startup of a H2-producing microbial biocathode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeremiasse, A.W.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Croese, E.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2012-01-01

    H2 can be produced from organic matter with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). To decrease MEC capital costs, a cathode is needed that is made of low-cost material and produces H2 at high rate. A microbial biocathode is a low-cost candidate, but suffers from a long startup and a low H2 production

  7. Social Capital in Knowledge Intensive Start-Ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Madsen, Henning

    This paper addresses social capital in biotechnology, medico and information communication start-ups using both quantitative and qualitative data. It shows that founding teams are primarily composed of 'trusted alters' and that networking patterns are highly influenced by the entrepreneur...

  8. Beta: An Experiment in Funded Undergraduate Start-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Paul; Forbes-Simpson, Kellie; Maas, Gideon; Newbery, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation of a funded undergraduate project designed to enable student business start-up. The programme, entitled "Beta", provides undergraduate students with £1,500 of seed-corn funding. The key objective of the project is for the participants to exit it with a viable and legal business entity through which…

  9. Vapor Flow Patterns During a Start-Up Transient in Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issacci, F.; Ghoniem, N, M.; Catton, I.

    1996-01-01

    The vapor flow patterns in heat pipes are examined during the start-up transient phase. The vapor core is modelled as a channel flow using a two dimensional compressible flow model. A nonlinear filtering technique is used as a post process to eliminate the non-physical oscillations of the flow variables. For high-input heat flux, multiple shock reflections are observed in the evaporation region. The reflections cause a reverse flow in the evaporation and circulations in the adiabatic region. Furthermore, each shock reflection causes a significant increase in the local pressure and a large pressure drop along the heat pipe.

  10. Social network analysis for startups finding connections on the social web

    CERN Document Server

    Tsvetovat, Maksim

    2011-01-01

    Does your startup rely on social network analysis? This concise guide provides a statistical framework to help you identify social processes hidden among the tons of data now available. Social network analysis (SNA) is a discipline that predates Facebook and Twitter by 30 years. Through expert SNA researchers, you''ll learn concepts and techniques for recognizing patterns in social media, political groups, companies, cultural trends, and interpersonal networks. You''ll also learn how to use Python and other open source tools-such as NetworkX, NumPy, and Matplotlib-to gather, analyze, and vis

  11. Fusion core start-up, ignition and burn simulations of reversed-field pinch (RFP) reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Yuh-Yi

    1988-01-01

    A transient reactor simulation model is developed to investigate and simulate the start-up, ignition and burn of a reversed-field pinch reactor. The simulation is based upon a spatially averaged plasma balance model with field profiles obtained from MHD quasi-equilibrium analysis. Alpha particle heating is estimated from Fokker-Planck calculations. The instantaneous plasma current is derived from a self-consistent circuit analysis for plasma/coil/eddy current interactions. The simulation code is applied to the TITAN RFP reactor design which features a compact, high-power-density reversed-field pinch fusion system. A contour analysis is performed using the steady-state global plasma balance. The results are presented with contours of constant plasma current. A saddle point is identified in the contour plot which determines the minimum value of plasma current required to achieve ignition. An optimized start-up to ignition and burn path can be obtained by passing through the saddle point. The simulation code is used to study and optimize the start-up scenario. In the simulations of the TITAN RFP reactor, the OH-driven superconducting EF coils are found to deviate from the required equilibrium values as the induced plasma current increases. This results in the modification of superconducting EF coils and the addition of a set of EF trim coils. The design of the EF coil system is performed with the simulation code subject to the optimization of trim-coil power and current. In addition, the trim-coil design is subject to the constraints of vertical-field stability index and maintenance access. A power crowbar is also needed to prevent the superconducting EF coils from generating excessive vertical field. A set of basic results from the simulation of TITAN RFP reactor yield a picture of RFP plasma operation in a reactor. Investigations of eddy current are also presented. 145 refs., 37 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Generation of photon pairs through parametric processes in nonlinear waveguides with the account of losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavulin, D. N.; Sukhorukov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    We present an analytical description of the process of spontaneous four-wave mixing in a cubic nonlinear fiber with linear losses. We consider the generation of photon pairs in the fiber when in the input of fiber is fed the pumping wave and single signal photon. The focus of attention is on three cases: when the signal photon propagates in the fiber without generating of biphotons; when the photon pair is generated; and when the photon is lost in the fiber. We also consider the cascade processes, but do not give them an analytical description because of their smallness. Description of the biphotons generation process we provide using the Schrodinger-type equation, and take into account the losses in the fiber through the introduction of the virtual beam splitters. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the generation of photon pairs through parametric processes.

  13. Enhanced start-up of anaerobic facultatively autotrophic biocathodes in bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaybak, Zehra; Pisciotta, John M; Tokash, Justin C; Logan, Bruce E

    2013-12-01

    Biocathodes in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) can be used to convert CO2 into diverse organic compounds through a process called microbial electrosynthesis. Unfortunately, start-up of anaerobic biocathodes in BESs is a difficult and time consuming process. Here, a pre-enrichment method was developed to improve start-up of anaerobic facultatively autotrophic biocathodes capable of using cathodes as the electron donor (electrotrophs) and CO2 as the electron acceptor. Anaerobic enrichment of bacteria from freshwater bog sediment samples was first performed in batch cultures fed with glucose and then used to inoculate BES cathode chambers set at -0.4V (versus a standard hydrogen electrode; SHE). After two weeks of heterotrophic operation of BESs, CO2 was provided as the sole electron acceptor and carbon source. Consumption of electrons from cathodes increased gradually and was sustained for about two months in concert with a significant decrease in cathode chamber headspace CO2. The maximum current density consumed was -34 ± 4 mA/m(2). Biosynthesis resulted in organic compounds that included butanol, ethanol, acetate, propionate, butyrate, and hydrogen gas. Bacterial community analyses based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed Trichococcus palustris DSM 9172 (99% sequence identity) as the prevailing species in biocathode communities, followed by Oscillibacter sp. and Clostridium sp. Isolates from autotrophic cultivation were most closely related to Clostridium propionicum (99% sequence identity; ZZ16), Clostridium celerecrescens (98-99%; ZZ22, ZZ23), Desulfotomaculum sp. (97%; ZZ21), and Tissierella sp. (98%; ZZ25). This pre-enrichment procedure enables simplified start-up of anaerobic biocathodes for applications such as electrofuel production by facultatively autotrophic electrotrophs.

  14. Enhanced start-up of anaerobic facultatively autotrophic biocathodes in bioelectrochemical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zaybak, Zehra

    2013-12-01

    Biocathodes in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) can be used to convert CO2 into diverse organic compounds through a process called microbial electrosynthesis. Unfortunately, start-up of anaerobic biocathodes in BESs is a difficult and time consuming process. Here, a pre-enrichment method was developed to improve start-up of anaerobic facultatively autotrophic biocathodes capable of using cathodes as the electron donor (electrotrophs) and CO2 as the electron acceptor. Anaerobic enrichment of bacteria from freshwater bog sediment samples was first performed in batch cultures fed with glucose and then used to inoculate BES cathode chambers set at -0.4V (versus a standard hydrogen electrode; SHE). After two weeks of heterotrophic operation of BESs, CO2 was provided as the sole electron acceptor and carbon source. Consumption of electrons from cathodes increased gradually and was sustained for about two months in concert with a significant decrease in cathode chamber headspace CO2. The maximum current density consumed was -34±4mA/m2. Biosynthesis resulted in organic compounds that included butanol, ethanol, acetate, propionate, butyrate, and hydrogen gas. Bacterial community analyses based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed Trichococcus palustris DSM 9172 (99% sequence identity) as the prevailing species in biocathode communities, followed by Oscillibacter sp. and Clostridium sp. Isolates from autotrophic cultivation were most closely related to Clostridium propionicum (99% sequence identity; ZZ16), Clostridium celerecrescens (98-99%; ZZ22, ZZ23), Desulfotomaculum sp. (97%; ZZ21), and Tissierella sp. (98%; ZZ25). This pre-enrichment procedure enables simplified start-up of anaerobic biocathodes for applications such as electrofuel production by facultatively autotrophic electrotrophs. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Assessment study of RELAP5/MOD2, CYCLE 36. 04 based on spray start-up test for DOEL-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeyaert, P.; Stubbe, E.

    1989-07-01

    This report presents an assessment study for the code RELAP-5 MOD-2 based on a pressurizer spray start-up test of the Doel-4 power plant. Doel-4 is a three loop WESTINGHOUSE PWR plant ordered by the EBES utility with a nominal power rating of 1000 MWe and equipped with preheater type E steam generators. A large series of commissioning tests are normally performed on new plants, of which the so called pressurizer spray and heater test (SU-PR-01) was performed on February 2nd 1985. TRACTEBEL, being the Architect-Engineer for this plant was closely involved with all start-up tests and was responsible for the final approval of the tests.

  16. A qualitative study of the challenges related to the development of product enabled services in technology driven start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren; Tanev, Stoyan; Ma, Zheng;

    of products and services to meet specific customer demands, thus generating additional value. This paper examines technology-based start-ups’ attitude towards the development of hybrid offerings as part of their business differentiation and positioning strategies. The main research question is answered within...... of product-enabled services as part of an integrated value proposition. The research findings indicate an insufficient approach towards hybrid offerings where start-ups initially focus on products or services, but not as an integrated hybrid solution. This decoupled approach seems to be linked to the fact...... that start-ups have limited human and financial resources that is often combined with lacking business and commercialization knowledge. The screening criteria from the new venture funding organisation appear to be very much product focused, as the tangibility of the products, as compared to services, makes...

  17. BENCHMARK EVALUATION OF THE START-UP CORE REACTOR PHYSICS MEASUREMENTS OF THE HIGH TEMPERATURE ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Darrell Bess

    2010-05-01

    The benchmark evaluation of the start-up core reactor physics measurements performed with Japan’s High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor, in support of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project and Very High Temperature Reactor Program activities at the Idaho National Laboratory, has been completed. The evaluation was performed using MCNP5 with ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data libraries and according to guidelines provided for inclusion in the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project Handbook. Results provided include updated evaluation of the initial six critical core configurations (five annular and one fully-loaded). The calculated keff eigenvalues agree within 1s of the benchmark values. Reactor physics measurements that were evaluated include reactivity effects measurements such as excess reactivity during the core loading process and shutdown margins for the fully-loaded core, four isothermal temperature reactivity coefficient measurements for the fully-loaded core, and axial reaction rate measurements in the instrumentation columns of three core configurations. The calculated values agree well with the benchmark experiment measurements. Fully subcritical and warm critical configurations of the fully-loaded core were also assessed. The calculated keff eigenvalues for these two configurations also agree within 1s of the benchmark values. The reactor physics measurement data can be used in the validation and design development of future High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor systems.

  18. Generation and evaluation of business continuity processes using algebraic graph transformation and the mCRL2 process algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, C.; Hermann, F; Groote, JF Jan Friso

    2011-01-01

    Critical business processes can fail. Therefore, continuity processes are needed as back-up solutions. Today, those continuity processes are set up and maintained manually. They are mostly based on best practices that focus on specific continuity scenarios, Nevertheless, failures can occur in new and unforeseen combinations. As a consequence, a given business continuity plan needs to handle such situations as well. For this purpose, we present a technique for the generation and validation of ...

  19. The emergence of the lean global start-up as a new type of firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Tanev, Stoyan

    2015-01-01

    The present paper contributes to the interplay between international entrepreneurship, innovation networks and early internationalization research emphasizing the need to conceptualize and introduce a new type of firm – the Lean Global Start-up. It discussed two different paths in linking the lean...... and adopted the lean start-up approach by seamlessly synergizing their global and lean product development activities. The paper emphasizes several aspects that could be used as part of the theoretical foundation for conceptualizing lean global start-ups as a special new type of firm: the emergent nature...... start-up and born global internationalization strategies. The first path refers to generic lean start-ups that have undertaken a rapid internationalization strategy (Lean-to-Global Start-ups). The second path refers to start-ups that have started operating on global scale since their inception...

  20. Next-generation sequence assembly: four stages of data processing and computational challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara El-Metwally

    Full Text Available Decoding DNA symbols using next-generation sequencers was a major breakthrough in genomic research. Despite the many advantages of next-generation sequencers, e.g., the high-throughput sequencing rate and relatively low cost of sequencing, the assembly of the reads produced by these sequencers still remains a major challenge. In this review, we address the basic framework of next-generation genome sequence assemblers, which comprises four basic stages: preprocessing filtering, a graph construction process, a graph simplification process, and postprocessing filtering. Here we discuss them as a framework of four stages for data analysis and processing and survey variety of techniques, algorithms, and software tools used during each stage. We also discuss the challenges that face current assemblers in the next-generation environment to determine the current state-of-the-art. We recommend a layered architecture approach for constructing a general assembler that can handle the sequences generated by different sequencing platforms.

  1. Next-generation sequence assembly: four stages of data processing and computational challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Metwally, Sara; Hamza, Taher; Zakaria, Magdi; Helmy, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Decoding DNA symbols using next-generation sequencers was a major breakthrough in genomic research. Despite the many advantages of next-generation sequencers, e.g., the high-throughput sequencing rate and relatively low cost of sequencing, the assembly of the reads produced by these sequencers still remains a major challenge. In this review, we address the basic framework of next-generation genome sequence assemblers, which comprises four basic stages: preprocessing filtering, a graph construction process, a graph simplification process, and postprocessing filtering. Here we discuss them as a framework of four stages for data analysis and processing and survey variety of techniques, algorithms, and software tools used during each stage. We also discuss the challenges that face current assemblers in the next-generation environment to determine the current state-of-the-art. We recommend a layered architecture approach for constructing a general assembler that can handle the sequences generated by different sequencing platforms.

  2. Energy Harvesting Thermoelectric Generators Manufactured Using the Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jung Tsai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the fabrication and characterization of energy harvesting thermoelectric micro generators using the commercial complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process. The micro generator consists of 33 thermocouples in series. Thermocouple materials are p-type and n-type polysilicon since they have a large Seebeck coefficient difference. The output power of the micro generator depends on the temperature difference in the hot and cold parts of the thermocouples. In order to increase this temperature difference, the hot part of the thermocouples is suspended to reduce heat-sinking. The micro generator needs a post-CMOS process to release the suspended structures of hot part, which the post-process includes an anisotropic dry etching to etch the sacrificial oxide layer and an isotropic dry etching to remove the silicon substrate. Experiments show that the output power of the micro generator is 9.4 mW at a temperature difference of 15 K.

  3. Energy harvesting thermoelectric generators manufactured using the complementary metal oxide semiconductor process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Zhi; Wu, Chyan-Chyi; Dai, Ching-Liang; Tsai, Wen-Jung

    2013-02-08

    This paper presents the fabrication and characterization of energy harvesting thermoelectric micro generators using the commercial complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The micro generator consists of 33 thermocouples in series. Thermocouple materials are p-type and n-type polysilicon since they have a large Seebeck coefficient difference. The output power of the micro generator depends on the temperature difference in the hot and cold parts of the thermocouples. In order to increase this temperature difference, the hot part of the thermocouples is suspended to reduce heat-sinking. The micro generator needs a post-CMOS process to release the suspended structures of hot part, which the post-process includes an anisotropic dry etching to etch the sacrificial oxide layer and an isotropic dry etching to remove the silicon substrate. Experiments show that the output power of the micro generator is 9.4 mW at a temperature difference of 15 K.

