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Sample records for generator output monitoring

  1. Cardiac output monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathews Lailu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive and non-invasive methods of estimation of cardiac output (CO were developed to overcome the limitations of invasive nature of pulmonary artery catheterization (PAC and direct Fick method used for the measurement of stroke volume (SV. The important minimally invasive techniques available are: oesophageal Doppler monitoring (ODM, the derivative Fick method (using partial carbon dioxide (CO 2 breathing, transpulmonary thermodilution, lithium indicator dilution, pulse contour and pulse power analysis. Impedance cardiography is probably the only non-invasive technique in true sense. It provides information about haemodynamic status without the risk, cost and skill associated with the other invasive or minimally invasive techniques. It is important to understand what is really being measured and what assumptions and calculations have been incorporated with respect to a monitoring device. Understanding the basic principles of the above techniques as well as their advantages and limitations may be useful. In addition, the clinical validation of new techniques is necessary to convince that these new tools provide reliable measurements. In this review the physics behind the working of ODM, partial CO 2 breathing, transpulmonary thermodilution and lithium dilution techniques are dealt with. The physical and the physiological aspects underlying the pulse contour and pulse power analyses, various pulse contour techniques, their development, advantages and limitations are also covered. The principle of thoracic bioimpedance along with computation of CO from changes in thoracic impedance is explained. The purpose of the review is to help us minimize the dogmatic nature of practice favouring one technique or the other.

  2. Cardiac output monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, Eric. E. C.; Wappler, Frank; Buhre, Wolfgang F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review The primary goal of hemodynamic therapy is the prevention of inadequate tissue perfusion and inadequate oxygenation. Advanced cardiovascular monitoring is a prerequisite to optimize hemodynamic treatment in critically ill patients prone to cardiocirculatory failure. The most ideal

  3. Arterial pressure-based cardiac output monitoring: a multicenter validation of the third-generation software in septic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Daniel; Marx, Gernot; Tan, Andrew; Junker, Christopher; Van Nuffelen, Marc; Hüter, Lars; Ching, Willy; Michard, Frédéric; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2011-02-01

    Second-generation FloTrac software has been shown to reliably measure cardiac output (CO) in cardiac surgical patients. However, concerns have been raised regarding its accuracy in vasoplegic states. The aim of the present multicenter study was to investigate the accuracy of the third-generation software in patients with sepsis, particularly when total systemic vascular resistance (TSVR) is low. Fifty-eight septic patients were included in this prospective observational study in four university-affiliated ICUs. Reference CO was measured by bolus pulmonary thermodilution (iCO) using 3-5 cold saline boluses. Simultaneously, CO was computed from the arterial pressure curve recorded on a computer using the second-generation (CO(G2)) and third-generation (CO(G3)) FloTrac software. CO was also measured by semi-continuous pulmonary thermodilution (CCO). A total of 401 simultaneous measurements of iCO, CO(G2), CO(G3), and CCO were recorded. The mean (95%CI) biases between CO(G2) and iCO, CO(G3) and iCO, and CCO and iCO were -10 (-15 to -5)% [-0.8 (-1.1 to -0.4) L/min], 0 (-4 to 4)% [0 (-0.3 to 0.3) L/min], and 9 (6-13)% [0.7 (0.5-1.0) L/min], respectively. The percentage errors were 29 (20-37)% for CO(G2), 30 (24-37)% for CO(G3), and 28 (22-34)% for CCO. The difference between iCO and CO(G2) was significantly correlated with TSVR (r(2) = 0.37, p iCO and CO(G3). In patients with sepsis, the third-generation FloTrac software is more accurate, as precise, and less influenced by TSVR than the second-generation software.

  4. Multiple output timing and trigger generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheat, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

  5. How Basal Ganglia Outputs Generate Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry H. Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The basal ganglia (BG are a collection of subcortical nuclei critical for voluntary behavior. According to the standard model, the output projections from the BG tonically inhibit downstream motor centers and prevent behavior. A pause in the BG output opens the gate for behavior, allowing the initiation of actions. Hypokinetic neurological symptoms, such as inability to initiate actions in Parkinson’s disease, are explained by excessively high firing rates of the BG output neurons. This model, widely taught in textbooks, is contradicted by recent electrophysiological results, which are reviewed here. In addition, I also introduce a new model, based on the insight that behavior is a product of closed loop negative feedback control using internal reference signals rather than sensorimotor transformations. The nervous system is shown to be a functional hierarchy comprising independent controllers occupying different levels, each level controlling specific variables derived from its perceptual inputs. The BG represent the level of transition control in this hierarchy, sending reference signals specifying the succession of body orientations and configurations. This new model not only explains the major symptoms in movement disorders but also generates a number of testable predictions.

  6. Newer methods of cardiac output monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yatin; Mehta; Dheeraj; Arora

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac output(CO) is the volume of blood ejected by each ventricle per minute and is the product of stroke volume and heart rate. CO can thus be manipulated by alteration in heart rate or rhythm, preload, contractility and afterload. Moreover it gives important information about tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery. CO can be measured by various methods and thermodilution method using pulmonary artery catheter(PAC) is till date considered as gold standard method. Complications associated with PAC led to development of newer methods which are minimally or non-invasive. Newer methods fulfil other properties like continuous and reproducible reading, cost effective, reliable during various physiological states and have fast response time. These methods are validated against the gold standard with good level agreement. In this review we have discussed various newer methods of CO monitoring and their effectiveness in clinical use.

  7. Mini invasive hemodynamic monitoring: from arterial pressure to cardiac output

    OpenAIRE

    Della Rocca, Giorgio; Cecconi, Maurizio; Costa, Maria Gabriella

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the Cardiac Output (CO) the standard invasive pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) is considered today the gold standard. The major criticism to the PAC is that its level of invasiveness is not supported by an improvement in patient's outcome. The interest to lesser and lesser invasive techniques is high. Therefore, the alternative techniques have been recently developed.Cardiac Output can be monitored continuously by different devices that analyze the arterial waveform to track change...

  8. Memory for Remembered Events: An Assessment of Output Monitoring in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, John M.; Klee, Hilary

    1976-01-01

    A study is reported describing an output-monitoring phenomenon in free recall and establishing that subjects have accurate knowledge concerning their previous output performance. Implications with respect to other known memory phenomena are discussed. (Author/RM)

  9. Estimation of marginal abatement costs for undesirable outputs in India's power generation sector: An output distance function approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Gupta

    2005-01-01

    Many production activities generate undesirable byproducts in conjunction with the desirable outputs they produce. The present study uses an output distance function approach and its duality with the revenue function to estimate the marginal abatement cost of CO2 emissions from a sample of thermal plants in India. Two sets of exercises have been undertaken. The marginal abatement cost is first estimated without considering the distinction between the clean and the dirty plants (model-1) and t...

  10. Development of the output monitor with single-chip microcomputer in a time-keeping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiguang; Gong, Yuanfang

    An output monitor has been designed with Intel 8031 single-chip microcomputer for a time working station. The functions of the instrument include the comparable measurement of the clocks, the buffer output of time and frequency signals, the monitoring and alarming of working state etc. The principle and application of the instrument are described.

  11. A New Device to Automate the Monitoring of Critical Patients’ Urine Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Otero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urine output (UO is usually measured manually each hour in acutely ill patients. This task consumes a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, in the literature there is evidence that more frequent (minute-by-minute UO measurement could impact clinical decision making and improve patient outcomes. However, it is not feasible to manually take minute-by-minute UO measurements. A device capable of automatically monitoring UO could save precious time of the healthcare staff and improve patient outcomes through a more precise and continuous monitoring of this parameter. This paper presents a device capable of automatically monitoring UO. It provides minute by minute measures and it can generate alarms that warn of deviations from therapeutic goals. It uses a capacitive sensor for the measurement of the UO collected within a rigid container. When the container is full, it automatically empties without requiring any internal or external power supply or any intervention by the nursing staff. In vitro tests have been conducted to verify the proper operation and accuracy in the measures of the device. These tests confirm the viability of the device to automate the monitoring of UO.

  12. Non-invasive cardiac output monitoring in neonates using bioreactance: a comparison with echocardiography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Weisz, Dany E

    2012-01-01

    Non-invasive cardiac output monitoring is a potentially useful clinical tool in the neonatal setting. Our aim was to evaluate a new method of non-invasive continuous cardiac output (CO) measurement (NICOM™) based on the principle of bioreactance in neonates.

  13. Hardware efficient monitoring of input/output signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Kevin R. (Inventor); Hall, Brendan (Inventor); Paulitsch, Michael (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A communication device comprises first and second circuits to implement a plurality of ports via which the communicative device is operable to communicate over a plurality of communication channels. For each of the plurality of ports, the communication device comprises: command hardware that includes a first transmitter to transmit data over a respective one of the plurality of channels and a first receiver to receive data from the respective one of the plurality of channels; and monitor hardware that includes a second receiver coupled to the first transmitter and a third receiver coupled to the respective one of the plurality of channels. The first circuit comprises the command hardware for a first subset of the plurality of ports. The second circuit comprises the monitor hardware for the first subset of the plurality of ports and the command hardware for a second subset of the plurality of ports.

  14. Lack of agreement and trending ability of the endotracheal cardiac output monitor compared with thermodilution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Sørensen, H; Hansen, K L; Ostergaard, M

    2012-01-01

    cardiac output (CO) during steady state and with induced haemodynamic changes in patients scheduled for elective cardiac surgery. METHODS: Twenty-five patients were enrolled. After induction of anaesthesia, endotracheal intubation using a dedicated ECOM tube, and insertion of the pulmonary artery catheter......BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive monitoring systems of central haemodynamics are gaining increasing popularity. The present study investigated the precision of the endotracheal cardiac output monitor (ECOM) system and its agreement with pulmonary artery catheter thermodilution (PAC TD) for measuring...

  15. Numerical Calculation of the Output Power of a MHD Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian CARABINEANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using Lazăr Dragoş’s analytic solution for the electric potential we perform some numerical calculations in order to find the characteristics of a Faraday magnetohydrodymamics (MHD power generator (total power, useful power and Joule dissipation power.

  16. Change Rate Control of Photovoltaic Generation Output and Calculation of Necessary Capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hiroyuki; Takayama, Satoshi; Nakamura, Koichi; Kakimoto, Naoto

    The photovoltaic (PV) generator changes its power output with the weather. If the PV output changes fast, the power system may require more load-following capability and spinning-reserve. This paper proposes a method of controlling the change rate of the PV output. The PV generator is combined with an electric double layer capacitor (EDLC). The moving average is used to eliminate short period fluctuations of the PV output. The output of the power conversion system (PCS) is determined by the moving average. The output changes within a limited rate. The capacitor voltage is maintained at a constant value to make the capacitor as small as possible. The necessary capacitance is theoretically derived. The effectiveness of this method is verified by the experiment.

  17. Technique for enhancing the power output of an electrostatic generator employing parametric resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F.

    2016-02-23

    A circuit-based technique enhances the power output of electrostatic generators employing an array of axially oriented rods or tubes or azimuthal corrugated metal surfaces for their electrodes. During generator operation, the peak voltage across the electrodes occurs at an azimuthal position that is intermediate between the position of minimum gap and maximum gap. If this position is also close to the azimuthal angle where the rate of change of capacity is a maximum, then the highest rf power output possible for a given maximum allowable voltage at the minimum gap can be attained. This rf power output is then coupled to the generator load through a coupling condenser that prevents suppression of the dc charging potential by conduction through the load. Optimized circuit values produce phase shifts in the rf output voltage that allow higher power output to occur at the same voltage limit at the minimum gap position.

  18. Comparison of an advanced minimally invasive cardiac output monitoring with a continuous invasive cardiac output monitoring during lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Roland; Prueckner, Stephan; Czerner, Stephan; Schramm, Renè; Preissler, Gerhard; Zwißler, Bernhard; von Dossow-Hanfstingl, Vera

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a continuous non-calibrated left heart cardiac index (CI) measurement by arterial waveform analysis (FloTrac(®)/Vigileo(®)) with a continuous calibrated right heart CI measurement by pulmonary artery thermodilution (CCOmbo-PAC(®)/Vigilance II(®)) for hemodynamic monitoring during lung transplantation. CI was measured simultaneously by both techniques in 13 consecutive lung transplants (n = 4 single-lung transplants, n = 9 sequential double-lung transplants) at distinct time points perioperatively. Linear regression analysis and Bland-Altman analysis with percentage error calculation were used for statistical comparison of CI measurements by both techniques. In this study the FloTrac(®) system underestimated the CI in comparison with the continuous pulmonary arterial thermodilution (p waveform and continuous pulmonary artery thermodilution are, therefore, not interchangeable during these complex operations.

  19. Surfactant monitoring by foam generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Ken I.

    1997-01-01

    A device for monitoring the presence or absence of active surfactant or other surface active agents in a solution or flowing stream based on the formation of foam or bubbles is presented. The device detects the formation of foam with a light beam or conductivity measurement. The height or density of the foam can be correlated to the concentration of the active surfactant present.

  20. Monitoring dental-unit-water-line output water by current in-office test kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Sham; Singhrao, Sim K; Bricknell, Matt; Pearce, Mark; Morton, L H Glyn; Ahmed, Waqar; Crean, St John

    2014-08-01

    The importance of monitoring contamination levels in the output water of dental-unit-water-lines (DUWLs) is essential as they are prone to developing biofilms that may contaminate water that is used to treat patients, with opportunistic pathogens such as species of Legionella, Pseudomonas and others. Dentists and practice staff are also at risk of being infected by means of cross-infection due to aerosols generated from DUWL water. The unit of measurement for the microbial contamination of water by aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria is the colony-forming unit per millilitre (cfu/ml) of water. The UK has its own guidelines set by the Department of Health for water discharged from DUWL to be between 100 and 200 cfu/ml of water. The benchmark or accepted standard laboratory test is by microbiological culture on R2A agar plates. However, this is costly and not convenient for routine testing in dental practices. A number of commercial indicator tests are used in dental surgeries, but they were not developed for the dental market and serve only to indicate gross levels of contamination when used outside of the manufacturer's recommended incubation period. The aim of this article is to briefly review the universal problem of DUWL contamination with microbial biofilms and to update dental professionals on the availability of currently available commercial in-office monitoring systems for aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria and to discuss their limitations for testing water samples in assuring compliance with recommended guidelines.

  1. The novel application of Benford's second order analysis for monitoring radiation output in interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournane, S; Sheehy, N; Cooke, J

    2014-06-01

    Benford's law is an empirical observation which predicts the expected frequency of digits in naturally occurring datasets spanning multiple orders of magnitude, with the law having been most successfully applied as an audit tool in accountancy. This study investigated the sensitivity of the technique in identifying system output changes using simulated changes in interventional radiology Dose-Area-Product (DAP) data, with any deviations from Benford's distribution identified using z-statistics. The radiation output for interventional radiology X-ray equipment is monitored annually during quality control testing; however, for a considerable portion of the year an increased output of the system, potentially caused by engineering adjustments or spontaneous system faults may go unnoticed, leading to a potential increase in the radiation dose to patients. In normal operation recorded examination radiation outputs vary over multiple orders of magnitude rendering the application of normal statistics ineffective for detecting systematic changes in the output. In this work, the annual DAP datasets complied with Benford's first order law for first, second and combinations of the first and second digits. Further, a continuous 'rolling' second order technique was devised for trending simulated changes over shorter timescales. This distribution analysis, the first employment of the method for radiation output trending, detected significant changes simulated on the original data, proving the technique useful in this case. The potential is demonstrated for implementation of this novel analysis for monitoring and identifying change in suitable datasets for the purpose of system process control.

  2. A simple method of monitoring carbon dioxide output in anaesthetized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, K N

    1977-01-01

    The mean CO2 output during anaesthesia in paralyzed patients can be monitored by continuous capnographic analysis of the total exhaled gases, the latter being mechanically integrated by pumice canisters. The gas is evacuated from the Hafnia A circuit via an ejector flowmeter. The results are not influenced by the flow rates employed.

  3. Improvement of output characteristics of a wind turbine generator by output current control. Shutsuryoku denryu seigyoho ni yoru furyoku hatsuden system no shutsuryoku tokusei kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahito, T. (Takamatsu National College of Technology, Kagawa (Japan)); Suzuki, T. (Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1993-06-01

    Conformity was studied between the wind turbine and generator's output characteristics to effectively collect the wind energy which fluctuates with time. According to the theoretical analysis, it is necessary for the generator-driving torque to be proportional to the revolving speed (n) squared of wind turbine in order that the wind turbine may generate the highest output always regardless of wind velocity. In the output current control method by current controller, the generator's output current (i[sub a]) is controlled so as to satisfy i[sub a]=cn[sup 2], where c is the output current control coefficient, the optimized value of which is 2[alpha][sup 2]Kw/Kt if the generator loss is nil. Therefore, that value is fixed independently of the wind velocity. [alpha] and Kw are the characteristic constants of wind turbine while Kt is the torque coefficient of generator. In order to confirm the effect of the present control method, the output characteristics were studied through simulation with already known systems. In both cases of constant and variable wind velocity, the change in output is similar against the change in c. Different from the resistance load control method, the present control method improves the output characteristics in a wide range of wind velocity even if the c remains fixed. 7 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  4. [Arterial pressure-based cardiac output monitoring: 1. FloTrac sensor and SVV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Katsuhiro

    2009-07-01

    FloTrac is a recently introduced semi-invasive arterial pressure-based cardiac output (APCO) monitoring device. The accuracy of a new device is usually evaluated by Bland-Altman method, which shows graphically the mean value of differences between a new method and the reference method (bias), standard deviation of the differences (precision) and limits of agreement or 2 standard deviations. Critchley et al calculated the percentage errors which are two standard deviations divided by mean cardiac output, and proposed that percentage error should be less than 30% as a reliable new method. Cardiac output was measured by FloTrac (APCO) and pulmonary arterial catheter-based thermodilution method (ICO) during off-pump coronary artery bypass and resection of pheochromocytoma, procedures associated with hemodynamically unstable conditions. As algorithm is renewed in a new version of the device, the accuracy of the device is improved; bias, precision and limits of agreement decreased; correlation coefficient increased, and percentage error was assessed to be around 30%. On the other hand, there was a tendency for increased negative bias as cardiac output increased, implying APCO tends to underestimate ICO in high CO ranges. APCO is less invasive and could rapidly respond to fast changes of hemodynamic state. FloTrac is expected to become a reliable cardiac output monitoring device even under hemodynamically unstable conditions. Further improvement of the algorithm is anticipated.

  5. The UK waste input-output table: Linking waste generation to the UK economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Reynolds, Christian

    2016-10-01

    In order to achieve a circular economy, there must be a greater understanding of the links between economic activity and waste generation. This study introduces the first version of the UK waste input-output table that could be used to quantify both direct and indirect waste arisings across the supply chain. The proposed waste input-output table features 21 industrial sectors and 34 waste types and is for the 2010 time-period. Using the waste input-output table, the study results quantitatively confirm that sectors with a long supply chain (i.e. manufacturing and services sectors) have higher indirect waste generation rates compared with industrial primary sectors (e.g. mining and quarrying) and sectors with a shorter supply chain (e.g. construction). Results also reveal that the construction, mining and quarrying sectors have the highest waste generation rates, 742 and 694 tonne per £1m of final demand, respectively. Owing to the aggregated format of the first version of the waste input-output, the model does not address the relationship between waste generation and recycling activities. Therefore, an updated version of the waste input-output table is expected be developed considering this issue. Consequently, the expanded model would lead to a better understanding of waste and resource flows in the supply chain.

  6. Estimating changes in cardiac output using an implanted hemodynamic monitor in heart failure patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ståhlberg, Marcus; Damgaard, Morten; Ersgård, David;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate an algorithm that estimates changes in cardiac output (CO) from right ventricular (RV) pressure waveforms derived from an implantable hemodynamic monitor (IHM) in heart failure patients. DESIGN: Twelve heart failure patients (NYHA II-III, EF 32......%) with an implantable hemodynamic monitor (Chronicle) were included in this study. Changes in cardiac output were provoked by body position change at rest (left lateral supine, horizontal supine, sitting, and standing) and a steady state bicycle exercise at 20 watts. Estimated CO derived from the IHM (CO...... was -0.39 L/min (11%). Limits of agreement were +/-1.56 L/min and relative error was 21%. CONCLUSIONS: A simple algorithm based on RV pressure wave form characteristics derived from an IHM can be used to estimate changes in CO in heart failure patients. These findings encourage further research aiming...

  7. Device for Monitoring - Warning Frequency Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Nhu Y

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Power quality was assessed by two parameters voltage and frequency, the voltage changes are of a local property, and change the frequency – systematic. Frequency deviation in the grid due to an imbalance in power between the generator and the load will affect the economic and technical indicators of power stations, as well as consumers. To ensure the stability and reliability of the electric system and generator protection to prevent damage during the operation, it is necessary and indispensable device monitoring – warning frequency generator in power stations.

  8. Estimation of the Appropriate Output of Diesel Generator for Microgrid System in Chuja Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Seungmin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to estimate the appropriate minimum output of diesel generator in the microgrid system that composed of renewable energy, diesel generator and energy storage systems. While maximizing the output of the renewable energy in the microgrid, to maintain the power system stability is very important. To analyze the effectiveness of the proposed method, simulation is carried out by using the PSCAD/EMTDC program with past weather and power load data in Chuja Island located in the south area of Korean peninsula, respectively. In the simulation result, power quality of Chuja Island power system under variable renewable energy generation is stable. The proposed method is useful for operating the isolated microgrid system.

  9. Sliding mode control for efficiency optimization of wind energy systems with double output induction generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puleston, P.F.; Mantz, R.J.; Battaiotto, P.E.; Valenciaga, F. [La Plata Univ., Electrical Engineering Dept., La Plata (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    This paper deals with generation efficiency maximization of wind energy conversion system (WECS) with double output induction generator (DOIG). In the first place, to design a sliding mode controller, an apropos model of the DOIG with electronic drive in the rotor is developed. Then, conditions of maximum power generation are obtained. Finally, a sliding mode control strategy for this type of WECS is presented. The proposed strategy varies the firing angle of the electronic drive in order to set the extreme control values equal to the maximum and minimum available control action of the system. Consequently, robustness to parametric uncertainties and external disturbances is maximised. (Author)

  10. On the appropriate use of (input-output) coefficients to generate non-survey regional input-output tables: Implications for the determination of output multipliers

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    Regional input-output (IO) tables are constructed as either scaled down versions of national tables or by means of surveys. In the first type, location quotients (LQ) usually use employment structures to account for differences between nation and region. A LQ is designed to scale down national (input-output) coefficients to representative regional ones that are then used to derive regional multiplier effects. In this process there are two main approaches to define regional coefficients. The f...

  11. Intelligent Monitoring and Predicting Output Power Losses of Solar Arrays Based on Particle Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzheng Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar arrays are the main source of energy to the on-orbit satellite, whose output power largely determines the life cycle of on-orbit satellites. Monitoring and further forecasting the output power of solar arrays by using the real-time observational data are very important for the study of satellite design and on-orbit satellite control. In this paper, we firstly describe the dynamical model of output power with summarizing the influencing factors of attenuation for solar arrays and elaborating the evolution trend of influencing factors which change with time. Based on the empirical model, a particle filtering algorithm is formulated to predict the output power of solar arrays and update the model parameters, simultaneously. Finally, using eight-year observational data of voltage and current from a synchronous on-orbit satellite, an experiment is carried out to illustrate the reliability and accuracy of the particle filtering method. Comparative results with classical curve fitting also are presented with statistical root mean square error and mean relative error analysis.

  12. Effect of Topology Structure on the Output Performance of an Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, W.; Quan, S. H.; Xie, C. J.; Ran, B.; Li, X. L.; Wang, L.; Jiao, Y. T.; Xu, T. W.

    2017-05-01

    The majority of the thermal energy released in an automotive internal combustion cycle is exhausted as waste heat through the tail pipe. This paper describes an automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG), designed to recycle automobile waste heat. A model of the output characteristics of each thermoelectric device was established by testing their open circuit voltage and internal resistance, and combining the output characteristics. To better describe the relationship, the physical model was transformed into a topological model. The connection matrix was used to describe the relationship between any two thermoelectric devices in the topological structure. Different topological structures produced different power outputs; their output power was maximised by using an iterative algorithm to optimize the series-parallel electrical topology structure. The experimental results have shown that the output power of the optimal topology structure increases by 18.18% and 29.35% versus that of a pure in-series or parallel topology, respectively, and by 10.08% versus a manually defined structure (based on user experience). The thermoelectric conversion device increased energy efficiency by 40% when compared with a traditional car.

  13. Simulation of one-minute power output from utility-scale photovoltaic generation systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2011-08-01

    We present an approach to simulate time-synchronized, one-minute power output from large photovoltaic (PV) generation plants in locations where only hourly irradiance estimates are available from satellite sources. The approach uses one-minute irradiance measurements from ground sensors in a climatically and geographically similar area. Irradiance is translated to power using the Sandia Array Performance Model. Power output is generated for 2007 in southern Nevada are being used for a Solar PV Grid Integration Study to estimate the integration costs associated with various utility-scale PV generation levels. Plant designs considered include both fixed-tilt thin-film, and single-axis-tracked polycrystalline Si systems ranging in size from 5 to 300 MW{sub AC}. Simulated power output profiles at one-minute intervals were generated for five scenarios defined by total PV capacity (149.5 MW, 222 WM, 292 MW, 492 MW, and 892 MW) each comprising as many as 10 geographically separated PV plants.

  14. Maximum Output Power Control System of Variable-Speed Small Wind Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Yoko; Kajiwara, Hiroyuki

    This paper proposes a maximum output power control system of variable-speed small wind generators. Paying attention to an optimum rotational speed of a single phase AC wind generator which can obtain maximum output power according to natural wind speed, the proposed method adjusts the rotational speed of the single phase AC generator to the optimum rotational speed. Since this adjustment is realized on line so that it can be adapted for variable-speed wind, a generated power brake links directly with the single phase AC generator, and the rotational speed of the single phase AC generator is adjusted by controlling the current that flows the FET (Field-Effect Transistor) device as the generated power brake. In order to reduce heat loss of the FET device, the PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) controller is introduced. Moreover, the experimental system of the proposed method is constituted and the experiment is performed. Finally, the validity and the practicality of the proposed method are confirmed by experimental results.

  15. GROUNDWATER MONITORING REPORT GENERATION TOOLS - 12005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, N.

    2011-11-21

    Compliance with National and State environmental regulations (e.g. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) aka SuperFund) requires Savannah River Site (SRS) to extensively collect and report groundwater monitoring data, with potential fines for missed reporting deadlines. Several utilities have been developed at SRS to facilitate production of the regulatory reports which include maps, data tables, charts and statistics. Components of each report are generated in accordance with complex sets of regulatory requirements specific to each site monitored. SRS developed a relational database to incorporate the detailed reporting rules with the groundwater data, and created a set of automation tools to interface with the information and generate the report components. These process improvements enhanced quality and consistency by centralizing the information, and have reduced manpower and production time through automated efficiencies.

  16. Synchronous Generator with HTS-2G field coils for Windmills with output power 1 MW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, K.; Kovalev, L.; Poltavets, V.; Samsonovich, S.; Ilyasov, R.; Levin, A.; Surin, M.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays synchronous generators for wind-mills are developed worldwide. The cost of the generator is determined by its size and weight. In this deal the implementation of HTS-2G generators is very perspective. The application of HTS 2G field coils in the rotor allows to reduce the size of the generator is 1.75 times. In this work the design 1 MW HTS-2G generator is considered. The designed 1 MW HTS-2G generator has the following parameters: rotor diameter 800 mm, active length 400 mm, phase voltage 690V, rotor speed 600 min-1 rotor field coils with HTS-2G tapes. HTS-2G field coils located in the rotating cryostat and cooled by liquid nitrogen. The simulation and optimization of HTS-2G field coils geometry allowed to increase feed DC current up to 50A. Copper stator windings are water cooled. Magnetic and electrical losses in 1 MW HTS-2G generator do not exceed 1.6% of the nominal output power. In the construction of HTS-2G generator the wave multiplier with ratio 1:40 is used. The latter allows to reduce the total mass of HTS-2G generator down to 1.5 tons. The small-scale model of HTS-2G generator with output power 50 kW was designed, manufactured and tested. The test results showed good agreement with calculation results. The manufacturing of 1 MW HTS-2G generator is planned in 2014. This work is done under support of Rosatom within the frames of Russian Project "Superconducting Industry".

  17. Smoothing Control of Wind Farm Output by Using Kinetic Energy of Variable Speed Wind Power Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daiki; Saitoh, Hiroumi

    This paper proposes a new control method for reducing fluctuation of power system frequency through smoothing active power output of wind farm. The proposal is based on the modulation of rotaional kinetic energy of variable speed wind power generators through power converters between permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG) and transmission lines. In this paper, the proposed control is called Fluctuation Absorption by Flywheel Characteristics control (FAFC). The FAFC can be easily implemented by adding wind farm output signal to Maximum Power Point Tracking control signal through a feedback control loop. In order to verify the effectiveness of the FAFC control, a simulation study was carried out. In the study, it was assumed that the wind farm consisting of PMSG type wind power generator and induction machine type wind power generaotors is connected with a power sysem. The results of the study show that the FAFC control is a useful method for reducing the impacts of wind farm output fluctuation on system frequency without additional devices such as secondary battery.

  18. Peripartum cardiomyopathy: postpartum decompensation and use of non-invasive cardiac output monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorello, G; Cubillos, J; McDonald, M; Balki, M

    2014-02-01

    The utility of a non-invasive cardiac output monitor (NICOM™) in guiding the peripartum management and identification of postpartum complications in a patient with severe peripartum cardiomyopathy is reported. A 31-year-old nulliparous woman at 35 weeks of gestation presented with a three-week history of worsening dyspnea and progressive functional deterioration. A transthoracic echocardiogram showed severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction with an ejection fraction peripartum cardiomyopathy. We suggest that use of NICOM™ be extended into the postpartum period to detect signs of cardiac decompensation in such patients.

  19. The Influence of Output Variability from Renewable Electricity Generation on Net Energy Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Kunz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One key approach to analyzing the feasibility of energy extraction and generation technologies is to understand the net energy they contribute to society. These analyses most commonly focus on a simple comparison of a source’s expected energy outputs to the required energy inputs, measured in the form of energy return on investment (EROI. What is not typically factored into net energy analysis is the influence of output variability. This omission ignores a key attribute of biological organisms and societies alike: the preference for stable returns with low dispersion versus equivalent returns that are intermittent or variable. This biologic predilection for stability, observed and refined in academic financial literature, has a direct relationship to many new energy technologies whose outputs are much more variable than traditional energy sources. We investigate the impact of variability on net energy metrics and develop a theoretical framework to evaluate energy systems based on existing financial and biological risk models. We then illustrate the impact of variability on nominal energy return using representative technologies in electricity generation, with a more detailed analysis on wind power, where intermittence and stochastic availability of hard-to-store electricity will be factored into theoretical returns.

  20. Super short term forecasting of photovoltaic power generation output in micro grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Cheng; Ma, Longfei; Chi, Zhongjun; Zhang, Baoqun; Jiao, Ran; Yang, Bing; Chen, Jianshu; Zeng, Shuang

    2017-01-01

    The prediction model combining data mining and support vector machine (SVM) was built. Which provide information of photovoltaic (PV) power generation output for economic operation and optimal control of micro gird, and which reduce influence of power system from PV fluctuation. Because of the characteristic which output of PV rely on radiation intensity, ambient temperature, cloudiness, etc., so data mining was brought in. This technology can deal with large amounts of historical data and eliminate superfluous data, by using fuzzy classifier of daily type and grey related degree. The model of SVM was built, which can dock with information from data mining. Based on measured data from a small PV station, the prediction model was tested. The numerical example shows that the prediction model is fast and accurate.

  1. Maximizing output power of wind turbine generator by output current control. Shutsuryoku denryu seigyo ni yoru furyoku hatsuden system no denryoku saidaika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahito, T. (Takamatsu National College of Technology, Kagawa (Japan)); Suzuki, T. (Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan))

    1994-03-20

    This paper reports a method in a wind power generation system to control output current from a generator so that it fits automatically the wind turbine characteristics where the turbine characteristics are unknown and the generator characteristics are known. The paper details the following methods: a method that rotation speed of a wind turbine is observed to make the output current from the generator proportional to a square of the turbine rotation speed, and optimize the proportion coefficient so that the generator output at an equilibrium operation point of this system (wind turbine generated torque is in equilibrium with the generator driven torque) is maximized; and a method to derive an optimal proportion coefficient in discrete time control using a digital computer. The paper then describes the following matters: a simulation that assumes a pseudo natural wind velocity has verified the effectiveness of this control method; discovering an optimal proportion coefficient has required about ten minutes; and the way this control method handles fluctuation in wind velocity has a room of further improvement. 16 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Coherence of a squeezed sodium atom laser generated from Raman output coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiyong He; Chunjia Huang

    2009-01-01

    The coherence of a squeezed sodium atom laser generated from a Raman output coupler,in which the sodium atoms in Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) intcract with two light beams consisting of a weaker squeezed coherent probe light and a stronger classical coupling light,is investigated.The results show that in the case of a large mean number of BEC atoms and a weaker probe light field,the atom laser is antibunching,and this atom laser is second-order coherent if the number of BEC atoms in traps is large enough.

  3. Analysis of the Effect of Module Thickness Reduction on Thermoelectric Generator Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, F. P.; Figueiredo, L.; Rocha, L. A.; Cruz, A. P.; Goncalves, L. M.; Martins, J.; Hall, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    Conventional thermoelectric generators (TEGs) used in applications such as exhaust heat recovery are typically limited in terms of power density due to their low efficiency. Additionally, they are generally costly due to the bulk use of rare-earth elements such as tellurium. If less material could be used for the same output, then the power density and the overall cost per kilowatt (kW) of electricity produced could drop significantly, making TEGs a more attractive solution for energy harvesting of waste heat. The present work assesses the effect of reducing the amount of thermoelectric (TE) material used (namely by reducing the module thickness) on the electrical output of conventional bismuth telluride TEGs. Commercial simulation packages (ANSYS CFX and thermal-electric) and bespoke models were used to simulate the TEGs at various degrees of detail. Effects such as variation of the thermal and electrical contact resistance and the component thickness and the effect of using an element supporting matrix (e.g., eggcrate) instead of having air conduction in void areas have been assessed. It was found that indeed it is possible to reduce the use of bulk TE material while retaining power output levels equivalent to thicker modules. However, effects such as thermal contact resistance were found to become increasingly important as the active TE material thickness was decreased.

  4. Releasing dentate nucleus cells from Purkinje cell inhibition generates output from the cerebrocerebellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ishikawa

    Full Text Available The cerebellum generates its vast amount of output to the cerebral cortex through the dentate nucleus (DN that is essential for precise limb movements in primates. Nuclear cells in DN generate burst activity prior to limb movement, and inactivation of DN results in cerebellar ataxia. The question is how DN cells become active under intensive inhibitory drive from Purkinje cells (PCs. There are two excitatory inputs to DN, mossy fiber and climbing fiber collaterals, but neither of them appears to have sufficient strength for generation of burst activity in DN. Therefore, we can assume two possible mechanisms: post-inhibitory rebound excitation and disinhibition. If rebound excitation works, phasic excitation of PCs and a concomitant inhibition of DN cells should precede the excitation of DN cells. On the other hand, if disinhibition plays a primary role, phasic suppression of PCs and activation of DN cells should be observed at the same timing. To examine these two hypotheses, we compared the activity patterns of PCs in the cerebrocerebellum and DN cells during step-tracking wrist movements in three Japanese monkeys. As a result, we found that the majority of wrist-movement-related PCs were suppressed prior to movement onset and the majority of wrist-movement-related DN cells showed concurrent burst activity without prior suppression. In a minority of PCs and DN cells, movement-related increases and decreases in activity, respectively, developed later. These activity patterns suggest that the initial burst activity in DN cells is generated by reduced inhibition from PCs, i.e., by disinhibition. Our results indicate that suppression of PCs, which has been considered secondary to facilitation, plays the primary role in generating outputs from DN. Our findings provide a new perspective on the mechanisms used by PCs to influence limb motor control and on the plastic changes that underlie motor learning in the cerebrocerebellum.

  5. Cardiac output measurement in newborn infants using the ultrasonic cardiac output monitor: an assessment of agreement with conventional echocardiography, repeatability and new user experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neil; Dodsworth, Melissa; Mills, John F

    2011-05-01

    To assess (1) agreement between the ultrasonic cardiac output monitor (USCOM) 1A device for measurement of cardiac output in newborn infants and conventional echocardiography (ECHO), (2) repeatability of USCOM measurements and (3) agreement between novice and expert users of the USCOM. A prospective observational study. The Neonatal Unit at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. 56 term and near-term infants, with no evidence of structural or functional cardiovascular disease, or haemodynamic shunts. Agreement between ECHO and USCOM was assessed by paired measurements of ventricular outputs by a single experienced user. Repeatability was assessed using five repeated measurements in 10 infants. Agreement between five novices and one expert user was assessed by paired USCOM measurements over 30 training measurements. Agreement between USCOM and ECHO for left ventricular output (LVO) was (bias, ±limits of agreement, mean % error): 14, ±108 ml/kg/min, 43%, and for right ventricular output (RVO): -59, ±160, ml/kg/min, 57%. Intra-observer repeatability was 6.7% for USCOM LVO and 3.6% for ECHO LVO. After five training measurements, the mean difference between USCOM measures of LVO by novice and expert users was less than 50 ml/kg/min, but with variability. Repeatability of USCOM measures is high in newborn infants. New users can be trained quickly, but with high inter-user variability. Agreement between USCOM and conventional ECHO is broad, and worse for RVO and LVO. Further studies are required to assess the ability of the device to detect clinically significant changes in infant cardiac output.

  6. ESA Next Generation Radiation Monitor- NGRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desorgher, Laurent

    Precise monitoring of the highly dynamic space radiation environment around Earth is crucial for spacecraft safety, as support of radiation belt models, solar particle flux models, and space radiation effects tools. The ESA sponsored SREM is measuring the Earth's radiation belts, solar particle flux, and cosmic ray background more than one decade onboard six different spacecrafts. Recently the development of the follower of SREM, the Next Generation Radiation Monitor (NGRM), has been started within an european consortium led by RUAG space, together with Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), ONERA, EREMS, and IDEAS. NGRM will measure protons from 2 MeV up to 200 MeV, electrons from 100 keV up to 7MeV, as well as LET spectrum of ions. Compared to SREM, NGRM will provide a much better energy resolution, will be smaller (<1L), lighter (<1kg) and consume less energy (<1W). In this paper we describe the design of the instrument, and present calibration tests and Monte Carlo analysis of the instrument.

  7. Comparison of three generations of ActiGraph activity monitors under free-living conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grydeland, May; Hansen, Bjørge Herman; Ried-Larsen, M.

    2014-01-01

    + in children in free-living conditions. The generations GT1M and GT3X+ provided comparable outputs. The differences between the old and the newer monitors were more complex when investigating time spent at different intensities. Comparisons of data assessed by the AM7164 with data assessed by newer generations......BACKGROUND: A recent review concludes that the agreement of data across ActiGraph accelerometer models for children and youth still is uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement of three generations of ActiGraph accelerometers in children in a free-living condition. METHODS......: Sixteen 9-year-olds wore the ActiGraph AM7164, GT1M and GT3X+ simultaneously for three consecutive days. We compared mean counts per minute (mcpm) and time spent at different intensities from the three generations of monitors, and the agreement of outputs were evaluated by intra-class correlation...

  8. Performance of improved magnetostrictive vibrational power generator, simple and high power output for practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Toshiyuki, E-mail: ueno@ec.t.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa-city, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    Vibration based power generation technology is utilized effectively in various fields. Author has invented novel vibrational power generation device using magnetostrictive material. The device is based on parallel beam structure consisting of a rod of iron-gallium alloy wound with coil and yoke accompanied with permanent magnet. When bending force is applied on the tip of the device, the magnetization inside the rod varies with induced stress due to the inverse magnetostrictive effect. In vibration, the time variation of the magnetization generates voltage on the wound coil. The magnetostrictive type is advantageous over conventional such using piezoelectric or moving magnet types in high efficiency and high robustness, and low electrical impedance. Here, author has established device configuration, simple, rigid, and high power output endurable for practical applications. In addition, the improved device is lower cost using less volume of Fe-Ga and permanent magnet compared to our conventional, and its assembly by soldering is easy and fast suitable for mass production. Average power of 3 mW/cm{sup 3} under resonant vibration of 212 Hz and 1.2 G was obtained in miniature prototype using Fe-Ga rod of 2 × 0.5× 7 mm{sup 3}. Furthermore, the damping effect was observed, which demonstrates high energy conversion of the generator.

  9. Transcranial magnetic stimulation during voluntary action: directional facilitation of outputs and relationships to force generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cros, Didier; Soto, Oscar; Chiappa, Keith H

    2007-12-14

    Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the human motor cortex evokes simple muscle jerks whose physiological significance is unclear. Indeed, in subjects performing a motor task, there is uncertainty as to whether TMS-evoked outputs reflect the ongoing behavior or, alternatively, a disrupted motor plan. Considering force direction and magnitude to reflect qualitative and quantitative features of the motor plan respectively, we studied the relationships between voluntary forces and those evoked by TMS. In five healthy adults, we recorded the isometric forces acting a hand joint and the electromyographic activity in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle. Responses obtained at rest were highly invariant. Evoked responses obtained while subjects generated static and dynamic contractions were highly codirectional with the voluntary forces. Such directional relationships were independent of stimulation intensity, stimulated cortical volume, or magnitude of voluntary force exerted. Dynamic force generation was associated with a marked increase in the magnitude of the evoked force that was linearly related to the rate of force generation. The timing of central conduction was different depending on functional role of the target muscle, as either agonist or joint fixator. These results indicate that the architecture of motor plans remain grossly undisrupted by cortical stimulation applied during voluntary motor behavior. The significant magnitude modulation of responses during dynamic force generation suggests an essential role of the corticospinal system in the specification of force changes. Finally, the corticospinal activation depends on the functional role assumed by the target muscle, either postural or agonist.

  10. Modeling and Optimization of Coordinative Operation of Hydro-wind-photovoltaic Considering Power Generation and Output Fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianxun; Mei, Yadong

    2017-04-01

    Coordinative operation of hydro-wind-photovoltaic is the solution of mitigating the conflict of power generation and output fluctuation of new energy and conquering the bottleneck of new energy development. Due to the deficiencies of characterizing output fluctuation, depicting grid construction and disposal of power abandon, the research of coordinative mechanism is influenced. In this paper, the multi-object and multi-hierarchy model of coordinative operation of hydro-wind-photovoltaic is built with the aim of maximizing power generation and minimizing output fluctuation and the constraints of topotaxy of power grid and balanced disposal of power abandon. In the case study, the comparison of uncoordinative and coordinative operation is carried out with the perspectives of power generation, power abandon and output fluctuation. By comparison from power generation, power abandon and output fluctuation between separate operation and coordinative operation of multi-power, the coordinative mechanism is studied. Compared with running solely, coordinative operation of hydro-wind-photovoltaic can gain the compensation benefits. Peak-alternation operation reduces the power abandon significantly and maximizes resource utilization effectively by compensating regulation of hydropower. The Pareto frontier of power generation and output fluctuation is obtained through multiple-objective optimization. It clarifies the relationship of mutual influence between these two objects. When coordinative operation is taken, output fluctuation can be markedly reduced at the cost of a slight decline of power generation. The power abandon also drops sharply compared with operating separately. Applying multi-objective optimization method to optimize the coordinate operation, Pareto optimal solution set of power generation and output fluctuation is achieved.

  11. Sediment output from a post-mining catchment - Centennial impacts using stochastically generated rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, G. R.; Verdon-Kidd, D.; Lowry, J. B. C.

    2017-01-01

    Computer based landscape evolution models can provide insight into both erosion rates and processes (i.e. sheetwash, rill, gully erosion). One important data requirement of these models is long term, high quality, high-temporal resolution rainfall data (given that the physical nature of the erosion process is strongly related to rainfall). However, in many cases such data is limited - data is often short, incomplete or not of a sufficient temporal resolution. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the sensitivity of modelled erosion rates to small changes in rainfall input. To achieve this we firstly assess the existing rainfall data from an established weather station and secondly, stochastically generate rainfall time series based on the longest and most reliable rainfall data. We then test the sensitivity of different rainfall sequences on sediment output using a well-tested landscape evolution and sediment transport model (CAESAR-Lisflood) over a simulated period of 100 y on a proposed rehabilitated mine landform. It was found that each rainfall scenario produces a unique pattern of erosion (i.e. the location and extent of the gullies is variable). Further, each rainfall scenario produces a unique pattern of sediment output that suggests non-linear processes. Importantly, this is the first time stochastically generated rainfall has been employed in landform evolution modeling and provides a statistical approach to quantify sediment transport and landform evolution. The method demonstrates a risk based approach and allows rainfall, runoff and sediment transport studies to be conducted in data poor environments. The findings clearly demonstrate that rainfall variability can greatly affect sediment transport and form of erosion as well as landscape evolution. This information is of particular importance for the design and testing of rehabilitated landscape systems such as post-mining landscapes.

  12. PV output smoothing using a battery and natural gas engine-generator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Ellis, Abraham; Denda, Atsushi; Morino, Kimio; Shinji, Takao; Ogata, Takao; Tadokoro, Masayuki

    2013-02-01

    In some situations involving weak grids or high penetration scenarios, the variability of photovoltaic systems can affect the local electrical grid. In order to mitigate destabilizing effects of power fluctuations, an energy storage device or other controllable generation or load can be used. This paper describes the development of a controller for coordinated operation of a small gas engine-generator set (genset) and a battery for smoothing PV plant output. There are a number of benefits derived from using a traditional generation resource in combination with the battery; the variability of the photovoltaic system can be reduced to a specific level with a smaller battery and Power Conditioning System (PCS) and the lifetime of the battery can be extended. The controller was designed specifically for a PV/energy storage project (Prosperity) and a gas engine-generator (Mesa Del Sol) currently operating on the same feeder in Albuquerque, New Mexico. A number of smoothing simulations of the Prosperity PV were conducted using power data collected from the site. By adjusting the control parameters, tradeoffs between battery use and ramp rates could be tuned. A cost function was created to optimize the control in order to balance, in this example, the need to have low ramp rates with reducing battery size and operation. Simulations were performed for cases with only a genset or battery, and with and without coordinated control between the genset and battery, e.g., without the communication link between sites or during a communication failure. The degree of smoothing without coordinated control did not change significantly because the battery dominated the smoothing response. It is anticipated that this work will be followed by a field demonstration in the near future.

  13. The influence of Thomson effect on the maximum power output and maximum efficiency of a thermoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jincan; Yan, Zijun; Wu, Liqing

    1996-06-01

    Considering a thermoelectric generator as a heat engine cycle, the general differential equations of the temperature field inside thermoelectric elements are established by means of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. These equations are used to study the influence of heat leak, Joule's heat, and Thomson heat on the performance of the thermoelectric generator. New expressions are derived for the power output and the efficiency of the thermoelectric generator. The maximum power output is calculated and the optimal matching condition of load is determined. The maximum efficiency is discussed by a representative numerical example. The aim of this research is to provide some novel conclusions and redress some errors existing in a related investigation.

  14. An investigation of the orthogonal outputs from an on-rotor MEMS accelerometer for reciprocating compressor condition monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, G.; Hu, N.; Mones, Z.; Gu, F.; Ball, A. D.

    2016-08-01

    With rapid development in electronics and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, it becomes possible and attractive to monitor rotor dynamics by directly installing MEMS accelerometers on rotors. This paper studies the mathematical modelling of the orthogonal outputs from an on-rotor MEMS accelerometer and proposes a method to eliminate the gravitational acceleration projected on the measurement axes. This is achieved by shifting the output in the normal direction by π / 2 using a Hilbert transform and then combining it with the output of the tangential direction. With further compensation of the combined signal in the frequency domain, the tangential acceleration of the rotor is reconstructed to a high degree of accuracy. Experimental results show that the crankshaft tangential acceleration of a reciprocating compressor, obtained by the proposed method, can discriminate clearly between different discharge pressures and hence can allow common leakage faults to be detected, located and diagnosed for online condition monitoring purposes.

  15. [Anesthesia management of geriatric patients with arterial pressure-based cardiac output monitoring FloTrac sensor for emergency surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Goto, Koji; Yasuda, Norihisa; Kusaka, Junya; Hidaka, Seigo; Miyakawa, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Takayuki

    2009-06-01

    In cases of emergency surgery for geriatric patients, immediate anesthesia induction and careful intraoperative management is necessary without sufficient preoperative information. We report anesthesia management of a 96-year and a 90-year old patients with FloTrac sensor which is an arterial pressure-based cardiac output monitoring device and is able to manage critical patients effectively and safely during anesthesia.

  16. A Simple MPPT Algorithm for Novel PV Power Generation System by High Output Voltage DC-DC Boost Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Grandi, Gabriele; Wheeler, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the novel topology of Photo Voltaic (PV) power generation system with simple Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm in voltage operating mode. Power circuit consists of high output voltage DC-DC boost converter which maximizes the output of PV panel. Usually traditional...... of DC-DC converters for PV integration. Hence, to overcome these difficulties this paper investigates a DC-DC boost converter together with the additional parasitic component within the circuit to provide high output voltages for maximizing the PV power generation. The proposed power system circuit...... substantially improves the high output-voltage by a simple MPPT closed loop proportional-integral (P-I) controller, and requires only two sensor for feedback needs. The complete numerical model of the converter circuit along with PV MPPT algorithm is developed in numerical simulation (Matlab/Simulink) software...

  17. Differential-output B-dot and D-dot monitors for current and voltage measurements on a 20-MA, 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Wagoner

    2008-10-01

    signals from a pair are not combined in a balun; they are instead numerically processed for common-mode-noise rejection after digitization. All the current monitors are calibrated on a 76-cm-diameter axisymmetric radial transmission line that is driven by a 10-kA current pulse. The reference current is measured by a current-viewing resistor (CVR. The stack voltage monitors are also differential-output gauges, consisting of one 1.8-cm-diameter D-dot sensor and one null sensor. Hence, each voltage monitor is also a differential detector with two output signals, processed as described above. The voltage monitors are calibrated in situ at 1.5 MV on dedicated accelerator shots with a short-circuit load. Faraday’s law of induction is used to generate the reference voltage: currents are obtained from calibrated outer-MITL B-dot monitors, and inductances from the system geometry. In this way, both current and voltage measurements are traceable to a single CVR. Dependable and consistent measurements are thus obtained with this system of calibrated diagnostics. On accelerator shots that deliver 22 MA to a low-impedance z-pinch load, the peak lineal current densities at the stack, outer-MITL, and inner-MITL monitor locations are 0.5, 1, and 58  MA/m, respectively. On such shots the peak currents measured at these three locations agree to within 1%.

  18. Hybrid measurement to achieve satisfactory precision in perioperative cardiac output monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyton, P

    2014-05-01

    Advanced haemodynamic monitoring employing minimally invasive cardiac output measurement may lead to significant improvements in patient outcomes in major surgery. However, the precision (scatter) of measurement of available generic technologies has been shown to be unsatisfactory with percentage error of agreement with bolus thermodilution (% error) of 40% to 50%. Simultaneous measurement and averaging by two or more technologies may reduce random measurement scatter and improve precision. This concept, called the hybrid method, was tested by comparing accuracy and precision of measurement relative to bolus thermodilution using combinations of three component methods. Thirty patients scheduled for either elective cardiac surgery or liver transplantation were studied. Agreement with simultaneous bolus thermodilution of hybrid combinations of continuous thermodilution (QtCCO) or Vigeleo™/FloTrac™ pulse contour measurement (QtFT) with pulmonary Capnotracking (QtCO2) was assessed pre- and post-cardiopulmonary bypass or pre- and post-reperfusion of the donor liver and compared with that of the component methods alone. Hybridisation of QtCO2 (% error 42.2) and QtCCO (% error 51.3) achieved significantly better precision (% error 31.3) than the component methods (P=0.0004) and (P=0.0195). Due to poor inherent precision of QtFT (% error 82.8), hybrid combination of QtFT with QtCO2 did not result in better precision than QtCO2 alone. Hybrid measurement can approach a 30% error, which is recommended as the upper limit for acceptability. This is a practical option where at least one component method, such as Capnotracking, is automated and does not increase the cost or complexity of the measurement process.

  19. Corrugated waveguide mode purifier for TEM output in a dual-mode operation overmoded coaxial millimeter-wave generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhen; Zhang, Jun; Zhong, Huihuang; Zhang, Dian

    2017-01-01

    A coaxial corrugated waveguide mode purifier is designed for a dual-mode operation overmoded coaxial millimeter-wave generator. With the purifier, the mixed TEM and TM01 modes output are purified into a pure TEM mode. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation shows that the purifier would not decrease the total output power of the generator, and plays an independent role to the upstream structure. Effects of mode composition ratio and phase difference on the purification ability of the purifier are also researched by both electromagnetism and PIC simulations, which show that the purifier has a certain tolerance for both the mode composition ratio and phase difference.

  20. A useful method to monitor outputs from a pulsed light source and its application to rate effect studies in a photomultiplier tube

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, Y; Kurashige, H; Matono, Y; Murakami, K; Nomura, T; Sakamoto, H; Sasao, N; Suehiro, M; Fukushima, Y; Ikegami, Y; Nakamura, T T; Taniguchi, T; Asai, M

    1999-01-01

    In order to study short-term gain stability in a photomultiplier tube at high counting rate, we constructed an LED pulsed light source and its output monitoring system. For the monitoring system, we employed a photon counting method using a photomultiplier as a monitor photon detector. It is found that the method offers a simple way to monitor outputs from a pulsed light source and that, together with an LED light source, it provides a useful method to investigate photomultiplier's rate effects.

  1. Mechanical and free living comparisons of four generations of the Actigraph activity monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried-Larsen Mathias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More studies include multiple generations of the Actigraph activity monitor. So far no studies have compared the output including the newest generation and investigated the impact on the output of the activity monitor when enabling the low frequency extension (LFE option. The aims were to study the responses of four generations (AM7164, GT1M, GT3X and GT3X+ of the Actigraph activity monitor in a mechanical setup and a free living environment with and without enabling the LFE option. Methods The monitors were oscillated in a mechanical setup using two radii in the frequency range 0.25-3.0 Hz. Following the mechanical study a convenience sample (N = 20 wore three monitors (one AM7164 and two GT3X for 24 hours. Results The AM7164 differed from the newer generations across frequencies (p -1 were attenuated (p > 0.05 for differences between generations thus attenuated the difference in mean PA (p > 0.05 when the LFE option was enabled. However, it did not attenuate the difference in time spend in vigorous PA and it introduced a difference in time spend in moderate PA (+ 3.0 min (95% CI 0.4 to 5.6 between the generations. Conclusion We observed significant differences between the AM7164 and the newer Actigraph GT-generations (GT1M, GT3X and GT3X+ in a mechanical setup and in free-living. Enabling the LFE option attenuated the differences in mean PA completely, but induced a bias in the moderate PA intensities.

  2. Monitoring cardiac output during hyperbaric oxygen treatment of haemodynamically unstable patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marco Bo; Treschow, Frederik; Skielboe, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Patients suffering from necrotizing fasciitis (NF) are often haemodynamically unstable and require extended monitoring of cardiovascular parameters; yet this is limited during hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT). We aimed to evaluate the use and safety of transoesophageal Doppler (TED) monitoring...

