WorldWideScience

Sample records for generator fire protection

  1. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility, Diesel Generator Fire Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, G

    2000-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Fire Protection and Detection System installed by Project W-441 (Cold Vacuum Drying Facility and Diesel Generator Building) functions as required by project specifications.

  2. Fire Protection Program Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  3. Fire protection design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  4. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems. The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  5. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  6. Cooperative Fire Protection Agreement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Agreement is to provide for cooperation in the prevention, detection and suppression of wildland fires within the protection areas designated in...

  7. School Fire Protection: Contents Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School and University, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The heart of a fire protection system is the sprinkler system. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) statistics show that automatic sprinklers dramatically reduce fire damage and loss of life. (Author)

  8. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristov Denis Ivanovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The All-Russian Congress “Fire Stop Moscow” was de-voted to the analysis of the four segments of the industry of fire protection systems and technologies: the design of fire protec-tion systems, the latest developments and technologies of active and passive fire protection of buildings, the state and the devel-opment of the legal framework, the practice of fire protection of buildings and structures. The forum brought together the repre-sentatives of the industry of fire protection systems, scientists, leading experts, specialists in fire protection and representatives of construction companies from different regions of Russia. In parallel with the Congress Industrial Exhibition of fire protection systems, materials and technology was held, where manufacturers presented their products. The urgency of the “Fire Stop Moscow” Congress in 2015 organized by the Congress Bureau ODF Events lies primarily in the fact that it considered the full range of issues related to the fire protection of building and construction projects; studied the state of the regulatory framework for fire safety and efficiency of public services, research centers, private companies and busi-nesses in the area of fire safety. The main practical significance of the event which was widely covered in the media space, was the opportunity to share the views and information between management, science, and practice of business on implementing fire protection systems in the conditions of modern economic relations and market realities. : congress, fire protection, systems, technologies, fire protection systems, exhibition

  9. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  10. Fire Protection for Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Jane

    1972-01-01

    Reviews attack on fire safety in high rise buildings made by a group of experts representing the iron and steel industry at a recent conference. According to one expert, fire problems are people oriented, which calls for emphasis on fire prevention rather than reliance on fire suppression and for fire pretection to be built into a structure.…

  11. Reciprocal Fire Protection Agreement between Silver Creek Rangeland Fire Protection Association and Burns Interagency Fire Zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Reciprocal Fire Protection Agreement between the Silver Creek Rangeland Fire Protection Association and the Burns Interagency Fire Zone. The objectives...

  12. National Fire Protection Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or closed List of NFPA codes & standards National Fire Codes® Subscription Service NEC® Online Subscription Free online ... Toggle this sub-menu open or closed The fire risk of exterior walls containing combustible components Resources ...

  13. Standpipe systems for fire protection

    CERN Document Server

    Isman, Kenneth E

    2017-01-01

    This important new manual goes beyond the published NFPA standards on installation of standpipe systems to include the rules in the International Building Code, municipal fire codes, the National Fire Code of Canada, and information on inspection, testing, and maintenance of standpipe systems. Also covered are the interactions between standpipe and sprinkler systems, since these important fire protection systems are so frequently installed together. Illustrated with design examples and practical applications to reinforce the learning experience, this is the go-to reference for engineers, architects, design technicians, building inspectors, fire inspectors, and anyone that inspects, tests or maintains fire protection systems. Fire marshals and plan review authorities that have the responsibility for reviewing and accepting plans and hydraulic calculations for standpipe systems are also an important audience, as are firefighters who actually use standpipe systems. As a member of the committees responsible for s...

  14. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Bergman, W.; Ford, H.W.; Lipska, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect HEPA filters in exit ventilation ducts from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Several methods for partially mitigating the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified through testing and analysis. These independently involve controlling the fuel, controlling the fire, and intercepting the smoke aerosol prior to its sorption on the HEPA filter. Exit duct treatment of aerosols is not unusual in industrial applications and involves the use of scrubbers, prefilters, and inertial impaction, depending on the size, distribution, and concentration of the subject aerosol. However, when these unmodified techniques were applied to smoke aerosols from fires on materials, common to experimental laboratories of LLNL, it was found they offered minimal protection to the HEPA filters. Ultimately, a continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. This technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modificaton of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has a particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, we laminated rolling filter media with the desired properties. It is not true that the use of rolling prefilters solely to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols is cost effective in every type of containment system, especially if standard fire-protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  15. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, N.; Beason, D.; Bergman, V.; Creighton, J.; Ford, H.; Lipska, A.

    1980-08-25

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  16. Fire Protection Measures of Waste Incineration Power Generation Project%某垃圾焚烧发电厂消防措施探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万锦超

    2015-01-01

    Waste incineration power generation and ordinary power plant has a very large difference in the process, this means that garbage incineration power plant is not a simple fire design according to the general power plant, and should be combined with the advanced experience at home and abroad to optimize the design of fire protection, so as to achieve the garbage burning without leaving troubles, put things right once and for all effect. According to a Huainan waste incineration power generation projects about power plant nowadays refuse incineration fire protection measures.%焚烧垃圾发电和普通的火力发电在工艺上有很大的区别,这就意味着垃圾焚烧发电厂不能简单按照普通发电厂进行消防设计,而应该结合国内外先进的经验进行优化性消防设计,从而达到垃圾焚烧不留后患,一劳永逸的效果。本文结合淮南某垃圾焚烧发电项目谈谈现今垃圾焚烧发电厂的消防措施。

  17. 谈某核电厂附加柴油发电机厂房防火设计%Discussion on the fire protection design of the nuclear power plant adding diesel generator workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵月

    2016-01-01

    Through analyzing building fire protection design problems of the nuclear power plant adding diesel generator workshop,starting from aspects of fire protection layout,fire protection distribution,safety evacuation and oil tank design,the paper carries out the building fire protec-tion design,which reduces the fire hazards and improves the nuclear power safety performance.%通过分析某核电厂附加柴油发电机厂房建筑防火设计中存在的问题,从防火布置、防火分区、安全疏散、油罐间设计等方面,进行了建筑防火优化设计,降低了火灾危害的发生,提高了核电厂的安全性能。

  18. DOE Standard: Fire protection design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-07-01

    The development of this Standard reflects the fact that national consensus standards and other design criteria do not comprehensively or, in some cases, adequately address fire protection issues at DOE facilities. This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard replaces certain mandatory fire protection requirements that were formerly in DOE 5480.7A, ``Fire Protection``, and DOE 6430.1A, ``General Design Criteria``. It also contains the fire protection guidelines from two (now canceled) draft standards: ``Glove Box Fire Protection`` and ``Filter Plenum Fire Protection``. (Note: This Standard does not supersede the requirements of DOE 5480.7A and DOE 6430.1A where these DOE Orders are currently applicable under existing contracts.) This Standard, along with the criteria delineated in Section 3, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  19. SFPE handbook of fire protection engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Gottuk, Daniel; Jr, John; Harada, Kazunori; Kuligowski, Erica; Puchovsky, Milosh; Torero, Jose´; Jr, John; WIECZOREK, CHRISTOPHER

    2016-01-01

    Revised and significantly expanded, the fifth edition of this classic work offers both new and substantially updated information. As the definitive reference on fire protection engineering, this book provides thorough treatment of the current best practices in fire protection engineering and performance-based fire safety. Over 130 eminent fire engineers and researchers contributed chapters to the book, representing universities and professional organizations around the world. It remains the indispensible source for reliable coverage of fire safety engineering fundamentals, fire dynamics, hazard calculations, fire risk analysis, modeling and more. With seventeen new chapters and over 1,800 figures, the this new edition contains: • Step-by-step equations that explain engineering calculations • Comprehensive revision of the coverage of human behavior in fire, including several new chapters on egress system design, occupant evacuation scenarios, combustion toxicity and data for human behavior analysis • Rev...

  20. Coal-fired diesel generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The objective of the proposed project is to test the technical, environmental, and economic viability of a coal-fired diesel generator for producing electric power in small power generating markets. Coal for the diesel generator would be provided from existing supplies transported for use in the University`s power plant. A cleanup system would be installed for limiting gaseous and particulate emissions. Electricity and steam produced by the diesel generator would be used to supply the needs of the University. The proposed diesel generator and supporting facilities would occupy approximately 2 acres of land adjacent to existing coal- and oil-fired power plant and research laboratory buildings at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The environmental analysis identified that the most notable changes to result from the proposed project would occur in the following areas: power plant configuration at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; air emissions, water use and discharge, and the quantity of solid waste for disposal; noise levels at the power plant site; and transportation of coal to the power plant. No substantive adverse impacts or environmental concerns were identified in analyzing the effects of these changes.

  1. Passive fire protection role and evolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerosky, Tristan [NUVIA (France); Perdrix, Johan [NUVIA Protection (France)

    2015-12-15

    Major incidents associated with nuclear power plants often invoke a re-examination of key safety barriers. Fire hazard, in particular, is a key concern for safe operation of nuclear power plants given its propensity to damage safety systems which could ultimately lead to radioactive release into the atmosphere. In the recent past, events such as the Fukushima disaster have led to an industry-wide push to improve nuclear safety arrangements. As part of these measures, upgrading of fire safety systems has received significant attention. In addition to the inherent intricacies associated with such a complex undertaking, factors such as frequent changes in the national and European fire regulations also require due attention while formulating a fire protection strategy. This paper will highlight some salient aspects underpinning an effective fire protection strategy. This will involve: A) A comprehensive introduction to the different aspects of fire safety (namely prevention, containment and mitigation) supported by a review of the development of the RCC-I from 1993 to 1997 editions and the ETC-F (AFCEN codes used by EDF in France). B) Development of the fire risk analysis methodology and the different functions of passive fire protection within this method involving confinement and protection of safety-related equipment. C) A review of the benefits of an effective passive fire protection strategy, alongside other arrangements (such as active fire protection) to a nuclear operator in term of safety and cost savings. It is expected that the paper will provide nuclear operators useful guidelines for strengthening existing fire protection systems.

  2. Boolean algebraic analysis of fire protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulme, B.L.; Shiver, A.W.; Slater, P.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a computational procedure which can be used to find minimum cost ways to protect the critical combinations of equipment from a single-source fire by protecting certain areas and strengthening certain barriers against fire. The procedure yields a complete set of optimum solutions by iteratively computing upper and lower bounds on the minimum cost. The fire protection sets evolve from Boolean algebraic computations which obtain minimum cost blocking sets associated with the lower bounds while the upper bounds are producd by maxflow-mincut calculations in a network.

  3. Fire in Protected Areas - the Effect of Protection and Importance of Fire Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Pereira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fires are important but socially and economically unwanted disturbances of the ecosystems. They cannot be considered as a problem, they are global phenomena. Protected areas are created to protect biodiversity, and strict protection is often applied, forgetting that fire had shaped that that we aim to protect. This harsh protection is producing important changes in the protected habitats and is increasing their vulnerability to destructive wildfires. Thus, it is of major interest to incorporate fire management in the protected areas plan, including the (reuse of prescribed fire and traditional burning in order to reintroduce fire regimens, fundamental to the landscape sustainability. This incorporation represents an enormous step in the habitats sustainability. Policies should be more focused on fire prevention than on its suppression.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.59.1.856

  4. OECD activities in fire protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufer, B. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, 92 - Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2000-05-01

    Numerous fire PSAs (probabilistic safety assessments) have shown that fire can be a major contributor to nuclear power plant risk. However, there are considerable uncertainties in the results of these assessments, due to significant gaps in current abilities to perform realistic assessments. These gaps involve multiple aspects of fire PSA, including the estimation of the probability of important fire scenarios, the modeling of fire growth and suppression, the prediction of fire-induced damage to equipment (including the effects of smoke), and the treatment of plant and operator responses to the fire. Therefore, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) undertook a study among the Countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) with the focus on some special issues such as fire simulation, fire spreading, and impact of smoke and heat on instrumentation electronics. The results of this study are reported here. (orig.) [German] Eine Reihe von Probabilistischen Sicherheitsanalysen (PSA) haben gezeigt, dass Braende ein wesentlicher Risikofaktor bei Kernkraftwerken sind. Es gibt jedoch betraechtliche Unsicherheiten bei diesen Analysen. Gruende hierfuer sind Probleme bei der Abschaetzung der Wahrscheinlichkeit wichtiger Brandszenarien, bei der Modellierung der Brandausbreitung bzw. -unterdrueckung, bei der Vorhersage Feuer-bedingter Schaeden an Geraeten (einschliesslich der Einwirkung von Rauch) sowie bei der Einschaetzung der Brandbekaempfung durch Betriebspersonal. Deshalb hat die Kernenergieagentur (NEA) eine Studie in den Laendern der Organisation fuer wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung (OECD) durchgefuehrt mit den Schwerpunkten Brandsimulation, Feuerausbreitung und Einfluss von Rauch und Hitze auf elektronische Geraete. Ueber die Ergebnisse dieser Studie wird in dem vorliegenden Beitrag berichtet. (orig.)

  5. Solution of Fire Protection in Historic Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iringová, Agnes; Idunk, Róbert

    2016-12-01

    The paper introduces optimization of the functional use of renovated spaces in historic buildings in terms of fire risk. It brings assessment of fire protection in the folk house Habánsky Dvor, situated in the village of Veľké Leváre, whose function was changed into the museum. It goes into static analysis of existing load-bearing structures and assessment of their fire resistance according to Eurocodes.

  6. Reliability Based Optimization of Fire Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    fire protection (PFP) of firewalls and structural members. The paper is partly based on research performed within the EU supported research project B/E-4359 "Optimized Fire Safety of Offshore Structures" and partly on research supported by the Danish Technical Research Council (see Thoft-Christensen [1...

  7. Functionality Inspection of Interconnected Fire Protection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærup, René; Jomaas, Grunde

    2014-01-01

    systems, such as a smoke detection system, sprinkler system, warning system and fire ventilation system. However, only smoke detections systems and sprinkler systems require inspection from an independent accredited company, whereas the other systems’ functionality is entirely up to the professionals...... that install them and the owner’s maintenance schedule, both of which do not require any supervision from the authorities. Herein, 12 complex buildings, in which all fire protections systems were inspected by an independent accredited company, were studied to see whether or not the buildings adhere to the fire...... safety design in their operational phase. The results showed that the functionality of the interconnected fire protection systems was not as designed in the performance-based analysis. Furthermore, due to the lack of this functionality the fire safety level is not at high as the authorities’ demand...

  8. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. D. Bigbee

    2000-06-21

    The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System provides the capability to detect, control, and extinguish fires and/or mitigate explosions throughout the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Fire protection includes appropriate water-based and non-water-based suppression, as appropriate, and includes the distribution and delivery systems for the fire suppression agents. The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System includes fire or explosion detection panel(s) controlling various detectors, system actuation, annunciators, equipment controls, and signal outputs. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for mounting of fire protection equipment and components, location of fire suppression equipment, suppression agent runoff, and locating fire rated barriers. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for adequate drainage and removal capabilities of liquid runoff resulting from fire protection discharges. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical Distribution System for power to operate, and with the Site Fire Protection System for fire protection water supply to automatic sprinklers, standpipes, and hose stations. The system interfaces with the Site Fire Protection System for fire signal transmission outside the WHB as needed to respond to a fire emergency, and with the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System to detect smoke and fire in specific areas, to protect building high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and to control portions of the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System for smoke management and manual override capability. The system interfaces with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System for annunciation, and condition status.

  9. Halon Gas and Library Fire Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Describes the operation of halon gas fire extinguishing systems, which have been installed in a number of libraries and archives across Canada where protection of special collections from water and mold damage resulting from operation of a standard water sprinkler system is paramount. The advantages and disadvantages of this type of system are…

  10. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fire Protection Program is delineated in a number of source documents including; the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), DOE Policy Statements and Orders, DOE and national consensus standards (such as those promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association), and supplementary guidance, This Handbook is intended to bring together in one location as much of this material as possible to facilitate understanding and ease of use. The applicability of any of these directives to individual Maintenance and Operating Contractors or to given facilities and operations is governed by existing contracts. Questions regarding applicability should be directed to the DOE Authority Having Jurisdiction for fire safety. The information provided within includes copies of those DOE directives that are directly applicable to the implementation of a comprehensive fire protection program. They are delineated in the Table of Contents. The items marked with an asterisk (*) are included on the disks in WordPerfect 5.1 format, with the filename noted below. The items marked with double asterisks are provided as hard copies as well as on the disk. For those using MAC disks, the files are in Wordperfect 2.1 for MAC.

  11. 29 CFR 1926.24 - Fire protection and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection and prevention. 1926.24 Section 1926.24... Provisions § 1926.24 Fire protection and prevention. The employer shall be responsible for the development and maintenance of an effective fire protection and prevention program at the job site throughout...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each component of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire protection requirements of §§ 23.863 and 23.1182....

  13. Modeling thermal protection outfits for fire exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guowen

    2002-01-01

    A numerical model has been developed that successfully predicts heat transfer through thermally protective clothing materials and garments exposed to intense heat. The model considers the effect of fire exposure to the thermophysical properties of materials as well as the air layers between the clothing material and skin surface. These experiments involved characterizing the flash fire surrounding the manikin by measuring the temperature of the flame above each thermal sensor in the manikin surface. An estimation method is used to calculate the heat transfer coefficient for each thermal sensor in a 4 second exposure to an average heat flux of 2.00cal/cm2sec. A parameter estimation method was used to estimate heat induced change in fabric thermophysical properties. The skin-clothe air gap distribution of different garments was determined using three-dimensional body scanning technology. Multi-layer skin model and a burn prediction method were used to predict second and third degree burns. The integrated generalized model developed was validated using the "Pyroman" Thermal Protective Clothing Analysis System with Kevlar/PBIRTM and NomexRTMIIIA coverall garments with different configuration and exposure time. A parametric study conducted using this numerical model indicated the influencing parameters on garment thermal protective performance in terms of skin burn damage subjected to 4 second flash fire exposure. The importance of these parameters is analyzed and distinguished. These parameters includes fabric thermophysical properties, PyromanRTM chamber flash fire characteristics, garment shrinkage and fit factors, as well as garment initial and test ambient temperature. Different skin models and their influence on burn prediction were also investigated using this model.

  14. Chemical Solutions of Fire Protection Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakhitova, L.M.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The modern approaches to the creation of fire protective coatings by modifying intumescent systems by nanomaterials with study of the chemical reaction mechanisms under the high temperatures influence were considered. A systematic study of the interactions of components of polyphosphate type intumescent blend were carried out, a well-defined correlations between the directions of chemical processes and fire retardant properties of intumescent coatings were found. Efficient ways to simultaneous increase of fireprotective efficiency and performance characteristics of intumescent coatings (operatin life, resistance to environmental factors and bioсontamination were proposed. The results of fundamental research allowed to develop new formulations of flame retardant compositions, whose properties have been confirmed by tests in accordance with existing standardized methods, these results were introduced into production.

  15. Performance profiles of exterior fire protective building envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The fire protective envelope of any building consists of multiple elements with widely differing properties relating to a fire, such as glass, roof tiles and sheathings, wood cladding, gaps and openings. Where resistance to an exterior fire is required, all elements should be verified to provide a comparable risk of burn-through. Elements are rated by either the material response to fire or fire resistance. In Europe, cladding sheets and wall membranes can be rated by K classes, which effecti...

  16. Factors Controlling Vegetation Fires in Protected and Non-Protected Areas of Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sumalika; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Lwin, Zin Mar; Lasko, Kristofer; Justice, Christopher O.

    2015-01-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in Myanmar impacting several ecosystems. In this study, we quantify the factors impacting vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. Satellite datasets in conjunction with biophysical and anthropogenic factors were used in a spatial framework to map the causative factors of fires. Specifically, we used the frequency ratio method to assess the contribution of each causative factor to overall fire susceptibility at a 1km scale. Results suggested the mean fire density in non-protected areas was two times higher than the protected areas. Fire-land cover partition analysis suggested dominant fire occurrences in the savannas (protected areas) and woody savannas (non-protected areas). The five major fire causative factors in protected areas in descending order include population density, land cover, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city and temperature. In contrast, the causative factors in non-protected areas were population density, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city, temperature and elevation. The fire susceptibility analysis showed distinct spatial patterns with central Myanmar as a hot spot of vegetation fires. Results from propensity score matching suggested that forests within protected areas have 11% less fires than non-protected areas. Overall, our results identify important causative factors of fire useful to address broad scale fire risk concerns at a landscape scale in Myanmar. PMID:25909632

  17. Factors controlling vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sumalika; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Lwin, Zin Mar; Lasko, Kristofer; Justice, Christopher O

    2015-01-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in Myanmar impacting several ecosystems. In this study, we quantify the factors impacting vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. Satellite datasets in conjunction with biophysical and anthropogenic factors were used in a spatial framework to map the causative factors of fires. Specifically, we used the frequency ratio method to assess the contribution of each causative factor to overall fire susceptibility at a 1km scale. Results suggested the mean fire density in non-protected areas was two times higher than the protected areas. Fire-land cover partition analysis suggested dominant fire occurrences in the savannas (protected areas) and woody savannas (non-protected areas). The five major fire causative factors in protected areas in descending order include population density, land cover, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city and temperature. In contrast, the causative factors in non-protected areas were population density, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city, temperature and elevation. The fire susceptibility analysis showed distinct spatial patterns with central Myanmar as a hot spot of vegetation fires. Results from propensity score matching suggested that forests within protected areas have 11% less fires than non-protected areas. Overall, our results identify important causative factors of fire useful to address broad scale fire risk concerns at a landscape scale in Myanmar.

  18. Factors controlling vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of myanmar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumalika Biswas

    Full Text Available Fire is an important disturbance agent in Myanmar impacting several ecosystems. In this study, we quantify the factors impacting vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. Satellite datasets in conjunction with biophysical and anthropogenic factors were used in a spatial framework to map the causative factors of fires. Specifically, we used the frequency ratio method to assess the contribution of each causative factor to overall fire susceptibility at a 1km scale. Results suggested the mean fire density in non-protected areas was two times higher than the protected areas. Fire-land cover partition analysis suggested dominant fire occurrences in the savannas (protected areas and woody savannas (non-protected areas. The five major fire causative factors in protected areas in descending order include population density, land cover, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city and temperature. In contrast, the causative factors in non-protected areas were population density, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city, temperature and elevation. The fire susceptibility analysis showed distinct spatial patterns with central Myanmar as a hot spot of vegetation fires. Results from propensity score matching suggested that forests within protected areas have 11% less fires than non-protected areas. Overall, our results identify important causative factors of fire useful to address broad scale fire risk concerns at a landscape scale in Myanmar.

  19. 46 CFR 176.810 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Inspection of each hand portable fire extinguisher, semiportable fire extinguisher, and fixed gas fire... maintenance procedures have been conducted. (2) For semiportable and fixed gas fire extinguishing systems, the..., and valves, and the inspection and testing of alarms and ventilation shutdowns, for each fixed...

  20. 46 CFR 115.810 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... extinguisher, semiportable fire extinguisher, and fixed gas fire extinguishing system to check for excessive... testing of alarms and ventilation shutdowns, for each fixed gas fire extinguishing system and detecting... and fixed gas fire extinguishing systems, the inspections and tests required by Table 115.810(b),...

  1. Site fire protection projects review board engineering evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayfich, R.R.

    1992-12-31

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been safely operated since its beginning in the early 1950`s with an effective, highly successful program of fire prevention. However, in the mid 1980`s the Department of Energy directed the site to identify and install fire protection measure in addition to the reliance on prevention. To address the site needs, independent fire protection surveys were conducted by Factory Mutual Research Corporation and Professional Loss Control, Inc. in 1986 and 1987. The results of these surveys identified 1400 fire protection improvements needed in existing facilities to comply with DOE Orders and NFPA Codes and Standards.

  2. 33 CFR 154.820 - Fire, explosion, and detonation protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire, explosion, and detonation protection. 154.820 Section 154.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Systems § 154.820 Fire, explosion, and detonation protection. (a) A vapor control system with a...

  3. Fire protection program fiscal year 1997 site support program plan - Hanford fire department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, D.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fires Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford Site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. this includes response to surrounding fire department districts under mutual aids agreements and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System) and various commercial entities operating on site. the fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing, and maintenance, respiratory protection services, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention and education.

  4. Modelling fire frequency in a Cerrado savanna protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Júnior, Alfredo C; Oliveira, Sofia L J; Pereira, José M C; Turkman, Maria Antónia Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world's most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997-2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area maps derived from Landsat imagery. Burned areas were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of burning distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an area equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park burned and the mean annual area burned was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic burning may be used to reduce the extent of area burned and the severity of fire effects.

  5. Reserves protect against deforestation fires in the Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Marion Adeney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon.

  6. Reserves protect against deforestation fires in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeney, J Marion; Christensen, Norman L; Pimm, Stuart L

    2009-01-01

    Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon.

  7. Fire safety assessment and optimal design of passive fire protection for offshore structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, N.K.; Guedes Soares, C.; Thoft-Christensen, P.; Jensen, F.M

    1998-08-01

    The article presents a unified probabilistic approach to fire safety assessment and optimal design of passive fire protection on offshore topside structures. The methodology was developed by integrating quantitative risk analysis (QRA) techniques with the modem methods of structural system reliability analysis (SRA) and reliability based design optimisation (RBDO). Reliability analysis methodologies are presented for both plated (e.g. fire and blast walls) and skeletal structures (deck framing), which take into account uncertainties in fire and blast loading, thermal and mechanical properties of the steel and insulation. Probability of component and system failure are evaluated using first- and second-order reliability methods (FORM/SORM). The optimisation of passive fire protection is performed such that the total expected cost of the protection system is minimised while satisfying reliability constraints.

  8. Performance profiles of exterior fire protective building envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarnskjold Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fire protective envelope of any building consists of multiple elements with widely differing properties relating to a fire, such as glass, roof tiles and sheathings, wood cladding, gaps and openings. Where resistance to an exterior fire is required, all elements should be verified to provide a comparable risk of burn-through. Elements are rated by either the material response to fire or fire resistance. In Europe, cladding sheets and wall membranes can be rated by K classes, which effectively include a measure of the time to burn through. A determination of burn-through time of each element of a specific building envelope should be obtained. A design tool to verify the performance of a building's fire protective envelope has been developed. In this paper, a general description of passive elements of the envelope, which should be included in a risk assessment tool such as an index method, is presented. An illustrative approach to visualise the profiles for areas densely spaced structures where an exterior fire may trigger building-to-building fire spread is also included. The research is based on the hypothesis that a relatively subtle and pointed upgrading of an exterior building envelope will severely reduce the speed of building-to-building fire spread, thus allowing firefighting efforts to get on top of the situation. For a burning structure to expose other buildings to fire, the fire has to settle, which leads to a burn-through to the inside. Once inside, an enclosure fire needs to develop and burn through the roof or break one or more large window panes. It is estimated that a 5–10 min delay for a structure to expose other structures to fire can be sufficient to avoid loss of multiple structures. A 10–50 min burn-through time allows for an extended intervention by the fire brigade, which is significant in rural areas. A fire protective envelope may prevent an exterior fire from penetrating the protective envelope at all and the

  9. Fire protection system operating experience review for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a review of fire protection system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of fire protection system component failure rates and fire accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with these systems are discussed, including spurious operation. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  10. 14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. (a... protection. 23.855 Section 23.855 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... the contents of a hand held fire extinguisher, or (2) Be equipped with a smoke or fire detector...

  11. Transparent fire protection; Transparenter Brandschutz. Die Glaeserne Manufaktur in Dresden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel, M. [HHP Braunschweig Beratende Ingenieure GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2001-04-01

    The manufactory of glass in Dresden presents itself with the combination of using as a fire protection-technically particularly fastidious project. The target of transparency thereby achieved by arrangement of distance areas in the building, direct heat dissipation within the range of transitions and by gradated request of the fire resistance period of fire protection glazings. The occurring special problems for the interpretation of the fire extinguishing systems and the smoke exhaust systems were solved on experimental basis as well as numerically by different simulation calculations. The quality assurance in the finishing phase is a prerequisite for a lackfree acceptance and protects the meaningful cooperating of all fire protection mechanisms with the remaining building services. (orig.) [German] Die Glaeserne Manufaktur in Dresden stellt sich mit der Kombination von Nutzungen als brandschutztechnisch besonders anspruchsvolles Projekt dar. Das Ziel der Transparenz wird dabei erreicht durch Anordnung von Abstandsflaechen im Gebaeude, gezielte Waermeableitung im Bereich von Uebergaengen und durch gestufte Anforderungen an die Feuerwiderstandsdauer von Brandschutzverglasungen. Die auftretenden Sonderprobleme zur Auslegung der Loeschanlagen und der Rauchabzugsanlagen wurden auf experimenteller Grundlage sowie numerisch durch verschiedene Simulationsrechnungen geloest. Die Qualitaetssicherung in der Ausfuehrungsphase ist Voraussetzung fuer eine maengelfreie Abnahme und sichert das sinnvolle Zusammenwirken aller Brandschutzeinrichtungen mit der uebrigen Haustechnik. (orig.)

  12. Fire Suppression M and S Validation (Status and Challenges), Systems Fire Protection Information Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-14

    U.S. ARMY TANK AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING CENTER UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution A. Authorized for Public Release; distribution is...unlimited 1 Fire Suppression M&S Validation (Status & Challenges) Systems Fire Protection Information Exchange 14-15 Oct 2015 Dr. Vamshi M. Korivi US...Inhibition of JP-8 Combustion Physical Acting Agents • Dilute heat • Dilute reactants Ex: water, nitrogen Chemical Acting Agents • Reduce flame

  13. 46 CFR 28.825 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... existing fixed gas fire extinguishing system that is in excess of the required fire protection equipment..., alteration, or new installation of a fixed gas fire extinguishing system must meet the...

  14. Forest construction infrastructures for the prevision, suppression, and protection before and after forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosos, Vasileios C.; Giannoulas, Vasileios J.; Daoutis, Christodoulos

    2014-08-01

    Climatic changes cause temperature rise and thus increase the risk of forest fires. In Greece the forests with the greatest risk to fire are usually those located near residential and tourist areas where there are major pressures on land use changes, while there are no currently guaranteed cadastral maps and defined title deeds because of the lack of National and Forest Cadastre. In these areas the deliberate causes of forest fires are at a percentage more than 50%. This study focuses on the forest opening up model concerning both the prevention and suppression of forest fires. The most urgent interventions that can be done after the fire destructions is also studied in relation to soil protection constructions, in order to minimize the erosion and the torrential conditions. Digital orthophotos were used in order to produce and analyze spatial data using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Initially, Digital Elevation Models were generated, based on photogrammetry and forest areas as well as the forest road network were mapped. Road density, road distance, skidding distance and the opening up percentage were accurately measured for a forest complex. Finally, conclusions and suggestions have been drawn about the environmental compatibility of forest protection and wood harvesting works. In particular the contribution of modern technologies such as digital photogrammetry, remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems is very important, allowing reliable, effective and fast process of spatial analysis contributing to a successful planning of opening up works and fire protection.

  15. Shrapnel protection testing in support of the proposed Site 300 Contained Firing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastrnak, J W; Baker, C F; Simmons, L F

    1992-08-04

    In preparation for the planned Contained Firing Facility at LLNL's Site 300, various multi-layered shrapnel protection schemes were investigated with the intent of minimizing the amount of material used in the shielding. As a result of testing, it was found that two pieces of 1-in.-thick mild steel plate provide adequate general-purpose protection from shrapnel generated by normal hydrodynamic and cylinder shots at Bunker 801. 8 refs.

  16. 14 CFR 25.1713 - Fire protection: EWIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... used during emergency procedures must be fire resistant. (c) Insulation on electrical wire and electrical cable, and materials used to provide additional protection for the wire and cable, installed in... portions of appendix F, part I, of 14 CFR part 25....

  17. Fire Protection System for an Atrium Satisfies Code Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmer, Donald J.; Jensen, Rolf

    1975-01-01

    The Civic Center in Scarborough, Ontario, has an open interior design that incorporates an atrium. Fire protection elements include automatic sprinklers, provisions for efficient exiting of building occupants, and smoke evacuation by gravity exhaust. (Available from 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020, $15.00 annually.) (Author/MLF)

  18. Fire Propagation Performance of Intumescent Fire Protective Coatings Using Eggshells as a Novel Biofiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Yew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to synthesize and characterize an effective intumescent fire protective coating that incorporates eggshell powder as a novel biofiller. The performances of thermal stability, char formation, fire propagation, water resistance, and adhesion strength of coatings have been evaluated. A few intumescent flame-retardant coatings based on these three ecofriendly fire retardant additives ammonium polyphosphate phase II, pentaerythritol and melamine mixed together with flame-retardant fillers, and acrylic binder have been prepared and designed for steel. The fire performance of the coatings has conducted employing BS 476: Part 6-Fire propagation test. The foam structures of the intumescent coatings have been observed using field emission scanning electron microscopy. On exposure, the coated specimens’ B, C, and D had been certified to be Class 0 due to the fact that their fire propagation indexes were less than 12. Incorporation of ecofriendly eggshell, biofiller into formulation D led to excellent performance in fire stopping (index value, (I=4.3 and antioxidation of intumescent coating. The coating is also found to be quite effective in water repellency, uniform foam structure, and adhesion strength.

  19. Banshan Gas-Fired Turbine Generator Set Put into Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ No.1 generator set of Banshan gas-fired power generation project, which is the first 9 FA heavy-duty gas turbine generator set in China that has drawn much attention, was successfully put into operation and merged into power grid at 21:30 in June 2, three months ahead of schedule.

  20. 29 CFR 1926.150 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automatic sprinkler protection, the installation shall closely follow the construction and be placed in... alterations, existing automatic sprinkler installations shall be retained in service as long as reasonable.... Modification of sprinkler systems to permit alterations or additional demolition should be expedited so...

  1. Fire protection review revisit no. 2, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, P. H.; Earley, M. W.; Mattern, L. J.

    1985-05-01

    A fire protection survey was conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on April 1-5, 8-12, and April 29-May 2, 1985. The purpose was to review the facility fire protection program and to make recommendations or identify areas according to criteria established by the Department of Energy. There has been a substantial improvement in fire protection at this laboratory since the 1977 audit. Numerous areas which were previously provided with detection systems only have since been provided with automatic sprinkler protection. The following basic fire protection features are not properly controlled: (1) resealing wall and floor penetrations between fire areas after installation of services; (2) cutting and welding; and (3) housekeeping. The present Fire Department manpower level appears adequate to control a route fire. Their ability to adequately handle a high-challenge fire, or one involving injuries to personnel, or fire spread beyond the initial fire area is doubtful.

  2. The objective and the prospects of creating certified reference materials of fire protection substances and materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Dubinin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the state of things in the field of production and use of fire protection materials. The need to develop certified reference materials of fire protection materials is justified.

  3. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls,...

  4. Fire protection covering for small diameter missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Sawko, P. M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Flexible intumescent protection sheeting of unusually uniform thickness were prepared from epoxy-polysulfide compositions, containing microfibers and the ammonium salt of 1,4-nitroaniline-2-sulfonic acid, as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,663,464, except that an ammonium salt particle size in the order of 5 to 8 microns and a fiber size of about 1/128th inch in length and 3 to 5 microns in diameter were found critical to obtain the required density of 1.46 to 1.50 g/cc. The insulation sheeting was prepared by a continuous process involving vacuum mixing, calendering, and curing under very strict conditions which depend to some extent upon the thickness of the sheet produced.

  5. 33 CFR 149.419 - Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system? 149.419 Section 149.419 Navigation and... § 149.421 may be part of: (1) The fire water system, installed in accordance with Mineral Management... § 149.419 Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire...

  6. Gas-fired Power Generation in India: Challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    India's fast growing economy needs to add 100,000 MW power generating capacity between 2002-2012. Given limitations to the use of coal in terms of environmental considerations, quality and supply constraints, gas is expected to play an increasingly important role in India's power sector. This report briefs NMC Delegates on the potential for gas-fired power generation in India and describes the challenges India faces to translate the potential for gas-fired power generation into reality.

  7. Gas-fired Power Generation in India: Challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    India's fast growing economy needs to add 100,000 MW power generating capacity between 2002-2012. Given limitations to the use of coal in terms of environmental considerations, quality and supply constraints, gas is expected to play an increasingly important role in India's power sector. This report briefs NMC Delegates on the potential for gas-fired power generation in India and describes the challenges India faces to translate the potential for gas-fired power generation into reality.

  8. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection References For Further Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Protective Clothing for Structural Fire Fighting, ANSI/NFPA 1971; . 7. American National Standard for Men's.... Development of a Job-Related Physical Performance Examination for Fire Fighters; Dotson and Others. A summary.... Proposed Sample Standards for Fire Fighters' Protective Clothing and Equipment; International Association...

  9. 41 CFR 102-80.135 - Who is a qualified fire protection engineer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... thorough knowledge and understanding of the principles of physics and chemistry governing fire growth... safety engineering, plus a minimum of 4 years work experience in fire protection engineering. (b) A professional engineer (P.E. or similar designation) registered in Fire Protection Engineering. (c) A...

  10. 77 FR 74381 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for Ozone Depleting Substances-Fire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Depleting Substances--Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... published a direct final rule and a companion proposed rule issuing listings for three fire suppressants... three fire suppressants under EPA's Significant New Alternatives Policy program (77 FR 58035). Because...

  11. Fire protection at the Fast Flux Test Facility (a sodium cooled test reactor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.R.

    1980-09-19

    For purposes of this presentation, fire protection at the FFTF is subdivided into two catagories; protection for non-sodium areas and protection for areas containing sodium. Fire protection systems and philosophies for non-sodium areas at the FFTF are very similar to those used at conventional power plants being constructed throughout the country. They follow, essentially, the NRC rules and guidelines and ANSI 59.4 Generic Requirements for Light Water Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection. The FFTF with its support facilities have their own water system comprised of a looped 8'' and 10'' underground distribution system, three 1500 GPM fire pumps and three ground level storage tanks totaling 736,000 gallons with 420,000 reserved for fire protection. Fire hydrants are enclosed with hose houses outfitted for use by the Emergency Response Team (ERT). Fire prevention systems for sodium areas of the FFTF are also described.

  12. A Generation With Income to Protect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Amy C

    2016-01-01

    From an employee benefits perspective, generational differences undoubtedly play a big role in not only how to communicate with employees about their benefits but what benefits to offer. Yet while there's been a lot of talk about how to reach other generations, information about connecting with Generation X is harder to come by. This article discusses the state of Generation X's unique income protection and financial concerns. The author shows how offering income protection to Generation Xers not only helps them deal with today's expenses and prepare for the future but can also help employers meet business objectives such as attracting and retaining top talent.

  13. Fire Protection of Weapon Storage and Water Mist Redundancy Philosophies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    National Defence, 2012 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2012 DRDC Atlantic...la température d’une torpille factice sous le seuil ‘ critique ’. DRDC Atlantic CR 2012-193 iii Executive summary Fire protection of...débits d’eau moindres permettaient de maintenir la température d’une torpille factice sous le seuil « critique ». Importance : La performance des

  14. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reference, see § 1915.5); (2) Automatic sprinkler systems according to NFPA 25-2002 Standard for the... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Land-side fire protection systems. 1915.507 Section 1915... Protection in Shipyard Employment § 1915.507 Land-side fire protection systems. (a) Employer...

  15. Aviation Engine Test Facilities (AETF) fire protection study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, R. C.; Burns, R. E.; Leonard, J. T.

    1989-07-01

    An analysis is presented to the effectiveness of various types of fire fighting agents in extinguishing the kinds of fires anticipated in Aviation Engine Test Facilities (AETF), otherwise known as Hush Houses. The agents considered include Aqueous Film-Forming Foam, Halon 1301, Halon 1211 and water. Previous test work has shown the rapidity with which aircraft, especially high performance aircraft, can be damaged by fire. Based on this, tentative criteria for this evaluation included a maximum time of 20 s from fire detection to extinguishment and a period of 30 min in which the agent would prevent reignition. Other issues examined included: toxicity, corrosivity, ease of personnel egress, system reliability, and cost effectiveness. The agents were evaluated for their performance in several fire scenarios, including: under frame fire, major engine fire, engine disintegration fire, high-volume pool fire with simultaneous spill fire, internal electrical fire, and runaway engine fire.

  16. 14 CFR 29.861 - Fire protection of structure, controls, and other parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire... category A rotorcraft, fireproof; and (b) For Category B rotorcraft, fireproof or protected so that...

  17. Updates of the fire protection system of the Juzbado Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Plant; Actualizaciones del Sistema de Proteccion Contra Incendios de la Fabrica de Combustible Nuclear de Juzbado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorado, P.; Palomo, J. J.; Romano, A.

    2015-07-01

    The Juzbado Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Plant fire protection system is one of the most important safety system of the plant. Every year, a large part of the annual investment is employed to improve this system, to update its technology, in order to improve detection and extinction capability to minimize fire risk. Over the last few years, several improvement projects have been carried out that focused on fire detection technology update and on optimization of local detectors integration with a centralized control system, as well as on an advanced public address system, which used clear and unambiguous messages improving personnel response to a plant evacuation. Planned projects and those, which are currently under development, focus on improving passive fire protection means as well as fire protection of key emergency response equipment s such as emergency diesel generators and fire extinguishing bombs. (Author)

  18. 30 CFR 77.1916 - Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1916 Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection. (a) One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided where welding, cutting, or soldering...

  19. 24 CFR 3280.203 - Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flame spread limitations and fire... Fire Safety § 3280.203 Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements. (a) Establishment of flame spread rating. The surface flame spread rating of interior-finish material must not exceed...

  20. Cold Vacuum Dryer (CVD) Facility Fire Protection System Design Description (SYS 24)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-10-17

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility fire protection system (FPS). The primary features of the FPS for the CVD are a fire alarm and detection system, automatic sprinklers, and fire hydrants. The FPS also includes fire extinguishers located throughout the facility and fire hydrants to assist in manual firefighting efforts. In addition, a fire barrier separates the operations support (administrative) area from the process bays and process bay support areas. Administrative controls to limit combustible materials have been established and are a part of the overall fire protection program. The FPS is augmented by assistance from the Hanford Fire Department (HED) and by interface systems including service water, electrical power, drains, instrumentation and controls. This SDD, when used in conjunction with the other elements of the definitive design package, provides a complete picture of the FPS for the CVD Facility.

  1. Analysis of pressure safety valves for fire protection on offshore oil and gas installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Michael Skov; Eriksen, Jacob; Andreasen, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    to see the effect of the installed PSV. It is found that when a fire affects the unwetted part of a vessel, the PSV offers only minor or no additional protection. When a fire affects the wetted part of a vessel, the PSV relieve the inventory as designed. It is argued that PSVs provide insufficient fire...... fire, large jet fire, and a pool fire on both the wetted and unwetted part of the vessels. Rupture times of the vessels are calculated by comparing the pressure in the vessel with the tensile strength of the material. Rupture times are then compared for the vessels, with and without a PSV, in order...

  2. 76 FR 40777 - Interim Enforcement Policy for Certain Fire Protection Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... 3150-AG48 Interim Enforcement Policy for Certain Fire Protection Issues AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Commission) is revising its interim Enforcement Policy on enforcement discretion for certain fire protection... amendment requests (LARs). This interim policy affects licensees that are transitioning to use the...

  3. Appraisal of Passive and Active Fire Protection Systems in Student’s Accommodation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail I.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire protection systems are very important systems that must be included in buildings. They have a great significance in reducing or preventing the occurrences of fire. This paper presents an assessment of fire protection systems in student’s accommodation. Student accommodation is a particular type of building that provides shelter for students at University. In addition, it is also supposed to be an attractive environment, conducive to learning, and importantly, safe for occupation. The fire safety of occupants in a building, must be in accordance with the requirements of the building’s code. Therefore, the design of the building must comply with the Uniform Building By-Law (UBBL 1984 of Malaysia, and provide all of the required safety features. This paper describes the findings from investigations of passive and active fire protection systems installed in buildings, based on fire safety requirements, UBBL (1984.

  4. 46 CFR 122.612 - Fire protection equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...”. (e) An alarm for an automatic fire detecting system or a manual alarm system must be conspicuously marked in clearly legible letters “FIRE ALARM”. (f) An alarm for an automatic sprinkler system must be... fixed gas fire extinguishing system must be located in a conspicuous place at or near each pull box...

  5. Study on the fire-protection-system for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel and transportation ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. O; Choi, M. H.; Lee, S. C. and others [Dongbang Electron Industry Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    This study consists of : the fire risk and it's fire protection for the storage facilities and transportation equipments of dangerous goods, the fire risk and it's fire protection for the interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel, the fire risk and it's fire protection for the dangerous goods transportation ships, the necessary equipment for safety of ships and regulations of fire fighting equipment for ships, technical specification of spent nuclear fuel transportation ships which are operated in foreign countries, draft of fire protection guideline for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel, inspection items of fire fighting equipment, scope of education and training. On the basis of the aforementioned, a draft of fire protection guideline for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel is proposed and the regulations for ship engaged in the a carrage of dangerous goods that should be considered in design and operation stage are proposed.

  6. Numerical case studies of vertical wall fire protection using water spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Zhao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies of vertical wall fire protection are evaluated with numerical method. Typical fire cases such as heated dry wall and upward flame spread have been validated. Results predicted by simulations are found to agree with experiment results. The combustion behavior and flame development of vertical polymethylmethacrylate slabs with different water flow rates are explored and discussed. Water spray is found to be capable of strengthening the fire resistance of combustible even under high heat flux radiation. Provided result and data are expected to provide reference for fire protection methods design and development of modern buildings.

  7. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

  8. Fire-protection research for DOE facilities: FY 82 year-end report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.; Beason, D.G.; Priante, S.J.; Foote, K.L.

    1983-09-02

    We summarize our research in FY 82 for the DOE-sponsored project, Fire Protection Research for DOE Facilities. This research program was initiated in 1977 to advance fire-protection strategies for energy technology facilities to keep abreast of the unique fire problems that develop along with energy technology research. Since 1977, the program has broadened its original scope, as reflected in previous year-end reports. We are developing an analytical methodology through detailed study of fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Using these experiments as models for methodology development, we are concurrently advancing three major task areas: (1) the identification of fire hazards unique to current fusion energy facilities; (2) the evaluation of accepted fire-management measures to meet and negate hazards; and (3) the performance of unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire-growth and damage-assessment models.