  4. Algorithm of automatic generation of technology process and process relations of automotive wiring harnesses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Benzhu; ZHU Jiman; LIU Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    Identifying each process and their constraint relations from the complex wiring harness drawings quickly and accurately is the basis for formulating process routes. According to the knowledge of automotive wiring harness and the characteristics of wiring harness components, we established the model of wiring harness graph. Then we research the algorithm of identifying technology processes automatically, finally we describe the relationships between processes by introducing the constraint matrix, which is in or- der to lay a good foundation for harness process planning and production scheduling.

  5. Instructional Topics in Educational Measurement (ITEMS) Module: Using Automated Processes to Generate Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis

    2013-01-01

    Changes to the design and development of our educational assessments are resulting in the unprecedented demand for a large and continuous supply of content-specific test items. One way to address this growing demand is with automatic item generation (AIG). AIG is the process of using item models to generate test items with the aid of computer…

  6. Using Digital Video Editing to Shape Novice Teachers: A Generative Process for Nurturing Professional Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandra, Brendan; Brantley-Dias, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe the generative process for using video editing for teachers' professional development. The article provides a rationale, a theoretical framework, and a critical review of the authors' work over the past five years.

  7. Strategies for Reducing the Start-up Operation of Microbial Electrochemical Treatments of Urban Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema Borjas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial electrochemical technologies (METs constitute the core of a number of emerging technologies with a high potential for treating urban wastewater due to a fascinating reaction mechanism—the electron transfer between bacteria and electrodes to transform metabolism into electrical current. In the current work, we focus on the model electroactive microorganism Geobacter sulfurreducens to explore both the design of new start-up procedures and electrochemical operations. Our chemostat-grown plug and play cells, were able to reduce the start-up period by 20-fold while enhancing chemical oxygen demand (COD removal by more than 6-fold during this period. Moreover, a filter-press based bioreactor was successfully tested for both acetate-supplemented synthetic wastewater and real urban wastewater. This proof-of-concept pre-pilot treatment included a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC followed in time by a microbial fuel cell (MFC to finally generate electrical current of ca. 20 A·m−2 with a power of 10 W·m−2 while removing 42 g COD day−1·m−2. The effective removal of acetate suggests a potential use of this modular technology for treating acetogenic wastewater where Geobacter sulfurreducens outcompetes other organisms.

  8. Impact Assessment of Various Methods for Control of Synchronous Generator Excitation on Quality of Transient Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. Filipchik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an impact of various methods for control of an exciting current pertaining to a synchronous generator on the nature of transient processes. A control algorithm for the exciting current in relation to changes in sliding and acceleration of a generator rotor has been proposed in the paper. The algorithm makes it possible to improve quality of the transient processes due to reduction of oscillation range concerning as an active power so a δ-angle as well.

  9. Experimental photonic generation of chirped pulses using nonlinear dispersion-based incoherent processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Manuel; Bolea, Mario; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2015-05-18

    We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a chirped microwave pulses generator based on the processing of an incoherent optical signal by means of a nonlinear dispersive element. Different capabilities have been demonstrated such as the control of the time-bandwidth product and the frequency tuning increasing the flexibility of the generated waveform compared to coherent techniques. Moreover, the use of differential detection improves considerably the limitation over the signal-to-noise ratio related to incoherent processing.

  10. Bulk processing of radionuclide generator parents at the Los Alamos Hot Cell Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassbender, M.; Nortier, F.M.; Phillips, D.R. [Los Almos National Laboratory, NM (US). Chemistry Div.] (and others)

    2004-07-01

    Bulk radionuclide processing at Los Alamos includes isotopes (''generator parents'') with short-lived radioactive daughter nuclides for medical applications: Germanium-68, {sup 82}Sr, {sup 88}Zr and {sup 109}Cd are regularly prepared at the Los Alamos Hot Cell Facility. Nuclear chemical aspects related to the production and processing of these generator parents are briefly outlined below. (orig.)

  11. Cellular scanning strategy for selective laser melting: Generating reliable, optimized scanning paths and processing parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Sankhya; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2015-01-01

    to generate optimized cellular scanning strategies and processing parameters, with an objective of reducing thermal asymmetries and mechanical deformations. The optimized scanning strategies are used for selective laser melting of the standard samples, and experimental and numerical results are compared....... gradients that occur during the process. While process monitoring and control of selective laser melting is an active area of research, establishing the reliability and robustness of the process still remains a challenge.In this paper, a methodology for generating reliable, optimized scanning paths...

  12. Enantiodromic effective generators of a Markov jump process with Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terohid, S. A. A.; Torkaman, P.; Jafarpour, F. H.

    2016-11-01

    This paper deals with the properties of the stochastic generators of the effective (driven) processes associated with atypical values of transition-dependent time-integrated currents with Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry in Markov jump processes. Exploiting the concept of biased ensemble of trajectories by introducing a biasing field s , we show that the stochastic generators of the effective processes associated with the biasing fields s and E -s are enantiodromic with respect to each other where E is the conjugated field to the current. We illustrate our findings by considering an exactly solvable creation-annihilation process of classical particles with nearest-neighbor interactions defined on a one-dimensional lattice.

  13. Weak convergence of marked point processes generated by crossings of multivariate jump processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamborrino, Massimiliano; Sacerdote, Laura; Jacobsen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We consider the multivariate point process determined by the crossing times of the components of a multivariate jump process through a multivariate boundary, assuming to reset each component to an initial value after its boundary crossing. We prove that this point process converges weakly to the ...... Integrate-and-Fire models for single neural dynamics to the case of a firing network of neurons. This will help future study of dependent spike trains....... process converging to a multivariate Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process is discussed as a guideline for applying diffusion limits for jump processes. We apply our theoretical findings to neural network modeling. The proposed model gives a mathematical foundation to the generalization of the class of Leaky...

  14. Webometrics for an Open Access Start-Up Journal (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf-Dietrich Reips

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Before you stands the fourth issue of the International Journal of Internet Science. It will be the last one that is the only issue in its volume, because an increasing rate of manuscript submissions of high quality to this start-up journal forces us to jump to two issues next year. From citation analysis to webometrics Our citation analysis in the previous issue (Reips & Matzat, 2008 revealed a surprisingly high journal impact for the International Journal of Internet Science. To publish very few high quality articles has already catapulted this start-up journal beyond many of the long-standing journals in the field. Looking up "International Journal of Internet Science" in Google Scholar now returns 90 instead of 50 references (December 15, 2009, compared to the same day in 2008. Among them are many new citations relevant to the journal's impact factor.

  15. Research Strategies in Science-based Start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Finn; Dahlgren, Johan Henrich; Lund Jensen, Rasmus

    Although biotech start-ups fail or succeed based on their research few attempts have been made to examine if and how they strategize in this core of their activity. Popular views on Dedicated Biotech Firms (DBFs) see the inherent uncertainty of research as defying notions of strategizing, directing...... instead the attention to the quality of their science, or the roles of boards, management, and collaborative networks etc. Using a unique comprehensive dataset on Danish and Swedish biotech start-ups in drug discovery this paper analyzes their research strategies. Adopting a Simonean point of departure we...... developed as congruent responses to problem architectures; 3) Testing and confirming that financial valuation of firms is driven by achievements conforming to requisite research strategies. These strategies, in turn, require careful combination of multiple dimensions of research.Findings demonstrate...

  16. Watts Bar Unit 2 Startup Results with VERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Collins, Benjamin S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gentry, Cole A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stimpson, Shane G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ritchie, John A. [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    CASL members TVA, Westinghouse, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have successfully completed a detailed simulation of the initial startup of Watts Bar Nuclear Unit 2 (WBN2) using the advanced reactor simulation tools known as VERA. WBN2 is the first commercial power reactor to join the nation’s electrical grid in over two decades, and the modern core design and availability of data make it an excellent benchmark for CASL. Calculations were performed three months prior to the startup, and in the first blind application of VERA to a new reactor, predicted criticality and physics parameters very close to those later measured by TVA. Subsequent calculations with the latest version of VERA and using exact measurement conditions improved the results even further.

  17. Sustainability Strategies for Regional Health Information Organization Startups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Till J.; Ozturk, Pinar; Brown, Carol V.

    2016-01-01

    initiatives by states and regional health information organizations (HIOs). Given the high failure rates of regional U.S. HIOs in the past, our primary objective is to identify the key characteristics of HIO startups that became operational and demonstrated sustainability with non-renewable SHIECAP funding...... HIOs that became operational during the SHIECAP grant period faced similar startup challenges, the two HIOs that demonstrated sustainability pursued distinct technology and sustainability strategies to develop HIE capabilities to fit their very different regional needs: an HIE capability to improve...... the population health of an underserved urban population, and an HIE capability to enable the transition to a healthcare landscape that rewards care coordination across suburban hospitals and physician practices. Conclusions: We propose two models of technology and sustainability strategies for developing bottom...

  18. Intellectual property in consumer electronics, software and technology startups

    CERN Document Server

    Halt, Jr , Gerald B; Stiles, Amber R; Fesnak, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive guide to procuring, utilizing and monetizing intellectual property rights, tailored for readers in the high-tech consumer electronics and software industries, as well as technology startups.  Numerous, real examples, case studies and scenarios are incorporated throughout the book to illustrate the topics discussed.  Readers will learn what to consider throughout the various creative phases of a product’s lifespan from initial research and development initiatives through post-production.  Readers will gain an understanding of the intellectual property protections afforded to U.S. corporations, methods to pro-actively reduce potential problems, and guidelines for future considerations to reduce legal spending, prevent IP theft, and allow for greater profitability from corporate innovation and inventiveness. • Offers a comprehensive guide to intellectual property for readers in high-tech consumer electronics, software and technology startups; • Uses real case studies...

  19. Effect of pre-acclimation of granular activated carbon on microbial electrolysis cell startup and performance

    KAUST Repository

    LaBarge, Nicole

    2016-09-09

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can generate methane by fixing carbon dioxide without using expensive catalysts, but the impact of acclimation procedures on subsequent performance has not been investigated. Granular activated carbon (GAC) was used to pre-enrich electrotrophic methanogenic communities, as GAC has been shown to stimulate direct transfer of electrons between different microbial species. MEC startup times using pre-acclimated GAC were improved compared to controls (without pre-acclimation or without GAC), and after three fed batch cycles methane generation rates were similar (P > 0.4) for GAC acclimated to hydrogen (22 ± 9.3 nmol cm− 3 d− 1), methanol (25 ± 9.7 nmol cm− 3 d− 1), and a volatile fatty acid (VFA) mix (22 ± 11 nmol cm− 3 d− 1). However, MECs started with GAC but no pre-acclimation had lower methane generation rates (13 ± 4.1 nmol cm− 3 d− 1), and MECs without GAC had the lowest rates (0.7 ± 0.8 nmol cm− 3 d− 1 after cycle 2). Microbes previously found in methanogenic MECs, or previously shown to be capable of exocellular electron transfer, were enriched on the GAC. Pre-acclimation using GAC is therefore a simple approach to enrich electroactive communities, improve methane generation rates, and decrease startup times in MECs. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  20. [Transformation of inorganic nitrogen in slag-wetland during the start-up period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shu-Ming; Shan, Bao-Qing; Peng, Wan-Jiang

    2009-05-15

    Lab-scale subsurface flow slag-wetlands were constructed to study the removal efficiency and transformation processes of low-concentration inorganic N during the start-up period. As for ammonium-dominated wastewater, the removal rates of total nitrogen (TN), ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) and nitrite nitrogen (NO2(-)-N) were 0.12 g x (m2 x d)(-1), 0.07 g x (m2 x d)(-1), 0.10 g x (m2 x d)(-1) and 0.04 g x (m2 x d)(-1), respectively. Nitrifying bacteria was not detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on the slag. NH3 volatilization is the main contribution for N removal resulting from high pH (> 10) and surface soil absorbed most of NH3. For nitrate-dominated wastewater, the removal rates of TN and NO3(-)-N were 0.23 g x (m2 x d)(-1) and 0.48 g x (m2 x d)(-1), and NO2(-)-N accumulated by 0.22 g x (m2 x d)(-1) during the process of denitrification. Removal efficiency of inorganic N for nitrate-dominated wastewater was higher than that for ammonium-dominated wastewater during the start-up period of slag-wetlands, so steel slag can be used as a substrate in constructed wetlands for extensive treatment of nitrate pollution.

  1. Start-up and bacterial community compositions of partial nitrification in moving bed biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Mao, Yan-Jun; Shi, Yan-Ping; Quan, Xie

    2017-03-01

    Partial nitrification (PN) has been considered as one of the promising processes for pretreatment of ammonium-rich wastewater. In this study, a kind of novel carriers with enhanced hydrophilicity and electrophilicity was implemented in a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) to start up PN process. Results indicated that biofilm formation rate was higher on modified carriers. In comparison with the reactor filled with traditional carriers (start-up period of 21 days), it took only 14 days to start up PN successfully with ammonia removal efficiency and nitrite accumulation rate of 90 and 91%, respectively, in the reactor filled with modified carriers. Evident changes of spatial distributions and community structures had been detected during the start-up. Free-floating cells existed in planktonic sludge, while these microorganisms trended to form flocs in the biofilm. High-throughput pyrosequencing results indicated that Nitrosomonas was the predominant ammonia-oxidizing bacterium (AOB) in the PN system, while Comamonas might also play a vital role for nitrogen oxidation. Additionally, some other bacteria such as Ferruginibacter, Ottowia, Saprospiraceae, and Rhizobacter were selected to establish stable footholds. This study would be potentially significant for better understanding the microbial features and developing efficient strategies accordingly for MBBR-based PN operation.

  2. Phase Startup Initiative Phases 3 and 4 Test Plan and Test Specification ( OCRWM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.; LANGEVIN, M.J.

    2000-08-07

    Construction for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project facilities is continuing per the Level III Baseline Schedule, and installation of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) and Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) in K West Basin is now complete. In order to accelerate the project, a phased start up strategy to initiate testing of the FRS and IWTS early in the overall project schedule was proposed (Williams 1999). Wilkinson (1999) expands the definition of the original proposal into four functional testing phases of the Phased Startup Initiative (PSI). Phases 1 and 2 are based on performing functional tests using dummy fuel. This test plan provides overall guidance for Phase 3 and 4 tests, which are performed using actual irradiated N fuel assemblies. The overall objective of the Phase 3 and 4 testing is to verify how the FRS and IWTS respond while processing actual fuel. Conducting these tests early in the project schedule will allow identification and resolution of equipment and process problems before they become activities on the start-up critical path. The specific objectives of this test plan are to: Define the Phase 3 and 4 test scope for the FRS and IWTS; Provide detailed test requirements that can be used to write the specific test procedures; Define data required and measurements to be taken. Where existing methods to obtain these do not exist, enough detail will be provided to define required additional equipment; and Define specific test objectives and acceptance criteria.

  3. Progress on Plant-Level Modeling and Simulation of Used Nuclear Fuel Dissolution: Startup Condition with Quasi-Developed Flow and Varying Acid Concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Almeida, Valmor F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-09-20

    An update to a previous report is presented here describing the startup condition of a continuous dissolver. The need for a careful implementation of a startup condition is twofold. First, by varing the used fuel composition and various other parameters of the model, it becomes difficult to solve the governing equations accurately or to obtain a converged solution for an arbitrary initial condition. This is evident when coupling the dissolver module with a third-party user simulator. The second impetus for improving the modeling of the startup process is that an improved realism is obtained and the model is more complete and useful for accounting material balances rigorously. The aforementioned previous report on this dissolver module is a required reading for the understanding of this update.