  3. Design and implementation of the NaI (Tl)CsI (Na) detectors output signal generator

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Xu; Zhao, Jian-Ling; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Fei; Li, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Xu-Fang; Lu, Xue-Feng; Xu, Zhen-Ling; Lu, Fang-Jun

    2013-01-01

    We designed and implemented a signal generator that can simulate the output of the NaI (Tl)CsI (Na) detectors pre amplifier onboard the Hard X ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT). Using the development of FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) with VHDL language and adding random constituent, we have finally produced the double exponential random pulse signal generator. The statistical distribution of signal amplitude is programmable. The occurrence time intervals of adjacent signals content negative exponential distribution statistically.

  4. Capacitive sensor for continuous monitoring of high-volume droplet microfluidic generation

    KAUST Repository

    Conchouso Gonzalez, David

    2016-12-19

    This paper presents a capacitive sensor for monitoring parallel microfluidic droplet generation. The great electric permittivity difference between common droplet microfluidic fluids such as air, oil and water (ϵoil ≈ 2–3 and ϵwater ≈ 80.4), allows for accurate detection of water in oil concentration changes. Capacitance variations as large as 10 pF between a channel filled with water or dodecane, are used to continuously monitor the output of a parallelization system producing 150 µl/min of water in dodecane emulsions. We also discuss a low cost fabrication process to manufacture these capacitive sensors, which can be integrated to different substrates.

  5. Prometheus: a next-generation monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Prometheus is an open eco-system that provides an end-to-end approach to infrastructure and application monitoring. It covers all levels beginning with easy instrumentation based on a flexible, multi-dimensional data model. The Prometheus server itself collects and stores time series while trying to maintain operational simplicity while being adaptable to varying scales and layouts of infrastructure. By integrating with a wide range of service discovery systems, it always stays in sync with the world it is monitoring. The powerful query language allows us to ask complex questions and can be applied seamlessly between ad-hoc investigation and static dashboarding. It is also directly applied in the eco-system's alerting layer, which favors a time-series based over and event driven approach. In this talk we will look at all aspects of Prometheus from the high-level philosophy behind its design to its practical concerns of implementation and operation. About the speaker Fabian Reinartz is a software eng...

  6. Condition Monitoring and Faults Diagnosis for Synchronous Generator Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Elfaki Elbashir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Early detection and diagnosis of incipient fault is desirable for on line condition assessment production quality assurance and improved operational efficiency of synchronous generator running of power supply. Artificial Intelligent techniques are increasly used for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of machines. In this paper, Artificial Neural Network (ANN approach employed for fault diagnosis in the generator, based on monitoring generator currents to give indication of the winding faults. Feed-forward Network, error back propagation training algorithm are used to perform the generator faults diagnosis and their values. NN which has been trained for all possible operating condition of the machine used to classify the incoming data. The inputs of the NN are the stator and rotor currents, and the output represents the running condition of the generator. The training of the NN achieved by the data through a mathematical model based approach to simulate the generator faults at various degree of severity.This paper evaluates through simulation line currents magnitude of the generator .The final results have been represented on a monitoring unit, built using matlab program, to give early warning of the generator failure.

  7. A New Maximum Power Point Estimator Control Strategy to Maximize Output Power of the Double Stator Permanent Magnet Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhisam Misron

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A new control estimator to maximize the power generated with a maximum power point estimator is introduced. The power mapping characteristics from the double-stator generator are modeled as a mathematical equation which is used to develop the estimator for maximum power tracking to maximize the generated power. The proposed estimator automatically traces the instantaneous maximum power at various load conditions. However, to stabilize the output voltage, a boost converter is used from the inverter side. The developed double-stator generator is tested with the new estimator for the maximizing power generation capability under laboratory conditions. The experimental results confirm that with the new estimator, the average power generation capability is increased by 12% and the peak value is increase by 22%.

  8. A Communication Protocol and Monitoring Policy for Input/Output Vehicles in an Automatic Storage and Retrieval System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; LI Wenfeng; LIAO Xiaoping; SU Wengui; LIN Yizhong

    2006-01-01

    The acquisition and processing of equipment information is pivotal to control and management of the automated storage and retrieval system. The work of this paper is based on the automatic storage and retrieval experimental system of Wuhan University of Technology. First, the output/input flow and the control information of storage/retrieval vehicle are studied and the plotting finite state machine model of the stacking crane is established. Then, the communication protocol between the center control management computer and the PLC of stacking crane is designed. Finally, the stacking crane's monitoring data, which include operating time, running states and real-time position status, are gained by analyzing the communication protocol. The detailed program for the acquisition and processing of monitoring information is developed. This method is suitable for the equipment monitoring of the whole system, and provides a platform for studying the intelligent control and optimal scheduling strategies of AS/RS.

  9. Options to Improve the Quality of Wind Generation Output Forecasting with the Use of Available Information as Explanatory Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Magulski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of wind generation, besides its positive aspects related to the use of renewable energy, is a challenge from the point of view of power systems’ operational security and economy. The uncertain and variable nature of wind generation sources entails the need for the for the TSO to provide adequate reserves of power, necessary to maintain the grid’s stable operation, and the actors involved in the trading of energy from these sources incur additional of balancing unplanned output deviations. The paper presents the results of analyses concerning the options to forecast a selected wind farm’s output exercised by means of different methods of prediction, using a different range of measurement and forecasting data available on the farm and its surroundings. The analyses focused on the evaluation of forecast errors, and selection of input data for forecasting models and assessment of their impact on prediction quality improvement.

  10. What is generated and what is used: a description of public health research output and citation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Luke; Milat, Andrew J; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W; Carey, Mariko L; Bryant, Jamie; Waller, Amy; Wiggers, John; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Lin Yoong, Sze

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this short report was to describe the output and citation rates of public health. Data-based publications and literature reviews from the year 2008, and their 5-year citation rates were extracted from 10 randomly selected public health journals. In total, 86.2% of publications were descriptive/epidemiological studies, 56.8% used cross-sectional (56.8%) designs and 77.8% were classified as research translation stage 2. Reviews and publications describing randomized controlled trials were the most highly cited, but were infrequently published. Strategies to address the discordance between public health research output and research citation may improve the impact of public health research.

  11. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Goodman, M.; Hardin, D. M.; Hall, J.; Yubin He, M.; Regner, K.; Conover, H.; Smith, T.; Meyer, P.; Lu, J.; Garrett, M.

    2009-12-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decision-making for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  12. Supercontinuum Generation with Output Power of 1.7 W Pumped by a Picosecond Laser Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Er-Ming; Ruan, Shuang-Chen; Guo, Chun-Yu; Wang, Yun-Cai; Wei, Hui-Feng

    2010-10-01

    By using a photonic crystal fiber, a supercontinuum source with output power up to 1.7W, pumped by a passively mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 picosecond laser is obtained. A spectral width of the supercontinuum is 1700 nm (500-2200 nm) with the 5 dB spectral width approximately 1000 nm (1200-2200 nm). This high power wide band supercontinuum source meets the demand of many applications such as optical coherence tomography, frequency metrology and wavelength-division-multiplexing systems. The evolution of the supercontinuum with the increasing pump power is presented and analyzed.

  13. Tunable microwave output over a wide RF region generated by an optical dual-wavelength fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanian, M. R. K.; Ahmad, H.; Pua, C. H.; Harun, S. W.

    2014-10-01

    The dual-wavelength fiber laser provides a compact, robust and stable platform for the generation of microwave signals. Two approaches towards generating microwave emissions using dual wavelengths are explored in this work, with both exploiting the heterodyning beat technique. Both approaches are based on a ring fiber laser with an erbium-doped fiber, having absorption coefficients of 16.0-20.0 dBm at 1531 nm and 11.0-13.0 dBm at 980 nm, serving as the active gain medium. A 10 cm long photonic crystal fiber with a solid core diameter of 4.37 μm and surrounded by air holes of 5.06 μm diameter with a separation of 5.52 μm between them serves to create the desired dual-wavelength output. A tunable band pass filter with bandwidth of 0.8 nm serves as a tuning mechanism together with a polarization controller. Channel spacings as narrow as 0.00043 nm can be realized, giving a microwave output of about 671.9 MHz. Furthermore, the channel spacing can be extended to as large as 0.03631 nm, giving a microwave emission in excess of 4.59 GHz. The output is highly stable, with little change in power or wavelength observed over a test period of 22 min.

  14. Method and apparatus for monitoring motor operated valve motor output torque and power at valve seating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casada, Donald A.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for monitoring a motor operated valve during the brief period when the valve seats and the torque switch trips to deenergize the valve motor. The method uses voltage measurements on the load side of a deenergizing switch that opens to deenergize the motor to determine, among other things, final motor rotational speed and the decelerating torque at motor deenergization.

  15. Application of intraoperative arterial pressure-based cardiac output monitoring for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jia-kai; ZHU Chen; JING He; WANG Yi-jun; QING En-ming

    2012-01-01

    Background For patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG),it is important to establish a hemodynamic monitoring system to obtain powerful parameters for better intraoperative treatment.This study aimed to observe the clinical feasibility of artedal pressure-based cardiac output (APCO) for cardiac output (CO) monitoring and to evaluate the correlation between APCO and pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) for CO measurement for patients undergoing OPCABG intraoperatively.Methods Fifty patients of Amedcan Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) classification Ⅱ-Ⅲ,undergoing elective OPCABG at Beijing Anzhen Hospital were randomly enrolled into this study.All patients were assigned to CO monitoring by PAC and APCO simultaneously.Patients with pacemaker,severe valvular heart disease,left ventdcular ejection fraction (EF) <40%,cardiac arrhythmias,peripheral vascular disease,application of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) and emergent diversion to cardiac pulmonary bypass were excluded.The radial artery wavaform was analyzed to estimate the stroke volume (SV) and heart rate (HR) continuously.CO was calculated as SV x HR; other derived parameters were cardiac index (CI),stroke volume index (SVI),systemic vascular resistance (SVR),and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI).PAC was placed via right internal jugular vein and the correct position was confirmed by PAC waveforms.Continuous cardiac output (CCO),CI and other hemodynamic parameters were monitored at following 5 time points:immediate after anesthesia induction (baseline value),anastomosis of left intemal mammary artery to left anterior descending artery (LAD),anastomosis of left circumflex (LCX),anastomosis of posterior descending artery (PDA) and immediate after sternal closure.Results In the 50 patients,preoperative echocardiography measured left ventricular EF was (52.8±11.5)%,and 35 patients (70%) showed regional wall motion abnormalities.The correlation coefficient of CO

  16. Characterizing the energy output generated by a standard electric detonator using shadowgraph imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petr, V.; Lozano, E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper overviews a complete method for the characterization of the explosive energy output from a standard detonator. Measurements of the output of explosives are commonly based upon the detonation parameters of the chemical energy content of the explosive. These quantities provide a correct understanding of the energy stored in an explosive, but they do not provide a direct measure of the different modes in which the energy is released. This optically based technique combines high-speed and ultra-high-speed imaging to characterize the casing fragmentation and the detonator-driven shock load. The procedure presented here could be used as an alternative to current indirect methods—such as the Trauzl lead block test—because of its simplicity, high data accuracy, and minimum demand for test repetition. This technique was applied to experimentally measure air shock expansion versus time and calculating the blast wave energy from the detonation of the high explosive charge inside the detonator. Direct measurements of the shock front geometry provide insight into the physics of the initiation buildup. Because of their geometry, standard detonators show an initial ellipsoidal shock expansion that degenerates into a final spherical wave. This non-uniform shape creates variable blast parameters along the primary blast wave. Additionally, optical measurements are validated using piezoelectric pressure transducers. The energy fraction spent in the acceleration of the metal shell is experimentally measured and correlated with the Gurney model, as well as to several empirical formulations for blasts from fragmenting munitions. The fragment area distribution is also studied using digital particle imaging analysis and correlated with the Mott distribution. Understanding the fragmentation distribution plays a critical role when performing hazard evaluation from these types of devices. In general, this technique allows for characterization of the detonator within 6-8% error

  17. Analysis of DC output voltage ripple in an electromagnetic doubly salient brushless DC generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; YAN Yangguang; CAO Xiaoqing; MENG Xiaoli

    2007-01-01

    Considering the salient pole and high magnetic nonlinearity of the electromagnetic doubly salient (EMDS)DC generator,a 12/8 pole prototype EMDS generator is designed and calculated using a 2-D finite element method (FEM).The phenomenon is analyzed and that the phase voltage wave changes between 120°and 180°.The influence of the exciting current and armature reaction on the DC voltage ripple of the generator is discussed in detail.and the nonlinear rules are gained that DC voltage rippie changes accordingly.The theoretical analysis is verified by the simulation and expefimental results.The results are helpful for the optimal design of the generator and the optimal control of excitingwinding.We conelude mat the filter-capacitance of the rectifier can be designed.

  18. Mitigation of Output Power Fluctuations in Utility Grid using Three Phase Distribution Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Sri Chandan,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewable electricity generation has never seen the level of investment and incentives that have been put in place by governments around the world during the last decade. However, despite the envisaged environmental and security of supply benefits that the harvesting of indigenous, renewable sources might bring about, their integration into the power system creates significant challenges to both the network operators and developers. The power quality challenges become even greater when large volumes of renewable generation capacity are connected to distribution networks, traditionally designed to be passive circuits with unidirectional power flows. This paper presents two schemes to meet the different power quality challenges in the utility grid due to Distribution Generation. In this first scheme is DSTATCOM and second is three phase Distributed Generation. This work is aimed at demonstrating, from the planning perspective, the benefits that the adoption of the different compensators might bring the system to a ‘fit and forget’ approach.

  19. Comparison of output-only methods for condition monitoring of industrials systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutten, C; Nguyen, V-H; Golinval, J-C, E-mail: Christophe.Rutten@ulg.ac.be, E-mail: VH.nguven@doct.ulg.ac.be, E-mail: JC.Golinval@ulg.ac.be [University of Liege, Department of Mechanical Engineering, LTAS-Vibrations and Identification of Structures Chemin des Chevreuils 1, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-07-19

    In the field of structural health monitoring or machine condition monitoring, the activation of nonlinear dynamic behavior complicates the procedure of damage or fault detection. Blind source separation (BSS) techniques are known as efficient methods for damage diagnosis. However, most of BSS techniques repose on the assumption of the linearity of the system and the need of many sensors. This article presents some possible extensions of those techniques that may improve the damage detection, e.g. Enhanced-Principal Component Analysis (EPCA), Kernel PCA (KPCA) and Blind Modal Identification (BMID). The advantages of EPCA rely on its rapidity of use and its reliability. The KPCA method, through the use of nonlinear kernel functions, allows to introduce nonlinear dependences between variables. BMID is adequate to identify and to detect damage for generally damped systems. In this paper, damage is firstly examined by Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI); then the detection is achieved by comparing subspace features between the reference and a current state through statistics and the concept of subspace angle. Industrial data are used as illustration of the methods.

  20. Design and Implementation of a High-Voltage Generator with Output Voltage Control for Vehicle ER Shock-Absorber Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-oscillating high-voltage generator is proposed to supply voltage for a suspension system in order to control the damping force of an electrorheological (ER fluid shock absorber. By controlling the output voltage level of the generator, the damping force in the ER fluid shock absorber can be adjusted immediately. The shock absorber is part of the suspension system. The high-voltage generator drives a power transistor based on self-excited oscillation, which converts dc to ac. A high-frequency transformer with high turns ratio is used to increase the voltage. In addition, the system uses the car battery as dc power supply. By regulating the duty cycle of the main switch in the buck converter, the output voltage of the buck converter can be linearly adjusted so as to obtain a specific high voltage for ER. The driving system is self-excited; that is, no additional external driving circuit is required. Thus, it reduces cost and simplifies system structure. A prototype version of the actual product is studied to measure and evaluate the key waveforms. The feasibility of the proposed system is verified based on experimental results.

  1. Characteristic monitoring of groundwater-salt transportation and input-output in inland arid irrigation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cundong; Zhang, Hongyang; Han, Liwei; Zhai, Luxin

    2014-11-01

    The rules of microscopic water-salt transportation can be revealed and the impact on the macroscopic water and soil resources can be further predicted by selecting a typical study area and carrying out continuous monitoring. In this paper, Jingtaichuan Electrical Lifting Irrigation District in Gansu Province (hereinafter called as JingDian irrigation district (JID)) located at the inland desert region of northwest China was selected as study area. Based on the groundwater-salt transportation data of representative groundwater monitoring wells in different hydrogeological units, the groundwater-salt evolution and transportation tendency in both closed and unclosed hydrogeological units were analyzed and the quantity relative ratio relationship of regional water-salt input-excretion was calculated. The results showed that the salt brought in by artificial irrigation accounts for the highest proportion of about 63.99% and the salt carried off by the discharge of irrigation water accounts for 66.42%, namely, the water-salt evolution and transportation were mainly controlled by artificial irrigation. As the general features of regional water-salt transportation, groundwater salinity and soil salt content variation were mainly decided by the transportation of soil soluble salt which showed an obvious symbiosis gathering regularity, but the differentiation with insoluble salt components was significant in the transportation process. Besides, groundwater salinity of the unclosed hydrogeological unit presented a periodically fluctuating trend, while the groundwater salinity and soil salt content in water and salt accumulation zone of the closed hydrogeological unit showed an increasing tendency, which formed the main occurrence area of soil secondary salinization.

  2. Reactive intermediates in the gas phase generation and monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Setser, D W

    2013-01-01

    Reactive Intermediates in the Gas Phase: Generation and Monitoring covers methods for reactive intermediates in the gas phase. The book discusses the generation and measurement of atom and radical concentrations in flow systems; the high temperature flow tubes, generation and measurement of refractory species; and the electronically excited long-lived states of atoms and diatomic molecules in flow systems. The text also describes the production and detection of reactive species with lasers in static systems; the production of small positive ions in a mass spectrometer; and the discharge-excite

  3. Suction power output and the inertial cost of rotating the neurocranium to generate suction in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Day, Steven W; Hernández, L Patricia; Higham, Timothy E; Skorczewski, Tyler

    2015-05-07

    To expand the buccal cavity, many suction-feeding fishes rely on a considerable contribution from dorsal rotation of the dorsal part of the head including the brains, eyes, and several bones forming the braincase and skull roof (jointly referred to as the neurocranium). As the neurocranium takes up a large part of the total mass of the head, this rotation may incur a considerable inertial cost. If so, this would suggest a significant selective pressure on the kinematics and mass distribution of the neurocranium of suction feeders. Here, an inverse dynamic model is formulated to calculate the instantaneous power required to rotate the neurocranium, approximated by a quarter ellipsoid volume of homogeneous density, as well as to calculate the instantaneous suction power based on intra-oral pressure and head volume quantifications. We applied this model to largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and found that the power required to rotate the neurocranium accounts for only about 4% of the power required to suck water into the mouth. Furthermore, recovery of kinetic energy from the rotating neurocranium converted into suction work may be possible during the phase of neurocranial deceleration. Thus, we suggest that only a negligible proportion of the power output of the feeding muscles is lost as inertial costs in the largemouth bass. Consequently, the feeding performance of piscivorous suction feeders with generalised morphology, comparable to our model species, is not limited by neurocranial motion during head expansion. This suggests that it is thus not likely to be a factor of importance in the evolution of cranial shape and size. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sensorless Adaptive Output Feedback Control of Wind Energy Systems with PMS Generators

    OpenAIRE

    El Magri, Abdelmounime; Giri, Fouad; Besancon, Gildas; Elfadili, Abderrahim; Dugard, Luc; Chaoui, Fatima Zara

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This paper addresses the problem of controlling wind energy conversion (WEC) systems involving permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) fed by IGBT-based buck-to-buck rectifier-inverter. The prime control objective is to maximize wind energy extraction which cannot be achieved without letting the wind turbine rotor operate in variable-speed mode. Interestingly, the present study features the achievement of the above energetic goal without resorting to sensors of w...

  5. Synthetic Training Data Generation for Activity Monitoring and Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monekosso, Dorothy; Remagnino, Paolo

    This paper describes a data generator that produces synthetic data to simulate observations from an array of environment monitoring sensors. The overall goal of our work is to monitor the well-being of one occupant in a home. Sensors are embedded in a smart home to unobtrusively record environmental parameters. Based on the sensor observations, behavior analysis and modeling are performed. However behavior analysis and modeling require large data sets to be collected over long periods of time to achieve the level of accuracy expected. A data generator - was developed based on initial data i.e. data collected over periods lasting weeks to facilitate concurrent data collection and development of algorithms. The data generator is based on statistical inference techniques. Variation is introduced into the data using perturbation models.

  6. Reduced Test Pattern Generation of Multiple SIC Vectors with Input and Output Delay Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.T.Sairam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the design for low power has become one of the greatest challenges in high-performance very large scale integration (VLSI design. Most of the methods focus on the power consumption during normal mode operation, while test mode operation has not normally been a predominant concern. However, it has been found that the power consumed during test mode operation is often much higher than during normal mode operation [1]. This is because most of the consumed power results from the switching activity in the nodes of the circuit under test (CUT, which is much higher during test mode than during normal mode operation [1]–[3]. In the proposed pattern, each generated vector applied to each scan chain is an SIC vector, which can minimize the input transition and reduce test power. In VLSI testing, power reduction is achieved by increasing the correlation between consecutive test patterns.

  7. Cost efficient SAGD heave monitoring: new generation radar technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granda, Johanna; Arnaud, Alain; Payas, Blanca; Katsuris, Dimitra; Cooksley, Geraint [Altamira Information (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Oil sands operations are subject to various regulations, one of them being the obligation to monitor heave monuments or other surfaces. Besides meeting the Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB) requirements, heave monitoring is efficient in steam chamber monitoring and guaranteeing the safety of SAGD operations. Several techniques exist for heave monitoring, such as GPS-measurement and Interferometry for synthetic aperture readar (InSAR). This paper aimed at presenting the InSAR technology and the advances made with the new generation X-band satellite technology. Two studies were conducted: one in an SAGD steam injection area in Alberta, Canada, and the other in a CO2 storage site in In Salah, Algeria. The new generation X-band radar satellites showed some advantages over traditional techniques, with: redundancy of satellites, frequency of images, measurement precision, a higher resolution and a smaller size of corner reflectors. The InSAR technology presented herein is a cost efficient technique allowing heavy oil operators to comply with ERCB requirements.

  8. Evaluation of a Wind Turbine Generation System Connected to Distribution Network from Viewpoint of Acceptable Maximum Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanai, Yuji; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Matsuki, Junya; Kobayashi, Naoki

    Recently, the total number of Wind Turbine Generation System (WTGS) connected to distribution network has been increased drastically. Installation of WTGS can reduce the distribution loss and emission of CO2. However, the distribution network with WTGS must be operated keeping reliability of power supply and power quality. The WTGS's effects to distribution network depend on its structure. In order to accomplish both the stable operation of distribution network and the progress of WTGS's prevalence, it is necessary to evaluate the acceptable output of WTGS quantitatively. In this paper, the authors evaluate several WTGSs connected to distribution network from viewpoint of Acceptable Maximum Output (AMO). The operational constrains to calculate the AMO of a WTGS are the following, (1) voltage limit, (2) line current capacity, (3) no reverse flow to distribution transformer, (4) short circuit capacity, and (5) voltage dip by inrush current. In order to evaluate the WTGS from viewpoint of AMO, numerical simulations are accomplished for a distribution system model. Furthermore, characteristics of AMO of a WTGS connected to distribution feeder are analyzed by several numerical examples.

  9. Neutron monitor generated data distributions in quantum variational Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussainov, A. S.; Pya, N.

    2016-08-01

    We have assessed the potential applications of the neutron monitor hardware as random number generator for normal and uniform distributions. The data tables from the acquisition channels with no extreme changes in the signal level were chosen as the retrospective model. The stochastic component was extracted by fitting the raw data with splines and then subtracting the fit. Scaling the extracted data to zero mean and variance of one is sufficient to obtain a stable standard normal random variate. Distributions under consideration pass all available normality tests. Inverse transform sampling is suggested to use as a source of the uniform random numbers. Variational Monte Carlo method for quantum harmonic oscillator was used to test the quality of our random numbers. If the data delivery rate is of importance and the conventional one minute resolution neutron count is insufficient, we could always settle for an efficient seed generator to feed into the faster algorithmic random number generator or create a buffer.

  10. Tritium contamination and monitoring at Frascati Neutron Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucci, F.; Sandri, S.; Ianni, A. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Dipartimento Ambiente; Vasselli, R. [ANPA, Roma (Italy); Pillon, M.; Bettinali, L. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Dipartimento Energia

    1994-11-01

    The Frascati Neutron Generator (FGN) is a specialised 300 keV, 3 mA direct electrostatic deuteron accelerator which produces about 5-10{sup 1}1 14 MeV neutrons per second by D-T reactions on a tritium-titanium fixed target. This paper concerns the tritium contamination control and monitoring aspects after some months of testing and a preliminary period of operation of the plant. The tritium monitoring system is composed of both on-line and off-line devices to control the tritium concentration in the atmosphere measured from different parts of the plant: vacuum exhaust clean up (VECU) system, stack, etc. The on-line devices are three flux monitors, that sample continuosly the air from up to eight different points in the plant. The passive sampling system is designed to select the chemical form of tritium and to collect respectively HTO and HT in two different cartridges filled with an appropriate drying material. The response of the on-line tritium monitor system are exposed and discussed: some measurements performed with atmosphere dehumidifying apparatus of this system are described and the relevant results are analysed.

  11. Accuracy and precision of minimally-invasive cardiac output monitoring in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehiro, Koichi; Joosten, Alexandre; Murphy, Linda Suk-Ling; Desebbe, Olivier; Alexander, Brenton; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Cannesson, Maxime

    2016-10-01

    Several minimally-invasive technologies are available for cardiac output (CO) measurement in children, but the accuracy and precision of these devices have not yet been evaluated in a systematic review and meta-analysis. We conducted a comprehensive search of the medical literature in PubMed, Cochrane Library of Clinical Trials, Scopus, and Web of Science from its inception to June 2014 assessing the accuracy and precision of all minimally-invasive CO monitoring systems used in children when compared with CO monitoring reference methods. Pooled mean bias, standard deviation, and mean percentage error of included studies were calculated using a random-effects model. The inter-study heterogeneity was also assessed using an I(2) statistic. A total of 20 studies (624 patients) were included. The overall random-effects pooled bias, and mean percentage error were 0.13 ± 0.44 l min(-1) and 29.1 %, respectively. Significant inter-study heterogeneity was detected (P error (23.6 %). Significant residual heterogeneity remained after conducting sensitivity and subgroup analyses based on the various study characteristics. By meta-regression analysis, we found no independent effects of study characteristics on weighted mean difference between reference and tested methods. Although the pooled bias was small, the mean pooled percentage error was in the gray zone of clinical applicability. In the sub-group analysis, electrical cardiometry was the device that provided the most accurate measurement. However, a high heterogeneity between studies was found, likely due to a wide range of study characteristics.

  12. Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Thermoelectric Generator for Maximum Power Output in Micro-CHP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Lasse; Mortensen, Paw Vestergård; Enkeshafi, Ali A.

    2011-01-01

    and market segments which are not yet quantified. This paper quantifies a micro-CHP system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a high-performance TE generator. Based on a 3 kW fuel input, the hybrid SOFC implementation boosts electrical output from 945 W to 1085 W, with 1794 W available for heating......One of the most obvious early market applications for thermoelectric generators (TEG) is decentralized micro combined heat and power (CHP) installations of 0.5 kWe to 5 kWe based on fuel cell technology. Through the use of TEG technology for waste heat recovery it is possible to increase...... the electricity production in micro-CHP systems by more than 15%, corresponding to system electrical efficiency increases of some 4 to 5 percentage points. This will make fuel cell-based micro-CHP systems very competitive and profitable and will also open opportunities in a number of other potential business...

  13. Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Thermoelectric Generator for Maximum Power Output in Micro-CHP Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendahl, L. A.; Mortensen, Paw V.; Enkeshafi, Ali A.

    2011-05-01

    One of the most obvious early market applications for thermoelectric generators (TEG) is decentralized micro combined heat and power (CHP) installations of 0.5 kWe to 5 kWe based on fuel cell technology. Through the use of TEG technology for waste heat recovery it is possible to increase the electricity production in micro-CHP systems by more than 15%, corresponding to system electrical efficiency increases of some 4 to 5 percentage points. This will make fuel cell-based micro-CHP systems very competitive and profitable and will also open opportunities in a number of other potential business and market segments which are not yet quantified. This paper quantifies a micro-CHP system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a high-performance TE generator. Based on a 3 kW fuel input, the hybrid SOFC implementation boosts electrical output from 945 W to 1085 W, with 1794 W available for heating purposes.

  14. Centennial time scale impacts using stochastically generated rainfall - assessing sediment output from a post-mining catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, G. R.; Verdon-Kidd, D.; Lowry, J.

    2016-12-01

    Rainfall intensity and temporal distribution have a major influence on soil erosion, sediment delivery and landscape evolution. Long-term reliable rainfall data is needed is to understand soil erosion rates and landscape evolution. For many parts of the world rainfall data may not exist locally or may be of insufficient quality (e.g. incomplete or only cover a short time period) and therefore has to be inferred from nearby sites. Further, there is also the question of whether the current climate (and rainfall pattern) is representative of longer term trends, particular into the future under a warming climate scenario. Using reliable rainfall data computer based landscape evolution models can provide insight into both erosion rates and process (i.e. sheetwash, rill, gully erosion). Of particular interest here are mining landscapes. Mining disturbs large areas to access minerals and upon completion of the resource extraction the disturbed area is re-engineered. The landscape once created will remain part of the surrounding landscape system for the foreseeable future. Therefore, understanding the hydrological and erosional behavior of such landscapes is vital so that any issues design can be corrected. It is also vital that these landscapes be evaluated not just for current climate but for how different rainfall patterns may affect erosion and landscape evolution. Here we assess a proposed post-mining landform using existing rainfall data from established weather stations and secondly create stochastically generated rainfall time series based on this rainfall data. The rainfall data is then used in a landscape evolution and sediment transport model. It was found that each rainfall data set produces differences in the position of rills and gullies. Each rainfall scenario also produces a unique pattern of sediment output that suggests non-linear processes. Therefore each rainfall data set produces unique patterns of erosion, deposition and catchment sediment output

  15. Wideband multiwavelength output generation based on cascaded four-wave mixing in distributed Raman amplifier utilizing a Fabry-Pérot laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alimi, A. W.; Cholan, N. A.; Yaacob, M. H.; Mahdi, M. A.

    2017-08-01

    Multiwavelength output generation based on cascaded four-wave mixing in a distributed Raman amplifier is demonstrated experimentally. The technique consists of launching a probe signal and Fabry-Pérot pump source in a co-propagating setup into a 2 km length of highly nonlinear fiber. In this configuration, the Fabry-Pérot laser diode plays two roles; as a Raman pump and as a source for multiple wavelengths generation. The output of multiple wavelengths with 27.8 GHz spacing centered around the probe signal is generated over 43 nm operation bandwidth. Besides, the bandwidth of the multiwavelength spectrum is also investigated at different wavelength ranges.

  16. Designing next-generation platforms for evaluating scientific output: What scientists can learn from the social web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal eYarkoni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional pre-publication peer review of scientific output is a slow, inefficient, and unreliable process. Efforts to replace or supplement traditional evaluation models with open evaluation platforms that leverage advances in information technology are slowly gaining traction, but remain in the early stages of design and implementation. Here I discuss a number of considerations relevant to the development of such platforms. I focus particular attention on three core elements that next-generation evaluation platforms should strive to emphasize, including (a open and transparent access to accumulated evaluation data, (b personalized and highly customizable performance metrics, and (c appropriate short-term incentivization of the userbase. Because all of these elements have already been successfully implemented on a large scale in hundreds of existing social web applications, I argue that development of new scientific evaluation platforms should proceed largely by adapting existing techniques rather than engineering entirely new evaluation mechanisms. Successful implementation of open evaluation platforms has the potential to substantially advance both the pace and the quality of scientific publication and evaluation, and the scientific community has a vested interest in shifting towards such models as soon as possible.

  17. Supercontinuum generation based on all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped fiber laser mode-locked by nonlinear polarization rotation: Influence of seed's output port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaosheng; Hua, Yi

    2016-10-01

    All-normal-dispersion (ANDi) mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser is a promising seed source for supercontinuum (SC) generation, due to its compact structure and broadband output. The influences of output ports of the ANDi laser mode-locked by nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR), on the generated SC are investigated. Two output ports of ANDi laser are considered, one of which is the conventional nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) port and the other is extracted from a coupler after the NPR port. It is found that, the SC originated from the coupler port is much broader than that from the NPR port, which is validated by lots of experiments with different output parameters. Furthermore, the conclusion is verified and generalized to general ANDi lasers by numerical simulations, because the output pulse from coupler port could be cleaner than that from NPR port. Besides, there are no significant differences in the phase coherence and temporal stability between the SCs generated from both ports. Hence for the SC generation based on ANDi laser, it is preferred to use the pulse of coupler port (i.e. pulse after NPR port) serving as the seed source.

  18. A minimally invasive monitoring system of cardiac output using aortic flow velocity and peripheral arterial pressure profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Kazunori; Kawada, Toru; Inagaki, Masashi; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2013-05-01

    In managing patients with unstable hemodynamics, monitoring cardiac output (CO) can provide critical diagnostic data. However, conventional CO measurements are invasive, intermittent, and/or inaccurate. The purpose of this study was to validate our newly developed CO monitoring system. This system automatically determines peak velocity of the ascending aortic flow using continuous-wave Doppler transthoracic echocardiography and estimates cardiac ejection time and aortic cross-sectional area using the pulse contour of the radial arterial pressure. These parameters are continuously processed to estimate CO (CO(est)). In 10 anesthetized closed-chest dogs instrumented with an aortic flowprobe to measure reference CO (CO(ref)), hemodynamic conditions were varied over wide ranges by infusing cardiovascular drugs or by random atrial pacing. Under each condition, CO(ref) and CO(est) were determined. Absolute changes of CO(ref) (ΔCOref) and CO(est) (ΔCO(est)), and relative changes of CO(ref) (%ΔCO(ref)) and CO(est) (%ΔCO(est)) from the corresponding baseline values were determined in each animal. We calibrated CO(est) against CO(ref) to obtain proportionally scaled CO(est) (CO(est)(N)). A total of 1335 datasets of CO(ref) and CO(est) were obtained, in which CO(ref) ranged from 0.17 to 5.34 L/min. Bland-Altman analysis between CO(ref) and CO(est) indicated that the limits of agreement (the bias ± 1.96 × SD of the difference) and the percentage error (1.96 × [SD of the difference]/[mean CO] × 100) were from -1.01 to 1.13 L/min (95% confidence interval, -1.76 to 1.88 L/min) and 43%, respectively. The agreement between CO(ref) and CO(est)(N) was improved, with limits of agreement from -0.53 to 0.49 L/min (95% confidence interval, -0.62 to 0.59 L/min) and the percentage error of 20%. Polar plot analysis between ΔCO(ref) and ΔCO(est) indicated that mean ± 1.96 × SD of polar angle was -2° ± 22°. Four quadrant plot analysis indicated that %ΔCO(est) correlated

  19. Toward the Next Generation of Air Quality Monitoring Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Angel; Reuben, Aaron; Shindell, Drew; deSherbinin, Alex; Levy, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an initiative to bridge the state of scientific knowledge on air pollution with the needs of policymakers and stakeholders to design the "next generation" of air quality indicators. As a first step this initiative assesses current monitoring and modeling associated with a number of important pollutants with an eye toward identifying knowledge gaps and scientific needs that are a barrier to reducing air pollution impacts on human and ecosystem health across the globe. Four outdoor air pollutants were considered e particulate matter, ozone, mercury, and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) e because of their clear adverse impacts on human and ecosystem health and because of the availability of baseline data for assessment for each. While other papers appearing in this issue will address each pollutant separately, this paper serves as a summary of the initiative and presents recommendations for needed investments to provide improved measurement, monitoring, and modeling data for policyrelevant indicators. The ultimate goal of this effort is to enable enhanced public policy responses to air pollution by linking improved data and measurement methods to decision-making through the development of indicators that can allow policymakers to better understand the impacts of air pollution and, along with source attribution based on modeling and measurements, facilitate improved policies to solve it. The development of indicators represents a crucial next step in this process.

  20. Design of second generation Hanford tank corrosion monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgemon, G.L.

    1998-04-02

    small amplitude signals that are spontaneously generated by electrochemical reactions occurring at corroding or other surfaces. Laboratory studies and recent reports on field applications have reported that EN analysis is well suited for monitoring and identifying the onset of localized corrosion, and for measuring uniform corrosion rates. A two year laboratory study was started at Hanford in 1995 to provide a technical basis for using EN in Hanford nuclear waste tanks. Based on this study, a prototype system was constructed and deployed in DST 241-AZ-101 in August, 1996. Based on the successful demonstration of this prototype for more than a year, a first-generation full-scale system was designed and installed into DST 241-AN-107 in September 1997. This document summarizes the design and operational requirements of the second-generation full-scale system scheduled for deployment into 241-AY-102.

  1. Arterial pressure allows monitoring the changes in cardiac output induced by volume expansion but not by norepinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnet, Xavier; Letierce, Alexia; Hamzaoui, Olfa; Chemla, Denis; Anguel, Nadia; Osman, David; Richard, Christian; Teboul, Jean-Louis

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate to which extent the systemic arterial pulse pressure could be used as a surrogate of cardiac output for assessing the effects of a fluid challenge and of norepinephrine. Observational study. Medical intensive care unit. Patients with an acute circulatory failure who received a fluid challenge (228 patients, group 1) or in whom norepinephrine was introduced or increased (145 patients, group 2). We measured the systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure, and the transpulmonary thermodilution cardiac output before and after the therapeutic interventions. In group 1, the fluid challenge significantly increased cardiac output by 24% ± 25%. It significantly increased cardiac output by ≥15% (+35% ± 27%) in 142 patients ("responders"). The fluid-induced changes in cardiac output were correlated with the changes in pulse pressure (r = .56, p arterial pressure (r = .55, p arterial pressure (r = .37, p arterial pressure (r = .52, p pressure were significantly related to changes in stroke volume (multiple r = .52) and to age (r = .12). A fluid-induced increase in pulse pressure of ≥17% allowed detecting a fluid-induced increase in cardiac output of ≥15% with a sensitivity of 65[56-72]% and a specificity of 85[76-92]%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the fluid-induced changes in mean arterial pressure and in diastolic arterial pressure was significantly lower than for pulse pressure. In group 2, the introduction/increase of norepinephrine significantly increased cardiac output by 14% ± 18%. The changes in cardiac output induced by the introduction/increase in the dose of norepinephrine were correlated with the changes in pulse pressure and systolic arterial pressure (r = .21 and .29, respectively, p = .001) but to a significantly lesser extent than in group 1. Pulse pressure and systolic arterial pressure could be used for detecting the fluid-induced changes in cardiac output, in spite of a significant

  2. A method to determine the input-output balances for nitrogen applied to the Lheebroekerzand integrated monitoring area (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.M.C.

    1997-01-01

    The International Cooperative Programme on Integrated Monitoring on Air Pollution Effects (ICP/IM) monitors chemical and biological indicators at the level of catchment areas. The Dutch monitoring area is located at Lheebroekerzand (Province of Drenthe). Since this area is not a catchment, an altern

  3. Possibilities of increased power output from existing generator plants. Feasible changes of existing generators. New technology, ASD (Adjustable Speed Drives); Muligheter for oekt effekt fra eksisterende generatoranlegg. Mulige endringer av bestaaende generatorer. Ny teknologi, ASD (Adustable Speed Drives)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elstroem, A.

    1996-12-31

    The present paper relates to the increase of power output from existing generator plants in Norway by new operation profiles. The paper focuses on the consequences of increasing the power turnover and production with a particular attention to the generator itself. In addition, some of the possibilities on the use of an ASD (Adjustable Speed Drives) installation are elucidated, which is a concept on regulating the number of revolutions within small limits by synchronous rotation. According to the author, the power output of generator increases between 10 to 30%

  4. Modifications to ORIGEN2 for generating N Reactor source terms. Volume 3: ORIGEN2 N-Reactor output files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This text is intended to be a brief outline of the ORIGEN2 computer code which is a revised and updated version of the ORIGEN documented in report ORNL-4628 (May 1973). Included here are: a brief description of the functions of ORIGEN2; a listing of the major data sources; a listing of the published documentation concerning ORIGEN2; and an outline of the ORIGEN2 output organization. ORIGEN2 is available from the ORNL Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC). Past experience has indicated that many users encounter considerable difficulty in finding the desired information in a ORIGEN2 output which is sometimes rather massive. This section is intended as a brief outline of the organization of ORIGEN2 output.

  5. Modification to ORIGEN2 for generating N Reactor source terms. Volume 2: ORIGEN2 N-Reactor output files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This text is intended to be a brief outline of the ORIGEN2 computer code, which is a revised and updated version of the ORIGEN documented i report ORNL-4628 (May 1973). Included here are: a brief description of the functions of ORIGEN2; a listing of the major data sources; a listing of the published documentation concerning ORIGEN2; and an outline of the ORIGEN2 output organization. ORIGEN2 is a available from the ORNL Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC). Past experience has indicated that many users encounter considerable difficulty in finding the desired information in ORIGEN2 output which is sometimes rather massive. This section is intended as a brief outline of the organization of ORIGEN2 output.

  6. Modifications to ORIGEN2 for generating N Reactor source terms. Volume 3: ORIGEN2 N-Reactor output files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This text is intended to be a brief outline of the ORIGEN2 computer code which is a revised and updated version of the ORIGEN documented in report ORNL-4628 (May 1973). Included here are: a brief description of the functions of ORIGEN2; a listing of the major data sources; a listing of the published documentation concerning ORIGEN2; and an outline of the ORIGEN2 output organization. ORIGEN2 is available from the ORNL Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC). Past experience has indicated that many users encounter considerable difficulty in finding the desired information in a ORIGEN2 output which is sometimes rather massive. This section is intended as a brief outline of the organization of ORIGEN2 output.

  7. 1.5 GHz picosecond pulse generation from a monolithic waveguide laser with a graphene-film saturable output coupler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Rose; Brown, Graeme; Beecher, Stephen J; Torrisi, Felice; Milana, Silvia; Popa, Daniel; Hasan, Tawfique; Sun, Zhipei; Lidorikis, Elefterios; Ohara, Seiki; Ferrari, Andrea C; Kar, Ajoy K

    2013-04-08

    We fabricate a saturable absorber mirror by coating a graphene- film on an output coupler mirror. This is then used to obtain Q-switched mode-locking from a diode-pumped linear cavity channel waveguide laser inscribed in Ytterbium-doped Bismuthate Glass. The laser produces 1.06 ps pulses at ~1039 nm, with a 1.5 GHz repetition rate, 48% slope efficiency and 202 mW average output power. This performance is due to the combination of the graphene saturable absorber and the high quality optical waveguides in the laser glass.

  8. Output characteristics of floating type wave power generator system using a ball screw; Fuyugata nejishiki haryoku hatsuden sochi no shutsuryoku tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, T.; Omata, K. [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A floating type wave power generator system using a ball screw is proposed. Output characteristics are simulated on the supposition of its employment aboard a navigational aid buoy. The relative linear movement produced by waves between the main body and float is transmitted via a load column to a ball nut and is converted into a rotary movement of a threaded shaft engaging the ball nut. Attached to the bottom end of the threaded shaft is a one-way clutch which connects to the generator axle when the relative velocity between the float and main body is positive. The simulation was conducted for a wave activated power generation buoy, 2.6m in outer diameter, 4.5m in length, and 6000kg in total mass. The buoy generated a mechanical output of 340kW when exposed to a sinusoidal wave 2.5 seconds in period and 40cm in wave height. A tank test was performed using a reduced scale model consisting of a ball screw, bicycle dynamo, and float, with the main body being 318mm in diameter and 833mm in length, when an average output of 4.51W was obtained at 60% efficiency. The results of the experiment agreed in some degree with the results of calculation, verifying the righteousness of the theoretical formula. 3 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Generation of standard gas mixtures of halogenated, aliphatic, and aromatic compounds and prediction of the individual output rates based on molecular formula and boiling point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorenz, Ute R; Kundel, Michael; Müller, Lars; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2012-11-01

    In this work, we describe a simple diffusion capillary device for the generation of various organic test gases. Using a set of basic equations the output rate of the test gas devices can easily be predicted only based on the molecular formula and the boiling point of the compounds of interest. Since these parameters are easily accessible for a large number of potential analytes, even for those compounds which are typically not listed in physico-chemical handbooks or internet databases, the adjustment of the test gas source to the concentration range required for the individual analytical application is straightforward. The agreement of the predicted and measured values is shown to be valid for different groups of chemicals, such as halocarbons, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatic compounds and for different dimensions of the diffusion capillaries. The limits of the predictability of the output rates are explored and observed to result in an underprediction of the output rates when very thin capillaries are used. It is demonstrated that pressure variations are responsible for the observed deviation of the output rates. To overcome the influence of pressure variations and at the same time to establish a suitable test gas source for highly volatile compounds, also the usability of permeation sources is explored, for example for the generation of molecular bromine test gases.

  10. Output beam energy measurement of a 100-MeV KOMAC drift tube linac by using a stripline beam position monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Sung

    2015-10-01

    The 100-MeV proton linac at the KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) is composed of a 50-keV proton injector, a 3-MeV RFQ (radio-frequency quadrupole) and a 100-MeV DTL (drift tube linac). The proton beam is accelerated from 3 MeV to 100 MeV through 11 DTL tanks. The precise measurement of the proton-beam's energy at the output of each DTL tank is important for the longitudinal beam dynamics and can be performed by using a time-of-flight method with a BPM (beam position monitor), which is installed between each DTL tank. The details of the output beam energy measurement of the KOMAC DTL with stripline-type BPM and BPM signal processing, along with a comparison with the simulation results, will be presented in this paper.

  11. 利用发电机组无功出力调整总降变电所功率因数%Use of Reactive Power Output of Generating Set to Control Power Factor of Step Down Substation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    A synchronous generating set can real-time monitor outlet voltage of a gener-ator by the automatic voltage regulation device. The reactive power output of the generating set is controlled by changing the excitation current to adapt to the change of system voltage. Use of this feature can real-time control reactive power output of the self-provided power plant to realize dynamic smooth adjustment of power factor of the step down substation.%  同步发电机组通过自动电压调整装置,可以实时地监控发电机出口电压,通过改变励磁电流来调发电机组的无功出力,以适应系统电压的变化。利用这一特点,可以实时地调整自备电厂的无功出力,实现总降变电所功率因数动态平滑的调整。

  12. Generating and monitoring Schrödinger cats in conditional measurement on a beam splitter

    CERN Document Server

    Dakna, M; Knöll, L; Welsch, D G

    1998-01-01

    Preparation of Schrödinger-cat-like states via conditional output measurement on a beam splitter is studied. In the scheme, a mode prepared in a squeezed vacuum is mixed with a mode prepared in a Fock state and photocounting is performed in one of the output channels of the beam splitter. In this way the mode in the other output channel is prepared in a Schrödinger-cat-like state that is either a photon-subtracted or a photon-added Jacobi polynomial squeezed vacuum state, depending upon the difference between the number of photons in the input Fock state and the number of photons in the output Fock state onto which it is projected. Two possible photocounting schemes are considered, and the problem of monitoring cats that are ``hidden'' in a statistical mixture of states is studied.

  13. Biodiesel and employment and income generation: an analysis of input-output; Biodiesel e geracao de emprego e renda: uma analise de insumo-produto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucena, Thomas Krisp de; Young, Carlos Eduardo Frickmann [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Economia], e-mail: thomaskl@ig.com.br

    2008-07-01

    This article analysis the National Program of Biodiesel Production, and presents a methodology to estimate the direct and indirect effects of employment and wages generation using the Input-Output Model developed by Leontief. Four different simulations are carried out, but even in the most optimistic case, the results presented by the Government exceed considerably the estimates obtained using data from the Brazilian national accounts. The main recommendation is that these estimates need to be redone, in order to present more realistic expectations for the job and income generation from the expansion of the bio diesel. (author)

  14. Response to multi-generational selection under elevated [CO2] in two temperature regimes suggests enhanced carbon assimilation and increased reproductive output in Brassica napus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    [CO2] led to higher quantities of reproductive output over the range of investigated generations independent of the applied temperature regime. The increase in seed yield caused an increase in aboveground biomass. This suggests quantitative changes in the functions of carbon sequestration of plants...... subjected to increased levels of CO2 over the generational range investigated. The results of this study suggest that phenotypic divergence of plants selected under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration may drive the future functions of plant productivity to be different from projections that do...

  15. An ultrafast quantum random number generator with provably bounded output bias based on photon arrival time measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Michael; Leifgen, Matthias; Berlin, Michael; Röhlicke, Tino; Rahn, Hans-Jürgen; Benson, Oliver

    2011-04-01

    We report the implementation of a quantum random number generator based on photon arrival times. Due to fast and high resolution timing we are able to generate the highest bitrate of any current generator based on photon arrival times. Bias in the raw data due to the exponential distribution of the arrival times is removed by postprocessing which is directly integrated in the field programmable logic of the timing electronics.

  16. Novel OSNR Monitoring Technique in Dense WDM Systems using Inherently Generated CW Monitoring Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Nordal

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple, yet effective OSNR monitoring technique based on an inherent effect in the optical modulator. Highly accurate OSNR monitoring is demonstrated in a 40 Gb/s dense WDM system with 50 GHz channel spacing....

  17. Grid Monitoring and Advanced Control of Distributed Power Generation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Timbus, Adrian Vasile

    2007-01-01

    The movement towards a clean technology for energy production and the constraints in reducing the CO2 emissions are some factors facilitating the growth of distributed power generation systems based on renewable energy resources. Consequently, large penetration of distributed generators has been reported in some countries creating concerns about power system stability. This leads to a continuous evolution of grid interconnection requirements towards a better controllability of generated power...

  18. Fiber optical magnetic field sensor for power generator monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willsch, Michael; Bosselmann, Thomas; Villnow, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Inside of large electrical engines such as power generators and large drives, extreme electric and magnetic fields can occur which cannot be measured electrically. Novel fiber optical magnetic field sensors are being used to characterize the fields and recognize inner faults of large power generators.

  19. Simulation of a photo-solar generator for an optimal output by a parabolic photovoltaic concentrator of Stirling engine type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddour, A.; Benyoucef, B.

    Solar energy is the source of the most promising energy and the powerful one among renewable energies. Photovoltaic electricity (statement) is obtained by direct transformation of the sunlight into electricity, by means of cells statement. Then, we study the operation of cells statement by the digital simulation with an aim of optimizing the output of the parabolic concentrator of Stirling engine type. The Greenius software makes it possible to carry out the digital simulation in 2D and 3D and to study the influence of the various parameters on the characteristic voltage under illumination of the cell. The results obtained enabled us to determine the extrinsic factors which depend on the environment and the intrinsic factors which result from the properties of materials used.

  20. Modeling a high output marine steam generator feedwater control system which uses parallel turbine-driven feed pumps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Zhi-qiang; ZOU Hai; SUN Jian-hua

    2008-01-01

    Parallel turbine-driven feedwater pumps are needed when ships travel at high speed. In order to study marine steam generator feedwater control systems which use parallel turbine-driven feed pumps,a mathematical model of marine steam generator feedwater control system was developed which includes mathematical models of two steam generators and parallel turbine-driven feed pumps as well as mathematical models of feedwater pipes and feed regulating valves. The operating condition points of the parallel turbine-driven feed pumps were calculated by the Chebyshev curve fit method. A water level controller for the steam generator and a rotary speed controller for the turbine-driven feed pumps were also included in the model. The accuracy of the mathematical models and their controllers was verified by comparing their results with those from a simulator.

  1. Response to multi-generational selection under elevated [CO2] in two temperature regimes suggests enhanced carbon assimilation and increased reproductive output in Brassica napus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard;

    2013-01-01

    Functional plant traits are likely to adapt under the sustained pressure imposed by environmental changes through natural selection. Employing Brassica napus as a model, a multi-generational study was performed to investigate the potential trajectories of selection at elevated [CO2] in two...... different temperature regimes. To reveal phenotypic divergence at the manipulated [CO2] and temperature conditions, a full-factorial natural selection regime was established in a phytotron environment over the range of four generations. It is demonstrated that a directional response to selection at elevated...... [CO2] led to higher quantities of reproductive output over the range of investigated generations independent of the applied temperature regime. The increase in seed yield caused an increase in aboveground biomass. This suggests quantitative changes in the functions of carbon sequestration of plants...

  2. An online technique for condition monitoring the induction generators used in wind and marine turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenxian; Tavner, P. J.; Court, R.

    2013-07-01

    Induction generators have been successfully applied to a variety of industries. However, their operation and maintenance in renewable wind and marine energy industries still face challenges due to harsh environments, limited access to site and relevant reliability issues. Hence, further enhancing their condition monitoring is regarded as one of the essential measures for improving their availability. To date, much effort has been made to monitor induction motors, which can be equally applied to monitoring induction generators. However, the achieved techniques still have constrains in particular when dealing with the condition monitoring problems in wind and marine turbine generators. For example, physical measurements of partial discharge, noise and temperature have been widely applied to monitoring induction machinery. They are simple and cost-effective, but unable to be used for fault diagnosis. The spectral analysis of vibration and stator current signals is also a mature technique popularly used in motor/generator condition monitoring practice. However, it often requires sufficient expertise for data interpretation, and significant pre-knowledge about the machines and their components. In particular in renewable wind and marine industries, the condition monitoring results are usually coupled with load variations, which further increases the difficulty of obtaining a reliable condition monitoring result. In view of these issues, a new condition monitoring technique is developed in this paper dedicated for wind and marine turbine generators. It is simple, informative and less load-dependent thus more reliable to deal with the online motor/generator condition monitoring problems under varying loading conditions. The technique has been verified through both simulated and practical experiments. It has been shown that with the aid of the proposed technique, not only the electrical faults but also the shaft unbalance occurring in the generator become detectable

  3. Generation and monitoring of a discrete stable random process

    CERN Document Server

    Hopcraft, K I; Matthews, J O

    2002-01-01

    A discrete stochastic process with stationary power law distribution is obtained from a death-multiple immigration population model. Emigrations from the population form a random series of events which are monitored by a counting process with finite-dynamic range and response time. It is shown that the power law behaviour of the population is manifested in the intermittent behaviour of the series of events. (letter to the editor)

  4. Site compare scripts and output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Monthly site compare scripts and output used to generate the model/ob plots and statistics in the manuscript. The AQS hourly site compare output files are not...

  5. Continuous monitoring of electromyography (EMG), mechanomyography (MMG), sonomyography (SMG) and torque output during ramp and step isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing-Yi; Zheng, Yong-Ping; Xie, Hong-Bo; Chen, Xin

    2010-11-01

    In this study we simultaneously collected ultrasound images, EMG, MMG from the rectus femoris (RF) muscle and torque signal from the leg extensor muscle group of nine male subjects (mean±SD, age=30.7±.4.9 years; body weight=67.0±8.4kg; height=170.4±6.9cm) during step, ramp increasing, and decreasing at three different rates (50%, 25% and 17% MVC/s). The muscle architectural parameters extracted from ultrasound imaging, which reflect muscle contractions, were defined as sonomyography (SMG) in this study. The cross-sectional area (CSA) and aspect ratio between muscle width and thickness (width/thickness) were extracted from ultrasound images. The results showed that the CSA of RF muscles decreased by 7.25±4.07% when muscle torque output changed from 0% to 90% MVC, and the aspect ratio decreased by 41.66±7.96%. The muscle contraction level and SMG data were strongly correlated (R(2)=0.961, P=0.003, for CSA and R(2)=0.999, PEMG RMS in ramp increasing was 8.25±4.00% higher than step (P=0.002). The normalized MMG RMS of step contraction was significantly lower than ramp increasing and decreasing, with averaged differences of 12.22±3.37% (P=0.001) and 12.06±3.37% (P=0.001), respectively. The results of this study demonstrated that the CSA and aspect ratio, i.e., SMG signals, can provide useful information about muscle contractions. They may therefore complement EMG and MMG for studying muscle activation strategies under different conditions.