  9. Fire-Protection Research for Energy-Technology Projects: FY 1981 year-end report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.; Beason, D.G.; Foote, K.L.; Priante, S.J.

    1982-07-20

    This report summarizes research conducted in fiscal year 1981 for the DOE-supported project, Fire Protection Research for Energy Technology Projects. Initiated in 1977, this ongoing research program was conceived to advance fire protection strategies for Energy Technology Projects to keep abreast of the unique fire problems that are developing with the complexity of energy technology research. We are developing an analytical methodology through detailed study of fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Employing these facilities as models for methodology development, we are simultaneously advancing three major task areas: (1) determination of unique fire hazards of current fusion energy facilities; (2) evaluation of the ability of accepted fire management measures to meet and negate hazards; and (3) performance of unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire-growth and damage-assessment models.

  10. Fire Protection at wind power plants (WEA). Proceedings; Brandschutz bei Windenergieanlagen (WEA). Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the VdS meeting of VDS Schadensverhuetung GmbH (Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany) at 13th May, 2009, in Cologne (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (a) Fire Protection at wind power systems - a regulary guide of GDV and German Lloyd (VdS 3523) for the practice (Andreas Pflugradt); (b) Experiences of damage of the insurance companies (Jan Pohl); (c) Fire protectional plants and facilities for wind power plants - Fire detection and fire extinction systems (Heike Siefkes, Horst Berger); (d) Certification of wind power plants and their concepts of fire protection (Volker Riedlinger); (e) Recommendation of insurance companies for maintenance (Mingyi Wang); (f) Condition monitoring as a measure for prevention of damages (Moritz Nuesperling); (g) Emergency information system for wind power plants (WEA-NIS) (Mesut Gezen).

  11. 75 FR 66735 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): Request for Comments on NFPA's Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    .... NFPA 271 Standard Method of P Test for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products... Thermal Barriers Used Over Foam Plastic Insulation. NFPA 285 Standard Fire Test P Method for Evaluation of... Structural Fire Protection Design. NFPA 560 Standard for the W Storage, Handling, and Use of Ethylene...

  12. Risk reduction in road and rail LPG transportation by passive fire protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paltrinieri, N.; Landucci, G.; Molag, M.; Bonvicini, S.; Spadoni, G.; Cozzani, V.

    2009-01-01

    The potential reduction of risk in LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) road transport due to the adoption of passive fire protections was investigated. Experimental data available for small scale vessels fully engulfed by a fire were extended to real scale road and rail tankers through a finite elements m

  13. Risk reduction in road and rail LPG transportation by passive fire protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paltrinieri, N.; Landucci, G.; Molag, M.; Bonvicini, S.; Spadoni, G.; Cozzani, V.

    2009-01-01

    The potential reduction of risk in LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) road transport due to the adoption of passive fire protections was investigated. Experimental data available for small scale vessels fully engulfed by a fire were extended to real scale road and rail tankers through a finite elements m

  14. 46 CFR 185.612 - Fire protection equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... space served. (d) An alarm for an automatic sprinkler system must be conspicuously marked in clearly... instructions for the operation of a fixed gas fire extinguishing system must be located in a conspicuous place... a fixed gas fire extinguishing system must be clearly and conspicuously marked “WHEN ALARM...

  15. Monitoring of fire incidences in vegetation types and Protected Areas of India: Implications on carbon emissions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Sudhakar Reddy; V V L Padma Alekhya; K R L Saranya; K Athira; C S Jha; P G Diwakar; V K Dadhwal

    2017-02-01

    Carbon emissions released from forest fires have been identified as an environmental issue in the context of global warming. This study provides data on spatial and temporal patterns of fire incidences, burnt area and carbon emissions covering natural vegetation types (forest, scrub and grassland) and Protected Areas of India. The total area affected by fire in the forest, scrub and grasslands have been estimated as 48765.45, 6540.97 and 1821.33 km², respectively, in 2014 using Resourcesat-2 AWiFS data. The total CO₂ emissions from fires of these vegetation types in India were estimated to be 98.11 Tg during 2014. The highest emissions were caused by dry deciduous forests, followed by moist deciduous forests. The fire season typically occurs in February, March, April and May in different parts of India. Monthly CO₂ emissions from fires for different vegetation types have been calculated for February, March, April and May and estimated as 2.26, 33.53, 32.15 and 30.17 Tg, respectively. Protected Areas represent 11.46% of the total natural vegetation cover of India. Analysis of fire occurrences over a 10-year period with two types of sensor data, i.e., AWiFS and MODIS, have found fires in 281 (out of 614) Protected Areas of India. About 16.78 Tg of CO₂ emissions were estimated in Protected Areas in 2014. The natural vegetation types of Protected Areas have contributed for burnt area of 17.3% and CO₂ emissions of 17.1% as compared to total natural vegetation burnt area and emissions in India in 2014. 9.4% of the total vegetation in the Protected Areas was burnt in 2014. Our results suggest that Protected Areas have to be considered for strict fire management as an effective strategy for mitigating climate change and biodiversity conservation.

  16. Monitoring of fire incidences in vegetation types and Protected Areas of India: Implications on carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Padma Alekhya, V. V. L.; Saranya, K. R. L.; Athira, K.; Jha, C. S.; Diwakar, P. G.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2017-02-01

    Carbon emissions released from forest fires have been identified as an environmental issue in the context of global warming. This study provides data on spatial and temporal patterns of fire incidences, burnt area and carbon emissions covering natural vegetation types (forest, scrub and grassland) and Protected Areas of India. The total area affected by fire in the forest, scrub and grasslands have been estimated as 48765.45, 6540.97 and 1821.33 km 2, respectively, in 2014 using Resourcesat-2 AWiFS data. The total CO 2 emissions from fires of these vegetation types in India were estimated to be 98.11 Tg during 2014. The highest emissions were caused by dry deciduous forests, followed by moist deciduous forests. The fire season typically occurs in February, March, April and May in different parts of India. Monthly CO 2 emissions from fires for different vegetation types have been calculated for February, March, April and May and estimated as 2.26, 33.53, 32.15 and 30.17 Tg, respectively. Protected Areas represent 11.46% of the total natural vegetation cover of India. Analysis of fire occurrences over a 10-year period with two types of sensor data, i.e., AWiFS and MODIS, have found fires in 281 (out of 614) Protected Areas of India. About 16.78 Tg of CO 2 emissions were estimated in Protected Areas in 2014. The natural vegetation types of Protected Areas have contributed for burnt area of 17.3% and CO 2 emissions of 17.1% as compared to total natural vegetation burnt area and emissions in India in 2014. 9.4% of the total vegetation in the Protected Areas was burnt in 2014. Our results suggest that Protected Areas have to be considered for strict fire management as an effective strategy for mitigating climate change and biodiversity conservation.

  17. Application of Graph Theory to Cost-Effective Fire Protection of Chemical Plants During Domino Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakzad, Nima; Landucci, Gabriele; Reniers, Genserik

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we have introduced a methodology based on graph theory and multicriteria decision analysis for cost-effective fire protection of chemical plants subject to fire-induced domino effects. By modeling domino effects in chemical plants as a directed graph, the graph centrality measures such as out-closeness and betweenness scores can be used to identify the installations playing a key role in initiating and propagating potential domino effects. It is demonstrated that active fire protection of installations with the highest out-closeness score and passive fire protection of installations with the highest betweenness score are the most effective strategies for reducing the vulnerability of chemical plants to fire-induced domino effects. We have employed a dynamic graph analysis to investigate the impact of both the availability and the degradation of fire protection measures over time on the vulnerability of chemical plants. The results obtained from the graph analysis can further be prioritized using multicriteria decision analysis techniques such as the method of reference point to find the most cost-effective fire protection strategy. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. 10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... generic issues for such facilities it sets forth fire protection features required to satisfy Criterion 3... strategies and procedures. (10) Review of the latest plant modifications and corresponding changes in fire.... Performance deficiencies of a fire brigade or of individual fire brigade members shall be remedied by...

  19. Theoretical assessment of particle generation from sodium pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M., E-mail: monica.gmartin@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Unit of Nuclear Safety Research, Av. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Herranz, L.E., E-mail: luisen.herranz@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Unit of Nuclear Safety Research, Av. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kissane, M.P., E-mail: Martin.KISSANE@oecd.org [Nuclear Safety Technology and Regulation Division, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), 46 quai Alphonse Le Gallo, 92100 Boulogne-Billancourt (France)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Development of particle generation model for sodium-oxides aerosol formation. • Development of partially validated numerical simulations to build up maps of saturation ratio. • Nucleation of supersaturated vapours as relevant source of aerosols over sodium pools. • Prediction of high concentrations of primary particles in the combustion zone. - Abstract: Potential sodium discharge in the containment during postulated Beyond Design Basis Accidents (BDBAs) in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) would have major consequences for accident development in terms of energetics and source term. In the containment, sodium vaporization and subsequent oxidation would result in supersaturated oxide vapours that would undergo rapid nucleation creating toxic aerosols. Therefore, modelling this vapour nucleation is essential to proper source term assessment in SFRs. In the frame of the EU-JASMIN project, a particle generation model to calculate the particle generation rate and their primary size during an in-containment sodium pool fire has been developed. Based on a suite of individual models for sodium vaporization, oxygen natural circulation (3D modelling), sodium-oxygen chemical reactions, sodium-oxides-vapour nucleation and condensation, its consistency has been partially validated by comparing with available experimental data. As an outcome, large temperature and vapour concentration gradients set over the sodium pool have been found which result in large particle concentrations in the close vicinity of the pool.

  20. Aircraft Survivability: An Overview of Aircraft Fire Protection, Spring 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Extinguishing Evaluationby Patrick O’Connell, Scott Frederick, and Scott Wacker The C-130 Vulnerability Reduction Program ( VRP )/C-130J Live Fire Test (LFT...titled “Live Fire Test and Evaluation (LFT&E) of the C-130J” signed on 3 March 1998. C-130 VRP /C-130J LFT Program Phase I addressed C-130 wing dry bay...system (MANPADS) threat. C-130 VRP /C-130J LFT Program Phase IV was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the C-130J engine nacelle fire

  1. Fire protection countermeasures of project of biomass cogeneration%生物质热电联产项目消防对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏丹; 付永涛

    2012-01-01

    The production process and main fire disaster of straw direct combustion power generation were introduced with the example of biomass cogeneration project. The fire protection measures were put forward from the accept of production process, fire protection layout, fire separation, evacuation, au to fire extinguishing facility and fire monitoring, accord to the process characteristics and fire protection requirement, to enhance the fire safely level of combined heal and power genera-lion project.%以某生物质秸秆直接燃烧热电联产工程为例,介绍秸秆直接燃烧发电的生产工艺及主要火灾危险.针对其工艺特点和消防需求,从生产过程、消防布局、防火分隔、疏散、自动灭火设施、火灾监控等方面提出消防安全对策,提高热电联产项目的消防安全水平.

  2. Fire protection research for energy technology projects; FY 79 year-end report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska, A.E.; Ford, H.; Beason, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes work performed in fiscal year 1979, on a DOE funded study entitled Fire Protection Research for Energy Technology Projects. The primary goal of this program is to ensure that fire protection measures for Fusion Energy Experiments (FEE) evolve concurrently with the complexity of FEE. Ultimately, it is planned that the detailed study of fusion experiments will provide an analytical methodology which can be applied to the full range of energy technology projects. We attempt to achieve this objective by coordinately advancing 3 (three) major task areas; (a) determine the fire hazards of current FEE facilities (b) assess the ability of accepted fire management strategies to meet and negate the hazard, (c) perform unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire growth and damage assessment models.

  3. 用于燃气发电机组热交换管十八胺不降温停炉保养的可行性研究%Feasibility of Application of Octadecylamine for Shutdown Protection of Heat Exchange Pipes Without Cooling in Gas Fired Generating Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡家元; 曹顺安; 谢建丽

    2012-01-01

    采用GCF型高压釜模拟350~560℃的高温水汽环境,研究了十八胺(ODA)分解特性和燃气机组高温管材T22及P91的ODA成膜特性.结果表明,ODA在高温下存在分解平衡,且产物无危害;ODA在350~560℃温度范围内均能在金属表面形成性能良好的保护膜,480℃时的成膜效果最佳;560℃时经ODA成膜后金属表面膜的保护性较自身氧化膜保护性提高数倍,证明不降温加ODA停炉保养是可行的.建议的最优工艺条件为:温度560℃、ODA浓度80 mg/L、pH为9.5及恒温时间2 h.膜层X射线光电子能谱分析表明,表面膜为含ODA的氧化铁层,ODA中N与Fe发生化学吸附形成保护膜.%By using a simulating of water-steam system at 350~560℃,the decomposition of octadecylamine was investigated,and the ODA film formation characteristics were studied for the T22 and P91 heat exchange pipes used in gas fired generating units.It was shown that Octade-cylamine had a decomposing equilibrium at high temperature and the decomposition products didn't include harmful organic substances such as low molecular organic acids.Octadecylamine promoted formation on the steels of a good protective film in the range of 350~560℃with the best film at 480℃.The protection property of the film formed with ODA at 560℃was much better than that without ODA,which suggested the probability of application of octadecylamine for shutdown protection of heat exchange pipes without cooling in gas fired generating units.The optimal conditions were as follow:560℃,80 mg/L ODA,pH 9.5 and 2 h.The surface film was supposed to be a compound of ferroferric oxide and octadecylamine through analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  4. Heat Generation During the Firing of a Capacitor Based Railgun System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Heat Generation during the Firing of a Capacitor Based Railgun System Andrew N. Smith Mechanical Engineering Department U.S. Naval Academy... electromagnetic railgun has been proposed as a weapon that could enable the US Navy to conduct long-range surface fire support missions [1]. Several Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Heat Generation During the Firing of a Capacitor Based Railgun System

  5. Sulfoform Generation from an Orthogonally Protected Disaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Runhui; Morales-Collazo, Oscar; Wei, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    An orthogonally protected disaccharide (GlcN(α1→4)Glc) with a β-linked 2′-aminoethyl linker was used to generate a series of sulfated derivatives (sulfoforms), with a 6-O-sulfate on the glucose residue and one or more sulfate esters on the terminal glucosamine. Deprotection and sulfonation steps were performed in solution and in variable order, with isolated yields of 36–54% (85–90% per operation) after HPLC purification. The modular deprotection–sulfonation sequences can be performed with efficient recovery of the polysulfate products, and avoids complications associated with heterogeneous reactivity in solid-phase synthesis. PMID:22624867

  6. Sulfoform Generation from an Orthogonally Protected Disaccharide

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    An orthogonally protected disaccharide (GlcN(α1→4)Glc) with a β-linked 2′-aminoethyl linker was used to generate a series of sulfated derivatives (sulfoforms), with a 6-O-sulfate on the glucose residue and one or more sulfate esters on the terminal glucosamine. Deprotection and sulfonation steps were performed in solution and in variable order, with isolated yields of 36–54% (85–90% per operation) after HPLC purification. The modular deprotection–sulfonation sequences can be performed with ef...

  7. Do the structures of macaw palm fruit protect seeds in a fire-prone environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Monteze Bicalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fire is an abiotic disturbance that regulates vegetation structure and biodiversity. Some plant species have adapted to fire prone environments by evolving protective structures. Acrocomia aculeata (macaw palm is widely distributed throughout tropical America, and is found in environments continuously influenced by anthropogenic fire. We aimed to determine whether the fruit characteristics of A. aculeata enable seeds to resist the effects of fire and also the consequent effects of fire on fruit biometric traits and embryo viability. After a fire event in a region of pasture-forest transition, we marked 30 individuals of A. aculeata. The trees were separated by UPGMA analysis into 5 groups according to fire exposure, ranging from trees with no exposure to trees with fruit completely exposed to fire. Fruit exposure to high temperatures led to lower values in fruit fresh weight, length, density, and processable mass.Fire had no significant effect on seed biometric variables, because of the structures of the fruit, including its lignified endocarp and its insulating and mucilaginous mesocarp. These structures helped to maintain the embryos viability by preventing oxidative damage. In conclusion, the fruit structure of the macaw palm may facilitate seed persistence, even when subject to increasingly frequent fire events.

  8. Modeling heat and moisture transport in firefighter protective clothing during flash fire exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitrphiromsri, Patirop; Kuznetsov, Andrey V. [North Carolina State University, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Raleigh, NC 27695-7910 (United States)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a model of heat and moisture transport in firefighter protective clothing during a flash fire exposure is presented. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of coupled heat and moisture transport on the protective performance of the garment. Computational results show the distribution of temperature and moisture content in the fabric during the exposure to the flash fire as well as during the cool-down period. Moreover, the duration of the exposure during which the garment protects the firefighter from getting second and third degree burns from the flash fire exposure is numerically predicted. A complete model for the fire-fabric-air gap-skin system is presented. (orig.)

  9. 75 FR 66725 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Proposes To Revise Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Standard for the 11/23/2010 Installation of Smoke Door Assemblies and Other Opening Protectives. NFPA 110... 5/23/2011 Measurement of Smoke Obscuration Using a Conical Radiant Source in a Single Closed Chamber...--2009 Standard for Fire Testing 5/23/2011 of Passive Protection Materials for Use on LP- Gas...

  10. Effectiveness of protected areas in mitigating fire within their boundaries: case study of Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Cuesta, María Rosa; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2006-08-01

    Since the severe 1982-1983 El Niño drought, recurrent burning has been reported inside tropical protected areas (TPAs). Despite the key role of fire in habitat degradation, little is known about the effectiveness of TPAs in mitigating fire incidence and burned areas. We used a GPS fire database (1995-2005) (n=3590 forest fires) obtained from the National Forest Commission to compare fire incidence (number of fires) and burned areas inside TPAs and their surrounding adjacent buffer areas in Southern Mexico (Chiapas). Burned areas inside parks ranged from 2% (Palenque) to 45% (Lagunas de Montebello) of a park's area, and the amount burned was influenced by two severe El Niño events (1998 and 2003). These two years together resulted in 67% and 46% of the total area burned in TPAs and buffers, respectively during the period under analysis. Larger burned areas in TPAs than in their buffers were exclusively related to the extent of natural habitats (flammable area excluding agrarian and pasture lands). Higher fuel loads together with access and extinction difficulties were likely behind this trend. A higher incidence of fire in TPAs than in their buffers was exclusively related to anthropogenic factors such as higher road densities and agrarian extensions. Our results suggest that TPAs are failing to mitigate fire impacts, with both fire incidence and total burned areas being significantly higher in the reserves than in adjacent buffer areas. Management plans should consider those factors that facilitate fires in TPAs: anthropogenic origin of fires, sensitivity of TPAs to El Niñio-droughts, large fuel loads and fuel continuity inside parks, and limited financial resources. Consideration of these factors favors lines of action such as alternatives to the use of fire (e.g., mucuna-maize system), climatic prediction to follow the evolution of El Niño, fuel management strategies that favor extinction practices, and the strengthening of local communities and ecotourism.

  11. A conceptual framework for formulating a focused and cost-effective fire protection program based on analyses of risk and the dynamics of fire effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, M.K. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    1999-09-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework for developing a fire protection program at nuclear power plants based on probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) of fire hazards, and modeling the dynamics of fire effects. The process for categorizing nuclear power plant fire areas based on risk is described, followed by a discussion of fire safety design methods that can be used for different areas of the plant, depending on the degree of threat to plant safety from the fire hazard. This alternative framework has the potential to make programs more cost-effective, and comprehensive, since it will allow a more systematic and broader examination of fire risk, and provide a means to distinguish between high and low risk fire contributors. (orig.)

  12. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... passages. (b) Ventilating air ducts. Each ventilating air duct passing through any fire zone must be..., the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to... fluids or vapors into the ventilating airstream. (c) Combustion air ducts. Each combustion air duct...

  13. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... air ducts. Each ventilating air duct passing through any fire zone must be fireproof. In addition— (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct... the ventilating airstream. (c) Combustion air ducts. Each combustion air duct must be fireproof for...

  14. Risk Based Reliability Centered Maintenance of DOD Fire Protection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Reliability Analysis of Underground Fire Water Piping at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant , January 1990. I I I I U B-8 3 I U I I I I APPENDIX C N...paper No. 7B, 1982. I3IEEE-Std-500-1984. 4INPO 83-034, Nuclear Plant Reliability Data Annual Report, October 1983. 5Nonelectronic Parts Reliability Data

  15. 29 CFR 553.210 - Fire protection activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION..., regardless of their status as full time or part time agency employees or as temporary or casual workers... construction of fire roads, would also be within the section 7(k) or 13(b)(20) exemption. (c) Not included...

  16. A new approach to the Danish guidelines for fire protection of combustible insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragsted Anders

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The tendency to use thicker layers of insulation and a wider use of combustible insulation materials is identified to pose a potential risk to fire safety of buildings. A new approach to the current Danish prescriptive code on fire protection of combustible insulation is proposed as a way to meet the concern. The new approach uses the fire properties of the insulation material itself to point out the necessary protective measures. This is contrary to the most European countries were only a reaction to fire class of the façade construction as a whole is required. The basic principle is presented but more research is needed to complete the new approach.

  17. Forum for fire protection and safety in power plants[Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The conference contains 16 presentations on topics in the fields of fire protection and safety in plants in Western Norway, reorganization and reconstruction of power systems and plants in Norway, various aspects of risk and vulnerability analysis, technological aspects of plant management and construction and problems and risks with particularly transformers. Some views on challenges of the fire departments and the new Norwegian regulations for electrical power supply systems are included. One presentation deals with challenges for Icelandic power production plants.

  18. Protecting global soil resources for future generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanarella, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The latest Status of World's Soil Resources report has highlighted that soils are increasingly under pressure by numerous human induced degradation processes in most parts of the world. The limits of our planetary boundaries concerning vital soil resources have been reached and without reversing this negative trend there will be a serious lack of necessary soil resources for future generations. It has been therefore of the highest importance to include soils within some of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) recently approved by the United Nations. Sustainable development can not be achieved without protecting the limited, non-renewable, soil resources of our planet. There is the need to limit on-going soil degradation processes and to implement extensive soil restoration activities in order to strive towards a land degradation neutral (LDN) world, as called upon by SDG 15. Sustainable soil management needs to be placed at the core of any LDN strategy and therefore it is of highest importance that the recently approved Voluntary Guidelines for Sustainable Soil Management (VGSSM) of FAO get fully implemented at National and local scale.Sustainable soil management is not only relevant for the protection of fertile soils for food production, but also to mitigate and adopt to climate change at to preserve the large soil biodiversity pool. Therefore the VGSSM are not only relevant to FAO, but also the the climate change convention (UNFCCC) and the biodiversity convention (CBD). An integrated assessment of the current land degradation processes and the available land restoration practices is needed in order to fully evaluate the potential for effectively achieving LDN by 2030. The on-going Land Degradation and Restoration Assessment (LDRA) of the Intergovernmental Platform for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) will provide the necessary scientific basis for the full implementation of the necessary measures for achieving the planned SGS's relevant to land

  19. Fossil fuel-fired power generation. Case studies of recently constructed coal- and gas-fired plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-23

    To meet future energy demand growth and replace older or inefficient units, a large number of fossil fuel-fired plants will be required to be built worldwide in the next decade. Yet CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fired power generation are a major contributor to climate change. As a result, new plants must be designed and operated at highest efficiency both to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and to facilitate deployment of CO{sub 2} capture and storage in the future. The series of case studies in this report, which respond to a request to the IEA from the G8 Summit in July 2005, were conducted to illustrate what efficiency is achieved now in modern plants in different parts of the world using different grades of fossil fuels. The plants were selected from different geographical areas, because local factors influence attainable efficiency. The case studies include pulverized coal combustion (PCC) with both subcritical and supercritical (very high pressure and temperature) steam turbine cycles, a review of current and future applications of coal-fuelled integrated gasification combined cycle plants (IGCC), and a case study of a natural gas fired combined cycle plant to facilitate comparisons. The results of these analyses show that the technologies for high efficiency (low CO{sub 2} emission) and very low conventional pollutant emissions (particulates, SO{sub 2}, NOx) from fossil fuel-fired power generation are available now through PCC, IGCC or NGCC at commercially acceptable cost. This report contains comprehensive technical and indicative cost information for modern fossil fuel-fired plants that was previously unavailable. It serves as a valuable sourcebook for policy makers and technical decision makers contemplating decisions to build new fossil fuel-fired power generation plants.

  20. Incest Survivor Mothers: Protecting the Next Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreklewetz, Christine M.; Piotrowski, Caroline C.

    1998-01-01

    A study involving 16 incest-survivor mothers with daughters between the ages of 9-14 found the mothers described themselves as very protective and often overly-protective parents, wanting to parent differently, and better, than they were parented. Many survivors strive to be the "perfect mother" including over-protecting and over-nurturing…

  1. FIRE PROTECTION OF TIMBER STRUCTURES STRENGTHENED WITH FRP MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Zigler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern, progressive methods of structures’ strengthening based on the use of composite materials composed of high strength fibers (carbon, glass, aramid or basalt and matrices based on epoxy resins brings, among many indisputable advantages (low weight, high effectiveness, easy application etc. also some disadvantages. One of the major disadvantages is a low fire resistance of these materials due to the low glass transition temperature Tg of the resin used. Based on an extensive research of strengthening of historic structures with FRP materials [1], the article outlines possible approaches to this problem, especially while strengthening timber load- bearing structures of historic buildings.

  2. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume II. Fire effects and electrical and electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-18

    Electrical and electronic equipment, including computers, are used at critical facilities throughout the Department of Energy (DOE). Hughes Associates, Inc. was tasked to evaluate the potential thermal and nonthermal effects of a fire on the electrical and electronic equipment and methods to analyze, evaluate, and assist in controlling the potential effects. This report is a result of a literature review and analysis on the effects of fire on electrical equipment. It is directed at three objectives: (1) Provide a state-of-the-art review and analysis of thermal and nonthermal damage to electrical and electronic equipment; (2) Develop a procedure for estimating thermal and nonthermal damage considerations using current knowledge; and (3) Develop an R&D/T&E program to fill gaps in the current knowledge needed to further perfect the procedure. The literature review was performed utilizing existing electronic databases. Sources searched included scientific and engineering databases including Dialog, NTIS, SciSearch and NIST BFRL literature. Incorporated in the analysis is unpublished literature and conversations with members of the ASTM E-5.21, Smoke Corrosivity, and researchers in the electronics field. This report does not consider the effects of fire suppression systems or efforts. Further analysis of the potential impact is required in the future.

  3. The evolution of fire management practices in savanna protected areas in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.W. van Wilgen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The history and development of ecologically-based fire management policies in savanna protected areas during the 20th century are reviewed. Research on fire in savannas began in the 1950s, and from the 1980s onwards, managers of savanna protected areas experimented on large scales with different management approaches. New ecological paradigms that embraced variability in space and time, and management goals that broadened from single-species to biodiversity conservation, precipitated significant changes to management approaches in the 1990s. Many lessons have been learnt in the process, allowing for the derivation of general principles regarding both the effects of fire and managerial ability to influence fire regimes on a large scale. Significant challenges remain; these include dealing with increasing CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere, and with interactions between fire and increasing elephant numbers in protected areas. The ability of savanna managers to deal with these challenges in the context of an imperfect understanding will be determined by how well, and how fast, they can learn from experience.

  4. 29 CFR 553.213 - Public agency employees engaged in both fire protection and law enforcement activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... law enforcement activities. 553.213 Section 553.213 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... EMPLOYEES OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Exemption Requirements § 553.213 Public agency employees engaged in both fire protection and law enforcement...

  5. Mathematical Foundation Based Inter-Connectivity modelling of Thermal Image processing technique for Fire Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayantan Nath

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, integration between multiple functions of image processing and its statistical parameters for intelligent alarming series based fire detection system is presented. The proper inter-connectivity mapping between processing elements of imagery based on classification factor for temperature monitoring and multilevel intelligent alarm sequence is introduced by abstractive canonical approach. The flow of image processing components between core implementation of intelligent alarming system with temperature wise area segmentation as well as boundary detection technique is not yet fully explored in the present era of thermal imaging. In the light of analytical perspective of convolutive functionalism in thermal imaging, the abstract algebra based inter-mapping model between event-calculus supported DAGSVM classification for step-by-step generation of alarm series with gradual monitoring technique and segmentation of regions with its affected boundaries in thermographic image of coal with respect to temperature distinctions is discussed. The connectedness of the multifunctional operations of image processing based compatible fire protection system with proper monitoring sequence is presently investigated here. The mathematical models representing the relation between the temperature affected areas and its boundary in the obtained thermal image defined in partial derivative fashion is the core contribution of this study. The thermal image of coal sample is obtained in real-life scenario by self-assembled thermographic camera in this study. The amalgamation between area segmentation, boundary detection and alarm series are described in abstract algebra. The principal objective of this paper is to understand the dependency pattern and the principles of working of image processing components and structure an inter-connected modelling technique also for those components with the help of mathematical foundation.

  6. Flexible fire retardant polyisocyanate modified neoprene foam. [for thermal protective devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. A.; Riccitiello, S. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Lightweight, fire resistant foams have been developed through the modification of conventional neoprene-isocyanate foams by the addition of an alkyl halide polymer. Extensive tests have shown that the modified/neoprene-isocyanate foams are much superior in heat protection properties than the foams heretofore employed both for ballistic and ablative purposes.

  7. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. 23.865 Section 23.865 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL...

  8. 77 FR 58170 - Proposed Renewal of Existing Information Collection; Fire Protection (Underground Coal Mines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... (Underground Coal Mines) AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for public... (facsimile). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Fire protection standards for underground coal mines....1100 requires that each coal mine be provided with suitable firefighting equipment adapted for the...

  9. 5 CFR 551.541 - Employees engaged in fire protection activities or law enforcement activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... activities or law enforcement activities. 551.541 Section 551.541 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... activities or law enforcement activities. (a) An employee engaged in fire protection activities or law enforcement activities (as described in §§ 551.215 and 551.216, respectively) who receives compensation for...

  10. Clean Power Generation from the Intractable Natural Coalfield Fires: Turn Harm into Benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bobo; Su, Hetao; Li, Jinshi; Qi, Haining; Zhou, Fubao; Torero, José L; Chen, Zhongwei

    2017-07-13

    The coal fires, a global catastrophe for hundreds of years, have been proved extremely difficult to control, and hit almost every coal-bearing area globally. Meanwhile, underground coal fires contain tremendous reservoir of geothermal energy. Approximately one billion tons of coal burns underground annually in the world, which could generate ~1000 GW per annum. A game-changing approach, environmentally sound thermal energy extraction from the intractable natural coalfield fires, is being developed by utilizing the waste energy and reducing the temperature of coalfield fires at the same time. Based on the Seebeck effect of thermoelectric materials, the temperature difference between the heat medium and cooling medium was employed to directly convert thermal energy into clean electrical energy. By the time of December 2016, the power generation from a single borehole at Daquan Lake fire district in Xinjiang has been exceeded 174.6 W. The field trial demonstrates that it is possible to exploit and utilize the waste heat resources in the treated coal fire areas. It promises a significant impact on the structure of global energy generation and can also promote progress in thermoelectric conversion materials, geothermal exploration, underground coal fires control and other energy related areas.

  11. How to generate and interpret fire characteristics charts for the U.S. fire danger rating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith Ann Heinsch; Patricia L. Andrews; Deb Tirmenstein

    2017-01-01

    The fire characteristics chart is a graphical method of presenting U.S. National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS) indexes and components as well as primary surface or crown fire behavior characteristics. Computer software has been developed to produce fire characteristics charts for both fire danger and fire behavior in a format suitable for inclusion in reports and...

  12. Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer in Fire-Protective Coatings Deformable upon Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzinsky, V. P.; Garashchenko, A. N.

    2016-02-01

    Numerical studies of heat transfer in fire-protective coatings deformable (intumescent) upon heating have been conducted. The optimum combination of the computation-scheme parameters providing stability, convergence and satisfactory accuracy of solutions has been determined. An effect of basic characteristics of materials in real range of their change that made it possible to estimate the degree of influence of properties on the fire-protective efficiency of coatings and the level of warm-up (flame resistance) of structures to be protected with them has been studied. The possibility of using developed models and techniques to estimate and provide the required level of fire safety of polymer-based materials (in particular, elastomers and structures and products on their basis) is considered. The results of estimating the mass rate of evolving gaseous thermal-decomposition products that determine, in a considerable extent, the material combustibility have been presented. The numerical analysis results have demonstrated the potentiality of reducing the combustibility of such materials and increasing limits of their fire resistance at the expense of organizing the intumescence of a material upon heating by means of modification of their initial formulations as well as with the aid of an additional layer made of the intumescent coating compatible with an elastomer.

  13. Fire Protection Specialty, AFSC 571X0 and Occupational Series 0081

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    ROOMS 80 S994 PARTICIPATE IN PRECONSTRUCTION CONFERENCES 80 S968 CONDUCT HOUSING OCCUPANCY BRIEFINGS 80 S965 CONDUCT FACILITY MANAGER TRAINING PROGRAMS...FACILITY MANAGER TRAINING PROGRAMS 87 S968 CONDUCT HOUSING OCCUPANCY BRIEFINGS 87 S969 CONDUCT NEWCOMERS’ BRIEFINGS 86 A53 SCHEDULE FIRE PREVENTION...G351 INSPECIl DEL11GE SYSTEMS 65 A? .F) TTMATE REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 60 ,178 N;SPECT cOFF -BASF REMOTE SITES 60 All N.W1ww TABLE

  14. Significance analysis of the regional differences on icing time of water onto fire protective clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L. Z.; Jing, L. S.; Zhang, X. Z.; Xia, J. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, T.; Hu, C.; Bao, Z. M.; Fu, X. C.; Wang, R. J.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. J.

    2017-09-01

    The object of this work was to determine the icing temperature in icing experiment. Firstly, a questionnaire investigation was carried out on 38 fire detachments in different regions. These Statistical percentage results were divided into northern east group and northern west group. Secondly, a significance analysis between these two results was made using Mann-Whitney U test. Then the icing temperature was determined in different regions. Thirdly, the icing experiment was made in the environment of -20°C in Daxing’an Mountain. The anti-icing effect of new fire protective clothing was verified in this icing.

  15. Energy Analysis of a Biomass Co-firing Based Pulverized Coal Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The results are reported of an energy analysis of a biomass/coal co-firing based power generation system, carried out to investigate the impacts of biomass co-firing on system performance. The power generation system is a typical pulverized coal-fired steam cycle unit, in which four biomass fuels (rice husk, pine sawdust, chicken litter, and refuse derived fuel and two coals (bituminous coal and lignite are considered. Key system performance parameters are evaluated for various fuel combinations and co-firing ratios, using a system model and numerical simulation. The results indicate that plant energy efficiency decreases with increase of biomass proportion in the fuel mixture, and that the extent of the decrease depends on specific properties of the coal and biomass types.

  16. Relay protection coordination with generator capability curve, excitation system limiters and power system relay protections settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buha Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relay protection settings performed in the largest thermal powerplant (TE "Nikola Tesla B" are reffered and explained in this paper. The first calculation step is related to the coordination of the maximum stator current limiter settings, the overcurrent protection with inverse characteristics settings and the permitted overload of the generator stator B1. In the second calculation step the settings of impedance generator protection are determined, and the methods and criteria according to which the calculations are done are described. Criteria used to provide the protection to fulfill the backup protection role in the event of malfunction of the main protection of the transmission system. are clarified. The calculation of all protection functions (32 functions of generator B1 were performed in the project "Coordination of relay protection blocks B1 and B2 with the system of excitation and power system protections -TENT B".

  17. Development of a model to generate a risk map in a building fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Fire simulations and sensors are widely used in building fires,various data such as temperature,CO and CO2 concentration,visibility can be obtained by sensors and sensor-based simulation. It is important to generate a risk map based on such data so that we can use it to estimate safety of the building. In this paper,we propose a method to generate a dynamical,integrated risk map using sensor readings in a building fire. Such risk evaluation model is developed using similarity comparison between the space state and dangerous state by a likelihood distance calculating and data grouping from a two-step cluster method. The risk evaluation model considers the integrated influence on the occupants in the zone from high temperature,lack of oxygen,toxic and harmful gases and shows the relative fire risk map at certain time. Based on the simulation study,it is proved that multi-factor fire risk analysis would be more objective and accurate than single factor and two-factor risk analysis and the fire risk evaluation model can generate a risk map and provide the classification information and the whole building risk statistic results to support evacuation command and control.

  18. A parametric study on the use of passive fire protection in FPSO topside module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friebe Martin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a continuous threat to FPSO topside modules as large amounts of oil and gas are passing through the modules. As a conventional measure to mitigate structural failure under fire, passive fire protection (PFP coatings are widely used on main structural members. However, an excessive use of PFP coatings can cause considerable cost for material purchase, installation, inspection and maintenance. Long installation time can be a risk since the work should be done nearly at the last fabrication stage. Thus, the minimal use of PFP can be beneficial to the reduction of construction cost and the avoidance of schedule delay. This paper presents a few case studies on how different applications of PFP have influence on collapse time of a FPSO module structure. A series of heat analysis and thermal elasto-plastic FE analysis are performed for different PFP coatings and the resultant collapse time and the amount of PFP coatings are compared with each other.

  19. A parametric study on the use of passive fire protection in FPSO topside module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebe, Martin; Jang, Beom-Seon; Jim, Yanlin

    2014-12-01

    Fire is a continuous threat to FPSO topside modules as large amounts of oil and gas are passing through the modules. As a conventional measure to mitigate structural failure under fire, passive fire protection (PFP) coatings are widely used on main structural members. However, an excessive use of PFP coatings can cause considerable cost for material purchase, installation, inspection and maintenance. Long installation time can be a risk since the work should be done nearly at the last fabrication stage. Thus, the minimal use of PFP can be beneficial to the reduction of construction cost and the avoidance of schedule delay. This paper presents a few case studies on how different applications of PFP have influence on collapse time of a FPSO module structure. A series of heat analysis and thermal elasto-plastic FE analysis are performed for different PFP coatings and the resultant collapse time and the amount of PFP coatings are compared with each other.

  20. Fire protection concepts for Timber-Glass Composite façades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schleicher Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The main objectives can be summarized as follows: Growth and densification in urban areas require the development of intelligent and resource-efficient building systems for “Smart Cities” of the future. By using timber-glass composites (TGC the primary energy demand of buildings can be reduced substantially. This research project examines the feasibility of applications of this new technology in multi-story and high-rise buildings. Critical aspects concerning fire protection such as flammability of timber elements, fire spread and failure of façade elements with bracing capacity will be analyzed. Different strategies will be developed in case studies and validated by structural analysis. Large scale mock ups of TGC façade elements will be checked on their suitability in fire tests. The findings of this research will lead to innovative fire safety concepts for building systems with TGC façades. Compliance with the high safety standards for multi-story buildings in urban areas like Vienna is one of the main objectives of this work. The adaptation of these fire safety concepts to the national standards of the neighboring countries will be continued subsequently. The gained knowledge should lead to further cooperation with companies for serial productions with TGC technology.

  1. Protective, Modular Wave Power Generation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vvedensky, Jane M.; Park, Robert Y.

    2012-11-27

    The concept of small wave energy conversion modules that can be built into large, scalable arrays, in the same vein as solar panels, has been developed. This innovation lends itself to an organic business and development model, and enables the use of large-run manufacturing technology to reduce system costs. The first prototype module has been built to full-scale, and tested in a laboratory wave channel. The device has been shown to generate electricity and dissipate wave energy. Improvements need to be made to the electrical generator and a demonstration of an array of modules should be made in natural conditions.

  2. Distributed Power-Generation Systems and Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Yang, Yongheng; Yang, Dongsheng

    2017-01-01

    penetration degree of renewable energy, among which wind and solar photovoltaics are typical sources. The integration level of the DPGS into the grid plays a critical role in developing sustainable and resilient power systems, especially with highly intermittent renewable energy resources. To address...... for the DPGS to consolidate the integration. In light of the above, this paper reviews the power-conversion and control technologies used for DPGSs. The impacts of the DPGS on the distributed grid are also examined, and more importantly, strategies for enhancing the connection and protection of the DPGS...

  3. Sustainability protects resources for future generations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This publication by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses the steps necessary to provide livable urban centers for future generations through sustainable development, or sustainability. To illustrate this concept, nonsustainable cities and sustainable cities are compared. Sustainable city projects for several major US cites are reviewed.

  4. A performance overview about fire risk management in the Brazilian hydroelectric generating plants and transmission network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Dayse [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Dept. de Engenharia de Producao, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2004-01-01

    : scenario identification and consequence analysis. It was based on fire dynamics principles, structure engineering and data. The relevant data includes CIGRE failure data, fire accident reports and CHESF maintenance experience on equipment. The analysis focus is on the difficulties that the hydroelectric plants and the transmission sector in Brazil have in tackling fire protection. They make no allusion to the need to take the fire risks that could lead to some type of impact in the interconnected network into consideration. It is hoped that the performance analysis in this study will shed some light on our ability to anticipate unwanted interactions along a hydroelectric plant or substation life circle. (Author)

  5. INFLUENCE OF CURRENT-TIME CURVE OF PROTECTIVE INSTRUMENTS ON FIRE SAFETY OF CABLE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Aushev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides results of experimental investigations on determination heating characteristics of ВВГ2x2.5, ВВГ2x4 and ВВГ2x6 cables and individual current-time curves of automatic switch-off series. Joint operation of automatic switch-offs and protected conductors are analyzed from the point of view of fire safety provision.

  6. Determination of thermal characteristics of combustion products of fire-tube heat generator with flow turbulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukjanov Alexander V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Boiler construction is one of the major industries of any state. The aim is to determine the effect of the turbulator on the intensity of heat transfer in the convective part of the fire-tube heat generator of domestic production. The improvement of convective heating surfaces is one of the ways to increase the energy efficiency of the fire-tube heat generator. Since model of the process of heat transfer of gas flow in the convective tubes is multifactorial and does not have clear analytical solution at present, the study of process above is carried out using the experimental method. The results of applying the flow turbulator as a broken tape in the fire-tube heat generator of KV-GM type are presented. On their basis it can be concluded about increasing of heat transfer in convective part of the unit. The use of efficient, reliable, easy to manufacture, relatively inexpensive turbulator in domestic fire-tube heat generators will allow to increase their energy conversion efficiency and reduce fuel consumption, which will have a positive economic effect.

  7. Oriented clay nanopaper from biobased components--mechanisms for superior fire protection properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosio, F; Kochumalayil, J; Cuttica, F; Camino, G; Berglund, L

    2015-03-18

    The toxicity of the most efficient fire retardant additives is a major problem for polymeric materials. Cellulose nanofiber (CNF)/clay nanocomposites, with unique brick-and-mortar structure and prepared by simple filtration, are characterized from the morphological point of view by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. These nanocomposites have superior fire protection properties to other clay nanocomposites and fiber composites. The corresponding mechanisms are evaluated in terms of flammability (reaction to a flame) and cone calorimetry (exposure to heat flux). These two tests provide a wide spectrum characterization of fire protection properties in CNF/montmorrilonite (MTM) materials. The morphology of the collected residues after flammability testing is investigated. In addition, thermal and thermo-oxidative stability are evaluated by thermogravimetric analyses performed in inert (nitrogen) and oxidative (air) atmospheres. Physical and chemical mechanisms are identified and related to the unique nanostructure and its low thermal conductivity, high gas barrier properties and CNF/MTM interactions for char formation.

  8. Technology Roadmap: High-Efficiency, Low-Emissions Coal-Fired Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Coal is the largest source of power globally and, given its wide availability and relatively low cost, it is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. The High-Efficiency, Low-Emissions Coal-Fired Power Generation Roadmap describes the steps necessary to adopt and further develop technologies to improve the efficiency of the global fleet of coal. To generate the same amount of electricity, a more efficient coal-fired unit will burn less fuel, emit less carbon, release less local air pollutants, consume less water and have a smaller footprint. High-efficiency, low emissions (HELE) technologies in operation already reach a thermal efficiency of 45%, and technologies in development promise even higher values. This compares with a global average efficiency for today’s fleet of coal-fired plants of 33%, where three-quarters of operating units use less efficient technologies and more than half is over 25 years old. A successful outcome to ongoing RD&D could see units with efficiencies approaching 50% or even higher demonstrated within the next decade. Generation from older, less efficient technology must gradually be phased out. Technologies exist to make coal-fired power generation much more effective and cleaner burning. Of course, while increased efficiency has a major role to play in reducing emissions, particularly over the next 10 years, carbon capture and storage (CCS) will be essential in the longer term to make the deep cuts in carbon emissions required for a low-carbon future. Combined with CCS, HELE technologies can cut CO2 emissions from coal-fired power generation plants by as much as 90%, to less than 100 grams per kilowatt-hour. HELE technologies will be an influential factor in the deployment of CCS. For the same power output, a higher efficiency coal plant will require less CO2 to be captured; this means a smaller, less costly capture plant; lower operating costs; and less CO2 to be transported and stored.

  9. Insulating capacity of fly ash pastes used for passive protection against fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis F. Vilches; Carlos Leiva; Jose Vale; Constantino Fernandez-Pereira [Universidad de Sevilla, Seville (Spain). Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental

    2005-09-01

    This study deals with the possibilities of recycling different combustion sub-products into usable products for passive protection against fire. We studied conventional combustion fly ashes from different types of pulverized coal in thermal power plants, which have a long tradition of applicability in construction, and ashes from new energy production processes based on other fuels, such as biomass, in an effort to find new applications for them. In order to be able to carry out this study, we developed a methodology that allows us to (1) predict the insulating behaviour of pastes comprising ashes, binders and other additives, (2) know what contributions each of the components makes and (3) considerably reduce the time required to test potential products with fire-resistant properties.

  10. Improved Optimization Study of Integration Strategies in Solar Aided Coal-Fired Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Zhai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar aided coal-fired power generation system (SACFPGS combines solar energy and traditional coal-fired units in a particular way. This study mainly improves the solar thermal storage system. Genetic algorithm is used to optimize the SACFPGS. The best integration approach of the system, the collector area, and the corresponding thermal storage capacity to replace each high-pressure extraction are obtained when the amount of coal saving in unit solar investment per hour is at its largest. System performance before and after the improvement is compared. Results show that the improvement of the thermal storage system effectively increases the economic benefit of the integrated system.