  4. Marketing strategy for internet startup Vegetaria

    OpenAIRE

    Protchenko, Angelina

    2017-01-01

    The primary purpose of this Bachelors thesis is to develop a marketing strategy, demonstrating how the new website can be developed and marketed online. The thesis is divided into theoretical and practical parts. The theoretical part provides an overview on planning a marketing strategy for a new business in general. It involves definitions and process of marketing, describes a marketing plan structure in detail, outlines main components of the marketing mix and illustrates the process of cre...

  5. Our start-up could never have been successful

    OpenAIRE

    Bonger, S.

    2014-01-01

    In July 2013, TU Delft alumnus Jan van Kranendonk and his business partner Thomas de Leeuw decided to discontinue their start-up company Sunuru. The reason was that customers were not interested in their ingenious solar project. Van Kranendonk spoke about his failure during the Failcon event in Amsterdam, which is modelled after similar events in Silicon Valley. ‘Having your own company looks good on your CV.’

  6. Research Strategies in Science-based Start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Finn; Dahlgren, Johan Henrich; Lund Jensen, Rasmus

    Although biotech start-ups fail or succeed based on their research few attempts have been made to examine if and how they strategize in this core of their activity. Popular views on Dedicated Biotech Firms (DBFs) see the inherent uncertainty of research as defying notions of strategizing, directi...... is needed along these lines, these findings offer new implications for the understanding, management, and financing of these firms.JEL Codes: L25, L65, O32...

  7. ECommerce Strategy for Footwear Manufacturing Start-up

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmanovic, Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines and analyzes an eCommerce strategy for a footwear manufacturing start-up firm and assesses the financial impact this eCommerce strategy has in supporting the firm’s business model. The market analysis of the importance of eCommerce determined the online channel’s market share and influence on consumer purchasing decisions, while the industry analysis examined the competitive landscape and industry forces as drivers of forward integration from manufacturing to wholesale and ...

  8. A Start-Up Produces Infomercials for the Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ The one thing online shopping is missing, says Sukhinder Singh Cassidy, a former Google executive, is infomercials. Ms.Singh Cassidy introduced her new shopping start-up, Joyus.It is an e-commerce site that produces videos to sell products, like a Web version of the Home Shopping Network. "If you think about the ways to sell online, video is underutilized," she said."It's a new way for brands to merchandise their product."

  9. Developing a business plan for a startup e-business

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Khanh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop an initial business plan for a startup fashion company that operates on the Internet in the Vietnamese market. To reach the target objective, the thesis first examines e-business from a theoretical perspective and considers its advantages and disadvantages. Secondly, the macro environment of the proposed business is analyzed, namely the country of Vietnam and its e-commerce environment. Finally, the outcome of the thesis is presented in the form of a b...

  10. Feasibility study of ECRH in NSTX-U startup plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, N. A.; Poli, F.; Taylor, G.; Harvey, R.; Petrov, Yu.

    2016-10-01

    A key mission goal of the National Spherical Torus eXperiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) is the demonstration of fully non-inductive startup and operation. In part to accomplish this, a 1MW, 28 GHz ECRH system is presently being developed for implementation on NSTX-U in 2018. Like most spherical tokamaks, NSTX-U operates in the overdense regime (fpe>fce) , which limits traditional ECRH to the early startup phase. An extensive modelling effort of the propagation and absorption of EC waves in the evolving plasma is thus required to define the most effective window of operation, and to optimize the launcher geometry for maximal heating and for current drive during this window. In fact, the ECRH system will play an important role in preparing a target plasma for subsequent injection of IC waves and NBI. Here we assess the feasibility of O1-mode ECRH in NSTX-U startup plasma at full field of 1T through time-dependent simulations performed with the transport solver TRANSP. Linear ray-tracing calculations conducted by GENRAY are coupled into the TRANSP framework, allowing the plasma equilibrium and the temperature profiles to evolve self-consistently in response to the injected microwave power. Furthermore, we investigate additional possibilities of heating and current drive made available through coupling the injected O-mode power to the electrostatic EBW via the slow X-mode as an intermediary.

  11. Market Channels of Technology Startups that Internationalize Rapidly from Inception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simar Yoos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of technology startups that internationalize rapidly from inception has increased in recent years. However, little is known about their channels to market. This article addresses a gap in the "born global" literature by examining the channels used by six startups that internationalized rapidly from inception as well as the programs they used to support their channel partners and customers. The six startups examined combined the use of the Internet with: i a relationship with a multi-national, ii distributors, iii re-sellers, or iv a direct sales force. They also delivered programs to support partners and customers that focused on communications, alliance and network development, education, marketing and promotion, and financial incentives. This article informs entrepreneurs who need to design go-to-market channels to exploit global opportunities about decisions made by other entrepreneurs who launched born-global companies. Normative rules and practitioner-oriented approaches are needed to help entrepreneurs explain and apply the results presented in this article.

  12. Numerical Simulation of Different Start-up Performance of a Solar Cavity Receiver%太阳能腔式吸热器不同启动状态下启动性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠楠; 方嘉宾; 魏进家

    2012-01-01

    由于太阳能在时间上的非连续性使得太阳能腔式吸热器要频繁地经历不同的启动过程,对腔式吸热器在冷态启动、温态启动和热态启动过程中的热性能进行了模拟。计算得到了吸热器在三种启动过程中入口处所需的太阳光能量,可为定日镜场的布置及控制提供理论指导,同时还得到了吸热器在启动过程中热效率及辐射热损失、对流热损失随时间变化的曲线。%A solar cavity receiver frequently experiences different start-up processes because of the noncontimfity of solar energy in time. The thermal performance during three start-up processes, including cold start-up, warm start-up and hot start-up, was numerically simulated. The solar energy that the aperture of cavity receiver required was calculated during three start-up processes, and it can provide theoretical guidance for the layout and control of heliostat field. The curves of thermal efficiency, radiative thermal loss and convective thermal loss were also gained.

  13. Experimental studies of parameters affecting the heat generation in friction stir welding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijajlović Miroslav M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat generation is a complex process of transformation of a specific type of energy into heat. During friction stir welding, one part of mechanical energy delivered to the welding tool is consumed in the welding process, another is used for deformational processes etc., and the rest of the energy is transformed into heat. The analytical procedure for the estimation of heat generated during friction stir welding is very complex because it includes a significant number of variables and parameters, and many of them cannot be fully mathematically explained. Because of that, the analytical model for the estimation of heat generated during friction stir welding defines variables and parameters that dominantly affect heat generation. These parameters are numerous and some of them, e. g. loads, friction coefficient, torque, temperature, are estimated experimentally. Due to the complex geometry of the friction stir welding process and requirements of the measuring equipment, adequate measuring configurations and specific constructional solutions that provide adequate measuring positions are necessary. This paper gives an overview of the process of heat generation during friction stir welding, the most influencing parameters on heat generation, constructional solutions for the measuring equipment needed for these experimental researches and examples of measured values.

  14. Branching Markov processes on fragmentation trees generated from the paintbox process

    CERN Document Server

    Crane, Harry

    2011-01-01

    A fragmentation of a set $A$ is a graph with vertices labeled by subsets of $A$ which obey a certain parent-child relationship. A random fragmentation tree is a probability distribution on the space of fragmentations of a set. It is often convenient to regard a fragmentation tree as a collection of subsets such that each subset is associated with a non-trivial partition of itself, called its children. In this paper, we study a Markov process on the space of fragmentation trees whose transition probabilities are a product of consistent transition probabilities on the space of partitions. The result is a consistent family of transition probabilities on fragmentation trees which characterizes an infinitely exchangeable process on trees labeled by subsets of the natural numbers. We show that this process possesses a unique stationary measure and can be extended to a process on weighted trees, or trees with edge lengths, as well as mass fragmentations.

  15. Canadian biotechnology start-ups, 1991-1997: the role of incumbents' patents and strategic alliances in controlling competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, T; Baum, J A; Silverman, B S

    2000-12-01

    Fligstein (1996) contends that organizations act to exploit the institutional context in which they are embedded so as to stabilize the competition they face. Drawing on Fligstein's theoretical analysis, we conceptualize incumbent biotechnology firms' patent-ing and alliance-building activities as attempts to stabilize and control potential competition and analyze how these activities shape rates of founding in the Canadian biotechnology industry. We find that increases in the level and concentration of incumbents' patenting discourage founding, particularly in human application sectors of the industry where development and approval processes are more costly and time consuming. Incumbents' horizontal alliances depress start-ups; vertical alliances stimulate start-ups. Our findings highlight how technology appropriation and strategic alliances structure the competitive dynamics and evolution of high-technology, knowledge-intensive industries.

  16. Creativity: The Role of Unconscious Processes in Idea Generation and Idea Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Simone M.; van Baaren, Rick B.; Dijksterhuis, Ap

    2012-01-01

    Today's world of continuous change thrives on creative individuals. Anecdotal reports suggest that creative performance benefits from unconscious processes. Empirical research on the role of the unconscious in creativity, though, is inconsistent and thus far has focused mainly on one aspect of the creative process--idea generation. This is the…

  17. Using Automatic Code Generation in the Attitude Control Flight Software Engineering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David; O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Andrews, Stephen F.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the attitude control subsystem flight software development process, identifies how the process has changed due to automatic code generation, analyzes each software development phase in detail, and concludes with a summary of our lessons learned.

  18. From FASTQ to Function: In Silico Methods for Processing Next-Generation Sequencing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Mark D; Stabler, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents a method to process C. difficile whole-genome next-generation sequencing data straight from the sequencer. Quality control processing and de novo assembly of these data enable downstream analyses such as gene annotation and in silico multi-locus strain-type identification.

  19. Using Automatic Code Generation in the Attitude Control Flight Software Engineering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David; O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Andrews, Stephen F.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the attitude control subsystem flight software development process, identifies how the process has changed due to automatic code generation, analyzes each software development phase in detail, and concludes with a summary of our lessons learned.

  20. Nonlinear Pulse Shaping in Fibres for Pulse Generation and Optical Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Boscolo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of new all-optical technologies for data processing and signal manipulation is a field of growing importance with a strong potential for numerous applications in diverse areas of modern science. Nonlinear phenomena occurring in optical fibres have many attractive features and great, but not yet fully explored, potential in signal processing. Here, we review recent progress on the use of fibre nonlinearities for the generation and shaping of optical pulses and on the applications of advanced pulse shapes in all-optical signal processing. Amongst other topics, we will discuss ultrahigh repetition rate pulse sources, the generation of parabolic shaped pulses in active and passive fibres, the generation of pulses with triangular temporal profiles, and coherent supercontinuum sources. The signal processing applications will span optical regeneration, linear distortion compensation, optical decision at the receiver in optical communication systems, spectral and temporal signal doubling, and frequency conversion.

  1. When we cannot speak: Eye contact disrupts resources available to cognitive control processes during verb generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimura, Shogo; Nomura, Michio

    2016-12-01

    Although eye contact and verbal processing appear independent, people frequently avert their eyes from interlocutors during conversation. This suggests that there is interference between these processes. We hypothesized that such interference occurs because both processes share cognitive resources of a domain-general system and explored the influence of eye contact on simultaneous verb generation processes (i.e., retrieval and selection). In the present experiment, viewing a movie of faces with eyes directed toward the viewer delayed verbal generation more than a movie of faces with averted eyes; however, this effect was only present when both retrieval and selection demands were high. The results support the hypothesis that eye contact shares domain-general cognitive resource with verb generation. This further indicates that a full understanding of functional and dysfunctional communication must consider the interaction and interference of verbal and non-verbal channels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Boiler startup under conditions of convective heating of the highly reactive coal dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuikov, A. V.; Kulagin, V. A.; Baranova, M. P.; Glushkov, D. O.

    2016-12-01

    Experimental research of conditions and characteristics of ignition of the pulverized coal (with a particle size of approximately 80 μm) of different-type brown coals (1B, 2B, and 3B) during convective heating by a heated airflow (at a temperature of 425-600°C and velocity of 1-5 m/s) is carried out. The use of low-inertia thermocouples, a high-speed video camera, and dedicated software has made it possible to determine the minimum oxidizer parameters needed for coal dust ignition, and the approximation dependences of a main characteristic of the process under study―ignition delay time―on the air temperature. Results of experimental studies provide a basis for developing an optimal scheme of the boiler startup without heavy oil, which differs from the known schemes by the relatively low energy consumption for fuel-burning initiation. By example of the BKZ 75-39FB boiler, the economic usefulness of applying the boiler startup without heavy oil is shown. This scheme can be implemented using the proposed ignition burner that functions as a part of the direct system of pulverized-fuel preparation.

  3. Start-up of a thermophilic upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor with mesophilic granular sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lier, J.B. van; Grolle, K.C.F.; Lettinga, G. (Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Environmental Technology); Stams, A.J.M. (Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Microbiology); Conway de Macario, E. (New York State Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (United States). Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). School of Public Health)

    1992-04-01

    Fast start-up of thermophilic upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors was achieved at process temperatures of 46, 55 and 64deg C, using mesophilic granular sludge as inoculum and fatty acid mixtures as feed. The start-up was brought about by increasing the temperature of mesophilic UASB reactors in a single step, which initially led to a sharp drop in the methane-production rate. Thereafter, stable thermophilic methanogenesis was achieved within a period of 1 or 2 weeks depending on the temperature of operation. Mesophilic granules functioned initially as effective carrier material for thermophilic organisms. However, long-term operation led to disintegration of the granules, resulting in wash-out of thermophilic biomass. The temperature optima for acetotrophic methanogenic activity of the sludges cultivated at 46, 55 and 64deg C, were similar, but differed significantly from the temperature optimum of the mesophilic inoculum. All the sludges examined were dominated by Methanothrix-like rods. These could be distinguished by antigenic fingerprinting into two subpopulations, one predominant at 36deg C and the other predominant at 46deg C and above. (orig.).

  4. Yield and flow-induced phase transition in colloidal gels under startup shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lilian; Landrum, Benjamin; Zia, Roseanna

    2016-11-01

    We study the micro-mechanical origins of the transition from solid-like to liquid-like behavior during flow startup of colloidal gels via large-scale dynamic simulation, with a view toward understanding connections to energy storage and phase transition. Such materials often exhibit an overshoot in stress, and prior studies of strong, dilute colloidal gels with a stringy microstructure connect this "yield" event to loss of network connectivity. Owing to the importance of Brownian transport in phase separation processes in colloids, here we study a reversible colloidal gel of hard spheres that interact via a short-range attraction of several kT, for which Brownian motion can lead to rapid quiescent coarsening. In the present study, we interrogate the shear stress for a range of imposed flow strengths, monitoring particle-level structure and dynamics, to determine the microscopic picture of gel yield. Our detailed studies of the microstructural evolution and macroscopic response during startup provide insight into the phase behavior during yield. We present a new model of stress development, phase transition, and structural evolution during transient yield in colloidal gels for which ongoing phase separation informs gel phenomenology.