  6. Generation of 415 W of p-polarized output power in long pulse operation of Nd:YAG laser using z-fold resonator geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, Ambar; Mondal, Shyamal; Singh, Ravindra; Upadhyaya, B. N.; Datta, P. K.; Oak, S. M.

    2014-08-01

    We report on the generation of high average power linearly p-polarized beam in long pulse operation of dual rod Nd:YAG laser. A z-fold resonator configuration has been designed using simple optical scheme to provide effective birefringence compensation, compactness, and reduction of alignment criticality. Using this geometry, a maximum linearly p-polarized average output power of 415 W and a pulse energy of 150 J was achieved with a slope efficiency of 4.3%, which is on higher side for typical lamp pumped long pulse Nd:YAG lasers. For effective birefringence compensation, an intra-cavity concave mirror based imaging system, a 90° quartz rotator, and a re-entrant feedback mirror has been used. This scheme resulted in an enhancement of p-polarized output power of more than 80% as compared to the p-polarized output power without birefringence compensation. Depolarization loss in the resonator has also been reduced significantly from a value of 35% to a value of ~1.8% after birefringence compensation.

  7. Total radiated power, infrared output, and heat generation by cold light sources at the distal end of endoscopes and fiber optic bundle of light cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensman, C; Hanna, G B; Drew, T; Moseley, H; Cuschieri, A

    1998-04-01

    Skin burns and ignition of drapes have been reported with the use of cold light sources. The aim of the study was to document the temperature generated by cold light sources and to correlate this with the total radiated power and infrared output. The temperature, total radiated power, and infrared output were measured as a function of time at the end of the endoscope (which is inserted into the operative field) and the end of the fiber optic bundle of the light cable (which connects the cable to the light port of the endoscope) using halogen and xenon light sources. The highest temperature recorded at the end of the endoscope was 95 degrees C. The temperature measured at the optical fiber location of the endoscope was higher than at its lens surface (p cables, the temperature reached 225 degrees C within 15 s. The temperature recorded at the optical fiber location of all endoscopes and light cables studied rose significantly over a period of 10 min to reach its maximum (p power. High temperatures are reached by 10 min at the end of fiber optic bundle of light cables and endoscopes with both halogen and xenon light sources. This heat generation is largely due to the radiated power in the visible light spectrum.

  8. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrone, Nicola; Aas, Wenche; Cinnirella, Sergio; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Pacyna, Jozef; Sprovieri, Francesca; Sunderland, Elsie M.

    2013-12-01

    understanding the link between the magnitude of mercury emissions and the concentrations found in the fish that we consume. For air quality monitoring, priorities include expanding the existing data collection network and widening the scope of atmospheric mercury measurements (elemental, oxidised, and particulate species as well as mercury in precipitation). Presently, the only accurate indicators of mercury impacts on human and biological health are methylmercury concentrations in biota. However, recent advances in analytical techniques (stable mercury isotopes) and integrated modelling tools are allowing greater understanding of the relationship between atmospheric deposition, concentrations in water, methylation and uptake by biota. This article recommends an expansion of the current atmospheric monitoring network and the establishment of new coordinated measurements of total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in seawater and concurrent concentrations and trends in marine fish.

  9. Output hardcopy devices

    CERN Document Server

    Durbeck, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Output Hardcopy Devices provides a technical summary of computer output hardcopy devices such as plotters, computer output printers, and CRT generated hardcopy. Important related technical areas such as papers, ribbons and inks, color techniques, controllers, and character fonts are also covered. Emphasis is on techniques primarily associated with printing, as well as the plotting capabilities of printing devices that can be effectively used for computer graphics in addition to their various printing functions. Comprised of 19 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to vector and ras

  10. Reservoir engineering of a mechanical resonator: generating a macroscopic superposition state and monitoring its decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asjad, Muhammad; Vitali, David

    2014-02-01

    A deterministic scheme for generating a macroscopic superposition state of a nanomechanical resonator is proposed. The nonclassical state is generated through a suitably engineered dissipative dynamics exploiting the optomechanical quadratic interaction with a bichromatically driven optical cavity mode. The resulting driven dissipative dynamics can be employed for monitoring and testing the decoherence processes affecting the nanomechanical resonator under controlled conditions.

  11. Charge Pump Clock Generation PLL for the Data Output Block of the Upgraded ATLAS Pixel Front-End in 130 nm CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Kruth, A; Arutinov, D; Barbero, M; Gronewald, M; Hemperek, T; Karagounis, M; Krueger, H; Wermes, N; Fougeron, D; Menouni, M; Beccherle, R; Dube, S; Ellege, D; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Gnani, D; Mekkaoui, A; Gromov, V; Kluit, R; Schipper, J

    2009-01-01

    FE-I4 is the 130 nm ATLAS pixel IC currently under development for upgraded Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosities. FE-I4 is based on a low-power analog pixel array and digital architecture concepts tuned to higher hit rates [1]. An integrated Phase Locked Loop (PLL) has been developed that locally generates a clock signal for the 160 Mbit/s output data stream from the 40 MHz bunch crossing reference clock. This block is designed for low power, low area consumption and recovers quickly from loss of lock related to single-event transients in the high radiation environment of the ATLAS pixel detector. After a general introduction to the new FE-I4 pixel front-end chip, this work focuses on the FE-I4 output blocks and on a first PLL prototype test chip submitted in early 2009. The PLL is nominally operated from a 1.2V supply and consumes 3.84mW of DC power. Under nominal operating conditions, the control voltage settles to within 2% of its nominal value in less than 700 ns. The nominal operating frequency for t...

  12. Online Monitoring Technical Basis and Analysis Framework for Emergency Diesel Generators - Interim Report for FY 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binh T. Pham; Nancy J. Lybeck; Vivek Agarwal

    2012-12-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability program at Idaho National Laboratory is actively conducting research to develop and demonstrate online monitoring capabilities for active components in existing nuclear power plants. Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Power Research Institute are working jointly to implement a pilot project to apply these capabilities to emergency diesel generators and generator step-up transformers. The Electric Power Research Institute Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management Software Suite will be used to implement monitoring in conjunction with utility partners: Braidwood Generating Station (owned by Exelon Corporation) for emergency diesel generators, and Shearon Harris Nuclear Generating Station (owned by Duke Energy Progress) for generator step-up transformers. This report presents monitoring techniques, fault signatures, and diagnostic and prognostic models for emergency diesel generators. Emergency diesel generators provide backup power to the nuclear power plant, allowing operation of essential equipment such as pumps in the emergency core coolant system during catastrophic events, including loss of offsite power. Technical experts from Braidwood are assisting Idaho National Laboratory and Electric Power Research Institute in identifying critical faults and defining fault signatures associated with each fault. The resulting diagnostic models will be implemented in the Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management Software Suite and tested using data from Braidwood. Parallel research on generator step-up transformers was summarized in an interim report during the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2012.

  13. Noninvasive cardiac output monitoring during exercise testing: Nexfin pulse contour analysis compared to an inert gas rebreathing method and respired gas analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Sebastiaan A; Stok, Wim J; Bezemer, Rick; Boksem, Remco J; van Goudoever, Jeroen; Cherpanath, Thomas G V; van Lieshout, Johannes J; Westerhof, Berend E; Karemaker, John M; Ince, Can

    2011-10-01

    Exercise testing is often used to assess cardiac function during physical exertion to obtain diagnostic information. However, this procedure is limited to measuring the electrical activity of the heart using electrocardiography and intermittent blood pressure (BP) measurements and does not involve the continuous assessment of heart functioning. In this study, we compared continuous beat-to-beat pulse contour analysis to monitor noninvasive cardiac output (CO) during exercise with inert gas rebreathing and respired gas analysis. Nineteen healthy male volunteers were subjected to bicycle ergometry testing with increasing workloads. Cardiac output was deter- mined noninvasively by continuous beat-to-beat pulse contour analysis (Nexfin) and by inert gas rebreathing, and estimated using the respired gas analysis method. The effects of the rebreathing maneuver on heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), and CO were evaluated. The CO values derived from the Nexfin- and inert gas rebreathing methods were well correlated (r = 0.88, P gas analysis-derived CO values correlated even better (r = 0.94, P < 0.01) and the limits of agreement were 21.5% with a measurement bias of -0.70 ± 1.6 L/min. At rest, the rebreathing maneuver increased HR by 13 beats/min (P < 0.01), SV remained unaffected (P = 0.7), while CO increased by 1.0 L/min (P < 0.01). Rebreathing did not affect these parameters during exercise. Nexfin continuous beat-to-beat pulse contour analysis is an appropriate method for noninvasive assessment of CO during exercise.

  14. Artificial neural Network-Based modeling and monitoring of photovoltaic generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. MEKKI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an artificial neural network based-model (ANNBM is introduced for partial shading detection losses in photovoltaic (PV panel. A Multilayer Perceptron (MLP is used to estimate the electrical outputs (current and voltage of the photovoltaic module using the external meteorological data: solar irradiation G (W/m2 and the module temperature T (°C. Firstly, a database of the BP150SX photovoltaic module operating without any defect has been used to train the considered MLP. Subsequently, in the first case of this study, the developed model is used to estimate the output current and voltage of the PV module considering the partial shading effect. Results confirm the good ability of the ANNBM to detect the partial shading effect in the photovoltaic module with logical accuracy. The proposed strategy could also be used for the online monitoring and supervision of PV modules.

  15. Multisite Tissue Oxygenation Monitoring Indicates Organ-Specific Flow Distribution and Oxygen Delivery Related to Low Cardiac Output in Preterm Infants With Clinical Sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Michelle E.; Roofthooft, Marcus T. R.; Fries, Marian W. A.; Schat, Trijntje E.; Bos, Arend F.; Berger, Rolf M. F.; Kooi, Elisabeth M. W.

    Objectives: Cardiac output may be compromised in preterm infants with sepsis. Whether low cardiac output is associated with low tissue oxygen supply in these patients is unclear. The aim of the current study was to assess the association between cardiac output, assessed by echocardiography, and

  16. Multisite Tissue Oxygenation Monitoring Indicates Organ-Specific Flow Distribution and Oxygen Delivery Related to Low Cardiac Output in Preterm Infants With Clinical Sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Michelle E.; Roofthooft, Marcus T. R.; Fries, Marian W. A.; Schat, Trijntje E.; Bos, Arend F.; Berger, Rolf M. F.; Kooi, Elisabeth M. W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Cardiac output may be compromised in preterm infants with sepsis. Whether low cardiac output is associated with low tissue oxygen supply in these patients is unclear. The aim of the current study was to assess the association between cardiac output, assessed by echocardiography, and tiss

  17. Inverter communications using output signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Patrick L.

    2017-02-07

    Technologies for communicating information from an inverter configured for the conversion of direct current (DC) power generated from an alternative source to alternating current (AC) power are disclosed. The technologies include determining information to be transmitted from the inverter over a power line cable connected to the inverter and controlling the operation of an output converter of the inverter as a function of the information to be transmitted to cause the output converter to generate an output waveform having the information modulated thereon.

  18. First measurements of gas output from bubbling pools in a mud volcano at the periphery of Mt Etna (Italy): methodologies and implications for monitoring purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Cinzia; Giudice, Gaetano; Liuzzo, Marco; Pedone, Maria; Cosenza, Paolo; Riccobono, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    angles. The positions of both laser source and retro-reflectors were chosen so to have the target CO2 plume in between retro-reflectors and the GasFinder, and to realize the complete coverage of the degassing area. We therefore explored the possibility to combine the available path-integrated CO2 concentration data to derive a two-dimensional mapping of CO2 over the mud volcano. The periodic survey of total CO2 output in a subset of vigorously degassing pools, paralleled to the chemical and isotopic measurements routinely performed in selected pools, would offer a robust monitoring tool in a peripheral sector of the volcano. Chiodini G., D'Alessandro W. and Parello F. (1996) Geochemistry of gases and water discharged by the mud volcanoes at Paternò, Mt. Etna (Italy). Bull. Volcanol. 58, 51-58. Paonita A., Caracausi A., Iacono-Marziano G., Martelli M., Rizzo A. (2012) Geochemical evidence for mixing between fluids exsolved at different depths in the magmatic system of Mt Etna (Italy). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 84 (2012) 380-394.

  19. An electricity-focused economic input-output model: Life-cycle assessment and policy implications of future electricity generation scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Joe

    The electricity industry is extremely important to both our economy and our environment. We would like to be able to examine the economic, environmental and policy implications of both future electricity scenarios which include advanced generation technologies such as gasified coal, and of the products and processes which will use them, along with the interaction of this industry with the rest of the economy. This work builds upon an existing economic input-output framework, by adding detail about the electricity industry, specifically by differentiating among the various functions of the sector, and the different means of generating power. The mix of electricity consumed at any stage in the life-cycle of a product, process or industrial sector has a significant effect on the associated inventory of emissions. Fossil fuel or nuclear generators, large-scale hydroelectric, and renewable options such as geothermal, wind and solar each have a unique set of issues---both in the production of electricity at the plant and throughout the supply chain. Decision makers need better information regarding the environmental and economic impact of the electricity industry, including full supply chain details---the interaction of the electricity industry with the other 500 sectors of the economy. A systematic method for creating updated state level and sector generation mixes is developed. The results show that most sector mixes are very close to the U.S. average due to geographic dispersion of industries, but that some sectors are different, and they tend to be important raw material extraction or primary manufacturing industries. We then build a flexible framework for creating new sectors, supply chains and emission factors for the generation, transmission and distribution portions of the electricity industry. We look at scenarios of the present and future, for electricity and for particular products, and develop results which show environmental impacts split up by generation

  20. Results from multipoint alignment monitoring using the new generation of amorphous silicon position detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E. [CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ferrando, A. [CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: antonio.ferrando@ciemat.es; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C. [CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Calderon, A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (IFCA), CSIC-University of Cantabria Santander (Spain)] (and others)

    2008-08-11

    We present the measured performance of a new generation of large sensitive area (28x28 mm{sup 2}) semitransparent amorphous silicon position detector sensors. More than 100 units have been characterized. They show a very high performance. To illustrate a multipoint application, we present results from the monitoring of five sensors placed in a 5.5-m-long light path.

  1. An activity monitoring system for elderly care using generative and discriminative models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kasteren, T.L.M.; Englebienne, G.; Kröse, B.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    An activity monitoring system allows many applications to assist in care giving for elderly in their homes. In this paper we present a wireless sensor network for unintrusive observations in the home and show the potential of generative and discriminative models for recognizing activities from such

  2. Operational-Condition-Independent Criteria Dedicated to Monitoring Wind Turbine Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Court

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Condition monitoring is beneficial to the wind industry for both onshore and offshore plants. However, due to the variations in operational conditions, its potential has not been fully explored. There is a need to develop an operational-condition-independent condition monitoring technique, which has motivated the research presented here. In this paper, three operational-condition-independent criteria are developed. The criteria accomplish the condition monitoring by analyzing the wind turbine electrical signals in the time domain. Therefore, they are simple to calculate and ideal for online use. All proposed criteria were tested through both simulated and practical experiments. The experiments have shown that these criteria not only provide a solution for detecting both mechanical and electrical faults that occur in wind turbine generators, but provide a potential tool for diagnosing generator winding faults.

  3. Calibrated versus uncalibrated arterial pressure waveform analysis in monitoring cardiac output with transpulmonary thermodilution in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagt, Cornelis; Helmi, Mochamat; Malagon, Ignacio; Groeneveld, A B Johan

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac output (CO) measurement is often required in critically ill patients. The performances of newer, less invasive techniques require evaluation in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. To compare calibrated arterial pressure waveform analysis-derived CO (COap, VolumeView/EV1000) and the uncalibrated form (COfv, FloTrac/Vigileo) with transpulmonary thermodilution derived CO (COtptd). A prospective, observational, single-centre study. ICU of a general teaching hospital. Twenty consecutive patients with severe sepsis or septic shock requiring haemodynamic monitoring by VolumeView/EV1000 and receiving mechanical ventilation. Connection of FloTrac/Vigileo to radial artery catheter already in situ. Radial (COfv) and femoral (COap) arterial waveform-derived CO measurements were compared with COtptd with respect to bias, precision, limits of agreement and percentage error, and the percentage error in the course of time since the last calibration of COap by COtptd. In comparing COap with COtptd (n = 267 paired measurements), the bias was 0.02 and limits of agreement were -2.49 to 2.52 l min, with a percentage error of 31%. The percentage error between COap and COtptd remained less than 30% until 8 h after calibration. In comparing COfv with COtptd (n = 301), the bias was -0.86 l min and limits of agreement were -4.48 to 2.77 l min, with a percentage error of 48%. The biases of COap and COfv correlated with systemic vascular resistance [r = 0.13 (P = 0.029) and r = 0.42 (P arterial waveform analysis technique. Compared with the uncalibrated COfv, the recently introduced calibrated arterial pressure waveform analysis-derived COap was more accurate and less dependent on vascular tone for up to 8 hours after callibation when monitoring CO in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. The COap and COfv methods have poor to moderate CO-tracking abilities.

  4. Design of Hanford Site 4th Generation Multi Function Corrosion Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NORMAN, E.C.

    2000-08-30

    This document describes the design of the fourth-generation corrosion monitoring system scheduled to be installed in DST 241-AN-104 early in fiscal year 2001. A fourth-generation multi-function corrosion monitoring system has been designed for installation into a DST in the 241-AN farm at the Hanford Site in FY 2001. Improvements and upgrades from the third-generation system (installed in 241-AN-105) that have been incorporated into the fourth-generation system include: Addition of a built-in water lance to assist installation of probe into tanks with a hard crust layer at the surface of the waste; and Improvement of the electrode mounting apparatus used to attach the corrosion monitoring electrodes to the stainless steel probe body (new design simplifies probe assembly/wiring). These new features improve on the third-generation design and yield a system that is easier to fabricate and install, provides for a better understanding of the relationship between corrosion and other tank operating parameters, and optimizes the use of the riser that houses the probe in the tank.

  5. MEMS acceleration sensor with remote optical readout for continuous power generator monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tormen Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Miniaturized accelerometers with remote optical readout are required devices for the continuous monitoring of vibrations inside power generators. In turbo and hydro generators, end-winding vibrations are present during operation causing in the long term undesirable out-of-service repairs. Continuous monitoring of these vibrations is therefore mandatory. The high electromagnetic fields in the generators impose the use of devices immune to electromagnetic interferences. In this paper a MEMS based accelerometer with remote optical readout is presented. Advantages of the proposed device are the use of a differential optical signal to reject the common mode signal and noise, the reduced number of steps for the MEMS chip fabrication and for the system assembly, and the reduced package volume.

  6. Performance monitoring algorithm for optimizing electrical power generated by using photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, M. V. K.; Balbir, S. M. S.; Norani, M. M.

    2016-11-01

    Demand for electricity in Malaysia has seen a substantial hike in light of the nation's rapid economic development. The current method of generating electricity is through the combustion of fossil fuels which has led to the detrimental effects on the environment besides causing social and economic outbreaks due to its highly volatile prices. Thus the need for a sustainable energy source is paramount and one that is quickly gaining acceptance is solar energy. However, due to the various environmental and geographical factors that affect the generation of solar electricity, the capability of solar electricity generating system (SEGS) is unable to compete with the high conversion efficiencies of conventional energy sources. In order to effectively monitor SEGS, this study is proposing a performance monitoring system that is capable of detecting drops in the system's performance for parallel networks through a diagnostic mechanism. The performance monitoring system consists of microcontroller connected to relevant sensors for data acquisition. The acquired data is transferred to a microcomputer for software based monitoring and analysis. In order to enhance the interception of sunlight by the SEGS, a sensor based sun tracking system is interfaced to the same controller to allow the PV to maneuver itself autonomously to an angle of maximum sunlight exposure.

  7. Operational-Condition-Independent Criteria Dedicated to Monitoring Wind Turbine Generators: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, W.; Sheng, S.; Court, R.

    2012-08-01

    To date the existing wind turbine condition monitoring technologies and commercially available systems have not been fully accepted for improving wind turbine availability and reducing their operation and maintenance costs. One of the main reasons is that wind turbines are subject to constantly varying loads and operate at variable rotational speeds. As a consequence, the influences of turbine faults and the effects of varying load and speed are coupled together in wind turbine condition monitoring signals. So, there is an urgent need to either introduce some operational condition de-coupling procedures into the current wind turbine condition monitoring techniques or develop a new operational condition independent wind turbine condition monitoring technique to maintain high turbine availability and achieve the expected economic benefits from wind. The purpose of this paper is to develop such a technique. In the paper, three operational condition independent criteria are developed dedicated for monitoring the operation and health condition of wind turbine generators. All proposed criteria have been tested through both simulated and practical experiments. The experiments have shown that these criteria provide a solution for detecting both mechanical and electrical faults occurring in wind turbine generators.

  8. Output Model of Steel Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Long-qiang; TIAN Nai-yuan; ZHANG Jin; XU An-jun

    2008-01-01

    Based on the requirement of compactivity, continuity, and high efficiency, and taking full advantage of cushion capability of flexible parts such as external refining in new generation steel plant, an output model of steel plant was established in terms of matching between BOF and caster. Using this model, the BOF nominal capacity is selected, the caster output and equipment amount are computed, and then the steel plant output is computed.

  9. Acoustic emission-based in-process monitoring of surface generation in robot-assisted polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The applicability of acoustic emission (AE) measurements for in-process monitoring of surface generation in the robot-assisted polishing (RAP) was investigated. Surface roughness measurements require interruption of the process, proper surface cleaning and measurements that sometimes necessitate...... removal of the part from the machine tool. In this study, stabilisation of surface roughness during polishing rotational symmetric surfaces by the RAP process was monitored by AE measurements. An AE sensor was placed on a polishing arm in direct contact with a bonded abrasive polishing tool...

  10. The role of reinstating generation operations in recognition memory and reality monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieznański Marek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of encoding/retrieval conditions compatibility was investigated in a reality-monitoring task. An experiment was conducted which showed a positive effect of reinstating distinctive encoding operations at test. That is, generation of a low-frequency (LF word from the same word fragment at study and test significantly enhanced item recognition memory. However, reinstating of relatively more automatic operations of reading or generating a highfrequency (HF word did not influence recognition performance. Moreover, LF words were better recognized than HF words, but memory for source did not depend on the encoding/retrieval match or on the word-frequency. In comparison with reading, generating an item at study significantly enhanced source memory but generating it at test had no effect. The data were analysed using a multinomial modelling approach which allowed ruling out the influence of a response bias on the measurement of memory ability.

  11. Complications after implantation of a new-generation insertable cardiac monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Søren Zöga; Haugan, Ketil Jørgen; Højberg, Søren

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insertable cardiac monitors (ICM) are leadless devices utilized in long-term monitoring of the heart rhythm. The implantation procedure of the new-generation ICMs is minimally invasive, but little experience exists regarding complications. We thus aimed to investigate adverse events (AE......) according to procedure-related characteristics after implantation of a large number of new-generation ICMs. METHODS: The study population consisted of participants randomized to receive ICM in a multi-center trial. The Reveal LINQ™ ICM was implanted using provided insertion tools, either....... In the 38 patients requiring device repositioning, more AEs requiring explantation were seen (3 (7.9%) vs. 6 (0.4%), p=0.001). Patients undergoing implantation in a procedure room had more infections (12 (1.6%) vs. 1 (0.1%), p=0.004), though no significant difference was reached in AEs requiring...

  12. Summary report of working group 5: Beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, Mike; /Fermilab; Kim, Ki-Yong; /Maryland U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities and presentations of Working Group 5 of the Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held at Annapolis, Maryland in June 2010. Working Group 5 touched on a broad range of topics in the fields of beam and radiation generation and their monitoring and control. These topics were not comprehensively covered in this Workshop, but rather the Working Group concentrated on specific new developments and recent investigations. The Working Group divided its sessions into four broad categories: cathodes and electron guns, radiation generation, beam diagnostics, and beam control and dynamics. This summary is divided into the same structure.

  13. Summary report of working group 5: Beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control

    CERN Document Server

    Church, Mike; 10.1063/1.3520295

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities and presentations of Working Group 5 of the Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held at Annapolis, Maryland in June 2010. Working Group 5 touched on a broad range of topics in the fields of beam and radiation generation and their monitoring and control. These topics were not comprehensively covered in this Workshop, but rather the Working Group concentrated on specific new developments and recent investigations. The Working Group divided its sessions into four broad categories: cathodes and electron guns, radiation generation, beam diagnostics, and beam control and dynamics. This summary is divided into the same structure.

  14. Development of Central Monitoring System for Insulation Diagnosis of High-Voltage Generator/Motor Stator Windings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Byoung Chol; Yoon, Dae Hee; Hwang, Don Ha; Kim, Yong Joo [Mechatronics Research Group, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea); Ju, Young Ho [Korea Electric Power Corporation (Korea); Kim, Jeong Woo [Advanced Electronic Technology Co., Ltd. (Korea)

    2000-07-01

    The central monitoring system with on-line diagnosis of high-voltage generator/motor stator insulation is developed. The system is capable of remote diagnosis and monitoring partial discharges of high-voltage generator/motor stator insulation. GOMS(Generator On-line Monitoring System) with maximum of 9 input channels can measure stator insulation by on-line. The measured and analysis data are borough to the central monitoring system via modem to build database. The central monitoring system can diagnose and monitor the insulation status of several high-voltage generator/motor at any time. The insulation status of those machines can be enhanced by the database on partial discharges. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. 基于ATmega16实现手摇脉冲发生器输出脉冲控制%Realization of output-pulse control using manual pulse generator based on ATmega16

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范剑

    2012-01-01

    Based on ATmegal6 microchip, a digital manual pulse generator device is developed and presented for solving the existed problems such as missing-count of generated pulse, output lag of motor pulse and the motor vibration created by the discontinuous output pulse. A series of software realization methods were proposed such as "predicting the period of generated pulse", "follow up period detecting", as well as "compensation of output pulse control". Experiments show that output control signal was steady and the abovementioned problems were resolved with the digital manual pulse generator device while working in a selected high-multiplying condition.%针对数控系统手摇脉冲发生器模块的脉冲漏计、电动机脉冲输出滞后或因脉冲输出不连续导致电动机振动等现象,基于ATmega16单片机设计了手摇脉冲发生器控制模块,采用“预测脉冲发生周期”和“随动检测”、“补偿输出控制”的软件实现方法,实现了数控系统在手轮高倍率选择状态下的稳定输出控制.

  16. 连续多普勒无创血液动力学监测仪(USCOM)在危重患者中的运用%The Application of Ultrasonic Cardiac Output Monitor In the Critically Ill Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勤; 向明芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the cardiac output detected by ultrasonic cardiac output monitor(USCOM) and Thoracic Electrical Bioimpedance(TEB). Methods: The cardiac outputs of 40 critically ill patients were detected by USCOM and TEB simultaneously. Results: There was no significant difference of the cardiac output detected by USCOM and TEB(P>0.10), the correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between cardiac output measured with USCOM and TEB(correlation coefficient of CO: r=0.8427, correlation coefficient of SV: r=0.8392, P0.10);且两种监测方法测得的结果具有正相关性(CO相关系数 r=0.8427,SV相关系数 r=0.8392,P均<0.01).结论采用USCOM技术监测危重患者的心输出量具有无创、连续、简便、准确的特点.

  17. A Study on Estimation of Average Power Output Fluctuation of Clustered Photovoltaic Power Generation Systems in Urban District of a Few km2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takeyoshi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    The fluctuation of the total power output of clustered PV systems would be smaller than that of single PV system because of the time difference in the power output fluctuation among PV systems at different locations. This effect, so called smoothing-effect, must be taken into account properly when the impact of clustered PV systems on electric power system is assessed. If the average power output of clustered PV systems can be estimated from the power output of single PV system, it is very useful and helpful for the impact assessment. In this study, we propose a simple method to estimate the total power output fluctuation of clustered PV systems. In the proposed method, a smoothing effect is assumed to be caused as a result of two factors, i.e. time difference of overhead clouds passing among PV systems and the random change in the size and/or shape of clouds. The first one is formulated as a low-pass filter, assuming that output fluctuation is transmitted to the same direction as the wind direction at the constant speed. The second one is taken into account by using a Fourier transform surrogate data. The parameters in the proposed method were selected, so that the estimated fluctuation can be similar with that of ensemble average fluctuation of data observed at 5 points used as a training data set. Then, by using the selected parameters, the fluctuation property was estimated for other data set. The results show that the proposed method is useful for estimating the total power output fluctuation of clustered PV systems.

  18. Flying blind: designing and maintaining jointed concrete pavement without monitoring pavement pressure generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Martin P., Jr.

    2001-08-01

    The generation of longitudinal pavement pressures or growth of jointed-rigid pavement have been recognized by many engineers for at least a century. The manifestations of this pressure/growth phenomenon, in the form of progressive pavement and bridge damage, are vivid examples of its destructive potential. Yet, only a few researchers have attempted to measure the pressures generated by this phenomenon. None, to the author's knowledge, have attempted to periodically monitor pressure generation for the purpose of either determining and describing pressure generation characteristics or predicting the probability of its abrupt final and destructive manifestations. Because the pavement/growth phenomenon occurs over such a long period of time (a decade or more), it is generally unrecognized, or if recognized, it is poorly understood. Consequently, design and maintenance of jointed rigid pavement continues to be guided more by intuition and personal judgement rather than be replicated research and professional consensus. This paper provides a speculative description of the pavement pressure/growth phenomenon. It also contains an appeal to research professionals to develop instrumentation suitable to monitor generating pavement pressures. The results of such research should finally enable the transportation profession to establish suitable background so that future pavement design and maintenance will be guided so that pressure generation will be minimized and pavement and bridge function and durability will be improved. Otherwise, transportation systems will continue to experience progressive and substantial pavement and bridge damage, commensurate repair costs, and the traveling public will continue to be exposed to occasional but abrupt manifestations of its destructive potential.

  19. Analyzing Effects of Turbulence on Power Generation Using Wind Plant Monitoring Data: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Chowdhury, S.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a methodology is developed to analyze how ambient and wake turbulence affects the power generation of a single wind turbine within an array of turbines. Using monitoring data from a wind power plant, we selected two sets of wind and power data for turbines on the edge of the wind plant that resemble (i) an out-of-wake scenario (i.e., when the turbine directly faces incoming winds) and (ii) an in-wake scenario (i.e., when the turbine is under the wake of other turbines). For each set of data, two surrogate models were then developed to represent the turbine power generation (i) as a function of the wind speed; and (ii) as a function of the wind speed and turbulence intensity. Support vector regression was adopted for the development of the surrogate models. Three types of uncertainties in the turbine power generation were also investigated: (i) the uncertainty in power generation with respect to the published/reported power curve, (ii) the uncertainty in power generation with respect to the estimated power response that accounts for only mean wind speed; and (iii) the uncertainty in power generation with respect to the estimated power response that accounts for both mean wind speed and turbulence intensity. Results show that (i) under the same wind conditions, the turbine generates different power between the in-wake and out-of-wake scenarios, (ii) a turbine generally produces more power under the in-wake scenario than under the out-of-wake scenario, (iii) the power generation is sensitive to turbulence intensity even when the wind speed is greater than the turbine rated speed, and (iv) there is relatively more uncertainty in the power generation under the in-wake scenario than under the out-of-wake scenario.

  20. The next generation of low-cost personal air quality sensors for quantitative exposure monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Piedrahita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Advances in embedded systems and low-cost gas sensors are enabling a new wave of low cost air quality monitoring tools. Our team has been engaged in the development of low-cost wearable air quality monitors (M-Pods using the Arduino platform. The M-Pods use commercially available metal oxide semiconductor (MOx sensors to measure CO, O3, NO2, and total VOCs, and NDIR sensors to measure CO2. MOx sensors are low in cost and show high sensitivity near ambient levels; however they display non-linear output signals and have cross sensitivity effects. Thus, a quantification system was developed to convert the MOx sensor signals into concentrations. Two deployments were conducted at a regulatory monitoring station in Denver, Colorado. M-Pod concentrations were determined using laboratory calibration techniques and co-location calibrations, in which we place the M-Pods near regulatory monitors to then derive calibration function coefficients using the regulatory monitors as the standard. The form of the calibration function was derived based on laboratory experiments. We discuss various techniques used to estimate measurement uncertainties. A separate user study was also conducted to assess personal exposure and M-Pod reliability. In this study, 10 M-Pods were calibrated via co-location multiple times over 4 weeks and sensor drift was analyzed with the result being a calibration function that included drift. We found that co-location calibrations perform better than laboratory calibrations. Lab calibrations suffer from bias and difficulty in covering the necessary parameter space. During co-location calibrations, median standard errors ranged between 4.0–6.1 ppb for O3, 6.4–8.4 ppb for NO2, 0.28–0.44 ppm for CO, and 16.8 ppm for CO2. Median signal to noise (S/N ratios for the M-Pod sensors were higher for M-Pods than the regulatory instruments: for NO2, 3.6 compared to 23.4; for O3, 1.4 compared to 1.6; for CO, 1.1 compared to 10.0; and for CO2, 42

  1. Watershed Scale Monitoring and Modeling of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) Generation and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R.; Rees, P. L.; Reckhow, D. A.; Castellon, C. M.

    2006-05-01

    This study describes a coupled watershed scale monitoring campaign, laboratory study, and hydrological modeling study which has been focused on determining the sources and transport mechanisms for Natural Organic Matter (NOM), in a small, mostly forested New England watershed. For some time, the state conservation authorities and a large metropolitan water authority have been concerned that the level of naturally-occurring disinfection byproducts in drinking water supplied by a large surface water reservoir (Watchusett Reservoir, MA) have been increasing over time. The resulting study has attempted to investigate how these compounds, which are mostly formed by the chlorination process at the water treatment plant, are related to NOM precursor compounds which are generated from organic matter and transported by runoff processes in the watershed of the Watchusett Reservoir. The laboratory study measures disinfection byproduct formation potential (DBPFP) through chlorination of raw water samples obtained through field monitoring. Samples are analysed for trihalomethanes (THMs), and haloacetic acids (HAAs). Samples are also analysed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254). The samples have been collected from as many components of the hydrological cycle as possible in one of the subcatchments of Watchusett Reservoir (Stillwater River). To date the samples include, stream runoff, water impounded naturally in small ponds by beaver dams, rainfall, snow, throughfall (drainage from tree canopies) and samples pumped from shallow suction lysimeters which were installed to monitor soil water in the riparian zone. The current monitoring program began in late-Summer 2005, however infrequent stream samples are available dating back to 2000 from an earlier research project and water quality monitoring by various regulatory authorities. The monitoring program has been designed to capture as much seasonal variation in water chemistry as

  2. The next generation of the ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Love, P; Potekhin, M; Wenaus, T

    2014-01-01

    For many years the PanDA Workload Management System has been the basis for distributed production and analysis for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Since the start of data taking PanDA usage has ramped up steadily, with up to 1M completed jobs/day in 2013. The associated monitoring data volume has been rising as well, to levels that present a new set of challenges in the areas of database scalability and monitoring system performance and efficiency. Outside of ATLAS, the PanDA system is also being used in projects like AMS, LSST and a few others. It currently undergoes a significant redesign, both of the core server components responsible for workload management, brokerage and data access, and of the monitoring part, which is critically important for efficient execution of the workflow in a way that’s transparent to the user and also provides an effective set of tools for operational support. The new generation of the PanDA Monitoring Service is designed based on a proven, scalable, industry-standard Web Fr...

  3. The next generation of the ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Love, P; Potekhin, M; Wenaus, T

    2014-01-01

    For many years the PanDA Workload Management System has been the basis for distributed production and analysis for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Since the start of data taking PanDA usage has ramped up steadily, with up to 1M completed jobs/day in 2013. The associated monitoring data volume has been rising as well, to levels that present a new set of challenges in the areas of database scalability and monitoring system performance and efficiency. Outside of ATLAS, the PanDA system is also being used in projects like AMS, LSST and a few others. It currently undergoes a significant redesign, both of the core server components responsible for workload management, brokerage and data access, and of the monitoring part, which is critically important for efficient execution of the workflow in a way that’s transparent to the user and also provides an effective set of tools for operational support. The new generation of the PanDA Monitoring Service is designed based on a proven, scalable, industry-standard Web Fr...

  4. Output power enhancement of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes via conical structures generated by a monolayer of nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mai-Chih; Lin, Chang-Rong; Chan, Chia-Hua

    2016-11-01

    This letter describes the output power enhancement of the GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes (FC LED) featuring conical structures fabricated by etching a self-assembled monolayer SiO2 spheres as the hard mask. By roughening the surface of FC LED components, it increases structural size of the components and elevates the light extraction efficiency of FC LED. At a constant current of 400 mA, the output power of the FC LED with 1200 nm conical structures is 638.1 mW and enhanced by 6.1% compared with the FC LED without surface roughening.

  5. Calibrated versus uncalibrated arterial pressure waveform analysis in monitoring cardiac output with transpulmonary thermodilution in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock: an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagt, C.; Helmi, M.; Malagon, I.; Groeneveld, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac output (CO) measurement is often required in critically ill patients. The performances of newer, less invasive techniques require evaluation in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. OBJECTIVES: To compare calibrated arterial pressure waveform analysis-derived CO (COap, Vo

  6. Calibrated versus uncalibrated arterial pressure waveform analysis in monitoring cardiac output with transpulmonary thermodilution in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock: an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagt, C.; Helmi, M.; Malagon, I.; Groeneveld, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac output (CO) measurement is often required in critically ill patients. The performances of newer, less invasive techniques require evaluation in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. OBJECTIVES: To compare calibrated arterial pressure waveform analysis-derived CO (COap,

  7. Calibrated versus uncalibrated arterial pressure waveform analysis in monitoring cardiac output with transpulmonary thermodilution in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock: an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagt, C.; Helmi, M.; Malagon, I.; Groeneveld, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac output (CO) measurement is often required in critically ill patients. The performances of newer, less invasive techniques require evaluation in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. OBJECTIVES: To compare calibrated arterial pressure waveform analysis-derived CO (COap, Vo

  8. Condition based maintenance optimization for wind power generation systems under continuous monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Zhigang; Wu, Bairong; Ding, Fangfang [Concordia Institute for Information Systems Engineering, Concordia University, 1515 Ste-Catherine Street, West EV-7.637, Montreal (Canada); Jin, Tongdan [Ingram School of Engineering, Texas State University (United States)

    2011-05-15

    By utilizing condition monitoring information collected from wind turbine components, condition based maintenance (CBM) strategy can be used to reduce the operation and maintenance costs of wind power generation systems. The existing CBM methods for wind power generation systems deal with wind turbine components separately, that is, maintenance decisions are made on individual components, rather than the whole system. However, a wind farm generally consists of multiple wind turbines, and each wind turbine has multiple components including main bearing, gearbox, generator, etc. There are economic dependencies among wind turbines and their components. That is, once a maintenance team is sent to the wind farm, it may be more economical to take the opportunity to maintain multiple turbines, and when a turbine is stopped for maintenance, it may be more cost-effective to simultaneously replace multiple components which show relatively high risks. In this paper, we develop an optimal CBM solution to the above-mentioned issues. The proposed maintenance policy is defined by two failure probability threshold values at the wind turbine level. Based on the condition monitoring and prognostics information, the failure probability values at the component and the turbine levels can be calculated, and the optimal CBM decisions can be made accordingly. A simulation method is developed to evaluate the cost of the CBM policy. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed CBM approach. A comparative study based on commonly used constant-interval maintenance policy demonstrates the advantage of the proposed CBM approach in reducing the maintenance cost. (author)

  9. Next-generation monitoring of aquatic biodiversity using environmental DNA metabarcoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Alice; Taberlet, Pierre; Miaud, Claude

    2016-01-01

    for species detection from DNA present into the environment. In this study, we tested if an environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding approach, using water samples, can be used for addressing significant questions in ecology and conservation. Two key aquatic vertebrate groups were targeted: amphibians and bony......Global biodiversity in freshwater and the oceans is declining at high rates. Reliable tools for assessing and monitoring aquatic biodiversity, especially for rare and secretive species, are important for efficient and timely management. Recent advances in DNA sequencing have provided a new tool...... the potential to become the next-generation tool for ecological studies and standardized biodiversity monitoring in a wide range of aquatic ecosystems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  10. REGULATION OF INSTANTANEOUS POWER OUTPUT VALUE IN MAGNETRON WITH CONTINUOUS GENERATION MODE (M-105-, M-112-TYPES BEING PART OF PLASMA TECHNOLOGICAL UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Bordusov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigations pertaining to the possibility of regulating instantaneous power output  in a magnetron of M-105 (M-112-type by changing the capacity value of a capacitor in structure diagram for doubling voltage of high-voltage power supply on the basis of a step-up transformer operating in the saturation regime.

  11. State-of-the-art steam generator on-line chemistry monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Koul, L.J.; Mc Clendon, M.E.; Richards, J.E.; Wozniak, S.M.

    1986-04-01

    Recent understanding of corrosion mechanisms has changed the industry's approach to one of establishing and maintaining proper water chemistry conditions to increase steam generator life and availability. A rigorous sampling and analysis program, along with management's commitment to proper water chemistry, are integral to the success of this approach. This paper describes Virginia Power's recent commitment to better maintenance of secondary side water chemistry conditions at its nuclear power stations through an on-line, comprehensive, state-of-the-art chemistry monitoring system.

  12. The potentials of the third generation of flow injection analysis for nutrient monitoring and fractionation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald; Buanuam, Janya

    2006-01-01

    In the present communication, the third generation of flow injection analysis, the so-called micro sequential-injection Laboratory-on-Valve (μSI-LOV), is presented as a miniaturized, automated approach for on-line monitoring of nutrients in different environmental compartments as effected under...... enclosed and strictly controlled conditions. Special emphasis is placed on coupling μSI-LOV on-line with a recently developed microcolumn to perform dynamic fractionation schemes for ascertaining the availability of phosphorous forms in solid substrates for biota uptake under simulated environmental...

  13. Smoothing Control on Output Power of Wind/Solar Hybrid Generation System Based on Fuzzy Control%基于模糊控制的风光储发电系统输出功率平滑控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马骏毅; 陈蕾; 许象明; 施伟成; 杜炜凝; 祁明; 曹桂斌; 卞栋

    2014-01-01

    In view of fluctuation of output power of photovoltaic generation and wind power generation with changes of sun-light intensity caused by intermittent and random of solar sunlight and wind power,a kind of smoothing control scheme for output power of wind/solar hybrid generation system based on fuzzy control was proposed by analyzing characteristics of photovoltaic generation,wind power generation and flywheel energy storage. Taking some typical day as an example,simu-lation observation and analysis was carried out on flywheel rotate speed,output power and smoothing factors of the wind/so-lar hybrid generation system which was compared with the system without flywheel energy storage system and simple fly-wheel energy storage system. Simulation results showed that output power of wind/solar hybrid generation system was real-ized smoothing control based on fuzzy control with the smoothing factor of 6 × 1 0-9 that was able to be ignored. The result indicated that the proposed method was able to effectively restrain fluctuation of output power of the wind/solar hybrid gen-eration system.%鉴于太阳日照和风能的间歇性和随机性使光伏发电和风力发电输出功率随日照强度的变化而波动,在分析了光伏发电特性、风力发电特性和飞轮储能特性的基础上,提出一种基于模糊控制的风光储混合发电系统输出功率平滑控制方案。以某典型日为算例,仿真观察和分析风光储混合发电系统的飞轮转速、输出功率及平滑因数,并与无飞轮储能系统、简单飞轮储能系统两种情况进行比较。仿真结果显示,基于模糊控制的风光储混合发电系统输出功率得到平滑控制,平滑因数约6×10-9,几乎可忽略不计。仿真结果表明所提控制方法能有效抑制风光储混合发电系统输出功率的波动。

  14. Monitoring applications of power generators for the increase of energy efficiency using novel fiber optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villnow, Michael; Willsch, Michael; Bosselmann, Thomas; Schmauss, Bernhard

    2011-05-01

    To verify optimization measures of power generators to improve the energy efficiency and to monitor critical parameters, fiber optical sensors have been developed and investigated. A fiber optical hot wire anemometer based on the thermooptic effect of Fiber Bragg Gratings was investigated to measure the flow distribution along the stator core. Fiber optical magnetic field sensors, based on the strain-optic effect of FBGs, were used to measure the magnetic field distribution on the end windings of a power generator. A novel fiber-optical accelerometer was used to measure the end winding vibrations. In this paper the functionality of each sensor is described and results of field test under real conditions are shown and discussed.

  15. The next generation of low-cost personal air quality sensors for quantitative exposure monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedrahita, R.; Xiang, Y.; Masson, N.; Ortega, J.; Collier, A.; Jiang, Y.; Li, K.; Dick, R. P.; Lv, Q.; Hannigan, M.; Shang, L.

    2014-10-01

    Advances in embedded systems and low-cost gas sensors are enabling a new wave of low-cost air quality monitoring tools. Our team has been engaged in the development of low-cost, wearable, air quality monitors (M-Pods) using the Arduino platform. These M-Pods house two types of sensors - commercially available metal oxide semiconductor (MOx) sensors used to measure CO, O3, NO2, and total VOCs, and NDIR sensors used to measure CO2. The MOx sensors are low in cost and show high sensitivity near ambient levels; however they display non-linear output signals and have cross-sensitivity effects. Thus, a quantification system was developed to convert the MOx sensor signals into concentrations. We conducted two types of validation studies - first, deployments at a regulatory monitoring station in Denver, Colorado, and second, a user study. In the two deployments (at the regulatory monitoring station), M-Pod concentrations were determined using collocation calibrations and laboratory calibration techniques. M-Pods were placed near regulatory monitors to derive calibration function coefficients using the regulatory monitors as the standard. The form of the calibration function was derived based on laboratory experiments. We discuss various techniques used to estimate measurement uncertainties. The deployments revealed that collocation calibrations provide more accurate concentration estimates than laboratory calibrations. During collocation calibrations, median standard errors ranged between 4.0-6.1 ppb for O3, 6.4-8.4 ppb for NO2, 0.28-0.44 ppm for CO, and 16.8 ppm for CO2. Median signal to noise (S / N) ratios for the M-Pod sensors were higher than the regulatory instruments: for NO2, 3.6 compared to 23.4; for O3, 1.4 compared to 1.6; for CO, 1.1 compared to 10.0; and for CO2, 42.2 compared to 300-500. By contrast, lab calibrations added bias and made it difficult to cover the necessary range of environmental conditions to obtain a good calibration. A separate user study

  16. Materiomics for Oral Disease Diagnostics and Personal Health Monitoring: Designer Biomaterials for the Next Generation Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjun; Wang, Ming L; Khalili, Sammy; Cranford, Steven W

    2016-01-01

    We live in exciting times for a new generation of biomarkers being enabled by advances in the design and use of biomaterials for medical and clinical applications, from nano- to macro-materials, and protein to tissue. Key challenges arise, however, due to both scientific complexity and compatibility of the interface of biology and engineered materials. The linking of mechanisms across scales by using a materials science approach to provide structure-process-property relations characterizes the emerging field of 'materiomics,' which offers enormous promise to provide the hitherto missing tools for biomaterial development for clinical diagnostics and the next generation biomarker applications towards personal health monitoring. Put in other words, the emerging field of materiomics represents an essentially systematic approach to the investigation of biological material systems, integrating natural functions and processes with traditional materials science perspectives. Here we outline how materiomics provides a game-changing technology platform for disruptive innovation in biomaterial science to enable the design of tailored and functional biomaterials--particularly, the design and screening of DNA aptamers for targeting biomarkers related to oral diseases and oral health monitoring. Rigorous and complementary computational modeling and experimental techniques will provide an efficient means to develop new clinical technologies in silico, greatly accelerating the translation of materiomics-driven oral health diagnostics from concept to practice in the clinic.

  17. Intraoperative monitoring for safety of total hip arthroplasty using third-generation cementing technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zi-jian; ZHANG Ke; YANG Hong; LIU Yan; L(U) Jing-qiao

    2009-01-01

    Background Controversies on the safety of the cement application between cemented and uncemented total hip arthroplasty (THA) have been existing for decades. The purpose of this study was to observe the changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and oxygen pressure (PaO2) during cemented THA, and to evaluate the intraoperative safety of using the third-generation cementing technique and investigate whether the intraoperative risk is higher in acute femoral neck fracture patients than non-traumatic patients. Methods Forty-two patients who underwent cemented THA between November 2005 and September 2007 were prospectively included in this study. The third-generation cementing technique as vacuum mixing and pulsatile lavage was used strictly. The MAP and HR were monitored and documented during each operation. Blood gas analysis was performed at exposure, cup implantation, stem implantation and wound closure. MAP, HR and PaO2 were compared between pre- and post-cement application. Comparisons of MAP, HR and PaO2 between patients with acute femoral neck fracture and non-traumatic patiens were performed as well. Results No intraoperative cardiopulmonary complication occurred in these cases. No obvious changes were observed in MAP, HR and PaO2 after cement application. There was no significant difference in MAP, HR and PaO2 between acute femoral fracture patients (18 patients) and non-traumatic patients (24 patients).Conclusions The results of this study suggested that the invasive blood pressure monitoring and blood gas analysis are essential for patients undergoing cemented THA, especially for patients with femoral neck fracture. The third-generation cementing technique is safe to use in THA.

  18. Standardisation of a Vapour Generator for Calibration of Environmental Monitoring Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Rana

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Very low vapour pressure of 2,4,6 trinitrotoulene (TNT yields extremely low vapour concentrations at different flow rates in the air, yet considerable quantity of vapours and TNTdust during handling may be present at the workplace environment which is harmful to the health of the personnel working there. The explosive vapours, such as TNT,  2,6-dinitrotoluene (DNT, etc., though harmful to the health of the personnel, are not covered either in the emission standards or in the ambient air quality standards. Presently, no instrument is available for air monitoring of TNT vapours. These vapours need to be collected on-site to estimate TNT concentration. Realising the need for real-time air monitoring of TNT, efforts have been made to understand and device an instrument for on-site determination of TNT vapours parts per billiion (ppb range. Low-level TNT vapours and TNT buried in the soil in military operations are required to be detected. The instruments for this require careful calibration to yield accurate and reliable results. Hence, an effort has been made to develop a trace-level ppb vapour generator. The vapour generator of a spiral glass column of length 170 cm and inner diameter 4 mm 2 0.5 mm has been used. An activated charcoal glass tube has been used for sampling TNT vapours. The adsorbed TNT vapours were desorbed and analysed using high performance liquid chromatography. Thesolid support used has been studied. These vapours generated at different flow rates have been evaluated. The calibrated instrument can be used for in situ and on-site analysis of samples of TNT and also for samples collected.

  19. Plasma cell treatment device Plasma-on-Chip: Monitoring plasma-generated reactive species in microwells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jun-Seok; Kojima, Shinya; Sasaki, Minoru; Hatta, Akimitsu; Kumagai, Shinya

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a plasma cell treatment device called Plasma-on-Chip that enables the real-time monitoring of a single cell culture during plasma treatment. The device consists of three parts: 1) microwells for cell culture, 2) a microplasma device for generating reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) for use in cell treatment, and 3) through-holes (microchannels) that connect each microwell with the microplasma region for RONS delivery. Here, we analysed the delivery of the RONS to the liquid culture medium stored in the microwells. We developed a simple experimental set-up using a microdevice and applied in situ ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy with high sensitivity for detecting RONS in liquid. The plasma-generated RONS were delivered into the liquid culture medium via the through-holes fabricated into the microdevice. The RONS concentrations were on the order of 10–100 μM depending on the size of the through-holes. In contrast, we found that the amount of dissolved oxygen was almost constant. To investigate the process of RONS generation, we numerically analysed the gas flow in the through-holes. We suggest that the circulating gas flow in the through-holes promotes the interaction between the plasma (ionised gas) and the liquid, resulting in enhanced RONS concentrations. PMID:28176800

  20. Application of pulse contour cardiac output monitoring technique in hemodynamic monitoring in critical patients%脉搏轮廓心排血量监测技术在危重病患者血流动力学监测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房贺; 郑兴锋; 夏照帆

    2014-01-01

    Pulse contour cardiac output (PiCCO) monitoring is a new type of invasive hemodynamic monitoring technology,which is more and more often applied in perioperative period and the patients suffering from multiple injuries,septic shock,and extensive burn.With PiCCO one is able to monitor patients' hemodynamic indexes safely,timely,accurately,and continuously to provide reference for judgment of patients' condition and proper quality and quantity of fluid administration.This technique has a good prospect in clinical application.

  1. A Methodological Review of Piezoelectric Based Acoustic Wave Generation and Detection Techniques for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric transducers have a long history of applications in nondestructive evaluation of material and structure integrity owing to their ability of transforming mechanical energy to electrical energy and vice versa. As condition based maintenance has emerged as a valuable approach to enhancing continued aircraft airworthiness while reducing the life cycle cost, its enabling structural health monitoring (SHM technologies capable of providing on-demand diagnosis of the structure without interrupting the aircraft operation are attracting increasing R&D efforts. Piezoelectric transducers play an essential role in these endeavors. This paper is set forth to review a variety of ingenious ways in which piezoelectric transducers are used in today’s SHM technologies as a means of generation and/or detection of diagnostic acoustic waves.

  2. Monitoring the thermally induced structural transitions of collagen by use of second-harmonic generation microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sung-Jan; Hsiao, Chih-Yuan; Sun, Yen; Lo, Wen; Lin, Wei-Chou; Jan, Gwo-Jen; Jee, Shiou-Hwa; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2005-03-01

    The thermal disruption of collagen I in rat tail tendon is investigated with second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. We investigate its effects on SHG images and intensity in the temperature range 25°-60°C. We find that the SHG signal decreases rapidly starting at 45°C. However, SHG imaging reveals that breakage of collagen fibers is not evident until 57°C and worsens with increasing temperature. At 57°C, structures of both molten and fibrous collagen exist, and the disruption of collagen appears to be complete at 60°C. Our results suggest that, in addition to intensity measurement, SHG imaging is necessary for monitoring details of thermally induced changes in collagen structures in biomedical applications.

  3. Snow Web 2.0: The Next Generation of Antarctic Meteorological Monitoring Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, J.; McDonald, A.; Plank, G.; Pannell, M.; Ward, R.; Parsons, S.

    2012-04-01

    Adequate in-situ observation of the Antarctic lower atmosphere has proved problematic, due to a combination of the inhospitable nature and extent of the continent. Traditional weather stations are expensive, subject to extreme weather for long periods and are often isolated, and as such are prone to failure and logistically difficult to repair. We have developed the first generation of an extended system of atmospheric sensors, each costing a fraction of the price of a traditional weather station. The system is capable of performing all of the monitoring tasks of a traditional station, but has built-in redundancy over the traditional approach because many units can be deployed in a relatively small area for similar expenditure as one large weather station. Furthermore, each unit is equipped with wireless networking capabilities and so is able to share information with those units in its direct vicinity. This allows for the ferrying of collected information to a manned observation station and hence the ability to monitor data in real-time. The distributed nature of the data collected can then be used as a stand-alone product to investigate small-scale weather and climate phenomena or integrated into larger studies and be used to monitor wide regions. GPS hardware installed on each unit also allows for high-resolution glacier or ice-shelf tracking. As a testing and data gathering study, eighteen such weather stations were deployed in the vicinity of Scott Base, Ross Island, Antarctica over the 2011/12 summer season. This presentation reports on findings from this field study, and discusses possibilities for the future.