  11. Protection forest resilience after a fire event: a case study in Vallis, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, Chiara; Werlen, Mario; Schwarz, Massimiliano

    2016-04-01

    Forests are well known to protect against natural hazards such as landslides, rockfall and floods. Nevertheless, they are dynamic ecosystems which are exposed to a variety of disturbances such as windstorms, fires, bark beetle and pathogen outbreaks. Catastrophic disturbances like windstorms and fires usually remove large portions of the canopy, starting a succession process which lead to a complete stand regeneration. Disturbances belong to the natural dynamic of forests, however they are highly undesirable in the case where forest protect infrastructure or settlements. Quantifying the decay and recovery of the protection effect of forests after disturbances is therefore important to evaluate risks and implement appropriate management techniques, when needed. This work analyzes the dynamic of a Scots Pine (Pinus silvestris) protection forests near Visp (Vallis) after a fire event, focusing on root reinforcement, which is the key factor in preventing shallow landslides. Forest cover, root distribution and root mechanical properties were analyzed 4 years after the fire event, and the root reinforcement has been quantified. Furthermore, the contribution of natural regeneration has been evaluated. Results show that the root reinforcement of Scots pine has declined massively in the forest fire area. At a distance of 1.5 m from the tree stem there is a reduction of 60% compared with the live stand. With increasing distance from the stem, the reduction in the reinforcement is even bigger. At a distance of 2.5 meters it is 12% and at 3.5 meters, only 5% of the original root reinforcement. This decrease is due to the decomposition of roots and associated change in the mechanical properties of the wood. The reinforcement of the dead roots in the forest area is estimated between 0.36 kPa and 2.64 kPa. The contribution of the emerging regeneration is estimated on average 0.01 kPa. Overall the stand provides a reinforcement between 0.37 kPa and 2.65 kPa. From the results it

  12. Particle size-dependent radical generation from wildland fire smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephen S; Castranova, Vince; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Hoover, Mark; Piacitelli, Chris; Gaughan, Denise M

    2007-07-01

    Firefighting, along with construction, mining and agriculture, ranks among the most dangerous occupations. In addition, the work environment of firefighters is unlike that of any other occupation, not only because of the obvious physical hazards but also due to the respiratory and systemic health hazards of smoke inhalation resulting from combustion. A significant amount of research has been devoted to studying municipal firefighters; however, these studies may not be useful in wildland firefighter exposures, because the two work environments are so different. Not only are wildland firefighters exposed to different combustion products, but their exposure profiles are different. The combustion products wildland firefighters are exposed to can vary greatly in characteristics due to the type and amount of material being burned, soil conditions, temperature and exposure time. Smoke inhalation is one of the greatest concerns for firefighter health and it has been shown that the smoke consists of a large number of particles. These smoke particles contain intermediates of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen free radicals, which may pose a potential health risk. Our investigation looked into the involvement of free radicals in smoke toxicity and the relationship between particle size and radical generation. Samples were collected in discrete aerodynamic particle sizes from a wildfire in Alaska, preserved and then shipped to our laboratory for analysis. Electron spin resonance was used to measure carbon-centered as well as hydroxyl radicals produced by a Fenton-like reaction with wildfire smoke. Further study of reactive oxygen species was conducted using analysis of cellular H(2)O(2) generation, lipid peroxidation of cellular membranes and DNA damage. Results demonstrate that coarse size-range particles contained more carbon radicals per unit mass than the ultrafine particles; however, the ultrafine particles generated more *OH radicals in the acellular Fenton-like reaction. The

  13. Low-cost Evaporator Protection Method against Corrosion in a Pulverized Coal Fired Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Krzysztof Dyjakon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion processes appearing on the watertubes in a combustion chamber of pulverized coal-fired boilers require permanent control and service. Subject to the power plant strategy, different anti-corrosion protection methods can be applied. Technical-economical analysis has been performed to evaluate and support the decisions on maintenance and operation services. The paper presents and discusses results of the application of an air protection system in boiler OP-230 in view of anti-corrosion measures. It is indicated that a low-cost protection method of watertubes (evaporator against corrosion can be efficient and lead to financial savings in comparison to the standard procedure of replacement of watertube panels.

  14. 老年公寓的消防安全现状及防火对策%Fire protection situation and fire prevention measures of senior apartment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兵

    2009-01-01

    根据近年来老年公寓建设发展过程中发生火灾起数及伤亡人数增多的情况,对老年公寓存在的消防安全问题及其原因进行了分析,提出了改善老年公寓消防安全的对策.%The reason of fire protection problems to senior apartment were analyzed and the measures to improve the fire protection situation of senior apartment were put forward based on the increasing number of fire and fatalities during the development of senior apartment recently.

  15. GIS Fuzzy Expert System for the assessment of ecosystems vulnerability to fire in managing Mediterranean natural protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeraro, Teodoro; Mastroleo, Giovanni; Aretano, Roberta; Facchinetti, Gisella; Zurlini, Giovanni; Petrosillo, Irene

    2016-03-01

    A significant threat to the natural and cultural heritage of Mediterranean natural protected areas (NPAs) is related to uncontrolled fires that can cause potential damages related to the loss or a reduction of ecosystems. The assessment and mapping of the vulnerability to fire can be useful to reduce landscape damages and to establish priority areas where it is necessary to plan measures to reduce the fire vulnerability. To this aim, a methodology based on an interactive computer-based system has been proposed in order to support NPA's management authority for the identification of vulnerable hotspots to fire through the selection of suitable indicators that allow discriminating different levels of sensitivity (e.g. Habitat relevance, Fragmentation, Fire behavior, Ecosystem Services, Vegetation recovery after fire) and stresses (agriculture, tourism, urbanization). In particular, a multi-criteria analysis based on Fuzzy Expert System (FES) integrated in a GIS environment has been developed in order to identify and map potential "hotspots" of fire vulnerability, where fire protection measures can be undertaken in advance. In order to test the effectiveness of this approach, this approach has been applied to the NPA of Torre Guaceto (Apulia Region, southern Italy). The most fire vulnerable areas are the patch of century-old forest characterized by high sensitivity and stress, and the wetlands and century-old olive groves due to their high sensitivity. The GIS fuzzy expert system provides evidence of its potential usefulness for the effective management of natural protected areas and can help conservation managers to plan and intervene in order to mitigate the fire vulnerability in accordance with conservation goals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Web Service Based on GeoTools in The Atlas of Fire Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Růžička

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a simple way of a systems integration based on SOAP web services.  The systems integration described in the paper is covered by a system named The atlas of a fire protection. The atlas is a set of dynamically created maps published in WWW browser.  Technologies used for the solution are UMN MapServer, ArcIMS, PHP, GeoTools and Axis.  GeoTools and Axis are used for building platform and programming language independent component for the atlas. The paper describes a software architecture used for the atlas and a role of a web service in the integration.

  17. Research on solar aided coal-fired power generation system and performance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG YongPing; CUI YingHong; HOU HongJuan; GUO XiYan; YANG ZhiPing; WANG NinLing

    2008-01-01

    Integrationg rating solar power utilization systems with coal-fired power units, the solar aided coal-fired power generation (SACPG) shows a significant prospect for the large-scale utilization of solar energy and energy saving of thermal power units. The methods and mechanism of system integration were studied. The parabolic trough solar collectors were used to collect solar energy and the integration scheme of SACPG system was determined considering the matching of working fluid flows and energy flows. The thermodynamic characteristics of solar thermal power generation and their effects on the performance of thermal power units were studied, and based on this the integration and optimization model of system structure and parameters were built up. The integration rules and coupling mecha-nism of SACPG systems were summarized in accordance with simulation results. The economic analysis of this SACPG system showed that the solar LEC of a of SEGS, 0.14 S/kW. h.

  18. Protection issues on microgrid/distributed generation based systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Angelo R. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Ribeiro, Paulo F. [Calvin College, Grand Rapids, MI (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Iung, Anderson M. [Geracao Paranapanema S.A., SP (Brazil). Duke Energy International. Market Analysis Dept.; Garcia, Paulo A.N. [Federal University of Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Dept. of Circuits

    2009-07-01

    This paper aims to discuss protection issues related to the presence of distributed generation (DG) in distribution systems. A case study is developed to show some impacts of transitions and operations with relay static settings to verify the reliability of systems in the presence of DG. (author)

  19. Generation and reduction of nitrogen oxides in firing different kinds of fuel in a circulating fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munts, V. A.; Munts, Yu. G.; Baskakov, A. P.; Proshin, A. S.

    2013-11-01

    The processes through which nitrogen oxides are generated and reduced in the course of firing different kinds of fuel in a circulating fluidized bed are addressed. All experimental studies were carried by the authors on their own laboratory installations. To construct a model simulating the generation of nitrogen oxides, the fuel combustion process in a fluidized bed was subdivided into two stages: combustion of volatiles and combustion of coke residue. The processes through which nitrogen oxides are generated and reduced under the conditions of firing fuel with shortage of oxygen (which is one of efficient methods for reducing nitrogen oxide emissions in firing fuel in a fluidized bed) are considered.

  20. Fire ants protect mealybugs against their natural enemies by utilizing the leaf shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aiming; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

    2012-01-01

    The importance of mutualism is receiving more attention in community ecology. In this study, the fire ant Solenopsis invicta was found to take advantage of the shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata to protect mealybugs (Phenacoccus solenopsis) against their natural enemies. This protective effect of fire ant tending on the survival of mealybugs in shelters was observed when enemies and leaf rollers were simultaneously present. Specifically, fire ants moved the mealybugs inside the shelters produced by S. derogata on enemy-infested plants. Compared with that in plants without ants, the survival of mealybugs in shelters in the presence of natural enemies in plants with ants markedly improved. Both the protection of ants and the shelters provided by leaf rollers did not affect the survival of mealybugs in the absence of enemies in plants. Ants and leaf rollers significantly improved the survival of mealybugs in predator-infested plants, whereas no such improvement was observed in parasitoid-infested ones.

  1. Sub-atmospheric disk generators for coal-fired MHD/steam combined cycle power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerle, H.K.; Fang, Y.; Simpson, S.W.; Marty, S.M. (Sydney Univ. (Australia). School of Electrical Engineering)

    1989-01-01

    A coal fired MHD disk generator in a combined cycle MHD/steam power generation system with a diffuser operating at sub-atmospheric pressure is proposed. The effects of pressure on the performance of a radial outflow MHD disk generator and other system components are analysed. Using a previous study as a reference case, preliminary calculations show that, in such a sub-atmospheric system, improved power station efficiency can be achieved. In addition, operation at reduced values of magnetic field strength would be feasible. Calculations have also been carried out for a 30 MW{sub th} experimental disk generator operating at reduced pressure with a magnetic field strength of 2 T. Flow conditions at sub-atmospheric pressure would provide an improved simulation of a full-scale generator operating at normal pressures. (author).

  2. Studying the Post-Fire Response of Vegetation in California Protected Areas with NDVI-based Pheno-Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, S.; Gillespie, T. W.

    2016-12-01

    Post-fire response from vegetation is determined by the intensity and timing of fires as well as the nature of local biomes. Though the field-based studies focusing on selected study sites helped to understand the mechanisms of post-fire response, there is a need to extend the analysis to a broader spatial extent with the assistance of remotely sensed imagery of fires and vegetation. Pheno-metrics, a series of variables on the growing cycle extracted from basic satellite measurements of vegetation coverage, translate the basic remote sensing measurements such as NDVI to the language of phenology and fire ecology in a quantitative form. In this study, we analyzed the rate of biomass removal after ignition and the speed of post-fire recovery in California protected areas from 2000 to 2014 with USGS MTBS fire data and USGS eMODIS pheno-metrics. NDVI drop caused by fire showed the aboveground biomass of evergreen forest was removed much slower than shrubland because of higher moisture level and greater density of fuel. In addition, the above two major land cover types experienced a greatly weakened immediate post-fire growing season, featuring a later start and peak of season, a shorter length of season, and a lower start and peak of NDVI. Such weakening was highly correlated with burn severity, and also influenced by the season of fire and the land cover type, according to our modeling between the anomalies of pheno-metrics and the difference of normalized burn ratio (dNBR). The influence generally decayed over time, but can remain high within the first 5 years after fire, mostly because of the introduction of exotic species when the native species were missing. Local-specific variables are necessary to better address the variance within the same fire and improve the outcomes of models. This study can help ecologists in validating the theories of post-fire vegetation response mechanisms and assist local fire managers in post-fire vegetation recovery.

  3. Highly Flexible, Fire Resistant HybridSil Foams for Next Generation Fireproofing, Insulation, and Energy Absorption NASA Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this Phase I STTR program is to adapt NanoSonic's HybridSil™ nanocomposite technology for the creation of next generation highly flexible, fire...

  4. Coal fly ash-containing sprayed mortar for passive fire protection of steel sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilches, L. F.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article addresses the possible use of coal fly ash as the chief component of sprayed mortars to fireproof steel structures. A pilot wet-mix gunning rig was specifically designed and built to spray different pastes on to sheet steel and sections with different surface/volume ratios. After gunning, the specimens were placed in a furnace and subjected to standard fire resistance testing. Product fire resistance was calculated from the test results. The mortar used in this study, with a high fly ash content, was found to have acceptable mechanical properties as well as afire resistance potential comparable to those of commercial passive fire protection products.

    En este artículo se estudia el posible uso de las cenizas volantes procedentes de la combustión del carbón como constituyente principal de morteros que pueden ser proyectados sobre estructuras metálicas, para protegerlas contra el fuego. Con objeto de estudiar el proceso de proyección, se ha construido una planta piloto de gunitado por vía húmeda. La pasta se ha proyectado sobre placas metálicas y perfiles metálicos con diferentes relaciones superficie/volumen. Tras el gunitado, las probetas proyectadas se colocan en un horno y se someten a un programa de calentamiento según la norma de resistencia al fuego. A partir de los datos obtenidos se ha podido realizar una estimación de la resistencia al fuego del producto. Los resultados muestran que el material proyectado usado en este estudio, que contiene una alta proporción de cenizas volantes, tiene unas propiedades mecánicas aceptables y unas características potenciales de resistencia al fuego comparables a las de otros productos comerciales utilizados en la protección pasiva contra el fuego.

  5. A novel method to design water spray cooling system to protect floating roof atmospheric storage tanks against fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Alimohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon bulk storage tank fires are not very common, but their protection is essential due to severe consequences of such fires. Water spray cooling system is one of the most effective ways to reduce damages to a tank from a fire. Many codes and standards set requirements and recommendations to maximize the efficiency of water spray cooling systems, but these are widely different and still various interpretations and methods are employed to design such systems. This article provides a brief introduction to some possible design methods of cooling systems for protection of storage tanks against external non-contacting fires and introduces a new method namely “Linear Density Method” and compares the results from this method to the “Average Method” which is currently in common practice. The average Method determines the flow rate for each spray nozzle by dividing the total water demand by the number of spray nozzles while the Linear Density Method determines the nozzle flow rate based on the actual flow over the surface to be protected. The configuration of the system includes a one million barrel crude oil floating roof tank to be protected and which is placed one half tank diameter from a similar adjacent tank with a full surface fire. Thermal radiation and hydraulics are modeled using DNV PHAST Version 6.53 and Sunrise PIPENET Version 1.5.0.2722 software respectively. Spray nozzles used in design are manufactured by Angus Fire and PNR Nozzles companies. Schedule 40 carbon steel pipe is used for piping. The results show that the cooling system using the Linear Density Method consumes 3.55% more water than the design using the average method assuming a uniform application rate of 4.1 liters per minute. Despite higher water consumption the design based on Linear Density Method alleviates the problems associated with the Average Method and provides better protection.

  6. Using Probability of Exceedance to Compare the Resource Risk of Renewable and Gas-Fired Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Of the myriad risks surrounding long-term investments in power plants, resource risk is one of the most difficult to mitigate, and is also perhaps the risk that most-clearly distinguishes renewable generation from natural gas-fired generation. For renewable generators like wind and solar projects, resource risk manifests as a quantity risk—i.e., the risk that the quantity of wind and insolation will be less than expected.i For gas-fired generators (i.e., a combined-cycle gas turbine or “CCGT”), resource risk manifests primarily as a price risk—i.e., the risk that natural gas will cost more than expected. Most often, resource risk—and natural gas price risk in particular—falls disproportionately on utility ratepayers, who are typically not well-equipped to manage this risk. As such, it is incumbent upon utilities, regulators, and policymakers to ensure that resource risk is taken into consideration when making or approving resource decisions, or enacting policies that influence the development of the electricity sector more broadly.

  7. Non-conventional possibilities of protection of apple and pear against fire blight (Erwinia amylovora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Sobiczewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Standard program of plant protection against fire blight consists of use of management practices and chemical control method. Recently a new, non-conventional possibilities based on application of biocontrol agents (two biopreparations have been already introduced into practice: Bliteban A506 (Pseudomonas fluorescens and BlossomBless (Pantoea agglomerans, plant extracts active against Erwinia amylovora (AkseBio containing extracts from Thymbra spicata and Biomit Plussz with extracts from various plant species and microelements and resistance inducers (Regalis, Bion and plant extracts are of great interest. Also plant transformation with resistance genes such as: hrpN (harpin, dpo (EPS depolymerase and lytic protein genes (attacin E, cecropin SB-37, T4 lysozyme is a promising perspective.

  8. Demonstration of a Retrofit Corrosion-Resistant Fire Hydrant Which Also Protects Against Deliberate Contamination of Critical Army Water Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Distribution System: 880,000 miles of pipe comprise the nation’s drinking water distribution network [ AWWA WATER\\STATS2002].  Millions of fire...STRONG®55 BUILDING STRONG®56 Features Meets AWWA C502 Specs Offers continuous protection Easily retrofitted into new or existing hydrants Stealth

  9. The Nuclear Safety Council's Instruction IS-30 on program requirements of fire protection at nuclear power plants; La instruccion IS-30 del consejo de Seguridad Nuclear sobre requisitos del programa de proteccion contraincendios en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peco, J.

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear Safety Councils Instrumentation IS-30 is the standard that establishes the fire protection program requirements for the Spanish nuclear power plants with operating license in order to satisfy the two fire protection objectives, which are the adoption of the defense-in-depth principle for fire protection and, by fire area confinement, to ensure that one train of components needed to achieve and maintain the safe shutdown conditions is free of fire damage, and that radioactive liberation is minimized. (Author)

  10. Efficiency evolution of coal-fired electricity generation in China, 1999-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Tai Wu; Pierre-Olivier Pineau; Gilles Caporossi [HEC Montreal, Montreal (Canada). Department of Business Intelligence

    2010-07-01

    The paper seeks to evaluate the changes in efficiency and productivity of coal-fired electricity generation of 30 Chinese administrative regions from 1999 to 2007. The paper incorporates data envelopment analysis with the Malmquist index to study the progress made in this sector. The model considers both economic and environmental factors by including the variables fuel consumption, labor, capital, sulfur dioxide emissions and electricity generated. A second model is constructed without the variable sulfur dioxide emissions to evaluate economic performances without taking environmental measures into consideration. By comparing the two models, the paper identified provinces that favored economic performance over environmental performance, or vice versa. Also, it showed that the more efficient provinces tend to manage both economic and environmental efficiencies equally well, while the reverse is true for the least efficient provinces. The average total factor productivity growth in coal-fired electricity generation of all provinces was 3.96 per cent for 1999-2007, and this growth is mainly attributed to technological change. In addition, it found that the Eastern provinces are the most efficient and productive of the group.

  11. Industry perspectives on increasing the efficiency of coal-fired power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrens, I.M. [Shell Coal International, London (United Kingdom); Stenzel, W.C.

    1997-12-31

    Independent power producers will build a substantial fraction of expected new coal-fired power generation in developing countries over the coming decades. To reduce perceived risk and obtain financing for their projects, they are currently building and plan to continue to build subcritical coal-fired plants with generating efficiency below 40%. Up-to-date engineering assessment leads to the conclusion that supercritical generating technology, capable of efficiencies of up to 45%, can produce electricity at a lower total cost than conventional plants. If such plants were built in Asia over the coming decades, the savings in carbon dioxide emissions over their lifetime would be measured in billions of tons. IPPs perceive supercritical technology as riskier and higher cost than conventional technology. The truth needs to be confirmed by discussions with additional experienced power engineering companies. Better communication among the interested parties could help to overcome the IPP perception issue. Governments working together with industry might be able to identify creative financing arrangements which can encourage the use of more efficient pulverized clean coal technologies, while awaiting the commercialization of advanced clean coal technologies like gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  12. Failure analysis of fire resistant fluid (FRF piping used in hydraulic control system at oil-fired thermal power generation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a case study regarding frequent forced outages in an oil-fired power generating station due to failure of fire resistant fluid (FRF piping of material ASTM A-304. This analysis was done to find out the most probable cause of failure and to rectify the problem. Methods for finding and analyzing the cracks include nondestructive testing techniques such as visual testing (VT and dye penetrant testing (PT along with that periodic monitoring after rectification of problem. The study revealed that pitting and pit to crack transitions were formed in stainless steel piping containing high pressure (system pressure 115 bars fire resistant fluid. However, after replacement of piping the pitting and cracking reoccurred. It was observed that due to possible exposure to chlorinated moisture in surrounding environment pitting was formed which then transformed into cracks. The research work discussed in this paper illustrates the procedure used in detection of the problem and measures taken to solve the problem.

  13. Analysis of pressure safety valves for fire protection on offshore oil and gas installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Michael Skov; Eriksen, Jacob; Andreasen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of fire Pressure Safety Valves (PSV) has been investigated when offshore process equipment is exposed to a fire. Simulations of several typical offshore pressure vessels have been performed using the commercial software VessFire. The pressure vessels are exposed to a small jet f...

  14. Conditions for generation of fire-related debris flows, Capulin Canyon, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, S.H.; Reneau, S.L.

    2000-01-01

    Comparison of the responses of three drainage basins burned by the Dome fire of 1996 in New Mexico is used to identify the hillslope, channel and fire characteristics that indicate a susceptibility specifically to wildfire-related debris flow. Summer thunderstorms generated three distinct erosive responses from each of three basins. The Capulin Canyon basin showed widespread erosive sheetwash and rilling from hillslopes, and severe flooding occurred in the channel; the North Tributary basin exhibited extensive erosion of the mineral soil to a depth of 5 cm and downslope movement of up to boulder-sized material, and at least one debris flow occurred in the channel; negligible surface runoff was observed in the South Tributary basin. The negligible surface runoff observed in the South Tributary basin is attributed to the limited extent and severity of the fire in that basin. The factors that best distinguish between debris-flow producing and flood-producing drainages are drainage basin morphology and lithology. A rugged drainage basin morphology, an average 12 per cent channel gradient, and steep, rough hillslopes coupled with colluvium and soil weathered from volcaniclastic and volcanic rocks promoted the generation of debris flows. A less rugged basin morphology, an average gradient of 5 per cent, and long, smooth slopes mantled with pumice promoted flooding. Flood and debris-flow responses were produced without the presence of water-repellent soils. The continuity and severity of the burn mosaic, the condition of the riparian vegetation, the condition of the fibrous root mat, accumulations of dry ravel and colluvial material in the channel and on hillslopes, and past debris-flow activity, appeared to have little bearing on the distinctive responses of the basins. Published in 2000 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  15. Robust Replication Control Is Generated by Temporal Gaps between Licensing and Firing Phases and Depends on Degradation of Firing Factor Sld2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Uwe Reusswig

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Temporal separation of DNA replication initiation into licensing and firing phases ensures the precise duplication of the genome during each cell cycle. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK is known to generate this separation by activating firing factors and at the same time inhibiting licensing factors but may not be sufficient to ensure robust separation at transitions between both phases. Here, we show that a temporal gap separates the inactivation of firing factors from the re-activation of licensing factors during mitosis in budding yeast. We find that gap size critically depends on phosphorylation-dependent degradation of the firing factor Sld2 mediated by CDK, DDK, Mck1, and Cdc5 kinases and the ubiquitin-ligases Dma1/2. Stable mutants of Sld2 minimize the gap and cause increased genome instability in an origin-dependent manner when combined with deregulation of other replication regulators or checkpoint mechanisms. Robust separation of licensing and firing phases therefore appears indispensable to safeguard genome stability.

  16. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, F; Shala, F; Xhixha, G; Xhixha, M K; Hodolli, G; Kadiri, S; Bylyku, E; Cfarku, F

    2014-12-01

    The energy production in Kosovo depends primarily on lignite-fired power plants. During coal combustion, huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash are generated, which may result in enriched natural radionuclides; therefore, these radionuclides need to be investigated to identify the possible processes that may lead to the radiological exposure of workers and the local population. Lignite samples and NORMs of fly ash and bottom ash generated in lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo are analyzed using a gamma-ray spectrometry method for the activity concentration of natural radionuclides. The average activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th in lignite are found to be 36 ± 8 Bq kg(-1), 9 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) and 9 ± 3 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Indications on the occurrence and geochemical behavior of uranium in the lignite matrix are suggested. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in fly ash and bottom ash samples are found to be concentrated from 3 to 5 times that of the feeding lignite. The external gamma-ray absorbed dose rate and the activity concentration index are calculated to assess the radiological hazard arising from ash disposal and recycling in the cement industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Combined gas/steam turbine power plants with coal fired steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, H.J.; Weirich, P.H. [ABB Kraftwerke AG, Mannheim (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The combination of coal fired steam power plants with natural gas fired gas turbines results in an essential efficiency increase, up to 50%, requiring a portion of around one third of the fuel heat input in form of natural gas. There are two basic types of circuit arrangements in this category: in a topping process the gas turbine is connected to the steam generator on the gas side, and in a compound cycle power plant gas turbine and steam circuit are connected to each other on the water/steam side via a heat recovery steam generator. If comparable design parameters are applied slightly higher plant efficiencies can be obtained with the topping process. With respect to a higher power plant availability it is possible to operate both types of circuit arrangement without gas turbine. The specific investment cost of such combined cycle power plants is lower than that of corresponding steam power plants. Hence, they can represent economical solutions as far as the price ratio between natural gas and coal is not extremely high. In ecological respects, the advantage of this combination is a reduction of the specific CO{sub 2} emission by around 20-25%, compared with pure steam power plants. 1 ref., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Recovering lead from cupel waste generated in gold analysis by Pb-Fire assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerceau, Cristiane Isaac; Carvalho, Cornélio de Freitas; Rabelo, Ana Carolina Silveira; Dos Santos, Cláudio Gouvea; Gonçalves, Sabrina Mayra Dias; Varejão, Eduardo Vinícius Vieira

    2016-12-01

    Because of its precision and accuracy, Pb-Fire assay is the most employed method for gold analysis in geological materials. At the second stage of the method, namely cupellation, lead is oxidized to PbO which is absorbed by the cupel, leading to metallic gold as a tiny bend at the bottom of the recipient. After cupellation, cupel becomes highly contaminated with lead, making its disposal a serious risk of environmental contamination. In the present work, a leaching process for removing lead from cupel waste is proposed, which allowed for removing 96% of PbO by weight. After a precipitation step, 92.0% of lead was recovered from leachates in the form of PbSO4. Lead in the solid wastes left by the extraction was above the limit established by Brazilian legislation and these were classified as non-hazardous. Finally, secondary effluents generated after the precipitation step presented lead content more than twenty times lower than that of leachates from cupel waste. Tons of cupel waste are annually generated from gold analysis by Pb-Fire assay. Thus, the proposed method can contribute to prevent the discharge of high amounts of lead into the environment. Also, recovery of lead can help to partially meet the industrial demand for lead compounds.

  19. Research on solar aided coal-fired power generation system and performance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Integrating solar power utilization systems with coal-fired power units, the solar aided coal-fired power generation (SACPG) shows a significant prospect for the large-scale utilization of solar energy and energy saving of thermal power units. The methods and mechanism of system integration were studied. The parabolic trough solar collectors were used to collect solar energy and the integration scheme of SACPG system was determined considering the matching of working fluid flows and energy flows. The thermodynamic characteristics of solar thermal power generation and their effects on the performance of thermal power units were studied, and based on this the integration and optimization model of system structure and parameters were built up. The integration rules and coupling mecha- nism of SACPG systems were summarized in accordance with simulation results. The economic analysis of this SACPG system showed that the solar LEC of a typical SACPG system, considering CO2 avoidance, is 0.098 $/kW·h, lower than that of SEGS, 0.14 $/kW·h.

  20. Experimental study on fire protection methods of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Kexu; HE Guisheng; LU Fan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,two reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP)and attached with thick-painted fire resistant coating were tested for fire resistance following the standard fire testing procedures.The experimental results show that the specimen pasted with the insulated layer of 50 mm in thickness could resist fire for 2.5 h.It is also demonstrated that the steel wire mesh embedded in the insulated layer can effectively prevent it from cracking and eroding under firing.

  1. Improvements of the Computerized Data Acquisition System for 25MWt Experimental Facility of Coal-fired MHD Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces the design and development of a new computerized data acquisition system for the coal-fired magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) electrical power generation experiments. Compared to the previous system, it has a higher sampling rate and an improved simultaneity performance. It also improves the data collection method and sensor design for the measurement of Faraday voltages and Faraday currents. The system has been successfully used in many regular MHD generator tests. It provides an excellent base for the future research and development of the Coal-fired MHD electrical power generation.

  2. Fault Rid Through Protection of DFIG Based Wind Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sajedi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a fault ride-through strategy for a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG to enhance network stability during grid disturbances. To enable efficient computation a reduced order DFIG model is developed that restricts the calculation to the fundamental frequency component. However, the model enhancement introduced in the paper allows the consideration of the alternating components of the rotor current as well which is necessary for triggering the crowbar operation. As protection against short circuit transients, the crowbar protection is employed in the simulation. An equivalent model is constructed. Simplifications are made so as to have a system composed of grid, transformer, line and generator represented by elementary circuit elements (R, L, C and voltage sources. Equivalent circuit models are simplified so that the fault models may be used for synchronous machine parameters. It is assumed that the mechanical system cannot respond during the short time of a three phase short circuit. Simulation results in MATLABSimulink software are presented for model verification purposes.

  3. Thermal Spray Coatings for High-Temperature Corrosion Protection in Biomass Co-Fired Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksa, M.; Metsäjoki, J.; Kärki, J.

    2015-01-01

    There are over 1000 biomass boilers and about 500 plants using waste as fuel in Europe, and the numbers are increasing. Many of them encounter serious problems with high-temperature corrosion due to detrimental elements such as chlorides, alkali metals, and heavy metals. By HVOF spraying, it is possible to produce very dense and well-adhered coatings, which can be applied for corrosion protection of heat exchanger surfaces in biomass and waste-to-energy power plant boilers. Four HVOF coatings and one arc sprayed coating were exposed to actual biomass co-fired boiler conditions in superheater area with a probe measurement installation for 5900 h at 550 and 750 °C. The coating materials were Ni-Cr, IN625, Fe-Cr-W-Nb-Mo, and Ni-Cr-Ti. CJS and DJ Hybrid spray guns were used for HVOF spraying to compare the corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr coating structures. Reference materials were ferritic steel T92 and nickel super alloy A263. The circulating fluidized bed boiler burnt a mixture of wood, peat and coal. The coatings showed excellent corrosion resistance at 550 °C compared to the ferritic steel. At higher temperature, NiCr sprayed with CJS had the best corrosion resistance. IN625 was consumed almost completely during the exposure at 750 °C.

  4. Modeling the Pyrolysis and Combustion Behaviors of Non-Charring and Intumescent-Protected Polymers Using “FiresCone”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Shi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model, named FiresCone, was developed to simulate the pyrolysis and combustion processes of different types of combustible materials, which also took into account both gas and solid phases. In the present study, some non-charring and intumescent-protected polymer samples were investigated regarding their combustion behaviors in response to pre-determined external heat fluxes. The modeling results were validated against the experimental outcomes obtained from a cone calorimeter. The predicted mass loss rates of the samples were found to fit reasonably well with the experimental data collected under various levels of external irradiation. Both the experimental and modeling results showed that the peak mass loss rate of the non-charring polymer material occurred near the end of burning, whereas for the intumescent-protected polymer it happed shortly after the start of the experiment. “FiresCone” is expected to act as a practical tool for the investigation of fire behavior of combustible materials. It is also expected to model fire scenarios under complicated conditions.

  5. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    A concept for an advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power generating system is currently being developed. The first phase of this three-phase program consists of conducting the necessary research and development to define the system, evaluate the economic and technical feasibility of the concept, and prepare an R D plan to develop the concept further. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is leading a team ofcompanies involved in this effort. The system proposed to meet these goals is a combined-cycle system where air for a gas turbine is indirectly heated to approximately 1800[degrees]F in furnaces fired with cool-derived fuels and then directly heated in a natural-gas-fired combustor up to about 2400[degrees]F. The system is based on a pyrolyzing process that converts the coal into a low-Btu fuel gas and char. The fuelgas is a relatively clean fuel, and it is fired to heat tube surfaces that are susceptible to corrosion and problems from ash deposition. In particular, the high-temperature air heater tubes, which will need tobe a ceramic material, will be located in a separate furnace or region of a furnace that is exposed to combustion products from the low-Btu fuel gas only. A simplified process flow diagram is shown.

  6. Conversion of an 800 MW oil fired generating unit to burn Orimulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, J.; Halpin, M.; Morgan, D.; Alcantara, J.

    1998-07-01

    Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) is proposing to convert the two existing 800 megawatt (MW) residual oil fired generating units at its Manatee Plant located in Parrish, Florida, to burn Ormulsion. Ormulsion is the registered trademark name for a mixture of water and a naturally occurring heavy hydrocarbon known as bitumen. Orimulsion, which originates in Venezuela, will be shipped to Port Manatee in double-hulled vessels, stored at FPL's existing Port Manatee Terminal, and transported via FPL's existing fuel pipeline to the Manatee Plant. The proposed conversion involves modifications of the existing fuel handling facilities, enhancements of the boiler heat transfer surfaces and soot blowing system, and addition of new pollution control equipment. The Manatee Orimulsion conversion will result in overall environmental benefits and significant savings to FPL's customers. This paper summarizes the overall objectives of the project and briefly describes these modifications.

  7. Conversion of an 800 MW oil fired generating unit to burn Orimulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, J.; Halpin, M.; Morgan, D.; Alcantara, J.

    1998-04-01

    Florida Power & Light Company (FPL) is proposing to convert the two existing 800 megawatt (MW) residual oil fired generating units at its Manatee Plant located in Parrish, Florida, to burn Orimulsion. Orimulsion is the registered trademark name for a mixture of water and a naturally occurring heavy hydrocarbon known as bitumen. Orimulsion, which originates in Venezuela, will be shipped to Port Manatee in double-hulled vessels, stored at FPL`s existing Port Manatee Terminal, and transported via FPL`s existing fuel pipeline to the Manatee Plant. The proposed conversion involves modifications of the existing fuel handling facilities, enhancements of the boiler heat transfer surfaces and soot blowing system, and addition of new pollution control equipment. The Manatee Orimulsion conversion will result in overall environmental benefits and significant savings to FPL`s customers. This paper summarizes the overall objectives of the project and briefly describes these modifications.

  8. Fire ants protect mealybugs against their natural enemies by utilizing the leaf shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiming Zhou

    Full Text Available The importance of mutualism is receiving more attention in community ecology. In this study, the fire ant Solenopsis invicta was found to take advantage of the shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata to protect mealybugs (Phenacoccus solenopsis against their natural enemies. This protective effect of fire ant tending on the survival of mealybugs in shelters was observed when enemies and leaf rollers were simultaneously present. Specifically, fire ants moved the mealybugs inside the shelters produced by S. derogata on enemy-infested plants. Compared with that in plants without ants, the survival of mealybugs in shelters in the presence of natural enemies in plants with ants markedly improved. Both the protection of ants and the shelters provided by leaf rollers did not affect the survival of mealybugs in the absence of enemies in plants. Ants and leaf rollers significantly improved the survival of mealybugs in predator-infested plants, whereas no such improvement was observed in parasitoid-infested ones.

  9. Risk reduction in road and rail LPG transportation bij passive fire protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molag e.a., M. (Menso)

    2009-01-01

    The potential reduction of risk in LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) road transport due to the adoption of passive fire protectionswas investigated. Experimental data available for small scale vessels fully engulfed by a fire were extended to real scale road and rail tankers through a finite elements mo

  10. Smoking and Home Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Working with the Media Fire Protection Technology Smoking fire safety outreach materials As a member of ... Electronic Cigarette Explosions and Fires: The 2015 Experience Smoking fire safety messages to share It is important ...

  11. Accounting for fuel price risk when comparing renewable togas-fired generation: the role of forward natural gas prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2004-07-17

    Unlike natural gas-fired generation, renewable generation (e.g., from wind, solar, and geothermal power) is largely immune to fuel price risk. If ratepayers are rational and value long-term price stability, then--contrary to common practice--any comparison of the levelized cost of renewable to gas-fired generation should be based on a hedged gas price input, rather than an uncertain gas price forecast. This paper compares natural gas prices that can be locked in through futures, swaps, and physical supply contracts to contemporaneous long-term forecasts of spot gas prices. We find that from 2000-2003, forward gas prices for terms of 2-10 years have been considerably higher than most contemporaneous long-term gas price forecasts. This difference is striking, and implies that comparisons between renewable and gas-fired generation based on these forecasts over this period have arguably yielded results that are biased in favor of gas-fired generation.

  12. Photovoltaic power supply and fire protection. Information regarding the actual discussion on the problem of fire protection; Photovoltaik und Brandschutz. Informationen zur aktuellen Diskussion zur Brandschutzproblematik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmann, Bjoern [DGS-Franken e.V. (Germany); Guetegemeinschaft Solarenergieanlagen e.V. (RAL), Fuerth (Germany). Ausschuss P3

    2011-01-15

    In the last years, the number of photovoltaic plants in Germany increased enormously. What is to be done, if a case of damage arises in connection with these plants? Therefore, the German Fire Service Association (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) and the German Solar Industry (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) have composed the 'Recommendations for action photovoltaic plants' as well as the manual 'Operation at photovoltaic plants'. Parallel to this, the Association Solar Energy Plants e.V. started a public hearing on the novella of the quality and test regulations for solar energy plants.

  13. Does Piroxicam really protect ischemic neurons and influence neuronal firing in cerebral ischemia? An exploration towards therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Pallab; Pandey, Anand Kumar; Paul, Sudip; Patnaik, Ranjana

    2013-09-01

    Cerebral ischemia is still one of the most confusing and enigmatic neurological disorders with least understood injuries. The EEG measures have been traditionally used to detect residual neural dysfunctions after cerebral ischemia although having several shortcomings, yielding controversial and inconsistent results. It is feasible to hypothesize that advanced EEG research can overcome these shortcomings and provide more clear information regarding the long lasting neural impairment in the subjects suffered from brain stroke. To our understanding, EEG power spectrum density measures can significantly contribute towards intervening drug administered diseased model and give us correct status of neuronal firing after an insult. On the basis of our findings we hypothesize that Piroxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) can protect neurons and improves neuronal firing after ischemia/reperfusion injury in animal model of focal cerebral ischemia. This is the first ever finding which advocates the role of Piroxicam, a NSAID in neuronal firing apart from its other neuroprotective roles. Thus, we consider the possibility of modulation of neuronal firing as a therapeutic strategy to help prevent neuronal dysfunctions in cerebral ischemia.

  14. The Existing Problems and Countermeasures of Construction of Building Fire Protection%浅析建筑消防施工现存问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘寅萍

    2014-01-01

    This paper, starts from the overview of building fire protection engineering, analyzing the existing problems of building fire protection construction, and in detail discussing the efective countermeasures to strengthen building fire pro- tection construction.%本文从建筑消防工程的概述出发,分析了建筑消防施工现存的问题,针对加强建筑消防施工的有效对策进行了详细的探究。

  15. Patch-mosaic burning: a new paradigm for savanna fire management in protected areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. Parr

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The shift in ecological thinking, from equilibrium to non-equilibrium processes has been accompanied by a move to encourage heterogeneity rather than homogeneity in landscapes. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity is thought to be a major source of biotic diversity, and disturbances such as fire, producing heterogeneity are now recognised as being important. A patch-mosaic system of burning is based on the premise that fire pattern is a surrogate for diversity, and produces a range of patches in the landscape with unique patch characteristics and fire histories. A patch-mosaic system of burning is supported historically and empirically through field studies. However, there is a need for more research into the effects of various aspects of patch and fire variables on biotic diversity, especially in savannas where our understanding is particularly poor. Landscape-scale experiments, like those to be established in the Kruger National Park, South Africa are necessary to test different burning regimes. Challenges to patch- mosaic burning include determining the 'natural' range of variation for fire parameters, implementing random ignitions, and cost-effective fire scar mapping at the appropriate resolution. An adaptive management approach should be adopted to deal with the ignorance and uncertainties that characterise the management of savanna ecosystems. This should be applied with both modelling and monitoring as key elements in this process.

  16. 建筑隔震防火构造试验研究%Experimental study on building isolation fire protection construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志超; 邓烜; 刘进章; 曾德民; 蒋航军; 徐鸿飞

    2016-01-01

    在GB/T 9978.1-2008标准升温条件下,进行了隔震层防火墙防火构造耐火试验及与直径1 200mm橡胶隔震支座的防火构造耐火试验,考察耐火时间对隔震层防火墙防火构造及隔震支座表面温度的影响.试验结果表明:隔震层防火墙防火构造耐火4h,完整性和隔热性完好;隔震支座防火构造耐火3h,隔震支座表面温度最高为103.6℃,隔震支座外观完好.通过拟静力试验,考察了隔震层防火墙防火构造在地震力作用下的可恢复性,证明了建筑隔震防火构造是可靠的.%Under GB/T 9978.1-2008 standard heating condition,fire resistance test on the isolation layer firewall fire protection construction was conducted as well as fire resistance test on fire protection construction with rubber isolation bearing of 1 200mm diameter,to inspect the influence of the fire resistance time on isolation layer firewall fire protection construction and surface temperature of isolation bearing.The test results show that:the fire resistance time of isolation layer fire protection construction is 4h,and integrity and thermal insulation is intact.Fire resistance time of fire protection construction of isolation bearing is 3h.The isolation bearing's surface temperature is up to 103.6℃ and isolation bearing appearance is intact.Based on the quasi static test,the recovery of the isolation layer firewall fire protection construction was investigated under the earthquake,which proves that the building isolation fire protection construction is reliable.

  17. Accepting test method of fire protection water system%消防水系统的验收测试方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永力

    2012-01-01

    分别介绍了室内消火栓灭火系统,室外消火栓灭火系统等的验收测试方法,通过对消防水系统应该达到的功能进行分析,提出了在消防验收时正确测试消防水系统功能的方法,以确保系统安全可靠。%The paper respectively introduces the check and acceptance of indoor and outdoor fire hydrant systems, analyzes the functions of fire protection water system, and puts forward correct fire protection water system testing method used in fire protection acceptance, with a view to en sure the system reliable and safe.

  18. Life cycle assessment of coal-fired power plants and sensitivity analysis of CO2 emissions from power generation side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Libao; Liao, Yanfen; Zhou, Lianjie; Wang, Zhao; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2017-05-01

    The life cycle assessment and environmental impacts of a 1000MW coal-fired power plant were carried out in this paper. The results showed that the operation energy consumption and pollutant emission of the power plant are the highest in all sub-process, which accounts for 93.93% of the total energy consumption and 92.20% of the total emission. Compared to other pollutant emissions from the coal-fired power plant, CO2 reached up to 99.28%. Therefore, the control of CO2 emission from the coal-fired power plants was very important. Based on the BP neural network, the amount of CO2 emission from the generation side of coal-fired power plants was calculated via carbon balance method. The results showed that unit capacity, coal quality and unit operation load had great influence on the CO2 emission from coal-fired power plants in Guangdong Province. The use of high volatile and high heat value of coal also can reduce the CO2 emissions. What’s more, under higher operation load condition, the CO2 emissions of 1 kWh electric energy was less.

  19. Apples with apples: accounting for fuel price risk in comparisons of gas-fired and renewable generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2003-12-18

    For better or worse, natural gas has become the fuel of choice for new power plants being built across the United States. According to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), natural gas combined-cycle and combustion turbine power plants accounted for 96% of the total generating capacity added in the US between 1999 and 2002--138 GW out of a total of 144 GW. Looking ahead, the EIA expects that gas-fired technology will account for 61% of the 355 GW new generating capacity projected to come on-line in the US up to 2025, increasing the nationwide market share of gas-fired generation from 18% in 2002 to 22% in 2025. While the data are specific to the US, natural gas-fired generation is making similar advances in other countries as well. Regardless of the explanation for (or interpretation of) the empirical findings, however, the basic implications remain the same: one should not blindly rely on gas price forecasts when comparing fixed-price renewable with variable-price gas-fired generation contracts. If there is a cost to hedging, gas price forecasts do not capture and account for it. Alternatively, if the forecasts are at risk of being biased or out of tune with the market, then one certainly would not want to use them as the basis for resource comparisons or investment decisions if a more certain source of data (forwards) existed. Accordingly, assuming that long-term price stability is valued, the most appropriate way to compare the levelized cost of these resources in both cases would be to use forward natural gas price data--i.e. prices that can be locked in to create price certainty--as opposed to uncertain natural gas price forecasts. This article suggests that had utilities and analysts in the US done so over the sample period from November 2000 to November 2003, they would have found gas-fired generation to be at least 0.3-0.6 cents/kWh more expensive (on a levelized cost basis) than otherwise thought. With some renewable resources, in particular wind

  20. Enabling CCS via Low-temperature Geothermal Energy Integration for Fossil-fired Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C. L.; Heldebrant, D. J.; Bearden, M. D.; Horner, J. A.; Freeman, C. J.