  5. Start-up performances of dry anaerobic mesophilic and thermophilic digestions of organic solid wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Shu-guang; IMAI Tsuyoshi; UKITA Masao; SEKINE Masahiko

    2007-01-01

    Two dry anaerobic digestions of organic solid wastes were conducted for 6 weeks in a lab-scale batch experiment for investigating the start-up performances under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The enzymatic activities,i.e., β-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, N-α -benzoyl-L-argininamide (BAA)-hydrolysing protease, urease and phosphatase activities were analysed. The lower BAA-hydrolysing protease activity during the first 2-3 weeks was due to the inhibition of the low pH, but was enhanced simultaneously later with the pH increase. β-glucosidase activity showed the lowest values in weeks 1-2, and recovered simultaneously with the increase of BAA-hydrolysing protease activity. Acetic acid dominated most of the total VFAs in thermophilic digestion, while propionate and butyrate dominated in mesophilic digestion. Thermophilic digestion is confirmed more feasible for achieving better performance against misbalance, especially during the start-up period in a dry anaerobic digestion process.

  6. A Strong Start-up Scene Flourishes in the Life Sciences Capital Basel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckhardt, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Basel is known for its successful global players in Pharma, Agro and Chemicals. The wealth of top-tier companies, universities and academic institutions in such a small region is unparalleled. It creates an optimum climate for world-class research and its translation into successful businesses. This is also reflected in a strong start-up scene. Over the past decades the multinational players have shown that they are able to adapt to the ever-increasing challenges in the market. Basel has seen blue-chip company mergers, accompanied by the transfer of business assets into spin-off companies. This process created a mind-set for change which has positively influenced the local start-up environment. Actelion is one of these former spin-offs that successfully made the transition to become a global player. BioVersys and PIQUR are two of the most promising very early stage Swiss biotech companies. Many other examples can be found in Northwestern Switzerland. The region also offers a solid background of supporting activities. Infrastructure, coaching and all other support are offered and complement national innovation initiatives.

  7. An integrated computer-aided system for generation and evaluation of sustainable process alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Niels; Coll, Nuria; Gani, Rafiqul [CAPEC, Department of Chemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-10-01

    This paper presents an integrated system for generation of sustainable process alternatives with respect to new process design as well as retrofit design. The generated process alternatives are evaluated through sustainability metrics, environmental impact factors as well as inherent safety factors. The process alternatives for new process design as well as retrofit design are generated through a systematic method that is simple yet effective and is based on a recently developed path flow analysis approach. According to this approach, a set of indicators are calculated in order to pinpoint unnecessary energy and material waste costs and to identify potential design (retrofit) targets that may improve the process design (in terms of operation and cost) simultaneously with the sustainability metrics, environmental impact factors and the inherent safety factors. Only steady state design data and a database with properties of compounds, including, environmental impact factor related data and safety factor related data are needed. The integrated computer-aided system generates the necessary data if actual plant or experimental data are not available. The application of the integrated system is highlighted through a number of examples including the well-known HDA process. (orig.)

  8. Three-color entanglement generated by single-pass cascaded sum-frequency processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Youbin; Ji, Fengmin; Shi, Zhongtao; Wang, HuaiJun; Zhao, Junwei; Wang, Yajuan

    2017-03-01

    Three-color continuous-variable (CV) entangled beams can be produced by single-pass cascaded sum-frequency processes of third-harmonic generation by quasi-phase-matching technique in only one optical superlattice. Firstly, second-harmonic field is generated by the first double-frequency process of the fundamental field. Then, the third-harmonic field can be generated by the second cascaded sum-frequency process between the second-harmonic and the fundamental fields by quasi-phase-matching technique in the same optical superlattice. By using the quantum stochastic method, we investigated the conversion dynamics of the cascaded sum-frequency processes and the quantum correlation nature among the fundamental, second-harmonic, and third-harmonic fields. The results show that the higher conversion efficiency of third-harmonic generation can be achieved with the larger nonlinear coupling parameter of the second cascaded sum-frequency process. We also show that the fundamental, second-, and third-harmonic beams are CV entangled with each other according to the necessary and sufficient CV entanglement criterion. This scheme of three-color entanglement generation without involving optical cavity is easy to realize in experiment. Moreover, the three-color entangled beams are separated by an octave in frequency which has potential applications in quantum communication and computation networks.

  9. Optimal Start-Up and Operation Policy for an Ultrafiltration Membrane Unit in Whey Separation The work presented here is generated by the Institute for Sustainable Process Technology (ISPT) project IMPROVISE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahadir Saltik, M.; Özkan, Leyla; Jacobs, Marc; Padt, van der Albert

    2016-01-01

    Membrane filtration systems are preferred unit operations in industrial applications due to their mild operating conditions. However the performance of a membrane stack drops over time because of the membrane fouling. This decrease is overcomed by introducing clean membrane stacks. The associated

  10. Evolutionary process development towards next generation crystalline silicon solar cells : a semiconductor process toolbox application

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, J.; Prajapati, V.; Vermang, B.; Lorenz, A.; Allebe, C.; Rothschild, A.; Tous, L.; Uruena, A.; Baert, K.; Poortmans, J.

    2012-08-01

    Bulk crystalline Silicon solar cells are covering more than 85% of the world's roof top module installation in 2010. With a growth rate of over 30% in the last 10 years this technology remains the working horse of solar cell industry. The full Aluminum back-side field (Al BSF) technology has been developed in the 90's and provides a production learning curve on module price of constant 20% in average. The main reason for the decrease of module prices with increasing production capacity is due to the effect of up scaling industrial production. For further decreasing of the price per wattpeak silicon consumption has to be reduced and efficiency has to be improved. In this paper we describe a successive efficiency improving process development starting from the existing full Al BSF cell concept. We propose an evolutionary development includes all parts of the solar cell process: optical enhancement (texturing, polishing, anti-reflection coating), junction formation and contacting. Novel processes are benchmarked on industrial like baseline flows using high-efficiency cell concepts like i-PERC (Passivated Emitter and Rear Cell). While the full Al BSF crystalline silicon solar cell technology provides efficiencies of up to 18% (on cz-Si) in production, we are achieving up to 19.4% conversion efficiency for industrial fabricated, large area solar cells with copper based front side metallization and local Al BSF applying the semiconductor toolbox.

  11. GenEx: A simple generator structure for exclusive processes in high energy collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kycia, R A; Staszewski, R; Turnau, J

    2014-01-01

    A simple C++ class structure for construction of a Monte Carlo event generators which can produce unweighted events within relativistic phase space is presented. The generator is self-adapting to the provided matrix element and acceptance cuts. The program is designed specially for exclusive processes and includes, as an example of such an application, implementation of the model for exclusive production of meson pairs $pp \\rightarrow p M^+M^- p $ in high energy proton-proton collisions.

  12. High performance mask fabrication process for the next-generation mask production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagawa, Keisuke; Ugajin, Kunihiro; Suenaga, Machiko; Kobayashi, Yoshihito; Motokawa, Takeharu; Hagihara, Kazuki; Saito, Masato; Itoh, Masamitsu

    2014-07-01

    ArF immersion lithography combined with double patterning has been used for fabricating below half pitch 40nm devices. However, when pattern size shrinks below 20nm, we must use new technology like quadruple patterning process or next generation lithography (NGL) solutions. Moreover, with change in lithography tool, next generation mask production will be needed. According to ITRS 2013, fabrication of finer patterns less than 15nm will be required on mask plate in NGL mask production 5 years later [1]. In order to fabricate finer patterns on mask, higher resolution EB mask writer and high performance fabrication process will be required. In a previous study, we investigated a potential of mask fabrication process for finer patterning and achieved 17nm dense line pattern on mask plate by using VSB (Variable Shaped Beam) type EB mask writer and chemically amplified resist [2][3]. After a further investigation, we constructed higher performance mask process by using new EB mask writer EBM9000. EBM9000 is the equipment supporting hp16nm generation's photomask production and has high accuracy and high throughput. As a result, we achieved 15.5nm pattern on mask with high productivity. Moreover, from evaluation of isolated pattern, we proved that current mask process has the capability for sub-10nm pattern. These results show that the performance of current mask fabrication process have the potential to fabricate the next-generation mask.

  13. Time-ordering effects in the generation of entangled photons using nonlinear optical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Nicolás; Sipe, J E

    2015-03-06

    We study the effects of time ordering in photon generation processes such as spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) and four wave mixing (SFWM). The results presented here are used to construct an intuitive picture that allows us to predict when time-ordering effects significantly modify the joint spectral amplitude (JSA) of the photons generated in SPDC and SFWM. These effects become important only when the photons being generated lie with the pump beam that travels through the nonlinear material for a significant amount of time. Thus sources of spectrally separable photons are ideal candidates for the observation of modifications of the JSA due to time ordering.

  14. Thermal Analysis of a Solar Powered Absorption Cooling System with Fully Mixed Thermal Storage at Startup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Stanciu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple effect one stage ammonia-water absorption cooling system fueled by solar energy is analyzed. The considered system is composed by a parabolic trough collector concentrating solar energy into a tubular receiver for heating water. This is stored in a fully mixed thermal storage tank and used in the vapor generator of the absorption cooling system. Time dependent cooling load is considered for the air conditioning of a residential two-storey house. A parametric study is performed to analyze the operation stability of the cooling system with respect to solar collector and storage tank dimensions. The results emphasized that there is a specific storage tank dimension associated to a specific solar collector dimension that could ensure the longest continuous startup operation of the cooling system when constant mass flow rates inside the system are assumed.

  15. Startup of Plasma Current in J-TEXT Tokamak Prompted by the Hα Line Emission Criterion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Li; ZHUANG Ge; HU Xiwei; ZHANG Ming

    2009-01-01

    An Hα line-emission detection system was developed on the joint texas experimental tokamak (J-TEXT), which is used to determine the Hα emission level during the gas breakdown and hereafter to control the startup of the plasma current. The detector consists of an Hα in-terference filter, a focusing lens, a photodiode and a preamplifier. In the J-TEXT operation, the Hα emission is taken as a monitor signal which is highly sensitive to the generation of a plasma.Furthermore, the power supply control system using the above signal as an input is capable of de-termining whether and when to fire the Ohmic heating capacitor banks, which are applied to drive the plasma current ramp-up. The experimental results confirm that the Hα emission criterion is acceptable for controlling the plasma current promotion in the J-TEXT tokamak.

  16. Drivability Improvement Control for Vehicle Start-Up Applied to an Automated Manual Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danna Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Drivability is the key factor for the automated manual transmission. It includes fast response to the driver’s demand and the driving comfort. This paper deals with a control methodology applied to an automated manual transmission vehicle for drivability enhancement during vehicle start-up phase. Based on a piecewise model of powertrain, a multiple-model predictive controller (mMPC is designed with the engine speed, clutch disc speed, and wheel speed as the measurable input variables and the engine torque reference and clutch friction torque reference as the controller’s output variables. The model not only includes the clutch dynamic, the flexible shaft dynamic, but also includes the actuators’ delay character. Considering the driver’s intention, a slipping speed trajectory is generated based on the acceleration pedal dynamically. The designed control strategy is verified on a complete powertrain and longitudinal vehicle dynamic model with different driver’s torque demands.

  17. Start-Ups and External Equity: The Role of Entrepreneurial Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. Zaleski

    2010-01-01

    A long-standing problem for most business start-ups is acquiring external equity during the first year of operations. In explaining the financing decisions of business start-ups, Meyer’s (1984) pecking order theory serves as a logical working hypothesis. Treating the pecking order to be the resolution to an information problem about the potential profitability of a business startup, this paper analyzes the determinants of obtaining external equity. Special consideration is given to the role o...

  18. Tokamak startup: problems and scenarios related to the transient phases of ignited tokamak operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, J.

    1985-01-01

    During recent years improvements have been made to tokamak startup procedures, which are important to the optimization of ignited tokamaks. The use of rf-assisted startup and noninductive current drive has led to substantial reduction and even complete elimination of the volt-seconds used during startup, relaxing constraints on poloidal coil, vacuum vessel, and structure design. This paper reviews these and other improvements and discusses the various bulk heating techniques that may be used to ignite a D-T plasma.

  19. Ideology as resource in entrepreneurial journalism: The French online news startup Mediapart

    OpenAIRE

    Wagemans, Andrea; Witschge, Tamara; Deuze, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of a startup culture in the field of journalism is global: since the early years of the twenty-first century, new independent journalism companies have formed around the world. Although setting up one's own journalistic practice is not particularly novel in the news industry, the last couple of years have witnessed exponential growth in the startup space. In this context we chose to look more closely at one of the more successful recent online news startups: the French site Medi...

  20. Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession.

  1. Startup Capability of Boost DC/DC Converter%Boost DC/DC的低压启动能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向乾尹; 冯全源

    2011-01-01

    An analytical model was proposed to calculate the minimum startup voltage of a boost DC/ DC converter under a constant current load. The factors, such as the current load, the parasitic parameters, the saturation current and on-resistance of the power switch, the switching frequency, and the minimum startup voltage, etc. , which affect the startup capability of the boost DC/DC converter were analyzed with a steady-state analysis method. The model was applied to the design of a boost DC/ DC converter with a 0. 6 jxm CMOS process, and the maximum error of the minimum startup voltage calculated by the proposed model was 4. 5% compared with that by the HSPICE simulator.%为了准确预测Boost DC/DC低压启动能力,采用稳态分析方法,分析了电流负载、寄生参数、功率开关饱和电流及导通阻抗、开关频率、启动电路最低工作电压等因素对Boost DC/DC低压启动能力的影响,提出了预测Boost DC/DC恒流负载下最小启动电压的解析模型.将该模型应用于采用0.6 μm CMOS工艺的Boost DC/DC设计中,模型计算结果相对HSPICE仿真结果的最大误差为4.5%.本模型可推广至恒定电阻负载的情况.

  2. Process, design and optical proximity correction requirements for the 65nm device generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Kevin; Montgomery, Patrick; Litt, Lloyd C.; Conley, Will; Postnikov, Sergei V.; Wu, Wei; Yuan, Chi-Min; Olivares, Marc; Strozewski, Kirk; Carter, Russell L.; Vasek, James; Smith, David; Fanucchi, Eric L.; Wiaux, Vincent; Vandenberghe, Geert; Toublan, Olivier; Verhappen, Arjan; Kuijten, Jan P.; van Wingerden, Johannes; Kasprowicz, Bryan S.; Tracy, Jeffrey W.; Progler, Christopher J.; Shiro, Eugene; Topouzov, Igor; Wimmer, Karl; Roman, Bernard J.

    2003-06-01

    The 65nm device generation will require steady improvements in lithography scanners, resists, reticles and OPC technology. 193nm high NA scanners and illumination can provide the desired dense feature resolution, but achieving the stringent overall 65nm logic product requirements necessitates a more coherent strategy of reticle, process, OPC, and design methods than was required for previous generations. This required integrated patterning solution strategy will have a fundamental impact on the relationship between design and process functions at the 65nm device node.