  4. Spalax™ new generation: A sensitive and selective noble gas system for nuclear explosion monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Petit, G; Cagniant, A; Gross, P; Douysset, G; Topin, S; Fontaine, J P; Taffary, T; Moulin, C

    2015-09-01

    In the context of the verification regime of the Comprehensive nuclear Test ban Treaty (CTBT), CEA is developing a new generation (NG) of SPALAX™ system for atmospheric radioxenon monitoring. These systems are able to extract more than 6cm(3) of pure xenon from air samples each 12h and to measure the four relevant xenon radioactive isotopes using a high resolution detection system operating in electron-photon coincidence mode. This paper presents the performances of the SPALAX™ NG prototype in operation at Bruyères-le-Châtel CEA centre, integrating the most recent CEA developments. It especially focuses on an innovative detection system made up of a gas cell equipped with two face-to-face silicon detectors associated to one or two germanium detectors. Minimum Detectable activity Concentrations (MDCs) of environmental samples were calculated to be approximately 0.1 mBq/m(3) for the isotopes (131m)Xe, (133m)Xe, (133)Xe and 0.4 mBq/m(3) for (135)Xe (single germanium configuration). The detection system might be used to simultaneously measure particulate and noble gas samples from the CTBT International Monitoring System (IMS). That possibility could lead to new capacities for particulate measurements by allowing electron-photon coincidence detection of certain fission products.

  5. Generation of Col2a1-EGFP iPS cells for monitoring chondrogenic differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Saito

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC are a promising cell source for cartilage regenerative medicine; however, the methods for chondrocyte induction from iPSC are currently developing and not yet sufficient for clinical application. Here, we report the establishment of a fluorescent indicator system for monitoring chondrogenic differentiation from iPSC to simplify screening for effective factors that induce chondrocytes from iPSC. We generated iPSC from embryonic fibroblasts of Col2a1-EGFP transgenic mice by retroviral transduction of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. Among the 30 clones of Col2a1-EGFP iPSC we established, two clones showed high expression levels of embryonic stem cell (ESC marker genes, similar to control ESC. A teratoma formation assay showed that the two clones were pluripotent and differentiated into cell types from all three germ layers. The fluorescent signal was observed during chondrogenic differentiation of the two clones concomitant with the increase in chondrocyte marker expression. In conclusion, Col2a1-EGFP iPSC are useful for monitoring chondrogenic differentiation and will contribute to research in cartilage regenerative medicine.

  6. Estimating Alarm Thresholds for Process Monitoring Data under Different Assumptions about the Data Generating Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Burr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Process monitoring (PM for nuclear safeguards sometimes requires estimation of thresholds corresponding to small false alarm rates. Threshold estimation dates to the 1920s with the Shewhart control chart; however, because possible new roles for PM are being evaluated in nuclear safeguards, it is timely to consider modern model selection options in the context of threshold estimation. One of the possible new PM roles involves PM residuals, where a residual is defined as residual = data − prediction. This paper reviews alarm threshold estimation, introduces model selection options, and considers a range of assumptions regarding the data-generating mechanism for PM residuals. Two PM examples from nuclear safeguards are included to motivate the need for alarm threshold estimation. The first example involves mixtures of probability distributions that arise in solution monitoring, which is a common type of PM. The second example involves periodic partial cleanout of in-process inventory, leading to challenging structure in the time series of PM residuals.

  7. Data gateway for prognostic health monitoring of ocean-based power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundel, Joseph

    On August 5, 2010 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has designated the Center for Ocean Energy Technology (COET) at Florida Atlantic University (FAU) as a national center for ocean energy research and development. Their focus is the research and development of open-ocean current systems and associated infrastructure needed to development and testing prototypes. The generation of power is achieved by using a specialized electric generator with a rotor called a turbine. As with all machines, the turbines will need maintenance and replacement as they near the end of their lifecycle. This prognostic health monitoring (PHM) requires data to be collected, stored, and analyzed in order to maximize the lifespan, reduce downtime and predict when failure is eminent. This thesis explores the use of a data gateway which will separate high level software with low level hardware including sensors and actuators. The gateway will standardize and store the data collected from various sensors with different speeds, formats, and interfaces allowing an easy and uniform transition to a database system for analysis.

  8. The relationship between the monitored performance of tutors and students at PBL tutorials and the marked hypotheses generated by students in a hybrid curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addae, Jonas I.; Sahu, Pradeep; Sa, Bidyadhar

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: There have been a number of published studies examining the link between the effectiveness of the problem-based learning (PBL) process and students’ performance in examinations. In a hybrid PBL/lectures curriculum, the results of such studies are of limited use because of the difficulty in dissociating the knowledge gained at lectures from that gained through PBL-related activities. Hence, the objectives of this study were: (1) to develop an instrument to measure the performance of tutors and students at PBL tutorials, and (2) to explore the contribution of such performances to the marks attained by students from the hypotheses generated at PBL tutorials. Methods: A monitoring instrument for assessing the performances of non-expert tutors and students at tutorials was developed and validated using principal component analysis and reliability analysis. Also, a rubric was formulated to enable a content expert to assign marks to the quality of hypotheses generated. Results: The monitoring instrument was found to be valid and reliable. There was a significant correlation between the performance of tutors at tutorials and hypotheses marks. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between the performance of students and hypotheses marks. Discussion: The monitoring instrument is a useful tool for improving the PBL process, especially where the medical programme depends on non-expert PBL tutors. In addition to ensuring good PBL processes, it is important that students achieve the desired output at PBL tutorials by producing hypotheses that help them understand the basic sciences underlying the clinical cases. The latter is achieved by the use of an open-ended rubric by a subject expert to assign marks to the hypotheses, a method that also provides additional motivation to students to develop relevant and detailed hypotheses. PMID:28178915

  9. The relationship between the monitored performance of tutors and students at PBL tutorials and the marked hypotheses generated by students in a hybrid curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addae, Jonas I; Sahu, Pradeep; Sa, Bidyadhar

    2017-01-01

    There have been a number of published studies examining the link between the effectiveness of the problem-based learning (PBL) process and students' performance in examinations. In a hybrid PBL/lectures curriculum, the results of such studies are of limited use because of the difficulty in dissociating the knowledge gained at lectures from that gained through PBL-related activities. Hence, the objectives of this study were: (1) to develop an instrument to measure the performance of tutors and students at PBL tutorials, and (2) to explore the contribution of such performances to the marks attained by students from the hypotheses generated at PBL tutorials. A monitoring instrument for assessing the performances of non-expert tutors and students at tutorials was developed and validated using principal component analysis and reliability analysis. Also, a rubric was formulated to enable a content expert to assign marks to the quality of hypotheses generated. The monitoring instrument was found to be valid and reliable. There was a significant correlation between the performance of tutors at tutorials and hypotheses marks. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between the performance of students and hypotheses marks. The monitoring instrument is a useful tool for improving the PBL process, especially where the medical programme depends on non-expert PBL tutors. In addition to ensuring good PBL processes, it is important that students achieve the desired output at PBL tutorials by producing hypotheses that help them understand the basic sciences underlying the clinical cases. The latter is achieved by the use of an open-ended rubric by a subject expert to assign marks to the hypotheses, a method that also provides additional motivation to students to develop relevant and detailed hypotheses.

  10. 压电发电机AC-DC输出性能的优化与仿真研究%The Optimization and Simulation of the AC-DC Output Performances of Piezoelectric Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金文平; 王光庆; 展永政

    2014-01-01

    The AC-DC transferring circuit greatly affects the output performances of the piezoelectric vibration generator (PVG).In order to improve the output performance and the energy conversion efficiency of the PVG,this paper presents the equivalent circuit model of the PVG at first,and then the analytical expressions of the AC-DC cir-cuit,such as the output voltage and the output power,are derived by using the mechanical equilibrium principle and circuit theory when the PVG operates under the steady-state.To maximize the output power of the AC-DC transfer-ring circuit,the optimization of the output power with different resistance loads are carried out by using differential calculation method,and the optimal load resistance,displacement,output voltage and output power are obtained un-der the open-circuit resonance and short-circuits resonance condition respectively.Some simulations are carried out to analyze the output performances of the PVG.The validity are performed by compared the results with the coupling a-nalysis results of Ottman and the in-phase analysis results of Guyomar.The results have shown that the optimization of the output performance of the AC-DC circuit is attributing to enhance the total performance and the energy con-version efficiency of the PVG.%交流-直流(AC-DC)转换电路对压电振动发电机的输出性能影响较大,为提高压电发电机 AC-DC转换电路的输出性能和能量转换效率,该文首先给出了压电振动发电机系统等效电路模型,基于该模型利用力学平衡原理和电路理论推导了发电机稳态运行时 AC-DC输出电压和输出功率表达式。以输出功率最大化为优化目标,通过微分计算对发电机 AC-DC转换电路在不同负载电阻下的输出功率进行了优化分析,分别得到了发电机在开路谐振和短路谐振状态下优化的负载电阻、振动位移、输出电压和输出功率。仿真与对比分析了发电机优化后的输出

  11. Precipitation variability within an urban monitoring network via microcanonical cascade generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licznar, P.; De Michele, C.; Adamowski, W.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the variability of precipitation at small scales is fundamental in urban hydrology. Here we consider the case study of Warsaw, Poland, characterized by a precipitation-monitoring network of 25 gauges and microcanonical cascade models as the instrument of investigation. We address the following issues partially investigated in literature: (1) the calibration of microcanonical cascade model generators in conditions of short time series (i.e., 2.5-5 years), (2) the identification of the probability distribution of breakdown coefficients (BDCs) through ranking criteria and (3) the variability among the gauges of the monitoring network of the empirical distribution of BDCs. In particular, (1) we introduce an overlapping moving window algorithm to determine the histogram of BDCs and compare it with the classic non-overlapping moving window algorithm; (2) we compare the 2N-B distribution, a mixed distribution composed of two normal (N) and one beta (B), with the classic B distribution to represent the BDCs using the Akaike information criterion; and (3) we use the cluster analysis to identify patterns of BDC histograms among gauges and timescales. The scarce representation of the BDCs at large timescales, due to the short period of observation (~ 2.5 years), is solved through the overlapping moving window algorithm. BDC histograms are described by a 2N-B distribution. A clear evolution of this distribution is observed, in all gauges, from 2N-B for small timescales, N-B for intermediate timescales and B distribution for large timescales. The performance of the microcanonical cascades is evaluated for the considered gauges. Synthetic time series are analyzed with respect to the intermittency and the variability of intensity and compared to observed series. BDC histograms for each timescale are compared with the 25 gauges in Warsaw and with other gauges located in Poland and Germany.

  12. Input/output interface module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyazici, E. M.

    1980-01-01

    Module detects level changes in any of its 16 inputs, transfers changes to its outputs, and generates interrupts when changes are detected. Up to four changes-in-state per line are stored for later retrieval by controlling computer. Using standard TTL logic, module fits 19-inch rack-mounted console.

  13. Distributed Dynamic State Estimator, Generator Parameter Estimation and Stability Monitoring Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meliopoulos, Sakis [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Cokkinides, George [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Fardanesh, Bruce [New York Power Authority, NY (United States); Hedrington, Clinton [U.S. Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority (WAPA), St. Croix (U.S. Virgin Islands)

    2013-12-31

    This is the final report for this project that was performed in the period: October1, 2009 to June 30, 2013. In this project, a fully distributed high-fidelity dynamic state estimator (DSE) that continuously tracks the real time dynamic model of a wide area system with update rates better than 60 times per second is achieved. The proposed technology is based on GPS-synchronized measurements but also utilizes data from all available Intelligent Electronic Devices in the system (numerical relays, digital fault recorders, digital meters, etc.). The distributed state estimator provides the real time model of the system not only the voltage phasors. The proposed system provides the infrastructure for a variety of applications and two very important applications (a) a high fidelity generating unit parameters estimation and (b) an energy function based transient stability monitoring of a wide area electric power system with predictive capability. Also the dynamic distributed state estimation results are stored (the storage scheme includes data and coincidental model) enabling an automatic reconstruction and “play back” of a system wide disturbance. This approach enables complete play back capability with fidelity equal to that of real time with the advantage of “playing back” at a user selected speed. The proposed technologies were developed and tested in the lab during the first 18 months of the project and then demonstrated on two actual systems, the USVI Water and Power Administration system and the New York Power Authority’s Blenheim-Gilboa pumped hydro plant in the last 18 months of the project. The four main thrusts of this project, mentioned above, are extremely important to the industry. The DSE with the achieved update rates (more than 60 times per second) provides a superior solution to the “grid visibility” question. The generator parameter identification method fills an important and practical need of the industry. The “energy function” based

  14. Conceptual design of a high precision dual directional beam position monitoring system for beam crosstalk cancellation and improved output pulse shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieberger P.; Dawson, C.; Fischer, W.; Gassner, D.; Hulsart, R.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.

    2012-04-15

    The Relativistic Heavy Ions Collider (RHIC) would benefit from improved beam position measurements near the interaction points that see both beams, especially as the tolerances become tighter when reducing the beam sizes to obtain increased luminosity. Two limitations of the present beam position monitors (BPMs) would be mitigated if the proposed approach is successful. The small but unavoidable cross-talk between signals from bunches traveling in opposite directions when using conventional BPMs will be reduced by adopting directional BPMs. Further improvements will be achieved by cancelling residual cross-talk using pairs of such BPMs. Appropriately delayed addition and integration of the signals will also provide pulses with relatively flat maxima that will be easier to digitize by relaxing the presently very stringent timing requirements.

  15. An adaptive radial basis function neural network (RBFNN control of energy storage system for output tracking of a permanent magnet wind generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu H. M. A. Rahim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The converters of a permanent magnet synchronous generator have to be properly controlled to achieve maximum transfer of energy from wind. To achiev e this goal, this article employs an energy storage device consisting of an energy capacitor interfaced through a voltage source converter which is operated through a smart adaptive radial basis function neural network (RBFNN controller. The proposed adaptive strategy employs online neural network training as opposed to conventional procedure requiring offline training of a large data-set. The RBFNN controller was tested for various contingencies in the wind generator system. Th e adaptive online controller is observed to provide excellent damping profile following low grid voltage conditions as well as for other large disturbances. The controlled converter DC capacitor voltage helps maintain a smooth flow of real and reactive power in the system.

  16. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Larry M.; Haynes, Howard D.; Ayers, Curtis W.

    1996-01-01

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components.

  17. Online Monitoring of Laser-Generated XUV Radiation Spectra by Surface Reflectivity Measurements with Particle Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hoffmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, we present a wavelength-sensitive method for the detection of extreme ultraviolet (XUV photon energies between 30 eV and 120 eV. The method is based on 45° reflectivity from either a cesium iodide-coated or an uncoated metal surface, which directs the XUV beam onto an electron or ion detector and its signal is used to monitor the XUV beam. The benefits of our approach are a spectrally sensitive diagnosis of the XUV radiation at the interaction place of time-resolved XUV experiments and the detection of infrared leak light though metal filters in high-harmonic generation (HHG experiments. Both features were tested using spectrally shaped XUV pulses from HHG in a capillary, and we have achieved excellent agreement with XUV spectrometer measurements and reflectivity calculations. Our obtained results are of interest for time-resolved XUV experiments presenting an additional diagnostic directly in the interaction region and for small footprint XUV beamline diagnostics.

  18. Summary and early findings from a second generation information monitoring and diagnostic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Bourassa, Norman; Kinney, Kristopher L.; Shockman, Christine

    2003-04-02

    Private sector commercial office buildings are challenging environments for energy efficiency projects. This challenge is related to the complexity of business environments that involve ownership, operation, and tenant relationships. This research project was developed to examine the environment for building operations and identify causes of inefficient use of energy related to technical and organizational issues. This paper discusses a second-generation Information Monitoring and Diagnostic System (IMDS) installed at a leased office building in Sacramento, California. The underlying principle of this project is that high quality building performance data can help show where energy is being used and how buildings systems actually perform. Such data are an important first step toward improving building energy efficiency. This project has demonstrated that the IMDS is valuable to the building operators at the Sacramento site. The building operators not only accept the technology, but it has become the core of their day-to-day building control concepts. One objective of this project was to evaluate the costs and benefits of the IMDS. The system cost about $0.70 per square foot, which includes the design, hardware, software, and installation, which is about 30% less than the previous IMDS in San Francisco. A number of operational problems have been identified with the IMDS.

  19. Early evaluation of a second generation information monitoring and diagnostic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Bourassa, Norman; Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Kinney, Kristopher; Shockman, Christine

    2002-03-25

    Private sector commercial office buildings are challenging environments for energy efficiency projects. This challenge is related to the complexity of business environments that involve ownership, operation, and tenant relationships. Whether it is poor quality design, inefficient operations, degradation of equipment over time, or merely the increasing use of energy by tenants and inattention from landlords, commercial office building energy use continues to increase. This research project was developed to examine the environment for building operations and identify causes of inefficient use of energy related to technical and organizational issues. This report discusses a second-generation Information Monitoring and Diagnostic System (IMDS) installed at a leased office building in Sacramento, California. The report begins with a brief summary of the IMDS research at the previous building, followed by a discussion of the building selection process, the IMDS design and installation, recent use of the IMDS, costs and benefits, and fault detection and diagnostic research using the IMDS. A web site describes the IMDS in detail (see imds.lbl.gov). The underlying principle of this research project is that high quality building performance data can help show where energy is being used and how buildings systems actually perform is an important first step toward improving building energy efficiency. The project utilizes a high-quality monitoring system that has been developed during the past decade by a partnership between LBNL and private industry. This research project has been successful in demonstrating that the IMDS is tremendously valuable to the building operators at the Sacramento site. The building operators not only accept the technology, but it has become the core of their day-to-day building control concepts. The innovative property management company, Jones Lang LaSalle, is interested in installing more sites to determine if the system could provide an economic

  20. Probabilistic Output Analysis by Program Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Rosendahl, Mads; Kirkeby, Maja H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of a probabilistic output analysis is to derive a probability distribution of possible output values for a program from a probability distribution of its input. We present a method for performing static output analysis, based on program transformation techniques. It generates a probability function as a possibly uncomputable expression in an intermediate language. This program is then analyzed, transformed, and approximated. The result is a closed form expression that computes an over...

  1. A methodological review of piezoelectric based acoustic wave generation and detection techniques for structural health monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Z; Rocha, B; Wu, K.-T; Mrad, N

    2013-01-01

    .... As condition based maintenance has emerged as a valuable approach to enhancing continued aircraft airworthiness while reducing the life cycle cost, its enabling structural health monitoring (SHM...

  2. Development and Application of a Next Generation Air Sensor Network for the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 Air Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Wong, Ka Chun; Wei, Peng; Ye, Sheng; Huang, Hao; Yang, Fenhuan; Westerdahl, Dane; Louie, Peter K K; Luk, Connie W Y; Ning, Zhi

    2016-02-05

    This study presents the development and evaluation of a next generation air monitoring system with both laboratory and field tests. A multi-parameter algorithm was used to correct for the impact of environmental conditions on the electrochemical sensors for carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollutants. The field evaluation in an urban roadside environment in comparison to designated monitors showed good agreement with measurement error within 5% of the pollutant concentrations. Multiple sets of the developed system were then deployed in the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 forming a sensor-based network along the marathon route. Real-time air pollution concentration data were wirelessly transmitted and the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) for the Green Marathon was calculated, which were broadcast to the public on an hourly basis. The route-specific sensor network showed somewhat different pollutant patterns than routine air monitoring, indicating the immediate impact of traffic control during the marathon on the roadside air quality. The study is one of the first applications of a next generation sensor network in international sport events, and it demonstrated the usefulness of the emerging sensor-based air monitoring technology in rapid network deployment to supplement existing air monitoring.

  3. Development and Application of a Next Generation Air Sensor Network for the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 Air Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the development and evaluation of a next generation air monitoring system with both laboratory and field tests. A multi-parameter algorithm was used to correct for the impact of environmental conditions on the electrochemical sensors for carbon monoxide (CO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 pollutants. The field evaluation in an urban roadside environment in comparison to designated monitors showed good agreement with measurement error within 5% of the pollutant concentrations. Multiple sets of the developed system were then deployed in the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 forming a sensor-based network along the marathon route. Real-time air pollution concentration data were wirelessly transmitted and the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI for the Green Marathon was calculated, which were broadcast to the public on an hourly basis. The route-specific sensor network showed somewhat different pollutant patterns than routine air monitoring, indicating the immediate impact of traffic control during the marathon on the roadside air quality. The study is one of the first applications of a next generation sensor network in international sport events, and it demonstrated the usefulness of the emerging sensor-based air monitoring technology in rapid network deployment to supplement existing air monitoring.

  4. Monitoring the chemistry and materials of the Magma binary-cycle generating plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon, D.W.; Elmore, R.P.; Pierce, D.D.

    1981-10-01

    This monitoring program includes studies of the following areas: chemistry of the geothermal brine, chemistry of the cooling water, corrosion of materials in both water systems, scale formation, suspended solids in th brine, and methods and instruments to monitor corrosion and chemistry. (MHR)

  5. Design of a New Voice Signal Generator with Adjustable Output Waveform%一种脉冲波形可调的声音信号发生器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周致

    2016-01-01

    音频信号发生器是测量声音信号处理设备性能指标必不可少的仪器,文章首先论述了声音信号发生器的研究现状,然后针对现有技术存在的问题,提出一种可分别调节输出电压的占空比、频率、幅度的脉冲波形可调的声音信号发生器,且该声音信号发生器的占空比、频率、幅度可实现单一的调节。最后针对设计的信号发生器进行了实验,实验结果表明文章提出并设计的新型脉冲波形可调的声音信号发生器实用且具有明显的优势。%Audio signal generator is essential equipment to measure the sound signal and deal with equipment performance. The paper compendiously summarizes the overseas and domestic research status of voice signal generators. Then we put forward a new voice signal generator to solve the problems of existing technology, in which the duty ratio of output voltage, frequency, amplitude adjustable pulse waveform of the voice signal generator can be adjusted respectively, and the sound the duty ratio, frequency and amplitude of the signal generator can realize the single adjustment. The experimental results show that the proposed new type of pulse waveform with adjustable voice signal generator is practical and has obvious advantages.

  6. UFO - The Universal FEYNRULES Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrande, Céline; Duhr, Claude; Fuks, Benjamin; Grellscheid, David; Mattelaer, Olivier; Reiter, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so-called Universal FEYNRULES Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a PYTHON module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the MATHEMATICA package FEYNRULES that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

  7. An Experimental Study on Electric Output Characteristics of Bimorph Cantilever Generators%双晶压电悬臂梁电荷输出特性实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳; 罗奇; 孙科; 陶孟伦; 陈定方

    2014-01-01

    通过研究压电材料的压电效应与压电方程组,得到正压电效应下的压电能量采集相关知识,并分析双晶压电悬臂梁的结构与特性,结合实验与仿真,得出并联型双晶压电悬臂梁的相关输出特性。%Based on the research of the piezoelectric effect and piezoelectric equations,the paper established the knowledge of piezoelectric energy harvesting,and analyzed the structure and characteristics of bimorph cantilever generators.Through the experiment and simulation,it then concluded the output characteristics of the piezoelectric cantilever beam.

  8. Unpowered Wireless Ultrasound Generation and Sensing for Structural Health Monitoring of Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Damage detection based on ultrasonic waves is one of the most popular inspection schemes employed by many structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. We propose a...

  9. An interation of lifetime monitoring of steam generators in power control systems; Integration der Lebensdauerueberwachung von Dampferzeugern in die Kraftwerksleittechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunze, Ulrich; Pels Leusden, Christoph; Spinner, Ralf [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Energy Sector; Hackstein, Holger [Siemens AG, Offenbach am Main (Germany). Energy Sector; Walz, Horst [Siemens AG, Karlsruhe (Germany). Energy Sector

    2008-07-01

    The substantial cost-relevant requirements of the operation of power stations are a highly flexible operation, efficient maintenance, a high efficiency and a high availability. Computer-assisted procedures are indispensable for the continuous monitoring of lifetime consumption and for the condition-dependent maintenance of the boiler. The fatigue monitoring system (FMS) offers all possibilities of the control system. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on an integration of life time monitoring of steam generators into the power station control technology. The technical fundamentals for the computation of the boiler lifetime as well as the fundamentals of integration philosophy and their conversion are presented. Subsequently, a configuration exemplarily is presented, and its results are described.

  10. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Persistent organic pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hayley; MacLeod, Matthew; Guardans, Ramon; Scheringer, Martin; Barra, Ricardo; Harner, Tom; Zhang, Gan

    2013-12-01

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are global pollutants that can migrate over long distances and bioaccumulate through food webs, posing health risks to wildlife and humans. Multilateral environmental agreements, such as the Stockholm Convention on POPs, were enacted to identify POPs and establish the conditions to control their release, production and use. A Global Monitoring Plan was initiated under the Stockholm Convention calling for POP monitoring in air as a core medium; however long temporal trends (>10 years) of atmospheric POPs are only available at a few selected sites. Spatial coverage of air monitoring for POPs has recently significantly improved with the introduction and advancement of passive air samplers. Here, we review the status of air monitoring and modeling activities and note major uncertainties in data comparability, deficiencies of air monitoring and modeling in urban and alpine areas, and lack of emission inventories for most POPs. A vision for an internationally-integrated strategic monitoring plan is proposed which could provide consistent and comparable monitoring data for POPs supported and supplemented by global and regional transport models. Key recommendations include developing expertise in all aspects of air monitoring to ensure data comparability and consistency; partnering with existing air quality and meteorological networks to leverage synergies; facilitating data sharing with international data archives; and expanding spatial coverage with passive air samplers. Enhancing research on the stability of particle-bound chemicals is needed to assess exposure and deposition in urban areas, and to elucidate long-range transport. Conducting targeted measurement campaigns in specific source areas would enhance regional models which can be extrapolated to similar regions to estimate emissions. Ultimately, reverse-modeling combined with air measurements can be used to derive “emission” as an indicator to assess environmental

  11. ECONOMIC AND INFORMATIONAL SYSTEM OF MONITORING THE PRODUCTION RESOURCES OF THE NEW GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silka Dmitriy Nikolaevich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of production resources is a large-scale and complicated measure, the results of which are necessary for the state and for private entrepreneurs. There are many approaches to conducting such a monitoring, which firstly base on the information request from the suppliers of the resources by governmental bodies. The authors offer a new approach to data collection, which takes into account the technical achievements of the Russian economy. The main instrument of this approach is geoinformation technologies.

  12. FloTrac/Vigileo系统在单肺通气心输出量监测中应用的探讨%Investigation of FloTrac/Vigileo in monitoring cardiac output during one lung ventilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏宇; 苏中宏; 史宏伟; 鲍红光

    2011-01-01

    观察FloTrac/Vigileo系统在单肺通气心输出量(CO)监测中的应用效果.方法择期单肺通气手术患者17例,ASAⅡ或Ⅲ级,使用FloTrac/Vigileo系统观察CO变化,记录诱导后(T0)、单肺通气5 min(T1)、10 min(T2)、30min(T3)以及双腔管双肺通气时(T4)、关胸时(T5)的HR、MAP、心脏指数(CI)、每搏量变异度(SVV)和气道峰压(Pmax).结果 与T0时比较,T1、T5时CI明显增加(P<0.05);T1~T5时SVV均明显下降(P<0.05);T1~T3时Pmax显著增加(P<0.05).结论 FloTrac/Vigileo系统能快速、持续地监测单肺通气时CO的变化.%Objective To investigate the efficacy of FloTrac/Vigileo in monitoring cardiac output during one lung ventilatioa Methods Seventeen ASA Ⅱ or Ⅲ patients requiring one lung ventilation (OLV) were enrolled in the study. Cardiac index (CD and stroke volume variation (SVV) were recorded using FloTrac/Vigileo after anesthesia induction (T0), 5 min after (T1), 10 min after (T2), 30 min after (T3) OLV, during double-lumen-endobronchial-tube ventilation (T4) and at closing thorax (T5). HR, MAP and airway pressure were also recorded at these time points. Results Compared with T0, CI increased significantly at T1 and T5 (P<0. 05); SW decreased significantly from T1 to T5 (P<0. 05); and Pmax increased significantly from T1 to T3 (P<0. 05). Conclusion FloTrac/Vigileo can be used to rapidly and continuously monitor cardiac output during one lung ventilation continuously.

  13. LOAD THAT MAXIMIZES POWER OUTPUT IN COUNTERMOVEMENT JUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jimenez-Reyes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: One of the main problems faced by strength and conditioning coaches is the issue of how to objectively quantify and monitor the actual training load undertaken by athletes in order to maximize performance. It is well known that performance of explosive sports activities is largely determined by mechanical power. Objective: This study analysed the height at which maximal power output is generated and the corresponding load with which is achieved in a group of male-trained track and field athletes in the test of countermovement jump (CMJ with extra loads (CMJEL. Methods: Fifty national level male athletes in sprinting and jumping performed a CMJ test with increasing loads up to a height of 16 cm. The relative load that maximized the mechanical power output (Pmax was determined using a force platform and lineal encoder synchronization and estimating the power by peak power, average power and flight time in CMJ. Results: The load at which the power output no longer existed was at a height of 19.9 ± 2.35, referring to a 99.1 ± 1% of the maximum power output. The load that maximizes power output in all cases has been the load with which an athlete jump a height of approximately 20 cm. Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of considering the height achieved in CMJ with extra load instead of power because maximum power is always attained with the same height. We advise for the preferential use of the height achieved in CMJEL test, since it seems to be a valid indicative of an individual's actual neuromuscular potential providing a valid information for coaches and trainers when assessing the performance status of our athletes and to quantify and monitor training loads, measuring only the height of the jump in the exercise of CMJEL.

  14. Application of Vadose Zone Monitoring Technology for Characterization of Leachate Generation in Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    aharoni, imri; dahan, ofer

    2016-04-01

    Ground water contamination due to landfill leachate percolation is considered the most severe environmental threat related to municipal solid waste landfills. Natural waste degradation processes in landfills normally produce contaminated leachates up to decades after the waste has been buried. Studies have shown that understanding the mechanisms which govern attenuation processes and the fate of pollutants in the waste and in the underlying unsaturated zone is crucial for evaluation of environmental risks and selection of a restoration strategy. This work focuses on a closed landfill in the coastal plain of Israel that was active until 2002 without any lining infrastructure. A vadose zone monitoring system (VMS) that was implemented at the site enables continuous measurements across the waste body (15 m thick) and underlying sandy vadose zone (16 m thick). Data collected by the VMS included continuous measurements of water content as well as chemical composition of the leachates across the entire waste and vadose zone cross section. Results indicated that winter rain percolated through the waste, generating wetting waves which were observed across the waste and unsaturated sediment from land surface until groundwater at 31 m bls. Quick percolation and high fluxes were observed in spite of the clay cover that was implemented at the site as part of the rehabilitation scheme. The results show that the flow pattern is controlled by a preferential mechanism within the waste body. Specific sections showed rapid fluxes in response to rain events, while other sections remained unaffected. In the underlying sandy vadose zone the flow pattern exhibited characteristics of matrix flow. Yet, some sections received higher fluxes due to the uneven discharge of leachates from the overlying waste body. Water samples collected from the waste layer indicate production of highly polluted leachates over 14 years after the landfill was closed. The chemical composition within the waste

  15. Assessment of respiratory output in mechanically ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Franco

    2005-06-01

    Mechanically ventilated patients are subject to few pathophysiologic disturbances that have such intuitive importance as abnormal function of the respiratory output. Abnormal function of the respiratory output plays a fundamental role in all aspects of mechanical ventilation: in determining which patients require mechanical ventilation, in determining the interaction between a patient and the ventilator, and in determining when a patient can tolerate discontinuation of mechanical ventilation. Monitoring indexes such as the rate of rise in electrical activity of the diaphragm, Po.1, (dP/dt)max, and Pmus, has provided insight into the performance of the respiratory centers in critically ill patients, but these methods require considerable refinement. A large body of research on measurements of energy expenditure of the respiratory muscles, such as pressure-time product, and measurements of inspiratory effort, such as the tension-time index, is currently accumulating. Several challenges, however, lay ahead regarding these indices. First, there is the need to identify the correct level of pressure generation and respiratory muscle effort that should be attained in the day-to-day management of mechanically ventilated patients. The correct titration of ventilator setting should not cause iatrogenic muscle damage because the support is excessive or insufficient. One of the challenges in reaching this goal is that for the same patient, different underlying pathologic conditions (eg, sepsis or ventilator-associated muscle injury) may require different levels of support. Second, many of the measurements of pressure generation and effort have been confined to the research laboratory. Modifications of the technology to achieve accurate measurements in the intensive care unit-outside of the research laboratory--are needed. To facilitate individual titration of ventilator settings, the new technologies must provide easier access to quantification of drive, pressure output, and

  16. Iterative user-centered design of a next generation patient monitoring system for emergency medical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tia; Kim, Matthew I; White, David; Alm, Alexander M

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a system for real-time patient monitoring during large-scale disasters. Our system is designed with scalable algorithms to monitor large numbers of patients, an intuitive interface to support the overwhelmed responders, and ad-hoc mesh networking capabilities to maintain connectivity to patients in the chaotic settings. This paper describes an iterative approach to user-centered design adopted to guide development of our system. This system is a part of the Advanced Health and Disaster Aid Network (AID-N) architecture.

  17. Research on the maximum power output control of photovoltaic generation system%光伏并网发电系统最大功率输出控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏向阳; 王锦泷; 易浩民; 贾晋峰; 张贵涛; 王霖浩; 李理; 李灵利

    2016-01-01

    In view of the low power output of photovoltaic grid-connected generation system, the method of optimal maximum power point tracking and the grid connected control were proposed. For the photovoltaic array maximum power output problems, a kind of improved simulated annealing particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO-SA) was put forward. For grid connected power control, the multi parameter inverter composite control and DC side voltage and amplitude stability control strategy was put forward. The related model was built by Matlab/Simulik software. The results show that this algorithm can solve the global maximum power point tracking (GMPPT) problem in the shade, and reduce the photoelectric conversion system energy loss. The multi parameter inverter composite control and DC side voltage and amplitude stability control strategy can realize the power system maximum power output, achieve the optimal energy utilization. The simulation results show that the proposed schemes are feasible and effective.%针对光伏并网发电系统功率输出低的问题,提出从优化最大功率点跟踪和并网控制2个方面综合考虑的方案。对于光伏阵列的最大功率输出,提出一种改进的模拟退火−粒子群优化算法(PSO-SA);对于并网功率控制,提出多参数逆变器复合控制以及直流侧电压和幅值稳定的控制策略,通过Matlab/Simulik软件搭建相关模型并进行仿真。研究结果表明:模拟退火−粒子群优化算法(PSO-SA)能够解决遮荫情况下全局最大功率点跟踪问题,避免光伏阵列陷入局部最大功率点,减少光电转换系统的能量损失;多参数逆变器复合控制以及直流侧电压和幅值稳定的控制策略能实现光伏并网发电最大功率稳定输出,使能源利用率最高。仿真结果验证了这些方案的可行性和有效性。

  18. Sampling Period Optimization Design of Output Power of Photovoltaic Power Generation MPPT Systems%光伏发电系统MPPT输出功率采样周期的优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭志辉; 和军平; 马光; 周晨; 李峰平

    2012-01-01

    近年来,光伏发电研究主要集中在变换器拓扑结构、最大功率点追踪(maximum power point tracking,MPPT)和并网发电.但一些实验研究发现,输出功率采样周期对光伏系统性能具有较大的影响.该文以太阳能电池基本电路方程为基础,构建不依赖于变换器及MPPT算法的光伏系统采样周期与光照强度、环境温度、工作电压、工作电流、占空比之间的小信号数学模型,详细分析采样周期在寻优过程中的作用机理.仿真和实验结果表明,该构建的光伏系统采样周期数学模型具有较高的可靠性和实用性.%The photovoltaic power research mainly focuses on the converter topology structure, the maximum power tracking (MPPT) and grid generation in recent years. However, some experimental results have shown that the sampling period of the output power has a major influence on the PV system. Based on the basic circuit equations of the solar cell, This paper constructed the small signal mathematical model of PV system, which does not rely on the converter topology structure, MPPT algorithm, sampling period, light intensity, ambient temperature and duty cycle, and analyze in detailed the sampling period working mechanism in the optimization process. By analyzing the transient characteristics of solar cells in detail, it is found that the mathematical model of the sampling period of the output power does not depend on the converter topology and the MPPT algorithm. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the constructed mathematical model of the sampling period of PV system output power is correct and effective.

  19. 800kW风力发电机变速箱输出轴断裂失效分析%Fracture failure analysis on gearbox output shaft of 800 kW wind turbine generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱伟恒

    2013-01-01

    The gearbox output shaft of the 800 kW wind turbine generator occured fracture after 6 days services.By use of chemical analysis,fractography,metailographic examination,mechanical properties test,simulation and pedormance test of coarse grain area,the reason of fracture was researched.The results indicate that the fracture of the output shaft is multi-sources torsional fatigue fractttre and the fracture sources are those many concave hollows with various size results in improper surface treatment process,which locate on the round angle.In the meanwhile,the overheated structure defect (coarse grains) and uneven hardened layer accelerate the initiation and propagation of the fatigue crack,which is further promoted by the severe microstructure segregation in the core of the output shaft.%800 kW风力发电机变速箱输出轴服役6天后发生断裂,通过对断轴进行材质分析、断口分析、金相分析、力学性能试验,以及材料组织模拟与性能检测等研究,分析其断裂失效的原因.结果表明,输出轴的断裂属于早期扭转多源疲劳断裂.断裂源为输出轴R角位置上分布着由于表面处理工艺不当而产生的大小不一的凹坑;输出轴表层存在的过热组织和不均匀硬化层,导致输出轴在高速运行过程中加速疲劳裂纹的萌生和扩展;心部组织较严重的偏析现象对输出轴的疲劳断裂起了促进作用.

  20. WRF Model Output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains WRF model output. There are three months of data: July 2012, July 2013, and January 2013. For each month, several simulations were made: A...

  1. Governmentally amplified output volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funashima, Yoshito

    2016-11-01

    Predominant government behavior is decomposed by frequency into several periodic components: updating cycles of infrastructure, Kuznets cycles, fiscal policy over business cycles, and election cycles. Little is known, however, about the theoretical impact of such cyclical behavior in public finance on output fluctuations. Based on a standard neoclassical growth model, this study intends to examine the frequency at which public investment cycles are relevant to output fluctuations. We find an inverted U-shaped relationship between output volatility and length of cycle in public investment. This implies that periodic behavior in public investment at a certain frequency range can cause aggravated output resonance. Moreover, we present an empirical analysis to test the theoretical implication, using the U.S. data in the period from 1968 to 2015. The empirical results suggest that such resonance phenomena change from low to high frequency.

  2. CMAQ Model Output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CMAQ and CMAQ-VBS model output. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: Files too large. It can be accessed through the following means: via EPA's NCC tape...

  3. VMS forms Output Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These output tables contain parsed and format validated data from the various VMS forms that are sent from any given vessel, while at sea, from the VMS devices on...

  4. Development of elements of the condition monitoring system of turbo generators of thermal power stations and nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumenko, A. I.; Kostyukov, V. N.; Kuz'minykh, N. Yu.; Boichenko, S. N.; Timin, A. V.

    2017-08-01

    The rationale is given for the improvement of the regulatory framework for the use of shaft sensors for the in-service condition monitoring of turbo generators and the development of control systems of shaft surfacing and misalignments of supports. A modern concept and a set of methods are proposed for the condition monitoring of the "shaft line-thrust bearing oil film-turbo generator supports" system elements based on the domestic COMPACS® technology. The system raw data are design, technology, installation, and operating parameters of the turbo generator as well as measured parameters of the absolute vibration of supports and mechanical quantities, relative displacements and relative vibration of the rotor teeth in accordance with GOST R 55263-2012. The precalculated shaft line assembly line in the cold state, the nominal parameters of rotor teeth positions on the dynamic equilibrium curve, the static and dynamic characteristics of the oil film of thrust bearings, and the shaft line stiffness matrix of unit support displacements have been introduced into the system. Using the COMPACS-T system, it is planned to measure positions and oscillations of rotor teeth, to count corresponding static and dynamic characteristics of the oil film, and the static and dynamic loads in the supports in real time. Using the obtained data, the system must determine the misalignments of supports and corrective alignments of rotors of coupling halves, voltages in rotor teeth, welds, and bolts of the coupling halves, and provide automatic conclusion if condition monitoring parameters correspond to standard values. A part of the methodological support for the proposed system is presented, including methods for determining static reactions of supports under load, the method for determining shaft line stiffness matrices, and the method for solving the inverse problem, i.e., the determination of the misalignments of the supports by measurements of rotor teeth relative positions in bearing

  5. What is in my air? Feds facilitating citizen science in the EPA Next Generation Air Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R. A.; Preuss, P.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in the development of small-scale and inexpensive air pollutant sensors, coupled with the ubiquitous use of wireless and mobile technology, will transform the field of air quality monitoring. For the first time, the general public may purchase air monitors, which can measure their personal exposure to NOx, Ozone, black carbon, and VOCs for a few hundred dollars. Concerned citizens may now gather the data for themselves to answer questions such as, ';what am I breathing?' and ';is my air clean?' The research and policy community will have access to real-time air quality data collected at the local and regional scale, making targeted protection of environmental health possible. With these benefits come many questions from citizen scientists, policymakers, and researchers. These include, what is the quality of the data? How will the public interpret data from the air sensors and are there guidelines to interpret that data? How do you know if the air sensor is trustworthy? Recognizing that this revolution in air quality monitoring will proceed regardless of the involvement of the government, the Innovation Team at the EPA Office of Research and Development, in partnership with the Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assistance and the Office of Air and Radiation, seized the opportunity to ensure that users of next generation air sensors can realize the full potential benefits of these innovative technologies. These efforts include releasing an EPA Draft Roadmap for Next Generation Air Monitoring, testing air sensors under laboratory and field conditions, field demonstrations of new air sensor technology for the public, and building a community of air sensor developers, researchers, local, state and federal officials, and community members through workshops and a website. This presentation will review the status of those programs, highlighting the particular programs of interest to citizen scientists. The Next Generation Air Monitoring program may serve

  6. Real Time Monitoring and Test Vector Generation for Improved Flight Safety Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the complexity of flight controllers grows so does the cost associated with verification and validation (V&V). Current-generation controllers are reaching a...

  7. Real Time Monitoring and Test Vector Generation for Improved Flight Safety Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the complexity of flight controllers grows so does the cost associated with verification and validation (V&V). Current-generation controllers are reaching...

  8. 风力发电系统输出功率随机波动的仿真分析%Wind Power Generation System Output Power of Random Fluctuation Simulation Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晓悦

    2012-01-01

    In view of the current wind power generation system output power random volatility,in permanent magnet synchronous generator(PMSG) wind power generator and the vanadium redox battery DC energy storage system of wind power generation system based on integration model,using MATLAB/Simulink software to fixed load,change wind speed;Fixed wind speed,load transient;Wind speed and load change simultaneously 3 kind of conditions in simulation test and analysis.The results show that the new energy storage technology of wind power grid power to restrain the control of random fluctuation,can use the battery charging and discharging characteristics,in the wind speed change and transient load when the adjustment of the power balance.%针对当前风力发电系统输出功率随机波动的问题,以永磁同步风力发电机(PMSG)与直流侧储能系统(钒氧化还原电池)整合的风力发电系统为基础,进行数字仿真建模,采用MATLAB/Simulink软件对固定负载,变化风速工况;固定风速,负荷瞬变工况;风速和负荷同时变化工况;进行了仿真试验和分析。结果表明,对于采用储能技术的风电场并网功率随机波动的平抑控制,可以利用蓄电池的充放电特性,在风速变化以及负荷瞬变时进行功率平衡的调节。

  9. A Next Generation Air Monitor: Combining Orion and ISS Requirements for a Common Major Constituent Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchfield, David E.; Tissandier, Michael; Niu, William Hsein-Chi; Lewis, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is a mass spectrometer-based instrument designed to provide critical monitoring of six major atmospheric constituents; nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor on-board the International Space Station. The analyzer has been an integral part of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) since the station went on-line. The Orion Air Monitor (OAM) was derived from the MCA and heavily optimized for reduced mass, lower power, faster water vapor response, and maintenance-free operation. The resulting OAM is approximately the size of the analyzer portion of the MCA, orbital-replacement unit 02 (ORU 02), while incorporating the functions of three other modules: Data Processing and Communication (ORU 01), Verification Gas Assembly (ORU 08), and Low Voltage Power Supply (ORU 04). The overlap in MCA and OAM requirements makes it possible to derive a common Air Monitor design that spans both applications while minimally impacting the weight and power limits imposed by the Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Benefits to ISS include the retirement of ORUs 01, 04, and 08, reducing up-mass and eliminating EEE parts obsolescence issues through the extended ISS mission phases. Benefits to MPCV and future deployed habitats under the Constellation program include greater interchangeability across ECLSS subsystems. This paper discusses the results of the requirements development study, where a superset of ISS and Orion air monitoring requirements were distilled; evaluated against increases in OAM functionality, mass, and power; and traded-off where possible using simple operating mode modifications. A system architecture and preliminary design addressing the common requirements will be presented.

  10. Implementation of a data packet generator using pattern matching for wearable ECG monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Yun Hong; Jeong, Do Un

    2014-07-15

    In this paper, a packet generator using a pattern matching algorithm for real-time abnormal heartbeat detection is proposed. The packet generator creates a very small data packet which conveys sufficient crucial information for health condition analysis. The data packet envelopes real time ECG signals and transmits them to a smartphone via Bluetooth. An Android application was developed specifically to decode the packet and extract ECG information for health condition analysis. Several graphical presentations are displayed and shown on the smartphone. We evaluate the performance of abnormal heartbeat detection accuracy using the MIT/BIH Arrhythmia Database and real time experiments. The experimental result confirm our finding that abnormal heart beat detection is practically possible. We also performed data compression ratio and signal restoration performance evaluations to establish the usefulness of the proposed packet generator and the results were excellent.

  11. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-06-16

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a grating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive Oh impulse, generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung. The impulse generator in the transmit path can be replaced with a pulsed RF generator. 13 figs.

  12. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a grating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive Oh impulse, generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung. The impulse generator in the transmit path can be replaced with a pulsed RF generator.

  13. Monitoring fibrous scaffold guidance of three-dimensional collagen organisation using minimally-invasive second harmonic generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin M Delaine-Smith

    Full Text Available The biological and mechanical function of connective tissues is largely determined by controlled cellular alignment and therefore it seems appropriate that tissue-engineered constructs should be architecturally similar to the in vivo tissue targeted for repair or replacement. Collagen organisation dictates the tensile properties of most tissues and so monitoring the deposition of cell-secreted collagen as the construct develops is essential for understanding tissue formation. In this study, electrospun fibres with a random or high degree of orientation, mimicking two types of tissue architecture found in the body, were used to culture human fibroblasts for controlling cell alignment. The minimally-invasive technique of second harmonic generation was used with the aim of monitoring and profiling the deposition and organisation of collagen at different construct depths over time while construct mechanical properties were also determined over the culture period. It was seen that scaffold fibre organisation affected cell migration and orientation up to 21 days which in turn had an effect on collagen organisation. Collagen in random fibrous constructs was deposited in alternating configurations at different depths however a high degree of organisation was observed throughout aligned fibrous constructs orientated in the scaffold fibre direction. Three-dimensional second harmonic generation images showed that deposited collagen was more uniformly distributed in random constructs but aligned constructs were more organised and had higher intensities. The tensile properties of all constructs increased with increasing collagen deposition and were ultimately dictated by collagen organisation. This study highlights the importance of scaffold architecture for controlling the development of well-organised tissue engineered constructs and the usefulness of second harmonic generation imaging for monitoring collagen maturation in a minimally invasive manner.

  14. Monitoring fibrous scaffold guidance of three-dimensional collagen organisation using minimally-invasive second harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaine-Smith, Robin M; Green, Nicola H; Matcher, Stephen J; MacNeil, Sheila; Reilly, Gwendolen C

    2014-01-01

    The biological and mechanical function of connective tissues is largely determined by controlled cellular alignment and therefore it seems appropriate that tissue-engineered constructs should be architecturally similar to the in vivo tissue targeted for repair or replacement. Collagen organisation dictates the tensile properties of most tissues and so monitoring the deposition of cell-secreted collagen as the construct develops is essential for understanding tissue formation. In this study, electrospun fibres with a random or high degree of orientation, mimicking two types of tissue architecture found in the body, were used to culture human fibroblasts for controlling cell alignment. The minimally-invasive technique of second harmonic generation was used with the aim of monitoring and profiling the deposition and organisation of collagen at different construct depths over time while construct mechanical properties were also determined over the culture period. It was seen that scaffold fibre organisation affected cell migration and orientation up to 21 days which in turn had an effect on collagen organisation. Collagen in random fibrous constructs was deposited in alternating configurations at different depths however a high degree of organisation was observed throughout aligned fibrous constructs orientated in the scaffold fibre direction. Three-dimensional second harmonic generation images showed that deposited collagen was more uniformly distributed in random constructs but aligned constructs were more organised and had higher intensities. The tensile properties of all constructs increased with increasing collagen deposition and were ultimately dictated by collagen organisation. This study highlights the importance of scaffold architecture for controlling the development of well-organised tissue engineered constructs and the usefulness of second harmonic generation imaging for monitoring collagen maturation in a minimally invasive manner.

  15. Next generation sequencing assays for benthic monitoring of the environmental impact associated with salmon farming (pilot study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Jan; Esling, Philippe; Lejzerowicz, Franck

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the study of foraminiferal and metazoan benthic community based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) of environmental DNA and RNA (eDNA/RNA). The objective of this study was to test the application of NGS assays for benthic monitoring of salmon farms in Norway, in order...... to overcome the limitations of traditional morphology-based approach. We analysed 140 samples of eDNA/RNA extracted from surface sediment samples collected at 4 salmon farming sites in Norway. We sequenced the variable region 37F of 18S rRNA gene specific to foraminifera, and the variable region V4 of the 18S...

  16. Privacy and Security Issues Surrounding the Protection of Data Generated by Continuous Glucose Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Katherine E; Britton-Colonnese, Jennifer D

    2017-03-01

    Being able to track, analyze, and use data from continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) and through platforms and apps that communicate with CGMs helps achieve better outcomes and can advance the understanding of diabetes. The risks to patients' expectation of privacy are great, and their ability to control how their information is collected, stored, and used is virtually nonexistent. Patients' physical security is also at risk if adequate cybersecurity measures are not taken. Currently, data privacy and security protections are not robust enough to address the privacy and security risks and stymies the current and future benefits of CGM and the platforms and apps that communicate with them.

  17. Input-output, expandable-parity network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckevitt, J. F., III

    1974-01-01

    Large-scale integrated circuit generates and checks parity of four eight-bit registers. In addition, circuit will indicate by output signal whether parity error exists. Circuit can also generate or check parity of words up to 32 bits. This is done by making appropriate internal wiring connections on the large-scale integrated chip.

  18. Generation and characterization of quinolone-specific DNA aptamers suitable for water monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinemann, C; Freiin von Fritsch, U; Rudolph, S; Strehlitz, B

    2016-03-15

    Quinolones are antibiotics that are accredited in human and veterinary medicine but are regularly used in high quantities also in industrial livestock farming. Since these compounds are often only incompletely metabolized, significant amounts contaminate the aquatic environment and negatively impact on a variety of different ecosystems. Although there is increasing awareness of problems caused by pharmaceutical pollution, available methods for the detection and elimination of numerous pharmaceutical residues are currently inefficient or expensive. While this also applies to antibiotics that may lead to multi-drug resistance in pathogenic bacteria, aptamer-based technologies potentially offer alternative approaches for sensitive and efficient monitoring of pharmaceutical micropollutants. Using the Capture-SELEX procedure, we here describe the selection of an aptamer pool with enhanced binding qualities for fluoroquinolones, a widely used group of antibiotics in both human and veterinary medicine. The selected aptamers were shown to detect various quinolones with high specificity, while specific binding activities to structurally unrelated drugs were not detectable. The quinolone-specific aptamers bound to ofloxacin, one of the most frequently prescribed fluoroquinolone, with high affinity (KD=0.1-56.9 nM). The functionality of quinolone-specific aptamers in real water samples was demonstrated in local tap water and in effluents of sewage plants. Together, our data suggest that these aptamers may be applicable as molecular receptors in biosensors or as catcher molecules in filter systems for improved monitoring and treatment of polluted water.

  19. Copilot: Monitoring Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Lee; Wegmann, Nis; Niller, Sebastian; Goodloe, Alwyn

    2012-01-01

    Runtime verification (RV) is a natural fit for ultra-critical systems, where correctness is imperative. In ultra-critical systems, even if the software is fault-free, because of the inherent unreliability of commodity hardware and the adversity of operational environments, processing units (and their hosted software) are replicated, and fault-tolerant algorithms are used to compare the outputs. We investigate both software monitoring in distributed fault-tolerant systems, as well as implementing fault-tolerance mechanisms using RV techniques. We describe the Copilot language and compiler, specifically designed for generating monitors for distributed, hard real-time systems. We also describe two case-studies in which we generated Copilot monitors in avionics systems.

  20. Cardiac output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Möller Petrun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, developments in the measuring of cardiac output and other haemodynamic variables are focused on the so-called minimally invasive methods. The aim of these methods is to simplify the management of high-risk and haemodynamically unstable patients. Due to the need of invasive approach and the possibility of serious complications the use of pulmonary artery catheter has decreased. This article describes the methods for measuring cardiac output, which are based on volume measurement (Fick method, indicator dilution method, pulse wave analysis, Doppler effect, and electrical bioimpedance.

  1. Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession.

  2. Monitoring of collagen shrinkage by use of second harmonic generation microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sung-Jan; Chen, Jau-Shiuh; Lo, Wen; Sun, Yen; Chen, Wei-Liang; Chan, Jung-Yi; Tan, Hsin-Yuan; Lin, Wei-Chou; Hsu, Chih-Jung; Young, Tai-Horng; Jee, Shiou-Hwa; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2006-02-01

    Thermal treatment induced collagen shrinkage has a great number of applications in medical practice. Clinically, the there is lack of reliable non-invasive methods to quantify the shrinkage. Overt treatment by heat application can lead to devastating results. We investigate the serial changes of collagen shrinkage by thermal treatment of rat tail tendons. The change in length is correlated with the finding in second harmonic generation microscopy and histology. Rat tail tendon shortens progressively during initial thermal treatment. After a certain point in time, the length then remains almost constant despite further thermal treatment. The intensity of second harmonic generation signals also progressively decreases initially and then remains merely detectable upon further thermal treatment. It prompts us to develop a mathematic model to quantify the dependence of collagen shrinkage on changes of SHG intensity. Our results show that SHG intensity can be used to predict the degree of collagen shrinkage during thermal treatment for biomedical applications.