    2017-07-01

    Among the key barriers to commercial scale deployment is the cost associated with CO2 capture. This is particularly true for existing large, fossil-fired assets that account for a large fraction of the electricity generation fleet in developed nations, including the U.S. Fitting conventional combustion technologies with CO2 capture systems can carry an energy penalty of thirty percent or more, resulting in an increased price of power to the grid, as well as an overall decrease in net plant output. Taken together with the positive growth in demand for electricity, this implies a need for accelerated capital build-out in the power generation markets to accommodate both demand growth and decreased output at retrofitted plants. In this paper, the authors present the results of a study to assess the potential to use geothermal energy to provide boiler feedwater preheating, capturing efficiency improvements designed to offset the losses associated with CO2 capture. Based on NETL benchmark cases and subsequent analysis of the application using site-specific data from the North Valmy power plant, several cases for CO2 capture were evaluated. These included geothermally assisted MEA capture, CO2BOLs capture, and stand-alone hybrid power generation, compared with a baseline, no-geothermal case. Based on Case 10, and assuming 2.7 MMlb/h of geothermally sourced 150 ºC water, the parasitic power load associated with MEA capture could be offset by roughly seven percent, resulting in a small (~1 percent) overall loss to net power generation, but at levelized costs of electricity similar to the no-geothermal CCS case. For the CO2BOLs case, the availability of 150°C geothermal fluid could allow the facility to not only offset the net power decrease associated with CO2BOLs capture alone, but could increase nameplate capacity by two percent. The geothermally coupled CO2BOLs case also decreases LCOE by 0.75 ¢/kWh relative to the non-hybrid CO2BOLs case, with the improved

  1. 浅析哈萨克斯坦石油化工装置消防设计%Analysis of fire protection design of petrochemical equipments in Kazakhstan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马友梅

    2016-01-01

    There are lots of differences between the fire protection requirements of petrochemical equip-ments in China and Kazakhstan which mentioned in the codes and routines for fire protection design. The code for fire protection design of petrochemical equipments in Kazakhstan was introduced; besides, the differences be-tween the codes and routines for fire protection of petrochemical equipments in Kazakhstan and China were ana-lyzed and compared from aspects of fire-fighting cooling water system; foam extinguishing system, steam-smoth-ering system;dry powder extinguishing system;automatic gas extinguishing system and fire demand determination.%在石油化工装置的消防设计上,哈萨克斯坦与国内在设计规范及设计惯例等方面存在诸多差异。介绍了哈萨克斯坦石油化工装置消防规范,并从消防冷却水系统、泡沫灭火系统、蒸汽灭火系统、干粉灭火系统、自动气体灭火系统及消防用水量确定等方面,分析比较了哈萨克斯坦与国内石油化工装置消防设计规范及设计惯例的不同之处。

  2. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts of Hybrid Giant Napier (Pennisetum Hydridum) Direct-fired Power Generation in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yanfen; Fang, Hailin; Zhang, Hengjin; Yu, Zhaosheng; Liu, Zhichao; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2017-05-01

    To meet with the demand of energy conservation and emission reduction policies, the method of life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to assess the feasibility of Hybrid Giant Napier (HGN) direct-fired power generation in this study. The entire life cycle is consisted of five stages (cultivation and harvesting, transportation, drying and comminuting, direct-fired power generation, constructing and decommissioning of biomass power plant). Analytical results revealed that to generate 10000kWh electricity, 10.925 t of customized HGN fuel (moisture content: 30 wt%) and 6659.430 MJ of energy were required. The total environmental impact potential was 0.927 PET2010 (person equivalents, targeted, in 2010) and the global warming (GW), acidification (AC), and nutrient (NE) emissions were 339.235 kg CO2-eq, 22.033 kg SO2-eq, and 25.486 kg NOx-eq respectively. The effect of AC was the most serious among all calculated category impacts. The energy requirements and environmental impacts were found to be sensitive to single yield, average transport distance, cutting frequency, and moisture content. The results indicated that HGN direct-fired power generation accorded well with Chinese energy planning; in addition, HGN proved to be a promising contribution to reducing non-renewable energy consumption and had encouraging prospects as a renewable energy plant.

  3. Surface-Engineered Fire Protective Coatings for Fabrics through Sol-Gel and Layer-by-Layer Methods: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Malucelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fabric flammability is a surface-confined phenomenon: in fact, the fabric surface represents the most critical region, through which the mass and heat transfers, responsible for fueling the flame, are controlled and exchanged with the surroundings. More specifically, the heat the fabric surface is exposed to is transferred to the bulk, from which volatile products of thermal degradation diffuse toward the surface and the gas phase, hence feeding the flame. As a consequence, the chemical and physical characteristics of the fabric surface considerably affect the ignition and combustion processes, as the surface influences the flux of combustible volatile products toward the gas phase. In this context, it is possible to significantly modify (and improve the fire performance of textile materials by “simply” tailoring their surface: currently, one of the most effective approaches exploits the deposition of tailored coatings able to slow down the heat and mass transfer phenomena occurring during the fire stages. This paper reviews the current state of the art related to the design of inorganic, hybrid, or organic flame-retardant coatings suitable for the fire protection of different fabric substrates (particularly referring to cotton, polyester, and their blends. More specifically, the use of sol-gel and layer-by-layer (LbL methods is thoroughly discussed; then, some recent examples of flame retardant coatings are presented, showing their potential advances and their current limitations.

  4. A simplified approach for predicting temperature profile in steel members with locally damaged fire protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dwaikat, M.M.S.; Kodur, V.K.R.

    2012-01-01

    Steel structures in building are to be provided with external insulation to delay temperature rise and associated strength degradation when exposed to fire. However, due to delicateness and fragility of some insulation systems, damage might occur in these insulation systems during their service

  5. Development of a non-pollution material of environmental protection for mine fire control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.; Li, Z.; Qin, B.; Liang, X.; Chen, J. [CUMT, Xuzhou (China)

    2004-03-15

    There is a lack of soil and water on ground surface in northwest area of China, which makes it much difficult to control mine fires by using mud grout. According to current natural conditions of that area, a thickener for mine fire control is developed. The agent is made of natural high molecular substances with no poison and tastes and is not harmful to environment. In addition, the agent can be made into gel due to its gelatinization and into composite slurry due to its three-dimensional network structure and high viscosity in water that can suspend solid particles. The experiments were conducted to make the agent and sand from Shendong mining area into slurry for mine fire control. The results indicate that the agent has a higher ability to suspend sand and reduce the surface wear of ducts and the flowing resistance. Therefore, it is a new technique for mine fire control in the northwest areas of China and worth of wide application.

  6. A simplified approach for predicting temperature profile in steel members with locally damaged fire protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dwaikat, M.M.S.; Kodur, V.K.R.

    2012-01-01

    Steel structures in building are to be provided with external insulation to delay temperature rise and associated strength degradation when exposed to fire. However, due to delicateness and fragility of some insulation systems, damage might occur in these insulation systems during their service life

  7. 46 CFR 111.12-11 - Generator protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... breaker must not be larger than: (1) 115 percent of the generator rating for a continuous rated machine... the exception that an instantaneous trip is required if: (i) Three or more alternating-current generators can be paralleled; or (ii) The circuit breaker is for a direct current generator. (d) Setting...

  8. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Volume 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    A major objective of the coal-fired high performance power systems (HIPPS) program is to achieve significant increases in the thermodynamic efficiency of coal use for electric power generation. Through increased efficiency, all airborne emissions can be decreased, including emissions of carbon dioxide. High Performance power systems as defined for this program are coal-fired, high efficiency systems where the combustion products from coal do not contact the gas turbine. Typically, this type of a system will involve some indirect heating of gas turbine inlet air and then topping combustion with a cleaner fuel. The topping combustion fuel can be natural gas or another relatively clean fuel. Fuel gas derived from coal is an acceptable fuel for the topping combustion. The ultimate goal for HIPPS is to, have a system that has 95 percent of its heat input from coal. Interim systems that have at least 65 percent heat input from coal are acceptable, but these systems are required to have a clear development path to a system that is 95 percent coal-fired. A three phase program has been planned for the development of HIPPS. Phase 1, reported herein, includes the development of a conceptual design for a commercial plant. Technical and economic feasibility have been analysed for this plant. Preliminary R&D on some aspects of the system were also done in Phase 1, and a Research, Development and Test plan was developed for Phase 2. Work in Phase 2 include s the testing and analysis that is required to develop the technology base for a prototype plant. This work includes pilot plant testing at a scale of around 50 MMBtu/hr heat input. The culmination of the Phase 2 effort will be a site-specific design and test plan for a prototype plant. Phase 3 is the construction and testing of this plant.

  9. Resource potential for renewable energy generation from co-firing of woody biomass with coal in the Northern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Goerndt; Francisco X. Aguilar; Kenneth Skog

    2013-01-01

    Past studies have established measures of co-firing potential at varying spatial scales to assess opportunities for renewable energy generation from woody biomass. This study estimated physical availability, within ecological and public policy constraints, and associated harvesting and delivery costs of woody biomass for co-firing in selected power plants of the...

  10. Impacts of the Minamata Convention for Mercury Emissions from Coal-fired Power Generation in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, A.; Stokes, L. C.; Streets, D. G.; Corbitt, E. S.; Selin, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    We explore the potential implications of the recently signed United Nations Minamata Convention on Mercury for emissions from coal-fired power generation in Asia, and the impacts of these emissions changes on deposition of mercury worldwide by 2050. We use qualitative interviews, document analysis, and engineering analysis to create plausible technology scenarios consistent with the Convention, taking into account both technological and political factors. We translate these scenarios into possible emissions inventories for 2050, based on IPCC development scenarios, and then use the GEOS-Chem global transport model to evaluate the effect of these different technology choices on mercury deposition over geographic regions and oceans. We find that China is most likely to address mercury control through co-benefits from technologies for SO2, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) capture that will be required to attain its existing air quality goals. In contrast, India is likely to focus on improvements to plant efficiency such as upgrading boilers, and coal washing. Compared to current technologies, we project that these changes will result in emissions decreases of approximately 140 and 190 Mg/yr for China and India respectively in 2050, under an A1B development scenario. With these emissions reductions, simulated average gross deposition over India and China are reduced by approximately 10 and 3 μg/m2/yr respectively, and the global average concentration of total gaseous mercury (TGM) is reduced by approximately 10% in the Northern hemisphere. Stricter, but technologically feasible, requirements for mercury control in both countries could lead to an additional 200 Mg/yr of emissions reductions. Modeled differences in concentration and deposition patterns between technology suites are due to differences in both the mercury removal efficiency of technologies and their resulting stack speciation.

  11. 76 FR 70414 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Proposes To Revise Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... 11/25/2011 NFPA 59--2012 Utility LP-Gas Plant Code 6/22/2012 NFPA 69--2008 Standard on Explosion... National Fuel Gas Code 6/22/2012 NFPA 56PS--2012 Standard for Fire and Explosion Prevention 11/25/2011.... NFPA 37--2010 Standard for the Installation and Use of 1/4/2012 Stationary Combustion Engines and...

  12. Experience-dependent firing rate remapping generates directional selectivity in hippocampal place cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaneta eNavratilova

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available When rodents engage in irregular foraging in an open field environment, hippocampal principal cells exhibit place-specific firing that is statistically independent of the direction of traverse through the place field. When the path is restricted to a track, however, in-field rates differ substantially in opposite directions. Frequently, the representations of the track in the two directions are essentially orthogonal. We show that this directionally selective firing is not hard-wired, but develops through experience-dependent plasticity. During the rats’ first pass in each direction, place fields were highly directionally symmetric, whereas over subsequent laps, the firing rates in the two directions gradually but substantially diverged. We conclude that, even on a restricted track, place cell firing is initially determined by allocentric position, and only later, the within-field firing rates change in response to differential sensory information or behavioral cues in the two directions. In agreement with previous data, place fields near local cues, such as textures on the track, developed less directionality than place fields on a uniform part of the track, possibly because the local cues reduced the net difference in sensory input at a given point. Directionality also developed in an open environment without physical restriction of the animal’s path, when rats learned to run along a specified path. In this case, directionality developed later than on the running track, only after the rats began to run in a stereotyped manner. Although the average population firing rates exhibited little if any change over laps in either direction, the direction-specific firing rates in a given place field were up- or down-regulated with about equal probability and magnitude, which was independent in the two directions, suggesting some form of competitive mechanism (e.g., LTP/LTD acting coherently on the set of synapses conveying external information to

  13. Fires, ecological effects of

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Bond; Robert Keane

    2017-01-01

    Fire is both a natural and anthropogenic disturbance influencing the distribution, structure, and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems around the world. Many plants and animals depend on fire for their continued existence. Others species, such as rainforest plants species, are extremely intolerant of burning and need protection from fire. The properties of a fire...

  14. A model combining oscillations and attractor dynamics for generation of grid cell firing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Hasselmo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Different models have been able to account for different features of the data on grid cell firing properties, including the relationship of grid cells to cellular properties and network oscillations. This paper describes a model that combines elements of two major classes of models of grid cells: models using interference of oscillations and models using attractor dynamics. This model includes a population of units with oscillatory input representing input from the medial septum. These units are termed heading angle cells because their connectivity depends upon heading angle in the environment as well as the spatial phase coded by the cell. These cells project to a population of grid cells. The sum of the heading angle input results in standing waves of circularly symmetric input to the grid cell population. Feedback from the grid cell population increases the activity of subsets of the heading angle cells, resulting in the network settling into activity patterns that resemble the patterns of firing fields in a population of grid cells. The properties of heading angle cells firing as conjunctive grid-by-head-direction cells can shift the grid cell firing according to movement velocity. The pattern of interaction of oscillations requires use of separate populations that fire on alternate cycles of the net theta rhythmic input to grid cells, similar to recent neurophysiological data on theta cycle skipping in medial entorhinal cortex.

  15. 关于民用建筑消防给排水的相关建议%Suggestions about the Civil Building Fire Protection Water Supply and Drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董志辉; 杨瑄

    2014-01-01

    Civil construction relates to residents' life and property security, which need to strengthen the fire fighting capacity. Therefore, the fire protection water supply and drai-nage as the fire protection infrastructure project to which need to pay more atention. In this article, the author starts from the type of fire protection water supply and drainage, and put for-ward the design suggestions of fire protection water supply and drainage in the civil construction.%民用建筑关乎居民生命财产的安全,其消防能力更是需要大力加强。因此,消防给排水作为消防基础项目,亟需得到重视。本文从消防给水的类型入手,提出了民用建筑中,消防给排水的设计建议。

  16. BENEFIT COST FOR BIOMASS CO-FIRING IN ELECTRICITY GENERATION: CASE OF UTAH, U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Keun Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy making regarding biomass co-firing is difficult. The article provides a benefit-cost analysis for decision makers to facilitate policy making process to implement efficient biomass co-firing policy. The additional cost is the sum of cost of the biomass procurement and biomass transportation. Co-benefits are sales of greenhouse gas emission credits and health benefit from reducing harmful air pollutants, especially particulate matter. The benefit-cost analysis is constructed for semi-arid U.S. region, Utah, where biomass supply is limited. Results show that biomass co-firing is not economically feasible in Utah but would be feasible when co-benefits are considered. Benefit-cost ratio is critically dependent upon biomass and carbon credit prices. The procedure to build the benefit-cost ratio can be applied for any region with other scenarios suggested in this study.

  17. Application of simulation codes in the optimization of the design of fire protection at nuclear power plants; Aplicacion de codigos de simulacion en la optimizacion del diseno de la proteccion contra incendios en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amezcua, V.

    2011-07-01

    The evolution of fire protection codes and standards has permitted the use of fire simulation tools for design and optimization of fire protection solution, as an alternative to the traditional deterministic approach. This alternative results in a more flexible design, suiting the solution to the real conditions and risks. In this context, Empresarios Agrupados (EEAA) is carrying out a project jointly with the CSN (the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council), in the area of fire modelling and simulation, aimed for developing a method for the reliable application of the fire simulation models to nuclear power plants scenarios. (Author)

  18. Generation and Characterization of Protective Antibodies to Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-03

    utility of antibody passive transfer therapies in NHP models of filovirus infections [14]. EBOV- or MARV- infected NHPs were fully protected when treated...with immunoglobulin G purified from species-matched convalescent serum, even when treatment was delayed 48 hours post- infection . The first...Sullivan, N.J., et al., Development of a preventive vaccine for Ebola virus infection in primates. Nature, 2000. 408(6812): p. 605-9. 10. Swenson

  19. 76 FR 70413 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): Request for Comments on NFPA's Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... Systems Code P NFPA 67 Guideline on Explosion Protection for Gaseous N Mixtures in Pipe Systems. NFPA 68 Standard on Explosion Protection by Deflagration P Venting. NFPA 70B Recommended Practice for Electrical.... NFPA 259 Standard Test Method for Potential Heat of Building P Materials. NFPA 260 Standard Methods...

  20. Bradley Fighting Vehicle Gunnery: The Use of the Protective Mask in the Conduct of Fire Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    PERI-PO, "eAeadi, una23 FINAL DISPOSITION: This rep may be destroyed when it is -.o longer needed. Please do not retinn it to the U.S. Army Resench...to the nature of the scoring procedures, the experimental aspects of the gunnery, and the artificiality of donning and/or removing the NBC mask, the...produced round count differences. 14 However, caution must be used in treating the number of rounds fired. Round count in the COFT is somewhat artificial

  1. Fire Protection System for Hardened Aircraft Shelters. Volume 1. Discussion and Appendixes A-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    rural farming areas. Water present on the floor of the shelter from condensation or rain may influence certain types of detectors. Dust on the surface...test i rir w i- oonpl, eted IH fore- the - ir -cond ur*’ le n iOt . j ,, o cv er td. 200 100 00 100 200 50 ft 45 ft 40 ft 4000 70800 9’X Not detected...provided by a smart , multiple-wavelength fire detector. It has also been determined that even dual-wavelength detectors can be fooled by a combination of

  2. The Fire Protection Design of Liquefied Hydrocarbon Spherical Tank%液化烃球罐的消防设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵军

    2012-01-01

    Through the analysis of the composition and fire characteristics of liquefied hydrocarbon,the fire control cooling method and system of liquefied hydrocarbon spherical tank were described.According to the design experience,taking the spherical tank of 3000 m3 as an example,starting from the protection area of water spray cone,the number of nozzles and water quantity of the cooling device was estimated,and the economy and rationality of the entire cooling system was back calculated.%通过分析液化烃的组成和着火特点,阐述液化烃球罐发生火灾时的消防冷却方式及系统组成,并根据自己的设计经历,以容积为3000 m3的球罐为例,从水雾喷头水雾锥的保护面积入手,估算出冷却装置所需要的喷头数量和水量,反向核算整个冷却系统的经济性和合理性。

  3. Effects of alpha-zirconium phosphate on thermal degradation and flame retardancy of transparent intumescent fire protective coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Weiyi [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, Ping [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, 59 Qinglong Road, Mianyang 621010 (China); Song, Lei; Wang, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A transparent intumescent fire protective coating was obtained by UV-cured technology. • OZrP could enhance the thermal stability and anti-oxidation of the coating. • OZrP could reduce the combustion properties of the coatings. - Abstract: Organophilic alpha-zirconium phosphate (OZrP) was used to improve the thermal and fire retardant behaviors of the phenyl di(acryloyloxyethyl)phosphate (PDHA)-triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA)-2-phenoxyethyl acrylate (PHEA) (PDHA-TGICA-PHEA) coating. The morphology of nanocomposite coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of OZrP on the flame retardancy, thermal stability, fireproofing time and char formation of the coatings was investigated by microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and scanning electric microscope (SEM). The results showed that by adding OZrP, the peak heat release rate and total heat of combustion were significantly reduced. The highest improvement was achieved with 0.5 wt% OZrP. XPS analysis indicated that the performance of anti-oxidation of the coating was improved with the addition of OZrP, and SEM images showed that a good synergistic effect was obtained through a ceramic-like layer produced by OZrP covered on the surface of char.

  4. 78 FR 4873 - Electrical Protective Equipment Standard and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... on Electrical Protective Equipment (29 CFR 1910.137) and Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and... Equipment Standard (29 CFR 1910.137) and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution... the equipment-testing requirements of the Standard. Electric Power Generation, Transmission,...

  5. 14 CFR 29.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. For hand fire extinguishers the following apply: (1) Each hand...

  6. LNG汽车加气站消防安全设计%Fire protection design of LNG vehicle refueling station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱世敏

    2011-01-01

    对LNG汽车加气站和CNG汽车加气站应用现状进行比照分析,LNG站将是未来城市规模化发展天然气汽车的理想途径.由于我国目前尚无LNG汽车加气站的设计规范,针对LNG汽车加气站消防安全设计进行探讨分析.%The present situation of LNG and CNG vehicle refueling station were compared and analyzed. LNG station is the ideal solution for the scale development of LNG vehicle. The fire protection design of LNG vehicle refueling station was discussed on the situation of there is no design code for LNG vehicle refueling station yet.

  7. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    Understanding fire dynamics and combustion is essential in fire safety engineering and in fire science curricula. Engineers and students involved in fire protection, safety and investigation need to know and predict how fire behaves to be able to implement adequate safety measures and hazard...... analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...... discipline. It covers thermo chemistry including mixtures and chemical reactions; Introduces combustion to the fire protection student; Discusses premixed flames and spontaneous ignition; Presents conservation laws for control volumes, including the effects of fire; Describes the theoretical bases...

  8. Protecting Online Transactions with Unique Embedded Key Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Zenner, Erik

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel approach for protecting transactions over networks. While we use the example of a netbank application, the proposal is relevant for many security-critical transactions. The approach is based on two major changes compared to current solutions. The first one is the use of individ......We present a novel approach for protecting transactions over networks. While we use the example of a netbank application, the proposal is relevant for many security-critical transactions. The approach is based on two major changes compared to current solutions. The first one is the use...... of individualized key derivation functions, which ensure that given the same input, each copy of the application ends up with different keys. The second contribution is the individualizing of program copies by subtle code modification. This makes automated analysis and patching of a client-side application very...... difficult. In combination, these techniques allow to build a secure channel between the client program and the server, while current solutions only build such a channel between the client computer and the server....

  9. Comparative analysis of gas and coal-fired power generation in ultra-low emission condition using life cycle assessment (LCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Libao; Liao, Yanfen; Liu, Guicai; Liu, Zhichao; Yu, Zhaosheng; Guo, Shaode; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2017-05-01

    Energy consumption and pollutant emission of natural gas combined cycle power-generation (NGCC), liquefied natural gas combined cycle power-generation (LNGCC), natural gas combined heat and power generation (CHP) and ultra-supercritical power generation with ultra-low gas emission (USC) were analyzed using life cycle assessment method, pointing out the development opportunity and superiority of gas power generation in the period of coal-fired unit ultra-low emission transformation. The results show that CO2 emission followed the order: USC>LNGCC>NGCC>CHP the resource depletion coefficient of coal-fired power generation was lower than that of gas power generation, and the coal-fired power generation should be the main part of power generation in China; based on sensitivity analysis, improving the generating efficiency or shortening the transportation distance could effectively improve energy saving and emission reduction, especially for the coal-fired units, and improving the generating efficiency had a great significance for achieving the ultra-low gas emission.

  10. A Study on Total Factor Energy Efficiency of Coal-fired Power Plants Considering Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-ping Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we measure the total-factor energy efficiency under the constraint of environment of 13 coal-fired power plants in Hebei province over the period of 2009 to 2011 using the DEA model which based on the environmental production technology and the directional distance function. The results indicate that the total factor energy efficiency of sample power plants is still at sub-optimal level of around 0.84 and the efficiency is over estimated when without looking at environmental impacts. This indicates that undesirable outputs have a significant influence on energy efficiency of power plants. Poor performance of few power plants is due to their ability to manage the undesirable outputs need to be improved. In order to improve energy efficiency and achieve sustainable development, plants should concentrate on both energy saving and emission reduction at the same time.

  11. Design of Power Supply Monitoring System for Fire Protection Equipment%消防设备电源监控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春丽

    2015-01-01

    对消防设备电源监控系统相关规范及标准进行分析及梳理,分析归纳消防设备电源、消防设备电源监控系统的定义及作用,结合某大型城市综合体工程,介绍消防设备电源监控系统的设置场所、范围、部位、布线等设计。%Relevant national regulations and standards regarding power supply monitoring system for fire protection equipment are analyzed and summarized. Definitions and functions of power supply for fire protection equipments and power supply monitoring systems for fire protection equipment are analyzed and summarized. Based on a large urban complex project, the setting place, range, location, wiring and other designs of power supply monitoring system for fire protection equipment are introduced.

  12. Improving disaster risk reduction capacity of District Civil Protection Units in managing veld fires: A case of Mangwe District in Matabeleland South Province, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Dube

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analysed disaster risk reduction capacity of District Civil Protection Units (DCPUs in managing veld fires in Mangwe District of Matabeleland South Province, Zimbabwe. Veld fires have resulted in unnecessary material, environmental and economic losses. Communities’ livelihoods and property have been destroyed, and the natural environment depleted. The research sought to improve disaster risk reduction capacity of DCPUs in managing veld fires, through new intervention strategies and a new model. The objectives of the study were to investigate the main causes of veld fires; to analyse their impacts; to examine the effectiveness of the current intervention strategies; and to identify challenges in implementing these interventions. Furthermore, the study sought to recommend new possible intervention strategies. This mainly qualitative study employed self-administered questionnaires, interviews and focus-group discussions. Questionnaires were used to investigate members of the DCPU’s ideas, views and experiences, interviews solicited perceptions of community leaders and their subjects, whilst focus-group discussions assisted with information from members of the District Civil Protection Planning Committee. Veld fires in the district are mainly caused by human activities, and they are prevalent during the months of September and October. They affect livelihoods and the natural environment the most. This study found that DCPUs are not prepared to manage veld fires and therefore recommended new strategies and adoption of the community-based disaster risk reduction model. The new strategies include involving community leaders and members of the communities in DCPUs; regular training and workshops to members of DCPUs on veld fire management; creation of fire protection associations; regular campaigns and rehearsal of emergency drills by the DCPU personnel; the introduction of competitions and incentives in veld fire management; vigorous

  13. Dynamic Protective Control Strategy for Distributed Generation System with Fixed-speed Wind Turbines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of induction generator based fixed-speed wind turbines (FSWT) are investigated. The impacts of different execution time in protective operations are studied under different fauit duration and various wind velocity situations, e.g. , FSWT stabilities of load shedding in distribution systems. Based on this research, a dynamic protective control strategy for a distributed generation system (DGS) with FSWT is proposed. Finally, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the strategy.

  14. Using the Large Fire Simulator System to map wildland fire potential for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaWen Hollingsworth; James Menakis

    2010-01-01

    This project mapped wildland fire potential (WFP) for the conterminous United States by using the large fire simulation system developed for Fire Program Analysis (FPA) System. The large fire simulation system, referred to here as LFSim, consists of modules for weather generation, fire occurrence, fire suppression, and fire growth modeling. Weather was generated with...

  15. Fire and lightning: what are the risks and how to be protected?; Incendie et foudre: Quel sont les risques et comment se proteger?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigal, F.

    2011-04-15

    This article reviews the risks of fire and lightning on photovoltaic panels installed on roofs. It appears that the risk of lighting must be taken into account since the direct impact of lightning on photovoltaic panels can be disastrous. The installation of lightning rods or lightning protector is recommended. Concerning fire risks, technical failures or the presence of electric arcs can put fire on solar panels but their occurrence is very low (only about 20 cases reported in Europe for the last 10 years). Tests have shown that standard photovoltaic panels play a low part in the progressing of a fire. There is an electrocution hazard for firemen intervening on a roof bearing solar panels. A device cutting the continuous current generating by the panels is being studied. (A.C.)

  16. 某大型商场性能化防火设计评估%A performance-based fire protection analysis of a large shopping mall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜丽; 文一蔚

    2013-01-01

    The performance of fire protection safety in a large commercial building was analyzed by FDS and Path-finder software .The datas of fire load were measured on-site , so as to explore whether it can meet the requirements of safety evacuation for people in fire condition .It showed that:after applying a series of fire safety measures , when the fire protection facilities are under normal operating conditions , the evacuation width of the large commericial building can be appropriately relaxed on the bisis of existing standard .%利用FDS、Pathfinder软件对某大型商业建筑防火安全性能进行评估,实测火灾荷载数据,探究发生火灾情况下,能否满足人员安全疏散的要求。评估发现,大型商业建筑在采用一系列消防安全措施后,在消防设施正常工作情况下,疏散宽度可在现行规范规定基础上作适当放宽。

  17. Discussion of Urban Underground Transportation Hub Fire Protection Design%城市地下交通枢纽消防设计探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙乐祥; 林真国; 封红权

    2013-01-01

    城市地下交通枢纽是一种新型的城市地下交通系统,一旦发生事故将产生较为严重的后果。通过对城市地下交通枢纽的消防设计的探讨,分析了其消防设计中应该着重考虑的问题以及设计中的难点问题,包括防火分区的划分、火灾时的人员疏散、灭火系统的设计、防排烟系统的设计以及电气系统的设计。并结合实际工程做进一步的探讨。%Urban underground transport hub is a new urban underground transport system. An accident will result in more serious consequences. Based on the discussion of urban underground transport hub fire protection design and according to the analysis, we found what issues should be considered and the difficult issues of the design, including the division of fire district, fire evacuation, fire fighting system design, smoke control system design and electrical system design. Then we combined fire protection design with practical work to do a further study.

  18. 凯里民族文化宫消防设计探讨%Discussion on the fire protection design of the Kaili Culture Palace of Nationalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑锦; 傅勤勇; 张建平

    2012-01-01

    The layout of general plan and function division of the Kaili Cultural Palace of Nationalities in Guizhou province were introduced. The fire safety design difficulties, content parameters and measures to be taken of the fire protection driveway, fire compartment, safe evacuation, sprinkler system, facilities of smoke-prevention and smoke-exhaustion were analyzed in details. The surround fire protection driveway and operating site, the theatre's fire compartment, wet automatic sprinkler system, air-conditioning system and other aspects problems and their solutions were discussed.%介绍贵州省凯里民族文化宫的总平面布局、功能划分等基本情况.详细分析该工程的消防车道、防火分区、安全疏散、自动灭火系统、防排烟系统等方面的消防设计难点、内容参数及采取的措施,并对设计中在环形消防车道和登高车操作场地、剧院区的防火分区、自动喷水灭火系统、空调系统方面遇到的问题及其解决办法进行了探讨.

  19. Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings for boiler tube protection in coal-fired low NOx boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Energy Research Center

    1997-12-01

    Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings are currently being considered for enhanced sulfidation resistance in coal-fired low NO{sub x} boilers. The use of these materials is currently limited due to hydrogen cracking susceptibility, which generally increases with an increase in aluminum concentration of the deposit. The overall objective of this program is to attain an optimum aluminum content with good weldability and improved sulfidation resistance with respect to conventional materials presently in use. Research has been initiated using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) in order to achieve this end. Under different sets of GTAW parameters (wire feed speed, current), both single and multiple pass overlays were produced. Characterization of all weldments was conducted using light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. Resultant deposits exhibited a wide range of aluminum contents (5--43 wt%). It was found that the GTAW overlays with aluminum contents above {approximately}10 wt% resulted in cracked coatings. Preliminary corrosion experiments of 5 to 10 wt% Al cast alloys in relatively simple H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S gas mixtures exhibited corrosion rates lower than 304 stainless steel.

  20. Exploiting heat treatment effects on SMAs macro and microscopic properties in developing fire protection devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlacu, L.; Cimpoeşu, N.; Bujoreanu, L. G.; Lohan, N. M.

    2017-08-01

    Ni-Ti shape memory alloys (SMAs) are intelligent alloys which demonstrate unique properties, such as shape memory effect, two-way shape memory effect, super-elasticity and vibration damping which, accompanied by good processability, excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility as well as fair wear resistance and cyclic stability, enabled the development of important industrial applications (such as sensors, actuators, fasteners, couplings and valves), medical applications (such as stents, bone implants, orthodontic archwires, minimal invasive surgical equipment) as well as environmental health and safety devices (anti-seismic dampers, fire safety devices). The phase transitions in Ni-Ti SMAs are strongly influenced by processing methods, chemical compositions and thermomechanical history. This paper presents a study of the effects of heat treatment on the mechanical and thermal properties of commercial Ni-Ti shape memory alloy (SMA). The experimental work involved subjecting a SMA rod to heat-treatment consisting in heating up to 500°C, 10 minutes-maintaining and water quenching. Mechanical properties were highlighted by microhardness tests while thermal characteristics were emphasized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The presence of chemical composition fluctuations was checked by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy performed with an EDAX Bruker analyzer.

  1. Design & Evaluation of a Protection Algorithm for a Wind Turbine Generator based on the fault-generated Symmetrical Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, T. Y.; Cha, Seung-Tae; Lee, B. E.

    2011-01-01

    A protection relay for a wind turbine generator (WTG) based on the fault-generated symmetrical components is proposed in the paper. At stage 1, the relay uses the magnitude of the positive-sequence component in the fault current to distinguish faults on a parallel WTG, connected to the same feeder...... the relationships of the fault-generated symmetrical components. Then, the magnitude of the positive-sequence component in the fault current is used again to decide on either instantaneous or delayed operation. The operating performance of the relay is then verified using various fault scenarios modelled using...

  2. PRESAGE: Protecting Structured Address Generation against Soft Errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Vishal C.; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram

    2016-12-28

    Modern computer scaling trends in pursuit of larger component counts and power efficiency have, unfortunately, lead to less reliable hardware and consequently soft errors escaping into application data ("silent data corruptions"). Techniques to enhance system resilience hinge on the availability of efficient error detectors that have high detection rates, low false positive rates, and lower computational overhead. Unfortunately, efficient detectors to detect faults during address generation have not been widely researched (especially in the context of indexing large arrays). We present a novel lightweight compiler-driven technique called PRESAGE for detecting bit-flips affecting structured address computations. A key insight underlying PRESAGE is that any address computation scheme that propagates an already incurred error is better than a scheme that corrupts one particular array access but otherwise (falsely) appears to compute perfectly. Ensuring the propagation of errors allows one to place detectors at loop exit points and helps turn silent corruptions into easily detectable error situations. Our experiments using the PolyBench benchmark suite indicate that PRESAGE-based error detectors have a high error-detection rate while incurring low overheads.

  3. Fire Risks and Prevention Strategies for Architecture at Historic Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the features of China's architecture at historic sites with regard to fire protection, the causes of fire since 1949, reviewing their weaknesses in fire protection, and exploring modern technologies for fire prevention that are applicable to ancient buildings. We put forward suggestions to improve fire prevention and management: eliminating potential problems of fire, improving fire protection and establishing a better fire security system, which is especially important to protect ancient buildings.

  4. Power generation from chemically cleaned coals: do environmental benefits of firing cleaner coal outweigh environmental burden of cleaning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten W.; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis;

    2015-01-01

    Power generation from high-ash coals is a niche technology for power generation, but coal cleaning is deemed necessary to avoid problems associated with low combustion efficiencies and to minimize environmental burdens associated with emissions of pollutants originating from ash. Here, chemical...... beneficiation of coals using acid and alkali–acid leaching procedures is evaluated as a potential coal cleaning technology employing life cycle assessment (LCA). Taking into account the environmental benefits from firing cleaner coal in pulverized coal power plants and the environmental burden of the cleaning....... Chemical cleaning can be optimized with regard to electricity, heat and methanol use for the hydrothermal washing step, and could have environmental impact comparable to that of physical cleaning if the overall resource intensiveness of chemical cleaning is reduced by a factor 5 to 10, depending...

  5. Development of fire-resistant, low smoke generating, thermally stable end items for aircraft and spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliani, J.; Sorathia, U. A. K.; Wilcoxson, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    Materials were developed to improve aircraft interior materials by modifying existing polymer structures, refining the process parameters, and by the use of mechanical configurations designed to overcome specific deficiencies. The optimization, selection, and fabrication of five fire resistant, low smoke emitting open cell foams are described for five different types of aircraft cabin structures. These include: resilient foams, laminate floor and wall paneling, thermal/acoustical insulation, molded shapes, and coated fabrics. All five have been produced from essentially the same polyimide precursor and have resulted in significant benefits from transfer of technology between the various tasks.

  6. Laser heating: a minimally invasive technique for studying fire-generated heating in building stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocaña, José Luis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the irreparable damage it can cause, fire is one of the major risks to buildings. Recent studies on the effects of fire tend to focus on micro-scale analysis, addressing questions such as micro-cracking or mineralogical or chemical changes that are particularly relevant to listed buildings.The fire simulation techniques employed to date (convection heating laboratory furnaces and real flame tests are subject to a series of limitations including non-repeatability, the lack of combustion by-products and, most importantly, the need to work with large samples. In this final context, techniques must be found that require only minimal sample sizes.This paper introduces laser irradiation as a technique suitable for simulating the “combustion” of building materials, since it mimics the physics of fire, is repeatable, yields combustion products and, most importantly, can be applied to small specimens. Indeed, as laser irradiation concentrates high amounts of energy in small areas, it can be used for micro-scale testing.El fuego es una de las amenazas más importantes para los edificios debido a la escala de pérdidas irreparables que genera. Los estudios sobre los efectos del fuego se han dirigido recientemente hacia escalas de observación más detalladas, que son más adecuadas para el estudio de muestras de edificios patrimoniales, como microfisuración y cambios mineralógicos y químicos.Las técnicas de simulación de fuegos empleadas hasta ahora (ensayos con hornos y llamas reales presentan varias limitaciones como, por ejemplo, la falta de repetibilidad, ausencia de sub-productos de combustión o, especialmente, el uso de muestras de gran tamaño. Por esta última razón, es importante encontrar técnicas en las que se pueda usar cantidades mínimas de muestra.Este artículo presenta la irradiación láser como una técnica adecuada para simular el “quemado” de materiales de construcción, ya que ofrece una física de

  7. Assessment method for the prevention effectiveness of PM2.5 based on the optimization development of coal-fired power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kuan; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jin-fang; Hao, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    A large number of combustion of coal is easy to lead to the haze weather which has brought a lot of inconveniences and threat to people’s living and health in E&C China, as the dominant power source of China, the coal-fired power generation is one of the main sources to the haze. In this paper, the contribution of the combustion of coal and development of coal-fired power generation to the PM2.5 emissions is summarized based on the analysis of the present situation, the mechanism and the emission source of PM2.5. Considering the peak of carbon emissions and the constraints of atmospheric environment, the quantitative assessment method of PM2.5 by optimizing the development of coal-fired power generation is present. By the computation analysis for different scenarios, it indicates that the optimization scenario, which means the main new-installed coal-fired power generation is distributed in western and northern China, can prevent the PM2.5 effectively for both the load center and coal base regions of China. The results of this paper not only have reference value for the optimized layout of coal-fired power generation in the “13rd fifth-year” power planning, also is of great significance to deal with problems that the atmospheric pollution and climate warming in the future.

  8. An Object-Based Approach for Fire History Reconstruction by Using Three Generations of Landsat Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Katagis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the capability of geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA in the reconstruction of the recent fire history of a typical Mediterranean area was investigated. More specifically, a semi-automated GEOBIA procedure was developed and tested on archived and newly acquired Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS, Thematic Mapper (TM, and Operational Land Imager (OLI images in order to accurately map burned areas in the Mediterranean island of Thasos. The developed GEOBIA ruleset was built with the use of the TM image and then applied to the other two images. This process of transferring the ruleset did not require substantial adjustments or any replacement of the initially selected features used for the classification, thus, displaying reduced complexity in processing the images. As a result, burned area maps of very high accuracy (over 94% overall were produced. In addition to the standard error matrix, the employment of additional measures of agreement between the produced maps and the reference data revealed that “spatial misplacement” was the main source of classification error. It can be concluded that the proposed approach can be potentially used for reconstructing the recent (40-year fire history in the Mediterranean, based on extended time series of Landsat or similar data.

  9. A Study of Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Protective Load Control Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mu; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    . Two kinds of wind turbines: Doubly-fed Induction Generator (DFIG) and Fixed-speed Wind Turbine (FSWT) are compared in this study. A conventional power system protective scheme may not response promptly, which could lead an undesired disconnection of WTs for the turbine protection purpose. Consequently......Due to the smaller inertia feature of a Wind Turbine (WT) involved Distributed Generation System (DGS), the WT’s induction generator are more vulnerable to frequency and voltage disturbances. Therefore the study investigates the DGS characteristics respectively from power plants, i.e. WTs and load...

  10. Multi Agent System Based Adaptive Protection for Dispersed Generation Integrated Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Leo; Rather, Zakir Hussain; Bak, Claus Leth

    2013-01-01

    The increasing penetration of dispersed generation (DG) brings challenges to conventional protection approaches of distribution system, mainly due to bi-directional power flow and variable fault current contribution from different generation technology-based DG units. Moreover, the trend of allow......The increasing penetration of dispersed generation (DG) brings challenges to conventional protection approaches of distribution system, mainly due to bi-directional power flow and variable fault current contribution from different generation technology-based DG units. Moreover, the trend......) is proposed. The adaptive protection intelligently adopts suitable settings for the variation of fault current from diversified DG units. Furthermore, the structure of mobile MAS with additional flexibility is capable of adapting the changes of system topology in a short period, e.g. radial/meshed, grid...

  11. A Study of Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Protective Load Control Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Mu; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    Due to the smaller inertia feature of a Wind Turbine (WT) involved Distributed Generation System (DGS), the WT’s induction generator are more vulnerable to frequency and voltage disturbances. Therefore the study investigates theDGS characteristics respectively from power plants, i.e. WTs and load. Two kinds of wind turbines: Doubly-fed Induction Generator (DFIG) and Fixed-speed Wind Turbine (FSWT) are compared in this study. A conventional power system protective scheme may not response promp...

  12. WebFIRE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Factor Information Retrieval (FIRE) Data System is a database management system containing EPA's recommended emission estimation factors for criteria and...

  13. A Review of Common Problems in Design and Installation of Water Spray Cooling and Low Expansion Foam System to Protect Storage Tanks Containing Hydrocarbons Against Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Alimohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tank fires are rare but carry significant potential risk to life and property. For this reason fire protection of tanks is critical. Fixed Low expansion foam and water spray cooling systems are one of the most effective and economical ways to reduce damages to a tank from fire. Such systems are currently installed in many companies but are not effective enough and require involvement of firefighters which in turn threaten their lives. This paper studies in a systematic way the problems of foam and cooling systems currently installed in a few domestic companies which operate storage tanks with focus on floating and fixed roof atmospheric tanks containing hydrocarbons and offers possible solutions for more efficient installation, design and operation of such systems.

  14. The Application of Separation Design in Building Fire Protection Design%分隔设计在建筑内部防火设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴嘉洲

    2014-01-01

    This article emphatical y starts from the principle and necessity of space design when carries on the discussion and research of the architectural interior space fire prevention design, discusses and analyzes the separation design in the application of building fire protection design, and sums up the space design of the advantages and disadvantages in the fire.%本文在对建筑内部分隔防火设计进行探讨研究时,着重从分隔设计的原理和必要性出发,探讨分析了分隔设计在建筑内部防火设计中的应用,并总结了分隔设计在防火中的优缺点。

  15. 某图书馆消防设计理念探讨%Discussion on the Idea of the Fire Protection Design of Some Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹学英; 范一鸣

    2012-01-01

    The following systems,such as: indoor and outdoor fire hydrant system,closed automatic sprinkler systemand large space intelligent fire protection water cannons system are adopted in the design of some library.The paper focuses on the types of the fire hydrant systems,water mist and water cannons,and the problem and the solution in the hydrant design.%某图书馆设计采用了室内外消火栓灭火系统、闭式自动喷水灭火系统、大空间消防水炮灭火系统。重点介绍了消火栓灭火系统、细水雾、大空间消防水炮灭火系统的选型,同时对消防设计中遇到的问题及解决方法进行了探讨。

  16. A Review of Common Problems in Design and Installation of Water Spray Cooling and Low Expansion Foam System to Protect Storage Tanks Containing Hydrocarbons Against Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Alimohammadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tank fires are rare but carry significant potential risk to life and property. For this reason fire protection of tanks is critical. Fixed Low expansion foam and water spray cooling systems are one of the most effective and economical ways to reduce damages to a tank from fire. Such systems are currently installed in many companies but are not effective enough and require involvement of firefighters which in turn threaten their lives. This paper studies in a systematic way the problems of foam and cooling systems currently installed in a few domestic companies which operate storage tanks with focus on floating and fixed roof atmospheric tanks containing hydrocarbons and offers possible solutions for more efficient installation, design and operation of such systems.

  17. Growth responses of selected freshwater algae to trace elements and scrubber ash slurry generated by coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vocke, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The development and implementation of standard toxicity tests is a necessity if consistent and reliable data are to be obtained for water quality criteria. The adapted EPA AAPBT is an ideal static algal toxicity test system. The algal test medium has a chemical composition similar to natural unpolluted waters of low ionic strength. It is appropriate to use MATC water quality criteria when assessing the potential impact of pollutants generated by coal-fired power stations because these energy-generated pollutants typically enter aquatic systems in small quantities over long periods. The MATC water quality criteria are estimates of trace element and SASE levels, based on the most sensitive alga investigated, that will not cause significant changes in naturally-functioning algal populations. These levels are 0.016f mg L/sup -1/ As(V), 0.001 mg L/sup -1/ Cd(II), 0.004 mg L/sup -1/ Hg(II), 0.006 mg L/sup -1/ Se(VI), and 0.344% SASE. To provide viable working water quality criteria, an extrapolation from the laboratory to the natural environment must be made. Therefore, those oxidation states of the trace elements were selected which are the dominant states occurring in natural, unpolluted, slightly alkaline freshwaters. It must be pointed out that these MATC values are based on algal responses to single toxicants and no allowance is made for synergistic, additive, or antagonistic relationships which could occur in natural aquatic systems. Additionally, natural chelation may influence toxicity. The highly toxic nature of potential pollutants from coal-fired generating plants emphasizes the need for minimizing stack effluent pollutants and retaining scrubber ash slurry for proper disposal in an effort to maintain trace elements in concentration ranges compatible with naturally-functioning ecosystems.

  18. Development of higher-ranking standards with respect to fire protection for nuclear facilities in the area decommissioning and disposal; Entwicklung eines uebergeordneten Standards im Hinblick auf Brandschutzmassnahmen fuer kerntechnische Anlagen im Bereich Stilllegung und Entsorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mummert, Maxi; Sonneborn, Volker; Dilger, Matthias; Traichel, Anke [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany). Safety Engineering and Assessment

    2013-07-01

    In the frame of NPP decommissioning and dismantling besides operational waste the large components have to be processes. The licensing of conditioning and storage facilities at the site requires the fulfillment of protection targets, especially the protection of the public and the environment from radioactivity. This contribution deals with the fire as internal incident. The analysis includes deterministic and probabilistic methods. The project is aimed to the development of a fire protection concept according differing national requirements and the adaption of a probabilistic fire risk analysis for non-reactor nuclear facilities.