  3. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  4. Graphic processing unit accelerated real-time partially coherent beam generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiaolong; Liu, Zhi; Chen, Chunyi; Jiang, Huilin; Fang, Hanhan; Song, Lujun; Zhang, Su

    2016-07-01

    A method of using liquid-crystals (LCs) to generate a partially coherent beam in real-time is described. An expression for generating a partially coherent beam is given and calculated using a graphic processing unit (GPU), i.e., the GeForce GTX 680. A liquid-crystal on silicon (LCOS) with 256 × 256 pixels is used as the partially coherent beam generator (PCBG). An optimizing method with partition convolution is used to improve the generating speed of our LC PCBG. The total time needed to generate a random phase map with a coherence width range from 0.015 mm to 1.5 mm is less than 2.4 ms for calculation and readout with the GPU; adding the time needed for the CPU to read and send to LCOS with the response time of the LC PCBG, the real-time partially coherent beam (PCB) generation frequency of our LC PCBG is up to 312 Hz. To our knowledge, it is the first real-time partially coherent beam generator. A series of experiments based on double pinhole interference are performed. The result shows that to generate a laser beam with a coherence width of 0.9 mm and 1.5 mm, with a mean error of approximately 1%, the RMS values needed 0.021306 and 0.020883 and the PV values required 0.073576 and 0.072998, respectively.

  5. Formic Acid Free Flowsheet Development To Eliminate Catalytic Hydrogen Generation In The Defense Waste Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Dan P.; Stone, Michael E.; Newell, J. David; Fellinger, Terri L.; Bricker, Jonathan M.

    2012-09-14

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during production of plutonium and tritium demanded by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass canisters is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. Testing was initiated to determine whether the elimination of formic acid from the DWPF's chemical processing flowsheet would eliminate catalytic hydrogen generation. Historically, hydrogen is generated in chemical processing of alkaline High Level Waste sludge in DWPF. In current processing, sludge is combined with nitric and formic acid to neutralize the waste, reduce mercury and manganese, destroy nitrite, and modify (thin) the slurry rheology. The noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Elimination of formic acid by replacement with glycolic acid has the potential to eliminate the production of catalytic hydrogen. Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet as an alternative to the nitric-formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be reduced and removed by steam stripping in DWPF with no catalytic hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Ten DWPF tests were performed with nonradioactive simulants designed to cover a broad compositional range. No hydrogen was generated in testing without formic acid.

  6. The negative cascade of incongruent generative study-test processing in memory and metacomprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ayanna Kim; McDaniel, Mark A

    2007-06-01

    Previous research suggests that when participants engage in generative study activities, the processing of text is enhanced and improvements in memory and metacomprehension result. However, few studies have investigated the influence of processes required by the testing situation or the interaction between encoding and retrieval processes on metacomprehension accuracy. The present experiments examine whether the congruency of processes generated during study and required at retrieval affect memory, metacomprehension, and control processes. Study orientation and test type were congruent (i.e., letter-reinsertion: detailed test), incongruent (i.e., letter-reinsertion: conceptual test), or neutral (i.e., read: conceptual test). After generative study, but before testing, participants made metacomprehension predictions for previously studied texts. Controlled strategy selection was measured in Experiment 2. When processes at study and test were congruent, cued recall performance and metacomprehension predictions were more accurate than when study and test were incongruent. For incongruent conditions, metacomprehension predictions were no better than chance; thus, controlled strategy selection was based on inaccurate metacomprehension, thereby further penalizing memory performance relative to congruent conditions. These findings extend a transfer-appropriate processing framework to metacomprehension.

  7. Coagulation-flocculation process applied to wastewaters generated in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, L. g.; Belloc, C.; Iturbe, R.; Bandala, E.

    2009-07-01

    A wastewater produced in the contaminated soil washing was treated by means of coagulation-flocculation (CF) process. the wastewater treatment in this work continued petroleum hydrocarbons, a surfactant, i. e., sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as well as salts, humic acids and other constituents that were lixiviated rom the soil during the washing process. The aim of this work was to develop a process for treating the wastewaters generated when washing hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in such a way that it could be recycled to the washing process, and at the end of the cleaning up, the waters could be disposed properly. (Author)

  8. Success and Failure in University-Based Startups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehn, J.; Webley, P.; Cunningham, K. W.

    2014-12-01

    Adapting from a traditional government-funded research program to supporting the work through a start-up company is a difficult (and often not successful) transition. This is made more challenging in that with the relative decline in federal funding for the sciences the transition is forced on many researchers as a matter of survival. The business model of traditional research is not that different from that of the private sector; the development of an idea, models or mock-ups of the product, pitching to sources of funding, creating and marketing the product. However they differ significantly in the environment in which they are applied, as well as in the life span of a project or product. The environments for pitching an idea and gaining investment are very different in academia from that of the private sector, and most academics are stymied by the new approach. In addition, many universities labor under the illusion that start-ups will be a windfall, when in reality they represent a long term investment that will not pay out for many years. This extended timeline is also something new to academics, though persistence pays and a project may take years to fund, after it is complete and the publications written, many in the geosciences go on to new ideas. If a business is to be successful it must continue with a product long term, and develop new ideas around it. A hopefully successful balance of these approaches is being tried at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, where start-ups can build upon university intellectual property and use university resources to build a successful business. In turn the business supports research and development, primarily through faculty, staff and students at the university.

  9. Permanent start-up instrumentation for maintenance outages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttler, J.M. [Cuttler and Associates Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Nasimi, E.; Gill, H.; Scrannage, R.; Paquette, P. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper assesses the need and feasibility of permanent start-up instrumentation detectors to monitor photoneutron flux during maintenance outages. CANDU ion chamber systems were designed to remain on scale for ten weeks after reactor shutdown. A requirement was imposed in the mid-1990s to put the reactor into an overpoisoned guaranteed shutdown state whenever it is shut down and not actively undergoing a restart. Due to the high gadolinium concentration, the ion chamber systems go off scale within three weeks. Operating policies and procedures require the neutron flux and its rate of change to be monitored when fuel is in the reactor. (author)

  10. Blogging business step-by-step startup guide

    CERN Document Server

    magazine, Entrepreneur

    2014-01-01

    This kit includes: Essential industry and business-specific startup steps with worksheets, calculators, checklists and more. Entrepreneur Editors' Start Your Own Business, a guide to starting any business and surviving the first three years. Downloadable, customizable business letters, sales letters, and other sample documents. Entrepreneur's Small Business Legal Toolkit. Blogs are still one of the internet's fastest-growing phenomena–and one of the best and easiest ways to make money online. Packed with the latest blog tools, tricks, and up-and-coming trends, this fully revised edition teache

  11. Cellular scanning strategy for selective laser melting: Generating reliable, optimized scanning paths and processing parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Sankhya; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2015-01-01

    Selective laser melting is yet to become a standardized industrial manufacturing technique. The process continues to suffer from defects such as distortions, residual stresses, localized deformations and warpage caused primarily due to the localized heating, rapid cooling and high temperature...... gradients that occur during the process. While process monitoring and control of selective laser melting is an active area of research, establishing the reliability and robustness of the process still remains a challenge.In this paper, a methodology for generating reliable, optimized scanning paths...... and process parameters for selective laser melting of a standard sample is introduced. The processing of the sample is simulated by sequentially coupling a calibrated 3D pseudo-analytical thermal model with a 3D finite element mechanical model.The optimized processing parameters are subjected to a Monte Carlo...

  12. Mathematical simulation of processes in horizontal steam generator and the program of calculation of its characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, V.F.; Zorin, V.M.; Gorburov, V.I. [OKB Gidropress, Moscow Energy Inst. (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    On the basis of mathematical models describing the processes in horizontal steam generator (SG) the code giving the possibility to calculate the hydrodynamical characteristics in any point of water volume, has been developed. The code simulates the processes in SG in the stationary (or quasi-stationary) mode or operation only. The code may be used as a next step to calculations of the SG characteristics in the non-stationary modes of operation.

  13. Process latitude comparison of advanced DUV photoresists to latest-generation 193-nm photoresists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joesten, Lori A.; Reilly, Michael T.; Linskens, Frank T.; Jehoul, Christiane; Parker, Colin R.

    2001-09-01

    The introduction of resolution enhancement techniques (RETs) and higher numerical aperture (NA) scanners has pushed the capability of 248nm (DUV) processes to below 130nm. This extension of DUV technology has made the decision to insert 193nm difficult. The decision to either extend the current DUV processes or to change to 193nm will depend on several things: mask costs, tool costs, material availability and photoresist performance. The focus of this paper is on photoresist performance. The process latitudes of advanced DUV photoresists are compared to the latest generation of 193nm resists and simulation is used to estimate the performance obtained on the next generation scanners. This paper examines resist process latitude at several feature sizes to determine the strengths and weaknesses of each platform. The feature sizes to be examined include 130nm, 120nm and 110nm with a pitch ratio of 1:1 Lines/Spaces. The resists are processed on the appropriate anti-reflectant and a resist film thickness of approximately 3,000 angstrom is used. The measured lithographic response will be the individual process windows. The examination of each platform's performance will clarify the differences between the two resists on current scanners and estimate the differences on the next generation scanners. The results show experimentally that the current 193nm resist has slightly better process latitudes than the DUV resist for 1:1 Line/Spaces below 130nm. The estimation of performance on the next generation higher NA scanners indicate that the DUV resist will have better performance than the current 193nm resist. However, when the 193nm resists reach the same maturity as the DUV resist and respond to the aerial images accordingly, the 193nm resist will have better process latitude. While few resolution enhancement techniques are used in the experiments, the results do provide a piece of information required to decide between DUV and 193nm.

  14. Glass and Process Development for the Next Generation of Optical Fibers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ballato

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Applications involving optical fibers have grown considerably in recent years with intense levels of research having been focused on the development of not only new generations of optical fiber materials and designs, but also on new processes for their preparation. In this paper, we review the latest developments in advanced materials for optical fibers ranging from silica, to semi-conductors, to particle-containing glasses, to chalcogenides and also in process-related innovations.

  15. Generation of spatiotemporally correlated spike trains and local field potentials using a multivariate autoregressive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutnisky, Diego A; Josić, Kresimir

    2010-05-01

    Experimental advances allowing for the simultaneous recording of activity at multiple sites have significantly increased our understanding of the spatiotemporal patterns in neural activity. The impact of such patterns on neural coding is a fundamental question in neuroscience. The simulation of spike trains with predetermined activity patterns is therefore an important ingredient in the study of potential neural codes. Such artificially generated spike trains could also be used to manipulate cortical neurons in vitro and in vivo. Here, we propose a method to generate spike trains with given mean firing rates and cross-correlations. To capture this statistical structure we generate a point process by thresholding a stochastic process that is continuous in space and discrete in time. This stochastic process is obtained by filtering Gaussian noise through a multivariate autoregressive (AR) model. The parameters of the AR model are obtained by a nonlinear transformation of the point-process correlations to the continuous-process correlations. The proposed method is very efficient and allows for the simulation of large neural populations. It can be optimized to the structure of spatiotemporal correlations and generalized to nonstationary processes and spatiotemporal patterns of local field potentials and spike trains.

  16. Processing Practice of Second Generation Tempeh Recipein Centre of Tempeh Home Industry in Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanes Kristianto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malang still faces nutrition problems that need to be solved with the use of local potential in the form of tempeh. More nutritious and attractive tempeh productsmay be produced by introducing new way of processing known as second generation of tempeh. This study was aimed to explore second generation tempe consumption pattern of in Malang. Methods: This study was descriptive qualitative. Tempeh consumption pattern was obtained from group of mother of 6-59 months child with malnutrition and pregnant with chronic energy deficiency in Kendalkerep health care center in which tempeh industry is localised and Arjowinangun health centers as a comparison. Data collection was conducted through FGD and tempeh cooking contest. Results: In general, respondents consumed tempeh almost every day. Tempe products were prepared traditionally in form of snack or protein source side dish. Tempeh processing is generally done by frying. Respondents have recognized the new way of processing tempeh in form of second generations.Respondents living in the tempeh industry area usedmore various ingredients and more complex methods of cooking. They also indicated the ability to adopt new way of tempeh processing. Conclusion: People in Malang consumes tempeh in two forms, ie. side dishes and snack traditionally processed mainly by frying. They may adopt new way of tempeh processing. Recommendation: Futher research is needed to prove the benefit in reducing the malnutrition.

  17. Signal generation and processing at 100 Gb/s based on optical time division multiplexing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li HUO; Qiang WANG; Yanfei XING; Caiyun LOU

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review our recent works in 100 Gb/s signal generation and processing. A high-speed 100 Gb/s system with on-off keying (0OK) modulation format is implemented by using optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) method. As modifications of this system, simultaneous multicolor optical signal generation and 100Gb/s return-to-zero (RZ)-to-non-return-to-zero (NRZ) format conversion are presented. We also demonstrate basic all-optical signal processing functions of 100 GHz clock recovery and 100 Gb/s all-optical 2R generation based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs).

  18. Geothermal electricity generation and desalination: an integrated process design to conserve latent heat with operational improvements

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2016-02-05

    A new process combination is proposed to link geothermal electricity generation with desalination. The concept involves maximizing the utilization of harvested latent heat by passing the turbine exhaust steam into a multiple effect distillation system and then into an adsorption desalination system. Processes are fully integrated to produce electricity, desalted water for consumer consumption, and make-up water for the geothermal extraction system. Further improvements in operational efficiency are achieved by adding a seawater reverse osmosis system to the site to utilize some of the generated electricity and using on-site aquifer storage and recovery to maximize water production with tailoring of seasonal capacity requirements and to meet facility maintenance requirements. The concept proposed conserves geothermally harvested latent heat and maximizes the economics of geothermal energy development. Development of a fully renewable energy electric generation-desalination-aquifer storage campus is introduced within the framework of geothermal energy development. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis

  19. Different supercontinuum generation processes in photonic crystal fibers pumped with a 1064-nm picosecond pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Wei; Jin, Ai-Jun; Chen, Sheng-Ping; Hou, Jing; Lu, Qi-Sheng

    2013-08-01

    Picosecond pulse pumped supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber is investigated by performing a series of comparative experiments. The main purpose is to investigate the supercontinuum generation processes excited by a given pump source through the experimental study of some specific fibers. A 20-W all-fiber picosecond master oscillator-power amplifier (MOPA) laser is used to pump three different kinds of photonic crystal fibers for supercontinuum generation. Three diverse supercontinuum formation processes are observed to correspond to photonic crystal fibers with distinct dispersion properties. The experimental results are consistent with the relevant theoretical results. Based on the above analyses, a watt-level broadband white light supercontinuum source spanning from 500 nm to beyond 1700 nm is demonstrated by using a picosecond fiber laser in combination with the matched photonic crystal fiber. The limitation of the group velocity matching curve of the photonic crystal fiber is also discussed in the paper.

  20. Steam generation process control and automation; Automacao e controle no processo de geracao de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Junior, Jose Cleodon de; Silva, Walmy Andre C.M. da [PETROBRAS S.A., Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the implementation of the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA) in the steam generation process for injection in heavy oil fields of the Alto do Rodrigues Production Asset, developed by PETROBRAS/E and P/UN-RNCE. This Asset is located in the northeastern region of Brazil, in Rio Grande do Norte State. It addresses to the steam generators for injection in oil wells and the upgrade project that installed remote terminal units and a new panel controlled by PLC, changed all the pneumatic transmitters by electronic and incorporated the steam quality and oxygen control, providing the remote supervision of the process. It also discusses the improvements obtained in the steam generation after the changes in the conception of the control and safety systems. (author)

  1. Different supercontinuum generation processes in photonic crystal fibers pumped with a 1064-nm picosecond pulse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hong-Wei; Jin Ai-Jun; Chen Sheng-Ping; Hou Jing; Lu Qi-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Picosecond pulse pumped supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber is investigated by performing a series of comparative experiments.The main purpose is to investigate the supercontinuum generation processes excited by a given pump source through the experimental study of some specific fibers.A 20-W all-fiber picosecond master oscillator-power amplifier (MOPA) laser is used to pump three different kinds of photonic crystal fibers for supercontinuum generation.Three diverse supercontinuum formation processes are observed to correspond to photonic crystal fibers with distinct dispersion properties.The experimental results are consistent with the relevant theoretical results.Based on the above analyses,a watt-level broadband white light supercontinuum source spanning from 500 nm to beyond 1700 nm is demonstrated by using a picosecond fiber laser in combination with the matched photonic crystal fiber.The limitation of the group velocity matching curve of the photonic crystal fiber is also discussed in the paper.