  3. Early-Transition Output Decline Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crt Kostevc

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we revisit the issue of aggregate output decline that took place in the early transition period. We propose an alternative explanation of output decline that is applicable to Central- and Eastern-European countries. In the first part of the paper we develop a simple dynamic general equilibrium model that builds on work by Gomulka and Lane (2001. In particular, we consider price liberalization, interpreted as elimination of distortionary taxation, as a trigger of the output decline. We show that price liberalization in interaction with heterogeneous adjustment costs and non-employment benefits lead to aggregate output decline and surge in wage inequality. While these patterns are consistent with actual dynamics in CEE countries, this model cannot generate output decline in all sectors. Instead sectors that were initially taxed even exhibit output growth. Thus, in the second part we consider an alternative general equilibrium model with only one production sector and two types of labor and distortion in a form of wage compression during the socialist era. The trigger for labor mobility and consequently output decline is wage liberalization. Assuming heterogeneity of workers in terms of adjustment costs and non-employment benefits can explain output decline in all industries.

  4. Measurement Placement in Active Distribution Networks Considering Output Uncertainty of Distributed Generators%考虑分布式电源出力不确定性的主动配电网量测配置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红; 张文; 刘玉田

    2016-01-01

    Access to distributed generators (DGs) and changes in network structure have increased the complexity of state estimation and measurement placement in the active distribution network (ADN).A multi-obj ective mathematical model of measurement placement in the ADN is established that takes into account both the cost of placement and estimation accuracy of different network structures,in which the output uncertainty of DG is also considered.The output uncertainty of DG is modeled as a Gaussian mixed model (GMM),and the correlation of DG is described by the off-diagonal elements in a measurement covariance matrix.In addition,the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to determine the impact factors of the cost of placement,the mesh network as well as other network structures.The measurement placement is determined by the greedy algorithm.Simulation results based on IEEE 33-bus and a 119-bus distribution network have verified the efficiency and feasibility of the method proposed.%分布式电源(DG)的接入及网络结构的变化,使得主动配电网(ADN)的状态估计及量测配置更加复杂。在考虑DG出力不确定性的基础上,建立了兼顾经济性和多种网络结构估计精度的多目标量测配置模型;以高斯混合模型(GMM)模拟DG出力的不确定性,并利用量测协方差矩阵的非对角元素表征DG间出力的相关性;基于层次分析法(AHP)确定量测配置费用和含环网的多种网络结构的目标权重,并利用贪婪算法确定ADN的量测配置方案。IEEE 33节点配电系统和119节点配电系统的仿真结果验证了文中方法的有效性和可行性。

  5. Application of next-generation sequencing methods for microbial monitoring of anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozan, Mahir; Akyol, Çağrı; Ince, Orhan; Aydin, Sevcan; Ince, Bahar

    2017-08-04

    The anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic wastes is considered an efficient method for managing the world's energy shortages and resolving contemporary environmental problems. However, the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass represents a barrier to maximizing biogas production. The purpose of this review is to examine the extent to which sequencing methods can be employed to monitor such biofuel conversion processes. From a microbial perspective, we present a detailed insight into anaerobic digesters that utilize lignocellulosic biomass and discuss some benefits and disadvantages associated with the microbial sequencing techniques that are typically applied. We further evaluate the extent to which a hybrid approach incorporating a variation of existing methods can be utilized to develop a more in-depth understanding of microbial communities. It is hoped that this deeper knowledge will enhance the reliability and extent of research findings with the end objective of improving the stability of anaerobic digesters that manage lignocellulosic biomass.

  6. SEMAT — The Next Generation of Inexpensive Marine Environmental Monitoring and Measurement Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Stevens

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need for environmental measurement systems to further science and thereby lead to improved policies for sustainable management. Marine environments are particularly hostile and extremely difficult for deploying sensitive measurement systems. As a consequence the need for data is greatest in marine environments, particularly in the developing economies/regions. Expense is typically the most significant limiting factor in the number of measurement systems that can be deployed, although technical complexity and the consequent high level of technical skill required for deployment and servicing runs a close second. This paper describes the Smart Environmental Monitoring and Analysis Technologies (SEMAT project and the present development of the SEMAT technology. SEMAT is a “smart” wireless sensor network that uses a commodity-based approach for selecting technologies most appropriate to the scientifically driven marine research and monitoring domain/field. This approach allows for significantly cheaper environmental observation systems that cover a larger geographical area and can therefore collect more representative data. We describe SEMAT’s goals, which include: (1 The ability to adapt and evolve; (2 Underwater wireless communications; (3 Short-range wireless power transmission; (4 Plug and play components; (5 Minimal deployment expertise; (6 Near real-time analysis tools; and (7 Intelligent sensors. This paper illustrates how the capacity of the system has been improved over three iterations towards realising these goals. The result is an inexpensive and flexible system that is ideal for short-term deployments in shallow coastal and other aquatic environments.

  7. Waste treatment in physical input-output analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, E

    2005-01-01

    When compared to monetary input-output tables (MIOTs), a distinctive feature of physical input-output tables (PIOTs) is that they include the generation of waste as part of a consistent accounting framework. As a consequence, however, physical input-output analysis thus requires that the treatment o

  8. Consenso brasileiro de monitorização e suporte hemodinâmico - parte III: métodos alternativos de monitorização do débito cardíaco e da volemia Brazilian consensus of monitoring and hemodynamic support - part III: alternative methods for cardiac output monitoring and volemia estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Schettino

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A interpretação do débito cardíaco e da pré-carga como números absolutos não traz grandes informações sobre a hemodinâmica do paciente crítico. Em contrapartida, a monitorização da resposta do débito cardíaco à expansão volêmica ou suporte inotrópico é uma ferramenta muito útil na unidade de terapia intensiva, quando o paciente apresenta algum sinal de má perfusão tecidual. Apesar do CAP ser considerado como " padrão-ouro" na avaliação destes parâmetros, foram desenvolvidas tecnologias alternativas bastante confiáveis para a sua monitorização. MÉTODO: O processo de desenvolvimento de recomendações utilizou o método Delphi modificado para criar e quantificar o consenso entre os participantes. A AMIB determinou um coordenador para o consenso, o qual escolheu seis especialistas para comporem o comitê consultivo. Outros 18 peritos de diferentes regiões do país foram selecionados para completar o painel de 25 especialistas, médicos e enfermeiros. Um levantamento bibliográfico na MEDLINE de artigos na língua inglesa foi realizado no período de 1966 a 2004. RESULTADOS: Foram apresentadas recomendações referentes à análise da variação da pressão arterial durante ventilação mecânica, débito cardíaco contínuo por contorno de pulso arterial, débito cardíaco por diluição do lítio, Doppler transesofágico, bioimpedância transtorácica, ecocardiografia e reinalação parcial de gás carbônico. CONCLUSÕES: As novas e menos invasivas técnicas para medida do débito cardíaco, pré-carga e fluidoresponsividade apresentam adequada precisão e podem ser uma alternativa ao uso do CAP em pacientes graves.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cardiac output and preload as absolute data do not offer helpful information about the hemodynamic of critically ill patients. However, monitoring the response of these variables to volume challenge or inotropic drugs is a very useful tool in the

  9. 基于GA-BP和POS-BP神经网络的光伏电站出力短期预测%Short-term prediction of photovoltaic power generation output based on GA-BP and POS-BP neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚仲敏; 潘飞; 沈玉会; 吴金秋; 于晓红

    2015-01-01

    当前在光伏电站出力短期预测方面较多的采用BP或者优化的BP神经网络算法,存在采用的优化算法单一、缺乏多种优化算法比较选优、预测误差大的问题.基于本地5 kW小型分布式光伏电站,综合考虑影响光伏出力的太阳光辐射强度、环境温度、风速气象相关因素和光伏电站历史发电数据,分别采用 BP 以及遗传算法和粒子群算法优化的BP神经网络算法—GA-BP和POS-BP构建了晴天、多云、阴雨三种天气条件下光伏出力短期预测模型.实测结果表明,三种神经网络算法预测模型在三种不同天气条件下均达到了一定的预测精度.其中GA-BP、POS-BP相比传统的BP预测模型降低了预测误差,且POS算法相比GA算法对于BP神经网络预测模型的优化效果更好,进一步降低了预测误差,适用性更强.%In the current PV output short-term forecast, BP or optimization BP neural network algorithm is used commonly, which has problems of single optimization algorithm, the lack of a variety of optimization algorithms for comparison and selection, and big forecast error. Therefore, based on local 5 kW small-scale distributed PV power station, considering the related factors that influence PV output such as solar radiation intensity, environmental temperature, wind speed and historical generation data of photovoltaic power station, this paper uses BP, GA-BP and POS-BP neural network algorithm respectively to construct short-term prediction model of PV output in sunny, cloudy and rainy weather conditions. Test results show that three kinds of neural network prediction models all reach certain prediction accuracy under three different weather conditions, among which GA-BP and POS-BP prediction models reduce the prediction errors compared to the traditional BP model, and POS algorithm has a better optimization effect on BP neural network prediction model and a stronger applicability compared to GA algorithm, and

  10. PWM整流输出型风力异步发电机的效率最优控制%Optimal Efficiency Control for Wind Power Induction Generator with PWM Rectifier Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史经奎; 黄文新; 胡育文

    2012-01-01

    针对PWM整流输出型风力异步发电机,提出了一种效率最优控制方法,以减小发电机的铁损耗和铜损耗,提高发电机的效率.该控制方法通过V/F控制器实现.本文阐述了效率最优控制的基本原理,给出了最优磁通的计算步骤.理论推导表明,结合最大风能追踪控制时,最优磁通的给定与电机转速近似呈线性关系,这使得风力异步发电机的效率最优控制方法容易工程实现.本文通过仿真与实验,验证了提出方案的正确性和可行性.对于风电系统异步发电机长期轻载运行的场合,该方法具有明显提升发电总量的效果.%In this paper, a simple V/F control strategy was presented and discussed for a PWM rectifier output wind power induction generator (IG). The optimal efficiency control (OEC) was proposed for this system to minimize copper and iron losses which was achieved by the V/F controller. This paper illustrated the principle of the OEC and finally gave the formulas of calculation for optimal flux. The results, in theory, indicate an approximately linear relationship between the optimal flux and the generator's rotation speed when the Maximum Power Point Tracking ( MPPT) control is implemented, which means that it will be quite easy to realize the OEC in practical engineering applications. Simulations and experiments of a squirrel-cage IG have been implemented in order to validate the proposed control strategy. For the IG of wind power systems which always work on light-load condition for a long period, this method greatly improves total quantity of the generated energy.

  11. A Distance Function Model with Good and Bad Outputs

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We present an approach that pursues an adequate representation of product transformation possibilities for a technology generating, in addition to marketed (good) products, some environmentally detrimental non-marketed byproducts (bad outputs). As the shadow price of a non-marketed output depends on its marginal transformation rates with marketed outputs, representation of technological relationships between different groups of outputs deserves a particular attention. We model the technology ...

  12. Regional Input Output Table for the State of Punjab

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Inderjeet; Singh, Lakhwinder

    2011-01-01

    Because of policy relevance of regional input-output analysis, a vast literature on the construction of regional input-output tables has emerged in the recent past, especially on the non-survey and hybrid methods. Although, construction of regional input-output tables is not new in India, but generation of input-output table using non-survey methods is relatively a rare phenomenon. This work validates alternative non-survey, location quotient methodologies and finally uses comparatively bette...

  13. Monitoring process of human keloid formation based on second harmonic generation imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X. S.; Chen, S.; Chen, J. X.; Zhu, X. Q.; Zheng, L. Q.; Zhuo, S. M.; Wang, D. J.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, the morphological variation of collagen among the whole dermis from keloid tissue was investigated using second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. In the deep dermis of keloids, collagen bundles show apparently regular gap. In the middle dermis, the collagen bundles are randomly oriented and loosely arranged in the pattern of fine mesh while the collagen bundles are organized in a parallel manner in the superficial dermis near the epidermis. The developed parameters COI and BD can be used to further quantitatively describe these changes. Our results demonstrate the potential of SHG microscopy to understand the formation process of human keloid scar at the cellular level through imaging collagen variations in different depth of dermis.

  14. Three generations of wireless sensor networks to monitor the soil ecosystem (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlavecz, K. A.

    2013-12-01

    Capturing soil spatio-temporal heterogeneity is a considerable challenge. We designed, built and deployed three generations of wireless sensor networks to measure soil temperature, moisture, CO2 concentration and efflux. In the past eight years the system was tested in a high altitude desert, tropical and temperate forests, and in croplands. We developed Grazor, a graphic web interface for visualizing, exploring, and downloading data. Since 2005, our first field deployment, we have collected over 160 million data points, all stored in our persistent database. Our largest and longest experiment took place in a residential neighborhood in Baltimore, MD. A total of 108 soil moisture sensors were installed in urban soils covered by forest and grass. The system successfully captured spatial heterogeneity, transient events, such as Hurricane Irene, and highlighted habitat differences. However, issues such as waterproofing, battery consumption, mote failure and scale of deployment still need to be addressed. Improvements in our third generation hardware and software are based upon lessons learned from earlier deployments. In the new hardware, rather than having a single device that does everything (analog sensing, data storage, and routing), we have developed an analog sensor board and a separate wireless sensor mote. The latter can be configured as a leaf (with an antenna printed directly on the circuit board) or as a router (with a power amplifier and an external antenna connector). Additional sensors with an industry standard I2C interface can also be connected to the mote. The cost of each unit is 20$, and the software is user friendly for the non-computer scientist. We are currently testing this system in the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, MD. Cumulative number of data collected in the Life Under Your Feet project. Major hardware changes are marked with vertical lines, while horizontal lines show the start and end of deployments.

  15. Precipitation variability within an urban monitoring network in terms of microcanonical cascade generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licznar, P.; De Michele, C.; Adamowski, W.

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the variability of precipitation at small scales is fundamental in urban hydrology. Stochastic models of precipitation are required to feed hydrodynamic models with high resolution data, in order to obtain a probabilistic assessment of urban drainage networks. Microcanonical random cascades are considered here to represent precipitation time series collected in 25 gauges of a monitoring network in Warsaw, Poland. Breakdown coefficients (BDCs) are calculated separately for a hierarchy of subdaily timescales from 5 min (time resolution) to 1280 min, for all gauges. Strong deformations of BDC histograms in form of sharp peaks at small timescales are observed due to the truncation of precipitation depths recorded by gauges. Satisfactory smoothing of empirical BDC histograms is obtained statistically by a slight randomization of nonzero precipitation amounts. The scarce representation of BDCs at large timescales, due to the short period of observation, is solved by the introduction of an algorithm based on overlapping moving windows. BDC histograms are modeled by a 2N-B distribution, which combines two Normal (N) and one Beta (B) distribution. A clear evolution of the distribution from 2N-B at small timescales, to N-B at intermediate timescales, and finally to Beta distribution for large timescales is observed in all gauges. The performance of the microcanonical cascades is evaluated for the considered gauges. Synthetic time series are analyzed with respect to their intermittency and variability of intensity, and compared to observed series. BDC histograms, for each timescale, are compared among the 25 gauges in Warsaw, and with other gauges located in Poland and Germany. The cluster analysis is used to identify patterns of BDC histograms among analyzed set of gauges and timescales, as well as to detect outlier gauges.

  16. Energy generation for an ad hoc wireless sensor network-based monitoring system using animal head movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Nadimi, Esmaeil; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

    2011-01-01

    The supply of energy to electronics is an imperative constraining factor to be considered during the design process of mobile ad hoc wireless sensor networks (MANETs). This influence is especially important when the MANET is deployed unattended or the wireless modules within the MANET are not eas......The supply of energy to electronics is an imperative constraining factor to be considered during the design process of mobile ad hoc wireless sensor networks (MANETs). This influence is especially important when the MANET is deployed unattended or the wireless modules within the MANET...... accessible; however, animal movement can be potentially used to generate energy. In this study, the head movements of individual sheep in a flock during grazing were monitored in order to investigate the amount of energy that can be generated by these movements. By applying the Lagrange–d’Alembert Principle...... to this problem, the equations of motion from each neck-mounted sensor as well as the amount of mechanical energy generated per time instant (each second) during upward and downward head movements were calculated. This resulted in the production of 857 mW and 1660 mW during the downward and upward movements...

  17. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers, Volumes 1, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyaya, Belle R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hines, J. Wesley [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Lu, Baofu [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2005-06-03

    The overall purpose of this Nuclear Engineering Education Research (NEER) project was to integrate new, innovative, and existing technologies to develop a fault diagnostics and characterization system for nuclear plant steam generators (SG) and heat exchangers (HX). Issues related to system level degradation of SG and HX tubing, including tube fouling, performance under reduced heat transfer area, and the damage caused by stress corrosion cracking, are the important factors that influence overall plant operation, maintenance, and economic viability of nuclear power systems. The research at The University of Tennessee focused on the development of techniques for monitoring process and structural integrity of steam generators and heat exchangers. The objectives of the project were accomplished by the completion of the following tasks. All the objectives were accomplished during the project period. This report summarizes the research and development activities, results, and accomplishments during June 2001 September 2004. Development and testing of a high-fidelity nodal model of a U-tube steam generator (UTSG) to simulate the effects of fouling and to generate a database representing normal and degraded process conditions. Application of the group method of data handling (GMDH) method for process variable prediction. Development of a laboratory test module to simulate particulate fouling of HX tubes and its effect on overall thermal resistance. Application of the GMDH technique to predict HX fluid temperatures, and to compare with the calculated thermal resistance.Development of a hybrid modeling technique for process diagnosis and its evaluation using laboratory heat exchanger test data. Development and testing of a sensor suite using piezo-electric devices for monitoring structural integrity of both flat plates (beams) and tubing. Experiments were performed in air, and in water with and without bubbly flow. Development of advanced signal processing methods using

  18. On-line structural integrity monitoring and defect diagnosis of steam generators using analysis of guided acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Baofu

    2005-11-01

    Integrity monitoring and flaw diagnostics of flat beams and tubular structures was investigated in this research using guided acoustic signals. The primary objective was to study the feasibility of using imbedded sensors for monitoring steam generator and heat exchanger tubing. A piezo-sensor suite was deployed to activate and collect Lamb wave signals that propagate along metallic specimens. The dispersion curves of Lamb waves along plate and tubular structures were generated through numerical analysis. Several advanced techniques were explored to extract representative features from acoustic time series. Among them, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is a recently developed technique for the analysis of non-linear and transient signals. A moving window method was introduced to generate the local peak characters from acoustic time series, and a zooming window technique was developed to localize the structural flaws. The dissertation presents the background of the analysis of acoustic signals acquired from piezo-electric transducers for structural defect monitoring. A comparison of the use of time-frequency techniques, including the Hilbert-Huang transform, is presented. It also presents the theoretical study of Lamb wave propagation in flat beams and tubular structures, and the need for mode separation in order to effectively perform defect diagnosis. The results of an extensive experimental study of detection, location, and isolation of structural defects in flat aluminum beams and brass tubes are presented. The time-frequency analysis and pattern recognition techniques were combined for classifying structural defects in brass tubes. Several types of flaws in brass tubes were tested, both in the air and in water. The techniques also proved to be effective under background/process noise. A detailed theoretical analysis of Lamb wave propagation was performed and simulations were carried out using the finite element software system ABAQUS. This analytical study

  19. CargoCBM - Feature Generation and Classification for a Condition Monitoring System for Freight Wagons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, C.; Hecht, M.

    2012-05-01

    Despite the fact that rail freight transport is one of the most environmentally friendly matters of transport, its growth has been far behind the growth of freight transport in general. Studies showed that a competitive disadvantage is caused by a low availability of rolling stock, especially freight wagons. Changing from a time based to a condition based maintenance strategy is believed to decrease down times by at least one third. To make condition based maintenance for freight wagons possible the TU Berlin and five industry partners started the research project CargoCBM. One task in this project is to develop algorithms for the automatic on-board diagnosis of wheel flats. The focus of the work is on the process of feature generation and feature selection as well as the application of different classifiers to automatically evaluate the data. Based on the results of measured data, features were selected and tested with different classifiers. Thought advanced classifiers such as neural networks have been analysed in accordance to their classification accuracy. It can be shown that with carefully constructed and selected features comparatively simple classifiers can lead to excellent results.

  20. Integrating hydrograph modeling with real-time flow monitoring to generate hydrograph-specific sampling schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Heather E.; Jafvert, Chad T.; Jenkinson, Byron

    2010-11-01

    Automated sample collection for water quality research and evaluation generally is performed by simple time-paced or flow-weighted sampling protocols. However, samples collected on strict time-paced or flow-weighted schemes may not adequately capture all elements of storm event hydrographs (i.e., rise, peak, and recession). This can result in inadequate information for calculating chemical mass flux over storm events. In this research, an algorithm was developed to guide automated sampling of hydrographs based on storm-specific information. A key element of the new "hydrograph-specific sampling scheme" is the use of a hydrograph recession model for predicting the hydrograph recession curve, during which flow-paced intervals are calculated for scheduling the remaining samples. The algorithm was tested at a tile drained Midwest agricultural site where real-time flow data were processed by a programmable datalogger that in turn activated an automated sampler at the appropriate sampling times to collect a total of twenty samples during each storm event independent of the number of sequential hydrographs generated. The utility of the algorithm was successfully tested with hydrograph data collected at both a tile drain and agricultural ditch, suggesting the potential for general applicability of the method. This sampling methodology is flexible in that the logic can be adapted for use with any hydrograph recession model; however, in this case a power law equation proved to be the most practical model.

  1. Operational availability improvement through online monitoring and advice for emergency diesel generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Beom; Kim, Han Gon; Kim, Byong Sup [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Golay, M.; Kang, C. W.; Sui, Y. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This research broadens the prime concern of nuclear power plant operations from safe performance to both economic and safe performance. First, emergency diesel generator is identified as one of main contributors for the lost plant availability through the review of plant forced outage records. The framework of an integrated architecture of performing modern on-line condition for operational availability improvement is configured in this work. For the development of the comprehensive sensor networks for complex target systems, and integrated methodology incorporating a structural hierarchy, a functional hierarchy, and a fault-symptom matrix is formulated. The second part of our research is development of intelligent diagnosis and maintenance advisory system, which employs Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) as a high level reasoning tool for incorporating inherent uncertainty for use in probabilistic inference. Our prototype diagnosis algorithms are represented explicitly through topological symbols and links between them in a causal direction. As new evidence from sensor network developed is entered into the model especially, our advisory system provides operational advice concerning both availability and safety, so that the operator is able to determine the likely failure modes, diagnose the system state, locate root causes, and take the most advantageous action. Thereby, this advice improves operational availability. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  2. Environmental Monitoring: Inferring the Diatom Index from Next-Generation Sequencing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Joana Amorim; Apothéloz-Perret-Gentil, Laure; Cordonier, Arielle; Esling, Philippe; Pillet, Loïc; Pawlowski, Jan

    2015-07-07

    Diatoms are widely used as bioindicators for the assessment of water quality in rivers and streams. Classically, the diatom biotic indices are based on the relative abundance of morphologically identified species weighted by their autoecological value. Obtaining such indices is time-consuming, costly, and requires excellent taxonomic expertise, which is not always available. Here we tested the possibility to overcome these limitations using a next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach to identify and quantify diatoms found in environmental DNA and RNA samples. We analyzed 27 river sites in the Geneva area (Switzerland), in order to compare the values of the Swiss Diatom Index (DI-CH) computed either by microscopic quantification of diatom species or directly from NGS data. Despite gaps in the reference database and variations in relative abundance of analyzed species, the diatom index shows a significant correlation between morphological and molecular data indicating similar biological quality status for the majority of sites. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the potential of the NGS approach for identification and quantification of diatoms in environmental samples, opening new avenues toward the routine application of genetic tools for bioassessment and biomonitoring of aquatic ecosystems.

  3. The role of predictive on-line monitoring systems in the power generation industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittings, S.D.; Baldwin, J. [AEA Technology Energy plc (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    It has been apparent in the power generation sector for some time that utilities are moving away from large scale, labour intensive, inspection and overhaul programmes. These are being replaced by targeted inspection and replacement programmes supported by engineering assessment. Such engineering assessments address the predominant long-term damage mechanisms and are aimed at predicting failure timescales based upon historic operating data. From these predictions extended inspection intervals can be justified and replacement schedules planned in advance, ensuring maximum plant availability and deferred capital expenditure. However, as these assessments are based upon an examination of past operating history they must be periodically re-visited and up-dated. The cost of such reassessments is usually close to that performed initially, although cost savings can arise from reductions in work-scope which have been previously justified. As computers have become more advanced (and significantly cheaper) some of the expertise used in these assessments has been transferred into software based products. However, these products are generally aimed at replacing specific parts of the desk-based analysis, necessitating a suite of products to be used in order to address all of the components and damage mechanisms, which must be assessed. As these products require specialized knowledge to be used effectively they are often employed by consultants and rarely by plant operators, except in the largest of organisations which can support an in-house team of `experts`. This has in essence led to an increase in the number of companies capable of offering assessment services, but has maintained, in the majority of cases, the plant operators reliance upon external consultants. These software based assessment methods rely upon historic operating data (in the same manner as their desk- based counterparts) and hence also need to be periodically up-dated. However, as previous assessments can

  4. Keyphrase Cloud Generation of Broadcast News

    OpenAIRE

    Marujo, Luis; Viveiros, Márcio; Neto, João Paulo da Silva

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an enhanced automatic keyphrase extraction method applied to Broadcast News. The keyphrase extraction process is used to create a concept level for each news. On top of words resulting from a speech recognition system output and news indexation and it contributes to the generation of a tag/keyphrase cloud of the top news included in a Multimedia Monitoring Solution system for TV and Radio news/programs, running daily, and monitoring 12 TV channels and 4 Radios.

  5. Can systemically generated reactive oxygen species help to monitor disease activity in generalized vitiligo? A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richeek Pradhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Generalized vitiligo is a disease with unpredictable bursts of activity, goal of treatment during the active phase being to stabilize the lesions. This emphasizes the need for a prospective marker for monitoring disease activity to help decide the duration of therapy. Aims and Objectives: In the present study, we examined whether reactive oxygen species (ROS generated in erythrocytes can be translated into a marker of activity in vitiligo. Materials and Methods: Level of intracellular ROS was measured flow cytometrically in erythrocytes from venous blood of 21 patients with generalized vitiligo and 21 healthy volunteers using the probe dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Results: The levels of ROS differed significantly between patients and healthy controls, as well as between active versus stable disease groups. In the active disease group, ROS levels were significantly lower in those being treated with systemic steroids than those that were not. ROS levels poorly correlated with disease duration or body surface area involved. Conclusion: A long-term study based on these findings can be conducted to further validate the potential role of ROS in monitoring disease activity vitiligo.

  6. Monitoring DNA hybridization and thermal dissociation at the silica/water interface using resonantly enhanced second harmonic generation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Md Shafiul; Gibbs-Davis, Julianne M

    2013-09-03

    The immobilization of oligonucleotide sequences onto glass supports is central to the field of biodiagnostics and molecular biology with the widespread use of DNA microarrays. However, the influence of confinement on the behavior of DNA immobilized on silica is not well understood owing to the difficulties associated with monitoring this buried interface. Second harmonic generation (SHG) is an inherently surface specific technique making it well suited to observe processes at insulator interfaces like silica. Using a universal 3-nitropyrolle nucleotide as an SHG-active label, we monitored the hybridization rate and thermal dissociation of a 15-mer of DNA immobilized at the silica/aqueous interface. The immobilized DNA exhibits hybridization rates on the minute time scale, which is much slower than hybridization kinetics in solution but on par with hybridization behavior observed at electrochemical interfaces. In contrast, the thermal dissociation temperature of the DNA immobilized on silica is on average 12 °C lower than the analogous duplex in solution, which is more significant than that observed on other surfaces like gold. We attribute the destabilizing affect of silica to its negatively charged surface at neutral pH that repels the hybridizing complementary DNA.

  7. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-11-12

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a gating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive an impulse generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung. 12 figs.

  8. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a gating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive an impulse generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung.

  9. A study of potential output and output gap in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Adamec

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of economic cycle is of enormous importance for monitoring economic output and explaining price and wage inflation. It provides essential information for shaping economic and monetary policy of central authorities. Several methods are currently available to estimate potential output and output gap. In the current study, methods of Hodrick-Prescott filter and Cobb-Douglas production function were implemented to estimate potential output, which cannot be empirically observed. For the purpose of comparing the above methods, quarterly and annual time series of real GDP, labour and gross fixed capital starting in 1996 were used for estimation of the output gap. Relative contributions of labour, fixed capital formation and technology improvement factor towards growth of potential output were quantified for the studied series. The Cobb-Douglas production function appears to be superior to Hodrick-Prescott filter in providing quality estimates of potential output. Hodrick-Prescott filter allows estimation of potential output; nevertheless, it fails to identify components of cyclic behaviour of economic activity. Cobb-Douglas production function describes level of potential product assuming average utilization of production factors. A detailed analysis of components of economic growth in the observed period is provided.

  10. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Wesley Hines

    2004-09-27

    Integrity monitoring and flaw diagnostics of flat beams and tubular structures was investigated in this research task using guided acoustic signals. A piezo-sensor suite was deployed to activate and collect Lamb wave signals that propagate along metallic specimens. The dispersion curves of Lamb waves along plate and tubular structures are generated through numerical analysis. Several advanced techniques were explored to extract representative features from acoustic time series. Among them, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is a recently developed technique for the analysis of non-linear and transient signals. A moving window method was introduced to generate the local peak characters from acoustic time series, and a zooming window technique was developed to localize the structural flaws. The time-frequency analysis and pattern recognition techniques were combined for classifying structural defects in brass tubes. Several types of flaws in brass tubes were tested, both in the air and in water. The techniques also proved to be effective under background/process noise. A detailed theoretical analysis of Lamb wave propagation was performed and simulations were carried out using the finite element software system ABAQUS. This analytical study confirmed the behavior of the acoustic signals acquired from the experimental studies. The report presents the background the analysis of acoustic signals acquired from piezo-electric transducers for structural defect monitoring. A comparison of the use of time-frequency techniques, including the Hilbert-Huang transform, is presented. The report presents the theoretical study of Lamb wave propagation in flat beams and tubular structures, and the need for mode separation in order to effectively perform defect diagnosis. The results of an extensive experimental study of detection, location, and isolation of structural defects in flat aluminum beams and brass tubes are presented. The results of this research show the feasibility of on

  11. Sparse Reconstruction for Temperature Distribution Using DTS Fiber Optic Sensors with Applications in Electrical Generator Stator Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzo, João Paulo; Pipa, Daniel Rodrigues; da Silva, Erlon Vagner; Martelli, Cicero; Cardozo da Silva, Jean Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an image reconstruction method to monitor the temperature distribution of electric generator stators. The main objective is to identify insulation failures that may arise as hotspots in the structure. The method is based on temperature readings of fiber optic distributed sensors (DTS) and a sparse reconstruction algorithm. Thermal images of the structure are formed by appropriately combining atoms of a dictionary of hotspots, which was constructed by finite element simulation with a multi-physical model. Due to difficulties for reproducing insulation faults in real stator structure, experimental tests were performed using a prototype similar to the real structure. The results demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to reconstruct images of hotspots with dimensions down to 15 cm, representing a resolution gain of up to six times when compared to the DTS spatial resolution. In addition, satisfactory results were also obtained to detect hotspots with only 5 cm. The application of the proposed algorithm for thermal imaging of generator stators can contribute to the identification of insulation faults in early stages, thereby avoiding catastrophic damage to the structure. PMID:27618040

  12. Progress on the Development of the Next Generation X-ray Beam Position Monitors at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.; Yang, B.X.; Decker, G.; Sereno, N.; Ramanathan, M.

    2016-07-27

    Accurate and stable x-ray beam position monitors (XBPMs) are ke y elements in obtaining the desired user beam stability in the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The next generat ion XBPMs for high heat load front ends (HHL FEs) have been designed to meet these requirements by utilizing Cu K-edge x-ray fluorescence (XRF) from a pair of copper absorbers and have been installed at the front ends (FEs) of the APS. Com missioning data showed a significant performance improvement over the existing photoemission-based XBPMs. While a similar design concept can be applied for the canted undulator front ends, where two undulator beams are separated by 1.0-mrad, the lower beam power (< 10 kW) per undulator allows us to explore lower-cost solutions based on Compton scat tering from the diamond blades placed edge-on to the x- ray beam. A prototype of the Compton scattering XBPM system was i nstalled at 24-ID-A in May 2015. In this report, the design and test results for XRF-based XBPM and Compton scattering based XBPM are presented. Ongoing research related to the development of the next generation XBPMs on thermal contac t resistance of a joint between two solid bodies is also discussed

  13. Sparse Reconstruction for Temperature Distribution Using DTS Fiber Optic Sensors with Applications in Electrical Generator Stator Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Bazzo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an image reconstruction method to monitor the temperature distribution of electric generator stators. The main objective is to identify insulation failures that may arise as hotspots in the structure. The method is based on temperature readings of fiber optic distributed sensors (DTS and a sparse reconstruction algorithm. Thermal images of the structure are formed by appropriately combining atoms of a dictionary of hotspots, which was constructed by finite element simulation with a multi-physical model. Due to difficulties for reproducing insulation faults in real stator structure, experimental tests were performed using a prototype similar to the real structure. The results demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to reconstruct images of hotspots with dimensions down to 15 cm, representing a resolution gain of up to six times when compared to the DTS spatial resolution. In addition, satisfactory results were also obtained to detect hotspots with only 5 cm. The application of the proposed algorithm for thermal imaging of generator stators can contribute to the identification of insulation faults in early stages, thereby avoiding catastrophic damage to the structure.

  14. Judicial Influence on Policy Outputs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2015-01-01

    The ability of courts to generate political change has long been debated in national, comparative, and international politics. In the examination of the interaction between judicial and legislative politics, scholars have disagreed on the degree of judicial power and the ability of politics...... to override unwanted jurisprudence. In this debate, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has become famous for its central and occasionally controversial role in European integration. This article examines to what extent and under which conditions judicial decisions influence European Union (EU......) social policy outputs. A taxonomy of judicial influence is constructed, and expectations of institutional and political conditions on judicial influence are presented. The analysis draws on an extensive novel data set and examines judicial influence on EU social policies over time, that is, between 1958...

  15. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Wesley Hines

    2004-09-27

    The overall purpose of this Nuclear Engineering Education Research (NEER) project was to integrate new, innovative, and existing technologies to develop a fault diagnostics and characterization system for nuclear plant steam generators (SG) and heat exchangers (HX). Issues related to system level degradation of SG and HX tubing, including tube fouling, performance under reduced heat transfer area, and the damage caused by stress corrosion cracking, are the important factors that influence overall plant operation, maintenance, and economic viability of nuclear power systems. The research at The University of Tennessee focused on the development of techniques for monitoring process and structural integrity of steam generators and heat exchangers. The objectives of the project were accomplished by the completion of the following tasks. All the objectives were accomplished during the project period. This report summarizes the research and development activities, results, and accomplishments during June 2001-September 2004. (1) Development and testing of a high-fidelity nodal model of a U-tube steam generator (UTSG) to simulate the effects of fouling and to generate a database representing normal and degraded process conditions. Application of the group method of data handling (GMDH) method for process variable prediction. (2) Development of a laboratory test module to simulate particulate fouling of HX tubes and its effect on overall thermal resistance. Application of the GMDH technique to predict HX fluid temperatures, and to compare with the calculated thermal resistance. (3) Development of a hybrid modeling technique for process diagnosis and its evaluation using laboratory heat exchanger test data. (4) Development and testing of a sensor suite using piezo-electric devices for monitoring structural integrity of both flat plates (beams) and tubing. Experiments were performed in air, and in water with and without bubbly flow. (5) Development of advanced signal

  16. Valuation of the quantity of electric output from photovoltaic generation system in case of PV module applied to installing to vertical direction; Taiyo denchi wo suichoku ni haichishita baai no hatsudenryo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyajima, K. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In general, it is most efficient and economical to install photovoltaic (PV) modules with proper slope. There are room spaces on the wall except ground or roof. The PV modules were installed on the vertical wall, to consider the compensative method for this weak point. When modules were installed vertically, there is an advantage that reflecting solar light as well as incident solar light can be utilized compared with the installation with slope. The PV modules were installed on the roof of building with inclination of 90{degree} facing to south using the roof material as a reflecting material (S90), and with inclination of 15{degree} facing to south (S15), to compare their output. The output ratio, S90/S15 was 0.42. When it was very fine, this value increased to 0.60. When using plated steel plate as the reflecting material, this value increased to 0.74, which provided 10 to 30% larger output than the roof material. From these results, about 50% of module output of S15 can be expected for S90. If receiving larger reflection, there would only a slight difference in the module output between S15 and S90. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Output Dynamics, Technology, and Public Investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Bom, P.R.; Heijdra, B.J.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    The paper studies the dynamic output effects of public infrastructure investment in a small open economy. We develop an overlapping generations model that includes a production externality of public capital and a wealth effect on labor supply. Public capital enters the firm's production function und

  18. Input-output analysis and the hospital budgeting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleverly, W O

    1975-01-01

    Two hospitals budget systems, a conventional budget and an input-output budget, are compared to determine how they affect management decisions in pricing, output, planning, and cost control. Analysis of data from a 210-bed not-for-profit hospital indicates that adoption of the input-output budget could cause substantial changes in posted hospital rates in individual departments but probably would have no impact on hospital output determination. The input-output approach promises to be a more accurate system for cost control and planning because, unlike the conventional approach, it generates objective signals for investigating variances of expenses from budgeted levels. PMID:1205865

  19. Operational generation of AVHRR-based cloud products for Europe and the Arctic at EUMETSAT's Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM-SAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kaspar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Satelite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring has implemented a new processing environment for AVHRR-based climate monitoring products. AVHRR measurements from NOAA-17, NOAA-18 and MetOp-A are utilized to generate daily and monthly means of several cloud parameters for Europe and the Inner Arctic: Cloud fraction, cloud types, cloud phase, cloud top height, cloud optical thickness and cloud liquid water path.

  20. A new nonlinear output tracking controller via output-feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun ZHANG; Yungang LIU; Yuqin DING

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the output tracking control is investigated for a class of nonlinear systems when only output is available for feedback. Based on the multivariable analog of circle criterion, an observer is first introduced. Then, the observer-based output tracking controller is constructively designed by using the integral backstepping approach together with completing square. It is shown that, under relatively mild conditions, all the closed-loop signals are uniformly bounded.Meanwhile the system output asymptotically tracks the desired output. A simulation example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  1. Output filters for AC adjustable speed drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Hanigovszki, Norbert; Landkildehus, Jorn, Jorn

    2007-01-01

    -phase applications the occurrence of common-mode (CM) voltage is inherent due to asymmetrical output pulses [1]. Consequently, several secondary effects arise at the inverter's output: high-frequency conducted and radiated emissions, leakage current, motor insulation stress due to wave reflection [2], bearing stress......The standard industrial solution for adjustable speed drives (ASD) is the use of induction motors (IM) fed by voltage-source inverters (VSI). The inverter generates a pulsewidth modulated (PWM) voltage, with dv/dt values of about 6 kV/¿s or even more. In three-leg inverters for three...

  2. Cardiac output during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenmann, C; Rasmussen, P.; Sørensen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Several techniques assessing cardiac output (Q) during exercise are available. The extent to which the measurements obtained from each respective technique compares to one another, however, is unclear. We quantified Q simultaneously using four methods: the Fick method with blood obtained from...... the right atrium (Q(Fick-M)), Innocor (inert gas rebreathing; Q(Inn)), Physioflow (impedance cardiography; Q(Phys)), and Nexfin (pulse contour analysis; Q(Pulse)) in 12 male subjects during incremental cycling exercise to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia (FiO2  = 12%). While all four methods reported...... a progressive increase in Q with exercise intensity, the slopes of the Q/oxygen uptake (VO2) relationship differed by up to 50% between methods in both normoxia [4.9 ± 0.3, 3.9 ± 0.2, 6.0 ± 0.4, 4.8 ± 0.2 L/min per L/min (mean ± SE) for Q(Fick-M), Q(Inn), QP hys and Q(Pulse), respectively; P = 0...

  3. Method and apparatus for current-output peak detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2017-01-24

    A method and apparatus for a current-output peak detector. A current-output peak detector circuit is disclosed and works in two phases. The peak detector circuit includes switches to switch the peak detector circuit from the first phase to the second phase upon detection of the peak voltage of an input voltage signal. The peak detector generates a current output with a high degree of accuracy in the second phase.

  4. Serial Input Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

    2011-09-07

    Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each

  5. DESIGN NOTE: A very high output resistance current source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayatleh, K.; Terzopoulos, N.; Hart, B. L.

    2007-01-01

    The vertical stacking of two identical sub-circuits—improved versions of a bipolar transistor configuration proposed by Baxandall and Swallow—driven by dual output current mirrors, facilitates the design of a current generator producing a direct current of 1 mA with an incremental output resistance exceeding 200 GΩ.

  6. Nonlinear input-output systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, L. R.; Luksic, Mladen; Su, Renjeng

    1987-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions that the nonlinear system dot-x = f(x) + ug(x) and y = h(x) be locally feedback equivalent to the controllable linear system dot-xi = A xi + bv and y = C xi having linear output are found. Only the single input and single output case is considered, however, the results generalize to multi-input and multi-output systems.

  7. Reduced pallidal output causes dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eNambu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by sustained or repetitive involuntary muscle contractions and abnormal postures. In the present article, we will introduce our recent electrophysiological studies in hyperkinetic transgenic mice generated as a model of DYT1 dystonia and in a human cervical dystonia patient, and discuss the pathophysiology of dystonia on the basis of these electrophysiological findings. Recording of neuronal activity in the awake state of DYT1 dystonia model mice revealed reduced spontaneous activity with bursts and pauses in both internal (GPi and external (GPe segments of the globus pallidus. Electrical stimulation of the primary motor cortex evoked responses composed of excitation and subsequent long-lasting inhibition, the latter of which was never observed in normal mice. In addition, somatotopic arrangements were disorganized in the GPi and GPe of dystonia model mice. In a human cervical dystonia patient, electrical stimulation of the primary motor cortex evoked similar long-lasting inhibition in the GPi and GPe. Thus, reduced GPi output may cause increased thalamic and cortical activity, resulting in the involuntary movements observed in dystonia.

  8. UFO - The Universal FeynRules Output

    CERN Document Server

    Degrande, Céline; Fuks, Benjamin; Grellscheid, David; Mattelaer, Olivier; Reiter, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so- called Universal FeynRules Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a Python module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the Mathematica package FeynRules that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

  9. 平抑光伏出力波动的混合储能系统控制策略设计%Design of hybrid energy storage system control strategy to suppress output fluctuations of photovoltaic generation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林川; 高云鹏

    2015-01-01

    In view of the hybrid energy storage system composed of batteries and super capacitors, an energy storage control strategy to smooth photovoltaic output power fluctuations is designed.The low-pass filtering algorithm with threshold judgment is used to design the total charging power of energy storage system, and avoid the unnecessary con-trol to smooth photovoltaic output power fluctuations.Considering the charging state of energy storage medium, the principle of moving average is used to design the power allocation strategy of storage medium, thus making full use of different storage medium and optimizing the operation of hybrid energy storage system.The validity of the control strat-egy designed is verified through simulation analysis, and the energy storage control system can smooth photovoltaic output power fluctuations at the lowest cost.The super-capacitor smoothes the fast varying component of power fluctua-tions, and reduces the charging number of the storage battery.Research results provide theoretical reference for the application of hybrid energy storage systems in smoothing photovoltaic output power fluctuations.%针对由电池和超级电容器构成的混合储能系统,设计了一种平抑光伏出力波动的储能控制策略。基于含阀值判断的低通滤波算法制定储能系统总充放电功率,在平抑光伏出力波动的同时避免对储能系统的过渡调控。综合考虑储能介质充放电状态,基于滑动平均原理制定储能介质的功率分配策略,以充分发挥不同储能介质的优势,优化储能系统的整体运行性能。仿真分析验证了所设计控制策略的有效性,储能系统可以较小的调控代价完成对光伏出力波动的平抑,且超级电容器平抑功率波动的快变分量,有效降低了储能电池的充放电次数。研究结果对混合储能系统在平抑光伏出力波动中的应用提供了理论参考。

  10. 桨距角对风力发电机输出功率影响实验装置的研究设计%Study on the Effect of Pitch Angle Design of the Wind Generator Output Power and Other Parameters of the Experiment Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽军; 檀炜民; 鲍金雨; 张立宝; 蔺凯

    2016-01-01

    The wind power generation principle is used to make the simple fixed pitch wind power generation experimental device.Measurements of wind power generation unit output power and Rotor power coefficient.By the measurement results to explore variation under the same wind speed wind generator operating parameters concerned with pitch angle change.%利用风力发电原理,制作简易定桨距风力发电实验装置。测量风力发电装置输出功率及风能利用系数,利用测量结果探究同风速下风力发电机有关运行参数随桨距角改变的变化规律。

  11. Effect Analysis of Battery Energy Storage System on Output of Distributed Power Generation System with Wind Turbine and Photovoltaic in Grid-connection%储能系统对并网型风光分布式发电系统输出的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    To solve the problem of voltage fluctuation and compromised power supply caused by the unsteady wind turbine and photovoltaic power output, we propose using the energy storage systems to improve stability of the power output and the power quality of the grid-network. The indirect combination modeling method is employed to establish the models of typical wind generator, photovoltaic generation and battery energy storage by PSCAD/EMTDC, based on which the Wind-Battery generation system model, solar-battery generation system model and wind-solar-battery hybrid generation system model in grid-connection are built. The simulations show that the power stability and the quality of the intermittent energy output can be improved using the proposed method.%  为解决风力发电和光伏发电等间歇式电源输出功率波动引起的电网电能质量下降问题,提出了利用储能系统来提高间歇式电源并网点的功率稳定性以及改善电能质量。采用间接组合建模的方法建立基于PSCAD/EMTDC的典型风力发电、光伏发电和蓄电池储能的单元模型,并在此基础上构建风电/储能、光伏/储能、风电/光伏/储能系统,并进行仿真和电能质量分析。系统仿真结果表明:储能系统能有效改善间歇式电源功率输出的稳定性和电能质量。

  12. Collector-Output Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glandorf, D. R.; Phillips, Robert F., II

    1986-01-01

    Collector-Output Analysis Program (COAP) programmer's aid for analyzing output produced by UNIVAC collector (MAP processor). COAP developed to aid in design of segmentation structures for programs with large memory requirements and numerous elements but of value in understanding relationships among components of any program. Crossreference indexes and supplemental information produced. COAP written in FORTRAN 77.

  13. Quality monitoring of steam turbine sets for current new construction projects of the Vattenfall Europe Generation AG; Bau- und Montageueberwachung fuer die Dampfturbosaetze der aktuellen Neubauprojekte der Vattenfall Europe Generation AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandel, Hans; Rediess, Marco [Vattenfall Europe Generation AG, Cottbus (Germany); Klauke, Udo [Vattenfall Europe Power Consult GmbH, Vetschau (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Vattenfall Europe Generation AG is currently building three new power plant units in Germany. The first unit is an extension of the lignite-fired power plant in Boxberg in Saxonia. The other project with two units under construction is located in the south of Hamburg (Moorburg). Both projects were developed by Vattenfall Europe Generation AG, Cottbus, as builder and Vattenfall Europe Power Consult GmbH, Vetschau, as the general planner. The importance of quality monitoring during manufacturing and assembly was considered from the very first beginning. (orig.)

  14. The effect of atmospheric pressure on ventricular assist device output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Takeshi; Sato, Masaharu; Yamazaki, Akio; Fukuda, Wakako; Watanabe, Ken-Ichi; Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Minakawa, Masahito; Fukui, Kozo; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Ikuo

    2012-03-01

    The effect of cabin pressure change on the respiratory system during flight is well documented in the literature, but how the change in atmospheric pressure affects ventricular assist device (VAD) output flow has not been studied yet. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the change in VAD output using a mock circulatory system in a low-pressure chamber mimicking high altitude. Changes in output and driving pressure were measured during decompression from 1.0 to 0.7 atm and pressurization from 0.7 to 1.0 atm. Two driving systems were evaluated: the VCT system and the Mobart system. In the VCT system, output and driving pressure remained the same during decompression and pressurization. In the Mobart system, the output decreased as the atmospheric pressure dropped and recovered during pressurization. The lowest output was observed at 0.7 atm, which was 80% of the baseline driven by the Mobart system. Under a practical cabin pressure of 0.8 atm, the output driven by the Mobart system was 90% of the baseline. In the Mobart system, the output decreased as the atmospheric pressure dropped, and recovered during pressurization. However, the decrease in output was slight. In an environment where the atmospheric pressure changes, it is necessary to monitor the diaphragmatic motion of the blood pump and the driving air pressure, and to adjust the systolic:diastolic ratio as well as the positive and negative pressures in a VAD system.

  15. Implementation of an Automatic System for the Monitoring of Start-up and Operating Regimes of the Cooling Water Installations of a Hydro Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Pădureanu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The safe operation of a hydro generator depends on its thermal regime, the basic conditions being that the temperature in the stator winding fall within the limits of the insulation class. As the losses in copper depend on the square current in the stator winding, it is necessary that the cooling water debit should be adapted to the values of these losses, so that the winding temperature falls within the range of the values prescribed in the specifications. This paper presents an efficient solution of commanding and monitoring the water cooling installations of two high-power hydro generators.

  16. Low voltage substrate current: a monitor for interface states generation in ultra-thin oxide n-MOSFETs under constant voltage stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yan-Gang; Xu Ming-Zhen; Tan Chang-Hua

    2007-01-01

    The low voltage substrate current (Ib) has been studied based on generation kinetics and used as a monitor of interface states (Nit) generation for ultra-thin oxide n-MOSFETs under constant voltage stress. It is found that the low voltage Ib is formed by electrons tunnelling through interface states, and the variations of Ib(△Ib) are proportional to variations of Nit (△Nit). The Nit energy distributions were determined by differentiating Nit(Vg). The results have been compared with that measured by using gate diode technique.

  17. Multi-output differential technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidare, Srinivas R.

    1997-01-01

    A differential is a very old and proven mechanical device that allows a single input to be split into two outputs having equal torque irrespective of the output speeds. A standard differential is capable of providing only two outputs from a single input. A recently patented multi-output differential technology known as `Plural-Output Differential' allows a single input to be split into many outputs. This new technology is the outcome of a systematic study of complex gear trains (Bidare 1992). The unique feature of a differential (equal torque at different speeds) can be applied to simplify the construction and operation of many complex mechanical devices that require equal torque's or forces at multiple outputs. It is now possible to design a mechanical hand with three or more fingers with equal torque. Since these finger are powered via a differential they are `mechanically intelligent'. A prototype device is operational and has been used to demonstrate the utility and flexibility of the design. In this paper we shall review two devices that utilize the new technology resulting in increased performance, robustness with reduced complexity and cost.

  18. Characterization of bradykinin-related peptides generated in the plasma of six sarcopterygian species (African lungfish, amphiuma, coachwhip, bullsnake, gila monster, and Gray's monitor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Secor, S M; Lance, V A; Masini, M A; Vallarino, M; Conlon, J M

    1998-10-01

    Incubation of heat-denatured plasma from six species occupying different evolutionary positions within the Sarcopterygian lineage [the dipnoan, Protopterus annectens (African lungfish); the urodele, Amphiuma tridactylum (three-toed amphiuma); the colubrid snakes, Pituophis melanoleucus sayi (bullsnake) and Masticophis flagellum (coachwhip); and the lizards Heloderma suspectum (Gila monster) and Varanus Grayi (Gray's monitor)] with trypsin generated bradykinin-related peptides that were detected by radioimmunoassay using an antiserum raised against mammalian bradykinin (BK). The peptides were purified by HPLC and their primary structures were established as lungfish [Tyr1,Gly2,Ala7,Pro8]BK, amphiuma [Phe1,Ile2, Leu5]BK, bullsnake and coachwhip [Val1,Thr6]BK, Gila monster [Leu2, Thr6]BK, and Gray's monitor [Thr6]BK. Monitor BK is identical to the peptide generated in turtle and alligator plasma and coachwhip/bullsnake BK shows one amino acid substitution (Ala1 --> Val) compared with the peptide generated in the plasma of the python. The data provide further evidence for the widespread occurrence of a kallikrein-kininogen system in nonmammalian vertebrates but indicate that the primary structure of BK has been poorly conserved during evolution. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  19. 基于Modbus的发电机组监控软件设计%Design of generator group' s monitoring software based on Modbus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩霞; 林志贵; 刘阳

    2012-01-01

    目前,发电机组多采用控制器作为监控设备,针对控制器在监控过程中操作繁琐、读取数据单一、屏幕显示不友好等问题,提出了一种通过操作上位机软件控制发电机组的策略.以Modbus作为通信协议,利用可视化开发环境Visual Basic 6.0作为开发工具,设计了发电机组监控软件.对监控要求、软件的整体设计方案、体系结构以及各部分功能的实现进行了详细阐述.结果表明,该软件能够实时、动态、准确地显示发电机组的各类参数,同时也可以向发电机组发出请求,从而控制发电机组.监控软件在节省成本、操控方法、界面显示、维修维护方面有很大优势,而且通过数据库可以实现随时读写和存储数据的功能.%At present, controller is used as monitoring equipment in most situations when monitoring generator group. Since operation of controller is complex, reading data is single and screen display is unfriendly, this paper put forward a kind of strategy using a monitoring software control generator group. Based on Modbus protocol and Visual Basic 6. 0, the aim of this paper is to design a monitoring software of generator group. The authors introduced monitoring requirements, the overall design schemes, software architecture, as well as the realization of each part' s function. The tests show that not only all kinds of parameters can be displayed in real-time, dynamically and precisely, but the generator can be controlled by sending request. The monitoring software has the advantage in less cost, control method, screen display and maintenance. In addition, it can read, write and store data in any time by database.

  20. Full Static Output Feedback Equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristotle G. Yannakoudakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a constructive solution to the problem of full output feedback equivalence, of linear, minimal, time-invariant systems. The equivalence relation on the set of systems is transformed to another on the set of invertible block Bezout/Hankel matrices using the isotropy subgroups of the full state feedback group and the full output injection group. The transformation achieving equivalence is calculated solving linear systems of equations. We give a polynomial version of the results proving that two systems are full output feedback equivalent, if and only if they have the same family of generalized Bezoutians. We present a new set of output feedback invariant polynomials that generalize the breakaway polynomial of scalar systems.

  1. Effects of wake effect and time delay on output characteristics of doubly fed induction generators in wind power plant%尾流效应和时滞对双馈机组风电场输出特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      由于双馈机组已成为国内主流机型且大型双馈机组风电场通常占地面积比较大,需要研究双馈风电机组间的尾流效应及时滞对双馈机组风电场的并网点输出特性的影响情况。通过搭建了30台2 MW双馈风电机组组成的风电场模型,对风速波动和电网故障下双馈机组风电场输出特性进行分析和比较。通过仿真表明,机组间的尾流效应导致双馈机组风电场的风能损失;风速时滞平缓了风电场输出功率。%Because doubly fed induction generator has become the mainstream type and a large wind power plant usually covers a larger area,the impacts of wake effects among wind turbines and time delay on output characteristics of wind power plant need to be studied. With a wind power plant model composed of thirty 2⁃MW double fed induction generator wind tur⁃bines,the output characteristic of wind power plant under the conditions of wind speed fluctuation and grid faults is analyzed and compared. The simulation results show that the wake effects among wind turbines can cause the wind energy loss of wind farm and the wind speed time delay will smooth the power output of wind farm;wake effects among wind turbines and wind speed time delays needs to be considered when the grid⁃connection stability of wind farms with double fed induction generator wind turbines is analyzed.