  19. The ongoing development of a pragmatic and adaptive fire management policy in a large African savanna protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wilgen, Brian W; Govender, Navashni; Smit, Izak P J; MacFadyen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes recent changes to the fire management policy of the 1.9 million ha Kruger National Park in South Africa. It provides a real-life example of adaptive learning in an environment where understanding is incomplete, but where management nonetheless has to proceed. The previous policy called for the application of fire to meet burnt area targets that were set for administrative subdivisions, and that were assessed at the scale of the entire park. This was problematic because the park is large and heterogeneous, and because sound ecological motivations that could link burning prescriptions to ecological objectives were missing. The new policy divides the park into five fire management zones on the basis of differences in mean annual rainfall, historic fire return periods, and geology. In addition, it proposes fire management actions designed to achieve specified ecological objectives in each zone, and includes fire-regime related thresholds and associated ecological outcomes against which to assess the effectiveness of management. The new policy is an improvement over previous iterations, but several challenges remain. Most important among these would be to continually improve the understanding of the effects of fire, and to develop frameworks for assessing the impacts of fire together with other ecosystem drivers that interact strongly with fire to influence the attainment of ecological objectives.

  20. Interim report on the performance of 400-megawatt and larger nuclear and coal-fired generating units: performance through 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    This report is an update of DOE/ERA-0007, Interim Report on the Performance of 400 Megawatt and Larger Nuclear and Coal-Fired Generating Units - Performance Through 1975. The most recent EEI data for nuclear units and for coal units less than 600 MW(e) and having at least one full year of commercial operation are included in this analysis. The analyses cover the following: coal and nuclear units, 400-MW nameplate and larger; historical data through 1976; four industry-recognized performance indices (capacity factor, availability factor, equivalent availability, and forced outage rate); four types of geographical analysis (national, individual, individual utilities, and individual utilities by states); and rankings of states and utilities by performance indices. (MCW)

  1. Special Report on Lessons Learned (1985-2011). Volume 2: Handbook of Recommended Design Practices (Fire Protection and Life Safety Design Guidelines for Special Purpose Underground Structures)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    corrode any ferrous material that it contacts. Even if the generator is not physically damaged by fire, it may not be operable if AFFF came in contact with...problem becomes obvious. The range of melting temperatures for typical tin-lead (Sn-Pb) solder alloys is around 300 0 -420 0 F (182 0 -215 0 C); Pb...silver-copper (Ag-Cu) alloys is still below, but closer to room fire temperatures and there is a risk that they too can melt. Brazing alloys melt

  2. 浅谈消防风机保护断路器的整定%Setting Research of Protection Circuit Breaker for Fire Fighting Blower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振国

    2014-01-01

    The setting problems of corresponding-level protection circuit breaker and the upper-level protection circuit breaker were discussed in a fire fighting blower.Through an instance,it pointed out that the corresponding-level protection circuit breaker only need the short circuit protection setting,and the upper-level protection circuit breaker need the load protection.It could provide references for the designs of similar fire fighting blowers.%针对消防风机的本级保护断路器以及上一级保护断路器的整定问题进行了探讨。通过实例,指出消防风机的本级保护断路器只设短路保护,而上一级保护器需设过负荷保护,以期为类似消防风机设计提供参考。

  3. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This report covers work carried out under Task 3, Preliminary R and D, under contract DE-AC22-92PC91155, {open_quotes}Engineering Development of a Coal-Fired High Performance Power Generation System{close_quotes} between DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and United Technologies Research Center. The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of (1) > 47% thermal efficiency; (2) NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and particulates {<=}25% NSPS; (3) cost {>=}65% of heat input; (4) all solid wastes benign. In our design consideration, we have tried to render all waste streams benign and if possible convert them to a commercial product. It appears that vitrified slag has commercial values. If the flyash is reinjected through the furnace, along with the dry bottom ash, then the amount of the less valuable solid waste stream (ash) can be minimized. A limitation on this procedure arises if it results in the buildup of toxic metal concentrations in either the slag, the flyash or other APCD components. We have assembled analytical tools to describe the progress of specific toxic metals in our system. The outline of the analytical procedure is presented in the first section of this report. The strengths and corrosion resistance of five candidate refractories have been studied in this quarter. Some of the results are presented and compared for selected preparation conditions (mixing, drying time and drying temperatures). A 100 hour pilot-scale stagging combustor test of the prototype radiant panel is being planned. Several potential refractory brick materials are under review and five will be selected for the first 100 hour test. The design of the prototype panel is presented along with some of the test requirements.

  4. 肉类加工厂防火设计浅析%Analyses on the fire protection design of meat packing plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张扬; 岳佳超

    2012-01-01

    According to the characteristics of meat processing industry, this article analyses the protection design of General Layout and monomer workshop in design on building fire protection and prevention》,and also noticed in my view. meat packing plant , based on 《Code put forward some key points should fire of be%根据肉类加工产业的特点,结合《建筑设计防火规范》对肉类加工厂的总平面及单体车间的防火设计进行分析,提出一些个人认为应该引起注意的关键点。

  5. Design of Fire Protection Systems for Test Cabin of Space Shuttle%航天飞船地面试验舱灭火系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周平; 张福顺

    2009-01-01

    针对低气压和富氧的条件,航天飞船试验舱灭火系统选用基于高效冷却作用的Novec1230和细水雾系统.结合工程设计,介绍了两种系统的灭火机理、工艺流程、系统组成、控制方式以及灭火特点等.%Due to the condition of low air pressure and rich oxygen, the fire protection systems for test cabin of space shuttle adopt Novec1230 and water mist based on highly efficient cooling function. Combined with the project design, the extinguishing mechanism, technological process, system composi-tion, control mode and extinguishing characteristics of Novec1230 and water mist fire protection system are presented.

  6. Effects of Wind Turbines Equipped with Doubly-fed Induction Generators on Distance Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays wind energy is the fastest growing renewable energy resource in the world. The problems of integrating wind farms are caused by changes of wind speed during a day. Moreover, the behaviors of wind turbines equipped with doubly-fed induction generators differ fundamentally from synchronous generators. Therefore, more considerations are needed to analyze the performances of the distance protection relays. The protection of a wind farm with distance relay is inspected. By changing the conditions of the wind farm, the characteristics of the distance relay are studied.

  7. Religion-Based User Generated Content in Online Newspapers Covering the Colectiv Nightclub Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Cristian Răileanu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The high degree of interactivity of the Internet, combined with the almost ubiquitous presence of forums on online media publications, has offered everybody the possibility to express their opinions and beliefs on websites. This paper uses content analysis to examine the religion-based comments that were posted on 8 Romanian mainstream news websites in reply to articles regarding a fire that broke out during a rock concert in Bucharest, killing over 50 people and injuring more than 100. The analysis also included the answers to these comments. Among the findings, we have discovered that the highest percentage of religion-based comments made some type of reference to Satanism and that very few of them expressed compassion towards the victims. On the other hand, counter-speech strategies managed to halt hate speech in almost half of the cases where they were employed. However, personal attacks against religion-based commentators were the most commonly used form of counter-speech, contributing to an unfriendly climate on the forums.

  8. Linear Chromosome-generating System of Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58: Protelomerase Generates and Protects Hairpin Ends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Wai Mun; DaGloria, Jeanne; Fox, Heather; Ruan, Qiurong; Tillou, John; Shi, Ke; Aihara, Hideki; Aron, John; Casjens, Sherwood (Utah); (UMM)

    2012-09-05

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58, the pathogenic bacteria that causes crown gall disease in plants, harbors one circular and one linear chromosome and two circular plasmids. The telomeres of its unusual linear chromosome are covalently closed hairpins. The circular and linear chromosomes co-segregate and are stably maintained in the organism. We have determined the sequence of the two ends of the linear chromosome thus completing the previously published genome sequence of A. tumefaciens C58. We found that the telomeres carry nearly identical 25-bp sequences at the hairpin ends that are related by dyad symmetry. We further showed that its Atu2523 gene encodes a protelomerase (resolvase) and that the purified enzyme can generate the linear chromosomal closed hairpin ends in a sequence-specific manner. Agrobacterium protelomerase, whose presence is apparently limited to biovar 1 strains, acts via a cleavage-and-religation mechanism by making a pair of transient staggered nicks invariably at 6-bp spacing as the reaction intermediate. The enzyme can be significantly shortened at both the N and C termini and still maintain its enzymatic activity. Although the full-length enzyme can uniquely bind to its product telomeres, the N-terminal truncations cannot. The target site can also be shortened from the native 50-bp inverted repeat to 26 bp; thus, the Agrobacterium hairpin-generating system represents the most compact activity of all hairpin linear chromosome- and plasmid-generating systems to date. The biochemical analyses of the protelomerase reactions further revealed that the tip of the hairpin telomere may be unusually polymorphically capable of accommodating any nucleotide.

  9. Force Protection for Fire Fighters: Warm Zone Operations at Paramilitary Style Active Shooter Incidents in a Multi-Hazard Environment as a Fire Service Core Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    or backpack bombs directed against public transportation. The nature of the 9/11-quality terrorist threat has evolved since 9/11, Madrid, and London...restaurant, hotels , a Jewish center, and targets of opportunity—including first responders. The terrorists used guns, grenades, improvised explosive...fires in the hotels through interior attacks, and by using exterior ladders placed at windows to extract hostages… Also, with no equipment or training

  10. High frequency stimulation of afferent fibers generates asynchronous firing in the downstream neurons in hippocampus through partial block of axonal conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhouyan; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Guo, Zheshan; Zhou, Wenjie; Cai, Ziyan; Durand, Dominique M

    2017-04-15

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is effective for treating neurological disorders in clinic. However, the therapeutic mechanisms of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of DBS have not yet been elucidated. Previous studies have suggested that HFS-induced changes in axon conduction could have important contributions to the DBS effects and desiderate further studies. To investigate the effects of prolonged HFS of afferent axons on the firing of downstream neurons, HFS trains of 100 and 200Hz were applied on the Schaffer collaterals of the hippocampal CA1 region in anaesthetized rats. Single unit activity of putative pyramidal cells and interneurons in the downstream region was analyzed during the late periods of prolonged HFS when the axonal conduction was blocked. The results show that the firing rates of both pyramidal cells and interneurons increased rather than decreased during the period of axon block. However, the firing rates were far smaller than the stimulation frequency of HFS. In addition, the firing pattern of pyramidal cells changed from typical bursts during baseline recordings into regular single spikes during HFS periods. Furthermore, the HFS produced asynchronous firing in the downstream neurons in contrast to the synchronous firing induced by single pulses. Presumably, the HFS-induced block of axonal conduction was not complete. During the period of partial block, individual axons could recover intermittently and independently, and drive the downstream neurons to fire in an asynchronous pattern. This axonal mechanism of HFS provides a novel explanation for how DBS could replace an original pattern of neuronal activity by a HFS-modulated asynchronous firing in the target region thereby generating the therapeutic effects of DBS.

  11. A methodology for fire risk and hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joglar-Billoch, Francisco J.

    2000-10-01

    The implementation of performance-based codes and risk-informed regulation faces a number of barriers in the field of fire protection. In this dissertation some of those barriers will be discussed with the purpose of presenting computational methods designed to reduce the impact of the barriers in the decision-making process. The computational methods are presented in the framework of a comprehensive probabilistic fire risk assessment methodology. In the probabilistic fire risk assessment methodology, the impact of a fire in a specific location is estimated in terms of a number of indices based on the time of hazard development versus the time to hazard mitigation. Comparing the risk index estimation of each enclosure in a building or plant, a ranking of locations can be generated and different fire protection alternatives can be evaluated. The fire risk assessment approach is based on probabilistic fire models developed from traditional deterministic calculations. In order to develop the probabilistic tools, a complete fire two-zone model, called FireMD, the traditional DETACT model, and a target heating model are described. Next, the concepts of model and parameter uncertainty are introduced in the fire analysis in order to estimate probability distributions of hazardous conditions generated by a fire accident. Specifically, a probabilistic two-zone fire model, a probabilistic detector activation model, a probabilistic suppression model, and a probabilistic target-heating model form the foundation of the proposed fire risk assessment methodology. The main assumptions of the models, as well as the methods to estimated uncertain input parameters and the algorithms used to solve them are discussed and characterized.

  12. Novel mechanism of network protection against the new generation of cyber attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanov, Alexander; Bukshpun, Leonid; Pradhan, Ranjit

    2012-06-01

    A new intelligent mechanism is presented to protect networks against the new generation of cyber attacks. This mechanism integrates TCP/UDP/IP protocol stack protection and attacker/intruder deception to eliminate existing TCP/UDP/IP protocol stack vulnerabilities. It allows to detect currently undetectable, highly distributed, low-frequency attacks such as distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks, coordinated attacks, botnet, and stealth network reconnaissance. The mechanism also allows insulating attacker/intruder from the network and redirecting the attack to a simulated network acting as a decoy. As a result, network security personnel gain sufficient time to defend the network and collect the attack information. The presented approach can be incorporated into wireless or wired networks that require protection against known and the new generation of cyber attacks.

  13. Benefits of coal-fired power generation with flexible CCS in a future northwest European power system with large scale wind power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wijk, Pieter Cornelis; Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd; Van den Broek, Machteld; Slot, Thijs; Stienstra, Gerard; Van der Veen, Wim; Faaij, André P C

    2014-01-01

    Coal-fired power generation with carbon capture and storage (CCS) is projected as a cost-effective technology to decarbonize the power sector. Intermittent renewables could reduce its load factor and revenues, so flexible capture unit operation strategies (flexible CCS) have been suggested to increa

  14. Benefits of coal-fired power generation with flexible CCS in a future northwest European power system with large scale wind power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wijk, Pieter Cornelis; Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330822748; Van den Broek, Machteld|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/092946895; Slot, Thijs; Stienstra, Gerard; Van der Veen, Wim; Faaij, André P C

    Coal-fired power generation with carbon capture and storage (CCS) is projected as a cost-effective technology to decarbonize the power sector. Intermittent renewables could reduce its load factor and revenues, so flexible capture unit operation strategies (flexible CCS) have been suggested to

  15. Fire safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J.; Hostikka, S.; Mangs, J. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland); Huhtanen, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Palmen, H.; Salminen, A.; Turtola, A. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-07-01

    According to experience and probabilistic risk assessments, fires present a significant hazard in a nuclear power plant. Fires may be initial events for accidents or affect safety systems planned to prevent accidents and to mitigate their consequences. The project consists of theoretical work, experiments and simulations aiming to increase the fire safety at nuclear power plants. The project has four target areas: (1) to produce validated models for numerical simulation programmes, (2) to produce new information on the behavior of equipment in case of fire, (3) to study applicability of new active fire protecting systems in nuclear power plants, and (4) to obtain quantitative knowledge of ignitions induced by important electric devices in nuclear power plants. These topics have been solved mainly experimentally, but modelling at different level is used to interpret experimental data, and to allow easy generalisation and engineering use of the obtained data. Numerical fire simulation has concentrated in comparison of CFD modelling of room fires, and fire spreading on cables on experimental data. So far the success has been good to fair. A simple analytical and numerical model has been developed for fire effluents spreading beyond the room of origin in mechanically strongly ventilated compartments. For behaviour of equipment in fire several full scale and scaled down calorimetric experiments were carried out on electronic cabinets, as well as on horizontal and vertical cable trays. These were carried out to supply material for CFD numerical simulation code validation. Several analytical models were developed and validated against obtained experimental results to allow quick calculations for PSA estimates as well as inter- and extrapolations to slightly different objects. Response times of different commercial fire detectors were determined for different types of smoke, especially emanating from smoldering and flaming cables to facilitate selection of proper detector

  16. Characterization of open-cycle coal-fired MHD generators. 14th/15th quarterly technical progress report, February 1-July 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wormhoudt, J.; Yousefian, V.; Weinberg, M.; Kolb, C.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Cheng, W.; Bien, F.; Dvore, D.; Unkel, W.; Stewart, G.

    1980-09-01

    The successful design of full-scale, open-cycle, coal-fired MHD generators for baseload electrical production requires a detailed understanding of the plasma chemical and plasma dynamic characteristics of anticipated combustor and channel fluids. Progress in efforts to model the efficiency of an open-cycle, coal-fired MHD channel based on the characterization of the channel flow as well as laboratory experiments to validate the modeling effort as detailed. In addition, studies related to understanding arcing phenomena in the vicinity of an anode are reported.

  17. Performance comparison of LOE protection of synchronous generator in the presence of UPFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Yaser Ebrahimi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Generator loss of excitation (LOE protection is a principal protection of power system which operate based on impedance measurement. This relay calculates impedance by measuring voltage and current at the generator terminal. On the other hand, the presence of unified power flow controller (UPFC in transmission lines changes measured voltage and current signals during loss of excitation. In this paper, the impact of UPFC on the performance of LOE protection has been analytically investigated. Afterwards, using modeling results, it has been attained that the presence of UPFC leads to the drastic delay on the performance of LOE relay. This delay results to the overloading and damaging of armature winding of generator. It is also shown that in partial LOE presence of UPFC causes under-reach of the relay. Finally, the phasor measurement units (PMUs based method has been proposed to reduce the effect of UPFC on the LOE protection. The results indicate that using this new method, the delay of LOE relay has been reduced. In the surveys conducted, various conditions of the power system have been considered.

  18. Fire Protection Informational Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    49%· ... ··uwe<"EXIremi\\Y" • • • • • • "j% • • • • • • • i6%" · · ••· Torso Torso (shoulder and 35% 78% abdomen ) Pt>lvis ----+ SpiM (shoulder and...20% 32% abdomen ) Lumbar Spine 5% 30% Lumbar Spine 17% 35% Pelvis (perineal 8% 51% and hip) Pelvis (perineal 4% 8% and h ip) Lower EJctremily 1...Provide 2028 Changes to ALC • FAT should begin in FY 16 (Delayed as of today- we are working) • Support to be provided as required • Trial

  19. Fire protection electrical engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jung Min

    2000-03-15

    This book concentrates of electricity with current, voltage, power, ohms law, access of resistance, electrolytic analysis and battery, static on frictional electricity and electrostatic induction, coulomb's law, Gauss's law, condenser and capacity, magmatism on magnetic field and magnetic line of force, magnetic circuit, electromagnetic force, electromotive current, basic alternating current circuit, circuit network analysis, three-phase current, non-sinusoidal alternating current, transient phenomena, semiconductor, electric measurement on measurement over resistance, power, power rate and circuit tester, automatic control on introduction, term, classification, foundation of sequence control, logic circuit and basic logic circuit and electric equipment.

  20. Coupling CFAST fire modeling and SAPHIRE probabilistic assessment software for internal fire safety evaluation of a typical TRIGA research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safaei Arshi, Saiedeh [School of Engineering, Shiraz University, 71348-51154 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nematollahi, Mohammadreza, E-mail: nema@shirazu.ac.i [School of Engineering, Shiraz University, 71348-51154 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Safety Research Center of Shiraz University, 71348-51154 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sepanloo, Kamran [Safety Research Center of Shiraz University, 71348-51154 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    Due to the significant threat of internal fires for the safety operation of nuclear reactors, presumed fire scenarios with potential hazards for loss of typical research reactor safety functions are analyzed by coupling CFAST fire modeling and SAPHIRE probabilistic assessment software. The investigations show that fire hazards associated with electrical cable insulation, lubricating oils, diesel, electrical equipment and carbon filters may lead to unsafe situations called core damage states. Using system-specific event trees, the occurrence frequency of core damage states after the occurrence of each possible fire scenario in critical fire compartments is evaluated. Probability that the fire ignited in the given fire compartment will burn long enough to cause the extent of damage defined by each fire scenario is calculated by means of detection-suppression event tree. As a part of detection-suppression event trees quantification, and also for generating the necessary input data for evaluating the frequency of core damage states by SAPHIRE 7.0 software, CFAST fire modeling software is applied. The results provide a probabilistic measure of the quality of existing fire protection systems in order to maintain the reactor at a reasonable safety level.

  1. Operating room fire prevention: creating an electrosurgical unit fire safety device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, William C; Kimbrough, Bradly A; Luna, Sarah; Maguddayao, Aris J

    2014-08-01

    To reduce the incidence of surgical fires. Operating room fires represent a potentially life-threatening hazard and are triggered by the electrosurgical unit (ESU) pencil. Carbon dioxide is a fire suppressant and is a routinely used medical gas. We hypothesize that a shroud of protective carbon dioxide covering the tip of the ESU pencil displaces oxygen, thereby preventing fire ignition. Using 3-dimensional modeling techniques, a polymer sleeve was created and attached to an ESU pencil. This sleeve was connected to a carbon dioxide source and directed the gas through multiple precisely angled ports, generating a cone of fire-suppressive carbon dioxide surrounding the active pencil tip. This device was evaluated in a flammability test chamber containing 21%, 50%, and 100% oxygen with sustained ESU activation. The sleeve was tested with and without carbon dioxide (control) until a fuel was ignited or 30 seconds elapsed. Time to ignition was measured by high-speed videography. Fires were ignited with each control trial (15/15 trials). The control group median ± SD ignition time in 21% oxygen was 3.0 ± 2.4 seconds, in 50% oxygen was 0.1 ± 1.8 seconds, and in 100% oxygen was 0.03 ± 0.1 seconds. No fire was observed when the fire safety device was used in all concentrations of oxygen (0/15 trials; P fire ignition was 76% to 100%. A sleeve creating a cone of protective carbon dioxide gas enshrouding the sparks from an ESU pencil effectively prevents fire in a high-flammability model. Clinical application of this device may reduce the incidence of operating room fires.

  2. Tunnel fire dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels. This book should be purchased by any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.

  3. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    discipline. It covers thermo chemistry including mixtures and chemical reactions; Introduces combustion to the fire protection student; Discusses premixed flames and spontaneous ignition; Presents conservation laws for control volumes, including the effects of fire; Describes the theoretical bases...... analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...... for empirical aspects of the subject of fire; Analyses ignition of liquids and the importance of evaporation including heat and mass transfer; Features the stages of fire in compartments, and the role of scale modelling in fire. The book is written by Prof. James G. Quintiere from University of Maryland...

  4. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Quarterly progress report No. 3, July--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    A concept for an advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power generating system is currently being developed. The first phase of this three-phase program consists of conducting the necessary research and development to define the system, evaluate the economic and technical feasibility of the concept, and prepare an R & D plan to develop the concept further. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is leading a team ofcompanies involved in this effort. The system proposed to meet these goals is a combined-cycle system where air for a gas turbine is indirectly heated to approximately 1800{degrees}F in furnaces fired with cool-derived fuels and then directly heated in a natural-gas-fired combustor up to about 2400{degrees}F. The system is based on a pyrolyzing process that converts the coal into a low-Btu fuel gas and char. The fuelgas is a relatively clean fuel, and it is fired to heat tube surfaces that are susceptible to corrosion and problems from ash deposition. In particular, the high-temperature air heater tubes, which will need tobe a ceramic material, will be located in a separate furnace or region of a furnace that is exposed to combustion products from the low-Btu fuel gas only. A simplified process flow diagram is shown.

  5. 建筑防火中的消防泡沫喷洒系统设计方法研究%Design Method Research of FireFighting Foam Sprinkling System in Building FireProtection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张太成

    2015-01-01

    The construction of fire fighting foam system design is of great significance, the traditional fire fighting foam sys⁃tem for fire protection design cannot to control pollution.Put forward a design method of fire fighting foam system in the construction project, adopting programmable logic controller PLC, with Siemens WINCC configuration software system for real-time monitoring and relevant data storage, statistics data, at the same time when the emissions and emissions beyond limit warning combined with fuzzy PID control system.Through the experimental debugging, the system can carry on the effective monitoring and real-time alarm to the emissions.%建筑工程中消防泡沫系统消防设计具有重要意义,传统的消防泡沫系统对消防的设计无法对造成的污染进行控制。提出一种建筑工程中消防泡沫系统消防设计方法,采用可编程逻辑控制器PLC,利用西门子组态软件WINCC对系统进行实时监控并存储相关数据,同时将数据进行统计,当排放物和排量超出限值时结合模糊PID 控制系统发出预警。经过实验调试,系统能够对排放气体进行有效监控并实时报警。可以有效保证建筑内的相关人员安全。

  6. 30 CFR 75.1107-1 - Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-1 Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on...

  7. Frontier of CO{sub 2} reduction/sink with international Win/Win Corporation - coal fired electric power generation helps afforestation through by product utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshitaka, N.; Kaori, A.; Kazuo, W.; Katsumi, O. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Several countries in Asia require coal fired electric power generation because they are rich in domestic coal. In common sense, coal firing generates carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide more than natural gas, thus it tends to be disliked for electric power generation. When desulfurization plants are housed, these cost much and produce valuable by-poducts. Gypsum is a by-product from desulfurization plant, which can reclaim very poor alkaline or sodic soil and the combination of gypsum and quick lime is a by-product from fluidized-bed boiler and bio-briquet, which can reclaim very poor acidic soil. These two principal by-products are the key to afforestation, resulting in carbon sink. Sometimes soil reclamation can change poor soil into fertile soil which is useful for agriculture. 2 tabs.

  8. Fire effects on runoff generation and sediment yield from a coarse-textured sagebrush-dominated landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post-fire increases in runoff and sediment yield from sagebrush rangelands are commonly attributed to fire-induced soil water repellency and/or reduction in canopy and ground cover. Recent research has demonstrated the strength of soil water repellency and its influence on runoff and sediment gener...

  9. Generation of protective immune response against anthrax by oral immunization with protective antigen plant-based vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorantala, Jyotsna; Grover, Sonam; Rahi, Amit; Chaudhary, Prerna; Rajwanshi, Ravi; Sarin, Neera Bhalla; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2014-04-20

    In concern with frequent recurrence of anthrax in endemic areas and inadvertent use of its spores as biological weapon, the development of an effective anthrax vaccine suitable for both human and veterinary needs is highly desirable. A simple oral delivery through expression in plant system could offer promising alternative to the current methods that rely on injectable vaccines extracted from bacterial sources. In the present study, we have expressed protective antigen (PA) gene in Indian mustard by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and in tobacco by plastid transformation. Putative transgenic lines were verified for the presence of transgene and its expression by molecular analysis. PA expressed in transgenic lines was biologically active as evidenced by macrophage lysis assay. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral immunization with plant PA in murine model indicated high serum PA specific IgG and IgA antibody titers. PA specific mucosal immune response was noted in orally immunized groups. Further, antibodies indicated lethal toxin neutralizing potential in-vitro and conferred protection against in-vivo toxin challenge. Oral immunization experiments demonstrated generation of immunoprotective response in mice. Thus, our study examines the feasibility of oral PA vaccine expressed in an edible plant system against anthrax.

  10. Lead generation in crop protection research: a portfolio approach to agrochemical discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loso, Michael R; Garizi, Negar; Hegde, Vidyadhar B; Hunter, James E; Sparks, Thomas C

    2017-04-01

    The need for increased food and feed supply to support future global demand with the added challenges of resistance pressure and an evolving regulatory environment necessitates the discovery of new crop protection agents for growers of today and tomorrow. Lead generation is the critical 'engine' for maintaining a robust pipeline of new high-value products. A wide variety of approaches exist for the generation of new leads, many of which have demonstrated success. Each approach features some degree of merit or benefit while also having some inherent drawback or level of risk. While risk for any single approach can be mitigated in a variety of different ways depending on the approach, long-term viability of a successful lead generation program merits utilization of a portfolio of different approaches and methodologies for the generation of new leads. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. 武汉东湖通道工程水下隧道消防设计%The Design of Wuhan East Lake Tunnel Fire Protection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松林

    2015-01-01

    According to the engineering characteristics of Wuhan East Lake tunnel, a multi-fire protection system is employed. Fire hydrant system and foam-water spray system are used in the buried and semi-open sections of the tunnel roadway while only fire hydrant system is designed in the opening section of the main tunnel and ramp. Pipeless ultra-fine powder fire extinguishers are equipped in the tunnel equipment room and fire extinguishers are in place along the whole tunnel. This paper focuses on the composition, arrangement, design parameters and selection of the foam-water spray system. To achieve a uniform distribution of water sprinklers, different nozzles are selected and installed in different intervals on either two sides or one side according to the width of the tunnel roadway. One or two pumps are activated accordingly during fire fighting. In additional, the composition of fire alarming system, the types of alarming facilities and the system functions are concisely explained.%针对武汉东湖隧道工程特点,采用多种消防系统共同承担东湖隧道消防体系,其中隧道车行道的暗埋段和半敞口段采用消火栓系统及泡沫水喷雾系统,主线隧道及匝道的敞开段采用消火栓系统,隧道设备间采用无管网超细干粉灭火,同时在隧道内配设灭火器。重点阐述消火栓系统及泡沫水喷雾系统的组成及布置、设计参数选取、设备选型。为达到喷头均匀布水的要求,根据隧道车行道宽度不同,选择不同喷头按不同间距采用双侧或单侧布置,灭火时启动1台或2台消防泵。另外对隧道火灾报警系统的组成、火灾报警设施类型、系统功能等进行简要说明。

  12. Boreal Forest Fires - Behavior and Atmospheric Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, B. J.

    2003-12-01

    Fire is a natural and essential stand-renewing agent in circumboreal forests, and eliminating fire in this region is neither economically possible nor ecologically desirable. In general, boreal fire is managed on the basis of values-at-risk, with high levels of protection afforded to economically and recreationally important areas, while fire is permitted to burn naturally in many remote areas. Current estimates are that an average of 5-15 million hectares burn annually across the boreal zone, with at least 50% of the area burning in largely unmanaged forest. High-intensity crown fires account for the vast majority of the area burned in the boreal zone, particularly in North America. These fires typically consume 20-30 tonnes/ha of fuel, spread at rates up to 100 m/min, and generate intensity levels (or energy release rates) approaching 100,000 kW/m of fire front. Deep forest floor (organic) layers common to boreal forests contribute significantly to high levels of fuel consumption and assist in the propagation of crown fires. When crown fires are sustained through a peak afternoon burning period, they usually produce towering convection columns that can reach the upper troposphere directly. Numerous boreal fires columns reaching 11-14 kilometres in height have been documented in the fire literature. Given the lower altitude of the tropopause at boreal zone latitudes it is not surprising that some boreal fire columns have been recently reported reaching the lower stratosphere. Current global and regional climate models suggest a significant increase in both the severity and frequency of boreal fires under a changing climate, with potentially major impacts on terrestrial carbon storage and the global carbon budget, as well as hemispheric smoke transport. Modelling convection column dynamics is essential to predicting the future transport and atmospheric impacts of boreal fire smoke, and this science requires a solid understanding of fuel consumption and fire

  13. Impacts of the Minamata Conventionon on Mercury Emissions and Global Deposition from Coal-Fired Power Generation in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giang, Amanda; Stokes, Leah C.; Streets, David G.; Corbitt, Elizabeth S.; Selin, Noelle E.

    2015-05-05

    We explore implications of the United Nations Minamata Convention on Mercury for emissions from Asian coal-fired power generation, and resulting changes to deposition worldwide by 2050. We use engineering analysis, document analysis, and interviews to construct plausible technology scenarios consistent with the Convention. We translate these scenarios into emissions projections for 2050, and use the GEOS-Chem model to calculate global mercury deposition. Where technology requirements in the Convention are flexibly defined, under a global energy and development scenario that relies heavily on coal, we project similar to 90 and 150 Mg.y(-1) of avoided power sector emissions for China and India, respectively, in 2050, compared to a scenario in which only current technologies are used. Benefits of this avoided emissions growth are primarily captured regionally, with projected changes in annual average gross deposition over China and India similar to 2 and 13 mu g.m(-2) lower, respectively, than the current technology case. Stricter, but technologically feasible, mercury control requirements in both countries could lead to a combined additional 170 Mg.y(-1) avoided emissions. Assuming only current technologies but a global transition away from coal avoids 6% and 36% more emissions than this strict technology scenario under heavy coal use for China and India, respectively.

  14. Sustainable sources of biomass for bioremediation of heavy metals in waste water derived from coal-fired power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Richard J; Paul, Nicholas A; Hu, Yi; de Nys, Rocky

    2012-01-01

    Biosorption of heavy metals using dried algal biomass has been extensively described but rarely implemented. We contend this is because available algal biomass is a valuable product with a ready market. Therefore, we considered an alternative and practical approach to algal bioremediation in which algae were cultured directly in the waste water stream. We cultured three species of algae with and without nutrient addition in water that was contaminated with heavy metals from an Ash Dam associated with coal-fired power generation and tested metal uptake and bioremediation potential. All species achieved high concentrations of heavy metals (to 8% dry mass). Two key elements, V and As, reached concentrations in the biomass of 1543 mg.kg(-1) DW and 137 mg.kg(-1) DW. Growth rates were reduced by more than half in neat Ash Dam water than when nutrients were supplied in excess. Growth rate and bioconcentration were positively correlated for most elements, but some elements (e.g. Cd, Zn) were concentrated more when growth rates were lower, indicating the potential to tailor bioremediation depending on the pollutant. The cosmopolitan nature of the macroalgae studied, and their ability to grow and concentrate a suite of heavy metals from industrial wastes, highlights a clear benefit in the practical application of waste water bioremediation.

  15. Sustainable sources of biomass for bioremediation of heavy metals in waste water derived from coal-fired power generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Saunders

    Full Text Available Biosorption of heavy metals using dried algal biomass has been extensively described but rarely implemented. We contend this is because available algal biomass is a valuable product with a ready market. Therefore, we considered an alternative and practical approach to algal bioremediation in which algae were cultured directly in the waste water stream. We cultured three species of algae with and without nutrient addition in water that was contaminated with heavy metals from an Ash Dam associated with coal-fired power generation and tested metal uptake and bioremediation potential. All species achieved high concentrations of heavy metals (to 8% dry mass. Two key elements, V and As, reached concentrations in the biomass of 1543 mg.kg(-1 DW and 137 mg.kg(-1 DW. Growth rates were reduced by more than half in neat Ash Dam water than when nutrients were supplied in excess. Growth rate and bioconcentration were positively correlated for most elements, but some elements (e.g. Cd, Zn were concentrated more when growth rates were lower, indicating the potential to tailor bioremediation depending on the pollutant. The cosmopolitan nature of the macroalgae studied, and their ability to grow and concentrate a suite of heavy metals from industrial wastes, highlights a clear benefit in the practical application of waste water bioremediation.

  16. Assessment of energy and economic impacts of particulate-control technologies in coal-fired power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    Under contract to Argonne National Laboratory, Midwest Research Institute has derived models to assess the economic and energy impacts of particulate-control systems for coal-fired power plants. The models take into account the major functional variables, including plant size and location, coal type, and applicable particulate-emission standards. The algorithms obtained predict equipment and installation costs, as well as operating costs (including energy usage), for five control devices: (1) cold-side electrostatic precipitators, (2) hot-side electrostatic precipitators, (3) reverse-flow baghouses, (4) shake baghouses, and (5) wet scrubbers. A steam-generator performance model has been developed, and the output from this model has been used as input for the control-device performance models that specify required design and operating parameters for the control systems under study. These parameters then have been used as inputs to the cost models. Suitable guideline values have been provided for independent variables wherever necessary, and three case studies are presented to demonstrate application of the subject models. The control-equipment models aggregate the following cost items: (1) first costs (capital investment), (2) total, first-year annualized costs, and (3) integrated cost of ownership and operation over any selected plant lifetime. Although the models have been programmed for rapid computation, the algorithms can be solved with a hand calculator.

  17. 14 CFR 25.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. (1) The following minimum number of hand fire extinguishers must be... 6 501 through 600 7 601 through 700 8 (2) At least one hand fire extinguisher must be...

  18. Recent Developments in Fire Retardation and Fire Protection of Fibre-Reinforced Composites%阻燃及防火纤维增强复合物的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    拜耳金德 K 卡多拉; 约翰 R 艾伯顿

    2016-01-01

    Fibre⁃reinforced composite materials in which a polymer matrix, either a thermosetting polymer or a thermo⁃plastic, is reinforced with random or woven fibres to improve flexural and tensile strength, are finding increasing use as light⁃weight, structural materials in applications ranging from domestic to transport. Most of these applications require the materials to be fire retardant, but flammability is an important issue with many thermosetting matrix resins and thermoplas⁃tic matrix materials, and some reinforcing fibre. The fire retardance of fibre⁃reinforced composite laminates may be signifi⁃cantly improved via a number of strategies, such as incorporating fire retardants in the matrix resin, both with and without the addition of a further char⁃forming component and/or char promoting additive. A more elegant solution is provided by applying a fire⁃retardant surface coating to the composite or a surface fire⁃protective layer. This article reviews recent work on fire retardation and fire protection of fibre⁃reinforced composites carried out in the laboratories of the Fire Materials Group at University of Bolton. This work has concentrated mainly on the effects of fire⁃retardant additives and coatings on the fire performance of unsaturated polyester, vinyl ester and epoxy resin composites reinforced with glass fibres.%聚合物基的纤维增强复合材料,热固性聚合物或热塑性聚合物基体,可通过随机或者编织的纤维来提高其弯曲和抗拉强度,此类复合材料作为轻量级、结构材料正越来越多地被应用于民用和交通运输等领域,该应用领域绝大部分要求材料应该具有防火性能。但大多数热固性聚合物、热塑性聚合物及一些增强纤维存在耐燃性差的问题。聚合物基的纤维增强复合材料的防火性能可以通过一系列方法进行提高,比如向聚合物基体添加含有促成炭组分等各类阻燃剂,但是最简洁有效的

  19. Fire protection design of commercial and residential building%浅议商住楼的消防设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张苏文

    2014-01-01

    With the development of the city, commercial buildings appear in large numbers, but the specification of current fire technical on the definition, building classification is not clear, some places are not reasonable. Architectural design personnel, fire engineering inspection personnel, fire supervision and inspection personnel of this understanding is not uniform, different points of view, objectively affect the development of fire supervision. In this paper, the definition, classification, building fire design requirements are analyzed, to put forward the reasonable suggestions for improvement.%随着城市化的发展,商住楼大量出现,但现行消防技术规范对其定义、建筑分类的规定不清晰,有些地方也不合理。建筑设计人员、消防工程审验人员、消防监督检查人员对此认识不统一、观点分歧,客观上影响了消防监督工作的开展。本文对其定义、建筑分类、消防设计要求等进行了分析,提出了合理化改进建议。

  20. Adaptive protection coordination scheme for distribution network with distributed generation using ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Ibrahim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive protection coordination scheme for optimal coordination of DOCRs in interconnected power networks with the impact of DG, the used coordination technique is the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC. The scheme adapts to system changes; new relays settings are obtained as generation-level or system-topology changes. The developed adaptive scheme is applied on the IEEE 30-bus test system for both single- and multi-DG existence where results are shown and discussed.

  1. PM2.5 and ultrafine particulate matter emissions from natural gas-fired turbine for power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Eli; Li, Yang; Finken, Bob; Quartucy, Greg; Muzio, Lawrence; Baez, Al; Garibay, Mike; Jung, Heejung S.

    2016-04-01

    The generation of electricity from natural gas-fired turbines has increased more than 200% since 2003. In 2007 the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) funded a project to identify control strategies and technologies for PM2.5 and ultrafine emissions from natural gas-fired turbine power plants and test at pilot scale advanced PM2.5 technologies to reduce emissions from these gas turbine-based power plants. This prompted a study of the exhaust from new facilities to better understand air pollution in California. To characterize the emissions from new natural gas turbines, a series of tests were performed on a GE LMS100 gas turbine located at the Walnut Creek Energy Park in August 2013. These tests included particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) and wet chemical tests for SO2/SO3 and NH3, as well as ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) particulate matter measurements. After turbine exhaust was diluted sevenfold with filtered air, particle concentrations in the 10-300 nm size range were approximately two orders of magnitude higher than those in the ambient air and those in the 2-3 nm size range were up to four orders of magnitude higher. This study also found that ammonia emissions were higher than expected, but in compliance with permit conditions. This was possibly due to an ammonia imbalance entering the catalyst, some flue gas bypassing the catalyst, or not enough catalyst volume. SO3 accounted for an average of 23% of the total sulfur oxides emissions measured. While some of the SO3 is formed in the combustion process, it is likely that the majority formed as the SO2 in the combustion products passed across the oxidizing CO catalyst and SCR catalyst. The 100 MW turbine sampled in this study emitted particle loadings of 3.63E-04 lb/MMBtu based on Methods 5.1/201A and 1.07E-04 lb/MMBtu based on SMPS method, which are similar to those previously measured from turbines in the SCAQMD area (FERCo et al., 2014), however, the turbine

  2. IC-engine co-generation plant Fenne. Electricity and heat from coal-fired methane; Motorenheizkraftwerk Fenne. Strom und Waerme aus Grubengas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, F.J. [Kompetenzzentrum Instandhaltung und Technologie, SaarEnergie, Saarbruecken (Germany); Knuth, E. [Motorenheizkraftwerk Fenne, SaarEnergie, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Within the scope of the ''Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz'' (EEG, act on renewables) the conversion of mine gas (methane) is supported. SaarEnergie AG has erected a co-generation plant with IC-engine at their power plant site in Voelklingen Fenne to make use of mine gas. The co-generation plant comprises 14 mine gas-fired engines with an electrical and thermal capacity of 3 MW each, summarising to a electrical capacity of 42 MW. The planning, plant configuration and technical data as well as first operating experience with the engine co-generation plant are described. (orig.)

  3. An interoperable standard system for the automatic generation and publication of the fire risk maps based on Fire Weather Index (FWI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià Selvas, Núria; Ninyerola Casals, Miquel

    2015-04-01

    It has been implemented an automatic system to predict the fire risk in the Principality of Andorra, a small country located in the eastern Pyrenees mountain range, bordered by Catalonia and France, due to its location, his landscape is a set of a rugged mountains with an average elevation around 2000 meters. The system is based on the Fire Weather Index (FWI) that consists on different components, each one, measuring a different aspect of the fire danger calculated by the values of the weather variables at midday. CENMA (Centre d'Estudis de la Neu i de la Muntanya d'Andorra) has a network around 10 automatic meteorological stations, located in different places, peeks and valleys, that measure weather data like relative humidity, wind direction and speed, surface temperature, rainfall and snow cover every ten minutes; this data is sent daily and automatically to the system implemented that will be processed in the way to filter incorrect measurements and to homogenizer measurement units. Then this data is used to calculate all components of the FWI at midday and for the level of each station, creating a database with the values of the homogeneous measurements and the FWI components for each weather station. In order to extend and model this data to all Andorran territory and to obtain a continuous map, an interpolation method based on a multiple regression with spline residual interpolation has been implemented. This interpolation considerer the FWI data as well as other relevant predictors such as latitude, altitude, global solar radiation and sea distance. The obtained values (maps) are validated using a cross-validation leave-one-out method. The discrete and continuous maps are rendered in tiled raster maps and published in a web portal conform to Web Map Service (WMS) Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard. Metadata and other reference maps (fuel maps, topographic maps, etc) are also available from this geoportal.

  4. MS Excel Workbook for Calculation of the Temperature of Protected Steel Elements in a Fire Exposure according to Nominal Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Yakov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a procedure for evaluation of the temperature of the steel element in a fire situation. The gas temperature in the fire compartment is given by the three nominal curves: ISO834, Hydrocarbon and Outer curve. The simple calculation model described in 4.2 of EN 1993-1-2 [1] is used. The proposed solution is based on the tables containing data for the temperature of the steel elements which are calculated with the VBA macros in MS Excel

  5. New power generation technologies pave the way for growth and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voges, K.

    2007-07-01

    As the global population and the economy grow, and more people live in urban areas, demand for energy and electrical power is on the rise. At present, for the first time ever, more people on earth live in cities than in rural areas. This urbanization will accelerate the demand for sufficient and secure power. Fossil fuels will continue to be the backbone of power supply over the next decades. However, finite conventional resources, security of supply, volatile fuel prices, increasing costs of exploration and the threat to the climate from greenhouse gases all impose global constraints. New technologies based on all energy resources are necessary to guarantee a balanced electricity supply. Examples of innovative technology fields: Efficiency: Higher firing temperatures and steam parameters allow increased efficiencies of combined-cycle power plants beyond 60% and supercritical steam power plants. Gasification: Gasifiers for broader usage of coal offer the option of power generation and synfuel production without emitting CO2. Renewables: The next major challenge is to increase efficiency and life-time of wind turbines and to establish offshore wind parks. Equipment suppliers are working on innovative concepts, products and solutions to renew and replace the world's power generation capacity under optimized ecological, technical and economic aspects. (auth)

  6. Global relationship of fire occurrence and fire intensity: A test of intermediate fire occurrence-intensity hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ruisen; Hui, Dafeng; Miao, Ning; Liang, Chuan; Wells, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Fire plays a significant role in global atmosphere and biosphere carbon and nutrient cycles. Globally, there are substantially different distributions and impacts between fire occurrence and fire intensity. It is prominent to have a thorough investigation of global relationship between fire occurrence and fire intensity for future fire prediction and management. In this study, we proposed an intermediate fire occurrence-intensity (IFOI) hypothesis for the global relationship between fire occurrence and fire intensity, suggesting that fire occurrence changes with fire intensity following a humped relationship. We examined this hypothesis via satellite data from January 2001 to December 2013 at a global scale, and in small and large fire intensity zones, respectively. Furthermore, the fire occurrence and fire intensity relationship was developed among different vegetation types to reveal the changes of parameters and strengths. Finally, the environmental factors (including climatic, hydraulic, biological, and anthropogenic variables) underpinning the fire occurrence and intensity pattern were evaluated for the underlying mechanisms. The results supported our IFOI hypothesis and demonstrated that the humped relationship is driven by different causes among vegetation types. Fire occurrence increases with fire intensity in small fire intensity zones due to alleviation of the factors limiting both fire occurrence and intensity. Beyond a certain fire intensity threshold, fire occurrence is constrained, probably due to the limitation of available fuels. The information generated in this study could be helpful for understanding global variation of fire occurrence and fire intensity due to fire-vegetation-climate-human interactions and facilitating future fire management.

  7. Development of a high-performance, coal-fired power generating system with a pyrolysis gas and char-fired high-temperature furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenker, J.

    1995-11-01

    A high-performance power system (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined-cycle plant that will have an efficiency of at least 47 percent, based on the higher heating value of the fuel. The original emissions goal of the project was for NOx and SOx to each be below 0.15 lb/MMBtu. In the Phase 2 RFP this emissions goal was reduced to 0.06 lb/MMBtu. The ultimate goal of HIPPS is to have an all-coal-fueled system, but initial versions of the system are allowed up to 35 percent heat input from natural gas. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is currently leading a team effort with AlliedSignal, Bechtel, Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Research-Cottrell, TRW and Westinghouse. Previous work on the project was also done by General Electric. The HIPPS plant will use a high-Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) to achieve combined-cycle operation with coal as the primary fuel. The HITAF is an atmospheric-pressure, pulverized-fuel-fired boiler/air heater. The HITAF is used to heat air for the gas turbine and also to transfer heat to the steam cycle. its design and functions are very similar to conventional PC boilers. Some important differences, however, arise from the requirements of the combined cycle operation.