  2. Numerical solution of moving boundary problem for deposition process in solid fuel gas generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volokhov, V. M.; Dorofeenko, S. O.; Sharov, M. S.; Toktaliev, P. D.

    2016-11-01

    Moving boundary problem in application to process of depositions formation in gas generator are considered. Gas generator, as a part of fuel preparation system of high-speed vehicle, convert solid fuel into multicomponent multiphase mixture, which further burned down in combustion chamber. Mathematical model of two-phase “gas-solid particles” flow, including Navier-Stokes equations for turbulent flow in gas generator and mass, impulse conservations laws for elementary depositions layer are proposed. Verification of proposed mathematical model for depositions mass in gas generator conditions is done. Further possible improvements of proposed model, based on more detail accounting of particle-wall interaction and wall's surface adhesion properties are analyzed.

  3. Note: A 10 Gbps real-time post-processing free physical random number generator chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yi; Liang, Futian; Wang, Xinzhe; Li, Feng; Chen, Lian; Jin, Ge

    2017-09-01

    A random number generator with high data rate, small size, and low power consumption is essential for a certain quantum key distribution (QKD) system. We designed a 10 Gbps random number generator ASIC, TRNG2016, for the QKD system. With a 6 mm × 6 mm QFN48 package, TRNG2016 has 10 independent physical random number generation channels, and each channel can work at a fixed frequency up to 1 Gbps. The random number generated by TRNG2016 can pass the NIST statistical tests without any post-processing. With 3.3 V IO power supply and 1.2 V core power supply, the typical power consumption of TRNG2016 is 773 mW with 10 channels on and running at 1 Gbps data rate.

  4. Processing large sensor data sets for safeguards : the knowledge generation system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Maikel A.; Smartt, Heidi Anne; Matthews, Robert F.

    2012-04-01

    Modern nuclear facilities, such as reprocessing plants, present inspectors with significant challenges due in part to the sheer amount of equipment that must be safeguarded. The Sandia-developed and patented Knowledge Generation system was designed to automatically analyze large amounts of safeguards data to identify anomalous events of interest by comparing sensor readings with those expected from a process of interest and operator declarations. This paper describes a demonstration of the Knowledge Generation system using simulated accountability tank sensor data to represent part of a reprocessing plant. The demonstration indicated that Knowledge Generation has the potential to address several problems critical to the future of safeguards. It could be extended to facilitate remote inspections and trigger random inspections. Knowledge Generation could analyze data to establish trust hierarchies, to facilitate safeguards use of operator-owned sensors.

  5. Innovation as a distributed, collaborative process of knowledge generation: open, networked innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Sloep, P. B. (2009). Innovation as a distributed, collaborative process of knowledge generation: open, networked innovation. In V. Hornung-Prähauser & M. Luckmann (Eds.), Kreativität und Innovationskompetenz im digitalen Netz - Creativity and Innovation Competencies in the Web, Sammlung von ausgewäh

  6. Applying Fourth Generation Management to Access Services: Reinventing Customer Service and Process Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasty, Douglas F.

    2004-01-01

    Are librarians doing all they can to ensure that customer services are delivered with the customer in mind? Librarians are great at helping, but we sometimes need help with identifying customers, defining their needs, developing services, and reviewing the processes behind the services. Fourth Generation Management provides new insight for…

  7. Innovation as a distributed, collaborative process of knowledge generation: open, networked innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Sloep, P. B. (2009). Innovation as a distributed, collaborative process of knowledge generation: open, networked innovation. In V. Hornung-Prähauser & M. Luckmann (Eds.), Kreativität und Innovationskompetenz im digitalen Netz - Creativity and Innovation Competencies in the Web, Sammlung von

  8. Innovation as a distributed, collaborative process of knowledge generation: open, networked innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Sloep, P. B. (2009). Innovation as a distributed, collaborative process of knowledge generation: open, networked innovation. In V. Hornung-Prähauser & M. Luckmann (Eds.), Kreativität und Innovationskompetenz im digitalen Netz - Creativity and Innovation Competencies in the Web, Sammlung von ausgewäh

  9. Self-Generated Goals and Goal Process Appraisals: Relationships with Sociodemographic Factors and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Emma K.; Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Garnefski, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    In this study the full array of personal goals pursued by adolescents was examined using an idiographic goal-elicitation procedure. The aims of the study were twofold. Firstly, we investigated individual differences in self-generated goals and goal process appraisals based on sociodemographic characteristics. Secondly, we investigated the…

  10. Data-based inference of generators for Markov jump processes using convex optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommelin, D.T.; Vanden-Eijnden, E.

    2009-01-01

    A variational approach to the estimation of generators for Markov jump processes from discretely sampled data is discussed and generalized. In this approach, one first calculates the spectrum of the discrete maximum likelihood estimator for the transition matrix consistent with the discrete data. Th

  11. XPLANE, a Generative Computer Aided Process Planning System for Part Manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erve, van 't A.H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of XPLANE, a generative computer aided process planning system for part manufacturing. Described is its position and functioning as a part of a more extended computer aided manufacturing system that includes a link to CAD systems, as well as systems for computer

  12. A qualitative study of the challenges related to the development of product enabled services in technology driven start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren; Tanev, Stoyan; Ma, Zheng

    of products and services to meet specific customer demands, thus generating additional value. This paper examines technology-based start-ups’ attitude towards the development of hybrid offerings as part of their business differentiation and positioning strategies. The main research question is answered within...... that start-ups have limited human and financial resources that is often combined with lacking business and commercialization knowledge. The screening criteria from the new venture funding organisation appear to be very much product focused, as the tangibility of the products, as compared to services, makes...... offerings and avoiding the pitfalls of a fragmented “product first and then service” strategy....

  13. Initial Plasma Startup Test on SUNIST Spherical Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ying(王莹); Zeng Li(曾立); He Yexi(何也熙); SUMST Team

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the Sino-United Spherical Tokamak (SUNIST) at Tsinghua University is to extend the understanding of toroidal plasma physics at a low aspect ratio (R/a ≈ 1.3) and to demonstrate a maintainable target plasma by non-inductive startup. The SUNIST device is designed to operate with up to 13 kA of ohmic heating field current, and to 0.15 T of toroidal field at 10 kA of discharge current. All of the poloidal fields can provide 30 mVs of Volt-seconds transformer. Experimental results of plasma startup show that SUNIST has remarkable characteristics of high ramp rate (dIp/dt ≈ 50 MA/s ), high normalized current IN of about 2.8 (IN = Ip/aBT),and high-efficiency (Ip/IROD ≈ 0.4) production of plasma current while operating at a low toroidal field. Major disruption phenomena have not been observed from magnetic diagnostics of all testing shots. Initial discharges with 52 kA of plasma current (exceeding the designed value of 50 kA),2 ms of pulse length and 50 MA/s of ramp rate have been achieved easily with pre-ionized filament.

  14. Automated Startup of the CEBAF 45 MeV Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehne, D.; Letta, P.; Dunham, B.; Kazimi, R.

    1997-05-01

    In order to improve the speed and reproducibility of restoring the beam in the CEBAF 45 MeV injector after a full or partial shutdown of the accelerator, a program has been written using the Tcl/Tk scripting language to automate most of the required steps. The procedure is separated into three main parts. The first consists of preliminary checks that verify that the hardware is set correctly and that systems are ready to be activated. The second part turns on the main interlocked systems including high power magnets and RF. The final step turns on the beam and verifies that the beam quality is satisfactory by measuring the transmission, orbit, bunch length, transverse emittance and match, energy spread, and dispersion. Minor corrections for phasing are also performed in the program. In order to identify inefficiencies in the startup, each step is timed and parameter changes are logged so that system drifts can be tracked. This paper describes the software implementation, the logic to achieve a successful startup, and efficiency results.

  15. Acoustic emission-based in-process monitoring of surface generation in robot-assisted polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The applicability of acoustic emission (AE) measurements for in-process monitoring of surface generation in the robot-assisted polishing (RAP) was investigated. Surface roughness measurements require interruption of the process, proper surface cleaning and measurements that sometimes necessitate...... removal of the part from the machine tool. In this study, stabilisation of surface roughness during polishing rotational symmetric surfaces by the RAP process was monitored by AE measurements. An AE sensor was placed on a polishing arm in direct contact with a bonded abrasive polishing tool...

  16. DJpsiFDC:an event generator for the process gg→J/ψJ/ψat the LHC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Cong-Feng; WANG Jian; ZHENG Yang-Heng

    2011-01-01

    DJpsiFDC is an event generator package for the process gg→J/ψJ/ψ. It generates events for primary leading-order 2 → 2 processes. The package could generate a Les Houches Event (LHE) document and this could easily be embedded into detector simulation software frameworks. The package is produced in Fortran code.

  17. DJpsiFDC:an event generator for the process gg→J/ψJ/ψ at the LHC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔从丰; 王健; 郑阳恒

    2011-01-01

    DJpsiFDC is an event generator package for the process gg → J/ψJ/ψ. It generates events for primary leading-order 2 → 2 processes. The package could generate a Les Houches Event (LHE) document and this could easily be embedded into detector simulation sof

  18. A reload and startup plan for conversion of the NIST research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, D. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-31

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology operates a 20 MW research reactor for neutron-based research. The heavy-water moderated and cooled reactor is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) but a program to convert the reactor to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel is underway. Among other requirements, a reload and startup test plan must be submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for their approval. The NRC provides guidance for what should be in the plan to ensure that the licensee has sufficient information to operate the reactor safely. Hence, a plan has been generated consisting of two parts. The reload portion of the plan specifies the fuel management whereby initially only two LEU fuel elements are in the core for eight fuel cycles. This is repeated until a point when the optimum approach is to place four fresh LEU elements into the reactor each cycle. This final transition is repeated and after eight cycles the reactor is completely fueled with LEU. By only adding two LEU fuel elements initially, the plan allows for the consumption of HEU fuel elements that are expected to be in storage at the time of conversion and provides additional qualification of production LEU fuel under actual operating conditions. Because the reload is to take place over many fuel cycles, startup tests will be done at different stages of the conversion. The tests, to be compared with calculations to show that the reactor will operate as planned, are the measurement of critical shim arm position and shim arm and regulating rod reactivity worths. An acceptance criterion for each test is specified based on technical specifications that relate to safe operation. Additional tests are being considered that have less safety significance but may be of interest to bolster the validation of analysis tools.

  19. Mathematical modelling of methanogenic reactor start-up: Importance of volatile fatty acids degrading population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłoński, Sławomir J; Łukaszewicz, Marcin

    2014-12-01

    Development of balanced community of microorganisms is one of the obligatory for stable anaerobic digestion. Application of mathematical models might be helpful in development of reliable procedures during the process start-up period. Yet, the accuracy of forecast depends on the quality of input and parameters. In this study, the specific anaerobic activity (SAA) tests were applied in order to estimate microbial community structure. Obtained data was applied as input conditions for mathematical model of anaerobic digestion. The initial values of variables describing the amount of acetate and propionate utilizing microorganisms could be calculated on the basis of SAA results. The modelling based on those optimized variables could successfully reproduce the behavior of a real system during the continuous fermentation.

  20. Myreks - O Caso Da Startup Que Almeja O Mercado Mundial Dos Aplicativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenconi, Cristina Defreyn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Myreks emerged as a startup that operates in the form of recommendation platform, rewarding its users for its power of influence. The user purchases a product and indicate to friends sharing on Facebook via Myreks application. The idea came in 2008 at the height of social networks by a professional with extensive experience in technology. To seek to leverage your business, the CEO earned an investment in the Fund SC. The investment obtained enable the practice of its initial strategy - product placement in foreign markets, more specifically in the United States. However, the social network Facebook, the application's main working tool, declines in the US, in addition, the country still faces the effects of the crisis of 2008. Given the new scenario found over your product insertion process on the market in 2011, Myreks will have to find strategies to deal with the decline of the social network and economic problems, keeping your business viable.

  1. Numerical investigation of flow structure and pressure pulsation in the Francis-99 turbine during startup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakov, A.; Sentyabov, A.; Platonov, D.

    2017-01-01

    We performed numerical simulation of flow in a laboratory model of a Francis hydroturbine at startup regimes. Numerical technique for calculating of low frequency pressure pulsations in a water turbine is based on the use of DES (k-ω Shear Stress Transport) turbulence model and the approach of “frozen rotor”. The structure of the flow behind the runner of turbine was analysed. Shows the effect of flow structure on the frequency and intensity of non-stationary processes in the flow path. Two version of the inlet boundary conditions were considered. The first one corresponded measured time dependence of the discharge. Comparison of the calculation results with the experimental data shows the considerable delay of the discharge in this calculation. Second version corresponded linear approximation of time dependence of the discharge. This calculation shows good agreement with experimental results.

  2. Lean and Global Technology Start-ups: Linking the Two Research Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemminger, Roy; Svendsen, Lars Limkilde; Zijdemans, Erik

    2014-01-01

    for a firm to be innovative right from or near its founding? How does the degree of innovativeness of its products or services affect the business model formulation and early internationalization processes? c) How are relations and networks used by new technology firms to synergize radical innovation...... be summarized as follows: a) How do new technology start-ups narrow down the scope of their business activities by effectuating the global dimensions of their businesses? What are the reasons for such firms to look for global resources, partnerships or markets right from inception? b) What makes it possible...... and early internationalization activities? How do they use international partnerships or networks to reduce the complexity and the uncertainties associated with a global market entry?...

  3. Environmental risk assessment for start-up of a new consolidated maintenance facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heubach, J.G.; Wise, J.A.

    1992-10-01

    This paper summarizes a case study of a risk assessment for a consolidated maintenance facility (CMF). An interdisciplinary team was formed to identify and evaluate showstopper'' risks which could delay or prevent ontime, safe, and economical operation of a CMF and to recommend ways to mitigate the risks. The risk assessment was constrained by time, information, incomplete plans and facilities, and a concomitant major transition in manufacturing process, organization, and technology. Working within these constraints, the team integrated convergent findings into estimates of high, medium, and low risks based on the subjective likelihood of occurrence and predicted consequences of potential hazard events. The team also made risk-reduction recommendations for facility detail design and production start-up. The findings and recommendations reported in this study focus on risks related to environmental design and workstation ergonomics. Findings from the risk assessment effort should aid other constrained risk assessments and applied research on similar facilities.