  2. Combining HJ CCD, GF-1 WFV and MODIS Data to Generate Daily High Spatial Resolution Synthetic Data for Environmental Process Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingquan; Huang, Wenjiang; Niu, Zheng; Wang, Changyao

    2015-08-20

    The limitations of satellite data acquisition mean that there is a lack of satellite data with high spatial and temporal resolutions for environmental process monitoring. In this study, we address this problem by applying the Enhanced Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (ESTARFM) and the Spatial and Temporal Data Fusion Approach (STDFA) to combine Huanjing satellite charge coupled device (HJ CCD), Gaofen satellite no. 1 wide field of view camera (GF-1 WFV) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to generate daily high spatial resolution synthetic data for land surface process monitoring. Actual HJ CCD and GF-1 WFV data were used to evaluate the precision of the synthetic images using the correlation analysis method. Our method was tested and validated for two study areas in Xinjiang Province, China. The results show that both the ESTARFM and STDFA can be applied to combine HJ CCD and MODIS reflectance data, and GF-1 WFV and MODIS reflectance data, to generate synthetic HJ CCD data and synthetic GF-1 WFV data that closely match actual data with correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0.8989 and 0.8643, respectively. Synthetic red- and near infrared (NIR)-band data generated by ESTARFM are more suitable for the calculation of Normalized Different Vegetation Index (NDVI) than the data generated by STDFA.

  3. Pulse contour-derived cardiac output in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Joakim; Ladefoged, Soeren D

    2010-01-01

    Reliable methods for cardiac output determination are essential for studying the pathophysiology of intradialytic hypotension. Use of the current gold standard, the Transonic monitor, requires an arteriovenous fistula. We wished to verify the accuracy of a method based on finger pulse contour...... analysis, namely the Finometer monitor (FNM) for further use on patients dialyzing on a central vascular catheter. Fifty simultaneous cardiac output measurements were obtained during hemodialysis sessions in 25 patients. The internal variability of the FNM measurements was assessed by comparing 24 pairs...

  4. 光伏发电短期功率预测模型与电站监控系统设计%The Short-term Prediction Model of Photovoltaic Grid Power Generation and the Design for Monitoring System of a Power Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林嵩

    2016-01-01

    At present, there is a large fluctuation and randomicity in output power of the large-scale photovoltaic (pv) grid power generation system. To accurately predict the output power in order to solve problems of peak regulation and schedule in photovoltaic grid, this paper set up a low cost small meteorological station real-time monitoring the environment parameters such as radiation intensity, temperature, humidity, wind direction, wind speed etc. and a monitoring system to monitor the operation condition of the photovoltaic power station and gather the data of meteorology to apply to the identification of the meteorological conditions and the prediction model of a short-term power in the photovoltaic power generation system of wavelet neural network so as to realize the accurate prediction for an output power in the large-scale photovoltaic (pv) grid power system and it could have an important significance to generate and apply in a large-scale photovoltaic (pv) grid power generation system.%目前大规模光伏并网发电系统的输出功率波动大、随机性强,为准确预测光伏电站的输出功率以解决大规模光伏并网发电给电网造成的调峰、调度等难题。通过开发能实时监测环境辐照强度、温度、湿度、风向、风速等环境参数的低成本小型气象站和光伏电站监控系统来监测光伏电站的运行状况和采集气象与电站输出功率的数据,并应用于气象条件聚类识别和小波神经网络光伏发电系统短期发电功率预测模型上,以实现大规模光伏并网发电系统输出功率的精确预测,对大规模光伏并网发电系统的推广应用具有重要意义。

  5. On-line monitoring of particulate iron oxides in steam generator feedwater using x-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, C.C.; Connolly, D.J. [Babcock and Wilcox, Alliance, OH (United States). Research and Development Division; Millett, P.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Corrosion product monitoring is important as power plants strive to minimize corrosion and maximize availability. Current methodology for monitoring corrosion products involves grab sampling and/or collection of integrated samples using membrane filters followed by analysis of the membranes in the laboratory. This technique is labor intensive and provides only average values over lengthy sampling intervals (typically 1--3 days). Recently, a laboratory tool -- x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy -- was combined with existing on-line sampling techniques resulting in an on-line XRF monitor capable of measuring iron oxide particulates in a flowing stream at the parts-per-billion (ppb) level and below. After development in the laboratory, the instrument was successfully field tested in two power plants. After testing at the first power plant, modifications to improve instrument performance were incorporated. This paper presents information regarding design and operation of the instrument, improvements made during the first test period, and field data obtained during plant service. Results show that this instrument will provide on-line measurements of iron oxides at the ppb level with minimal operator involvement. Finally, there are wider applications for this on-line XRF monitor. Though the present system is geared toward iron analysis in corrosion products, it could as well be configured for other elements or groups of elements for other applications such lead, sulfur, copper, chromium, or any other element detectable by x-ray fluorescence.

  6. Investigation of a Novel NDE Method for Monitoring Thermomechanical Damage and Microstructure Evolution in Ferritic-Martensitic Steels for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Peter

    2013-09-30

    The main goal of the proposed project is the development of validated nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for in situ monitoring of ferritic-martensitic steels like Grade 91 9Cr-1Mo, which are candidate materials for Generation IV nuclear energy structural components operating at temperatures up to ~650{degree}C and for steam-generator tubing for sodium-cooled fast reactors. Full assessment of thermomechanical damage requires a clear separation between thermally activated microstructural evolution and creep damage caused by simultaneous mechanical stress. Creep damage can be classified as "negligible" creep without significant plastic strain and "ordinary" creep of the primary, secondary, and tertiary kind that is accompanied by significant plastic deformation and/or cavity nucleation and growth. Under negligible creep conditions of interest in this project, minimal or no plastic strain occurs, and the accumulation of creep damage does not significantly reduce the fatigue life of a structural component so that low-temperature design rules, such as the ASME Section III, Subsection NB, can be applied with confidence. The proposed research project will utilize a multifaceted approach in which the feasibility of electrical conductivity and thermo-electric monitoring methods is researched and coupled with detailed post-thermal/creep exposure characterization of microstructural changes and damage processes using state-of-the-art electron microscopy techniques, with the aim of establishing the most effective nondestructive materials evaluation technique for particular degradation modes in high-temperature alloys that are candidates for use in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) as well as providing the necessary mechanism-based underpinnings for relating the two. Only techniques suitable for practical application in situ will be considered. As the project evolves and results accumulate, we will also study the use of this technique for monitoring other GEN IV

  7. Monitoring multiple myeloma by next-generation sequencing of V(D)J rearrangements from circulating myeloma cells and cell-free myeloma DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Anna; Brandt, Anna; Voigtlaender, Minna; Thiele, Benjamin; Radloff, Janina; Schulenkorf, Anita; Alawi, Malik; Akyüz, Nuray; März, Manuela; Ford, Christopher T; Krohn-Grimberghe, Artus; Binder, Mascha

    2017-02-09

    Recent studies suggest that circulating tumor cells and cell-free DNA may represent powerful non-invasive tools for disease monitoring in patients with solid and hematological malignancies. Here, we conducted a pilot study in 27 myeloma patients to explore the clonotypic V(D)J rearrangement for monitoring of circulating myeloma cells (cmc-V(D)J) and cell-free myeloma DNA (cfm-V(D)J). Next-generation sequencing was used to define the myeloma V(D)J rearrangement and for subsequent peripheral blood tracking after treatment initiation. Positivity for cmc-/cfm-V(D)J was associated with conventional remission status (pJ (pJ despite persistent M-protein, suggesting that these markers are less inert than the M-protein, rely more on cell turnover and therefore decline more rapidly after initiation of effective treatment. Positivity for cmc- and cfm-V(D)J was associated with each other (p=0.042), but in 30% discordant. This indicated that cfm-V(D)J may not be generated entirely by circulating myeloma cells and may reflect overall tumor burden. Prospective studies need to define the predictive potential of high-sensitivity determination of circulating myeloma cells and DNA in the monitoring of multiple myeloma.

  8. Monitoring multiple myeloma by next-generation sequencing of V(D)J rearrangements from circulating myeloma cells and cell-free myeloma DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Anna; Brandt, Anna; Voigtlaender, Minna; Thiele, Benjamin; Radloff, Janina; Schulenkorf, Anita; Alawi, Malik; Akyüz, Nuray; März, Manuela; Ford, Christopher T.; Krohn-Grimberghe, Artus; Binder, Mascha

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that circulating tumor cells and cell-free DNA may represent powerful non-invasive tools for monitoring disease in patients with solid and hematologic malignancies. Here, we conducted a pilot study in 27 myeloma patients to explore the clonotypic V(D)J rearrangement for monitoring circulating myeloma cells and cell-free myeloma DNA. Next-generation sequencing was used to define the myeloma V(D)J rearrangement and for subsequent peripheral blood tracking after treatment initiation. Positivity for circulating myeloma cells/cell-free myeloma was associated with conventional remission status (P<0.001) and 91% of non-responders/progressors versus 41% of responders had evidence of persistent circulating myeloma cells/cell-free myeloma DNA (P<0.001). About half of the partial responders showed complete clearance of circulating myeloma cells/cell-free myeloma DNA despite persistent M-protein, suggesting that these markers are less inert than the M-protein, rely more on cell turnover and, therefore, decline more rapidly after initiation of effective treatment. Positivity for circulating myeloma cells and for cell-free myeloma DNA were associated with each other (P=0.042), but discordant in 30% of cases. This indicates that cell-free myeloma DNA may not be generated entirely by circulating myeloma cells and may reflect overall tumor burden. Prospective studies need to define the predictive potential of high-sensitivity determination of circulating myeloma cells and DNA in the monitoring of multiple myeloma. PMID:28183851

  9. Application of pulse index continuous cardiac output monitoring to improve efficiency of acute heart failure care%应用脉搏指数连续心输出量监测提升急性心力衰竭护理效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀月; 张领; 赵书琴

    2015-01-01

    Objective To ihvestigate the effect of pulse index continuous cardiac output (PiCCO) monitoring to nursing care of acute heart failure care.Methods The clinical data of 43 acute heart failure patients were retrospectively analyzed,patients were given pulse index continuous cardiac output monitoring and care,the patient' s nursing outcomes were observed,and the intrathoracic blood volume,cardiac output and oxygen consumption before and after the intervention were compared.Results After the implementation of PiCCO and nursing intervention,43 patients had no serious complications,improved 42 cases discharged,the other 1 patient in critical condition due to old age and heart function improvement sustained no automatic discharge.Oxygen consumption,cardiac output and intrathoracic blood volume were improved after the intervention,there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) compared to the previous indicators and intervention after intervention.Conclusions Application of pulse index continuous cardiac output can effectively improve patient's clinical parameters such as cardiac output,through the implementation of appropriate care can improve symptoms and reduce complications.%目的 探讨急性心力衰竭患者护理中应用脉搏指数连续心输出量监测(PiCCO)的效果.方法 选取平顶山市第二人民医院收治的43例急性心力衰竭患者作为研究对象,收集患者的临床资料并对其做回顾性分析,对患者实施脉搏指数连续心输出量监测和护理,对患者的护理效果进行观察,并对其干预前后的胸腔内血容量、心排血量与氧耗量进行对比观察.结果 实施PiCCO和护理干预,本研究43例患者均无严重并发症产生,42例好转出院,1例由于病情危重、高龄及心功能持续无改善自动出院.患者干预后的氧耗量、心排血量与胸腔内血容量均有所改善,干预后各项指标与干预前比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 应用脉搏指数连续心

  10. MetaSurv: Web-Platform Generator for the Monitoring of Health Indicators and Interactive Geographical Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubiana, Laurent; Moreau, Stéphane; Bonnard, Gaétan

    2005-01-01

    The control of the transmissible epidemics of diseases requires fast and effective tools for data acquisition, analysis, and information feedback to the actors of health like to general public. We present a tool for the fast creation of platforms of monitoring on Internet allowing the collection and the analysis in real time of the epidemic data of any origin with the dynamic and interactive cartographic representation. A Web-based Geographic Information System (Web-GIS) has been designed for communicable diseases monitoring. The Web-GIS was coupled to a data warehouse and embedded in an n-tier architecture designed as the Multi-Source Information System. It allows to access views of communicable diseases. Thus it is a useful tool for supporting health care decision-making for communicable diseases.This tool is based on the 20 years experiment of the Network Sentinels, with the daily participation of the general practitioners.

  11. Monitoring Fibrous Scaffold Guidance of Three-Dimensional Collagen Organisation Using Minimally-Invasive Second Harmonic Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Delaine-Smith, RM; Green, NH; Matcher, SJ; MacNeil, S.; Reilly, GC

    2014-01-01

    The biological and mechanical function of connective tissues is largely determined by controlled cellular alignment and therefore it seems appropriate that tissue-engineered constructs should be architecturally similar to the in vivo tissue targeted for repair or replacement. Collagen organisation dictates the tensile properties of most tissues and so monitoring the deposition of cell-secreted collagen as the construct develops is essential for understanding tissue formation. In this study, e...

  12. A Matrix PRNG with S-Box Output Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alvarez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a modification to a previously published pseudorandom number generator improving security while maintaining high performance. The proposed generator is based on the powers of a word-packed block upper triangular matrix and it is designed to be fast and easy to implement in software since it mainly involves bitwise operations between machine registers and, in our tests, it presents excellent security and statistical characteristics. The modifications include a new, key-derived s-box based nonlinear output filter and improved seeding and extraction mechanisms. This output filter can also be applied to other generators.

  13. Performance Test of the Next Generation X-Ray Beam Position Monitor System for The APS Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.; Lee, S.; Westferro, F.; Jaski, Y.; Lenkszus, F.; Sereno, N.; Ramanathan, M.

    2017-03-25

    The Advanced Photon Source is developing its next major upgrade (APS-U) based on the multi-bend achromat lattice. Improved beam stability is critical for the upgrade and will require keeping short-time beam angle change below 0.25 µrad and long-term angle drift below 0.6 µrad. A reliable white x-ray beam diagnostic system in the front end will be a key part of the planned beam stabilization system. This system includes an x-ray beam position monitor (XBPM) based on x-ray fluorescence (XRF) from two specially designed GlidCop A-15 absorbers, a second XBPM using XRF photons from the Exit Mask, and two white beam intensity monitors using XRF from the photon shutter and Compton-scattered photons from the front end beryllium window or a retractable diamond film in windowless front ends. We present orbit stability data for the first XBPM used in the feedback control during user operations, as well as test data from the second XBPM and the intensity monitors. They demonstrate that the XBPM system meets APS-U beam stability requirements.

  14. State monitoring and fault diagnosis of water-turbine generator set%水轮发电机组的状态监测和故障诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余军

    2015-01-01

    Water-turbine generator set is one of core equipment in hydropower station.The stability and safety of its running state are directly related to the safety of hydropower station.In the paper,the vibration mechanism,monitoring content and typical faults of water-turbine generator set are analyzed.On the basis,the state monitoring and fault diagnosis systems of water-turbine generator set are described.%水轮发电机组是水电厂的核心设备之一,其运行状态的稳定性与安全性直接关系到水电厂的安全。本文在分析水轮发电组振动机理、监测内容及典型故障的基础上,对水轮发电组的状态监测和故障诊断系统进行了阐述。

  15. Thymic Output: Influence Factors and Molecular Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Jin; Jun Zhang; Weifeng Chen

    2006-01-01

    Thymus is a primary lymphoid organ, able to generate mature T cells that eventually colonize secondary lymphoid organs, and is therefore essential for peripheral T cell renewal. Recent data showed that normal thymocyte export can be altered by several influence factors including several chemokines,sphingosinel-phosphate (S1P),transcription factors such as Foxjl, Kruppel-like transcription factor 2 (KLF2) and antigen stimulation, etc. In this review, we summarized the recent reports about study strategies, influence factors and possible molecular mechanisms in thymic output.

  16. Self-correcting random number generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humble, Travis S.; Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-09-06

    A system and method for generating random numbers. The system may include a random number generator (RNG), such as a quantum random number generator (QRNG) configured to self-correct or adapt in order to substantially achieve randomness from the output of the RNG. By adapting, the RNG may generate a random number that may be considered random regardless of whether the random number itself is tested as such. As an example, the RNG may include components to monitor one or more characteristics of the RNG during operation, and may use the monitored characteristics as a basis for adapting, or self-correcting, to provide a random number according to one or more performance criteria.

  17. Solar Power Station Output Inverter Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bauer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic applications spreads in these days fast, therefore they also undergo great development. Because the amount of the energy obtained from the panel depends on the surrounding conditions, as intensity of the sun exposure or the temperature of the solar array, the converter must be connected to the panel output. The Solar system equipped with inverter can supply small loads like notebooks, mobile chargers etc. in the places where the supplying network is not present. Or the system can be used as a generator and it shall deliver energy to the supply network. Each type of the application has different requirements on the converter and its control algorithm. But for all of them the one thing is common – the maximal efficiency. The paper focuses on design and simulation of the low power inverter that acts as output part of the whole converter. In the paper the design of the control algorithm of the inverter for both types of inverter application – for islanding mode and for operation on the supply grid – is discussed. Attention is also paid to the design of the output filter that should reduce negative side effects of the converter on the supply network.

  18. Research management and research output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Bosch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A study was conducted at two merged South African higher education institutions to determine which management factors, as identified in a literature study as well as through a factor analysis of survey data, were predictive of the dependent variable 'research output'. Problem investigated: Research output contributes to creating sustainability of knowledge of management sciences and therefore the active management of research is in the interest of progressive universities. Research management related activities are usually associated with measurable targets, detailed plans, rigorous evaluation and decisive action - all of which are observable (perhaps programmable behaviour also referred to as tangible factors. Authors argue that the tangible factors of any successful institution can be copied, technology can be bought, and in theory you should have an instantly thriving research institution. It is, however, clear that although many institutions have exactly the same technology and structure as their successful competitors, they still fail to succeed in increasing research output. Design and Research methodology or approach: A survey was distributed to n=411 and yielded a 49.6% response rate. A confirmatory reliability analysis as well as a factor analysis was conducted. Findings/implications: The empirical model that was derived through a factor analysis strengthens the argument that both tangible and intangible factors exist in a research environment. Tangible and intangible factors play a different role in predicting research output. The tangible factors are predictors of research output for non-research-active academics. The theoretical research output prediction model highlights predictors such as 'professional activities' and 'individual skills and competence' for specific groupings. The theoretical model indicates that the factors that predict research output are largely intrinsic to a researcher but could also be supported by

  19. The high voltage homopolar generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J. H.; Gully, J. H.; Driga, M. D.

    1986-11-01

    System and component design features of proposed high voltage homopolar generator (HVHPG) are described. The system is to have an open circuit voltage of 500 V, a peak output current of 500 kA, 3.25 MJ of stored inertial energy and possess an average magnetic-flux density of 5 T. Stator assembly components are discussed, including the stator, mount structure, hydrostatic bearings, main and motoring brushgears and rotor. Planned operational procedures such as monitoring the rotor to full speed and operation with a superconducting field coil are delineated.

  20. Determining state-space models from sequential output data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiguan Gene

    1988-01-01

    This talk focuses on the determination of state-space models for large space systems using only the output data. The output data could be generated by the unknown or deliberate initial conditions of the space structure in question. We shall review some relevant fundamental work on the state-space modeling of sequential output data that is potentially applicable to large space structures. If formulated in terms of some generalized Markov parameters, this approach is in some sense similar to, but much simpler than, the Juang-Pappa Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA) and the Ho-Kalman construction procedure.

  1. OUTPUT FEEDBACK CONTROL FOR MIMO NONLINEAR SYSTEMS WITH EXOGENOUS SIGNALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying ZHOU; Yuqiang WU

    2006-01-01

    The paper addresses the global output tracking of a class of multi-input multi-output(MIMO) nonlinear systems affected by disturbances, which are generated by a known exosystem. An adaptive controller is designed based on the proposed observer and the backstepping approach to asymptotically track arbitrary reference signal and to guarantee the boundedness of all the signals in the closed loop system. Finally, the numerical simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  2. In situ and on-line monitoring of CO in an industrial glass furnace by mid-infrared difference-frequency generation laser spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorsandi, Alireza; Willer, Ulrike; Wondraczek, Lothar; Schade, Wolfgang

    2004-12-10

    A compact mid-infrared (MIR) laser spectrometer based on difference-frequency generation (DFG) is applied as a portable and sensitive gas sensor for industrial process control and pollutant monitoring. We demonstrate the performance of such a MIR DFG gas sensor by recording the absorption spectra of the carbon monoxide (CO) P(28) absorption line in the atmosphere of a gas-fired glass melting furnace. For a gas temperature of approximately 1100 degrees C, the CO concentration in the recuperator channel is measured to be 400 parts per million.

  3. Pulse contour-derived cardiac output in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Joakim; Ladefoged, Soeren D

    2010-01-01

    Reliable methods for cardiac output determination are essential for studying the pathophysiology of intradialytic hypotension. Use of the current gold standard, the Transonic monitor, requires an arteriovenous fistula. We wished to verify the accuracy of a method based on finger pulse contour...

  4. Regionalising Input-Output Tables: Comparison of Four Location Quotiënt Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, J.; Peerlings, J.H.M.; Steijaert, Tim; Heijman, Wim

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we compare four methods to generate a regional input-output table (RIOT). A RIOT is a requirement for a regional input-output (IO) analysis and any over- or underestimation of regional input-output coefficients (RIOCs), contained in the RIOT, can lead to over- or underestimation of e

  5. A Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Reconfigurable Smart-Sensor Network for Wireless Monitoring of New Generation Computer Numerically Controlled Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stiharu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Computer numerically controlled (CNC machines have evolved to adapt to increasing technological and industrial requirements. To cover these needs, new generation machines have to perform monitoring strategies by incorporating multiple sensors. Since in most of applications the online Processing of the variables is essential, the use of smart sensors is necessary. The contribution of this work is the development of a wireless network platform of reconfigurable smart sensors for CNC machine applications complying with the measurement requirements of new generation CNC machines. Four different smart sensors are put under test in the network and their corresponding signal processing techniques are implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA-based sensor node.

  6. World Input-Output Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cerina

    Full Text Available Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  7. World Input-Output Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries. PMID:26222389

  8. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  9. World Input-Output Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  10. Judicial Influence on Policy Outputs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2015-01-01

    ) social policy outputs. A taxonomy of judicial influence is constructed, and expectations of institutional and political conditions on judicial influence are presented. The analysis draws on an extensive novel data set and examines judicial influence on EU social policies over time, that is, between 1958...

  11. Bayesian Monitoring.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirstein, Roland

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a modification of the inspection game: The ?Bayesian Monitoring? model rests on the assumption that judges are interested in enforcing compliant behavior and making correct decisions. They may base their judgements on an informative but imperfect signal which can be generated costlessly. In the original inspection game, monitoring is costly and generates a perfectly informative signal. While the inspection game has only one mixed strategy equilibrium, three Perfect Bayesia...

  12. Stability of the single-mode output of a laser diode array with phase conjugate feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, S.; Løbel, M.; Petersen, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    The stability of the output of a single-mode laser diode array with frequency selective phase conjugate feedback has been investigated experimentally. Both the long-term stability of the laser output and the sensitivity to feedback generated by external reflection of the output beam are examined....... The output power and the center wavelength are found to be extremely stable in a 100 h stability measurement. External feedback of the output beam into the laser is seen to decrease both the spatial and the temporal coherence of the output significantly. We outline an approach to obtain a stable single...

  13. Measurement of output power density from mobile phone as a function of input sound frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, Emanuele; Magazù, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of power density emitted by a mobile phone were carried out as a function of the sound frequency transmitted by a sound generator, ranging from 250 to 14000 Hz. Output power density was monitored by means of the selective radiation meter Narda SRM 3000 in spectrum analysis mode, and the octave frequency analysis of each tone used for the experimental design was acquired by the sound level meter Larson Davis LxT Wind. Vodafone providers were used for mobile phone calls with respect to various local base station in Southern-Italy. A relationship between the mobile phone microwaves power density and the sound frequencies transmitted by the sound generator was observed. In particular, microwaves power density level decreases significantly at sound frequency values larger than 4500 Hz. This result can be explained assuming that discontinuous transmission mode of global system for mobile communications is powered not only in silence-mode, but also at frequencies larger than 4500 Hz.

  14. Hadron-therapy beam monitoring: Towards a new generation of ultra-thin p-type silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouterfa, M.; Aouadi, K. [Inst. of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics ICTEAM, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bertrand, D. [Particle Therapy Dept., Ion Beam Application IBA, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Olbrechts, B.; Delamare, R. [Inst. of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics ICTEAM, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Raskin, J. P.; Gil, E. C. [Institut de Recherche en Mathematique et Physique IRMP, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Flandre, D. [Inst. of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics ICTEAM, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2011-07-01

    Hadron-therapy has gained increasing interest for cancer treatment especially within the last decade. System commissioning and quality assurance procedures impose to monitor the particle beam using 2D dose measurements. Nowadays, several monitoring systems exist for hadron-therapy but all show a relatively high influence on the beam properties: indeed, most devices consist of several layers of materials that degrade the beam through scattering and energy losses. For precise treatment purposes, ultra-thin silicon strip detectors are investigated in order to reduce this beam scattering. We assess the beam size increase provoked by the Multiple Coulomb Scattering when passing through Si, to derive a target thickness. Monte-Carlo based simulations show a characteristic scattering opening angle lower than 1 mrad for thicknesses below 20 {mu}m. We then evaluated the fabrication process feasibility. We successfully thinned down silicon wafers to thicknesses lower than 10 {mu}m over areas of several cm{sup 2}. Strip detectors are presently being processed and they will tentatively be thinned down to 20 {mu}m. Moreover, two-dimensional TCAD simulations were carried out to investigate the beam detector performances on p-type Si substrates. Additionally, thick and thin substrates have been compared thanks to electrical simulations. Reducing the pitch between the strips increases breakdown voltage, whereas leakage current is quite insensitive to strips geometrical configuration. The samples are to be characterized as soon as possible in one of the IBA hadron-therapy facilities. For hadron-therapy, this would represent a considerable step forward in terms of treatment precision. (authors)

  15. Auxetic piezoelectric energy harvesters for increased electric power output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Kuang, Yang; Zhu, Meiling

    2017-01-01

    This letter presents a piezoelectric bimorph with auxetic (negative Poisson's ratio) behaviors for increased power output in vibration energy harvesting. The piezoelectric bimorph comprises a 2D auxetic substrate sandwiched between two piezoelectric layers. The auxetic substrate is capable of introducing auxetic behaviors and thus increasing the transverse stress in the piezoelectric layers when the bimorph is subjected to a longitudinal stretching load. As a result, both 31- and 32-modes are simultaneously exploited to generate electric power, leading to an increased power output. The increasing power output principle was theoretically analyzed and verified by finite element (FE) modelling. The FE modelling results showed that the auxetic substrate can increase the transverse stress of a bimorph by 16.7 times. The average power generated by the auxetic bimorph is 2.76 times of that generated by a conventional bimorph.

  16. Application of Generators Unplanned Outage Monitoring of Shanxi Power Grid%山西电网机组非计划停运监测应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宏锐

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problem of generators unplanned outage in Shanxi power grid, we developed the monitoring module of harmonious dispatch supporting system by using its on-line monitoring function. By analyzing, we can predict in advance the potential risks and the cause of generators unplanned outage. The application effectively filled the blank of the impact on the security and stability of Shanxi Power Grid, which not only prepared for the power balance in days or a few days ago, but also made a strong technical support for the safe and stable operation of the power grid.%针对山西电网发电机组非停事件,利用和谐调度系统在线监测功能,开发了和谐系统机组非停监测模块,并将其应用到了非停原因分析中.通过分析,可以提前判断机组非停的潜在风险及故障原因.有效填补了机组非停影响电网安全稳定的空白,为日内或日前电网平衡做好充分准备,且为电网安全稳定运行提供有力的技术保障.

  17. Analysis of the potential of one possible instrumental configuration of the next generation of IASI instruments to monitor lower tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sellitto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the added value brought by the next generation of IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer instruments to monitor lower tropospheric (LT ozone, we developed a pseudo-observation simulator, including a direct simulator of thermal infrared spectra and a full inversion scheme to retrieve ozone concentration profiles. We based our simulations on the instrumental configuration of IASI and of an IASI-like instrument, with a factor 2 improvement in terms of spectral resolution and radiometric noise. This scenario, that will be referred to as IASI/2, is one possible configuration of the IASI-NG (New Generation instrument (the configuration called IASI-NG/IRS2 currently designed by CNES (Centre National d'Études Spatiales. IASI-NG is expected to be launched in the 2020 timeframe as part of the EPS-SG (EUMETSAT Polar System-Second Generation, formerly post-EPS mission. We produced one month (August 2009 of tropospheric ozone pseudo-observations based on these two instrumental configurations. We compared the pseudo-observations and we found a clear improvement of LT ozone (up to 6 km altitude pseudo-observations quality for IASI/2. The estimated total error is expected to be more than 35% smaller at 5 km, and 20% smaller for the LT ozone column. The total error on the LT ozone column is, on average, lower than 10% for IASI/2. IASI/2 is expected to have a significantly better vertical sensitivity (monthly average degrees of freedom surface–6 km of 0.70 and to be sensitive at lower altitudes (more than 0.5 km lower than IASI, reaching nearly 3 km. Vertical ozone layers of 4 to 5 km thickness are expected to be resolved by IASI/2, while IASI has a vertical resolution of 6–8 km. According to our analyses, IASI/2 is expected to have the possibility of effectively separate lower from upper tropospheric ozone information even for low sensitivity scenarios. In addition, IASI/2 is expected to be able to better monitor LT ozone patterns at

  18. Photovoltaic-wind hybrid autonomous generation systems in Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dei, Tsutomu; Ushiyama, Izumi

    2005-01-01

    Two hybrid stand-alone (autonomous) power systems, each with wind and PV generation, were studied as installed at health clinics in semi-desert and mountainous region in Mongolia. Meteorological and system operation parameters, including power output and the consumption of the system, were generally monitored by sophisticated monitoring. However, where wind and solar site information was lacking, justifiable estimates were made. The results show that there is a seasonal complementary relationship between wind and solar irradiation in Tarot Sum. The users understood the necessity of Demand Side Management of isolated wind-PV generation system through technology transfer seminars and actually executed DSM at both sites. (author)

  19. Monitoring low molecular weight heparins at therapeutic levels: dose-responses of, and correlations and differences between aPTT, anti-factor Xa and thrombin generation assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owain Thomas

    Full Text Available Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH's are used to prevent and treat thrombosis. Tests for monitoring LMWH's include anti-factor Xa (anti-FXa, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT and thrombin generation. Anti-FXa is the current gold standard despite LMWH's varying affinities for FXa and thrombin.To examine the effects of two different LMWH's on the results of 4 different aPTT-tests, anti-FXa activity and thrombin generation and to assess the tests' concordance.Enoxaparin and tinzaparin were added ex-vivo in concentrations of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 anti-FXa international units (IU/mL, to blood from 10 volunteers. aPTT was measured using two whole blood methods (Free oscillation rheometry (FOR and Hemochron Jr (HCJ and an optical plasma method using two different reagents (ActinFSL and PTT-Automat. Anti-FXa activity was quantified using a chromogenic assay. Thrombin generation (Endogenous Thrombin Potential, ETP was measured on a Ceveron Alpha instrument using the TGA RB and more tissue-factor rich TGA RC reagents.Methods' mean aPTT at 1.0 IU/mL LMWH varied between 54s (SD 11 and 69s (SD 14 for enoxaparin and between 101s (SD 21 and 140s (SD 28 for tinzaparin. ActinFSL gave significantly shorter aPTT results. aPTT and anti-FXa generally correlated well. ETP as measured with the TGA RC reagent but not the TGA RB reagent showed an inverse exponential relationship to the concentration of LMWH. The HCJ-aPTT results had the weakest correlation to anti-FXa and thrombin generation (Rs0.62-0.87, whereas the other aPTT methods had similar correlation coefficients (Rs0.80-0.92.aPTT displays a linear dose-response to LMWH. There is variation between aPTT assays. Tinzaparin increases aPTT and decreases thrombin generation more than enoxaparin at any given level of anti-FXa activity, casting doubt on anti-FXa's present gold standard status. Thrombin generation with tissue factor-rich activator is a promising method for monitoring LMWH's.

  20. Infrared thermography for monitoring heat generation in a linear friction welding process of Ti6Al4V alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, L.; Liberini, M.; Campanella, D.; Astarita, A.; Esposito, S.; Boccardi, S.; Meola, C.

    2017-03-01

    The increasing use of titanium alloys in a wider range of applications requires the development of new techniques and processes capable to decrease production costs and manufacturing times. In this regard welding and other joining techniques play an important role. Today, solid state friction joining processes, such as friction stir welding, friction spot welding, inertia friction welding, continuous-drive friction welding and linear friction welding (LFW), represent promising methods for part manufacturing. They allow for joining at temperature essentially below the melting point of the base materials being joined, without the addition of filler metal. However, the knowledge of temperature is essential to understand and model the phenomena involved in metal welding. A global measured value represents only a clue of the heat generation during the process; while, a deep understanding of welding thermal aspects requires temperature field measurement. This paper is focused on the use of infrared thermography applied to the linear friction welding process of Ti6Al4V alloy. The attention is concentrated on thermal field that develops on the outer wall of the two parts to be joined (i.e. heat generated in the friction zone), and on the maximum temperature that characterizes the process before and after the flash formation.

  1. Pulse Indicator Continuous Cardiac Output for Hemodynamics Monitoring in Patients with Septic Shock%脉搏指示连续心排血量监测(PiCCO)在脓毒症休克患者血流动力学监测中的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe and analyze patients with septic shock pulse wave indicates continuous cardiac output monitoring (Picco) clinical value, to provide a reference for future clinical use. Methods January 2013—2014 in March during outpatient sep-sis patients admitted to 40 cases for the study, depending on the admission of hemodynamic monitoring methods divided into two groups, the study group and the control group 20 cases. Two were used for routine monitoring (control group), Picco monitoring (study group) to guide clinical treatment (fluid resuscitation, inotropic drugs, vasoconstrictor drugs, etc.). Results The mean arterial pressure in the two groups of patients after treatment of the initial value and compare, P 0.05). Conclusion Picco be monitored in patients with septic shock hemodynamic parameters with good results, it is worth further study in late.%目的:观察脓毒症休克患者采用脉波指示连续心排血量监测(PiCCO)的效果,并分析其临床应用价值。方法将医院2012年1月—2014年3月期间门诊收入的脓毒症50例患者选为研究对象,按照患者就诊时血动力指标的监测方式不同分成两组:研究组25例,对照组25例。两组分别采用常规监测(对照组)、PiCCO监测(研究组)指导临床治疗(液体复苏、正性肌力药物、血管收缩药物等)。结果两组患者的平均动脉压在初始值比较(P<0.01);研究组患者入院3 d内不同时点GEDI、PPV、SVV检测值比较,组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。组间在去甲肾上腺素和就诊1周输液量比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论脓毒症休克患者予以PiCCO监测血流动力学指标具有良好效果,值得在后期进一步研究。

  2. PROBABILITY MODEL OF GUNTHER GENERATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper constructs the probability model of Gunther generator at first, and the finite dimension union distribution of the output sequence is presented. The result shows that the output sequence is an independent and uniformly distributed 0,1 random variable sequence.It gives the theoretical foundation about why Gunther generator can avoid the statistic weakness of the output sequence of stop-and-go generator, and analyzes the coincidence between output sequence and input sequences of Gunther generator. The conclusions of this paper would offer theoretical references for designers and analyzers of clock-controlled generators.

  3. Monitoring the Transmembrane Proton Gradient Generated by Cytochrome bo3 in Tethered Bilayer Lipid Membranes Using SEIRA Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebalck, Swantje; Kozuch, Jacek; Forbrig, Enrico; Tzschucke, C Christoph; Jeuken, Lars J C; Hildebrandt, Peter

    2016-03-10

    Membrane proteins act as biocatalysts or ion/proton pumps to convert and store energy from ubiquitous environmental sources. Interfacing these proteins to electrodes allows utilizing the energy for enzymatic biofuel cells or other auspicious biotechnological applications. To optimize the efficiency of these devices, appropriate membrane models are required that ensure structural and functional integrity of the embedded enzymes and provide structural insight. We present a spectroelectrochemical surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) and electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) study of the bacterial respiratory ubiquinol/cytochrome bo3 (cyt bo3) couple incorporated into a tethered bilayer lipid membrane (tBLM). Here, we employed a new lipid tether (WK3SH, dihydrocholesteryl (2-(2-(2-ethoxy)ethoxy)ethanethiol), which was synthesized using a three-step procedure with very good yield and allowed measuring IR spectra without significant spectral interference of the tBLM. The functional integrity of the incorporated cyt bo3 was demonstrated by monitoring the enzymatic O2 reduction current and the formation of the transmembrane proton gradient. Based on a SEIRA-spectroscopic redox titration, a shift of the pH-dependent redox potential of the ubiquinones under turnover conditions was correlated with an alkalinization of the submembrane reservoir by +0.8 pH units. This study demonstrates the high potential of tBLMs and the SEIRA spectroscopic approach to study bioenergetic processes.

  4. Monitoring the effect of low-level laser therapy in healing process of skin with second harmonic generation imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoman; Yu, Biying; Weng, Cuncheng; Li, Hui

    2014-11-01

    The 632nm wavelength low intensity He-Ne laser was used to irradiated on 15 mice which had skin wound. The dynamic changes and wound healing processes were observed with nonlinear spectral imaging technology. We observed that:(1)The wound healing process was accelerated by the low-level laser therapy(LLLT);(2)The new tissues produced second harmonic generation (SHG) signals. Collagen content and microstructure differed dramatically at different time pointed along the wound healing. Our observation shows that the low intensity He-Ne laser irradiation can accelerate the healing process of skin wound in mice, and SHG imaging technique can be used to observe wound healing process, which is useful for quantitative characterization of wound status during wound healing process.

  5. Output regulation problem for a class of regular hyperbolic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaodong; Dubljevic, Stevan

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the output regulation problem for a class of regular first-order hyperbolic partial differential equation (PDE) systems. A state feedback and an error feedback regulator are considered to force the output of the hyperbolic PDE plant to track a periodic reference trajectory generated by a neutrally stable exosystem. A new explanation is given to extend the results in the literature to solve the regulation problem associated with the first-order hyperbolic PDE systems. Moreover, in order to provide the closed-loop stability condition for the solvability of the regulator problems, the design of stabilising feedback gain and its dual problem design of stabilising output injection gain are considered in this paper. This paper develops an easy method to obtain an adjustable stabilising feedback gain and stabilising output injection gain with the aid of the operator Riccati equation.

  6. Value-Chain Networks and Entrepreneurial Output in Multinational Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitratos, Pavlos; Andersson, Ulf; Liouka, Ioanna

    2011-01-01

    and non value-chain networks; because they may provide the subsidiary knowledge with market opportunities that it lacks and that the other types of networks cannot effectively provide. However, value-chain networks have a negative effect on entrepreneurial output of a subsidiary operating...... in an environment of high uncertainty; because they can constrain the exploration and creation of new knowledge that cannot be provided by any of the networks. Contrary to our expectations, the combined effect of value-chain and non-value chain networks has a negative influence on entrepreneurial output; and...... on their entrepreneurial output. Entrepreneurial output can generate superior performance and positive externalities to the subsidiary. Based on a large-scale study of 268 multinational subsidiaries in the UK, we find that value-chain networks have a higher positive impact than multinational corporation (MNC) networks...

  7. Observations of Earthquake-Generated T-Waves in the South China Sea: Possible Applications for Regional Seismic Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Shouh Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed study of T-waves originating from earthquakes in the South China Sea region, near the Indochina Peninsula and Luzon islands which were recorded by a broadband seismic station at Nansha Island. Most of these T-waves appear to have been the source originating from earthquakes with epicentral distances greater than 600 km from this station. The T-waves in this region were identified via their apparent stable measured velocities of about 1.45 km s-1, and represent the first reported T-waves and the first T-waves observed from an island station in the South China Sea. However, during the period of analysis (November 2004 to December 2005 additional earthquakes also occurred beyond the South China Sea region, but in these instances, any associated T-waves were not picked up by the station at Nansha Island. An analysis of T-wave travel times reveals the possible locations of the P-wave to T-wave transitions at the ocean to crust interface were presumably situated near the earthquake source side. Our results indicate that the Sound Fixing and Ranging (SOFAR channel is well developed in the South China Sea region. Ultimately, developing a solid understanding of the effective transmission of T-waves through the ocean may provide new opportunities for detecting and locating small earthquakes which would be useful for both seismic monitoring and in helping to predict and reduce the damaging effects of earthquakes and tsunamis in the SouthChina Sea region.

  8. Observations of Earthquake-Generated T-Waves in the South China Sea: Possible Applications for Regional Seismic Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Shouh Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed study of T-waves originating from earthquakes in the South China Sea region, near the Indochina Peninsula and Luzon islands which were recorded by a broadband seismic station at Nansha Island. Most of these T-waves appear to have been the source originating from earthquakes with epicentral distances greater than 600 km from this station. The T-waves in this region were identified via their apparent stable measured velocities of about 1.45 km s-1, and represent the first reported T-waves and the first T-waves observed from an island station in the South China Sea. However, during the period of analysis (November 2004 to December 2005 additional earthquakes also occurred beyond the South China Sea region, but in these instances, any associated T-waves were not picked up by the station at Nansha Island. An analysis of T-wave travel times reveals the possible locations of the P-wave to T-wave transitions at the ocean to crust interface were presumably situated near the earthquake source side. Our results indicate that the Sound Fixing and Ranging (SOFAR channel is well developed in the South China Sea region. Ultimately, developing a solid understanding of the effective transmission of T-waves through the ocean may provide new opportunities for detecting and locating small earthquakes which would be useful for both seismic monitoring and in helping to predict and reduce the damaging effects of earthquakes and tsunamis in the South China Sea region.

  9. Clinical evaluation of the accuracy of the USCOM ultrasonic cardiac output monitor in the septic shock patients%无创超声心输出量测定对急诊感染性休克患者血流动力学状态评价的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘继海; 于学忠; 王仲; 朱华栋; 徐胜勇

    2011-01-01

    目的 对急诊感染性休克患者同时进行脉搏波形指示的连续心输出量(pulse indicated continuous cardiac output, PiCCO)监测技术和无创超声心输出量测定,以有创血流动力学监测的数值作为标准,对无创超声心输出量测定方法的可靠性进行评价.方法 本试验为前瞻性研究,2008-06~2009-06北京协和医院急诊科抢救室和EICU收治32例明确诊断为感染性休克的患者,对这些患者同时进行无创超声心输出量测定和PiCCO监测,对比两者在心脏指数(cardiac index, CI)这一血流动力学核心指标上的差异,以评价无创超声心输出量测定在急诊应用中的可靠性.结果 共有30例患者同时获得了满意的血流超声多普勒影像,其中男性20例,女性10例,最小年龄26岁,最大年龄89岁,另2例患者因无法获得满意的超声结果而放弃.对比结果显示,在获得满意超声多普勒影像的前提下,无创超声心输出量和PiCCO测定的CI分别为(3.89±1.61)L/(min·m2)和(4.35±1.72)L/(min·m2)(Pearson相关系数=0.97165,P<0.0001).结论 无创超声心输出量测定是一项准确、快速、安全、无创的血流动力学监测技术,比较适合急诊患者的应用.%Objective The USCOM ultrasonic cardiac output monitor ( USCOM Pty Ltd, Coffs Harbour, NSW, Australia) is a non - invasive device that determines cardiac output by continuouswave Doppler ultrasound. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the USCOM device compared with the PiCCO ( pulse indicated continuous cardiac output) technique on the septic shock patients in Emergency Room and Emergency Intensive Care Unit in Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Methods We conducted a prospective study in Emergency Room and Emergency Intensive Care Unit in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from June lst, 2008 to May 3lst, 2009. Thirty -two patients who were diagnosed as septic shock were recruited in this study. We evaluated the USCOM monitor by

  10. Distributed fibre optic temperature measurement system for the safety monitoring of the next generation of large nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Fernandez, Alberto; Brichard, Benoit [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Center (Belgium); Hartog, Arthur H.; Hughes, Paul [SENSA, a Schlumberger Company (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The use of optical fibre distributed sensors for temperature sensing is a powerful way of monitoring, quasi simultaneously, thousands of points avoiding the requirement of optimum positioning of discrete temperature sensors. Their range of applications is rapidly expanding in the industry, and nowadays this fibre optic sensing technology is mature for industrial applications such as fire detection inside buildings and tunnels, process vessel monitoring, leak detection in cryogenic storage vessels (liquid natural gas (LNG), ammonia, ethylene) or oil wells and the measurement of energy cable thermal distribution for the power supply industry. These applications rely on the well known immunity of fibre optic sensors to electromagnetic interference and the ability of fibre sensors to be operated in hazardous environments. The nuclear industry shows a growing interest for the possibilities offered for temperature sensing applications. Fibre optic sensing technology could be considered as an alternative to classical measurements techniques in a wide range of applications. The potential of distributed temperature measurements for the monitoring of large nuclear infrastructures such as reactor containment buildings, nuclear waste repositories and reactor primary circuitry have already been shown. However, a major problem in the application of optical fibres in nuclear environments is the presence of ionizing radiation fields that induce an increase of the optical fibre attenuation. This radiation-induced degradation of the measurement signal could be critical since most commercially available distributed temperature sensors derive the temperature profile from the measurement of the Raman backscattered light intensity along the fibre, using optical time domain reflectometry techniques. The Raman signal comprises two elements: the Stokes and anti-Stokes lines. The longer wavelength Stokes line is only weakly temperature sensitive but the intensity of the backscattered light

  11. 风电场监控系统现状和发展趋势综述%Summary on the actuality and development trend of the wind power generation fields monitoring system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文华

    2011-01-01

    Based on the widely investigation for the integrative monitoring systems of internal and overseas wind power generation fields,analyzes the appearing background,network structure and function characteristic of the monitoring system in wind power generation fields,compares both of similarities and differences between internal and overseas monitoring system,discusses the development trend of the monitoring system in wind power generation fields.%对国内外风电场综合监控系统进行了广泛调研,分析了风电场监控系统的产生的背景、现状、组网方式及功能特点,比较了国内外监控系统的相同和异同,在此基础上讨论了风电场监控系统的发展趋势。

  12. Methods and apparatus for determining cardiac output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Richard J. (Inventor); Mukkamala, Ramakrishna (Inventor); Sherman, Derin A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for determining a dynamical property of the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree using long time scale information, i.e., information obtained from measurements over time scales greater than a single cardiac cycle. In one aspect, the invention provides a method and apparatus for monitoring cardiac output (CO) from a single blood pressure signal measurement obtained at any site in the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree or from any related measurement including, for example, fingertip photoplethysmography.According to the method the time constant of the arterial tree, defined to be the product of the total peripheral resistance (TPR) and the nearly constant arterial compliance, is determined by analyzing the long time scale variations (greater than a single cardiac cycle) in any of these blood pressure signals. Then, according to Ohm's law, a value proportional to CO may be determined from the ratio of the blood pressure signal to the estimated time constant. The proportional CO values derived from this method may be calibrated to absolute CO, if desired, with a single, absolute measure of CO (e.g., thermodilution). The present invention may be applied to invasive radial arterial blood pressure or pulmonary arterial blood pressure signals which are routinely measured in intensive care units and surgical suites or to noninvasively measured peripheral arterial blood pressure signals or related noninvasively measured signals in order to facilitate the clinical monitoring of CO as well as TPR.

  13. Out with the old, out with the new--The effect of transitions in TVs and monitors technology on consumption and WEEE generation in Sweden 1996-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmykova, Yuliya; Patrício, João; Rosado, Leonardo; Berg, P E O

    2015-12-01

    The recycling of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is important due to its content of valuable and hazardous compounds. This study investigates the case of the recent technology change within television sets (TVs) and monitors, its impact on the generation of WEEE, and the implications for the recycling industry. In particular, material flow analysis for the time series of 1996-2014 for TVs and monitors by type of technology (CRT, Plasma and LCD) in physical units is combined with empirical data on product lifespans. The number of consumed TVs and monitors has grown exponentially. As a result, despite a 3-fold reduction in the weight of the products, the weight of the corresponding WEEE is also growing exponentially. Out with the old, out with the new - a peak in WEEE from both CRT and flat-screen displays is expected during 2014-2020, due to the simultaneous obsolesce of the last wave of CRT products and the short-lived flat-screen products that substituted the CRTs. The lifespans of LCD and LED TVs were found to be three times shorter than of the CRT TVs, with many TVs discarded while still functional. This is the consequence of two events - replacement of the CRT TVs in combination with lifestyle purchases of TVs, i.e. the premature replacement of flat-screen displays with new sets with extra-large screens and/or new features. The throughput of TVs and monitors consumed has been estimated annually from 2014 until 2040, by quantity and type of device, as well as by component and material type. The annual economic value of the corresponding secondary materials, by material type, has also been estimated. The point in time when the final disposal of CRT products is likely to take place has been identified and should be noted by the recycling industry. Among the important contributions of this study to the accounting and predicting of amounts and types of WEEE are the lifespan distributions, size and weight distributions, and material composition for

  14. Invasive and non-invasive methods for cardiac output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavdaniti M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The hemodynamic status monitoring of high-risk surgical patients and critically ill patients inIntensive Care Units is one of the main objectives of their therapeutic management. Cardiac output is one of the mostimportant parameters for cardiac function monitoring, providing an estimate of whole body perfusion oxygen deliveryand allowing for an understanding of the causes of high blood pressure. The purpose of the present review is thedescription of cardiac output measurement methods as presented in the international literature. The articles documentthat there are many methods of monitoring the hemodynamic status of patients, both invasive and non-invasive, themost popular of which is thermodilution. The invasive methods are the Fick method and thermodilution, whereasthe non-invasive methods are oeshophaegeal Doppler, transoesophageal echocardiography, lithium dilution, pulsecontour, partial CO2 rebreathing and thoracic electrical bioimpedance. All of them have their advantages and disadvantages,but thermodilution is the golden standard for critical patients, although it does entail many risks. The idealsystem for cardiac output monitoring would be non-invasive, easy to use, reliable and compatible in patients. A numberof research studies have been carried out in clinical care settings, by nurses as well as other health professionals, for thepurpose of finding a method of measurement that would have the least disadvantages. Nevertheless, the thermodilutiontechnique remains the most common approach in use today.

  15. RISMA: A Rule-based Interval State Machine Algorithm for Alerts Generation, Performance Analysis and Monitoring Real-Time Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Shaban; El-Desouky, Aly

    2013-04-01

    The monitoring of real-time systems is a challenging and complicated process. So, there is a continuous need to improve the monitoring process through the use of new intelligent techniques and algorithms for detecting exceptions, anomalous behaviours and generating the necessary alerts during the workflow monitoring of such systems. The interval-based or period-based theorems have been discussed, analysed, and used by many researches in Artificial Intelligence (AI), philosophy, and linguistics. As explained by Allen, there are 13 relations between any two intervals. Also, there have also been many studies of interval-based temporal reasoning and logics over the past decades. Interval-based theorems can be used for monitoring real-time interval-based data processing. However, increasing the number of processed intervals makes the implementation of such theorems a complex and time consuming process as the relationships between such intervals are increasing exponentially. To overcome the previous problem, this paper presents a Rule-based Interval State Machine Algorithm (RISMA) for processing, monitoring, and analysing the behaviour of interval-based data, received from real-time sensors. The proposed intelligent algorithm uses the Interval State Machine (ISM) approach to model any number of interval-based data into well-defined states as well as inferring them. An interval-based state transition model and methodology are presented to identify the relationships between the different states of the proposed algorithm. By using such model, the unlimited number of relationships between similar large numbers of intervals can be reduced to only 18 direct relationships using the proposed well-defined states. For testing the proposed algorithm, necessary inference rules and code have been designed and applied to the continuous data received in near real-time from the stations of International Monitoring System (IMS) by the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Preparatory

  16. Research output in medieval and crusades studies 1981-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Kjersgaard

    2017-01-01

    on the methodological considerations necessary in doing this kind of quantitative research. On the basis of bibliometric statistics generated from the International Medieval Bibliography (IMB) and Bibliographie de Civilisation Médiévale (BCM), the article identifies a numeric decrease in research output in both......This article investigates the numerical research output of Crusades studies over the past thirty years. The article compares its findings to the output of Medieval Studies in general in the same period. The article shows in detail how the applied bibliometric statistics are generated and elaborates...... crusades studies in particular and in medieval studies in general. The article opts for further discussion on the why’s and how’s of this somewhat surprising result....

  17. Monitoring and control requirement definition study for dispersed storage and generation (DSG). Volume II. Final report, Appendix A: selected DSG technologies and their general control requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    A major aim of the US National Energy Policy, as well as that of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, is to conserve energy and to shift from oil to more abundant domestic fuels and renewable energy sources. Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG) is the term that characterizes the present and future dispersed, relatively small (<30 MW) energy systems, such as solar thermal electric, photovoltaic, wind, fuel cell, storage battery, hydro, and cogeneration, which can help achieve these national energy goals and can be dispersed throughout the distribution portion of an electric utility system. The purpose of this survey and identification of DSG technologies is to present an understanding of the special characteristics of each of these technologies in sufficient detail so that the physical principles of their operation and the internal control of each technology are evident. In this way, a better appreciation can be obtained of the monitoring and control requirements for these DSGs from a remote distribution dispatch center. A consistent approach is being sought for both hardware and software which will handle the monitoring and control necessary to integrate a number of different DSG technologies into a common distribution dispatch network. From this study it appears that the control of each of the DSG technologies is compatible with a supervisory control method of operation that lends itself to remote control from a distribution dispatch center.

  18. Random output and hospital performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Pedro Pita

    2003-11-01

    Many countries are under pressure to reform health care financing and delivery. Hospital care is one part of the health system that is under scrutiny. Private management initiatives are a possible way to increase efficiency in health care delivery. This motivates the interest in developing methodologies to assess hospital performance, recognizing hospitals as a different sort of firm. We present a simple way to describe hospital production: hospital output as a change in the distribution of survival probabilities. This output definition allows us to separate hospital production from patients' characteristics. The notion of "better performance" has a precise meaning: (first-order) stochastic dominance of a distribution of survival probabilities over another distribution. As an illustration, we compare, for an important DRG, private and public management and find that private management performs better, mainly in the range of high-survival probabilities. The measured performance difference cannot be attributed to input prices or to economies of scale and/or scope. It reflects pure technological and organisational differences.

  19. Nutritional and fluid requirements: high-output stomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlin, Sophie

    Based on the current available evidence, this article explores the nutritional management of those with a high-output stoma. The main alterations required to the intake of patients with a high-output stoma include the use of an oral rehydration solution to ensure optimum absorption of fluid and sodium, and a high-calorie, high-protein diet, with the aim of optimizing nutritional status. Diet advice should be delivered by a dietitian with experience in managing these complex patients. Monitoring of electrolytes and micronutrients is essential, and long-term follow up from a multidisciplinary nutrition support team is invaluable in coordinating this. Patients with high-output stomas can enjoy good quality of life and long-term health if their condition is managed effectively by a well-organized multidisciplinary team.

  20. Public Infrastructure Investment, Output Dynamics, and Balanced Budget Fiscal Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Bom, P.R.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    We study the dynamic output and welfare effects of public infrastructure investment under a balanced budget fiscal rule, using an overlapping generations model of a small open economy. The government finances public investment by employing distortionary labor taxes. We find a negative short-run outp

  1. Design of an emi output filter for frequency converters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roc'h, A.; Bergsma, H.; Leferink, F.B.J.; Zhao, D.; Polinder, H.; Ferreira, B.