  8. Evaluation of technical feasibility of closed-cycle non-equilibrium MHD power generation with direct coal firing. Final report, Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Program accomplishments in a continuing effort to demonstrate the feasibility of direct coal fired, closed cycle, magnetohydrodynamic power generation are detailed. These accomplishments relate to all system aspects of a CCMHD power generation system including coal combustion, heat transfer to the MHD working fluid, MHD power generation, heat and cesium seed recovery and overall systems analysis. Direct coal firing of the combined cycle has been under laboratory development in the form of a high slag rejection, regeneratively air cooled cyclone coal combustor concept, originated within this program. A hot bottom ceramic regenerative heat exchanger system was assembled and test fired with coal for the purposes of evaluating the catalytic effect of alumina on NO/sub x/ emission reduction and operability of the refractory dome support system. Design, procurement, fabrication and partial installation of a heat and seed recovery flow apparatus was accomplished and was based on a stream tube model of the full scale system using full scale temperatures, tube sizes, rates of temperature change and tube geometry. Systems analysis capability was substantially upgraded by the incorporation of a revised systems code, with emphasis on ease of operator interaction as well as separability of component subroutines. The updated code was used in the development of a new plant configuration, the Feedwater Cooled (FCB) Brayton Cycle, which is superior to the CCMHD/Steam cycle both in performance and cost. (WHK)

  9. Proteins of Leishmania (Viannia shawi confer protection associated with Th1 immune response and memory generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passero Luiz Felipe D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmania (Viannia shawi parasite was first characterized in 1989. Recently the protective effects of soluble leishmanial antigen (SLA from L. (V. shawi promastigotes were demonstrated using BALB/c mice, the susceptibility model for this parasite. In order to identify protective fractions, SLA was fractionated by reverse phase HPLC and five antigenic fractions were obtained. Methods F1 fraction was purified from L. (V. shawi parasite extract by reverse phase HPLC. BALB/c mice were immunized once a week for two consecutive weeks by subcutaneous routes in the rump, using 25 μg of F1. After 1 and 16 weeks of last immunization, groups were challenged in the footpad with L. (V. shawi promastigotes. After 2 months, those same mice were sacrificed and parasite burden, cellular and humoral immune responses were evaluated. Results The F1 fraction induced a high degree of protection associated with an increase in IFN-γ, a decrease in IL-4, increased cell proliferation and activation of CD8+T lymphocytes. Long-term protection was acquired in F1-immunized mice, associated with increased CD4+ central memory T lymphocytes and activation of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In addition, F1-immunized groups showed an increase in IgG2a levels. Conclusions The inductor capability of antigens to generate memory lymphocytes that can proliferate and secrete beneficial cytokines upon infection could be an important factor in the development of vaccine candidates against American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis.

  10. Fire History

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2002. Some fires...

  11. Fire Perimeters

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  12. Lightning Protection Performance Assessment of Transmission Line Based on ATP model Automatic Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Hanwu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method to solve the initial lightning breakdown current by combing ATP and MATLAB simulation software effectively, with the aims to evaluate the lightning protection performance of transmission line. Firstly, the executable ATP simulation model is generated automatically according to the required information such as power source parameters, tower parameters, overhead line parameters, grounding resistance and lightning current parameters, etc. through an interface program coded by MATLAB. Then, the data are extracted from the generated LIS files which can be obtained by executing the ATP simulation model, the occurrence of transmission lie breakdown can be determined by the relative data in LIS file. The lightning current amplitude should be reduced when the breakdown occurs, and vice the verse. Thus the initial lightning breakdown current of a transmission line with given parameters can be determined accurately by continuously changing the lightning current amplitude, which is realized by a loop computing algorithm that is coded by MATLAB software. The method proposed in this paper can generate the ATP simulation program automatically, and facilitates the lightning protection performance assessment of transmission line.

  13. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Longwell; J. Keifer; S. Goodin

    2001-01-22

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  14. 天然气净化厂安全防火防爆系统的应用分析%Application and analysis of the safety and fire protection and explosion protection system of natural gas purification plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    都永昌

    2016-01-01

    本文就天然气净化厂安全防火防爆系统的应用进行分析,以促进天然气净化厂对安全工作的重视程度,提升安全管理水平。%In this paper, the application of natural gas purification plant safety fire and explosion protection system is analyzed, in order to promote the natural gas purification plant to the safety work of attention, improve the level of safety management.

  15. Fire forum 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference contains 18 presentations on various aspects of fire prevention and protection within the power production plants and industry, safety of building constructions, cable and transformer problems, risk and safety evaluation methods, management aspects, relevant Norwegian and Icelandic laws and regulations and oil analysis. Some examples of fires and explosions are also presented. (tk)

  16. 30 CFR 75.1103-6 - Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire... Protection § 75.1103-6 Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems. Point-type heat sensors or automatic fire sensor and warning device systems may be used to actuate deluge-type water systems...

  17. Protection algorithm for a wind turbine generator based on positive- and negative-sequence fault components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Tai-Ying; Cha, Seung-Tae; Crossley, Peter A.;

    2011-01-01

    A protection relay for a wind turbine generator (WTG) based on positive- and negative-sequence fault components is proposed in the paper. The relay uses the magnitude of the positive-sequence component in the fault current to detect a fault on a parallel WTG, connected to the same power collection...... feeder, or a fault on an adjacent feeder; but for these faults, the relay remains stable and inoperative. A fault on the power collection feeder or a fault on the collection bus, both of which require an instantaneous tripping response, are distinguished from an inter-tie fault or a grid fault, which...

  18. Escape rout as a component of the mine fire protection system; Droga ucieczkowa jako element systemu zabezpieczenia przeciwpozarowego kopalni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badura, H.; Sulkowski, J. [Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland)

    1996-07-01

    The features and tasks of the fire safety systems are discussed briefly and next the authors concentrate on role and effectiveness of the escape routs in this system. The problems connected with the determination of escape routs as well as estimate of the disposable time for the staff self-rescue. Conclusions important for the practice relating to effective use of the escape routs are presented. (author). 7 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Fire Protection Safety Evaluations of Hydro-Treated Renewable Jet (HRJ) and Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK) Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    first responder must be established. The objective of this study was to measure alternative fuel safety parameters. Flame propagation tests documented the flame spread rate on liquid fuel surfaces. Flame visible spectrum emissions were measured in normal and elevated oxygen concentration environments. Commercial optical flame detectors (OFDs) and commercial combustible gas detectors (CGDs) were evaluated for their relative response to and ability to detect bio-oil derived hydroprocessed renewable jet (HRJ) and synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK) fuel fires and vapors as

  20. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, B.H.

    1999-08-19

    This Fire Hazard Analysis assesses the risk from fire within individual fire areas in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility at the Hanford Site in relation to existing or proposed fire protection features to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE Order 5480.7A Fire Protection are met.

  1. Findings From Fire Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — The purpose of this study data is to provide a metric with which to assess the effectiveness of improvements to the U.S. NRC's fire protection regulations in support...

  2. Operating experience feedback report -- turbine-generator overspeed protection systems: Commercial power reactors. Volume 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ornstein, H.L.

    1995-04-01

    This report presents the results of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) review of operating experience of main turbine-generator overspeed and overspeed protection systems. It includes an indepth examination of the turbine overspeed event which occurred on November 9, 1991, at the Salem Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant. It also provides information concerning actions taken by other utilities and the turbine manufacturers as a result of the Salem overspeed event. AEOD`s study reviewed operating procedures and plant practices. It noted differences between turbine manufacturer designs and recommendations for operations, maintenance, and testing, and also identified significant variations in the manner that individual plants maintain and test their turbine overspeed protection systems. AEOD`s study provides insight into the shortcomings in the design, operation, maintenance, testing, and human factors associated with turbine overspeed protection systems. Operating experience indicates that the frequency of turbine overspeed events is higher than previously thought and that the bases for demonstrating compliance with NRC`s General Design Criterion (GDC) 4, Environmental and dynamic effects design bases, may be nonconservative with respect to the assumed frequency.

  3. National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on lightning risk and wind turbine generator protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); McNiff, B. [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In the early development of wind turbine generators (WTG) in the United States, wind farms were primarily located in California where lightning activity is the lowest in the United States. As such, lightning protection for wind turbines was not considered to be a major issue for designers or wind farm operators. However, wind turbine installations are expanding into the Midwest, Southwest and other regions of the United States where lightning activity is significantly more intense and lightning damage to wind turbines is more common. There is a growing need, therefore, to better understand lightning activity on wind farms and to improve wind turbine lightning protection systems. In support of the U.S. Department of Energy/Electric Power Research Institute (DOE/EPRI) Utility Wind Turbine Verification Program (TVP), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has recently begun to take steps to determine the extent of damage due to lightning and the effectiveness of various lightning protection techniques for wind power plants. Working through the TVP program, NREL will also perform outreach and education to (1) help manufacturers to provide equipment that is adequately designed to survive lightning, (2) make sure that operators are aware of effective safety procedures, and (3) help site designers and wind farm developers take the risk of lightning into account as effectively as possible.

  4. VACCINES. A mucosal vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis generates two waves of protective memory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stary, Georg; Olive, Andrew; Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar F; Gondek, David; Alvarez, David; Basto, Pamela A; Perro, Mario; Vrbanac, Vladimir D; Tager, Andrew M; Shi, Jinjun; Yethon, Jeremy A; Farokhzad, Omid C; Langer, Robert; Starnbach, Michael N; von Andrian, Ulrich H

    2015-06-19

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection induces protective immunity that depends on interferon-γ-producing CD4 T cells. By contrast, we report that mucosal exposure to ultraviolet light (UV)-inactivated Ct (UV-Ct) generated regulatory T cells that exacerbated subsequent Ct infection. We show that mucosal immunization with UV-Ct complexed with charge-switching synthetic adjuvant particles (cSAPs) elicited long-lived protection in conventional and humanized mice. UV-Ct-cSAP targeted immunogenic uterine CD11b(+)CD103(-) dendritic cells (DCs), whereas UV-Ct accumulated in tolerogenic CD11b(-)CD103(+) DCs. Regardless of vaccination route, UV-Ct-cSAP induced systemic memory T cells, but only mucosal vaccination induced effector T cells that rapidly seeded uterine mucosa with resident memory T cells (T(RM) cells). Optimal Ct clearance required both T(RM) seeding and subsequent infection-induced recruitment of circulating memory T cells. Thus, UV-Ct-cSAP vaccination generated two synergistic memory T cell subsets with distinct migratory properties. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Fire detection in warehouse facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Dinaburg, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Automatic sprinklers systems are the primary fire protection system in warehouse and storage facilities. The effectiveness of this strategy has come into question due to the challenges presented by modern warehouse facilities, including increased storage heights and areas, automated storage retrieval systems (ASRS), limitations on water supplies, and changes in firefighting strategies. The application of fire detection devices used to provide early warning and notification of incipient warehouse fire events is being considered as a component of modern warehouse fire protection.Fire Detection i

  6. FIRE PERMIT NOW ON EDH!

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS General Safety Group or

    2001-01-01

    The electronic version of the Fire Permit form is now active. The aim of the Fire Permit procedure is to reduce the risk of fire or explosion. It is mandatory when performing 'hot work' (mainly activities which involve the use of naked flames or other heat sources - e.g. welding, brazing, cutting, grinding, etc.). Its use is explained in the CERN Fire Protection Code E. (Fire Protection) The new electronic form, which is substantially unchanged from the previous authorizing procedure, will be available on the Electronic Document Handling system (https://edh.cern.ch/) as of 1st September 2001. From this date use of the paper version should be discontinued.

  7. Accounting for fuel price risk: Using forward natural gas prices instead of gas price forecasts to compare renewable to natural gas-fired generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2003-08-13

    Against the backdrop of increasingly volatile natural gas prices, renewable energy resources, which by their nature are immune to natural gas fuel price risk, provide a real economic benefit. Unlike many contracts for natural gas-fired generation, renewable generation is typically sold under fixed-price contracts. Assuming that electricity consumers value long-term price stability, a utility or other retail electricity supplier that is looking to expand its resource portfolio (or a policymaker interested in evaluating different resource options) should therefore compare the cost of fixed-price renewable generation to the hedged or guaranteed cost of new natural gas-fired generation, rather than to projected costs based on uncertain gas price forecasts. To do otherwise would be to compare apples to oranges: by their nature, renewable resources carry no natural gas fuel price risk, and if the market values that attribute, then the most appropriate comparison is to the hedged cost of natural gas-fired generation. Nonetheless, utilities and others often compare the costs of renewable to gas-fired generation using as their fuel price input long-term gas price forecasts that are inherently uncertain, rather than long-term natural gas forward prices that can actually be locked in. This practice raises the critical question of how these two price streams compare. If they are similar, then one might conclude that forecast-based modeling and planning exercises are in fact approximating an apples-to-apples comparison, and no further consideration is necessary. If, however, natural gas forward prices systematically differ from price forecasts, then the use of such forecasts in planning and modeling exercises will yield results that are biased in favor of either renewable (if forwards < forecasts) or natural gas-fired generation (if forwards > forecasts). In this report we compare the cost of hedging natural gas price risk through traditional gas-based hedging instruments (e

  8. Experimental Study of the Behavior of Steel Structures Protected by Different Intumescent Coatings and Exposed to Various Fire Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucherini, Andrea; Costa, Razvan-Ioan; Giuliani, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Three different experimental setups corresponding to three different fire scenarios were used to investigate how different heating conditions and heating rates affect the behavior of two different thin intumescent coatings (solvent-based and water-based paints, respectively). The results confirm...... that the current procedure for the design of intumescent coatings has shortcomings, as different paints have different performances according to the heating conditions and, in particular, according to the fire’s heating rate. The tested water-based paint had better performance for low heating rates, while...

  9. Integration of bio-fired gas turbines in combined heat and power generation; Integrering av biogaseldad gasturbin i kraftvaermeanlaeggning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genrup, Magnus; Jonshagen, Klas

    2011-01-15

    The aim of the project was to perform a pre-study of the potential to introduce a biofired gas turbine into the pre-heater train of a district heating plant. The incentive for the work is the desire (and political drivers) to increase bio-fuel usage in heat and power production. Sweden has also ratified the EU treaty of having 20 percent renewable in the system before 2020. There are several options at the hand but locally produced biofuels from either gasification or biological processes can be fired in a gas turbine. The size of the gas turbine is limited by shear size of the fuel plant and raw-material transport issues. Today, the maximum electrical efficiency for large-scale advanced plants is on the order of 60 percent. This level is, however, not feasible for smaller size units and one can expect much lower levels. Another possibility is to re-power an existing plant and use the exhaust heat from the gas turbine. Either to produce steam in a heat recovery steam generator, heat boiler combustion air (and variants) or to reduce pre-heater extraction through by-passing the pre-heaters. Previous studies have shown that one could expect very high efficiency levels if the heat could be utilized in the feed water to the boiler. This is typically coupled to the admission pressure level and super-critical plant may have feed water temperature exceeding 300 deg C. The aim of this project was to investigate the potential from introducing this technology into a certain typical Swedish/Nordic turbine based district heating plant. A typical plant has modest admission data (compared to an ultra super-critical plant), hence lower final feed water temperature. A lower final temperature makes it more troublesome to effectively use the exhaust heat from the gas turbine. A further improvement is possible by introducing reheat. There are several practical limitations, where the most severe is the need to extract the full turbine flow and induce it after the reheater. The only

  10. Generation of Hospital Waste: An Awareness Impact on Health and Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available World is generating more and more waste as the population of people in the world & Hospitals are increasing day by day. Health care activities are a means of protecting health, curing patients and saving lives. Waste generating from hospitals, health centers and medicals are no exceptions. Medical waste contains toxic chemicals, can be infectious and pose contamination risks both to public health and environment. But they also generate waste, out of which 25 percent entail risks, either of infection, of trauma or radiation exposure. In addition the inappropriate treatment or disposal of the waste can lead to environmental contamination or pollution. Seventy five percent of the hospital waste is similar to household waste and do not entail any particular hazard. In general, PVC plastic waste represents the large amount in hospital waste. In this paper we are addressing the issue of incineration of medical waste and to control the surface water mercurial pollution, their impacts on health, environment and their remediation.

  11. 膨胀聚苯板薄抹灰外墙外保温系统防火构造研究%Study on Fire Protection Construction of EPS with Expanded Polystyrene Panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄曦; 陈怡宏; 段文川; 杨霞

    2013-01-01

    Through large sized corner fire test, the fire protection performance and flame propagation properties of fire barrier belt are comparatively studied when EPS is under fire attack. The results show that fire belt can effectively stop flame propagation, slow down fire process and enhance the fire prevention safety of the whole system.%  该研究采用大尺寸墙角火试验,对比研究了防火隔离带对聚苯板外墙外保温系统受到火源攻击时的防火性能及火焰传播性。试验结果证明:防火隔离带能够有效阻止火焰快速传播,延缓火灾进程,降低火苗高度,提高聚苯板外墙外保温系统的整体防火安全性。

  12. EVALUATION METHODOLOGY FOR PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF GENERATION IV NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARI, R.; ET AL.

    2006-03-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology approach developed by the Generation IV International Forum Expert Group on Proliferation Resistance & Physical Protection for evaluation of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection robustness of Generation IV nuclear energy systems options. The methodology considers a set of alternative systems and evaluates their resistance or robustness to a collection of potential threats. For the challenges considered, the response of the system to these challenges is assessed and expressed in terms of outcomes. The challenges to the system are given by the threats posed by potential proliferant States and sub-national adversaries on the nuclear systems. The characteristics of the Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate their response to the threats and determine their resistance against the proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and theft threats. System response encompasses three main elements: (1) System Element Identification. The nuclear energy system is decomposed into smaller elements (subsystems) at a level amenable to further analysis. (2) Target Identification and Categorization. A systematic process is used to identify and select representative targets for different categories of pathways, within each system element, that actors (proliferant States or adversaries) might choose to use or attack. (3) Pathway Identification and Refinement. Pathways are defined as potential sequences of events and actions followed by the proliferant State or adversary to achieve its objectives (proliferation, theft or sabotage). For each target, individual pathway segments are developed through a systematic process, analyzed at a high level, and screened where possible. Segments are connected into full pathways and analyzed in detail. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of PR&PP measures. Measures are high-level characteristics of a pathway that include

  13. Evaluation Methodology For Proliferation Resistance And Physical Protection Of Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems: An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Bjornard; R. Bari; R. Nishimura; P. Peterson; J. Roglans; D. Bley; J. Cazalet; G.G.M. Cojazzi; P. Delaune; M. Golay; G. Rendad; G. Rochau; M. Senzaki; I. Therios; M. Zentner

    2006-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology approach developed by the Generation IV International Forum Expert Group on Proliferation Resistance & Physical Protection for evaluation of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection robustness of Generation IV nuclear energy systems options. The methodology considers a set of alternative systems and evaluates their resistance or robustness to a collection of potential threats. For the challenges considered, the response of the system to these challenges is assessed and expressed in terms of outcomes. The challenges to the system are given by the threats posed by potential proliferant States and sub-national adversaries on the nuclear systems. The characteristics of the Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate their response to the threats and determine their resistance against the proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and theft threats. System response encompasses three main elements: 1.System Element Identification. The nuclear energy system is decomposed into smaller elements (subsystems) at a level amenable to further analysis. 2.Target Identification and Categorization. A systematic process is used to identify and select representative targets for different categories of pathways, within each system element, that actors (proliferant States or adversaries) might choose to use or attack. 3.Pathway Identification and Refinement. Pathways are defined as potential sequences of events and actions followed by the proliferant State or adversary to achieve its objectives (proliferation, theft or sabotage). For each target, individual pathway segments are developed through a systematic process, analyzed at a high level, and screened where possible. Segments are connected into full pathways and analyzed in detail. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of PR&PP measures. Measures are high-level characteristics of a pathway that include

  14. Prediction of spatially explicit rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for post-fire debris-flow generation in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Dennis M.; Negri, Jacquelyn A.; Kean, Jason W.; Laber, Jayme L.; Tillery, Anne C.; Youberg, Ann M.

    2017-02-01

    Early warning of post-fire debris-flow occurrence during intense rainfall has traditionally relied upon a library of regionally specific empirical rainfall intensity-duration thresholds. Development of this library and the calculation of rainfall intensity-duration thresholds often require several years of monitoring local rainfall and hydrologic response to rainstorms, a time-consuming approach where results are often only applicable to the specific region where data were collected. Here, we present a new, fully predictive approach that utilizes rainfall, hydrologic response, and readily available geospatial data to predict rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for debris-flow generation in recently burned locations in the western United States. Unlike the traditional approach to defining regional thresholds from historical data, the proposed methodology permits the direct calculation of rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for areas where no such data exist. The thresholds calculated by this method are demonstrated to provide predictions that are of similar accuracy, and in some cases outperform, previously published regional intensity-duration thresholds. The method also provides improved predictions of debris-flow likelihood, which can be incorporated into existing approaches for post-fire debris-flow hazard assessment. Our results also provide guidance for the operational expansion of post-fire debris-flow early warning systems in areas where empirically defined regional rainfall intensity-duration thresholds do not currently exist.

  15. Prediction of spatially explicit rainfall intensity–duration thresholds for post-fire debris-flow generation in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Dennis M.; Negri, Jacquelyn; Kean, Jason W.; Laber, Jayme L.; Tillery, Anne C.; Youberg, Ann M.

    2017-01-01

    Early warning of post-fire debris-flow occurrence during intense rainfall has traditionally relied upon a library of regionally specific empirical rainfall intensity–duration thresholds. Development of this library and the calculation of rainfall intensity-duration thresholds often require several years of monitoring local rainfall and hydrologic response to rainstorms, a time-consuming approach where results are often only applicable to the specific region where data were collected. Here, we present a new, fully predictive approach that utilizes rainfall, hydrologic response, and readily available geospatial data to predict rainfall intensity–duration thresholds for debris-flow generation in recently burned locations in the western United States. Unlike the traditional approach to defining regional thresholds from historical data, the proposed methodology permits the direct calculation of rainfall intensity–duration thresholds for areas where no such data exist. The thresholds calculated by this method are demonstrated to provide predictions that are of similar accuracy, and in some cases outperform, previously published regional intensity–duration thresholds. The method also provides improved predictions of debris-flow likelihood, which can be incorporated into existing approaches for post-fire debris-flow hazard assessment. Our results also provide guidance for the operational expansion of post-fire debris-flow early warning systems in areas where empirically defined regional rainfall intensity–duration thresholds do not currently exist.

  16. 14 CFR 23.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) There must be at least one hand fire extinguisher for use in the... least one hand fire extinguisher located conveniently in the passenger compartment— (1) Of each...

  17. 46 CFR 118.600 - Fire axe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire axe. 118.600 Section 118.600 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 118.600 Fire axe. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must have at least one fire axe...

  18. Impacts of nuclear plant shutdown on coal-fired power generation and infant health in the Tennessee Valley in the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severnini, Edson

    2017-04-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011 generated deep public anxiety and uncertainty about the future of nuclear energy. However, differently to fossil fuel plants, nuclear plants produce virtually no greenhouse gas emissions or air pollutants during power generation. Here we show the effect on air pollution and infant health in the context of the temporary closure of nuclear plants by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in the 1980s. After the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission intensified inspections throughout the nation, leading to the shutdown of two large nuclear power plants in the TVA area. In response to that shutdown, electricity generation shifted one to one to coal-fired power plants within TVA, increasing particle pollution in counties where they were located. Consequently, infant health may have deteriorated in the most affected places, indicating deleterious effects to public health.

  19. Protecting the environment for future generations. Principles and actors in international environmental law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proelss, Alexander (ed.) [Trier Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Environmental and Technology Law

    2017-08-01

    This book compiles the written versions of presentations held at the occasion of an international symposium entitled ''Protecting the Environment for Future Generations - Principles and Actors in International Environmental Law''. The symposium was organized by the Institute of Environmental and Technology Law of Trier University (IUTR) on the basis of a cooperation scheme with the Environmental Law Institute of the Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria, and took place in Trier on 29-30 October 2015. It brought together a distinguished group of experts from Europe and abroad to address current issues of international and European environmental law. The main objective of the symposium was to take stock of the actors and principles of international and European environmental law, and to analyze how and to what extent these principles have been implemented on the supranational and domestic legal levels.

  20. Developing new-generation machinery for vegetation management on protected wetlands in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Dubowski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many protected wetlands and (especially fen peatlands in Poland require vegetation management to restore and maintain them as breeding areas for endangered bird species. The current practice of harvesting, baling and transporting grasses, reeds and other vegetation using tracked snow groomers and wheeled farm tractors can conflict with the nature conservation goals for these sites through disturbance of the ground surface and accidents leading to spillage of oil. To address these problems, the Industrial Institute of Agricultural Engineering (PIMR is developing new-generation agricultural machinery that will also be applicable in formal paludiculture. This article describes an innovative method for towing large bales of harvested biomass across wetlands that minimises ground pressure using any vehicle, and the development of amphibian tracked (ATV and hovercraft vehicles for biomass harvesting operations in wetlands.

  1. Generation of entangled states and error protection from adiabatic avoided level crossings

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, N F; Volkas, R R; Wong, Y Y Y; Bell, Nicole F.; Volkas, Raymond R.; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2002-01-01

    We consider the environment-affected dynamics of $N$ self-interacting particles living in one-dimensional double wells. Two topics are dealt with. First, we consider the production of entangled states of two-level systems. We show that by adiabatically varying the well biases we may dynamically generate maximally entangled states, starting from initially unentangled product states. Entanglement degradation due to a common type of environmental influence is then computed by solving a master equation. However, we also demonstrate that entanglement production is unaffected if the system-environment coupling is of the type that induces ``motional narrowing''. As our second but related topic, we construct a different master equation that seamlessly merges error protection/detection dynamics for quantum information with the environmental couplings responsible for producing the errors in the first place. Adiabatic avoided crossing schemes are used in both topics.

  2. Parameterization of a synchronous generator to represent a doubly fed induction generator with chopper protection for fault studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Philip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    knowledge of the wind turbine short circuit current contribution is needed for component sizing and protection relay settings during faults within the wind power plant collector system or in the external networks. When studying fault currents and protection settings for wind power installations...

  3. Study of magnetic field expansion using a plasma generator for space radiation active protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Xiang-Hong; JIA Shao-Xia; XU Feng; BAI Yan-Qiang; WAN Jun; LIU Hong-Tao; JIANG Rui

    2013-01-01

    There are many active protecting methods including Electrostatic Fields,Confined Magnetic Field,Unconfined Magnetic Field and Plasma Shielding etc.for defending the high-energy solar particle events (SPE) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) in deep space exploration.The concept of using cold plasma to expand a magnetic field is the best one of all possible methods so far.The magnetic field expansion caused by plasma can improve its protective efficiency of space particles.One kind of plasma generator has been developed and installed into the cylindrical permanent magnet in the eccentric.A plasma stream is produced using a helical-shaped antenna driven by a radio-frequency (RF) power supply of 13.56 MHz,which exits from both sides of the magnet and makes the magnetic field expand on one side.The discharging belts phenomenon is similar to the Earth's radiation belt,but the mechanism has yet to be understood.A magnetic probe is used to measure the magnetic field expansion distributions,and the results indicate that the magnetic field intensity increases under higher increments of the discharge power.

  4. Exploration of the Issue of the Modern High-rise Building Fire Protection and Evacuation Design%关于现代高层建筑防火及疏散设计问题的探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘占东

    2014-01-01

    本文从高层建筑火灾事故的发生特征着手,分析了高层建筑在设计环节存在的不足,并就当前高层建筑的防火及疏散状况加以分析。希望在满足国家政策的基础上,实现高层建筑防火与疏散设计的进一步优化。%This paper starts from the characteristics of the fire accidents in high-rise buildings, analyzes the deficiency exi- sting in the design of high-rise buildings and the fire protection and evacuation situation in current high-rise buildings. It is expected that national policies can be meet and the design of the building fire protection and evacuation wil be further optimized.

  5. Fire risk in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Seth Howard

    Fire is an integral part of ecosystems in the western United States. Decades of fire suppression have led to (unnaturally) large accumulations of fuel in some forest communities, such as the lower elevation forests of the Sierra Nevada. Urban sprawl into fire prone chaparral vegetation in southern California has put human lives at risk and the decreased fire return intervals have put the vegetation community at risk of type conversion. This research examines the factors affecting fire risk in two of the dominant landscapes in the state of California, chaparral and inland coniferous forests. Live fuel moisture (LFM) is important for fire ignition, spread rate, and intensity in chaparral. LFM maps were generated for Los Angeles County by developing and then inverting robust cross-validated regression equations from time series field data and vegetation indices (VIs) and phenological metrics from MODIS data. Fire fuels, including understory fuels which are not visible to remote sensing instruments, were mapped in Yosemite National Park using the random forests decision tree algorithm and climatic, topographic, remotely sensed, and fire history variables. Combining the disparate data sources served to improve classification accuracies. The models were inverted to produce maps of fuel models and fuel amounts, and these showed that fire fuel amounts are highest in the low elevation forests that have been most affected by fire suppression impacting the natural fire regime. Wildland fires in chaparral commonly burn in late summer or fall when LFM is near its annual low, however, the Jesusita Fire burned in early May of 2009, when LFM was still relatively high. The HFire fire spread model was used to simulate the growth of the Jesusita Fire using LFM maps derived from imagery acquired at the time of the fire and imagery acquired in late August to determine how much different the fire would have been if it had occurred later in the year. Simulated fires were 1.5 times larger

  6. The Development of a Thermally Enhanced Emergency Fire Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fody, Joshua M.; Calomino, Anthony M.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Bruce III, Walter E.; Wells, John M.; Wusk, Mary E.; Miller, Stephen D.

    2017-01-01

    Since its founding in 1905, the U.S. Forest Service has been responsible for maintaining public lands. The Forest Service and other public lands agencies respond to an average of 73,000 wildfires per year, and responding firefighters are required to carry a number of safety gear items, including the M2002 emergency fire shelter. The emergency fire shelter is intended to serve as a last resort means of protection in case a firefighter's escape route has been compromised in the face of an approaching flame front. No fire shelter deployment tragedy has been more costly than the 2013 Yarnell Hill fire in Arizona, where 19 members of the Granite Mountain Hotshots perished. After the tragedy at Yarnell Hill, the Forest Service decided to expedite the next redesign cycle of the fire shelter in order to improve its ability to withstand direct contact with flames. Engineers at NASA Langley Research Center have spent the better part of a decade developing flexible thermal materials for use in inflatable aerodynamic decelerators and have demonstrated their performance in the IRVE-2 and IRVE-3 flight programs (Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment). NASA engineers recognized an opportunity to leverage their experience and knowledge with flexible thermal protection systems to potentially improve the fire shelter's resistance to direct flame contact, and have been working directly with the U.S. Forest Service to achieve this goal. They launched the CHIEFS project (Convective Heating Improvement for Emergency Fire Shelters) in 2014. Over the past three years, CHIEFS has screened over 270 unique material layups, and tested over 30 unique full scale shelter concepts in an effort to achieve a game changing improvement to the thermal protection of the fire shelter, while maintaining minimal mass and volume. This paper will discuss CHIEFS' 1st and 2nd generation fire shelter development efforts and test results.

  7. 77 FR 58035 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for Ozone-Depleting Substances-Fire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ....regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know your identity or... Governments G. Executive Order 13045: Protection of Children From Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks... available substitutes for the same end use. \\4\\ IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis...

  8. Application of Technical Code for Fire Protection Water Supply and Hydrant Systems in the Design of Fire Hydrant System in Subway Engineering%《消防给水及消火栓系统规范》(GB50974-2014)在地铁工程消火栓系统设计中的应用探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏晨光; 张永磊

    2015-01-01

    The Technical Code for Fire Protection Water Supply and Hydrant Systems ( GB50974—2014 ) published this year requires more outdoor fire fighting water in comparison with previous specifications and defines that the stabilizing device parameters of temporary high pressure fire protection water supply system and the fire hydrant button should not be used as switch to directly start the fire pump. Based on the understanding of the new requirements, the researches and analysis on the design of metro fire hydrant system through practical design experiences, the paper concludes that subway engineering outdoor fire water with dual municipal water sources can be used to meet the subway water requirement, and otherwise fire pool has to be provided. The voltage stabilizing device flow value of the temporary high pressure fire protection water supply system, should be 1 ~2 L/s, the lift should be greater than 0. 15 MPa and higher than the set pressure value of 0. 07~0. 10 MPa, and the volume of water storage should be 150~300 L and fire pump start button should be retained.%2014年发布的《消防给水及消火栓系统技术规范》( GB50974—2014)相较于以往规范,针对地铁车站的消火栓系统提出增加室外消防水量、明确临时高压消防给水系统的稳压装置参数及消火栓按钮不宜作为直接启动消防水泵的开关的描述。通过对新增要求的理解,以实践设计经验对地铁消火栓系统设计方案进行研究分析,结论:地铁工程室外消防水量在双路市政水源的情况下可利用由市政水源接出的室外消火栓满足水量要求,否则需设置消防水池;临时高压系统的稳压装置流量取值宜为1~2 L/s,静水压力大于0.15 MPa且高于设定压力值0.07~0.10 MPa,储水容积宜为150~300 L;消防泵启泵按钮应保留。

  9. RETRO Fires Aggr

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — Within the RETRO project, global gridded data sets for anthropogenic and vegetation fire emissions of several trace gases were generated, covering the period from...

  10. Protective coatings for the Ontario Power Generation Inc. dry storage container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewak, R. [Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: richard.lewak@kinectrics.com; Ellsworth, B. [Ontario Power Generation Inc., Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: brad.ellsworth@opg.com

    2006-07-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG), formerly Ontario Hydro, has been storing used CANDU fuel in the irradiated fuel bays (IFBs) at its nuclear generating stations since they began operation. As the IFBs began reaching capacity, the dry storage of previously cooled used fuel became an economically viable alternative to the construction of additional wet fuel bays and the OPG Dry Storage Container (DSC) was developed. The OPG DSC is a free standing reinforced concrete container, with an inner and outer carbon steel shell, for the storage and transportation of used CANDU fuel. The outer steel shell of the DSC is protected by an applied coating system to facilitate decontamination of the outer shell and to provide protective corrosion resistance. In 1990 a study was performed to determine the optimal commercial coating system to be considered as a protective coating on the DSC outer shell. An experimental program was undertaken to identify the optimal commercial coating system, which had the best decontamination characteristics as well as maximum resistance to abrasion, weathering and durability. A total of nine coating systems were selected for study, five epoxy coatings, three epoxy/polyurethane coatings, and one polyurethane coating. Sand blasted carbon steel coupons, similar to the DSC outer shell, were coated by the manufacturers and submitted for testing of the decontamination characteristics such as activity uptake, decontamination of the coating, and the activity 'sweating' phenomenon. Tests identified four commercially available pure epoxy and epoxy/polyurethane protective coating systems as being the most promising for the exterior of the DSC surface. Of these four, the coating system chosen for use on the DSC was an epoxy/polyurethane system. After a decade of use, however, several safety and environmental concerns centering on the isocyanate content present in the polyurethane and the Volatile Organic Component (VOC) content of the coating system have

  11. Sun protection attitudes and behaviours among first generation Australians with darker skin types: results from focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jamie; Zucca, Alison; Brozek, Irena; Rock, Vanessa; Bonevski, Billie

    2015-02-01

    Despite residing in a country that has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world, little is known about the knowledge, attitudes and sun protection practices of first generation Australian-born individuals with olive and darker skin types. Six focus groups with first generation Australian-born individuals of Asian, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern and Indian background were conducted. Participants had good knowledge of the dangers of skin cancer. Most correctly perceived darker skin types as protective and believed they were at low risk of skin cancer. Most participants could recall high profile mass media sun protection campaigns. Several participants suggested that greater representation of ethnic minorities and/or individuals with darker skin types would increase the personal relevance of campaigns. Beliefs that sun protection is not necessary on the basis of skin type highlights the need for further studies to explore fundamental differences in attitudes and practices between those with olive and darker skin and the general Australian population.

  12. A Multi-Agent System Based Protection and Control Scheme for Distribution System with Distributed Generation Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Z.; Su, Chi; Hoidalen, Hans

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a multi agent system (MAS) based protection and control scheme is proposed to deal with diverse operation conditions in distribution system due to distributed generation (DG) integration. Based on cooperation between DG controller and relays, an adaptive protection and control...... of system topology and DG status. The proposed scheme is tested and validated on a test distribution system in a hardware-in-the-loop real time testing platform....

  13. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, John S

    2003-04-01

    DOE prepared an environmental assessment (EA)for wildland fire management activities on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (DOE/EA-1372). The EA was developed to evaluate wildland fire management options for pre-fire, fire suppression, and post fire activities. Those activities have an important role in minimizing the conversion of the native sagebrush steppe ecosystem found on the INEEL to non-native weeds. Four alternative management approaches were analyzed: Alternative 1 - maximum fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 3 - protect infrastructure and personnel; and Alternative 4 - no action/traditional fire protection.

  14. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management Environmental Assessment - April 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, J.S.

    2003-04-30

    DOE prepared an environmental assessment (EA)for wildland fire management activities on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (DOE/EA-1372). The EA was developed to evaluate wildland fire management options for pre-fire, fire suppression, and post fire activities. Those activities have an important role in minimizing the conversion of the native sagebrush steppe ecosystem found on the INEEL to non-native weeds. Four alternative management approaches were analyzed: Alternative 1 - maximum fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 3 - protect infrastructure and personnel; and Alternative 4 - no action/traditional fire protection.

  15. On Optimization of Fire Protection Design for Large-Size Comprehensive Real Estate Projects%浅论大型综合地产项目消防设计的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱春林

    2013-01-01

    结合七彩俊园项目工程,阐述了大型综合体建筑中消防设计重点和难点。探讨了地下空间、超高层办公、超高层住宅等建筑消防问题及解决的方法。%Combined with Qicaijunyuan project , the key and difficult points of fire protection design in large -size comprehensive buildings were elaborated .On this basis, some fire-fighting problems and their solutions for underground space , super high-rise office buildings and residential buildings were discussed .

  16. Can butterflies evade fire? Pupa location and heat tolerance in fire prone habitats of Florida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Thom

    Full Text Available Butterflies such as the atala hairstreak, Eumaeus atala Poey, and the frosted elfin, Callophrys irus Godart, are restricted to frequently disturbed habitats where their larval host plants occur. Pupae of these butterflies are noted to reside at the base of host plants or in the leaf litter and soil, which may allow them to escape direct mortality by fire, a prominent disturbance in many areas they inhabit. The capacity of these species to cope with fire is a critical consideration for land management and conservation strategies in the locations where they are found. Survival of E. atala pupae in relation to temperature and duration of heat pulse was tested using controlled water bath experiments and a series of prescribed fire field experiments. Survival of E. atala pupae was correlated to peak temperature and heat exposure in both laboratory and field trials. In addition, E. atala survival following field trials was correlated to depth of burial; complete mortality was observed for pupae at the soil surface. Fifty percent of E. atala survived the heat generated by prescribed fire when experimentally placed at depths ≥ 1.75 cm, suggesting that pupation of butterflies in the soil at depth can protect from fatal temperatures caused by fire. For a species such as E. atala that pupates above ground, a population reduction from a burn event is a significant loss, and so decreasing the impact of prescribed fire on populations is critical.

  17. Can butterflies evade fire? Pupa location and heat tolerance in fire prone habitats of Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Matthew D; Daniels, Jaret C; Kobziar, Leda N; Colburn, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    Butterflies such as the atala hairstreak, Eumaeus atala Poey, and the frosted elfin, Callophrys irus Godart, are restricted to frequently disturbed habitats where their larval host plants occur. Pupae of these butterflies are noted to reside at the base of host plants or in the leaf litter and soil, which may allow them to escape direct mortality by fire, a prominent disturbance in many areas they inhabit. The capacity of these species to cope with fire is a critical consideration for land management and conservation strategies in the locations where they are found. Survival of E. atala pupae in relation to temperature and duration of heat pulse was tested using controlled water bath experiments and a series of prescribed fire field experiments. Survival of E. atala pupae was correlated to peak temperature and heat exposure in both laboratory and field trials. In addition, E. atala survival following field trials was correlated to depth of burial; complete mortality was observed for pupae at the soil surface. Fifty percent of E. atala survived the heat generated by prescribed fire when experimentally placed at depths ≥ 1.75 cm, suggesting that pupation of butterflies in the soil at depth can protect from fatal temperatures caused by fire. For a species such as E. atala that pupates above ground, a population reduction from a burn event is a significant loss, and so decreasing the impact of prescribed fire on populations is critical.

  18. Hybrid reed: Solid-state devices are a new generation of protective relays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurevich Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Research and development in the field of electromechanical protective relays has not been conducted for tens of years. Author’s approach allows viewing the problem of re-equipment of relay protection in a new way. In the author’s opinion combination of reed switches with magnetic circuits and semiconductor elements opens new avenues in development of the promising protective relays featuring reliability, simplicity and low cost. Examples of protective relays made with these elements are given below.

  19. Parenting styles in a cultural context: observations of "protective parenting" in first-generation Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech Rodríguez, Melanie M; Donovick, Melissa R; Crowley, Susan L

    2009-06-01

    Current literature presents four primary parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful. These styles provide an important shortcut for a constellation of parenting behaviors that have been characterized as consisting of warmth, demandingness, and autonomy granting. Empirically, only warmth and demandingness are typically measured. Research reporting on parenting styles in Latino samples has been equivocal leading to questions about conceptualization and measurement of parenting styles in this ethnic/cultural group. This lack of consensus may result from the chasm between concepts (e.g., authoritarian parenting) and observable parenting behaviors (e.g., warmth) in this ethnic group. The present research aimed to examine parenting styles and dimensions in a sample of Latino parents using the two usual dimensions (warmth, demandingness) and adding autonomy granting. Traditional parenting styles categories were examined, as well as additional categorizations that resulted from adding autonomy granting. Fifty first-generation Latino parents and their child (aged 4-9) participated. Parent-child interactions were coded with the Parenting Style Observation Rating Scale (P-SOS). In this sample, the four traditional parenting categories did not capture Latino families well. The combination of characteristics resulted in eight possible parenting styles. Our data showed the majority (61%) of Latino parents as "protective parents." Further, while mothers and fathers were similar in their parenting styles, expectations were different for male and female children. The additional dimensions and implications are discussed. The importance of considering the cultural context in understanding parenting in Latino families is emphasized, along with directions for future research.

  20. Cryptococcus neoformans capsule protects cell from oxygen reactive species generated by antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Renato Araujo; Hamblin, Michael R.; Kato, Ilka T.; Fuchs, Beth; Mylonakis, Eleytherios; Simões Ribeiro, Martha; Tegos, George

    2011-03-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (APDI) is based on the utilization of substances that can photosensitize biological tissues and are capable of being activated in the presence of light. Cryptococcus neoformans is an yeast surrounded by a capsule composed primarily of glucoronoxylomannan that plays an important role in its virulence. This yeast causes infection on skin, lungs and brain that can be associated with neurological sequelae and neurosurgical interventions, and its conventional treatment requires prolonged antifungal therapy, which presents important adverse effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Cryptococcus neoformans capsule against reactive oxygen species generated by APDI. Cryptococcus neoformans KN99α, which is a strain able to produce capsule, and CAP59 that does not present capsule production were submitted to APDI using methylene blue (MB), rose bengal (RB), and pL-ce6 as photosensitizers (PS). Then microbial inactivation was evaluated by counting colony form units following APDI and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) illustrated localization as well as the preferential accumulation of PS into the fungal cells. C. neoformans KN99α was more resistant to APDI than CAP59 for all PSs tested. CLSM showed incorporation of MB and RB into the cytoplasm and a preferential uptake in mitochondria. A nuclear accumulation of MB was also observed. Contrarily, pL-ce6 appears accumulated in cell wall and cell membrane and minimal florescence was observed inside the fungal cells. In conclusion, the ability of C. neoformans to form capsule enhances survival following APDI.

  1. Post-fire overland flow generation and inter-rill erosion under simulated rainfall in two eucalypt stands in north-central Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvar, M C; Prats, S A; Nunes, J P; Keizer, J J

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the existing knowledge of the runoff and inter-rill erosion response of forest stands following wildfire, focusing on commercial eucalypt plantations and employing field rainfall simulation experiments (RSE's). Repeated RSE's were carried out in two adjacent but contrasting eucalypt stands on steep hill slopes in north-central Portugal that suffered a moderate severity fire in July 2005. This was done at six occasions ranging from 3 to 24 months after the fire and using a paired-plot experimental design that comprised two pairs of RSE's at each site and occasion. Of the 46 RSE's: (i) 24 and 22 RSE's involved application rates of 45-50 and 80-85 mm h(-1), respectively; (ii) 22 took place in a stand that had been ploughed in down slope direction several years before the wildfire and 24 in an unploughed stand. The results showed a clear tendency for extreme-intensity RSE's to produce higher runoff amounts and greater soil and organic matter losses than the simultaneous high-intensity RSE's on the neighbouring plots. However, there existed marked exceptions, both in space (for one of the plot pairs) and time (under intermediate soil water repellency conditions). Also, overland flow generation and erosion varied significantly between the various field campaigns. This temporal pattern markedly differed from a straightforward decline with time-after-fire and rather suggested a seasonal component, reflecting broad variations in topsoil water repellency. The ploughed site produced less runoff and erosion than the unploughed site, contrary to what would be expected if the down slope ploughing had occurred after the wildfire instead of several years before it. Finally, sediment losses at both study sites were noticeably lower than those reported by other studies involving repeat RSE's, i.e. in Australia and western Spain. This possibly reflected a history of intensive land use in the study region, including in more recent times after the

  2. Fire Hazards Analysis for the Inactive Equipment Storage Sprung Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MYOTT, C.F.

    2000-02-03

    The purpose of the analysis is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the fire protection objective of DOE Order 5480.1A are met. The order acknowledges a graded approach commensurate with the hazards involved.