  4. Generating Functionals of Random Packing Point Processes: From Hard-Core to Carrier Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Viet, Nguyen Tien

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the generating functionals of several models of random packing processes: the classical Mat\\'ern hard-core model; its extensions, the $k$-Mat\\'ern models and the $\\infty$-Mat\\'ern model, which is an example of random sequential packing process. The main new results are: 1) a sufficient condition for the $\\infty$-Mat\\'ern model to be well-defined (unlike the other two, the $\\infty$-Mat\\'ern model may not be well-defined on unbounded spaces); 2) the generating functional of the resulting point process which is given for each of the three models as the solution of a differential equation; 3) series representations and bounds on the generating functional of the packing models; 4) moment measures and other useful properties of the considered packing models which are derived from their generating functionals. These results are applied to various stochastic geometry problems and in particular to the modeling and the analysis of a wireless Carrier Sensing Multiple Access network.

  5. Steam generators and waste heat boilers for process and plant engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ganapathy, V

    2014-01-01

    Incorporates Worked-Out Real-World ProblemsSteam Generators and Waste Heat Boilers: For Process and Plant Engineers focuses on the thermal design and performance aspects of steam generators, HRSGs and fire tube, water tube waste heat boilers including air heaters, and condensing economizers. Over 120 real-life problems are fully worked out which will help plant engineers in evaluating new boilers or making modifications to existing boiler components without assistance from boiler suppliers. The book examines recent trends and developments in boiler design and technology and presents novel idea

  6. Navigating the Interface between Design Education and Fashion Business Start-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Colleen E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to address the interface between design education and business start-up in the designer fashion industry (DFI) and provide a new framework for reflecting on ways to improve design education and graduates' business start-up preparedness. Design/methodology/approach: This interpretive study employed…

  7. Start-ups, long- and short-term survivors, and their contribution to employment growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritsch, Michael; Noseleit, Florian

    2013-01-01

    This study documents that the survival of start-ups is central in explaining the relationship between entry and regional employment growth. Distinguishing between start-ups according to the period of their survival shows that the positive effect of new business formation on employment growth is main

  8. A Studio Based Approach to Enhancing Decision Making in Sme Start-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol, H G; Ejiri, A.H.; Nabukenya, J.

    2011-01-01

    The start-up phase plays an important role in the success and survival of many enterprises, which greatly depends on adequate and timely services for decision making. However, deciding to startup a mining Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) is a challenging task for many entrepreneurs in Uganda. Resea

  9. Navigating the Interface between Design Education and Fashion Business Start-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Colleen E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to address the interface between design education and business start-up in the designer fashion industry (DFI) and provide a new framework for reflecting on ways to improve design education and graduates' business start-up preparedness. Design/methodology/approach: This interpretive study employed…

  10. Start-ups, long- and short-term survivors, and their contribution to employment growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritsch, Michael; Noseleit, Florian

    This study documents that the survival of start-ups is central in explaining the relationship between entry and regional employment growth. Distinguishing between start-ups according to the period of their survival shows that the positive effect of new business formation on employment growth is

  11. Generation and characterization of nano aluminium powder obtained through wire explosion process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T K Sindhu; R Sarathi; S R Chakravarthy

    2007-04-01

    In the present study, nano aluminium particles were produced by wire explosion process (WEP) in nitrogen, argon and helium atmospheres. Thus produced nano particles were characterized through certain physico-chemical diagnostic studies using wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and by energy dispersive analysis by X-rays (EDAX). The size and shape of the powder were analysed by using transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. The particle size distribution studies were performed by adopting log-normal probability distribution. The relationship between size of the particle generated in the explosion process and the type of inert gas/pressure was analysed. The mechanisms of nano particle formation, the factors which can aid the process of formation of nano particle in the wire explosion process were analysed. It is realized that energy deposited to the conductor and duration of current flow have major impact on particles produced by this process.

  12. Implementing Lean Manufacturing in Malaysian Small and Medium Startup Pharmaceutical Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Wan Mohd Khairi bin Wan; Rahman, Mohamed Abdul; Abu Bakar, Mohd Rushdi bin

    2017-03-01

    Domestic pharmaceutical industry has been identified by the Malaysian government as an industry to be developed under its 11th economic development plan. Most homegrown pharmaceutical companies fall under the category of small and medium enterprises (SME) and therefore need to be highly efficient in their operations to compete with the multinationals. Though lean manufacturing is a well-known methodology to achieve an efficient operation, only a small percentage of the local SMEs implement it. The study aims to determine the real success factors in lean implementation through systematic review of relevant literature on lean manufacturing implementation in local companies, onsite observation of a selected SME company, Global Factor Sdn. Bhd. (GFSB), that successfully implemented lean manufacturing followed by actual implementation of lean project at IKOP Sdn. Bhd., a small startup pharmaceutical company. Lean tools like Gemba, value stream map (VSM) and spaghetti diagram were used to analyze and improve a process at IKOP Sdn. Bhd. The literature review showed that the implementation of lean manufacturing at Malaysian SMEs involved in pharmaceutical industry is at its infancy. Study at GFSB indicated that successful implementation of lean manufacturing stems from management support, employee’s commitment, government support and knowledge on lean among employees. Application of lean tools in IKOP Sdn. Bhd. to improve the process cycle efficiency of hand sanitizer, i-Hand 4.0, has shown that the GMP guidelines are not jeopardized. The Kaizen improvement project resulted in 46.3% reduction in lead time. It may be concluded that implementing lean manufacturing in any small local startup pharmaceutical company is beneficial in reducing operational costs and increasing the efficiency and effectiveness and does not conflict with the existing GMP guidelines.

  13. Analyzing the Efficiency of a Start-Up Cable Yarding Crew in Southern China under New Forest Management Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Hoffmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This case study analyzed the performance of a start-up cable yarding crew in southern China through operational monitoring by consecutive time studies, long-term log book recordings and efficiency evaluation by stochastic frontier analysis (SFA. The crew, which used a KOLLER K303 H mobile tower yarder, was monitored for two years. During this period, detailed data recordings of 687 yarding cycles of 12 yarding corridors as well as log book recordings of an additional 1122 scheduled system hours (SSH, including all delays were generated. Mean extraction productivity of the system ranged between 5.23 and 6.40 m3 per productive system hour (PSH0, excluding all delays, mostly depending on slope yarding distance and lateral distance. Corresponding gross-productivity ranged from 1.91 to 2.24 m3/SSH, with an overall mean machine utilization rate of 31%. Unproductive yarding times and delays associated with the relative low utilization rate were mainly caused by lengthy rigging processes, as well as organizational deficiencies and not yet fully developed skill sets of the operating crew. The latter was reflected in a mean efficiency effect frontier value of 0.62 based on evaluation of data sets of individual yarding cycles recorded during detailed assessments, suggesting a mean improvement potential of 38% based on the SFA, translating in a potentially achievable gross-productivity of 2.64 to 3.09 m3/SSH. We conclude that current local operating conditions including insufficient planning, implementation and logistics and in particular, frequent discontinuations of system operations of up to three months all resulting in generally low operation hours per shift and per year, inhibit efficient operations and rapid skill development. These circumstances also inhibit an economic utilization of the equipment. Nevertheless, from a technical perspective, yarding systems have a promising potential in southern China.

  14. Start-up Success in a Small Island State: A Study among Entrepreneurs in Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Baldacchino

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on entrepreneurs in the small island state of Malta and investigates whether starting up and running an enterprise is facilitated or hindered by being in a small island environment. Specifically it asks (1 whether being on a small island, on the periphery of a major market facilitates or hinders entrepreneurship and start-up success; (2 whether Malta’s cultural context and enterprise environment affect entrepreneurship and start-up success; (3 what the key success factors among Maltese start-ups are; and (4 how are creativity and innovation reflected in Maltese start-ups. Qualitative research among 13 start-ups is supported by telephone-based research among a sample of 90 respondents. Findings contribute to the pool of business expertise and context-specific information from small island states that is often missing from the international literature.

  15. Characteristics of products generated by selective sintering and stereolithography rapid prototyping processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariapa, Vikram

    1993-01-01

    The trend in the modern global economy towards free market policies has motivated companies to use rapid prototyping technologies to not only reduce product development cycle time but also to maintain their competitive edge. A rapid prototyping technology is one which combines computer aided design with computer controlled tracking of focussed high energy source (eg. lasers, heat) on modern ceramic powders, metallic powders, plastics or photosensitive liquid resins in order to produce prototypes or models. At present, except for the process of shape melting, most rapid prototyping processes generate products that are only dimensionally similar to those of the desired end product. There is an urgent need, therefore, to enhance the understanding of the characteristics of these processes in order to realize their potential for production. Currently, the commercial market is dominated by four rapid prototyping processes, namely selective laser sintering, stereolithography, fused deposition modelling and laminated object manufacturing. This phase of the research has focussed on the selective laser sintering and stereolithography rapid prototyping processes. A theoretical model for these processes is under development. Different rapid prototyping sites supplied test specimens (based on ASTM 638-84, Type I) that have been measured and tested to provide a data base on surface finish, dimensional variation and ultimate tensile strength. Further plans call for developing and verifying the theoretical models by carefully designed experiments. This will be a joint effort between NASA and other prototyping centers to generate a larger database, thus encouraging more widespread usage by product designers.

  16. Analysis of Energy Characteristics in the Process of Freak Wave Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金鹏; 张运秋

    2014-01-01

    The energy characteristics in the evolution of the wave train are investigated to understand the inherent cause of the freak wave generation. The Morlet wavelet spectrum method is employed to analyze the numerical, laboratory and field evolution data of this generation process. Their energy distributions and variations are discussed with consideration of corresponding surface elevations. Through comparing the energy characteristics of three cases, it is shown that the freak wave generation depends not only on the continuous transfer of wave train energy to a certain region where finally the maximum energy occurs, but also on the distinct shift of the converged energy to high-frequency components in a very short time. And the typical energy characteristics of freak waves are also given.

  17. Generation of open biomedical datasets through ontology-driven transformation and integration processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmen Legaz-García, María Del; Miñarro-Giménez, José Antonio; Menárguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás

    2016-06-03

    Biomedical research usually requires combining large volumes of data from multiple heterogeneous sources, which makes difficult the integrated exploitation of such data. The Semantic Web paradigm offers a natural technological space for data integration and exploitation by generating content readable by machines. Linked Open Data is a Semantic Web initiative that promotes the publication and sharing of data in machine readable semantic formats. We present an approach for the transformation and integration of heterogeneous biomedical data with the objective of generating open biomedical datasets in Semantic Web formats. The transformation of the data is based on the mappings between the entities of the data schema and the ontological infrastructure that provides the meaning to the content. Our approach permits different types of mappings and includes the possibility of defining complex transformation patterns. Once the mappings are defined, they can be automatically applied to datasets to generate logically consistent content and the mappings can be reused in further transformation processes. The results of our research are (1) a common transformation and integration process for heterogeneous biomedical data; (2) the application of Linked Open Data principles to generate interoperable, open, biomedical datasets; (3) a software tool, called SWIT, that implements the approach. In this paper we also describe how we have applied SWIT in different biomedical scenarios and some lessons learned. We have presented an approach that is able to generate open biomedical repositories in Semantic Web formats. SWIT is able to apply the Linked Open Data principles in the generation of the datasets, so allowing for linking their content to external repositories and creating linked open datasets. SWIT datasets may contain data from multiple sources and schemas, thus becoming integrated datasets.

  18. An efficient process of generating bispecific antibodies via controlled Fab-arm exchange using culture supernatants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Suparna; Connor, Judy; Nesspor, Tom; Haytko, Peter; Boakye, Ken; Chiu, Mark L; Jiang, Haiyan

    2016-05-01

    Bispecific antibody generation is actively pursued for therapeutic and research antibody development. Although there are multiple strategies for generating bispecific antibodies (bsAbs); the common challenge is to develop a scalable method to prepare bsAbs with high purity and yield. The controlled Fab-arm exchange (cFAE) method combines two parental monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), each with a matched point mutation, F405L and K409R in the respective CH3 domains. The conventional process employs two steps: the purification of two parental mAbs from culture supernatants followed by cFAE. Following a reduction/oxidation reaction, the bispecific mAb is formed with greater than 95% heterodimerization efficiency. In this study, cFAE was initiated in culture supernatants expressing the two parental mAbs, thereby eliminating the need to first purify the parental mAbs. The bsAbs formed in culture supernatant was then purified using a Protein A affinity chromatography. The BsAbs generated in this manner had efficiency comparable to the conventional method using purified parental mAbs. BsAbs prepared by two different routes showed indistinguishable characteristics by SDS capillary electrophoresis, analytical size exclusion, and cation exchange chromatography. This alternative method significantly shortened timelines and reduced resources required for bsAb generation, providing an improved process with potential benefits in large-scale bsAb preparation, as well as for HTP small-scale bsAb matrix selection.

  19. High speed image space parallel processing for computer-generated integral imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ki-Chul; Park, Chan; Erdenebat, Munkh-Uchral; Jeong, Ji-Seong; Choi, Jeong-Hun; Kim, Nam; Park, Jae-Hyeung; Lim, Young-Tae; Yoo, Kwan-Hee

    2012-01-16

    In an integral imaging display, the computer-generated integral imaging method has been widely used to create the elemental images from a given three-dimensional object data. Long processing time, however, has been problematic especially when the three-dimensional object data set or the number of the elemental lenses are large. In this paper, we propose an image space parallel processing method, which is implemented by using Open Computer Language (OpenCL) for rapid generation of the elemental images sets from large three-dimensional volume data. Using the proposed technique, it is possible to realize a real-time interactive integral imaging display system for 3D volume data constructed from computational tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data.

  20. Composite solid armature consolidation by pulse power processing - A novel homopolar generator application in EML technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, C.; Peterson, D. R.; Zowarka, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Graded electrical resistance and assured sliding contact are among the desirable characteristics for the solid armatures used in railguns attainable through the use of composite materials. Metal-metal, metal-ceramic, and metal-polymer composites are generic types of potential solid armature materials. The authors describe the production of these composites by a novel experimental approach that uses a homopolar generator in a pulse-powered materials consolidation system. The processing of Copper-tungsten and aluminum-alumina composites is used to demonstrate versatility of the homopolar generator as a materials processing tool. Powder metallurgy and laminate bonding approaches have been utilized. Composite solid armature materials have been consolidated with subsecond high-temperature exposure. Densification in the solid state proceeds by a warm/hot forging mechanism, and fully dense composites are obtained by a combined application of pressure and a controlled energy input.

  1. Wildfire-related debris-flow generation through episodic progressive sediment-bulking processes, western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, S.H.; Gartner, J.E.; Parrett, C.; Parise, M.; ,

    2003-01-01

    Debris-flow initiation processes on hillslopes recently burned by wildfire differ from those generally recognized on unburned, vegetated hillslopes. These differences result from fire-induced changes in the hydrologic response to rainfall events. In this study, detailed field and aerial photographic mapping, observations, and measurements of debris-flow events from three sites in the western U.S. are used to describe and evaluate the process of episodic progressive sediment bulking of storm runoff that leads to the generation of post-wildfire debris flows. Our data demonstrate the effects of material credibility, sediment availability on hillslopes and in channels, the degree of channel confinement, the formation of continuous channel incision, and the upslope contributing area and its gradient on the generation of flows and the magnitude of the response are demonstrated. ?? 2003 Millpress.