    2006-01-01

    A filter has been designed to reduce conducted and radiated emission generated by a frequency converter. The frequency converter, cables and motor were modelled in order to make a good estimation of the radiated emission. A single stage output filter was designed making use of feedthrough apacitors

  2. Public Infrastructure Investment, Output Dynamics, and Balanced Budget Fiscal Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Bom, P.R.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    We study the dynamic output and welfare effects of public infrastructure investment under a balanced budget fiscal rule, using an overlapping generations model of a small open economy. The government finances public investment by employing distortionary labor taxes. We find a negative short-run

  3. Integration of TMVA Output into Jupyter notebooks

    CERN Document Server

    Saliji, Albulena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the work that I have been doing during these past eight weeks as a Summer Student at CERN. The task which was assigned to me had to do with the integration of TMVA Output into Jupyter notebooks. In order to integrate the TMVA Output into the Jupyter notebook, first, improvement of the TMVA Output in the terminal was required. Once the output was improved, it needed to be transformed into HTML output and at the end it would be possible to integrate that output into the Jupyter notebook.

  4. In Situ Monitoring of the Generation of Monodisperse Silica Particles during the Hydrolysis of Tetraethyl Orthosilicate with Piezoelectric Quartz Crystal Impedance Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚守拙; 张友玉; 谢青季

    2003-01-01

    The piezoelectric quartz crystal(PQC)impedance analyzer was used to monitor in situ the generation of monodisperse silica particles during the hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and their adsorption onto and Au electrode in alcohol solutions containing water(6-15mol/L)and ammonia(0.2-2.0 mol/L).The equivalent circuit parameters,the resonance frequencies and the half-peak width values of the conductance spectra of the PQC resonance were obtained.The resonant frequency decreased notably while the motional resistance changed very slightly(within 1Ω during the hydrolysis reaction,suggesting that the mass effect dominated the adsorption of generated monodisperse silica particles on the gold electrode in this system.Changes in f0 indicated that the ammonia concentration affected the hydrolytic reaction obviously,and the influence of water concentration on the reaction was small while the water was significantly excessive.Kinetics of monodisperse silica particle adsorption occurring at the electrode i solution interface was analyzed using a first-order reaction scheme.In addition,the electrolyte-induced precipitation of the monodisperse silica of adsorbed particles per area and the converge of monodisperse silica particles were obtained from scanning electron nicroscope(SEM)observations.

  5. 基于物联网的光伏发电智能监控系统%Photovoltaic Power Generation Intelligent Monitoring System Based on Internet of Things

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁新田; 徐志华

    2015-01-01

    搭建基于物联网的区域光伏发电系统的智能监控平台。以光伏发电系统故障检测算法和设备的优化管理为基础,通过建立性能评估模型,实现对区域分布式光伏发电系统的安全运行性能进行评估。运行结果表明,系统数据传输效果好、性能稳定可靠,具有很高的应用和推广价值。%This paper built an intelligent monitoring system of integrated photovoltaic power generation based onInternet of Things.Based on the fault detection algorithm and the optimal management of devices,the evaluation modelwas built to evaluate the operation performances of regional distributed photovoltaic power generation system.The testresults show that the system has the effective data transmission,reliable and steady performances,which has highapplication and promotion value.

  6. Kredsløbsmonitorering af kritisk syge patienter med "pulse contour cardiac output"-systemet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Arash; Perner, Anders; Bonde, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Pulse Contour Cardiac Output (PiCCO) monitoring system measures cardiac output with high precision and accuracy. The system may replace the pulmonary artery catheter in most critically ill patients because the rate of serious complications may be lower. Whether the use of dynamic or static fl...... fluid monitoring by PiCCO will result in better outcomes should be assessed by studies using clinically relevant end points....

  7. Material monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotter, W.; Zirker, L.; Hancock, J.A.

    1995-11-01

    Waste Reduction Operations Complex (WROC) facilities are located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The overall goal for the Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization Unit is to identify and establish the correct amount of waste generated so that it can be reduced. Quarterly, the INEL Pollution Prevention (P2) Unit compares the projected amount of waste generated per process with the actual amount generated. Examples of waste streams that would be addresses for our facility would include be are not limited to: Maintenance, Upgrades, Office and Scrap Metal. There are three potential sources of this variance: inaccurate identification of those who generate the waste; inaccurate identification of the process that generates the waste; and inaccurate measurement of the actual amount generated. The Materials Monitoring Program was proposed to identify the sources of variance and reduce the variance to an acceptable level. Prior to the implementation of the Material Monitoring Program, all information that was gathered and recorded was done so through an informal estimation of waste generated by various personnel concerned with each processes. Due to the inaccuracy of the prior information gathering system, the Material Monitoring Program was established. The heart of this program consists of two main parts. In the first part potential waste generators provide information on projected waste generation process. In the second part, Maintenance, Office, Scrap Metal and Facility Upgrade wastes from given processes is disposed within the appropriate bin dedicated to that process. The Material Monitoring Program allows for the more accurate gathering of information on the various waste types that are being generated quarterly.

  8. Adaptive Output Regulation for Nonlinear Systems with Unknown Periodic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruoka, Hidenobu; Ohmori, Hiromitsu

    Many mechanical systems are subjected to periodic disturbances which may adversely influence control performance. When the plants are nonlinear systems with unknown parameters, this disturbance compensation problem has been considered as adaptive output regulation problem. This paper discusses the problem about adaptive output regulation for nonlinear systems with arbitrary relative degree, which can be transformed into the output feedback form. The nonlinear plant is affected by unknown constant parameters and periodic disturbances with unknown frequencies, magnitudes and phases. The periodic disturbances are considered as signals generated from a linear time invariant exosystem. It is not assumed that the disturbances meet the matching condition for the control input. The design method of the adaptive controller and its parameter update law is based on adaptive backstepping manner for the coordinates-changed extended system, which is generated from the nonlinear plant and the exosystem. Then, it can be achieved that the output asymptotically converges to the output reference and that all signals in the closed-loop system are bounded.

  9. Output regulation problem for discrete-time linear time-delay systems by output feedback control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yamin YAN; Jie HUANG

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the output regulation problem of discrete linear time-delay systems by output feedback control. We have established some results parallel to those for the output regulation problem of continuous linear time-delay systems.

  10. Electric generators: Roesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segaser, C.L.

    1977-04-01

    A new and unique type of electrical generator is described that will provide constant frequency output (within 0.01% or better) regardless of rotational speed variations. It accomplishes this with no added bulk over conventional generators, and with excellent efficiency. The same principle that permits constant frequency output also provides the means for output voltage regulation with varying drive speed and/or varying load. Onsite power generation aspects of the Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) concept include the requirement to follow community electric loads and the possible use of internal combustion piston engines with waste heat recovery to drive electric generators. The diesel engine is a prime candidate from commercially available technologies for which part-load shaft efficiency is better at reduced speed than for constant-speed operation required by conventional AC generators. The unique characteristics of the Roesel generator allow prime mover speed to decrease with load and offer improved engine-generator system efficiency in ICES applications.

  11. Value-Chain Networks and Entrepreneurial Output in Multinational Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitratos, Pavlos; Andersson, Ulf; Liouka, Ioanna

    2011-01-01

    on their entrepreneurial output. Entrepreneurial output can generate superior performance and positive externalities to the subsidiary. Based on a large-scale study of 268 multinational subsidiaries in the UK, we find that value-chain networks have a higher positive impact than multinational corporation (MNC) networks......Value-chain networks are of major importance to multinational subsidiaries, yet they have failed to receive significant attention in the literature. We extend the knowledge-based view of the firm by exploring whether three different types of multinational subsidiary networks have dissimilar impact...

  12. Variance estimation of modal parameters from output-only and input/output subspace-based system identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellinger, Philippe; Döhler, Michael; Mevel, Laurent

    2016-09-01

    An important step in the operational modal analysis of a structure is to infer on its dynamic behavior through its modal parameters. They can be estimated by various modal identification algorithms that fit a theoretical model to measured data. When output-only data is available, i.e. measured responses of the structure, frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes can be identified assuming that ambient sources like wind or traffic excite the system sufficiently. When also input data is available, i.e. signals used to excite the structure, input/output identification algorithms are used. The use of input information usually provides better modal estimates in a desired frequency range. While the identification of the modal mass is not considered in this paper, we focus on the estimation of the frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes, relevant for example for modal analysis during in-flight monitoring of aircrafts. When identifying the modal parameters from noisy measurement data, the information on their uncertainty is most relevant. In this paper, new variance computation schemes for modal parameters are developed for four subspace algorithms, including output-only and input/output methods, as well as data-driven and covariance-driven methods. For the input/output methods, the known inputs are considered as realizations of a stochastic process. Based on Monte Carlo validations, the quality of identification, accuracy of variance estimations and sensor noise robustness are discussed. Finally these algorithms are applied on real measured data obtained during vibrations tests of an aircraft.

  13. Predictors of metabolic monitoring among schizophrenia patients with a new episode of second-generation antipsychotic use in the Veterans Health Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yingnan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the baseline metabolic monitoring (MetMon for second generation antipsychotics (SGA among patients with schizophrenia in the Veterans Integrated Service Network (VISN 16 of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA. Methods VISN16 electronic medical records for 10/2002-08/2005 were used to identify patients with schizophrenia who received a new episode of SGA treatment after 10/2003, in which the VISN 16 baseline MetMon program was implemented. Patients who underwent MetMon (MetMon+: either blood glucose or lipid testing records were compared with patients who did not (MetMon-, on patient characteristics and resource utilization in the year prior to index treatment episode. A parsimonious logistic regression was used to identify predictors for MetMon+ with adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results Out of 4,709 patients, 3,568 (75.8% underwent the baseline MetMon. Compared with the MetMon- group, the MetMon+ patients were found more likely to have baseline diagnoses or mediations for diabetes (OR [CI]: 2.336 [1.846-2.955], dyslipidemia (2.439 [2.029-2.932], and hypertension (1.497 [1.287-1.743], substance use disorders (1.460 [1.257-1.696], or to be recorded as obesity (2.052 [1.724-2.443]. Increased likelihood for monitoring were positively associated with number of antipsychotics during the previous year (FGA: 1.434 [1.129-1.821]; SGA: 1.503 [1.290-1.751]. Other significant predictors for monitoring were more augmentation episodes (1.580 [1.145-2.179], more outpatient visits (1.007 [1.002-1.013], hospitalization days (1.011 [1.007-1.015], and longer duration of antipsychotic use (1.001 [1.001-1.001]. Among the MetMon+ group, approximately 38.9% patient had metabolic syndrome. Discussion This wide time window of 180 days, although congruent with the VHA guidelines for the baseline MetMon process, needs to be re-evaluated and narrowed down, so that optimally the monitoring event occurs at the

  14. Resistance evolution to the first generation of genetically modified Diabrotica-active Bt-maize events by western corn rootworm: management and monitoring considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Yann; Meihls, Lisa N; Kiss, József; Hibbard, Bruce E

    2013-04-01

    Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera; WCR) is a major coleopteran maize pest in North America and the EU, and has traditionally been managed through crop rotation and broad-spectrum soil insecticides. Genetically modified Bt-maize offers an additional management tool for WCR and has been valuable in reducing insecticide use and increasing farm income. A concern is that the widespread, repeated, and exclusive deployment of the same Bt-maize transformation event will result in the rapid evolution of resistance in WCR. This publication explores the potential of WCR to evolve resistance to plant-produced Bt-toxins from the first generation of Diabrotica-active Bt-maize events (MON 863 and MON 88017, DAS-59122-7 and MIR604), and whether currently implemented risk management strategies to delay and monitor resistance evolution are appropriate. In twelve of the twelve artificial selection experiments reported, resistant WCR populations were yielded rapidly. Field-selected resistance of WCR to Cry3Bb1 is documented in some US maize growing areas, where an increasing number of cases of unexpected damage of WCR larvae to Bt-maize MON 88017 has been reported. Currently implemented insect resistance management measures for Bt-crops usually rely on the high dose/refuge (HDR) strategy. Evidence (including laboratory, greenhouse and field data) indicates that several conditions contributing to the success of the HDR strategy may not be met for the first generation of Bt-maize events and WCR: (1) the Bt-toxins are expressed heterogeneously at a low-to-moderate dose in roots; (2) resistance alleles may be present at a higher frequency than initially assumed; (3) WCR may mate in a non-random manner; (4) resistance traits could have non-recessive inheritance; and (5) fitness costs may not necessarily be associated with resistance evolution. However, caution must be exercised when extrapolating laboratory and greenhouse results to field conditions. Model predictions

  15. Model output: fact or artefact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, Lieke

    2015-04-01

    As a third-year PhD-student, I relatively recently entered the wonderful world of scientific Hydrology. A science that has many pillars that directly impact society, for example with the prediction of hydrological extremes (both floods and drought), climate change, applications in agriculture, nature conservation, drinking water supply, etcetera. Despite its demonstrable societal relevance, hydrology is often seen as a science between two stools. Like Klemeš (1986) stated: "By their academic background, hydrologists are foresters, geographers, electrical engineers, geologists, system analysts, physicists, mathematicians, botanists, and most often civil engineers." Sometimes it seems that the engineering genes are still present in current hydrological sciences, and this results in pragmatic rather than scientific approaches for some of the current problems and challenges we have in hydrology. Here, I refer to the uncertainty in hydrological modelling that is often neglected. For over thirty years, uncertainty in hydrological models has been extensively discussed and studied. But it is not difficult to find peer-reviewed articles in which it is implicitly assumed that model simulations represent the truth rather than a conceptualization of reality. For instance in trend studies, where data is extrapolated 100 years ahead. Of course one can use different forcing datasets to estimate the uncertainty of the input data, but how to prevent that the output is not a model artefact, caused by the model structure? Or how about impact studies, e.g. of a dam impacting river flow. Measurements are often available for the period after dam construction, so models are used to simulate river flow before dam construction. Both are compared in order to qualify the effect of the dam. But on what basis can we tell that the model tells us the truth? Model validation is common nowadays, but validation only (comparing observations with model output) is not sufficient to assume that a

  16. Parsing statistical machine translation output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Monz, C.; Vetulani, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increasing research into the use of syntax during statistical machine translation, the incorporation of syntax into language models has seen limited success. We present a study of the discriminative abilities of generative syntax-based language models, over and above standard n-gram models,

  17. GaN Nanowire Arrays for High-Output Nanogenerators

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chi-Te

    2010-04-07

    Three-fold symmetrically distributed GaN nanowire (NW) arrays have been epitaxially grown on GaN/sapphire substrates. The GaN NW possesses a triangular cross section enclosed by (0001), (2112), and (2112) planes, and the angle between the GaN NW and the substrate surface is ∼62°. The GaN NW arrays produce negative output voltage pulses when scanned by a conductive atomic force microscope in contact mode. The average of piezoelectric output voltage was about -20 mV, while 5-10% of the NWs had piezoelectric output voltages exceeding -(0.15-0.35) V. The GaN NW arrays are highly stable and highly tolerate to moisture in the atmosphere. The GaN NW arrays demonstrate an outstanding potential to be utilized for piezoelectric energy generation with a performance probably better than that of ZnO NWs. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  18. Advanced Detection Technology of Trace-level Borate for SG Leakage Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seban; Kang, Dukwon; Kim, Seungil; Kim, Hyunki; Heo, Jun; Sung, Jinhyun [Radiation Eng. Center, Shihung (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dongbum [Academic Support Dept., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Many studies have been reported for monitoring technology of steam generator, however, all of these methods have their own limitations. The leakage monitoring technology of steam generator of PWR has also got a limit due to the adoption of specific radionuclides (N-16, Ar-41, H-3, Xe, etc.) generated by nuclear fission, which are available only when reactor output is 20% or more. Most of domestic NPPs apply the N-16 technique for monitoring tube leakage but it has some problem that it is difficult to calculate the leakage rate because neutron flux are not completely formed during low power operation. For example, tube leakage of steam generator occurred in the Uljin nuclear power plant in 2002 during coast down operation for periodic plant maintenance. This plant could not prevent a rupture accident in advance because N-16 method is not possible the leak monitoring less than 20% reactor power. The development of excellent alternative monitoring technology that can monitor the real-time leakage is required under a variety of operating conditions like start-up and abnormal conditions of NPPs. This study was performed to lay a foundation in monitoring the leakage of steam generator coping with the lower output and low power operational condition using trace level of boron which is non-radioactive nuclide to inject control neutron injection. In this study, non-radioactive nuclide boron ion, which existed in the secondary system water, as leakage monitoring indicator was investigated for the separation of complex cation and anion phase. Borate was detected by using borate concentrator column coupled with the ion-exclusion column analytical column, revealing the problem of overlapped peak between fluoride and boron ions. Meanwhile, ion-exchange column could confirm the possibility as a leakage monitoring indicator of steam generator, despite the peak of glycolic acid salts was slightly overlapped. It will be needed for further research regarding the selectivity of the

  19. Lunar Health Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the Phase II Lunar Health Monitor program, Orbital Research will develop a second generation wearable sensor suite for astronaut physiologic monitoring. The...

  20. Power output during women's World Cup road cycle racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Tammie R; Martin, David T; McDonald, Warren; Victor, James; Plummer, John; Withers, Robert T

    2005-12-01

    Little information exists on the power output demands of competitive women's road cycle racing. The purpose of our investigation was to document the power output generated by elite female road cyclists who achieved success in FLAT and HILLY World Cup races. Power output data were collected from 27 top-20 World Cup finishes (19 FLAT and 8 HILLY) achieved by 15 nationally ranked cyclists (mean +/- SD; age: 24.1+/-4.0 years; body mass: 57.9+/-3.6 kg; height: 168.7+/-5.6 cm; VO2max 63.6+/-2.4 mL kg(-1) min(-1); peak power during graded exercise test (GXT(peak power)): 310+/-25 W). The GXT determined GXT(peak power), VO2peak lactate threshold (LT) and anaerobic threshold (AT). Bicycles were fitted with SRM powermeters, which recorded power (W), cadence (rpm), distance (km) and speed (km h(-1)). Racing data were analysed to establish time in power output and metabolic threshold bands and maximal mean power (MMP) over different durations. When compared to HILLY, FLAT were raced at a similar cadence (75+/-8 vs. 75+/-4 rpm, P=0.93) but higher speed (37.6+/-2.6 vs. 33.9+/-2.7 km h(-1), P=0.008) and power output (192+/-21 vs. 169+/-17 W, P=0.04; 3.3+/-0.3 vs. 3.0+/-0.4 W kg(-1), P=0.04). During FLAT races, riders spent significantly more time above 500 W, while greater race time was spent between 100 and 300 W (LT-AT) for HILLY races, with higher MMPs for 180-300 s. Racing terrain influenced the power output profiles of our internationally competitive female road cyclists. These data are the first to define the unique power output requirements associated with placing well in both flat and hilly women's World Cup cycling events.

  1. Relationship between Multi-Output Partially Bent Functions and Multi-Output Bent Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yaqun; JU Guizhi; WANG Jue

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the definition of multi-output partially Bent functions is presented and some properties are discussed. Then the relationship between multi-output partially Bent functions and multi-output Bent functions is given in Theorem 4, which includes Walsh spectrum expression and function expression. This shows that multi-output partially Bent functions and multi-output Bent functions can define each other in principle. So we obtain the general method to construct multi-output partially Bent functions from multi-output Bent functions.

  2. Analysis of output trends from Varian 2100C/D and 600C/D accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattan, M W D; Hounsell, A R

    2011-01-07

    Analysis of Varian linear accelerator output trends is reported. Two groups, consisting of four matched Varian 2100C/D and four matched Varian 600C/D accelerators, with different designs of monitor chamber, have been investigated and the data acquired from regular calibrated ion chamber/electrometer measurements of the output performance of the eight accelerators analysed. The trend of machine output with time, having removed the effect of adjusting the monitor chamber response, was compared on a monthly and annual basis for monitor chambers with ages ranging between 1 year and 7 years. The results indicate that the response is generally consistent within each set of accelerators with different monitor chamber designs. Those used in a Varian 600C/D machine result in a reduction in measured output over time, with an average monthly reduction of 0.35 ± 0.09% over the course of the first 4 years of use. The chambers used in a 2100C/D accelerator result in an increase in measured output over time, with an average monthly increase of 0.26 ± 0.09% over the course of the first 4 years of use. The output increase then reduces towards the end of this period of time, with the average monthly change falling to -0.03 ± 0.02% for the following 3 years. The output response trend was similar for all clinical energies used on the 2100C/D accelerators--6, 15 MV x-ray beams, and 4, 6, 9, 12, 16 and 20 MeV electron beams. By tracking these changes it has been possible to predict the response over time to allow appropriate adjustments in monitor chamber response to maintain a measured accelerator output within tolerance and give confidence in performance. It has also provided data to indicate the need for planned preventative intervention and indicate if the monitor chamber response is behaving as expected.

  3. 脉波指示剂连续心排血量监测技术在早期目标导向治疗中的临床作用分析%Pulse Indicator Continuous Cardiac Output for Hemodynamics Monitoring in Patients with Septic Shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚; 王标; 郭小芙

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application of pulse index continuous cardiac output (PiCCO) in patients with septic shock.MethodsSixty patients with septic shock were randomly divided into two groups: routine monitoring group and PiCCO monitoring group, with 30 patients in each group. The rate of reaching standard of early goal directed therapy (EGDT) was observed after treatment for 6, 24 and 48 hours. In addition, blood lactic acid, central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2), central venous pressure (CVP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and urine volume were determined after treatment for 6, 24 and 48 hours, and positive fluid balance amount and dosages of dopamine and dobutamine were measured after treatment for 6, 24 and 48 hours. Mortality was observed in the patients of both groups.Results After treatment for 6, 24 and 48 hours, in PiCCO monitoring group, ScvO2 signifi cantly increased, blood lactic acid level, positivefl uid balance amount, dosages of dopamine and dobutamine signifi cantly decreased compared with routine monitoring group (P<0.05). The rate of reaching standard of EGDT in PiCCO monitoring group was signifi cantly higher than that in routine monitoring group after treatment for 6, 24 hours. There also was difference in mortality between the two groups (P<0.05).Conclusion PiCCO monitor has an important clinical guide signifi cance for the resuscitation of septic shock, which can help to reach the fast and effective treatment target, improve septic shock, avoid the damage of blindfl uid infusion, provide fast and right treatment evidence. So it is worth being spread in clinic treatment.%目的:探讨脉波指示剂连续心排血量监测(PiCCO)技术在脓毒性休克患者早期目标导向治疗(EGDT)中的临床指导价值。方法将60例脓毒性休克患者按随机数字表法分为常规监测组和PiCCO监测组各30例,PiCCO监测组在PiCCO技术指导下行EGDT,常规监测组患者放置中心静脉导管和桡动脉导

  4. Pulse Indicator Continuous Cardiac Output for Hemodynamics Monitoring in Patients with Septic Shock%脉搏指示连续心排血量监测(PiCCO)在脓毒症休克患者血流动力学监测中的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊敏; 么改琦; 朱曦; 郭向阳

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨脉搏指示连续心排血量监测技术(pulse indicator continuous cardiac output,PiCCO)在脓毒症休克患者血流动力学监测中的临床价值. 方法 2012年1~8月,前瞻性队列研究比较常规监测(n=12)与PiCCO监测(n=19)脓毒症休克患者的血流动力学,应用PiCCO监测指导脓毒症休克患者的液体复苏、血管收缩药和正性肌力药物的使用. 结果 2组脓毒症休克患者性别、年龄、原发病、既往病史、多器官功能不全综合征(MODS)的发生和发生MODS器官数、急性生理学及慢性健康状况评分系统(APACHE)Ⅱ、脓毒症相关器官衰竭评分(SOFA)、应用去甲肾上腺素剂量和入ICU后7天总的输液量差异均无显著性,PiCCO组初始平均动脉压(MAP)明显低于常规组[(52.00±5.00)mm Hg vs.(59.58±3.42)mm Hg,t=4.603,P=0.000],而对于PiCCO组存在心功能损害的患者应用正性肌力药治疗后达到与常规组相同的MAP达标值[(68.00±2.43)mm Hg vs.(68.58±2.88)mm Hg,t=0.607,P=0.549],2组MAP达标值差异无显著性. 结论 在PiCCO监测指导下,可以对于存在心功能损害的患者应用正性肌力药物,而不是仅应用血管收缩药升高血压.%Objective To investigate the clinical value of pulse indicator continuous cardiac output ( PiCCO) in hemodynamics monitoring for patients with septic shock. Methods A prospective cohort study comparing routine hemodynamics monitoring (n = 12) and PiCCO (n = 19) for patients with septic shock were carried out from January to August 2012. The PiCCO monitor provided a continuous assessment of fluid resuscitation, vasopressors and inotropes infusion in septic shock patients. Results There were no significant difference between the two groups in sex, age, etiology of critical illness, medical history, incidence of MODS, number of MODS involved organ, APACHE Ⅱ and SOFA scores, usage of noradrenaline, and total volume of fluid infusion in a week. In the PiCCO group, the original MAP

  5. Output order in immediate serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lydia; Ward, Geoff

    2007-07-01

    In two experiments, we examined the effect of output order in immediate serial recall (ISR). In Experiment 1, three groups of participants saw lists of eight words and wrote down the words in the rows corresponding to their serial positions in an eight-row response grid. One group was precued to respond in forward order, a second group was precued to respond in any order, and a third group was postcued for response order. There were significant effects of output order, but not of cue type. Relative to the forward output order, the free output order led to enhanced recency and diminished primacy, with superior performance for words output early in recall. These results were replicated in Experiment 2 using six-item lists, which further suggests that output order plays an important role in the primacy effect in ISR and that the recency items are most highly accessible at recall.

  6. Output Regulation of the Arneodo Chaotic System

    OpenAIRE

    Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan

    2010-01-01

    This paper solves the problem of regulating the output of the Arneodo chaotic system (1981), which is one of the paradigms of chaotic dynamical systems. Explicitly, using the state feedback control laws, the output of the Arneodo chaotic system is regulated so as to track constant reference signals as well as to track periodic reference signals. The control laws are derived using the regulator equations of Byrnes and Isidori (1990), which provide the solution of the output regulation problem ...

  7. The Global NR Output Kept Rising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Wen

    2011-01-01

    In early November, Association of Natural Rubber Producing Countries in- dicated that from 2005 to 2011, the pro- ducing area and output of the global NR both kept rising. As predicted, the pro- ducing area will be 72 million hectares, the output will be 10.02 million tons and the average output will be 1,392 kg/hectare by the end of2011.

  8. Sinopec H1 Oil Output Climbs Slightly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Sinopec Corp., China's largest oil refiner, announced in late-July that its crude oil output rose 4.33 percent to 163 million barrels year-on-year in the first half. Domestic crude oil output was up 1. 16 percent to 152 million barrels during the period, while overseas output jtmlped 82.46 percent to 11,13 million barrels, according to an unaudited repo,t released by tile company.

  9. Basal ganglia outputs map instantaneous position coordinates during behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Joseph W; Li, Suellen; Sukharnikova, Tatyana; Rossi, Mark A; Bartholomew, Ryan A; Yin, Henry H

    2015-02-11

    The basal ganglia (BG) are implicated in many movement disorders, yet how they contribute to movement remains unclear. Using wireless in vivo recording, we measured BG output from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in mice while monitoring their movements with video tracking. The firing rate of most nigral neurons reflected Cartesian coordinates (either x- or y-coordinates) of the animal's head position during movement. The firing rates of SNr neurons are either positively or negatively correlated with the coordinates. Using an egocentric reference frame, four types of neurons can be classified: each type increases firing during movement in a particular direction (left, right, up, down), and decreases firing during movement in the opposite direction. Given the high correlation between the firing rate and the x and y components of the position vector, the movement trajectory can be reconstructed from neural activity. Our results therefore demonstrate a quantitative and continuous relationship between BG output and behavior. Thus, a steady BG output signal from the SNr (i.e., constant firing rate) is associated with the lack of overt movement, when a stable posture is maintained by structures downstream of the BG. Any change in SNr firing rate is associated with a change in position (i.e., movement). We hypothesize that the SNr output quantitatively determines the direction, velocity, and amplitude of voluntary movements. By changing the reference signals to downstream position control systems, the BG can produce transitions in body configurations and initiate actions.

  10. Application of pulse indicator continuous cardiac output monitor in the fluid resuscitation therapy in elderly patients with septic shock%脉搏指示连续心排血量监护仪在老年感染性休克液体复苏治疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林华; 郑瑞强; 吴晓燕; 於江泉; 卢年芳; 邵俊; 王海霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the guiding significance of pulse indicator continuous cardiac output(PICCO) for the fluid resuscitation in elderly patients with septic shock. Methods Twenty-four elderly patients with septic shock were divided into observation group and control group,twelve cases in each group. The patients in observation group were treated with fluid resuscitation under the guidance of PICCO monitor, while the patients in control group were treated with fluid resuscitation under the guidance of monitoring central venous pressure, then the curative effect was compared between the two groups. Results On the first day of treatment, there was no statistical difference in the blood cell and neutrophil counts, mixed venous oxygen saturation ( SvO2) ,the levels of procalcitonin ( PCT) and lactic acid (LA) between the two groups (P >0. 05). On the second and third days of treatment, the white blood cell, neutrophil counts and the levels of LA and PCT in observation group were significantly lower than those in control group(P <0. 05) ,but SvO2 was significantly higher( P < 0. 05). Compared with control group,the mechanical ventilation time was significantly shorter(P <0. 05) , and the case fatality within 28 days was lower in observation group( P < 0.05 ). Conclusion PICCO monitor has important guiding significance in the treatment of fluid resuscitation in elderly patients with septic shock,which can significantly improve blood gas analysis index,shorten the mechanical ventilation time and reduce mortality.%目的 探讨脉搏指示连续心排血量(PICCO)监测技术对老年感染性休克液体复苏治疗的指导意义.方法 24例老年感染性休克患者分为观察组和对照组,每组12例.观察组患者在PICCO监护仪监测指导下补液治疗,对照组患者在监测中心静脉压指导下补液治疗;观察比较2组治疗效果.结果 治疗第1天,2组患者白细胞、中性粒细胞计数、混合静脉血氧饱和度(SvO2)、血降

  11. Exercise efficiency of low power output cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reger, M; Peterman, J E; Kram, R; Byrnes, W C

    2013-12-01

    Exercise efficiency at low power outputs, energetically comparable to daily living activities, can be influenced by homeostatic perturbations (e.g., weight gain/loss). However, an appropriate efficiency calculation for low power outputs used in these studies has not been determined. Fifteen active subjects (seven females, eight males) performed 14, 5-min cycling trials: two types of seated rest (cranks vertical and horizontal), passive (motor-driven) cycling, no-chain cycling, no-load cycling, cycling at low (10, 20, 30, 40 W), and moderate (50, 60, 80, 100, 120 W) power outputs. Mean delta efficiency was 57% for low power outputs compared to 41.3% for moderate power outputs. Means for gross (3.6%) and net (5.7%) efficiencies were low at the lowest power output. At low power outputs, delta and work efficiency values exceeded theoretical values. In conclusion, at low power outputs, none of the common exercise efficiency calculations gave values comparable to theoretical muscle efficiency. However, gross efficiency and the slope and intercept of the metabolic power vs mechanical power output regression provide insights that are still valuable when studying homeostatic perturbations.

  12. In Vivo Self-Powered Wireless Cardiac Monitoring via Implantable Triboelectric Nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiang; Zhang, Hao; Shi, Bojing; Xue, Xiang; Liu, Zhuo; Jin, Yiming; Ma, Ye; Zou, Yang; Wang, Xinxin; An, Zhao; Tang, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Fan; Liu, Yang; Lang, Xilong; Xu, Zhiyun; Li, Zhou; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-07-26

    Harvesting biomechanical energy in vivo is an important route in obtaining sustainable electric energy for powering implantable medical devices. Here, we demonstrate an innovative implantable triboelectric nanogenerator (iTENG) for in vivo biomechanical energy harvesting. Driven by the heartbeat of adult swine, the output voltage and the corresponding current were improved by factors of 3.5 and 25, respectively, compared with the reported in vivo output performance of biomechanical energy conversion devices. In addition, the in vivo evaluation of the iTENG was demonstrated for over 72 h of implantation, during which the iTENG generated electricity continuously in the active animal. Due to its excellent in vivo performance, a self-powered wireless transmission system was fabricated for real-time wireless cardiac monitoring. Given its outstanding in vivo output and stability, iTENG can be applied not only to power implantable medical devices but also possibly to fabricate a self-powered, wireless healthcare monitoring system.

  13. Generative electronic background music system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurowski, Lukasz [Faculty of Computer Science, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Zolnierska Street 49, Szczecin, PL (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions.

  14. 温差对CaMnO3和Ca3Co4O9热电器件输出功率的影响%Effect of Temperature Difference on the Power Output of CaMnO3 and Ca3 Co4O9 Thermoelectric Generators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏飞; 金应荣; 鲁云; 刘磊; 陈建文; 王琴

    2011-01-01

    The power output of CaMnO3 and Ca3Co4O9 thermoelectric generators (TEG) was measured from room temperature to 600℃, their maximum power was directly proportional to the square of temperature difference across the TEGs. The proportionality constant was also proportional to the ratio between the square of weighted mean for Seebeck coefficient (with the temperature gradient as weighting function) and the average electrical resistivity. The ratio combined the performance parameters of thermoelectric materials such as Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity, can be measured approximately and easily, and can be used to characterize the performances of TEGs.%在低温端散热条件不变的情况下,在较宽的测试温度范围内分别测试了CaMnO3(n-type)和Ca3Co4O9(p-type)单臂热电器件的输出功率,实验结果显示其最大输出功率与温差的平方有较好的线性关系.通过进一步的分析表明,其比例系数正比于Seebeck系数的加权平均值(加权函数为温度梯度函数)的平方与电阻率的平均值之比,是热导率、电导率和Seebeck系数等热电材料性能参数的综合表现,能够方便地测量,可在较宽的温度范围内近似地表征热电材料或器件的性能.

  15. Design of compact Marx module with square pulse output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongwei; Xie, Weiping; Yuan, Jianqiang; Wang, Lingyun; Ma, Xun; Jiang, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Compact pulsed power system based on compact Marx generator is widely used in terms of drive resistance and capacitive loads. This system usually adopts high performance components such as high energy density capacitors, compact switches, and integrated structure. Traditional compact Marx generator can only output double-exponential pulse profile. In this paper a compact, low-impedance Marx module which can output rectangular pulse profile is design and tested. This module has multiple circuits of different discharge frequencies in parallel to generate quasi-rectangular pulse. Discharge characteristic of an ideal module with infinite branches is calculated theoretically. A module with two branches has been designed and tested. Test results show that the impedance of the module is 1.2 Ω. When charging voltage is 100.6 kV and load resistance is 1 Ω, the peak output pulse is 45.2 kV voltage, the peak power is about 2 GW, the pulse width is about 130 ns, and the rise time is about 35 ns. The energy density and power density of the module are 15 kJ/m3 and 140 GW/m3, respectively.

  16. Practice Output in College Language Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岩

    2010-01-01

    <正>Practice output constitutes an indispensable part in second language learning.Relevant theories like"Interface Position"and"Comprehensible Output"are discussed in order to analyze in detail how this practice can actually facilitate acquisition and finally pave the way for communicative output—a goal all language learners are striving for.

  17. DIST/AVC Out-Put Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Gene L.

    The first stage of development of a management information system for DIST/AVC (Division of Instructional Technology/Audio-Visual Center) is the definition of out-put units. Some constraints on the definition of output units are: 1) they should reflect goals of the organization, 2) they should reflect organizational structure and procedures, and…

  18. The Role of Output in Grammar Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹莉; 段薇; 谢璐

    2014-01-01

    In China, English teachers tend to emphasize a lot on the importance of grammar learning because knowledge of gram⁃mar is the base of the competence of communication. This thesis just focuses on how output affects students ’grammar learning by analyzing the role of output in learning of English and the strategies of English learning.

  19. Multi-output programmable quantum processor

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yafei; Feng, Jian; Zhan, Mingsheng

    2002-01-01

    By combining telecloning and programmable quantum gate array presented by Nielsen and Chuang [Phys.Rev.Lett. 79 :321(1997)], we propose a programmable quantum processor which can be programmed to implement restricted set of operations with several identical data outputs. The outputs are approximately-transformed versions of input data. The processor successes with certain probability.

  20. THE NONSTATIONARITY OF GERMAN AGGREGATE OUTPUT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZELHORST, D; DEHAAN, J

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the stationarity of German per capita output for the period 1870-1989 is examined, using both a parametric and a non-parametric approach. The standard unit root tests and the scaled variogram suggest that German output is not stationary. Following the approach suggested by Perron (1989

  1. Analysis on Impedance Matching and Mechanical Resonance Characteristics of Maximum Electric Power Output for Thermoacoustic Electric Generation Systems%热声发电系统最大电能输出阻抗匹配及机械谐振特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏加宽; 李文瑞; 何新; 张健

    2015-01-01

    为获得热声发电系统最大电能输出和声功捕获,该文以横向磁通永磁直线发电机为例,采用力–电类比法建立热声发电系统等效模型,研究电磁力、次级速度与阻抗之间的关系,推导热声发电系统等效阻尼的表达式,并分析电抗对等效阻尼的影响。在此基础上,基于最大电能输出进行阻抗匹配,并采用相量法分析阻抗匹配对机械谐振条件的影响,推导出谐振弹簧劲度系数表达式。最后,通过直线振荡系统实验平台验证阻抗匹配及弹簧谐振劲度系数理论推导的准确性,为热声发电系统直线发电机的设计提供理论指导。%In order to obtain maximum captured acoustic and electric power output of thermoacoustic electric generation systems (TAEGS), an electro-mechanical analogic model was built using an appropriate transverse flux PM linear machine (TFPMLM). The relationship among electromagnetic force, velocity of mover and reactance was analyzed, and expression of TAEGS equivalent damping was deduced. The effect of the reactance on equivalent damping was analyzed, and the parameter of reactance was deduced for getting impedance matching. The influence of impedance matching on conditions of mechanical resonance was researched using phasor diagram. Expression of the spring stiffness factor was deduced. Experimental results through a linear oscillatory platform verify the validity of the impedance matching and theoretically derivate equivalent resonance stiffness factor. The achievements in this paper provide theoretical guidance for the linear generator design of TAEGS.

  2. Design of on-line monitoring and assessment system for generator unit primary frequency regulation based on WAMS%基于WA MS的发电机组一次调频在线监测与考核系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 张道农; 孙铭泽; 于骏; 金元; 詹庆才; 廖全飞

    2016-01-01

    针对目前一次调频考核系统不能准确反映和全面评估一次调频能力的问题,在加强网源协调管理、规范和提高发电机组及其控制系统监测技术水平的要求下,开发基于广域测量系统的一次调频在线监测和考核系统,该系统以新疆电网智能调度技术支持系统为平台,在线读取广域测量系统动态数据,通过机组出力变化特征评估机组一次调频性能指标,并定义有效扰动来判断一次调频事件,监测机组实时运行状态;考虑到机组实际运行的情况,制定一次调频免考核规则。实际运行结果表明该考核系统能准确检测出机组一次调频事件,能够很好地考核机组的一次调频能力。%The current assessment system for primary frequency regulation (PFR)cannot accu-rately reflect and totally evaluation the ability of PFR.Based on the technology requirements of coordinating network source management,standardizing and improving the level of generator and its control system monitoring technology,this paper introduced the online monitoring and assess-ment system for generator unit PFR based on wide area measurement system(WAMS).Taking the Xinjiang power grid intelligent scheduling technology support system as a platform,the WAMS dynamic data can be read on-line.According to characteristics of unit output variation, unit PFR performance indexes were evaluated,and a PFR event was determined by defining ef-fective disturbance.Thus,the unit operation status can be monitored in real time.Considering the actual operation situation,a PFR free assessment rules was developed.Actual operation re-sults show that the on-line monitoring and assessment system can accurately detect PFR,and can effectively assess the unit PFR ability.

  3. Output beam analysis of high power COIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deli Yu(于德利); Fengting Sang(桑凤亭); Yuqi Jin(金玉奇); Yizhu Sun(孙以珠)

    2003-01-01

    As the output power of a chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) increases, the output laser beam instabilityappears as the far-field beam spot drift and deformation for the large Fresnel number unstable resonator.In order to interpret this phenomenon, an output beam mode simulation code was developed with the fastFourier transform method. The calculation results show that the presence of the nonuniform gain in COILproduces a skewed output intensity distribution, which causes the mirror tilt and bulge due to the thermalexpansion. With the output power of COIL increases, the mirror surfaces, especially the back surface ofthe scraper mirror, absorb more and more heat, which causes the drift and deformation of far field beamspot seriously. The initial misalignment direction is an important factor for the far field beam spot driftingand deformation.

  4. Crop Insurance, Premium Subsidy and Agricultural Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing-feng; LIAO Pu

    2014-01-01

    This paper studied the effects of crop insurance on agricultural output with an economic growth model. Based on Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans (RCK) model, a basic model of agriculture economic growth was developed. Extending the basic model to incorporate uncertainty and insurance mechanism, a risk model and a risk-insurance model were built to study the inlfuences of risk and crop insurance on agricultural output. Compared with the steady states of the three models, the following results are achieved:(i) agricultural output decreases if we introduce uncertainty into the risk-free model;(ii) crop insurance promotes agriculture economic growth if insurance mechanism is introduced into the risk model;(iii) premium subsidy constantly improves agricultural output. Our contribution is that we studied the effects of crop insurance and premium subsidy from the perspective of economic growth in a dynamic framework, and proved the output promotion of crop insurance theoretically.

  5. Simulated monitor display for CCTV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    Two computer programs have been developed which generate a two-dimensional graphic perspective of the video output produced by a Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) camera. Both programs were primarily written to produce a graphic display simulating the field-of-view (FOV) of a perimeter assessment system as seen on a CCTV monitor. The original program was developed for use on a Tektronix 4054 desktop computer; however, the usefulness of this graphic display program led to the development of a similar program for a Hewlett-Packard 9845B desktop computer. After entry of various input parameters, such as, camera lens and orientation, the programs automatically calculate and graphically plot the locations of various items, e.g., fences, an assessment zone, running men, and intrusion detection sensors. Numerous special effects can be generated to simulate such things as roads, interior walls, or sides of buildings. Other objects can be digitized and entered into permanent memory similar to the running men. With this type of simulated monitor perspective, proposed camera locations with respect to fences and a particular assessment zone can be rapidly evaluated without the costly time delays and expenditures associated with field evaluation.

  6. Hybrid Modeling Improves Health and Performance Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Scientific Monitoring Inc. was awarded a Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center to create a new, simplified health-monitoring approach for flight vehicles and flight equipment. The project developed a hybrid physical model concept that provided a structured approach to simplifying complex design models for use in health monitoring, allowing the output or performance of the equipment to be compared to what the design models predicted, so that deterioration or impending failure could be detected before there would be an impact on the equipment's operational capability. Based on the original modeling technology, Scientific Monitoring released I-Trend, a commercial health- and performance-monitoring software product named for its intelligent trending, diagnostics, and prognostics capabilities, as part of the company's complete ICEMS (Intelligent Condition-based Equipment Management System) suite of monitoring and advanced alerting software. I-Trend uses the hybrid physical model to better characterize the nature of health or performance alarms that result in "no fault found" false alarms. Additionally, the use of physical principles helps I-Trend identify problems sooner. I-Trend technology is currently in use in several commercial aviation programs, and the U.S. Air Force recently tapped Scientific Monitoring to develop next-generation engine health-management software for monitoring its fleet of jet engines. Scientific Monitoring has continued the original NASA work, this time under a Phase III SBIR contract with a joint NASA-Pratt & Whitney aviation security program on propulsion-controlled aircraft under missile-damaged aircraft conditions.

  7. Muscle coordination is key to the power output and mechanical efficiency of limb movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeling, J M; Blake, O M; Chan, H K

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which features of muscle mechanics and muscle coordination affect the power output from a limb during locomotion. Eight subjects were tested while cycling at maximum exertion for 25 min on a stationary dynamometer. Cadence and load were varied to span a range of power outputs and myoelectric activity was measured from 10 muscles in the leg. Cycle-by-cycle variations in muscle coordination, cadence and power output were observed and the EMG intensity across all muscles was used as an estimate of the metabolic cost for each cycle. Data for the cycles at greatest power output were separated into three groups: maximum power, 80% power but lower EMG intensity and 80% power and higher EMG intensity. Torque-angular velocity relations were determined for the ankle and knee joints. During cycling at maximum power output the ankle joint was not extending at the velocity necessary for maximum power output; thus, maximum limb power occurs when some of the individual muscles cannot be generating maximum power output. Increases in EMG intensity occurred with no increase in power output from the limb: these corresponded to decreases in the efficiency and changes in coordination. Increases in power were achieved that were not matched by equivalent increases in EMG intensity, but did occur with changes in coordination. It is proposed that the power output from the limb is limited by the coordination pattern of the muscles rather than the maximum power output from any one muscle itself.

  8. Source Monitoring in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Fasotti, Luciano; Allain, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Source monitoring is the process of making judgments about the origin of memories. There are three categories of source monitoring: reality monitoring (discrimination between self- versus other-generated sources), external monitoring (discrimination between several external sources), and internal monitoring (discrimination between two types of…

  9. Source Monitoring in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Fasotti, Luciano; Allain, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Source monitoring is the process of making judgments about the origin of memories. There are three categories of source monitoring: reality monitoring (discrimination between self- versus other-generated sources), external monitoring (discrimination between several external sources), and internal monitoring (discrimination between two types of…

  10. PMN-PT/PVDF Nanocomposite for High Output Nanogenerator Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.3PbTiO3(0.7PMN-0.3PT nanorods were obtained via hydrothermal method with high yield (over 78%. Then, new piezoelectric nanocomposites based on (1−xPb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT nanorods were fabricated by dispersing the 0.7PMN-0.3PT nanorods into piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF polymer. The mechanical behaviors of the nanocomposites were investigated. The voltage and current generation of PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites were also measured. The results showed that the tensile strength, yield strength, and Young’s modulus of nanocomposites were enhanced as compared to that of the pure PVDF. The largest Young’s modulus of 1.71 GPa was found in the samples with 20 wt % nanorod content. The maximum output voltage of 10.3 V and output current of 46 nA were obtained in the samples with 20 wt % nanorod content, which was able to provide a 13-fold larger output voltage and a 4.5-fold larger output current than that of pure PVDF piezoelectric polymer. The current density of PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites is 20 nA/cm2. The PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites exhibited great potential for flexible self-powered sensing applications.

  11. Volume and its relationship to cardiac output and venous return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magder, S

    2016-09-10

    Volume infusions are one of the commonest clinical interventions in critically ill patients yet the relationship of volume to cardiac output is not well understood. Blood volume has a stressed and unstressed component but only the stressed component determines flow. It is usually about 30 % of total volume. Stressed volume is relatively constant under steady state conditions. It creates an elastic recoil pressure that is an important factor in the generation of blood flow. The heart creates circulatory flow by lowering the right atrial pressure and allowing the recoil pressure in veins and venules to drain blood back to the heart. The heart then puts the volume back into the systemic circulation so that stroke return equals stroke volume. The heart cannot pump out more volume than comes back. Changes in cardiac output without changes in stressed volume occur because of changes in arterial and venous resistances which redistribute blood volume and change pressure gradients throughout the vasculature. Stressed volume also can be increased by decreasing vascular capacitance, which means recruiting unstressed volume into stressed volume. This is the equivalent of an auto-transfusion. It is worth noting that during exercise in normal young males, cardiac output can increase five-fold with only small changes in stressed blood volume. The mechanical characteristics of the cardiac chambers and the circulation thus ultimately determine the relationship between volume and cardiac output and are the subject of this review.

  12. PMN-PT/PVDF Nanocomposite for High Output Nanogenerator Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; Luo, Wenbo; Liu, Xingzhao; Xu, Dong; He, Kai

    2016-04-11

    The 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O₃-0.3PbTiO₃(0.7PMN-0.3PT) nanorods were obtained via hydrothermal method with high yield (over 78%). Then, new piezoelectric nanocomposites based on (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O₃-xPbTiO₃ (PMN-PT) nanorods were fabricated by dispersing the 0.7PMN-0.3PT nanorods into piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer. The mechanical behaviors of the nanocomposites were investigated. The voltage and current generation of PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites were also measured. The results showed that the tensile strength, yield strength, and Young's modulus of nanocomposites were enhanced as compared to that of the pure PVDF. The largest Young's modulus of 1.71 GPa was found in the samples with 20 wt % nanorod content. The maximum output voltage of 10.3 V and output current of 46 nA were obtained in the samples with 20 wt % nanorod content, which was able to provide a 13-fold larger output voltage and a 4.5-fold larger output current than that of pure PVDF piezoelectric polymer. The current density of PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites is 20 nA/cm². The PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites exhibited great potential for flexible self-powered sensing applications.

  13. Recommended methods for evaluating the benefits of ECUT Program outputs. [Energy Conversion and Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, L.O.; Winter, C.

    1986-03-01

    This study was conducted to define and develop techniques that could be used to assess the complete spectrum of positive effects resulting from the Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program activities. These techniques could then be applied to measure the benefits from past ECUT outputs. In addition, the impact of future ECUT outputs could be assessed as part of an ongoing monitoring process, after sufficient time has elapsed to allow their impacts to develop.

  14. Output Regulation of the Arneodo Chaotic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper solves the problem of regulating the output of the Arneodo chaotic system (1981, which is one of the paradigms of chaotic dynamical systems. Explicitly, using the state feedback control laws, the output of the Arneodo chaotic system is regulated so as to track constant reference signals as well as to track periodic reference signals. The control laws are derived using the regulator equations of Byrnes and Isidori (1990, which provide the solution of the output regulation problem for nonlinear control systems involving neutrally stable exosystem dynamics. Numerical results are shown to verify the results.

  15. Design of hydraulic output Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, W. M.; Harvey, A. C.; Lee, K.

    1983-01-01

    A hydraulic output system for the RE-1000 free piston stirling engine (FPSE) was designed. The hydraulic output system can be readily integrated with the existing hot section of RE-1000 FPSE. The system has two simply supported diaphragms which separate the engine gas from the hydraulic fluid, a dynamic balance mechanism, and a novel, null center band hydraulic pump. The diaphragms are designed to endure more than 10 billion cycles, and to withstand the differential pressure load as high as 14 MPa. The projected thermodynamic performance of the hydraulic output version of RE-1000 FPSE is 1.87 kW at 29/7 percent brake efficiency.

  16. Electronic power generators for ultrasonic frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciovica, D.

    1974-01-01

    The design and construction of an ultrasonic frequency electronic power generator are discussed. The principle design elements of the generator are illustrated. The generator provides an inductive load with an output power of two kilowatts and a variable output frequency in the fifteen to thirty KiloHertz range. The method of conducting the tests and the results obtained with selected materials are analyzed.

  17. Battery Energy Storage System for PV Output Power Leveling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkiran Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating photovoltaic (PV output power reduces the reliability in power system when there is a massive penetration of PV generators. Energy storage systems that are connected to the PV generators using bidirectional isolated dc-dc converter can be utilized for compensating the fluctuating PV power. This paper presents a grid connected energy storage system based on a 2 kW full-bridge bidirectional isolated dc-dc converter and a PWM converter for PV output power leveling. This paper proposes two controllers: a current controller using the d-q synchronous reference and a phase-shift controller. The main function of the current controller is to regulate the voltage at the high-side dc, so that the voltage ratio of the high-voltage side (HVS with low-voltage side (LVS is equal to the transformer turns ratio. The phase-shift controller is employed to manage the charging and discharging modes of the battery based on PV output power and battery voltage. With the proposed system, unity power factor and efficient active power injection are achieved. The feasibility of the proposed control system is investigated using PSCAD simulation.

  18. Memory-based parallel data output controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stattel, R. J.; Niswander, J. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A memory-based parallel data output controller employs associative memories and memory mapping to decommutate multiple channels of telemetry data. The output controller contains a random access memory (RAM) which has at least as many address locations as there are channels. A word counter addresses the RAM which provides as it outputs an encoded peripheral device number and a MSB/LSB-first flag. The encoded device number and a bit counter address a second RAM which contains START and STOP flags to pick out the required bits from the specified word number. The LSB/MSB, START and STOP flags, along with the serial input digital data go to a control block which selectively fills a shift register used to drive the parallel data output bus.

  19. THE MALARIA BURDEN AND AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iya beji

    monetary policy can be used to stimulate agricultural output even if only in the .... require higher lags than could be accommodated given the number of our data .... Time Series with a Unit Root”, Journal of the American Statistical Association,.

  20. Scaling of global input-output networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Qi, Zhengling; Qu, Shen; Zhu, Ji; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Jia, Xiaoping; Xu, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Examining scaling patterns of networks can help understand how structural features relate to the behavior of the networks. Input-output networks consist of industries as nodes and inter-industrial exchanges of products as links. Previous studies consider limited measures for node strengths and link weights, and also ignore the impact of dataset choice. We consider a comprehensive set of indicators in this study that are important in economic analysis, and also examine the impact of dataset choice, by studying input-output networks in individual countries and the entire world. Results show that Burr, Log-Logistic, Log-normal, and Weibull distributions can better describe scaling patterns of global input-output networks. We also find that dataset choice has limited impacts on the observed scaling patterns. Our findings can help examine the quality of economic statistics, estimate missing data in economic statistics, and identify key nodes and links in input-output networks to support economic policymaking.

  1. OFFSHORE OIL OUTPUT MORE THAN SCHEDULED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    @@ China Offshore Oil Nan Hai East Corp (CONHE) is one of four subsidiaries of the China National Offshore Oil Corp.The first-quarter output was an encouraging 220 000 tons more than the planned goal for that period.

  2. Oil Refining Giants to Cut Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Dingmin

    2002-01-01

    @@ China's refined oil product output rose slightly in the first five months of this year on strong demand,but the two biggest domestic producers plan to cut production rates in an attempt to bolster the sluggish price.

  3. Coupling output of multichannel high power microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guolin; Shu, Ting; Yuan, Chengwei; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Jianhua; Jin, Zhenxing; Yin, Yi; Wu, Dapeng; Zhu, Jun; Ren, Heming; Yang, Jie

    2010-12-01

    The coupling output of multichannel high power microwaves is a promising technique for the development of high power microwave technologies, as it can enhance the output capacities of presently studied devices. According to the investigations on the spatial filtering method and waveguide filtering method, the hybrid filtering method is proposed for the coupling output of multichannel high power microwaves. As an example, a specific structure is designed for the coupling output of S/X/X band three-channel high power microwaves and investigated with the hybrid filtering method. In the experiments, a pulse of 4 GW X band beat waves and a pulse of 1.8 GW S band microwave are obtained.

  4. Output Measures and Library Space Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushington, Nolan

    1987-01-01

    Draws some initial connections between library performance measures and library space planning and collection management. Output measure surveys are suggested for establishing hierarchies of use and appropriate design of environments for housing the collection. Four references are listed. (MES)

  5. Enhanced output entanglement with reservoir engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xiao-Bo

    2017-01-01

    We study the output entanglement in a three-mode optomechanical system via reservoir engineering by shifting the center frequency of filter function away from resonant frequency. We find the bandwidth of the filter function can suppress the entanglement in the vicinity of resonant frequency of the system, while the entanglement will become prosperous if the center frequency departs from the resonant frequency. We obtain the approximate analytical expressions of the output entanglement, and fr...