  3. Protection against ventricular fibrillation via cholinergic receptor stimulation and the generation of nitric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalla, Manish; Chotalia, Minesh; Coughlan, Charles; Hao, Guoliang; Crabtree, Mark J.; Tomek, Jakub; Bub, Gil; Paterson, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Animal studies suggest an anti‐fibrillatory action of the vagus nerve on the ventricle, although the exact mechanism is controversial.Using a Langendorff perfused rat heart, we show that the acetylcholine analogue carbamylcholine raises ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT) and flattens the electrical restitution curve.The anti‐fibrillatory action of carbamylcholine was prevented by the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine, inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), and can be mimicked by the nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside.Carbamylcholine increased NO metabolite content in the coronary effluent and this was prevented by mecamylamine.The anti‐fibrillatory action of both carbamylcholine and sodium nitroprusside was ultimately dependent on muscarinic receptor stimulation as all effects were blocked by atropine.These data demonstrate a protective effect of carbamylcholine on VFT that depends upon both muscarinic and nicotinic receptor stimulation, where the generation of NO is likely to be via a neuronal nNOS–sGC dependent pathway. Abstract Implantable cardiac vagal nerve stimulators are a promising treatment for ventricular arrhythmia in patients with heart failure. Animal studies suggest the anti‐fibrillatory effect may be nitric oxide (NO) dependent, although the exact site of action is controversial. We investigated whether a stable analogue of acetylcholine could raise ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT), and whether this was dependent on NO generation and/or muscarinic/nicotinic receptor stimulation. VFT was determined in Langendorff perfused rat hearts by burst pacing until sustained VF was induced. Carbamylcholine (CCh, 200 nmol l–1, n = 9) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced heart rate from 292 ± 8 to 224 ± 6 b.p.m. Independent of this heart rate change, CCh caused a significant increase in VFT (control 1.5 ± 0.3 mA, CCh 2.4 ± 0.4 mA, wash 1.1

  4. Effect of clothing layers in combination with fire fighting personal protective clothing on physiological and perceptual responses to intermittent work and on materials performance test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Denise L; Haller, Jeannie M; Hultquist, Eric M; Lefferts, Wesley K; Fehling, Patricia C

    2013-01-01

    Personal protective clothing (PPC) shields firefighters from thermal and other occupational hazards; however, it also contributes to physiological and perceptual strain. This study examined the effect of clothing layers worn under structural fire fighting turnout gear (TOG) on physiological and perceptual responses during alternating work/recovery cycles and assessed the clothing ensembles' (PPC + base layer) material performance. Values are reported as mean ± standard error of the mean. Ten men (age, 21 ± 0.3 yr; height, 1.74 ± 0.02 m; weight, 74.3 ± 2.3 kg; VO2max, 58.9 ± 2.0 mL/kg/min) completed a 110-min alternating work/recovery walking protocol (three 20-min exercise bouts/10-, 20-, and 20-min recovery sessions) in a thermo-neutral (21.0°C, 58.7% RH) laboratory while wearing a cotton t-shirt (COT) or COT and a station uniform (SU) shirt under fire fighting TOG (COT+TOG and COT+SU+TOG, respectively). Changes in heart rate (HR), core temperature (Tco), skin temperature (Tsk), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and thermal sensations (TS) were compared across exercise and recovery periods. During exercise sessions, HR, Tco, Tsk, and RPE reached similar levels for COT+TOG and COT+SU+TOG. During Recoveries 1, 2, and 3, mean chest Tsk decreased by 3.96, 6.64, and 6.49°C, respectively, for COT+TOG compared with 2.24, 3.78, and 4.09°C for COT+SU+TOG (p benefits were experienced during the recovery sessions for the COT+TOG ensemble as evidenced by a lower chest Tsk. In addition, materials performance testing revealed COT+SU+TOG provided greater thermal protection (64.8 ± 1.9 vs. 56.4 ± 0.3 cal/cm(2); p < 0.05) and equivalent heat dissipation compared with COT+TOG. These findings could guide departmental decisions about the use of station shirts.

  5. The fire protection design on the bunker/hod of the coal disposal system%燃煤处理系统煤仓/煤斗的消防保护设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴丽萍

    2009-01-01

    综合、和NFPA 850等相关规范的规定,以系统工程应用研究为基础,结合惰性气体灭火系统产品特点,对采用低压二氧化碳灭火系统的火力发电厂燃煤处理系统的煤仓/煤斗消防保护进行了设计思路的研究和探讨.%Refer to the related criterion numbered GB50229-2006, GB50193-1993,NFPA850 and so on, the design method of applying the low voltage carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system to the bunker/hod fire protection for the coal disposal system in the fuel electric plant was studied based on the existing system engineering research results and the characteristics of the inert gases fire-extinguishing system.

  6. Analysis on the Quality Problems and Potential Safety Hazards of Building Construction Fire Protection Engineering%房屋建筑消防工程施工存在的质量问题和安全隐患

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡琼

    2015-01-01

    对近年来房屋建筑消防工程施工存在的质量问题和安全隐患进行总结,分析了施工现场消火栓系统、自动喷淋灭火系统施工和建筑灭火器设置存在质量问题和安全隐患的主要原因,并提出了改进措施.%The article summarized the quality problems and potential safety hazards of building construction fire protection engineering in recent years,analyzed the main reasons about the quality problems and potential safety hazards of fire hydrant systems automatic sprinkler system construction and fire extinguishers installation,and proposes some improvement measures.

  7. Fire protection design of monolayer furniture store of large space steel structure%大空间钢结构单层家具商场的消防设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟

    2012-01-01

    在分析大空间钢结构单层家具商场火灾危险性的基础上,从耐火等级、防火分区、安全疏散、自动喷水灭火系统和防排烟等方面探讨大空间钢结构单层家具商场的消防设计.%Based on the analysis of fire risk of the monolayer furniture store with large space steel structure, the fire protection design of the system was discussed on fireproof rank, fire partition, safe evacuation, automatic sprinkler system and smoke control.

  8. Assessment of a Forest-fire Danger Index for Russia Using Remote Sensing Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhinin, Anatoly; McRae, Douglas; Ji-Zhong, Jin; Dubrovskaya, Olga; Ponomarev, Eugene

    2010-05-01

    Intensive exploitation of Siberian forest resources requires to increase the level of their protection. In Russia, forests annually disturbed by fire make up about 6% of the total forest area, whereas they account for hundredth or even thousandth of percent in the West European countries and Canada. Devastating forest fires associated with long draughts have become very common over recent decades in some parts of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Fires burning under these conditions disturb hundreds of thousands hectares of forest lands. Forest fires impact essentially on different biogeocenosis and on ecological situation in region as well. Thus their detrimental effects, including economic damage, are hard to overestimate. Remote sensing data using is more perspective method for forests monitoring in Russia. Moreover satellite data is only available information for non-protected Russian boreal forests and tundra also. To be efficient, modern forest fire managers require a reliable method for estimating fire danger. For large remote forested areas, such as found in Russia where a dense network of local weather station needed to calculate fire danger does not exist, this can be a major problem. However, remote sensing using satellite data can provide reasonable estimates of fire danger across Russia to allow for an understanding of the current fire situation. An algorithm has been developed that can assess current fire danger by inputting ambient weather conditions derived from remote sensing data obtained from NOAA, TERRA-series satellites. Necessary inputs for calculating fire danger, such as surface temperature, dew-point temperature, and precipitation, are obtained from AVHRR, MODIS and ATOVS satellite data. By generating the final products as maps a concise picture can be presented of fire danger across Russia. In order to understand future fire suppression needs, fire danger predictions for an advanced 7-day period can be made using meteorological forecasts

  9. An improved PSO algorithm for generating protective SNP barcodes in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yeh Chuang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Possible single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP interactions in breast cancer are usually not investigated in genome-wide association studies. Previously, we proposed a particle swarm optimization (PSO method to compute these kinds of SNP interactions. However, this PSO does not guarantee to find the best result in every implement, especially when high-dimensional data is investigated for SNP-SNP interactions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we propose IPSO algorithm to improve the reliability of PSO for the identification of the best protective SNP barcodes (SNP combinations and genotypes with maximum difference between cases and controls associated with breast cancer. SNP barcodes containing different numbers of SNPs were computed. The top five SNP barcode results are retained for computing the next SNP barcode with a one-SNP-increase for each processing step. Based on the simulated data for 23 SNPs of six steroid hormone metabolisms and signalling-related genes, the performance of our proposed IPSO algorithm is evaluated. Among 23 SNPs, 13 SNPs displayed significant odds ratio (OR values (1.268 to 0.848; p<0.05 for breast cancer. Based on IPSO algorithm, the jointed effect in terms of SNP barcodes with two to seven SNPs show significantly decreasing OR values (0.84 to 0.57; p<0.05 to 0.001. Using PSO algorithm, two to four SNPs show significantly decreasing OR values (0.84 to 0.77; p<0.05 to 0.001. Based on the results of 20 simulations, medians of the maximum differences for each SNP barcode generated by IPSO are higher than by PSO. The interquartile ranges of the boxplot, as well as the upper and lower hinges for each n-SNP barcode (n = 3∼10 are more narrow in IPSO than in PSO, suggesting that IPSO is highly reliable for SNP barcode identification. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, the proposed IPSO algorithm is robust to provide exact identification of the best protective SNP barcodes for breast cancer.

  10. Compliance with Electrical and Fire Protection Standards of U.S. Controlled and Occupied Facilities in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources , gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing...generator is non-operational: Finding (BAF-EL-120709-030) Introduction 4 │ DODIG-2013-099 • In front of Building 25022 along Disney Street, there are...is not feasible to increase the distance to adjacent building without additional funds and the loss of the adjacent structure. A waiver will be

  11. High-Temperature Structures, Adhesives, and Advanced Thermal Protection Materials for Next-Generation Aeroshell Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Timothy J.; Congdon, William M.; Smeltzer, Stanley S.; Whitley, Karen S.

    2005-01-01

    The next generation of planetary exploration vehicles will rely heavily on robust aero-assist technologies, especially those that include aerocapture. This paper provides an overview of an ongoing development program, led by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and aimed at introducing high-temperature structures, adhesives, and advanced thermal protection system (TPS) materials into the aeroshell design process. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate TPS materials that can withstand the higher heating rates of NASA's next generation planetary missions, and to validate high-temperature structures and adhesives that can reduce required TPS thickness and total aeroshell mass, thus allowing for larger science payloads. The effort described consists of parallel work in several advanced aeroshell technology areas. The areas of work include high-temperature adhesives, high-temperature composite materials, advanced ablator (TPS) materials, sub-scale demonstration test articles, and aeroshell modeling and analysis. The status of screening test results for a broad selection of available higher-temperature adhesives is presented. It appears that at least one (and perhaps a few) adhesives have working temperatures ranging from 315-400 C (600-750 F), and are suitable for TPS-to-structure bondline temperatures that are significantly above the traditional allowable of 250 C (482 F). The status of mechanical testing of advanced high-temperature composite materials is also summarized. To date, these tests indicate the potential for good material performance at temperatures of at least 600 F. Application of these materials and adhesives to aeroshell systems that incorporate advanced TPS materials may reduce aeroshell TPS mass by 15% - 30%. A brief outline is given of work scheduled for completion in 2006 that will include fabrication and testing of large panels and subscale aeroshell test articles at the Solar-Tower Test Facility located at Kirtland AFB and operated by Sandia

  12. 徐州汽车客运东站站房消防系统设计分析%Analysis of Fire Protection System Designing of East Automobile Passenger Station Building in Xuzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓锋; 方海玲

    2012-01-01

    Fire control systems which play an important role in modern architecture engineering is the security line for people's life and property, especially in public buildings. Taking fire protection system designing of east automobile passenger station building in Xuzhou for example, this paper discusses fire control systems' matching principles in large public buildings. According to the different function intervals and space characteristics in fire control system configuration, this paper mainly introduces the setting principles and matching schemes of systems in different architectural space and functions such as water supply system of fire hydrant, sprinkler extinguishing system, fixed fire monitor extinguishing system, gas extinguishing system and automatic fire alarm system.%消防灭火系统在现代建筑工程中的作用至关重要,尤其是在公共建筑中,它是人民群众生命和财产的保障线.以徐州汽车客运东站站房消防系统设置为例,阐述了在大型公共建筑消防系统选配原则.根据不同的功能区间和空间特点进行消防系统配置,主要介绍了消防栓给水、自动喷水灭火、固定消防炮灭火、气体灭火及火灾的自动报警等系统在不同建筑空间和功能中的设置原则及其选配方案.

  13. Factors Associated with College Students' Intentions to Vaccinate Their Daughters Against HPV: Protecting the Next Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kelly L; White, Alice; Rosen, Brittany L; Chiappone, Alethea; Pulczinski, Jairus C; Ory, Marcia G; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2016-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a contemporary public health concern because of its association with cervical cancer. Despite evidence about HPV vaccination benefits, debate surrounds whether or not to vaccinate American youth. While no nationwide mandate exists, understanding the behaviors and intentions of future parents may provide insight about our ability to protect the next generation of school-aged youth. The purposes of this study were to examine factors associated with unmarried college students' intentions to: (1) vaccinate their daughters against HPV and (2) give their daughters the choice about whether or not to be vaccinated. Data were analyzed from 1606 college students aged 18-26 using an internet-delivered questionnaire. Two binary logistic regression analyses were performed identifying predictor variables associated with participants' intentions when having daughters in the future to vaccinate them against HPV and whether or not they would let their daughters decide to get the vaccination. Relative to those who did not intend to vaccinate their daughters against HPV, participants who were female (OR 1.55, P = 0.018), sexually active (OR 1.62, P = 0.001), diagnosed with HPV (OR 2.64, P HPV vaccine to be safe (OR 1.19, P HPV vaccination mandates for school-aged youth (OR 2.58, P vaccinating their daughters against HPV. Participants who were sexually active (OR 1.45, P = 0.002) and perceived the HPV vaccine to be safe (OR 1.05, P = 0.012) were more likely to report they would allow their daughters to choose whether to be vaccinated against HPV. Until HPV vaccination mandates are enacted, parental support of vaccines are among the most effective way of increasing vaccine uptake. Identifying HPV vaccination support among future parents has potential to inform parent vaccination education programs related and advocacy for HPV vaccination policies.

  14. Water mist fire protection system in subway application%细水雾灭火系统在城市轨道交通中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱世敏

    2012-01-01

    通过比较细水雾灭火系统与气体灭火系统的不同,结合细水雾灭火系统在地铁的应用研究,阐述细水雾灭火系统作为一种既高效又节能的灭火系统可替代气体灭火系统在地铁的设备管理用房等部位使用.%through the comparison of water mist fire extinguishing system and gas fire extinguishing system, combined with the water mist fire extinguishing system in metro applied research, elaborated that water mist fire extinguishing system as a kind of efficient and energy-saving fire extinguishing system can replace the gas fire extinguishing system in metro equipment management with real parts using.

  15. Low Cost Sorbent for Capturing CO2 Emissions Generated by Existing Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Jeannine [TDA Research, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States)

    2013-08-31

    TDA Research, Inc. has developed a novel sorbent based post-combustion CO2 removal technology. This low cost sorbent can be regenerated with low-pressure (ca. 1 atm) superheated steam without temperature swing or pressure-swing. The isothermal and isobaric operation is a unique and advantageous feature of this process. The objective of this project was to demonstrate the technical and economic merit of this sorbent based CO2 capture approach. Through laboratory, bench-scale and field testing we demonstrated that this technology can effectively and efficiently capture CO2 produced at an existing pulverized coal power plants. TDA Research, Inc is developing both the solid sorbent and the process designed around that material. This project addresses the DOE Program Goal to develop a capture technology that can be added to an existing or new coal fired power plant, and can capture 90% of the CO2 produced with the lowest possible increase in the cost of energy. .

  16. Fire hazard analysis for fusion energy experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, N.J.; Hasegawa, H.K.

    1979-01-01

    The 2XIIB mirror fusion facility at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) was used to evaluate the fire safety of state-of-the-art fusion energy experiments. The primary objective of this evaluation was to ensure the parallel development of fire safety and fusion energy technology. Through fault-tree analysis, we obtained a detailed engineering description of the 2XIIB fire protection system. This information helped us establish an optimum level of fire protection for experimental fusion energy facilities as well as evaluate the level of protection provided by various systems. Concurrently, we analyzed the fire hazard inherent to the facility using techniques that relate the probability of ignition to the flame spread and heat-release potential of construction materials, electrical and thermal insulations, and dielectric fluids. A comparison of the results of both analyses revealed that the existing fire protection system should be modified to accommodate the range of fire hazards inherent to the 2XIIB facility.

  17. Explore the Safety Evacuation of Underground Parking Garage Fire Protection Planning%关于地下停车库防火设计的安全疏散进行探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许婧

    2013-01-01

    笔者认为,现行规范《汽车库、修车库、停车场设计防火规范》GB50067-97已经满足不了现在大型、特大型及超大型车库的防火设计。针对实际情况,在此提出笔者看法和大家共同探讨,并具体提出建议。%In this article, the author believe that the existing norms“Garage, Repair Garage, Parking for Fire Protection D-esign”GB50067-97 has also failed to meet the fire protection design of now large, extra large and super extra large garage. And the author aims at the actual situation and presents the vi-ew to discuss and put forward concrete suggestions.

  18. Fire protection system management in nuclear facilities: strengthening factor of integrated management system - a case study; Gestao de sistema de protecao contra incendio em instalacoes nucleares: fator de fortalecimento do sistema de gestao integrada - um estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Joao Regis dos

    2005-07-01

    The present study investigated and analyzed the importance of a system of integrated safety manage, environment and health in a nuclear installation, having as perspective, the fire protection manage. The inquiry was made using a qualitative research involving a case study, where the considered environment was the Reconversion and UO{sub 2} Plant of the Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), located in Resende, Rio de Janeiro and the studied population, the managers and the staff directly involved with the aspects related to the safety of the industrial complex of the related company. The motivation for the research was the search of a bigger interaction of the questions related to the safety, environment and health in the nuclear industry having, as axle of the investigation, the fire protection. As a result, it was observed that in a nuclear installation, although dealing with diversified safety processes, integration is possible and necessary, since there are more reasons for integration than otherwise. (author)

  19. Energy consumption and distribution of 1 000 MW coal-fired power generating unit%1000MW燃煤机组能耗及其分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志平; 杨勇平

    2012-01-01

    目前火力发电机组的性能分析方法仍基于热力学第一定律与第二定律,应用基于热力学第一定律的热量法和基于热力学第二定律的单耗分析法,以1 000 MW机组为研究对象,以机组设计参数进行建模分析,确定机组在不同工况下的发电煤耗及其在各个环节中的附加煤耗分布,并对评价方法进行比较,进而从设计层面分析机组的节能方向和潜力.%The current performance analysis method is still based on the first law and second law of thermodynamics a-bout Thermal power generating units. This paper used heat balance method based the first law of thermodynamics and the specific consumption analysis method based the second law of thermodynamics to analyze 1000MW power generating unit. Math model to the unit design parameters was established. Coal consumption and distribution in the different conditions and all aspects of the unit were determined. Compared with the evaluation methods, then the energy-saving direction and potentials of coal-fired generating unit from the design level was analyzed.

  20. Fire Threatens the Grasslands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    FIRE is herdsmen’s woe. It is said by elderly people that fire almost destroyed the entire grasslands long ago. Few domestic animals survived and with great difficulty the people rebuilt and replanted what they could for many generations. Because of their efforts the grasslands survived. I have never experienced that kind of tragedy, but I could sense the fear in people’s voices when they talked of it. It is actually an unwritten law on the grasslands that whenever a fire occurs, no matter how far away or how dangerous it is, you must go out and fight it.

  1. A Research on the Generating Model of Combat Capabilities of Fire Force%现代化消防铁军核心战斗力生成模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜自清; 张源

    2012-01-01

    The modernized fire force plays an important part in maintaining the social and economic stability and development. To construct modernized fire force and enhance the combat capability is a daunting and pressing task that fire forces now are faced. This paper summarizes the challenges that fire forces face under the new situation, analyses the constituent elements of combat capabilities of fire force, and discusses generating model of combat capabilities of fire force.%现代化消防铁军是维护我国经济社会发展稳定的重要保障力量,打造一支现代化消防铁军,提升其核心战斗力是当前消防部队面临的一项艰巨而又迫切的任务。分析现代化消防铁军核心战斗力的构成要素,探讨现代化消防铁军核心战斗力的生成模式。

  2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on lightning risk and wind turbine generator protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); McNiff, B [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This paper will describe the NREL program for addressing lightning protection for wind turbines. A test program will begin this summer at the Central and South West Services Inc. (CSW) wind farm near Fort Davis, Texas, to assess lightning risk, the frequency of lightning strikes on wind turbines compared to risk assessment predictions, and the effectiveness of some protection techniques. A Web page will be assembled to provide resources for designers and operators and feedback for issues as they arise. Also, a database of lightning events (and corresponding damage) will be collected to assist in maturing the understanding of wind turbine lightning protection.

  3. Differential Protection for an Outgoing Transformer of Large-Scale Doubly Fed Induction Generator-Based Wind Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingtuan Gao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of wind energy, relay protection for large-scale wind farms has been attracting some researchers, due to the absence of standards. Based on the large-scale doubly fed induction generator (DFIG-based wind farms located in Gansu Province, China, this paper studies the differential protection for the outgoing power transformer of large-scale DFIG-based wind farms. According to the equivalent circuit of the power grid integrated with wind farms, the main frequency components of current and voltage during faults are identified mathematically and then verified by simulations. The results show that the frequencies of current and voltage at the terminals of outgoing transmission lines are inconsistent. Following the feature of frequency inconsistency, the adaptability of differential protection is analyzed, and it is found that differential protection for an outgoing transformer in large-scale wind farms may fail once ignoring the frequency inconsistency. Simulation studies demonstrate that inconsistent frequency characteristics will deteriorate the sensitivity and reliability of differential protection. Finally, several suggestions are provided for improving the performance of relay protections for large-scale DFIG-based wind farms.

  4. Laying Stress on Energy-Saving and Environmental Protection of Thermal Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The most attraetive spot of the 11th Five-Year Plan is to change China's present mode of cconomic growth and take a road of circulative cconomy based on effective utilization of resources and environmental protection. Electric power as a basic industry,energy conservation and environmental protection will become one of its working cmphases in a period of time to come. In this connection, the journalist (Zhao Ran) from China Electric Power has exclusively interviewed Tang Yunlin, the former president of the China Electric Power Planning and Engineering Institute. He thought that the most important thing for power industry to save energy and protect environment is to bring about the energy conservation and environmental protection in thermal power plants rather than first devclop hydropower, nuclear power and renewable energy. His viewpoints and suggestions have been recognized by many insiders.

  5. Prediction of spatially explicit rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for post-fire debris-flow generation in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Dennis; Negri, Jacquelyn; Kean, Jason

    2016-04-01

    Population expansion into fire-prone steeplands has resulted in an increase in post-fire debris-flow risk in the western United States. Logistic regression methods for determining debris-flow likelihood and the calculation of empirical rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for debris-flow initiation represent two common approaches for characterizing hazard and reducing risk. Logistic regression models are currently being used to rapidly assess debris-flow hazard in response to design storms of known intensities (e.g. a 10-year recurrence interval rainstorm). Empirical rainfall intensity-duration thresholds comprise a major component of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Weather Service (NWS) debris-flow early warning system at a regional scale in southern California. However, these two modeling approaches remain independent, with each approach having limitations that do not allow for synergistic local-scale (e.g. drainage-basin scale) characterization of debris-flow hazard during intense rainfall. The current logistic regression equations consider rainfall a unique independent variable, which prevents the direct calculation of the relation between rainfall intensity and debris-flow likelihood. Regional (e.g. mountain range or physiographic province scale) rainfall intensity-duration thresholds fail to provide insight into the basin-scale variability of post-fire debris-flow hazard and require an extensive database of historical debris-flow occurrence and rainfall characteristics. Here, we present a new approach that combines traditional logistic regression and intensity-duration threshold methodologies. This method allows for local characterization of both the likelihood that a debris-flow will occur at a given rainfall intensity, the direct calculation of the rainfall rates that will result in a given likelihood, and the ability to calculate spatially explicit rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for debris-flow generation in recently

  6. Expected ozone benefits of reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired electricity generating units in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinciguerra, Timothy; Bull, Emily; Canty, Timothy; He, Hao; Zalewsky, Eric; Woodman, Michael; Aburn, George; Ehrman, Sheryl; Dickerson, Russell R

    2017-03-01

    On hot summer days in the eastern United States, electricity demand rises, mainly because of increased use of air conditioning. Power plants must provide this additional energy, emitting additional pollutants when meteorological conditions are primed for poor air quality. To evaluate the impact of summertime NOx emissions from coal-fired electricity generating units (EGUs) on surface ozone formation, we performed a series of sensitivity modeling forecast scenarios utilizing EPA 2018 version 6.0 emissions (2011 base year) and CMAQ v5.0.2. Coal-fired EGU NOx emissions were adjusted to match the lowest NOx rates observed during the ozone seasons (April 1-October 31) of 2005-2012 (Scenario A), where ozone decreased by 3-4 ppb in affected areas. When compared to the highest emissions rates during the same time period (Scenario B), ozone increased ∼4-7 ppb. NOx emission rates adjusted to match the observed rates from 2011 (Scenario C) increased ozone by ∼4-5 ppb. Finally in Scenario D, the impact of additional NOx reductions was determined by assuming installation of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) controls on all units lacking postcombustion controls; this decreased ozone by an additional 2-4 ppb relative to Scenario A. Following the announcement of a stricter 8-hour ozone standard, this analysis outlines a strategy that would help bring coastal areas in the mid-Atlantic region closer to attainment, and would also provide profound benefits for upwind states where most of the regional EGU NOx originates, even if additional capital investments are not made (Scenario A). With the 8-hr maximum ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) decreasing from 75 to 70 ppb, modeling results indicate that use of postcombustion controls on coal-fired power plants in 2018 could help keep regions in attainment. By operating already existing nitrogen oxide (NOx) removal devices to their full potential, ozone could be significantly curtailed, achieving ozone reductions by

  7. RS AND GIS-BASED FOREST FIRE RISK ZONE MAPPING IN DA HINGGAN MOUNTAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Hai-wei; KONG Fan-hua; LI Xiu-zhen

    2004-01-01

    The Da Hinggan Mountains is one of the most important forest areas in China,but forest fire there is also of high frequency.So it is completely necessary to map forest fire risk zones in order to effectively manage and protect the forest resources.Two forest farms of Tuqiang Forest Bureau (53°34′-52°15′N,124°05′- 122°18′E) were chosen as typical areas in this study.Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) play a vital role and can be used effectively to obtain and combine different forest-fire-causing factors for demarcating the forest fire risk zone map.Forest fire risk zones were described by assigning subjective weights to the classes of all the coverage layers according to their sensitivity to fire,using the ARC/INFO GIS software.Four classes of forest fire risk ranging from low to extremely high were generated automatically in ARC/INFO.The results showed that about 60.33% of the study area were predicted to be upper moderate risk zones,indicating that the forest fire management task in this area is super onerous.The RS and GIS-based forest fire risk model of the study area was found to be highly compatible with the actual fire-affected sites in 1987.Therefore the forest fire risk zone map can be used for guidance of forest fire management,and as basis for fire prevention strategies.

  8. US Fire Administration Fire Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Fire Administration collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.151 - Fire prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire prevention. 1926.151 Section 1926.151 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Fire Protection and Prevention § 1926.151 Fire prevention. (a) Ignition hazards. (1) Electrical wiring and equipment for light, heat, or power...

  10. 36 CFR 1002.13 - Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fires. 1002.13 Section 1002.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.13 Fires. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Lighting or maintaining a fire, except in...

  11. 77 FR 62133 - Fire Prevention Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8881 of October 5, 2012 Fire Prevention... Prevention Week, we resolve to protect ourselves, our families, and our communities from fires, and we honor... fire prevention and preparedness. Those who live in regions prone to wildfire can take action...

  12. 46 CFR 181.600 - Fire axe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire axe. 181.600 Section 181.600 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 181.600 Fire axe. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  13. Characterization of open-cycle coal-fired MHD generators. Quarterly technical summary report No. 6, October 1--December 31, 1977. [PACKAGE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, C.E.; Yousefian, V.; Wormhoudt, J.; Haimes, R.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Kerrebrock, J.L.

    1978-01-30

    Research has included theoretical modeling of important plasma chemical effects such as: conductivity reductions due to condensed slag/electron interactions; conductivity and generator efficiency reductions due to the formation of slag-related negative ion species; and the loss of alkali seed due to chemical combination with condensed slag. A summary of the major conclusions in each of these areas is presented. A major output of the modeling effort has been the development of an MHD plasma chemistry core flow model. This model has been formulated into a computer program designated the PACKAGE code (Plasma Analysis, Chemical Kinetics, And Generator Efficiency). The PACKAGE code is designed to calculate the effect of coal rank, ash percentage, ash composition, air preheat temperatures, equivalence ratio, and various generator channel parameters on the overall efficiency of open-cycle, coal-fired MHD generators. A complete description of the PACKAGE code and a preliminary version of the PACKAGE user's manual are included. A laboratory measurements program involving direct, mass spectrometric sampling of the positive and negative ions formed in a one atmosphere coal combustion plasma was also completed during the contract's initial phase. The relative ion concentrations formed in a plasma due to the methane augmented combustion of pulverized Montana Rosebud coal with potassium carbonate seed and preheated air are summarized. Positive ions measured include K/sup +/, KO/sup +/, Na/sup +/, Rb/sup +/, Cs/sup +/, and CsO/sup +/, while negative ions identified include PO/sub 3//sup -/, PO/sub 2//sup -/, BO/sub 2//sup -/, OH/sup -/, SH/sup -/, and probably HCrO/sub 3/, HMoO/sub 4//sup -/, and HWO/sub 3//sup -/. Comparison of the measurements with PACKAGE code predictions are presented. Preliminary design considerations for a mass spectrometric sampling probe capable of characterizing coal combustion plasmas from full scale combustors and flow trains are presented

  14. Power generation from chemically cleaned coals: do environmental benefits of firing cleaner coal outweigh environmental burden of cleaning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten W.; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis;

    2015-01-01

    Power generation from high-ash coals is a niche technology for power generation, but coal cleaning is deemed necessary to avoid problems associated with low combustion efficiencies and to minimize environmental burdens associated with emissions of pollutants originating from ash. Here, chemical...... itself, it is demonstrated that for a wide range of cleaning procedures and types of coal, chemical cleaning generally performs worse than combustion of the raw coals and physical cleaning using dense medium separation. These findings apply for many relevant impact categories, including climate change....... Chemical cleaning can be optimized with regard to electricity, heat and methanol use for the hydrothermal washing step, and could have environmental impact comparable to that of physical cleaning if the overall resource intensiveness of chemical cleaning is reduced by a factor 5 to 10, depending...

  15. Bidirectional GABAergic control of AP firing in newly-generated young granule cells of the adult hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Heigele, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the first transmitter which provides synaptic input to newly generated neurons. In the first 2-3 weeks after mitosis, young neurons show an elevated intracellular chloride concentration due to the expression of the NKCC1 Cl- importer. Hence, GABAergic transmission provides depolarization to the newborn cells, which is known to be crucial for activity-dependent cell survival, development and functional maturation. However, it is still unknown whether activatio...

  16. Spatial modeling of fires: a predictive tool for La Primavera Forest, Jalisco Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Ibarra-Montoya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of various elements of socioeconomic, political and cultural nature, influenced by landscape and climatic factors, are important aspects of fire regimes. Space models that integrate these elements and factors help to more accurately predict potential fire areas. The Protected Area Wildlife La Primavera (APFFLP is the main regulator of the climate of the Guadalajara metropolitan area, and forest fires frequently occur there. These represent a challenge for science and technology to develop methodologies that help predict forest fires. This study involves the construction of a spatial model that helps identify potential areas of fire in that area. The model integrates meteorological variables, landscape, fuels, anthropogenic and / or causality, and historical occurrences of fires during the period 1998-2012. According to the model, the variables that determine the areas of greatest fire potential are: slope (landscape, relative humidity (weather, vegetation type (causality and land use (anthropogenic. The model predicts a large area with high potential for fire, located in the central and northwest APFFLP polygon; also, there are small, isolated potential zones in the eastern part of the polygon. The information developed by this study could support the generation of local risk maps, thereby optimizing the actions of fire management and restoration of the La Primavera forest.

  17. Development of automatic knob-generation tool for the protection devices in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Koulouris, Aimilianos

    2013-01-01

    In the LHC transfer lines, the beam is extremely well controlled and confined. This is managed through a wide variety of superconducting magnets, which focus, defocus and bend the beam. As for the control part, there are numerous monitoring devices co-operating with the SCADA systems, all working for the protection of the instruments and the people. Our work, in particular, falls under the beam transfer lines, TI2 and TI8, between the SPS and the LHC. The protection devices in the transfer lines need to be set up according to the optics of the beam, namely the trajectory inside the beam-pipe. This means that, depending on the trajectory of the beam inside the beam-pipe and the positioning of the protection devices around the beam-pipe, certain adjustments need to be made, so that the beam will not damage or even affect the monitoring devices.

  18. Emission and combustion behaviour of a raw lignite-fired CFB steam generator with co-combustion of sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambertz, J.; Thomas, G.; Bierbaum, K. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The present recovery and disposal options for municipal sewage sludge are being seriously restricted and made costlier by new ordinances. This is true of both uses in agriculture and sewage sludge dumping. Against this background, thermal recycling is gaining more and more in importance as a long-term alternative, so that a substantial rise in combustion capacity is becoming necessary. Since sewage sludge drying and monocombustion are highly cost-intensive, it makes ecological and economic sense to use low-polluting combustion capacities at existing power plants for the co-combustion of municipal sewage sludge. In its processing plants Rheinbraun AG operates steam generators which work according to the circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) combustion principle. This low-polluting combustion technique is particularly suitable for fuels having high ash contents. In addition to the major fuel, viz. raw lignite (55-60% moisture content), minor portions of sewage sludge (70% moisture content) are burnt together with the lignite within the scope of this research project. In this process, a solids pump feeds the mechanically dewatered sewage sludge directly into the steam generator. The industrial-scale tests were carried out in the 2nd quarter of 1994. The operating behaviour remains almost unchanged. The influence of co-combustion on emissions corresponds to the range usual for pure lignite operation. 8 figs.

  19. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire...

  20. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  1. Fire hazards evaluation for light duty utility arm system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUCKFELDT, R.A.

    1999-02-24

    In accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A, Fire Protection, a Fire Hazards Analysis must be performed for all new facilities. LMHC Fire Protection has reviewed and approved the significant documentation leading up to the LDUA operation. This includes, but is not limited to, development criteria and drawings, Engineering Task Plan, Quality Assurance Program Plan, and Safety Program Plan. LMHC has provided an appropriate level of fire protection for this activity as documented.

  2. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  3. UF{sub 6} cylinder fire test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.H. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    With the increasing number of nuclear reactors for power generation, there is a comparable increase in the amount of UF{sub 6} being transported. Likewise, the probability of having an accident involving UF{sub 6}-filled cylinders also increases. Accident scenarios which have been difficult to assess are those involving a filled UF{sub 6} cylinder subjected to fire. A study is underway at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, as part of the US DOE Enrichment Program, to provide empirical data and a computer model that can be used to evaluate various cylinder-in-fire scenarios. It is expected that the results will provide information leading to better handling of possible fire accidents as well as show whether changes should be made to provide different physical protection during shipment. The computer model being developed will be capable of predicting the rupture of various cylinder sizes and designs as well as the amount of UF{sub 6}, its distribution in the cylinder, and the conditions of the fire.

  4. Application of computational neural networks in predicting atmospheric pollutant concentrations due to fossil-fired electric power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Hawary, F. [BH Engineering Systems & Technical Univ. of Nova Scotia (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The ability to accurately predict the behavior of a dynamic system is of essential importance in monitoring and control of complex processes. In this regard recent advances in neural-net based system identification represent a significant step toward development and design of a new generation of control tools for increased system performance and reliability. The enabling functionality is the one of accurate representation of a model of a nonlinear and nonstationary dynamic system. This functionality provides valuable new opportunities including: (1) The ability to predict future system behavior on the basis of actual system observations, (2) On-line evaluation and display of system performance and design of early warning systems, and (3) Controller optimization for improved system performance. In this presentation, we discuss the issues involved in definition and design of learning control systems and their impact on power system control. Several numerical examples are provided for illustrative purpose.

  5. Caregiving and Perceived Generativity: A Positive and Protective Aspect of Providing Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Molli R; Gruenewald, Tara L

    2017-01-01

    Although a sizable body of research supports negative psychological consequences of caregiving, less is known about potential psychological benefits. This study aimed to examine whether caregiving was associated with enhanced generativity, or feeling like one makes important contributions to others. An additional aim was to examine the buffering potential of perceived generativity on adverse health outcomes associated with caregiving. Analyses utilized a subsample of participants (n = 3,815, ages 30-84 years) from the second wave of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS). Regression analyses adjusting for sociodemographic factors indicated greater negative affect and depression (p < .001) and lower levels of positive affect (p < .01), but higher self-perceptions of generativity (p < .001), in caregivers compared with non-caregivers. This association remained after adjusting for varying caregiving intensities and negative psychological outcomes. Additionally, generativity interacted with depression and negative affect (p values < .05) to lessen the likelihood of health-related cutbacks in work/household productivity among caregivers. Results suggest that greater feelings of generativity may be a positive aspect of caregiving that might help mitigate some of the adverse health and well-being consequences of care. Self-perceptions of generativity may help alleviate caregiver burden and explain why some caregivers fare better than others.

  6. Challenges and needs in fire management: A landscape simulation modeling perspective [chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Geoffrey J. Cary; Mike D. Flannigan

    2011-01-01

    Fire management will face many challenges in the future from global climate change to protecting people, communities, and values at risk. Simulation modeling will be a vital tool for addressing these challenges but the next generation of simulation models must be spatially explicit to address critical landscape ecology relationships and they must use mechanistic...

  7. Microbial contents of soil from fire pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, K.; Esparza, V.; de Sandre, J.; Cheney, S.; Anderson, A.; White, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    Forest fires generate polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that can lead to carcinogenic compounds, which are potential health risks. PAHs can be degraded to water and carbon dioxide by certain soil microbes. Thus, during participation in a NASA-funded summer research experience at Utah State University, our high school student team sampled soils from a month-old fire pit in which plant materials had been burnt. We detected in soil samples, from surface, 10 and 20 cm depths, microbes that would grow on a defined minimal medium source. Other microbes were cultured from the roots of plants that had established at the fire pit. A diversity of microbes was present in all samples based on visible differences in cell shape and color. It was surprising that the surface ash, although exposed to sunlight over the month interval, had culturable colonies. Many of these culturable bacteria were pigmented perhaps as a protection against UV radiation from the sun. We searched for genes in the microbes that encoded enzymes called dioxygenases that in other bacteria are involved in degradation of PAHs. This test involved using polymerase chain reactions to detect the genes. PCR products were found in two of the fifteen isolates tested although their sizes differed from the control gene product from a PAH-degrading mycobacterium isolate. These results suggest that the soils did contain microbes with the possible potential to alter the PAH compounds generated from vegetation fires. Our findings serve as a starting point for future studies looking at recovery and remediation of fired acreages.

  8. Assessment of the US EPA's determination of the role for CO2 capture and storage in new fossil fuel-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Victoria R; Herzog, Howard J

    2014-07-15

    On September 20, 2013, the US Environmental and Protection Agency (EPA) proposed a revised rule for "Standards of Performance for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from New Stationary Sources: Electric Utility Generating Units". These performance standards set limits on the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) that can be emitted per megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity generation from new coal-fired and natural gas-fired power plants built in the US. These limits were based on determinations of "best system of emission reduction (BSER) adequately demonstrated". Central in this determination was evaluating whether Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) qualified as BSER. The proposed rule states that CCS qualifies as BSER for coal-fired generation but not for natural gas-fired generation. In this paper, we assess the EPA's analysis that resulted in this determination. We are not trying to judge what the absolute criteria are for CCS as the BSER but only the relative differences as related to coal- vs natural gas-fired technologies. We conclude that there are not enough differences between "base load" coal-fired and natural gas-fired power plants to justify the EPA's determination that CCS is the BSER for coal-fired power plants but not for natural gas-fired power plants.

  9. Cardiac protection by preconditioning is generated via an iron-signal created by proteasomal degradation of iron proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baruch E Bulvik

    Full Text Available Ischemia associated injury of the myocardium is caused by oxidative damage during reperfusion. Myocardial protection by ischemic preconditioning (IPC was shown to be mediated by a transient 'iron-signal' that leads to the accumulation of apoferritin and sequestration of reactive iron released during the ischemia. Here we identified the source of this 'iron signal' and evaluated its role in the mechanisms of cardiac protection by hypoxic preconditioning. Rat hearts were retrogradely perfused and the effect of proteasomal and lysosomal protease inhibitors on ferritin levels were measured. The iron-signal was abolished, ferritin levels were not increased and cardiac protection was diminished by inhibition of the proteasome prior to IPC. Similarly, double amounts of ferritin and better recovery after ex vivo ischemia-and-reperfusion (I/R were found in hearts from in vivo hypoxia pre-conditioned animals. IPC followed by normoxic perfusion for 30 min ('delay' prior to I/R caused a reduced ferritin accumulation at the end of the ischemia phase and reduced protection. Full restoration of the IPC-mediated cardiac protection was achieved by employing lysosomal inhibitors during the 'delay'. In conclusion, proteasomal protein degradation of iron-proteins causes the generation of the 'iron-signal' by IPC, ensuing de-novo apoferritin synthesis and thus, sequestering reactive iron. Lysosomal proteases are involved in subsequent ferritin breakdown as revealed by the use of specific pathway inhibitors during the 'delay'. We suggest that proteasomal iron-protein degradation is a stress response causing an expeditious cytosolic iron release thus, altering iron homeostasis to protect the myocardium during I/R, while lysosomal ferritin degradation is part of housekeeping iron homeostasis.

  10. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section 161.002-12...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A manual fire alarm system shall consist of a power supply, a control unit on which...

  11. 46 CFR 118.410 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems. 118.410 Section... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fixed Fire Extinguishing and Detecting Systems § 118.410 Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems. (a) General. (1) A fixed gas fire extinguishing system aboard a vessel must be approved by...

  12. 46 CFR 181.410 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems. 181.410 Section... Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems. (a) General. (1) A fixed gas fire extinguishing system aboard a... approved for the system by the Commandant. (4) A fixed gas fire extinguishing system may protect more...

  13. Polyclonal antibody cocktails generated using DNA vaccine technology protect in murine models of orthopoxvirus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballantyne John

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously we demonstrated that DNA vaccination of nonhuman primates (NHP with a small subset of vaccinia virus (VACV immunogens (L1, A27, A33, B5 protects against lethal monkeypox virus challenge. The L1 and A27 components of this vaccine target the mature virion (MV whereas A33 and B5 target the enveloped virion (EV. Results Here, we demonstrated that the antibodies produced in vaccinated NHPs were sufficient to confer protection in a murine model of lethal Orthopoxvirus infection. We further explored the concept of using DNA vaccine technology to produce immunogen-specific polyclonal antibodies that could then be combined into cocktails as potential immunoprophylactic/therapeutics. Specifically, we used DNA vaccines delivered by muscle electroporation to produce polyclonal antibodies against the L1, A27, A33, and B5 in New Zealand white rabbits. The polyclonal antibodies neutralized both MV and EV in cell culture. The ability of antibody cocktails consisting of anti-MV, anti-EV, or a combination of anti-MV/EV to protect BALB/c mice was evaluated as was the efficacy of the anti-MV/EV mixture in a mouse model of progressive vaccinia. In addition to evaluating weight loss and lethality, bioimaging technology was used to characterize the spread of the VACV infections in mice. We found that the anti-EV cocktail, but not the anti-MV cocktail, limited virus spread and lethality. Conclusions A combination of anti-MV/EV antibodies was significantly more protective than anti-EV antibodies alone. These data suggest that DNA vaccine technology could be used to produce a polyclonal antibody cocktail as a possible product to replace vaccinia immune globulin.

  14. Hispidin produced from Phellinus linteus protects against peroxynitrite-mediated DNA damage and hydroxyl radical generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Feng, Lina; Huang, Zhaoyi; Su, Hongming

    2012-09-30

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the progression of many chronic diseases including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. One such mediator of oxidative stress is peroxynitrite, which is highly toxic to cultured neurons and astrocytes, and has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of various types of neuronal diseases. Therefore, searching for natural compounds with peroxynitrite-scavenging activity might be an effective therapy for peroxynitrite-mediated cytotoxicity. Hispidin, a phenolic compound from Phellinus linteus (a medicinal mushroom), has been shown to possess strong antioxidant, anticancer, and antidiabetic properties. However, the astrocyte protective efficacy of hispidin has been not examined. This study was undertaken to investigate whether the astrocyte protective effect of hispidin is associated with inhibition of peroxynitrite-induced DNA damage, a critical event leading to peroxynitrite-mediated cytotoxicity. Our results showed that peroxynitrite can cause DNA damage in φX-174 plasmid DNA and rat primary astrocytes. The presence of hispidin (10-20 μg/ml) was found to significantly inhibit peroxynitrite-induced DNA damage and cytotoxicity. EPR spectroscopy demonstrated that the formation of DMPO-hydroxyl radical adduct (DMPO-OH) from peroxynitrite, and that hispidin potently diminished the adduct signal in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that hispidin can protect against peroxynitrite-mediated cytotoxicity, DNA damage and hydroxyl radical formation.