  2. CATALYTIC INTERACTIONS OF RHODIUM, RUTHENIUM, AND MERCURY DURING SIMULATED DWPF CPC PROCESSING WITH HYDROGEN GENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D

    2008-10-09

    Simulations of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) vessels were performed as part of the ongoing investigation into catalytic hydrogen generation. Rhodium, ruthenium, and mercury have been identified as the principal elemental factors affecting the peak hydrogen generation rate in the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) for a given acid addition. The primary goal of this study is to identify any significant interactions between the three factors. Noble metal concentrations were similar to recent sludge batches. Rh ranged from 0.0026-0.013% and Ru ranged from 0.010-0.050% in the dried sludge solids, while initial Hg ranged from 0.5-2.5 wt%. An experimental matrix was developed to ensure that the existence of statistically significant two-way interactions could be determined without confounding of the main effects with the two-way interaction effects. The nominal matrix design consisted of twelve SRAT cycles. Testing included: a three factor (Rh, Ru, and Hg) study at two levels per factor (eight runs), two duplicate midpoint runs, and two additional replicate runs to assess reproducibility away from the midpoint. Midpoint testing can identify potential quadratic effects from the three factors. A single sludge simulant was used for all tests. Acid addition was kept effectively constant except to compensate for variations in the starting mercury concentration. Six Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed to supplement the SME hydrogen generation database. Some of the preliminary findings from this study include: (1) Rh was linked to the maximum SRAT hydrogen generation rate in the first two hours after acid addition in preliminary statistical modeling. (2) Ru was linked conclusively to the maximum SRAT hydrogen generation rate in the last four hours of reflux in preliminary statistical modeling. (3) Increasing the ratio of Hg/Rh shifted the noble metal controlling the maximum SRAT hydrogen generation rate from

  3. Generating power stations and optimization energetic of processes; Centrales generadoras y optimacion energetica de procesos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Ramirez, Ranulfo; Fernandez Montiel, Manuel Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Some recent experiences of the Management of Thermal Processes of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) related to the works on generating power stations of electricity, plants of cogeneration and energy saving are presented. [Spanish] Se presentan algunas experiencias recientes de la Gerencia de Procesos Termicos del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) relacionadas con los trabajos sobre centrales generadoras de electricidad, plantas de cogeneracion y ahorro de energia.

  4. Generation of Spontaneous Synchronized Rhythm and its Role in Information Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yu-Guo; WANG Wei

    2001-01-01

    The generation of spontaneous synchronized rhythm and its role are studied by using a globally coupled excitable stochastic neuronal network. When the coupling strength exceeds a critical value, the neurons with a suitable noise in the network exhibit a strong tendency to synchronize and display a spontaneous rhythm. The coherence of the network can be enhanced by a suitable noise and a coupling of the network. The spontaneous rhythm enhances the ability of the network in processing weak periodic signals.

  5. Performance Assessment of the Lead User Idea-Generation Process for New Product Development

    OpenAIRE

    Gary L. Lilien; Morrison, Pamela D.; Kathleen Searls; Mary Sonnack; Eric von Hippel

    2002-01-01

    Traditional idea generation techniques based on customer input usually collect information on new product needs from a random or typical set of customers. The "lead user process" takes a different approach. It collects information about both needs and solutions from users at the leading edges of the target market, as well as from users in other markets that face similar problems in a more extreme form. This paper reports on a natural experiment conducted within the 3M Company on the effect of...

  6. A Novel Method for Generating Non-Stationary Gaussian Processes for Use in Digital Radar Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN...noise generator divided by the simulation bandwidth. Thus, the simulation noise density is ( Dsim − σsim)δt, where the simulation sample time is δt...transient response of the complex system to stochastic processes. Does this hold in general? Since both responses are control by the eigenvalues, a

  7. Tool path generation and back-off error analyze for robot milling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Tang, Chen; Wang, Ju; Wang, Qian

    2017-06-01

    An improved CC route tool path generation method is presented for robot milling process. Corresponding back-off error model is established based on the robot static elastic model and the ball-end cutter milling force model. Compared with the traditional CC route method, the distance between the adjacent constraint surfaces is adjusted dynamically and thus the milling accuracy will be improved. According to the back-off error model, tool posture can be optimized using genetic algorithms. It is significantly important for reducing the back-off error during robot milling process.

  8. Visualization of the Flux Rope Generation Process Using Large Quantities of MHD Simulation Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Kubota

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a new concept of analysis using visualization of large quantities of simulation data. The time development of 3D objects with high temporal resolution provides the opportunity for scientific discovery. We visualize large quantities of simulation data using the visualization application 'Virtual Aurora' based on AVS (Advanced Visual Systems and the parallel distributed processing at "Space Weather Cloud" in NICT based on Gfarm technology. We introduce two results of high temporal resolution visualization: the magnetic flux rope generation process and dayside reconnection using a system of magnetic field line tracing.

  9. Fast high-resolution computer-generated hologram computation using multiple graphics processing unit cluster system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Naoki; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Shiraki, Atsushi; Okada, Naohisa; Oikawa, Minoru; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2012-10-20

    To overcome the computational complexity of a computer-generated hologram (CGH), we implement an optimized CGH computation in our multi-graphics processing unit cluster system. Our system can calculate a CGH of 6,400×3,072 pixels from a three-dimensional (3D) object composed of 2,048 points in 55 ms. Furthermore, in the case of a 3D object composed of 4096 points, our system is 553 times faster than a conventional central processing unit (using eight threads).

  10. The measurement of abrasive particles velocities in the process of abrasive water jet generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleňák, Michal; Foldyna, Josef; Říha, Zdeněk

    2014-08-01

    An optimization of the design of the abrasive cutting head using the numerical simulation requires gathering as much information about processes occurring in the cutting head as possible. Detailed knowledge of velocities of abrasive particles in the process of abrasive water jet generation is vital for the verification of the numerical model. A method of measurement of abrasive particles at the exit of focusing tube using the FPIV technique was proposed and preliminary tests are described in the paper. Results of analysis of measured velocity fields are presented in the paper.

  11. Characteristics of Plasma Shock Waves Generated in the Pulsed Laser Ablation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智华; 张端明; 郁伯铭; 关丽

    2002-01-01

    We modify the Sedov theory to describe plasma shock waves generated in a pulsed laser ablating process. We also study the propagation characteristics of plasma shock waves during the preparation process of functional thin films deposited by a pulsed laser. In particular, we discuss in detail the temporal behaviour of energy causing the difference of the propagation characteristics between the plasma shock wave and the ideal shock wave in the point explosion model. Under the same experimental conditions, the theoretical results calculated with our modified Sedov theory are in good agreement with the existing experimental data.

  12. Graphics processing unit-based quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Mohammad Mahfuzul; Jonayat, A S M; Patel, Sanjay; Toussaint, Kimani C

    2014-09-01

    We adapt a graphics processing unit (GPU) to dynamic quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging. We demonstrate the temporal advantage of the GPU-based approach by computing the number of frames analyzed per second from SHG image videos showing varying fiber orientations. In comparison to our previously reported CPU-based approach, our GPU-based image analysis results in ∼10× improvement in computational time. This work can be adapted to other quantitative, nonlinear imaging techniques and provides a significant step toward obtaining quantitative information from fast in vivo biological processes.

  13. The relationship between start-ups, market mobility and employment growth : An empirical analysis for Dutch regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Sierdjan; van Stel, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Recent literature suggests two mechanisms through which the start-up of new firms contributes to economic development: the growth of start-ups and competition among incumbent firms induced by the start-ups. While existing studies derive the competition effect indirectly, this paper deploys

  14. Extremal Properties of an Intermittent Poisson Process Generating 1/f Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüneis, Ferdinand

    2016-08-01

    It is well-known that the total power of a signal exhibiting a pure 1/f shape is divergent. This phenomenon is also called the infrared catastrophe. Mandelbrot claims that the infrared catastrophe can be overcome by stochastic processes which alternate between active and quiescent states. We investigate an intermittent Poisson process (IPP) which belongs to the family of stochastic processes suggested by Mandelbrot. During the intermission δ (quiescent period) the signal is zero. The active period is divided into random intervals of mean length τ0 consisting of a fluctuating number of events; this is giving rise to so-called clusters. The advantage of our treatment is that the spectral features of the IPP can be derived analytically. Our considerations are focused on the case that intermission is only a small disturbance of the Poisson process, i.e., to the case that δ ≤ τ0. This makes it difficult or even impossible to discriminate a spike train of such an IPP from that of a Poisson process. We investigate the conditions under which a 1/f spectrum can be observed. It is shown that 1/f noise generated by the IPP is accompanied with extreme variance. In agreement with the considerations of Mandelbrot, the IPP avoids the infrared catastrophe. Spectral analysis of the simulated IPP confirms our theoretical results. The IPP is a model for an almost random walk generating both white and 1/f noise and can be applied for an interpretation of 1/f noise in metallic resistors.

  15. Efficient green phosphorescent tandem organic light emitting diodes with solution processable mixed hosts charge generating layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talik, N.A.; Yeoh, K.H.; Ng, C.Y.B [Low Dimensional Research Center, Department of Physics, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); ItraMAS Corporation. Sdn. Bhd., 542A-B Mukim 1, Lorong Perusahaan Baru 2, Kawasan Perindustrian, Perai 13600, Penang (Malaysia); Yap, B.K. [Center of Microelectronic and Nanotechnology Engineering (CeMNE), College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Jln. Uniten-Ikram, 4300 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Woon, K.L., E-mail: ph7klw76@um.edu.my [Low Dimensional Research Center, Department of Physics, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-10-15

    A novel solution processable charge generating layer (CGL) that consists of 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HATCN{sub 6})/Poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK): 1,1-bis-(4-bis(4-tolyl)-aminophenyl) cyclohexene (TAPC) for a tandem green phosphorescent organic light emitting diode (PHOLED) is demonstrated. The use of orthogonal solvent to dissolve HATCN{sub 6} and PVK:TAPC is the key to overcome the interface erosion problem for the solution processed CGL. The current efficiency of the 2 wt% TAPC mixed with PVK is the highest at 24.2 cd/A, which is more than three-folds higher than that of the single device at 1000 cd/m{sup 2}. - Highlights: • A solution processable tandem OLED is built using a novel charge generating layer. • HATCN{sub 6} and PVK:TAPC are shown to be effective charge generating layers. • The turn on voltages for tandem devices are almost similar to single unit. • 2 wt% TAPC blended with PVK exhibits three-folds increase in efficiency.

  16. Influence of COMT genotype and affective distractors on the processing of self-generated thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilford, Emma J; Dumontheil, Iroise; Wood, Nicholas W; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-06-01

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme is a major determinant of prefrontal dopamine levels. The Val(158)Met polymorphism affects COMT enzymatic activity and has been associated with variation in executive function and affective processing. This study investigated the effect of COMT genotype on the flexible modulation of the balance between processing self-generated and processing stimulus-oriented information, in the presence or absence of affective distractors. Analyses included 124 healthy adult participants, who were also assessed on standard working memory (WM) tasks. Relative to Val carriers, Met homozygotes made fewer errors when selecting and manipulating self-generated thoughts. This effect was partly accounted for by an association between COMT genotype and visuospatial WM performance. We also observed a complex interaction between the influence of affective distractors, COMT genotype and sex on task accuracy: male, but not female, participants showed a sensitivity to the affective distractors that was dependent on COMT genotype. This was not accounted for by WM performance. This study provides novel evidence of the role of dopaminergic genetic variation on the ability to select and manipulate self-generated thoughts. The results also suggest sexually dimorphic effects of COMT genotype on the influence of affective distractors on executive function. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. ATTEMPTS TO AUTOMATE THE PROCESS OF GENERATION OF ORTHOIMAGES OF OBJECTS OF CULTURAL HERITAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Markiewicz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, digital documentation recorded in the form of raster or vector files is the obligatory way of inventorying historical objects. The orthoimage is a cartometric form of photographic presentation of information in the two-dimensional reference system. The paper will discuss the issue of automation of the orthoimage generation basing on the TLS data and digital images. At present attempts are made to apply modern technologies not only for the needs of surveys, but also during the data processing. This paper will present attempts aiming at utilisation of appropriate algorithms and the author’s application for automatic generation of the projection plane, for the needs of acquisition of intensity orthoimages from the TLS data. Such planes are defined manually in the majority of popular TLS data processing applications. A separate issue related to the RGB image generation is the orientation of digital images in relation to scans. It is important, in particular in such cases when scans and photographs are not taken simultaneously. This paper will present experiments concerning the utilisation of the SIFT algorithm for automatic matching of intensity orthoimages of the intensity and digital (RGB photographs. Satisfactory results of the process of automation, as well as in relation to the quality of resulting orthoimages have been obtained.

  18. Dual-Fuel Truck Fleet: Start-Up Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NREL

    1998-09-30

    Although dual-fuel engine technology has been in development and limited use for several years, it has only recently moved toward full-scale operational capability for heavy-duty truck applications. Unlike a bifuel engine, which has two separate fuel systems that are used one at a time, a dual-fuel engine uses two fuel systems simultaneously. One of California's South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) current programs is a demonstration of dual-fuel engine technology in heavy-duty trucks. These trucks are being studied as part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Alternative Fuel Truck Program. This report describes the start-up experience from the program.

  19. Recent Progress on the Second Generation CMORPH: A Prototype Operational Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Pingping; Joyce, Robert; Wu, Shaorong

    2016-04-01

    As reported at the EGU General Assembly of 2015, a conceptual test system was developed for the second generation CMORPH to produce global analyses of 30-min precipitation on a 0.05deg lat/lon grid over the entire globe from pole to pole through integration of information from satellite observations as well as numerical model simulations. The second generation CMORPH is built upon the Kalman Filter based CMORPH algorithm of Joyce and Xie (2011). Inputs to the system include both rainfall and snowfall rate retrievals from passive microwave (PMW) measurements aboard all available low earth orbit (LEO) satellites, precipitation estimates derived from infrared (IR) observations of geostationary (GEO) as well as LEO platforms, and precipitation simulations from numerical global models. Sub-systems were developed and refined to derive precipitation estimates from the GEO and LEO IR observations and to compute precipitating cloud motion vectors. The results were reported at the EGU of 2014 and the AGU 2015 Fall Meetings. In this presentation, we report our recent work on the construction of a prototype operational processing system for the second generation CMORPH. The second generation CMORPH prototype operational processing system takes in the passive microwave (PMW) retrievals of instantaneous precipitation rates from all available sensors, the full-resolution GEO and LEO IR data, as well as the hourly precipitation fields generated by the NOAA/NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS) Reanalysis (CFS). First, a combined field of PMW based precipitation retrievals (MWCOMB) is created on a 0.05deg lat/lon grid over the entire globe through inter-calibrating retrievals from various sensors against a common reference. For this experiment, the reference field is the GMI based retrievals with climatological adjustment against the TMI retrievals using data over the overlapping period. Precipitation estimation is then derived from the GEO and LEO IR data through calibration against

  20. Robust modelling of heat-induced reactions in an industrial food production process exemplified by acrylamide generation in breakfast cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Lennox, Martin; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    Data from an industrial case study of breakfast cereal production indicated that the generated amounts of acrylamide are greatly dependent upon the combined effects of temperature and heating time in a roasting step process. Two approaches to obtain process models for acrylamide generation were...... the importance of robustness in the developed models. The correlations obtained for predicting acrylamide generation in the case study present a useful tool for food processing industry to minimize acrylamide generation. In the present case it was possible by lowering process temperature and prolonging residence...