  6. APPROXIMATE OUTPUT REGULATION FOR AFFINE NONLINEAR SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yali DONG; Daizhan CHENG; Huashu QIN

    2003-01-01

    Output regulation for affine nonlinear systems driven by an exogenous signal is investigated in this paper. In the absence of the standard exosystem hypothesis, we assume availability of the instantaneous values of the exogenous signal and its first time-derivative for use in the control law.For affine nonlinear systems, the necessary and sufficient conditions of the solvability of approximate output regulation problem are obtained. The precise form of the control law is presented under some suitable assumptions.

  7. Modeling the power output of piezoelectric energy harvesters

    KAUST Repository

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud

    2011-04-30

    Design of experiments and multiphysics analyses were used to develop a parametric model for a d 33-based cantilever. The analysis revealed that the most significant parameters influencing the resonant frequency are the supporting layer thickness, piezoelectric layer thickness, and cantilever length. On the other hand, the most important factors affecting the charge output arethe piezoelectric thickness and the interdigitated electrode dimensions. The accuracy of the developed model was confirmed and showed less than 1% estimation error compared with a commercial simulation package. To estimate the power delivered to a load, the electric current output from the piezoelectric generator was calculated. A circuit model was built and used to estimate the power delivered to a load, which compared favorably to experimentally published power data on actual cantilevers of similar dimensions. © 2011 TMS.

  8. ENERGY SCAVENGING BASED ON TRANSIENT THERMAL GRADIENTS: APPLICATION TO STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF AIRCRAFTS

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Results about energy capture from the environment associated with the self-powering of a wireless sensor network (WSN) for structural health monitoring of aircrafts (SHM) are presented. Thermal gradients taking place during specific flight phases are converted into electrical energy by using a small water tank coupled to a thermoelectric generator which output is connected to a storage circuit. The proposed system is experimentally assessed in an environmental chamber....

  9. Generation and Trapping of Ketenes in Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Cyril; Bolien, David; Ibanescu, Bogdan; Bloodworth, Sally; Harrowven, David C; Zhang, Xunli; Craven, Andy; Sneddon, Helen F; Whitby, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Ketenes were generated by the thermolysis of alkoxyalkynes under flow conditions, and then trapped with amines and alcohols to cleanly give amides and esters. For a 10 min reaction time, temperatures of 180, 160, and 140 °C were required for >95 % conversion of EtO, iPrO, and tBuO alkoxyalkynes, respectively. Variation of the temperature and flow rate with inline monitoring of the output by IR spectroscopy allowed the kinetic parameters for the conversion of 1-ethoxy-1-octyne to be easily estimated (Ea = 105.4 kJ/mol). Trapping of the in-situ-generated ketenes by alcohols to give esters required the addition of a tertiary amine catalyst to prevent competitive [2+2] addition of the ketene to the alkoxyalkyne precursor. PMID:26097406

  10. Development of Integrated Monitoring Platform for the New Generation Doppler Weather Radar-SA%新一代天气雷达集成监控平台开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张骞; 陈海燕; 吕庆利; 杨传凤; 耿力

    2016-01-01

    The new generation weather radar is an important part of modern meteorological observation methods ,monitoring the run-ning status of the new generation weather radar is important for the normal operation of the radar .This paper introduces the compo-sition of radar system and classification of radar data ,and analyzes the characteristics and laws of the radar system when it is normal or abnormal .Using Macromedia Dreamweaver and PHP , the integrated monitoring platform for the new generation weather radar is developed .Using Web page to monitor the real-time radar system running status , the sound alarm will be triggered when the status is abnormal ,and radar power ,status parameters and other important performance indicators could also be monitored .%新一代天气雷达是现代气象观测手段中的重要组成部分,监控新一代天气雷达系统的运行状态对于雷达的正常运行有着重要意义。文中介绍了雷达系统的组成和雷达资料的分类,通过分析雷达系统运行正常与运行故障时的特征和规律,应用Macromedia Dreamweaver 和PHP开发新一代天气雷达集成监控平台,以Web网页形式实时监控雷达系统运行状态,既能在状态异常时触发声音报警,又能监控雷达功率、状态参数等重要性能指标。

  11. Motor/generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  12. Simulation of Multi output Fly back Converter with Integrated Auxiliary Buck Converter with reduced components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.KOMATHI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The fly back converter has been widely used for multi outputs due to the simple structure and low cost in low-power applications. This paper presents a new multi output converter. It consists of a half-bridge inverter with boost converter in primary side and a fly back rectifier that is integrated with an auxiliary buck converter in secondary side. The boost converter is used to generate high voltage dc from Low voltage PV cells. The primary switches control the main output voltage and the secondary synchronous switches control the auxiliary output voltage. The main advantages of the proposed converter are that the transformer size can be reduced due to the less magnetizing offset current, all the power switches including synchronous ones can achieve the zero-voltage switching (ZVS and it has no output cross regulation problems. The circuit is simulated using MATLAB. The performance is verified with simulation results.

  13. Residual gravimetric method to measure nebulizer output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecellio None, Laurent; Grimbert, Daniel; Bordenave, Joelle; Benoit, Guy; Furet, Yves; Fauroux, Brigitte; Boissinot, Eric; De Monte, Michele; Lemarié, Etienne; Diot, Patrice

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a residual gravimetric method based on weighing dry filters to measure the aerosol output of nebulizers. This residual gravimetric method was compared to assay methods based on spectrophotometric measurement of terbutaline (Bricanyl, Astra Zeneca, France), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurement of tobramycin (Tobi, Chiron, U.S.A.), and electrochemical measurements of NaF (as defined by the European standard). Two breath-enhanced jet nebulizers, one standard jet nebulizer, and one ultrasonic nebulizer were tested. Output produced by the residual gravimetric method was calculated by weighing the filters both before and after aerosol collection and by filter drying corrected by the proportion of drug contained in total solute mass. Output produced by the electrochemical, spectrophotometric, and HPLC methods was determined after assaying the drug extraction filter. The results demonstrated a strong correlation between the residual gravimetric method (x axis) and assay methods (y axis) in terms of drug mass output (y = 1.00 x -0.02, r(2) = 0.99, n = 27). We conclude that a residual gravimetric method based on dry filters, when validated for a particular agent, is an accurate way of measuring aerosol output.

  14. Response requirements as constraints on output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, M D; Buchman, I B

    1979-07-01

    Two experiments studied how added response requirements affected fixed-interval schedule performance. Experiment 1 involved tandem fixed-interval fixed-ratio schedules, and Experiment 2 studied conjunctive fixed-interval fixed-ratio schedules. In both, pigeons' output, defined as overall response rate or as responses during the interval, first increased and then decreased as the ratio was raised. With small ratio requirements, the frequency of reinforcement in time either did not change or decreased slightly. With progressively larger ratios, reinforcement frequency decreased consistently. Alternative explanations were discussed. The first, a reinforcement theory account, was that response strength is an increasing monotonic function of both the response requirement and reinforcement frequency, and the bitonic output function represents interacting effects. Increases in the response requirement accompanied by small changes in reinforcement frequency enhance output, but further increases result in large enough decrements in reinforcement frequency so that output is lowered. The second explanation does not view reinforcement as a basic process but, instead, derives from concepts of economics and conservation. Organisms allocate their behavior among alternatives so as to maximize value, where value is a function of the responses that can occur in a given situation under the set of restrictions imposed by particular schedules. One form of this theory explicitly predicts that output is a bitonic function of ratio requirements in simple ratio schedules. However, it was not clear that this model could explain the present effects involving joint ratio and interval schedule restrictions.

  15. Output Synchronization of Nonidentical Linear Multiagent Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanqing; Su, Hongye; Shi, Peng; Lu, Renquan; Wu, Zheng-Guang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of output synchronization is investigated for the heterogeneous network with an uncertain leader. It is assumed that parameter perturbations influence the nonidentical linear agents, whose outputs are controlled to track the output of an uncertain leader. Based on the hierarchical structure of the communication graph, a novel control scheme is proposed to guarantee the output synchronization. As there exist parameter uncertainties in the models of the agents, the internal model principle is used to gain robustness versus plant parameter uncertainties. Furthermore, as the precise model of the leader is also not available, the adaptive control principle is adopted to tune the parameters in the local controllers. The developed new technique is able to simultaneously handle uncertainties in the follower parameters as well as the leader parameters. The agents in the upper layers will be treated as the exosystems of the agents in the lower layers. The local controllers are constructed in a sequential order. It is shown that the output synchronization can be achieved globally asymptotically and locally exponentially. Finally, a simulation example is given to illustrate the effectiveness and potential of the theoretic results obtained.

  16. Output characteristics of Stirling thermoacoustic engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Daming; Qiu, Limin; Wang, Bo; Xiao, Yong; Zhao, Liang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, Zhejiang University, No. 38, Zheda Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China)

    2008-05-15

    A thermoacoustic engine (TE), which converts thermal energy into acoustic power by the thermoacoustic effect, shows several advantages due to the absence of moving parts, such as high reliability and long lifetime associated with reduced manufacturing costs. Power output and efficiency are important criteria of the performance of a TE. In order to increase the acoustic power output and thermal efficiency of a Stirling TE, the acoustic power distribution in the engine is studied with the variable load method. It is found that the thermal efficiency is independent of the output locations along the engine under the same acoustic power output. Furthermore, when the pressure ratio is kept constant at one location along the TE, it is beneficial to increasing the thermal efficiency by exporting more acoustic power. With nitrogen of 2.5 MPa as working gas and the pressure ratio at the compliance of 1.20 in the experiments, the acoustic power is measured at the compliance and the resonator simultaneously. The maximum power output, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency reach 390.0 W, 11.2% and 16.0%, which are increased by 51.4%, 24.4% and 19.4%, respectively, compared to those with a single R-C load with 750 ml reservoir at the compliance. This research will be instructive for increasing the efficiency and making full use of the acoustic energy of a TE. (author)

  17. Output characteristics of Stirling thermoacoustic engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Daming [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, Zhejiang University, No. 38, Zheda Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Qiu Limin [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, Zhejiang University, No. 38, Zheda Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China)], E-mail: limin.qiu@zju.edu.cn; Wang Bo; Xiao Yong; Zhao Liang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, Zhejiang University, No. 38, Zheda Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China)

    2008-05-15

    A thermoacoustic engine (TE), which converts thermal energy into acoustic power by the thermoacoustic effect, shows several advantages due to the absence of moving parts, such as high reliability and long lifetime associated with reduced manufacturing costs. Power output and efficiency are important criteria of the performance of a TE. In order to increase the acoustic power output and thermal efficiency of a Stirling TE, the acoustic power distribution in the engine is studied with the variable load method. It is found that the thermal efficiency is independent of the output locations along the engine under the same acoustic power output. Furthermore, when the pressure ratio is kept constant at one location along the TE, it is beneficial to increasing the thermal efficiency by exporting more acoustic power. With nitrogen of 2.5 MPa as working gas and the pressure ratio at the compliance of 1.20 in the experiments, the acoustic power is measured at the compliance and the resonator simultaneously. The maximum power output, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency reach 390.0 W, 11.2% and 16.0%, which are increased by 51.4%, 24.4% and 19.4%, respectively, compared to those with a single R-C load with 750 ml reservoir at the compliance. This research will be instructive for increasing the efficiency and making full use of the acoustic energy of a TE.

  18. Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.F. Loros

    2000-06-29

    consists of instrument and control equipment and components necessary to provide human operators with sufficient information to monitor and control the operation of the repository in an efficient and safe manner. The system consists of operator consoles and workstations, multiple video display terminals, communications and interfacing equipment, and instrument and control software with customized configuration to meet the needs of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Process and logic controllers and the associated input/output units of each system interfaced with this system will be configured into Remote Terminal Units (RTU) and located close to the systems to be monitored and controlled. The RTUs are configured to remain operational should communication with CCC operations be lost. The system provides closed circuit television to selectively view systems, operations, and equipment areas and to aid in the operation of mechanical systems. Control and monitoring of site utility systems will be located in the CCC. Site utilities include heating, ventilation, and air conditioning equipment; plant compressed air; plant water; firewater; electrical systems; and inert gases, such as nitrogen, if required. This system interfaces with surface and subsurface systems that either generate output data or require remote control input. The system interfaces with the Site Communications System for bulk storage of operational data, on-site and off-site communication, and a plant-wide public announcement system. The system interfaces with the Safeguards and Security System to provide operational status and emergency alarm indications. The system interfaces with the Site Operation System to provide site wide acquisition of data for analysis and reports, historical information for trends, utility information for plant operation, and to receive operating plans and procedures.

  19. Characteristics of output voltage and current of integrated nanogenerators

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Rusen

    2009-01-01

    Owing to the anisotropic property and small output signals of the piezoelectric nanogenerators (NGs) and the influence of the measurement system and environment, identification of the true signal generated by the NG is critical. We have developed three criteria: Schottky behavior test, switching-polarity tests, and linear superposition of current and voltage tests. The 11 tests can effectively rule out the system artifacts, whose sign does not change with the switching measurement polarity, and random signals, which might change signs but cannot consistently add up or cancel out under designed connection configurations. This study establishes the standards for designing and scale up of integrated nanogenerators. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  20. Design study of the KAGRA output mode cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumeta, Ayaka; Bond, Charlotte; Somiya, Kentaro

    2015-02-01

    Most second-generation gravitational-wave detectors employ an optical resonator called an output mode cleaner (OMC), which filters out junk light from the signal and the reference light, before it reaches the detection photodiode located at the asymmetric port of the large-scale interferometer. The optical parameters of the OMC should be carefully chosen to satisfy the requirements to filter out unwanted light whilst transmitting the gravitational-wave signal. We use the simulation program FINESSE and realistic mirror phase maps that have the same surface quality as the KAGRA test masses to find out a proper design of the KAGRA OMC.

  1. A model to predict the power output from wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landberg, L. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    This paper will describe a model that can predict the power output from wind farms. To give examples of input the model is applied to a wind farm in Texas. The predictions are generated from forecasts from the NGM model of NCEP. These predictions are made valid at individual sites (wind farms) by applying a matrix calculated by the sub-models of WASP (Wind Atlas Application and Analysis Program). The actual wind farm production is calculated using the Riso PARK model. Because of the preliminary nature of the results, they will not be given. However, similar results from Europe will be given.

  2. An Analysis of Output on English Vocabulary Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾娅妮

    2014-01-01

    Output Hypothesis was proposed by Swain in 1985, her Output Hypothesis is regarded as the most important and in-fluential one. However, few studies research and analyze the effect of output on vocabulary acquisition. The findings of this study suggest the importance of output in vocabulary acquisition. Furthermore, in the interactive mode output can help learners acquire vocabulary.

  3. Artificial Neural Networks to Predict the Power Output of a PV Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Lo Brano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper illustrates an adaptive approach based on different topologies of artificial neural networks (ANNs for the power energy output forecasting of photovoltaic (PV modules. The analysis of the PV module’s power output needed detailed local climate data, which was collected by a dedicated weather monitoring system. The Department of Energy, Information Engineering, and Mathematical Models of the University of Palermo (Italy has built up a weather monitoring system that worked together with a data acquisition system. The power output forecast is obtained using three different types of ANNs: a one hidden layer Multilayer perceptron (MLP, a recursive neural network (RNN, and a gamma memory (GM trained with the back propagation. In order to investigate the influence of climate variability on the electricity production, the ANNs were trained using weather data (air temperature, solar irradiance, and wind speed along with historical power output data available for the two test modules. The model validation was performed by comparing model predictions with power output data that were not used for the network's training. The results obtained bear out the suitability of the adopted methodology for the short-term power output forecasting problem and identified the best topology.

  4. William Harvey, Peter Lauremberg and cardiac output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, G

    1992-11-01

    In 1636, the Rostock professor of medicine and the art of poetry, Peter Lauremberg (1585-1639), was one of the earliest to mention circulation which had been discovered by William Harvey and documented in his anatomical manual. In 1628 William Harvey proved the existence of the blood circulation by calculating the "cardiac output in a half an hour (semihora)". The answer to the question why Harvey chose half an hour as the time range can be found in the way of measuring time usual at that period. The sandglasses were turned half-hourly in maritime navigation and the wheel-clocks on shore had only the hour-hand. Improved chronometry was one of the prerequisites for measuring cardiac output. The minute-hand became usual after 1700 and the second-hand later on. Taking into consideration the alterations of cardiac output made the latter one of the most important circulation parameters in diagnostics, prognostication and therapeutics.

  5. Pole placement with constant gain output feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, B.; Lindorff, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    Given a linear time invariant multivariable system with m inputs and p outputs, it was shown that p closed loop poles of the system can be preassigned arbitrarily using constant gain output feedback provided (A circumflex, B circumflex) is controllable. These data show that if (A circumflex, B circumflex, C circumflex) is controllable and observable, and Rank B circumflex = m, Rank C circumflex = p, then max (m,p) poles of the system can be assigned arbitarily using constant gain output feedback. Further, it is shown that in some cases more than max (m,p) poles can be arbitrarily assigned. A least square design technique is outlined to approximate the desired pole locations when it is not possible to place all the poles.

  6. PV output smoothing with energy storage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Abraham; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2012-03-01

    This report describes an algorithm, implemented in Matlab/Simulink, designed to reduce the variability of photovoltaic (PV) power output by using a battery. The purpose of the battery is to add power to the PV output (or subtract) to smooth out the high frequency components of the PV power that that occur during periods with transient cloud shadows on the PV array. The control system is challenged with the task of reducing short-term PV output variability while avoiding overworking the battery both in terms of capacity and ramp capability. The algorithm proposed by Sandia is purposely very simple to facilitate implementation in a real-time controller. The control structure has two additional inputs to which the battery can respond. For example, the battery could respond to PV variability, load variability or area control error (ACE) or a combination of the three.

  7. Effect of water intake on sweat output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Mani

    1961-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of drinking volumes of water in excess of normal requirement at a given time on sweat output was studied under two conditions of body activity namely marching and standing, and two conditions of exposure namely sun and shade. It was found that (1drinking large volumes of water causes a significant and appreciable increase in sweat output, of the order of 0.8 gm/kg/hr; and (2 this increase is very nearly the same under all the conditions studied. It is suggested that changes in tonicity of the plasma may be the main cause for this phenomenon. It is also pointed out that this increased sweat output is not a loss to the body.

  8. Problems in Modelling Charge Output Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczyk Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents major issues associated with the problem of modelling change output accelerometers. The presented solutions are based on the weighted least squares (WLS method using transformation of the complex frequency response of the sensors. The main assumptions of the WLS method and a mathematical model of charge output accelerometers are presented in first two sections of this paper. In the next sections applying the WLS method to estimation of the accelerometer model parameters is discussed and the associated uncertainties are determined. Finally, the results of modelling a PCB357B73 charge output accelerometer are analysed in the last section of this paper. All calculations were executed using the MathCad software program. The main stages of these calculations are presented in Appendices A−E.

  9. Output radiation from a degenerate parametric oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Tesfa, S

    2007-01-01

    We study the squeezing as well as the statistical properties of the output radiation from a degenerate parametric oscillator coupled to a squeezed vacuum reservoir employing the stochastic differential equations associated with the normal ordering. It is found that the degree of squeezing of the output radiation is less than the corresponding cavity radiation. However, for output radiation the correlation of the quadrature operators evaluated at different times also exhibits squeezing, which is the reason for quenching of the overall noise in one of the quadrature components of the squeezing spectrum even when the oscillator is coupled to a vacuum reservoir. Moreover, coupling the oscillator to the squeezed vacuum reservoir enhances the squeezing exponentially and it also increases the mean photon number.

  10. Electric Vehicles Charging Scheduling Strategy Considering the Uncertainty of Photovoltaic Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiangxiang; Su, Su; Yue, Yunli; Wang, Wei; He, Luobin; Li, Hao; Ota, Yutaka

    2017-05-01

    The rapid development of electric vehicles and distributed generation bring new challenges to security and economic operation of the power system, so the collaborative research of the EVs and the distributed generation have important significance in distribution network. Under this background, an EVs charging scheduling strategy considering the uncertainty of photovoltaic(PV) output is proposed. The characteristics of EVs charging are analysed first. A PV output prediction method is proposed with a PV database then. On this basis, an EVs charging scheduling strategy is proposed with the goal to satisfy EVs users’ charging willingness and decrease the power loss in distribution network. The case study proves that the proposed PV output prediction method can predict the PV output accurately and the EVs charging scheduling strategy can reduce the power loss and stabilize the fluctuation of the load in distributed network.

  11. A gLite FTS based solution for managing user output in CMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquilli, M.; Riahi, H.; Spiga, D.; Grandi, C.; Mancinelli, V.; Mascheroni, M.; Pepe, F.; Vaandering, E.

    2012-12-01

    The CMS distributed data analysis workflow assumes that jobs run in a different location from where their results are finally stored. Typically the user output must be transferred across the network from one site to another, possibly on a different continent or over links not necessarily validated for high bandwidth/high reliability transfer. This step is named stage-out and in CMS was originally implemented as a synchronous step of the analysis job execution. However, our experience showed the weakness of this approach both in terms of low total job execution efficiency and failure rates, wasting precious CPU resources. The nature of analysis data makes it inappropriate to use PhEDEx, the core data placement system for CMS. As part of the new generation of CMS Workload Management tools, the Asynchronous Stage-Out system (AsyncStageOut) has been developed to enable third party copy of the user output. The AsyncStageOut component manages glite FTS transfers of data from the temporary store at the site where the job ran to the final location of the data on behalf of that data owner. The tool uses python daemons, built using the WMCore framework, and CouchDB, to manage the queue of work and FTS transfers. CouchDB also provides the platform for a dedicated operations monitoring system. In this paper, we present the motivations of the asynchronous stage-out system. We give an insight into the design and the implementation of key features, describing how it is coupled with the CMS workload management system. Finally, we show the results and the commissioning experience.

  12. Chaos-based Pseudo-random Number Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Barakat, Mohamed L.

    2014-04-10

    Various methods and systems related to chaos-based pseudo-random number generation are presented. In one example, among others, a system includes a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate a series of digital outputs and a nonlinear post processing circuit to perform an exclusive OR (XOR) operation on a first portion of a current digital output of the PRNG and a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output. In another example, a method includes receiving at least a first portion of a current output from a PRNG and performing an XOR operation on the first portion of the current PRNG output with a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output.

  13. Reliability and Energy Output of Bifacial Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aken, B.B.; Jansen, M.J.; Dekker, N.J.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Although flash tests under standard test conditions yields lower power due to transmittance of the back sheet, bifacial modules are expected to outperform their monofacial equivalents in terms of yearly energy output in the field. We compare flash tests for bifacial modules with and without a light scattering panel directly behind the modules: 3% more power output is obtained. We also report on the damp-heat reliability of modules with transparent back sheet. Finally we will present the results of an outdoor study comparing modules with transparent back sheet and modules with state-of-the-art AR coating on the front glass.

  14. Input/Output Subroutine Library Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, James B.

    1988-01-01

    Efficient, easy-to-use program moved easily to different computers. Purpose of NAVIO, Input/Output Subroutine Library, provides input/output package of software for FORTRAN programs that is portable, efficient, and easy to use. Implemented as hierarchy of libraries. At bottom is very small library containing only non-portable routines called "I/O Kernel." Design makes NAVIO easy to move from one computer to another, by simply changing kernel. NAVIO appropriate for software system of almost any size wherein different programs communicate through files.

  15. The Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Monitor for MAVEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eparvier, F. G.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Woods, T. N.; Thiemann, E. M. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) monitor is an instrument on the NASA Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission, designed to measure the variability of the solar soft x-rays and EUV irradiance at Mars. The solar output in this wavelength range is a primary energy input to the Mars atmosphere and a driver for the processes leading to atmospheric escape. The MAVEN EUV monitor consists of three broadband radiometers. The radiometers consist of silicon photodiodes with different bandpass-limiting filters for each channel. The filters for the radiometers are: Channel A: thin foil C/Al/Nb/C for 0.1-3 nm and 17-22 nm, Channel B: thin foil C/Al/Ti/C for 0.1-7 nm, and Channel C: interference filter for 121-122 nm. A fourth, covered photodiode is used to monitor variations in dark signal due to temperature and radiation background changes. The three science channels will monitor emissions from the highly variable corona and transition region of the solar atmosphere. The EUV monitor is mounted on the top deck of the MAVEN spacecraft and is pointed at the Sun for most of its orbit around Mars. The measurement cadence is 1-second. The broadband irradiances can be used to monitor the most rapid changes in solar irradiance due to flares. In combination with time-interpolated observations at Earth of slower varying solar spectral emissions, the broadband MAVEN EUV monitor measurements will also be used in a spectral irradiance model to generate the full EUV spectrum at Mars from 0 to 190 nm in 1-nm bins on a time cadence of 1-minute and daily averages.

  16. Validation of a continuous, arterial pressure-based cardiac output measurement: a multicenter, prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, William T; Horswell, Jeffrey L; Calderon, Joachim; Janvier, Gerard; Van Severen, Tom; Van den Berghe, Greet; Kozikowski, Lori

    2007-01-01

    The present study compared measurements of cardiac output by an arterial pressure-based cardiac output (APCO) analysis method with measurement by intermittent thermodilution cardiac output (ICO) via pulmonary artery catheter in a clinical setting. The multicenter, prospective clinical investigation enrolled patients with a clinical indication for cardiac output monitoring requiring pulmonary artery and radial artery catheters at two hospitals in the United States, one hospital in France, and one hospital in Belgium. In 84 patients (69 surgical patients), the cardiac output was measured by analysis of the arterial pulse using APCO and was measured via pulmonary artery catheter by ICO; to establish a reference comparison, the cardiac output was measured by continuous cardiac output (CCO). Data were collected continuously by the APCO and CCO technologies, and at least every 4 hours by ICO. No clinical interventions were made as part of the study. For APCO compared with ICO, the bias was 0.20 l/min, the precision was +/- 1.28 l/min, and the limits of agreement were -2.36 l/m to 2.75 l/m. For CCO compared with ICO, the bias was 0.66 l/min, the precision was +/- 1.05 l/min, and the limits of agreement were -1.43 l/m to 2.76 l/m. The ability of APCO and CCO to assess changes in cardiac output was compared with that of ICO. In 96% of comparisons, APCO tracked the change in cardiac output in the same direction as ICO. The magnitude of change was comparable 59% of the time. For CCO, 95% of comparisons were in the same direction, with 58% of those changes being of similar magnitude. In critically ill patients in the intensive care unit, continuous measurement of cardiac output using either APCO or CCO is comparable with ICO. Further study in more homogeneous populations may refine specific situations where APCO reliability is strongest.

  17. A biocatalytic cascade with several output signals--towards biosensors with different levels of confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guz, Nataliia; Halámek, Jan; Rusling, James F; Katz, Evgeny

    2014-05-01

    The biocatalytic cascade based on enzyme-catalyzed reactions activated by several biomolecular input signals and producing output signal after each reaction step was developed as an example of a logically reversible information processing system. The model system was designed to mimic the operation of concatenated AND logic gates with optically readable output signals generated at each step of the logic operation. Implications include concurrent bioanalyses and data interpretation for medical diagnostics.

  18. A biocatalytic cascade with several output signals—towards biosensors with different levels of confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guz, Nataliia; Halámek, Jan; Rusling, James F.; Katz, Evgeny

    2014-01-01

    The biocatalytic cascade based on enzyme-catalyzed reactions activated by several biomolecular input signals and producing output signal after each reaction step was developed as an example of a logically reversible information processing system. The model system was designed to mimic the operation of concatenated AND logic gates with optically readable output signals generated at each step of the logic operation. Implications include concurrent bioanalyses and data interpretation for medical diagnostics. PMID:24748446

  19. Input-output characterization of fiber reinforced composites by P waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renneisen, John D.; Williams, James H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Input-output characterization of fiber composites is studied theoretically by tracing P waves in the media. A new path motion to aid in the tracing of P and the reflection generated SV wave paths in the continuum plate is developed. A theoretical output voltage from the receiving transducer is calculated for a tone burst. The study enhances the quantitative and qualitative understanding of the nondestructive evaluation of fiber composites which can be modeled as transversely isotropic media.

  20. Long-term post-fire effects on spatial ecology and reproductive output of female Agassiz’s desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at a wind energy facility near Palm Springs, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Madrak, Sheila V.; Loughran, Caleb L.; Meyer, Katherin P.; Arundel, Terence R.; Bjurlin, Curtis D.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the long-term response of a cohort of eight female Agassiz’s desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) during the first 15 years following a large fire at a wind energy generation facility near Palm Springs, California, USA. The fire burned a significant portion of the study site in 1995. Tortoise activity areas were mapped using minimum convex polygons for a proximate post-fire interval from 1997 to 2000, and a long-term post-fire interval from 2009 to 2010. In addition, we measured the annual reproductive output of eggs each year and monitored the body condition of tortoises over time. One adult female tortoise was killed by the fire and five tortoises bore exposure scars that were not fatal. Despite predictions that tortoises would make the short-distance movements from burned to nearby unburned habitats, most activity areas and their centroids remained in burned areas for the duration of the study. The percentage of activity area burned did not differ significantly between the two monitoring periods. Annual reproductive output and measures of body condition remained statistically similar throughout the monitoring period. Despite changes in plant composition, conditions at this site appeared to be suitable for survival of tortoises following a major fire. High productivity at the site may have buffered tortoises from the adverse impacts of fire if they were not killed outright. Tortoise populations at less productive desert sites may not have adequate resources to sustain normal activity areas, reproductive output, and body conditions following fire.

  1. Improvements in determination of cardiac output with a Swan-Ganz catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, M; Kuwana, K; Nakanishi, H; Sakai, K

    1990-01-01

    The time constant for heat transfer may affect exact determination of cardiac output with Swan-Ganz catheters. Commercially available Swan-Ganz catheters are provided with thermistors with varying time constants. Current monitoring of cardiac output is not corrected for these time constants, so the conventional method of determining cardiac output using the equation of Stewart-Hamilton produces marked errors. The authors propose a new method of determining cardiac output with Swan-Ganz catheters with varying time constants from thermal dilution curve data based on Newton's cooling law. Values for blood flow rate determined by the new method using a completely stirred tank of original design, mimicking the natural heart and using bovine blood, are almost the same as values observed at varying saline infusion volumes, saline temperatures, and saline infusion times.

  2. A note on scrap in the 1992 U.S. input-output tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisko, George M.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction A key concern of industrial ecology and life cycle analysis is the disposal and recycling of scrap. One might conclude that the U.S. input-output tables are appropriate tools for analyzing scrap flows. Duchin, for instance, has suggested using input-output analysis for industrial ecology, indicating that input-output economics can trace the stocks and flows of energy and other materials from extraction through production and consumption to recycling or disposal. Lave and others use input-output tables to design life cycle assessment models for studying product design, materials use, and recycling strategies, even with the knowledge that these tables suffer from a lack of comprehensive and detailed data that may never be resolved. Although input-output tables can offer general guidance about the interdependence of economic and environmental processes, data reporting by industry and the economic concepts underlying these tables pose problems for rigorous material flow examinations. This is especially true for analyzing the output of scrap and scrap flows in the United States and estimating the amount of scrap that can be recycled. To show how data reporting has affected the values of scrap in recent input-output tables, this paper focuses on metal scrap generated in manufacturing. The paper also briefly discusses scrap that is not included in the input-output tables and some economic concepts that limit the analysis of scrap flows.

  3. Maximizing Output Power of a Solar Panel via Combination of Sun Tracking and Maximum Power Point Tracking by Fuzzy Controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Taherbaneh; A. H. Rezaie; H. Ghafoorifard; Rahimi, K; M. B. Menhaj

    2010-01-01

    In applications with low-energy conversion efficiency, maximizing the output power improves the efficiency. The maximum output power of a solar panel depends on the environmental conditions and load profile. In this paper, a method based on simultaneous use of two fuzzy controllers is developed in order to maximize the generated output power of a solar panel in a photovoltaic system: fuzzy-based sun tracking and maximum power point tracking. The sun tracking is performed by changing the solar...

  4. A model to calculate cardiac output in hemodialysis patients by thermodilution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alayoud Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Blood Temperature Monitor module (BTM is used to measure recirculation by thermodilution in dialysis. Numerous studies have confirmed its interest in the measuring of the vascular access flow. In this letter we describe a model to calculate cardiac output in dialysis by the BTM.

  5. IMPROVING AGREEMENT BETWEEN THORACIC BIOIMPEDANCE AND DYE DILUTION CARDIAC-OUTPUT ESTIMATION IN CHILDREN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OCONNELL, AJ; TIBBALLS, J; COULTHARD, M

    1991-01-01

    The measurement of thoracic electrical bioimpedance (TEB) offers a continuous, non-invasive method for monitoring cardiac output (CO). For clinical use, agreement with a current standard should be demonstrated. We describe a modification to the manufacturer's suggested data entry into the NCCOM3-R6

  6. Implementation of a method for calculating output factors in air for irregular fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suero Rodrigo, M. A.; Marques Frguela, E.

    2011-07-01

    The concept of output factor in air (Sc) was introduced to characterize the variation of the incident photon fluence per unit monitor with different settings of the collimator. The objective of this work is the implementation of the method proposed by Zhu et al. (2004) to calculate both as FCSc Sc and verification with the measurements performed in mini-mannequin.

  7. Achieving Maximum Power from Thermoelectric Generators with Maximum-Power-Point-Tracking Circuits Composed of a Boost-Cascaded-with-Buck Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunbin; Sim, Minseob; Kim, Shiho

    2015-06-01

    We propose a way of achieving maximum power and power-transfer efficiency from thermoelectric generators by optimized selection of maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT) circuits composed of a boost-cascaded-with-buck converter. We investigated the effect of switch resistance on the MPPT performance of thermoelectric generators. The on-resistances of the switches affect the decrease in the conversion gain and reduce the maximum output power obtainable. Although the incremental values of the switch resistances are small, the resulting difference in the maximum duty ratio between the input and output powers is significant. For an MPPT controller composed of a boost converter with a practical nonideal switch, we need to monitor the output power instead of the input power to track the maximum power point of the thermoelectric generator. We provide a design strategy for MPPT controllers by considering the compromise in which a decrease in switch resistance causes an increase in the parasitic capacitance of the switch.

  8. On optimal output regulation for linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Anton A.; Sannuti, Peddapullaiah; Shi, Guoyong

    2003-01-01

    The classical output regulation problem formulation for linear systems has a number of shortcomings; among them a primary one is that it does not take into account the transient response. Although this problem has been studied since the 1970s, a complete picture has not emerged yet. We formulate and

  9. On output regulation for linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Anton A.; Sannuti, Peddapullaiah

    2001-01-01

    For both continuous- and discrete-time systems, we revisit the output regulation problem for linear systems. We generalize the problem formulation in order � to expand the class of reference or disturbance signals, � to utilize the derivative or feedforward information of reference signals wheneve

  10. Monetary policy and regional output in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rockenbach da Silva Guimarães

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an analysis of whether the effects of the Brazilian monetary policy on regional outputs are symmetric. The strategy developed combines the techniques of principal component analysis (PCA to decompose the variables that measure regional economic activity into common and region-specific components and vector autoregressions (VAR to observe the behavior of these variables in response to monetary policy shocks. The common component responds to monetary policy as expected. Additionally, the idiosyncratic components of the regions showed no impact of monetary policy. The main finding of this paper is that the monetary policy responses on regional output are symmetrical when the regional output decomposition is performed, and the responses are asymmetrical when this decomposition is not performed. Therefore, performing the regional output decomposition corroborates the economic intuition that monetary policy has no impact on region-specific issues. Once monetary policy affects the common component of the regional economic activity and does not impact its idiosyncratic components, it can be considered symmetrical.

  11. Explaining output volatility: The case of taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posch, Olaf

    empirical link between e ective tax rates and output volatility, with some evidence of a cointegrating relationship. In accordance with theory, taxes on labor income and corporate income empirically are found to be negatively related to volatility of macro aggregates whereas the capital tax ratio has...

  12. Research Output, Socialization, and the Biglan Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Bean, John P.

    1981-01-01

    A test of the Biglan model of faculty subcultures using measures of research output and tests of the model controlling for the effects of faculty socialization are described. The Biglan model is found to be valid, and the distinctiveness of the Biglan groups appears to increase with the socialization of faculty into subject areas. (Author/MLW)

  13. Fast Output-sensitive Matrix Multiplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Riko; Stöckel, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of multiplying two $U \\times U$ matrices $A$ and $C$ of elements from a field $\\F$. We present a new randomized algorithm that can use the known fast square matrix multiplication algorithms to perform fewer arithmetic operations than the current state of the art for output...

  14. Fast output-sensitive matrix multiplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Riko; Stöckel, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of multiplying two $U \\times U$ matrices $A$ and $C$ of elements from a field $\\F$. We present a new randomized algorithm that can use the known fast square matrix multiplication algorithms to perform fewer arithmetic operations than the current state of the art for output...

  15. Capital Power:From Input to Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Wanlong; Alice

    2009-01-01

    @@ After thirty yeas "going out" of China overseas investment,we learn from our failed lessons and also successful experience.Chinese enterprises are now standing at a new starting point of "going out".China is transforming from "capital input power" to "capital output power".

  16. Analysis of variance for model output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.J.W.

    1999-01-01

    A scalar model output Y is assumed to depend deterministically on a set of stochastically independent input vectors of different dimensions. The composition of the variance of Y is considered; variance components of particular relevance for uncertainty analysis are identified. Several analysis of va

  17. Research Output, Socialization, and the Biglan Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Bean, John P.

    1981-01-01

    A test of the Biglan model of faculty subcultures using measures of research output and tests of the model controlling for the effects of faculty socialization are described. The Biglan model is found to be valid, and the distinctiveness of the Biglan groups appears to increase with the socialization of faculty into subject areas. (Author/MLW)

  18. Turbo decoding using two soft output values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建平; 潘申富; 梁庆林

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that turbo decoding always begins from the first component decoder and supposes that the apriori information is "0" at the first iterative decoding. To alternatively start decoding at two component decoders, we can gain two soft output values for the received observation of an input bit. It is obvious that two soft output values comprise more sufficient extrinsic information than only one output value obtained in the conventional scheme since different start points of decoding result in different combinations of the a priori information and the input codewords with different symbol orders due to the permutation of an interleaver. Summarizing two soft output values for erery bit before making hard decisions, we can correct more errors due to their complement. Consequently, turbo codes can achieve better error correcting performance than before in this way. Simulation results show that the performance of turbo codes using the novel proposed decoding scheme can get a growing improvement with the increment of SNR in general compared to the conventional scheme. When the bit error probability is 10-5, the proposed scheme can achieve 0.5 dB asymptotic coding gain or so under the given simulation conditions.

  19. Explaining output volatility: The case of taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posch, Olaf

    the second moment of output growth rates without (long-run) effects on the first moment. Taking the model to the data, we exploit observed heterogeneity patterns to estimate effects of tax rates on macro volatility using panel estimation, explicitly modeling the unobserved variance process. We find a strong...

  20. Predicting Color Output of Additive Manufactured Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Pedersen, David Bue; Aanæs, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address the colorimetric performance of a multicolor additive manufacturing process. A method on how to measure and characterize color performance of said process is presented. Furthermore, a method on predicting the color output is demonstrated, allowing for previsualization...

  1. What shapes output of policy reform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kirsten

    This thesis deals with the factors shaping forest policy output during the stages implementation and bases its main message on empirical findings from the forestry sector in Ghana. Policy and institutional factors are important underlying causes for deforestation, especially in the tropics. Forest...

  2. Smoothing the output from a DAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, C.

    1980-01-01

    Circuit smooths stepped waveform from analog-to-digital converter without appreciable phase shift between stepped input signal and smoothed output signal and without any effect from stepping rate. Waveform produced is suitable for driving controls used in manufacturing processes, aerospace systems, and automobiles.

  3. Minimum output entropy of Gaussian channels

    CERN Document Server

    Lloyd, S; Maccone, L; Pirandola, S; Garcia-Patron, R

    2009-01-01

    We show that the minimum output entropy for all single-mode Gaussian channels is additive and is attained for Gaussian inputs. This allows the derivation of the channel capacity for a number of Gaussian channels, including that of the channel with linear loss, thermal noise, and linear amplification.

  4. Adaptive Output Tracking of Driven Oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Diao

    2008-01-01

    of the output tracking error to an adjustable neighborhood of the origin. In addition, good approximation of the unknown nonlinearities is also achieved by incorporating a persistent exciting signal in the parameter update law. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by an application to a cardiac conduction system modelled by two coupled driven oscillators.

  5. Er:YAG crystal temperature influence on laser output characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němec, Michal; Å ulc, Jan; Hubka, Zbyněk.; Hlinomaz, Kryštof; Jelínková, Helena

    2017-02-01

    The main goal of this work was to investigate the influence of the temperature of the Er:YAG active medium on laser properties in eye-safe spectral region for three various pump wavelengths. The tested Er:YAG sample doped by 0.5% of Er3+ ions had a cylindrical shape with 25mm in length and 5mm in diameter. The absorption spectrum of the Er:YAG active medium in the range from 1400nm up to 1700nm for temperatures 80K and 300K was measured. The crystal was placed inside the vacuum chamber of a liquid nitrogen cooled cryostat. The temperature was controlled within the 80 - 340K temperature range. Three pump sources generating at 1535, 1452, and 1467nm were applied. The first one was flash lamp pumped Er:glass laser (repetition rate 0.5 Hz, pulse duration 1 ms, pulse energy 148 mJ). The further two sources were fiber coupled laser diodes (repetition rate 10 Hz, pulse duration 10 ms, maximum pulse energies 106mJ and 195 mJ). The semi-hemispherical laser resonator consisted of a pump curved mirror and output plan coupler with a reflectivity of 90% @ 1645 nm. The laser output characteristics were investigated in dependence on temperature of active medium for three laser pumping systems. The output energy has an optimum in dependence on active medium temperature and pump wavelengths. The maximal generated laser energies were 16.2mJ (90 K), 28.7mJ (120 K), and 33.2mJ (220 K), for pump wavelengths 1452 nm, 1467 nm, and 1535 nm, respectively.

  6. BeXRB Monitor Data API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A fully queryable REST API with JSON, XML, and CSV output as well as inline, runable examples. This is a monitor using data from Swift/BAT, MAXI and Fermi/GBM...

  7. On the use of statistics and kriging to the monitoring of hydro generating units at Hydro-Quebec; Application de la statistique et du krigeage a la surveillance de groupes hydroelectriques a Hydro-Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, F.

    1996-12-31

    Optimizing the preventing monitoring of a water current power generator requires a good statistical representation. But the unit working rate is always one of the three most interesting ones, which results in poor statistical data for any other working rate. Kriging has been used, in a simplified and efficient way that takes into account for each state the preceding state and the following one (dual kriging). In addition, a novel approach for computing the standard deviation of a distribution is described, as well as a method for estimating the bias on the interpolation used to calculate the latter`s range of validity. (D.L.) 32 refs.

  8. Hybrid thermoelectric piezoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, D. S.; Hewitt, C. A.; Carroll, D. L.

    2016-06-01

    This work presents an integration of flexible thermoelectric and piezoelectric materials into a single device structure. This device architecture overcomes several prohibitive issues facing the combination of traditional thermoelectric and piezoelectric generators, while optimizing performance of the combined power output. The structure design uses a carbon nanotube/polymer thin film as a flexible thermoelectric generator that doubles as an electrode on a piezoelectric generator made of poly(vinylidene fluoride). An example 2 × 2 array of devices is shown to generate 89% of the maximum thermoelectric power, and provide 5.3 times more piezoelectric voltage when compared with a traditional device.

  9. SVOM Gamma Ray Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Yongwei; Li, Yanguo; Zhang, Yongjie; Zhang, Shuangnan

    2009-01-01

    The Space-based multi-band astronomical Variable Object Monitor (SVOM) mission is dedicated to the detection, localization and broad-band study of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and other high-energy transient phenomena. The Gamma Ray Monitor (GRM) onboard is designed to observe the GRBs up to 5 MeV. With this instrument one of the key GRB parameter, Epeak, can be easily measured in the hard x-ray band. It can achieve a detection rate of 100 GRBs per year which ensures the scientific output of SVOM.

  10. SVOM gamma ray monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The space-based multi-band astronomical Variable Object Monitor(SVOM) mission is dedicated to the detection,localization and broad-band study of gamma-ray bursts(GRBs) and other high-energy transient phenomena.The gamma ray monitor(GRM) onboard is designed to observe GRBs up to 5 MeV.With this instrument,one of the key GRB parameters,Epeak,can be easily measured in the hard X-ray band.It can achieve a detection rate of 100 GRBs per year which ensures the scientific output of SVOM.

  11. From sensor output to improved product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertog, M.L.A.T.M.; Vollebregt, Martijntje; Unzueta, I.; Hoofman, R.J.O.M.; Lammertyn, J.

    2015-01-01

    The research conducted in the European PASTEUR project focussed on perishables monitoring through smart tracking of lifetime and quality. The aim was to develop a wireless sensor platform to monitor the environmental conditions of perishable goods in the supply chain between producer and consumer

  12. From sensor output to improved product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertog, M.L.A.T.M.; Vollebregt, Martijntje; Unzueta, I.; Hoofman, R.J.O.M.; Lammertyn, J.

    2015-01-01

    The research conducted in the European PASTEUR project focussed on perishables monitoring through smart tracking of lifetime and quality. The aim was to develop a wireless sensor platform to monitor the environmental conditions of perishable goods in the supply chain between producer and consumer

  13. Blood-Pressure Measuring System Gives Accurate Graphic Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    The problem: To develop an instrument that will provide an external (indirect) measurement of arterial blood pressure in the form of an easily interpreted graphic trace that can be correlated with standard clinical blood-pressure measurements. From sphygmograms produced by conventional sphygmographs, it is very difficult to differentiate the systolic and diastolic blood-pressure pulses and to correlate these indices with the standard clinical values. It is nearly impossible to determine these indices when the subject is under physical or emotional stress. The solution: An electronic blood-pressure system, basically similar to conventional ausculatory sphygmomanometers, employing a standard occluding cuff, a gas-pressure source, and a gas-pressure regulator and valve. An electrical output transducer senses cuff pressure, and a microphone positioned on the brachial artery under the occluding cuff monitors the Korotkoff sounds from this artery. The output signals present the conventional systolic and diastolic indices in a clear, graphical display. The complete system also includes an electronic timer and cycle-control circuit.

  14. Improved Marine Waters Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Yakushev, Evgeniy; Milkova, Tanya; Slabakova, Violeta; Hristova, Ognyana

    2017-04-01

    IMAMO - Improved Marine Waters Monitoring is a project under the Programme BG02: Improved monitoring of marine waters, managed by Bulgarian Ministry of environment and waters and co-financed by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area (EEA FM) 2009 - 2014. Project Beneficiary is the Institute of oceanology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two partners: Norwegian Institute for Water Research and Bulgarian Black Sea Basin Directorate. The Project aims to improve the monitoring capacity and expertise of the organizations responsible for marine waters monitoring in Bulgaria to meet the requirements of EU and national legislation. The main outcomes are to fill the gaps in information from the Initial assessment of the marine environment and to collect data to assess the current ecological status of marine waters including information as a base for revision of ecological targets established by the monitoring programme prepared in 2014 under Art. 11 of MSFD. Project activities are targeted to ensure data for Descriptors 5, 8 and 9. IMAMO aims to increase the institutional capacity of the Bulgarian partners related to the monitoring and assessment of the Black Sea environment. The main outputs are: establishment of real time monitoring and set up of accredited laboratory facilities for marine waters and sediments chemical analysis to ensure the ability of Bulgarian partners to monitor progress of subsequent measures undertaken.

  15. Cooperative linear output regulation for networked systems by dynamic measurement output feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaobao; Feng, Gang; Wang, Juan; Luo, Xiaoyuan; Guan, Xinping

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the cooperative linear output regulation problem of a class of heterogeneous networked systems with a common reference input but with different disturbances for individual nodes. A novel distributed control law is presented based on dynamic measurement output feedback. It is shown that the overall networked closed-loop control system is asymptotically stable and the output regulation errors asymptotically approach zero as time goes to infinity under a sufficient and necessary condition. Finally, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control law.

  16. Weather Monitoring Station: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Dipak V. Sose

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weather monitoring plays a very important role in human life hence study of weather system is necessary. Currently there are two types of the weather monitoring stations available i.e. wired and wireless. Wireless system has some advantages over the wired one hence popular now a days. The parameters are include in weather monitoring usually temperature, humidity atmospheric pressure, light intensity, rainfall etc. There are many techniques existed using different processor such as PIC, AVR, ARM etc. Analog to digital channel are used to fetch the analog output of the sensors. The wireless techniques used in the weather monitoring having GSM, FM channel, Zigbee, RF etc Protocols

  17. SARAH 3.2: Dirac gauginos, UFO output, and more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, Florian

    2013-07-01

    SARAH is a Mathematica package optimized for the fast, efficient and precise study of supersymmetric models beyond the MSSM: a new model can be defined in a short form and all vertices are derived. This allows SARAH to create model files for FeynArts/FormCalc, CalcHep/CompHep and WHIZARD/O'Mega. The newest version of SARAH now provides the possibility to create model files in the UFO format which is supported by MadGraph 5, MadAnalysis 5, GoSam, and soon by Herwig++. Furthermore, SARAH also calculates the mass matrices, RGEs and 1-loop corrections to the mass spectrum. This information is used to write source code for SPheno in order to create a precision spectrum generator for the given model. This spectrum-generator-generator functionality as well as the output of WHIZARD and CalcHep model files has seen further improvement in this version. Also models including Dirac gauginos are supported with the new version of SARAH, and additional checks for the consistency of the implementation of new models have been created. Program summaryProgram title:SARAH Catalogue identifier: AEIB_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEIB_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 22 411 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 629 206 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica. Computer: All for which Mathematica is available. Operating system: All for which Mathematica is available. Classification: 11.1, 11.6. Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEIB_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 182 (2011) 808 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes, the new version includes all known features of the previous version but also provides the new features mentioned below

  18. Self-powered Real-time Movement Monitoring Sensor Using Triboelectric Nanogenerator Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Liangmin; Tao, Juan; Bao, Rongrong; Sun, Li; Pan, Caofeng

    2017-09-05

    The triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has great potential in the field of self-powered sensor fabrication. Recently, smart electronic devices and movement monitoring sensors have attracted the attention of scientists because of their application in the field of artificial intelligence. In this article, a TENG finger movement monitoring, self-powered sensor has been designed and analysed. Under finger movements, the TENG realizes the contact and separation to convert the mechanical energy into electrical signal. A pulse output current of 7.8 μA is generated by the bending and straightening motions of the artificial finger. The optimal output power can be realized when the external resistance is approximately 30 MΩ. The random motions of the finger are detected by the system with multiple TENG sensors in series. This type of flexible and self-powered sensor has potential applications in artificial intelligence and robot manufacturing.

  19. 基于混合储能系统跟踪光伏发电输出功率的控制策略%Control Strategy for Tracking the Output Power of Photovoltaic Power Generation Based on Hybrid Energy Storage System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田春光; 田利; 李德鑫; 吕项羽; 常学飞

    2016-01-01

    混合储能系统兼备能量型储能和功率型储能的技术特性,可以有效缩减光伏功率的预测误差,提高将光伏预测出力作为电力调度参考的可靠性。为此,提出了混合储能系统提升光伏电站跟踪目标出力能力的优化控制策略。该策略采用内部能量协调控制和多目标优化控制的复合控制方式,合理地分配了电池与超级电容器的充放电功率,控制混合系统的出力弥补光伏电站预测功率和实际功率的偏差。通过国内某40MW光伏电站250天输出功率数据进行仿真分析,表明该策略不仅可以有效跟踪光伏的预测出力,而且能够充分发挥不同储能介质的特性,降低电池的充放电深度,使混合储能得到更好的应用。%Hybrid energy storage system has the technical characteristics of both energy storage and power storage. It can effectively reduce the photovoltaic power prediction error, hence improve the reliability where PV forecast output is used as the reference of the power dispatch. Therefore, this paper proposes an optimal control strategy for hybrid energy storage system to improve the capacity of photovoltaic output tracking the target output power. This strategy uses the compound control method to control the internal energy coordination control and the multi-objective optimization control. It can reasonably distribute the charge and discharge power of battery and super capacitor, and control the output of the hybrid system to make up for the deviations between the predicted power and the actual power. By analyzing the data of 250 days output power from a domestic 40MW photovoltaic power station, it is shown that this strategy can not only effectively trace the predicted output power of PV, but also make full use of the characteristics of different storage mediums. It reduces the charge and discharge depths of the battery, and consequently the hybrid storage can be better applied.

  20. 脉搏指示连续心排血量技术对压力与容量控制模式机械通气容量参数的影响%Influence of pulse indicator continuous cardiac output in monitoring on the volume parameters of different tidal volume under pressure control ventilation mode and volume-controlled ventilation mode in sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 高心晶; 高艳颖; 卫俊涛; 秦英智

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the influence of pulse indicator continuous cardiac output(PiCCO)in monitoring tidal volume(V_T)under pressure control ventilation mode and volume-controlled ventilation mode in sheep.Methods After anesthesia and tracheotomy,5 sheep,which were apneic and receiving mechanical ventilation.Twenty minutes later,central venous pressure(CVP)and cardiac function were monitored with different selected V_T levels of 6,10,15,20 ml/kg under bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP)mode by changing the pressure of inspiration,or under the synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation(SIMV)mode with the same ventilation conditions.Results In both modes,the increase in V_T led to an decrease of cardiac index(CI)and intrathoracic blood volume index(ITBVI),reaching a statistically significant difference at 15 ml/kg[SIMV mode:CI(3.94±1.03)L·min~(-1)·m~(-2),ITBVI (707±105)ml/m2;BiPAP mode:CI(4.11±1.11)L·min-1±m-2,ITBVI(715±122)ml/m2]and 20 ml/kg[SIMV mode:CI(3.87±1.04)L·min~(-1)·m~(-2),ITBVI(705±116)ml/m2;BiPAP mode:CI (3.64±0.96)L·min~(-1)·m~(-2),ITBVI(694±114)ml/m2]compared with 6 ml/kg[SIMV mode:CI (4.96±1.58)L·min~(-1)·m~(-2),ITBVI(811±169)ml/m2;BiPAP mode:CI(5.67±1.96)L·min~(-1)·m~(-2),ITBVI(8234-182)ml/m~2,all P<0.05];an increase in systemic vascular resistance index(SVRI)and mean airway pressure(Pmean)at 15 ml/kg[SIMV mode:SVRI(237.64±6.2)kPa·s~(-1)·L~(-1),Pmean(14.0±3.2)cm H2O(1 cm H2O=0.098 kPa);BiPAP mode:SVRI(230.8±32.9)kPa·s~(-1)·L~(-1),Pmean(13.0±2.2)cm H_2O]and 20 ml/kg[SIMV mode:SVRI(253.1±76.7)kPa·s~(-1)·L~(-1),Pmean(18.2±4.8)cm H_2O;BiPAP mode:SVRI(246.7±48.8)kPa·s~(-1)·L~(-1),Pmean(16.8±3.3)cm H_2O]compared with 6 ml/kg[SIMV mode:SVRI(184.8±47.5)kPa·s~(-1)·L~(-1);Pmean(8.8±1.6)cm H_2O;BiPAP mode:SVRI(184.5±51.5)kPa·s~(-1)·L~(-1),Pmean(8.6±0.5)cm H_2O,all P<0.05];but there was no significant effects on CVP,heart rate(HR),mean blood pressure(MBP).There was no significant difference of CI