  15. A Life Cycle Assessment Case Study of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation with Humidity Swing Direct Air Capture of CO2 versus MEA-Based Postcombustion Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Giesen, Coen; Meinrenken, Christoph J; Kleijn, René; Sprecher, Benjamin; Lackner, Klaus S; Kramer, Gert Jan

    2017-01-17

    Most carbon capture and storage (CCS) envisions capturing CO2 from flue gas. Direct air capture (DAC) of CO2 has hitherto been deemed unviable because of the higher energy associated with capture at low atmospheric concentrations. We present a Life Cycle Assessment of coal-fired electricity generation that compares monoethanolamine (MEA)-based postcombustion capture (PCC) of CO2 with distributed, humidity-swing-based direct air capture (HS-DAC). Given suitable temperature, humidity, wind, and water availability, HS-DAC can be largely passive. Comparing energy requirements of HS-DAC and MEA-PCC, we find that the parasitic load of HS-DAC is less than twice that of MEA-PCC (60-72 kJ/mol versus 33-46 kJ/mol, respectively). We also compare other environmental impacts as a function of net greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation: To achieve the same 73% mitigation as MEA-PCC, HS-DAC would increase nine other environmental impacts by on average 38%, whereas MEA-PCC would increase them by 31%. Powering distributed HS-DAC with photovoltaics (instead of coal) while including recapture of all background GHG, reduces this increase to 18%, hypothetically enabling coal-based electricity with net-zero life-cycle GHG. We conclude that, in suitable geographies, HS-DAC can complement MEA-PCC to enable CO2 capture independent of time and location of emissions and recapture background GHG from fossil-based electricity beyond flue stack emissions.

  16. Transformer room fire tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustich, C. D.

    1980-03-01

    A series of transformer room fire tests are reported to demonstate the shock hazard present when automatic sprinklers operate over energized electrical equipment. Fire protection was provided by standard 0.5 inch pendent automatic sprinklers temperature rated at 135 F and installed to give approximately 150 sq ft per head coverage. A 480 v dry transformer was used in the room to provide a three phase, four wire distribution system. It is shown that the induced currents in the test room during the various tests are relatively small and pose no appreciable personnel shock hazard.

  17. Studies on Fire protection Legislation in the Course of New Urbanization%新型城镇化进程中的消防立法问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边洁

    2015-01-01

    With the development of society and economic development,the developing mode of new urbanization be-comes more and more attractive. It not only changes people’s way of life,but also brings more challenges,putting more pressure on fire safety work. The development fire protection legislation far lags behind the fast pace of urbani-zation. Fire protection legislation started late in China,and its law system is not complete and could not adapt to the construction of new urbanization,so we should provide strong law guarantee for the acceleration of the process of ur-banization by improving fire fighting system of laws and regulations.%随着社会和经济建设的持续深入,新型城镇化发展模式日益受到人们的关注,其在改变人们生活方式的同时,也给消防管理工作带来了诸多的挑战,对消防安全造成了极大的压力。与城镇化的快速发展步伐不相称的是消防立法的滞后。我国的消防立法起步较晚,消防法律体系不够完善,更加不能适应新型城镇化建设的快速发展步伐,应当完善消防法律法规体系和相关规定,从而为加快推进城镇化进程提供有力的法治保障。

  18. Data protection by using the «Сhua’s circuit » chaos generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Олександрівна Левицька

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the justification of the use of cryptosystems based on a mathematical model of the chaos generator (an electric circuit, showing modes of chaotic oscillations, proposed by Leon Chua in 1983. This article also describes the principles of implementation of cryptographic algorithm and its application prospects. Reviewed the next questions: the problems of widespread cryptosystems, the theory of cryptographically strong algorithms, absolutely and computationally secure ciphers, particular theoretical method for solving the problem of increasing the reliability of hybrid computational proof systems by inclusion of a mathematical model of chaos as a generator to encrypt transmitted data key. Here described the recommendations on the implementation of cryptographic system and requirements on the Chua’s circuit generator ch

  19. A comparison of geospatially modeled fire behavior and fire management utility of three data sources in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaWen T. Hollingsworth; Laurie L. Kurth; Bernard R. Parresol; Roger D. Ottmar; Susan J. Prichard

    2012-01-01

    Landscape-scale fire behavior analyses are important to inform decisions on resource management projects that meet land management objectives and protect values from adverse consequences of fire. Deterministic and probabilistic geospatial fire behavior analyses are conducted with various modeling systems including FARSITE, FlamMap, FSPro, and Large Fire Simulation...

  20. Performance-based fire protection design on the Guanhanqing Grand Theatre and Museum%关汉卿大剧院和博物馆性能化防火设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李倩; 黄鑫

    2013-01-01

    According to the big area of fire compartment in Gua-nhanqing Grand Theatre and Baoding Museum in Baoding, measures as enhance the fire separation, reinforce the installation of fire facility and control the decoration of combustible were put forward, and the performance-based fire protection simulation was used to insure the fire safety. Eight scenarios were set and the fire power of each region was calculated by DETACT. The FDS was used to simulate the fire spread and smoke movement inside the building under the eight scenarios. The evacuation simulation software of ThunderHead Engineering named as PathFinder 2009. 2 was used to simulate the evacuation at each part of the grand theatre and the museum. The simulation results showed that people can evacuation safely at each scenario, the feasibility and the validity were verified by the simulation also.%针对保定市关汉卿大剧院和博物馆工程防火分区面积过大的问题,提出了强化防火分隔措施、加强消防设施设置和控制可燃装修等措施,通过消防性能化模拟计算,保证消防安全.设定了8个火灾场景,利用DETACT程序计算得到各区域的火源功率,运用FDS对建筑内的火灾及烟气蔓延情况进行模拟计算,得到各火灾场景下的火灾蔓延及烟气流动状态.采用PathFinder 2009.2模拟大剧院和博物馆各部分人员疏散时间.经模拟分析,各场景下均能安全疏散,对方案的可行性和有效性进行了验证.

  1. 330 MW火电机组发变组出口断路器跳闸原因分析%Trip cause analysis for outlet circuit breaker trip of generator-transformer unit in 330 MW coal-fired power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余民

    2015-01-01

    针对一起330 MW火电机组发变组出口断路器在无任何保护动作情况下的跳闸故障,采用逐步排查法,通过现场模拟实验,找出了故障的原因,提出有效解决办法并制定了防范措施.应用结果表明:改进措施消除了机组存在的安全隐患,确保了机组的长周期安全运行.%Aiming at an accident of generator-transformer unit outlet circuit breaker trip without any protection device act in 330 MW coal-fired power plant,using gradual elimination method and field simulation test,finds out the causes of the trip,puts forward effective solution and preventive measures. The application result shows that the improved measures eliminate the hidden safety trouble,guarantee long periodic safe operation of the 330 MW coal-fired power generation unit.

  2. Privacy and Security Issues Surrounding the Protection of Data Generated by Continuous Glucose Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Katherine E; Britton-Colonnese, Jennifer D

    2017-03-01

    Being able to track, analyze, and use data from continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) and through platforms and apps that communicate with CGMs helps achieve better outcomes and can advance the understanding of diabetes. The risks to patients' expectation of privacy are great, and their ability to control how their information is collected, stored, and used is virtually nonexistent. Patients' physical security is also at risk if adequate cybersecurity measures are not taken. Currently, data privacy and security protections are not robust enough to address the privacy and security risks and stymies the current and future benefits of CGM and the platforms and apps that communicate with them.

  3. Second harmonic generation from silver nanoparticles in aqueous solution with different protective agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Hoang M.; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle

    2014-08-01

    Nanometer-sized metallic colloidal particles with plasmonic resonances in the visible range are widely investigated for their attractive optical properties as sensors, for imaging and cancer treatment. Their second-order nonlinear optical properties are remarkably high. In this work, silver colloidal solutions have been synthesized by a simple and quick method in aqueous solutions with different protective agents (PVA, PVP). The first hyperpolarizability β values of Ag per atom and per particle for nanospheres at 1064 nm have been measured. Silver nanoparticles, which possess intense visible region surface plasmon absorption bands, prove to be excellent nonlinear scatterers.

  4. H2S protects against fatal myelosuppression by promoting the generation of megakaryocytes/platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan-Di; Zhang, Ai-Jie; Xu, Jing-Jing; Chen, Ying; Zhu, Yi-Chun

    2016-02-24

    Our previous pilot studies aimed to examine the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the generation of endothelial progenitor cells led to an unexpected result, i.e., H2S promoted the differentiation of certain hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in the bone marrow. This gave rise to an idea that H2S might promote hematopoiesis. To test this idea, a mice model of myelosuppression and cultured fetal liver cells were used to examine the role of H2S in hematopoiesis. H2S promoted the generation of megakaryocytes, increased platelet levels, ameliorate entorrhagia, and improved survival. These H2S effects were blocked in both in vivo and in vitro models with thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor knockout mice (c-mpl(-/-) mice). In contrast, H2S promoted megakaryocytes/platelets generation in both in vivo and in vitro models with TPO knockout mice (TPO(-/-) mice). H2S is a novel promoter for megakaryopoiesis by acting on the TPO receptors but not TPO to generate megakaryocytes/platelets.

  5. 论高层民用建筑的通风空调系统中的防火排烟措施%Measures on Fire Protection and Smoke Extraction of Ventilation and Air Conditioning System of High-rise Civil Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵沛毅

    2011-01-01

    火灾事故的经验证明,烟气危害已经成为火灾人员伤亡的主要原因.这就要求高层建筑的设计不仅要注重防火设计,更要注重防排烟设计.本文通过对高层建筑防排烟系统设计的分析,探讨了如何正确理解和执行现行防火规范有关要求.通过合理的设计确保火灾时的疏散通道安全可靠,以求减少高层民用建筑火灾的危害,保护人身和财产的安全.%The experience of the fire accident proved that smoke hazard has become the main cause of fire casualties. This requires that the design of smoke extraction of high-rise building should not only pay attention to fire prevention design, but also notice more smoke design. Through analyzing the design of fire protection and smoke extraction system of high-rise buildings, the paper discusses how to correctly understand and implement the requirements for fire protection. Through the reasonable design, we can ensure safety and reliability of the fire evacuation passageway in order to reduce the harm of high-rise civil buildings fire and protect the safety of life and property.

  6. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  7. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  8. On fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    The title of this paper: “On fire”, refers to two (maybe three) aspects: firstly as a metaphor of having engagement in a community of practice according to Lave & Wenger (1991), and secondly it refers to the concrete element “fire” in the work of the fire fighters – and thirdly fire as a signifier...

  9. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must...

  10. Forest-fire models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  11. Alternative approach for fire suppression of class A, B and C fires in gloveboxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberger, Mark S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tsiagkouris, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-02-10

    Department of Energy (DOE) Orders and National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards require fire suppression in gloveboxes. Several potential solutions have been and are currently being considered at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective is to provide reliable, minimally invasive, and seismically robust fire suppression capable of extinguishing Class A, B, and C fires; achieve compliance with DOE and NFPA requirements; and provide value-added improvements to fire safety in gloveboxes. This report provides a brief summary of current approaches and also documents the successful fire tests conducted to prove that one approach, specifically Fire Foe{trademark} tubes, is capable of achieving the requirement to provide reliable fire protection in gloveboxes in a cost-effective manner.

  12. Preliminary study on tree species selection for fire protection and afforestation technique of fire prevention forest%防火树种选择和防火林带营造技术初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范书杰; 董树国; 张晓阔

    2012-01-01

    采用目测判断、直接火烧、实验测定、火场植被调查和实地营造试验的方法,探究了防火树种的选择和防火林带营造技术.结果表明:防火树种的条件主要是枝叶茂密、含水量大、含油脂少、不易燃烧、耐火性强;下层林木应耐潮湿,与上层林木种间关系相适应;生长迅速、郁闭快、适应性强、萌芽力高;无病虫害寄生和传播.防火能力较强的树种有刺槐、核桃和青杨等;防火能力较弱的树种有三裂绣线菊、华北落叶松和丁香等.防火林带的营造技术条件是造林面积在100 hm2以上,防火林带一般设置在山脊、林地边缘等,主林带宽度一般为30 m左右,副林带宽度为20 m左右,密度越大,防火效果越好.林带营造技术措施主要有整地、栽植和抚育管护.%This paper mainly discusses the choice of tree species and forest fire prevention fireproof construction technology construction, using visual judgment method, direct firing, experimental determination, vegetation investigation and field construction test. The results show that the main conditions of fire resistant tree species are lush foliage, large water content, less fat content, uneasy combustion, and strong fire resistance; the sublayer forest should be resistant to moisture, with the adaptable interspecific relationship to the upper forest; tree species are supposed to have rapid growth, fast crown closure, strong adaptability, and high canopy budding, without pests parasitism and propagation. Fire prevention ability of the species has black locust, walnut and poplar while species with weaker fireproof ability are three crack Spiraea, larch and Ding Xiang. Fire prevention forest belt is supposed to be afforestated in the area of above 100 hm2 in technology, generally located in the ridge and woodland edges, with main belt about 30 m wide and subsidiary belt about 20 m wide generally. The higher density, the better the fire prevention

  13. [Generation of Japanese Encephalitis Virus-like Particle Vaccine and Preliminary Evaluation of Its Protective Efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanfang; Du, Ruikun; Huang, Shaomei; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Jinliang; Zhu, Bibo; Wang, Hualin; Deng, Fei; Cao, Shengbo

    2016-03-01

    The cDNA fragment of JEV prME gene was cloned into the baculovirus shuttle vector (bacmid) to construct a recombinant baculovirus vector, defined as AcBac-prME. Then the recombinant baculovirus Ac-prME was obtained by transfecting Sf9 cells with AcBac-prME. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence results indicated that both prM and E proteins were efficiently expressed in Sf9 cells. Electron microscopy suggested that prME was assembled into JEV-VLPs. To further evaluate the potential of JEV-VLPs as vaccine, the mice were immunized with JEV-VLPs and then challenged with lethal JEV. The results of mice survival and pathological changes demonstrated that the JEV-VLPs performed complete protection against JEV-P3 strain and relieved pathological changes in the mice brain significant. This study suggest that JEV-VLPs would be a potential vaccine for Japanese encephalitis virus.

  14. State of the art coal fired steam generators for low emission of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and NOx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busekrus, K.; Tigges, K.; Klauke, F. [Hitachi Power Europe GmbH (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Some methods of improving efficiency of coal-fired power plants in order to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions is described, followed by carbon capture and storage technologies. NOx and SOx reduction technologies are then discussed. 26 refs.

  15. 消防安全与经济发展的关系研究%A Study on the Relationship between the Fire Protection Safety and the Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蓉

    2012-01-01

    从火灾事故数、死亡人数、受伤人数和经济损失等方面,研究了消防安全和经济发展之间的关系。结果表明,火灾事故数、死亡人数和受伤人数与经济发展显著负相关,而经济损失与经济发展的关系不显著。在此基础上,提出加强消防安全水平的六项措施。%This study investigates the relationship between the fire protection safety and the economic development. The results indicate that the number of fire incidents, death toll and the number of injury are negatively related to the economic development, while the relationship between economic losses and the economic development is insignifi- cant. It puts forward some measures to improve the fire safety.

  16. Renal protection by a soy diet in obese Zucker rats is associated with restoration of nitric oxide generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Joyce; Ramírez, Victoria; Pérez, Jazmín; Torre-Villalvazo, Ivan; Torres, Nimbe; Tovar, Armando R; Muñoz, Rosa M; Uribe, Norma; Gamba, Gerardo; Bobadilla, Norma A

    2005-01-01

    The obese Zucker rat is a valuable model for studying kidney disease associated with obesity and diabetes. Previous studies have shown that substitution of animal protein with soy ameliorates the progression of renal disease. To explore the participation of nitric oxide (NO) and caveolin-1 in this protective effect, we evaluated proteinuria, creatinine clearance, renal structural lesions, nitrites and nitrates urinary excretion (UNO(2)(-)/NO(3)V), and mRNA and protein levels of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS), and caveolin-1 in lean and fatty Zucker rats fed with 20% casein or soy protein diet. After 160 days of feeding with casein, fatty Zucker rats developed renal insufficiency, progressive proteinuria, and renal structural lesions; these alterations were associated with an important fall of UNO(2)(-)/NO(3)V, changes in nNOS and eNOS mRNA levels, together with increased amount of eNOS and caveolin-1 present in plasma membrane proteins of the kidney. In fatty Zucker rats fed with soy, we observed that soy diet improved renal function, UNO(2)(-)/NO(3)V, and proteinuria and reduced glomerulosclerosis, tubular dilation, intersticial fibrosis, and extracapilar proliferation. Renal protection was associated with reduction of caveolin-1 and eNOS in renal plasma membrane proteins. In conclusion, our results suggest that renal protective effect of soy protein appears to be mediated by improvement of NO generation and pointed out to caveolin-1 overexpression as a potential pathophysiological mechanism in renal disease.

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis and photoelectrochemical performance enhancement of TiO{sub 2}/graphene composite in photo-generated cathodic protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weiwei, E-mail: vivizhg@yahoo.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590 (China); State Key Laboratory of Mining Disaster Prevention and Control Co-founded by Shandong Province and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590 (China); Guo, Hanlin; Sun, Haiqing [College of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590 (China); Zeng, Rong-Chang [College of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590 (China); State Key Laboratory of Mining Disaster Prevention and Control Co-founded by Shandong Province and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590 (China)

    2016-09-30

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/graphene composites were synthesized through one-step hydrothermal method. • A bicrystalline framework of anatase and brookite formed. • Electrons transfer in the biphasic TiO{sub 2} results in electron-hole separation. • Graphene lead to a negative shift of the Fermi level. • The transfer barrier in the TiO{sub 2} and 304 stainless steel interface is decreased. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2}/graphene composites were synthesized through one-step hydrothermal method. The composites show an enhancement in photo-generated cathodic protection as the time-dependent profiles of photocurrent responses has confirmed. XRD data show that a bicrystalline framework of anatase and brookite formed as graphene provided donor groups in the hydrothermal process. The transfer of photoinduced electrons in the biphasic TiO{sub 2} results in effective electron-hole separation. Moreover, graphene lead to a negative shift of the Fermi level as evidenced by Mott–Schottky analysis, which decreases the Schottky barrier formed in the TiO{sub 2} and 304 stainless steel interface and results in the enhancement of photo-generated cathodic protection.

  18. Detection and Characterization of Low Temperature Peat Fires during the 2015 Fire Catastrophe in Indonesia Using a New High-Sensitivity Fire Monitoring Satellite Sensor (FireBird).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Elizabeth C; Englhart, Sandra; Lorenz, Eckehard; Halle, Winfried; Wiedemann, Werner; Siegert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Vast and disastrous fires occurred on Borneo during the 2015 dry season, pushing Indonesia into the top five carbon emitting countries. The region was affected by a very strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate phenomenon, on par with the last severe event in 1997/98. Fire dynamics in Central Kalimantan were investigated using an innovative sensor offering higher sensitivity to a wider range of fire intensities at a finer spatial resolution (160 m) than heretofore available. The sensor is onboard the TET-1 satellite, part of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) FireBird mission. TET-1 images (acquired every 2-3 days) from the middle infrared were used to detect fires continuously burning for almost three weeks in the protected peatlands of Sebangau National Park as well as surrounding areas with active logging and oil palm concessions. TET-1 detection capabilities were compared with MODIS active fire detection and Landsat burned area algorithms. Fire dynamics, including fire front propagation speed and area burned, were investigated. We show that TET-1 has improved detection capabilities over MODIS in monitoring low-intensity peatland fire fronts through thick smoke and haze. Analysis of fire dynamics revealed that the largest burned areas resulted from fire front lines started from multiple locations, and the highest propagation speeds were in excess of 500 m/day (all over peat > 2m deep). Fires were found to occur most often in concessions that contained drainage infrastructure but were not cleared prior to the fire season. Benefits of implementing this sensor system to improve current fire management techniques are discussed. Near real-time fire detection together with enhanced fire behavior monitoring capabilities would not only improve firefighting efforts, but also benefit analysis of fire impact on tropical peatlands, greenhouse gas emission estimations as well as mitigation measures to reduce severe fire events in the future.

  19. Detection and Characterization of Low Temperature Peat Fires during the 2015 Fire Catastrophe in Indonesia Using a New High-Sensitivity Fire Monitoring Satellite Sensor (FireBird)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Elizabeth C.; Englhart, Sandra; Lorenz, Eckehard; Halle, Winfried; Wiedemann, Werner; Siegert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Vast and disastrous fires occurred on Borneo during the 2015 dry season, pushing Indonesia into the top five carbon emitting countries. The region was affected by a very strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate phenomenon, on par with the last severe event in 1997/98. Fire dynamics in Central Kalimantan were investigated using an innovative sensor offering higher sensitivity to a wider range of fire intensities at a finer spatial resolution (160 m) than heretofore available. The sensor is onboard the TET-1 satellite, part of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) FireBird mission. TET-1 images (acquired every 2–3 days) from the middle infrared were used to detect fires continuously burning for almost three weeks in the protected peatlands of Sebangau National Park as well as surrounding areas with active logging and oil palm concessions. TET-1 detection capabilities were compared with MODIS active fire detection and Landsat burned area algorithms. Fire dynamics, including fire front propagation speed and area burned, were investigated. We show that TET-1 has improved detection capabilities over MODIS in monitoring low-intensity peatland fire fronts through thick smoke and haze. Analysis of fire dynamics revealed that the largest burned areas resulted from fire front lines started from multiple locations, and the highest propagation speeds were in excess of 500 m/day (all over peat > 2m deep). Fires were found to occur most often in concessions that contained drainage infrastructure but were not cleared prior to the fire season. Benefits of implementing this sensor system to improve current fire management techniques are discussed. Near real-time fire detection together with enhanced fire behavior monitoring capabilities would not only improve firefighting efforts, but also benefit analysis of fire impact on tropical peatlands, greenhouse gas emission estimations as well as mitigation measures to reduce severe fire events in the future. PMID:27486664

  20. Fire Extinguisher Designated Worker and Fire Watch: Self-Study Course 15672

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Jimmy D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-08

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), all workers must be aware of LANL fire protection policies and be trained on what to do in the event of a fire. This course, Fire Extinguisher Training for Fire Watch and Designated Workers (#9893), provides awareness-level and hands-on training for fire watch personnel and designated workers. Fire watch personnel and designated workers are appointed by line management and must receive both awareness-level training and hands-on training in the use of portable fire extinguishers to extinguish an incipient-stage fire. This training meets the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29 CFR 1910.157, Portable Fire Extinguishers, and Procedure (P) 101-26, Welding, Cutting, and Other Spark-/Flame-Producing Operations.

  1. Fire Extinguisher Training for Fire Watch and Designated Workers, Course 9893

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Jimmy D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-19

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), all workers must be aware of LANL fire protection policies and be trained on what to do in the event of a fire. This course, Fire Extinguisher Training for Fire Watch and Designated Workers (#9893), provides awareness-level and hands-on training for fire watch personnel and designated workers. Fire watch personnel and designated workers are appointed by line management and must receive both awareness-level training and hands-on training in the use of portable fire extinguishers to extinguish an incipient-stage fire. This training meets the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29 CFR 1910.157, Portable Fire Extinguishers, and Procedure (P) 101-26, Welding, Cutting, and Other Spark-/Flame-Producing Operations.

  2. Generation and protection of steady-state quantum correlations due to quantum channels with memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, You-neng; Fang, Mao-fa; Wang, Guo-you; Zeng, Ke

    2016-12-01

    We have proposed a scheme of the generation and preservation of two-qubit steady-state quantum correlations through quantum channels where successive uses of the channels are correlated. Different types of noisy channels with memory, such as amplitude damping, phase damping, and depolarizing channels, have been taken into account. Some analytical or numerical results are presented. The effect of channels with memory on dynamics of quantum correlations has been discussed in detail. The results show that steady-state entanglement between two initial qubits whose initial states are prepared in a specific family states without entanglement subject to amplitude damping channel with memory can be generated. The entanglement creation is related to the memory coefficient of channel μ . The stronger the memory coefficient of channel μ is, the more the entanglement creation is, and the earlier the separable state becomes the entangled state. Besides, we compare the dynamics of entanglement with that of quantum discord when a two-qubit system is initially prepared in an entangled state. We show that entanglement dynamics suddenly disappears, while quantum discord dynamics displays only in the asymptotic limit. Furthermore, two-qubit quantum correlations can be preserved at a long time in the limit of μ → 1.

  3. Generation and protection of steady-state quantum correlations due to quantum channels with memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, You-neng; Fang, Mao-fa; Wang, Guo-you; Zeng, Ke

    2016-09-01

    We have proposed a scheme of the generation and preservation of two-qubit steady-state quantum correlations through quantum channels where successive uses of the channels are correlated. Different types of noisy channels with memory, such as amplitude damping, phase damping, and depolarizing channels, have been taken into account. Some analytical or numerical results are presented. The effect of channels with memory on dynamics of quantum correlations has been discussed in detail. The results show that steady-state entanglement between two initial qubits whose initial states are prepared in a specific family states without entanglement subject to amplitude damping channel with memory can be generated. The entanglement creation is related to the memory coefficient of channel μ . The stronger the memory coefficient of channel μ is, the more the entanglement creation is, and the earlier the separable state becomes the entangled state. Besides, we compare the dynamics of entanglement with that of quantum discord when a two-qubit system is initially prepared in an entangled state. We show that entanglement dynamics suddenly disappears, while quantum discord dynamics displays only in the asymptotic limit. Furthermore, two-qubit quantum correlations can be preserved at a long time in the limit of μ → 1.

  4. Safety issues in PV systems: Design choices for a secure fault detection and for preventing fire risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Falvo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic systems have played a key role over the last decade in the evolution of the electricity sector. In terms of safety design, it’s important to consider that a PV plant constitutes a special system of generation, where the Direct Current (DC presence results in changes to the technical rules. Moreover, if certain electrical faults occur, the plant is a possible source of fire. Choices regarding the grounding of the generator and its protection devices are fundamental for a design that evaluates fire risk. The subject of the article is the analysis of the relation between electrical phenomena in PV systems and the fire risk related to ensuring appropriate fault detection by the electrical protection system. A description of a grid-connected PV system is followed firstly by a comparison of the design solutions provided by International Standards, and secondly by an analysis of electrical phenomena which may trigger a fire. A study of two existing PV systems, where electrical faults have resulted in fires, is then presented. The study highlights the importance of checking all possible failure modes in a PV system design phase, to assess fire risk in advance. Some guidelines for the mitigation of electrical faults that may result in a fire are finally provided.

  5. 600 MW 超临界煤电机组与分布式光伏系统耦合发电研究%Study on coupling power technology for 600 MW supercritical coal-fired generating units and distributed photovoltaic energy systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢霆

    2015-01-01

    This paper carried a case study on application technology of combined power generation system between 600 MW supercritical coal-fired electricity generating units and the Tuoketuo power plant 10 MW distributed photovoltaic demonstration project.Protection system and moni-toring system of photovoltaic energy system were designed and photovoltaic power supply moni-toring system and coal-fired generating monitoring system were integrated,which can improve the reliability of photovoltaic energy system connection to power grid.The difficult problems of grid-connected techniques and long distance transmission of conventional photovoltaic power sta-tion can be solved through coupling distributed photovoltaic clean energy and traditional energy of coal generation techniques.Moreover,it can improve the efficiency of thermal power units and a-chieve a comprehensive energy-saving emission reduction benefits.%以托克托发电厂10 MW 分布式光伏供电示范项目为背景,展开600 MW 超临界煤电机组与分布式光伏系统耦合发电应用技术研究。设计光伏供电并网保护系统和监控系统,完成光伏供电监控系统与煤电机组监控系统的集成,确保光伏供电系统并网可靠性。开发分布式光伏清洁能源与传统煤炭能源联合发电系统,弥补了常规光伏电站建设并网及送出难的问题,提高了火电机组发电效率,综合节能减排效益突出。

  6. Performance-based fire protection design of the creative conceptual exhibition architecture%创意概念型博览会展建筑消防性能化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施妮; 程春光; 夏东海; 蔡晓红

    2011-01-01

    结合某创意概念型博览会展建筑工程,针对其防火分区面积大、疏散距离长的问题进行性能化防火设计.设计7个场景,以FDS模拟烟气流动,使用EVACNET4模拟人员疏散情况.就此类建筑性能化设计中若干关键问题进行探讨.性能化设计的防火分区应与按规范要求设计的防火分区在安全性上等价或相似.应增强防排烟以弥补疏散距离长的缺陷.应考虑增配消防排烟车以增强应急救援能力.%The fire protection design of one creative conceptual exhibition architecture was done in performance based way since the fire compartment is too big and the evacuation distance is too long. The smoke movement was simulated by FDS and the evacuation was simulated by EVACNET4 with 7 scenarios.The problems in performance-based design for this kind of building were discussed. The fire compartment designed in performance-based way should be as safety as the fire compartment designed by the Code. The smoke control should be enhanced to make up the defect of long evacuation distance. The emergency rescue should be enhanced by equipped with smoke exhaust vehicle.

  7. Fire-safety engineering and performance-based codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    Fire-safety Engineering is written as a textbook for Engineering students at universities and other institutions of higher education that teach in the area of fire. The book can also be used as a work of reference for consulting engineers, Building product manufacturers, contractors, building...... project administrators, etc. The book deals with the following topics: • Historical presentation on the subject of fire • Legislation and building project administration • European fire standardization • Passive and active fire protection • Performance-based Codes • Fire-safety Engineering • Fundamental...... and respiratory physiology • Combustion and natural fires • Explosion theory • Fire Chemistry • Fire Extinction Chemistry and Physics • Evacuation and human behaviour during a fire • Sensitivity and risk analysis • Fire Models • Emission and Radiation Theory...

  8. Control and Protection in Low Voltage Grid with Large Scale Renewable Electricity Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Ghullam

    of renewable energy based DGs are reduced CO2 emission, reduced operational cost as almost no fuel is used for their operation and less transmission and distribution losses as these units are normally built near to the load centers. This has also resulted in some operational challenges due to the unpredictable...... of the wind speed and solar irradiation fluctuations are tackled. The CIGRE Low Voltage (LV) network comprising two solar PV generating units of 3 kW and 4 kW, one 5.5 kW fixed-pitch fix speed WTG and two battery units each producing energy of 30kwh and 21kwh has been chosen for the study. The study...... the distribution system and the transmission grid has been proposed here. The algorithms, models and methodologies developed during this research study have been tested in a CIGRE low voltage distribution network. The simulation results show that they are able to correctly identify the states of the distribution...

  9. Application of paste backfill in underground coal fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drebenstedt, C.; Masniyom, M. [Technische Univ., Freiberg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Coal fires are common in most coalfields around the world, and most particularly in China. The main countries affected by coal fires include China, India, the United States, Australia, Indonesia and South Africa. The fires cause sinkholes; large-scale subsidence; air pollution in the form of greenhouse gases; global warming; loss of mining productivity; contamination of drinking water; damage of flora and fauna; and a high safety risk. Therefore, protecting the economically valuable coal resources and the environment is of significant national and international importance. This paper discussed the use of paste backfill in the Wuda Inner Mongolia coalfield to cool down the burning coal and cut off the air supply to prevent coal fires. The study investigated backfill materials and techniques suited for underground coal fires. The paper presented the results of laboratory tests that were conducted on physical, chemical and mechanical properties of different backfill materials and mixtures, with particular attention to materials generated as by-products and other cheaply available materials such as fly ash from power plants. The characteristics of backfill materials, grain size analysis, and chemical composition of backfill were also identified. It was concluded that backfilling voids enhance the stability of the mine, thereby improving safety for the workforce. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  10. Lipoxin A4 protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis by promoting innate response activator B cells generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiong; Wang, Zheng; Ma, Ruihua; Chen, Yongtao; Yan, Yan; Miao, Shuo; Jiao, Jingyu; Cheng, Xue; Kong, Lingfei; Ye, Duyun

    2016-10-01

    Sepsis is a serious disease that leads to severe inflammation, dysregulation of immune system, multi-organ failure and death. Innate response activator (IRA) B cells, which produce granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), protect against microbial sepsis. Lipid mediator lipoxin A4 (LXA4) exerts anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory effects, and it has been reported that LXA4 receptor ALX/FPR2 is expressed on B cells. Here, we investigated the potential role of LXA4 on IRA B cells in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis. We found that LXA4 significantly promoted the expansion of splenic IRA B cells and increased GM-CSF expression in splenic B cells with LPS stimulation. After splenectomy, LXA4 treatment did not change the serum or peritoneal IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in LPS-induced sepsis. LXA4 accelerated the migration of peritoneal B cells to spleen for their differentiation into IRA B cells, whereas this effect was independent of peritoneal macrophage. Furthermore, LXA4 enhanced the phosphorylation level of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) in splenic B cells. These results suggest that LXA4 protects against LPS-induced sepsis by promoting the generation and migration of splenic IRA B cells, and the underlying molecular mechanism may be related to STAT5 activation. It might provide new insights and therapeutic approaches for treating sepsis.

  11. Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession.

  12. Forecasting poductivity in forest fire suppression operations: A methodological approach based on suppression difficulty analysis and documented experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Rodríguez y Silva; Armando González-Cabán

    2013-01-01

    The abandonment of land, the high energy load generated and accumulated by vegetation covers, climate change and interface scenarios in Mediterranean forest ecosystems are demanding serious attention to forest fire conditions. This is particularly true when dealing with the budget requirements for undertaking protection programs related to the state of current and...

  13. Probabilistic simulation of fire scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostikka, Simo E-mail: simo.bostikka@vtt.fi; Keski-Rahkonen, Olavi

    2003-10-01

    A risk analysis tool is developed for computation of the distributions of fire model output variables. The tool, called Probabilistic Fire Simulator (PFS), combines Monte Carlo simulation and CFAST, a two-zone fire model. In this work, the tool is used to estimate the failure probability of redundant cables in a cable tunnel fire, and the failure and smoke filling probabilities in an electronics room during an electronics cabinet fire. Sensitivity of the output variables to the input variables is calculated in terms of the rank order correlations. The use of the rank order correlations allows the user to identify both modelling parameters and actual facility properties that have the most influence on the results. Various steps of the simulation process, i.e. data collection, generation of the input distributions, modelling assumptions, definition of the output variables and the actual simulation, are described.

  14. Dopamine modulates two potassium currents and inhibits the intrinsic firing properties of an identified motor neuron in a central pattern generator network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppenburg, P; Levini, R M; Harris-Warrick, R M

    1999-01-01

    The two pyloric dilator (PD) neurons are components [along with the anterior burster (AB) neuron] of the pacemaker group of the pyloric network in the stomatogastric ganglion of the spiny lobster Panulirus interruptus. Dopamine (DA) modifies the motor pattern generated by the pyloric network, in part by exciting or inhibiting different neurons. DA inhibits the PD neuron by hyperpolarizing it and reducing its rate of firing action potentials, which leads to a phase delay of PD relative to the electrically coupled AB and a reduction in the pyloric cycle frequency. In synaptically isolated PD neurons, DA slows the rate of recovery to spike after hyperpolarization. The latency from a hyperpolarizing prestep to the first action potential is increased, and the action potential frequency as well as the total number of action potentials are decreased. When a brief (1 s) puff of DA is applied to a synaptically isolated, voltage-clamped PD neuron, a small voltage-dependent outward current is evoked, accompanied by an increase in membrane conductance. These responses are occluded by the combined presence of the potassium channel blockers 4-aminopyridine and tetraethylammonium. In voltage-clamped PD neurons, DA enhances the maximal conductance of a voltage-sensitive transient potassium current (IA) and shifts its Vact to more negative potentials without affecting its Vinact. This enlarges the "window current" between the voltage activation and inactivation curves, increasing the tonically active IA near the resting potential and causing the cell to hyperpolarize. Thus DA's effect is to enhance both the transient and resting K+ currents by modulating the same channels. In addition, DA enhances the amplitude of a calcium-dependent potassium current (IO(Ca)), but has no effect on a sustained potassium current (IK(V)). These results suggest that DA hyperpolarizes and phase delays the activity of the PD neurons at least in part by modulating their intrinsic postinhibitory recovery

  15. 30 CFR 75.1101-5 - Installation of foam generator systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Installation of foam generator systems. 75.1101-5 Section 75.1101-5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1101-5 Installation of foam generator systems....

  16. Lowering of the firing voltage and reducing of the discharge delay time in alternating current plasma display panels by a discontinuous spin-coated LaB6 film on the MgO protective layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Deng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A spin coated LaB6 discontinuous film is covered on MgO protective layer to improve the discharge performance of alternating current plasma display panels. Under the premise of high transmittance of more than 90%, a very small amount of polycrystal LaB6 powders added in an organic solvent are chosen as the coating solution. The discharge characteristics results show that with 250 torr 5% Xe-Ne pressure, the firing voltage and discharge delay time of the test panel with LaB6/MgO double protective layer are decreased by 13.4% and 36.5%, respectively, compared with that of conventional MgO protective layer, likely owing to the low work function of LaB6. Furthermore, the aging time of the proposed structure is comparable to that of pure MgO protective layer. Therefore, it will not increase the production costs and is highly suitable to be applied for alternating current plasma display panels with low electrical power consumption.

  17. Lowering of the firing voltage and reducing of the discharge delay time in alternating current plasma display panels by a discontinuous spin-coated LaB{sub 6} film on the MgO protective layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jiang, E-mail: dj78291@163.com [School of Physical Electronic, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No.4, Section 2, Jianshe North Road, 610054 Chengdu (China); Zeng, Baoqing [School of Physical Electronic, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No.4, Section 2, Jianshe North Road, 610054 Chengdu (China); Zhongshan Institute, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 528402 zhongshan (China); Wang, Xiaoju; Lin, Zulun; Qi, Kangcheng; Cao, Guichuan [School of Opto-electronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No.4, Section 2, Jianshe North Road, 610054 Chengdu (China)

    2014-03-15

    A spin coated LaB{sub 6} discontinuous film is covered on MgO protective layer to improve the discharge performance of alternating current plasma display panels. Under the premise of high transmittance of more than 90%, a very small amount of polycrystal LaB{sub 6} powders added in an organic solvent are chosen as the coating solution. The discharge characteristics results show that with 250 torr 5% Xe-Ne pressure, the firing voltage and discharge delay time of the test panel with LaB{sub 6}/MgO double protective layer are decreased by 13.4% and 36.5%, respectively, compared with that of conventional MgO protective layer, likely owing to the low work function of LaB{sub 6.} Furthermore, the aging time of the proposed structure is comparable to that of pure MgO protective layer. Therefore, it will not increase the production costs and is highly suitable to be applied for alternating current plasma display panels with low electrical power consumption.

  18. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. L. Kubicek

    2001-09-07

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire or related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment. (3) Vital US. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. (5) Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  19. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard C. Logan

    2002-03-28

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment; Vital U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  20. Trans-generational Immune Priming Protects the Eggs Only against Gram-Positive Bacteria in the Mealworm Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuffet, Aurore; Zanchi, Caroline; Boutet, Gwendoline; Moreau, Jérôme; Teixeira, Maria; Moret, Yannick

    2015-10-01

    In many vertebrates and invertebrates, offspring whose mothers have been exposed to pathogens can exhibit increased levels of immune activity and/or increased survival to infection. Such phenomena, called "Trans-generational immune priming" (TGIP) are expected to provide immune protection to the offspring. As the offspring and their mother may share the same environment, and consequently similar microbial threats, we expect the immune molecules present in the progeny to be specific to the microbes that immune challenged the mother. We provide evidence in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor that the antimicrobial activity found in the eggs is only active against Gram-positive bacteria, even when females were exposed to Gram-negative bacteria or fungi. Fungi were weak inducers of TGIP while we obtained similar levels of anti-Gram-positive activity using different bacteria for the maternal challenge. Furthermore, we have identified an antibacterial peptide from the defensin family, the tenecin 1, which spectrum of activity is exclusively directed toward Gram-positive bacteria as potential contributor to this antimicrobial activity. We conclude that maternal transfer of antimicrobial activity in the eggs of T. molitor might have evolved from persistent Gram-positive bacterial pathogens between insect generations.

  1. Trans-generational Immune Priming Protects the Eggs Only against Gram-Positive Bacteria in the Mealworm Beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Dubuffet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In many vertebrates and invertebrates, offspring whose mothers have been exposed to pathogens can exhibit increased levels of immune activity and/or increased survival to infection. Such phenomena, called "Trans-generational immune priming" (TGIP are expected to provide immune protection to the offspring. As the offspring and their mother may share the same environment, and consequently similar microbial threats, we expect the immune molecules present in the progeny to be specific to the microbes that immune challenged the mother. We provide evidence in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor that the antimicrobial activity found in the eggs is only active against Gram-positive bacteria, even when females were exposed to Gram-negative bacteria or fungi. Fungi were weak inducers of TGIP while we obtained similar levels of anti-Gram-positive activity using different bacteria for the maternal challenge. Furthermore, we have identified an antibacterial peptide from the defensin family, the tenecin 1, which spectrum of activity is exclusively directed toward Gram-positive bacteria as potential contributor to this antimicrobial activity. We conclude that maternal transfer of antimicrobial activity in the eggs of T. molitor might have evolved from persistent Gram-positive bacterial pathogens between insect generations.

  2. Termites Are Resistant to the Effects of Fire at Multiple Spatial Scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Avitabile

    Full Text Available Termites play an important ecological role in many ecosystems, particularly in nutrient-poor arid and semi-arid environments. We examined the distribution and occurrence of termites in the fire-prone, semi-arid mallee region of south-eastern Australia. In addition to periodic large wildfires, land managers use fire as a tool to achieve both asset protection and ecological outcomes in this region. Twelve taxa of termites were detected by using systematic searches and grids of cellulose baits at 560 sites, clustered in 28 landscapes selected to represent different fire mosaic patterns. There was no evidence of a significant relationship between the occurrence of termite species and time-since-fire at the site scale. Rather, the occurrence of species was related to habitat features such as the density of mallee trees and large logs (>10 cm diameter. Species richness was greater in chenopod mallee vegetation on heavier soils in swales, rather than Triodia mallee vegetation of the sandy dune slopes. At the landscape scale, there was little evidence that the frequency of occurrence of termite species was related to fire, and no evidence that habitat heterogeneity generated by fire influenced termite species richness. The most influential factor at the landscape scale was the environmental gradient represented by average annual rainfall. Although termites may be associated with flammable habitat components (e.g. dead wood, they appear to be buffered from the effects of fire by behavioural traits, including nesting underground, and the continued availability of dead wood after fire. There is no evidence to support the hypothesis that a fine-scale, diverse mosaic of post-fire age-classes will enhance the diversity of termites. Rather, termites appear to be resistant to the effects of fire at multiple spatial scales.

  3. Fire Research Enclosure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Simulates submarine fires, enclosed aircraft fires, and fires in enclosures at shore facilities .DESCRIPTION: FIRE I is a pressurizable, 324 cu m(11,400 cu...

  4. Fire Research Enclosure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Simulates submarine fires, enclosed aircraft fires, and fires in enclosures at shore facilities . DESCRIPTION: FIRE I is a pressurizable, 324 cu m(11,400...

  5. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  6. Fire protection and right of continuance. A portrait with practical examples; Brandschutz und Bestandschutz. Eine Darstellung anhand von Fallbeispielen aus der anwaltlichen Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Stefan [Stefan Koch Kanzlei fuer Baurecht und Brandschutz, Koeln (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Issues related to the scope of the conservation of the status quo of existing buildings are often not clearly settled. The owner of a building e.g. is not obliged automatically to use higher fire fighting standards of current legislation. However, from case to case, such adjustments might have to be made. Solicitors' cases document how to enforce conservation of the status quo. Finally, legal reference is made to the relationship of conservation of the status quo, liability, and criminal liability. (orig.)

  7. Wildland Fire Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwager, K.; Green, T. M.

    2014-10-01

    The DOE policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas managed by DOE and/or Its various contractors which can sustain fire must have a FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures associated with wildland fire, operational, and prescribed fires. FMPs provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled ''prescribed'' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered, threatened, and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL. The plan will be reviewed periodically to ensure fire program advances and will evolve with the missions of DOE and BNL.

  8. INTEGRATED SYSTEMS IN PLANT PROTECTION MANAGEMENT: FIRE BLIGHT OF ROSACEOUS PLANTS (Erwinia amylovora (Burrill - Winslow IN AN APPLE ORCHARD IN SIBIU COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria TĂNASE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrated protection represents a modern approach, denoting a protection strategy of agro-ecosystems; and it represents a complex system employing all appropriate methods in a manner as consistent and smooth as possible, in order to maintain the biocenotic balance of agrosystems and to keep pathogens at a level at which they do not cause economic damage (so-called level of eco-efficiency. A biocenotic approach to issues of agrosystem protection against disease attack requires an acknowledgement of all aspects regarding the evolution of pests in time and space, so as to be able to intervene at the right time with all possible means. And such protection measures are not supposed to restrain existing tendencies in the agrosystem. Therefore, this implies the awareness that any applied protection measures do not affect solely a certain pathogen, but the entire plant and animal community, as well as the soil and water.

  9. 29 CFR 1910.156 - Fire brigades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... brigade; the basic organizational structure; the type, amount, and frequency of training to be provided to... fire and other emergencies. The fire brigade members shall also be advised of any changes that occur in..., and shall provide protection against penetration of the midsole by a size 8D common nail when at...

  10. Does high optimism protect against the inter-generational transmission of high BMI? The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serlachius, Anna; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Juonala, Markus; Sabin, Matthew; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Elovainio, Marko

    2017-09-01

    The transmission of overweight from one generation to the next is well established, however little is known about what psychosocial factors may protect against this familial risk. The aim of this study was to examine whether optimism plays a role in the intergenerational transmission of obesity. Our sample included 1043 participants from the prospective Cardiovascular Risk in Young FINNS Study. Optimism was measured in early adulthood (2001) when the cohort was aged 24-39years. BMI was measured in 2001 (baseline) and 2012 when they were aged 35-50years. Parental BMI was measured in 1980. Hierarchical linear regression and logistic regression were used to examine the association between optimism and future BMI/obesity, and whether an interaction existed between optimism and parental BMI when predicting BMI/obesity 11years later. High optimism in young adulthood demonstrated a negative relationship with high BMI in mid-adulthood, but only in women (β=-0.127, p=0.001). The optimism×maternal BMI interaction term was a significant predictor of future BMI in women (β=-0.588, p=0.036). The logistic regression results confirmed that high optimism predicted reduced obesity in women (OR=0.68, 95% CI, 0.55-0.86), however the optimism × maternal obesity interaction term was not a significant predictor (OR=0.50, 95% CI, 0.10-2.48). Our findings supported our hypothesis that high optimism mitigated the intergenerational transmission of high BMI, but only in women. These findings also provided evidence that positive psychosocial factors such as optimism are associated with long-term protective effects on BMI in women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of Co-Effects on Air Pollutants and CO2 Emissions Generated by End-of-Pipe Measures of Pollution Control in China’s Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Zhao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available China is now facing great challenges resulting from climate change and air pollution, driven by the processes of industrialization and urbanization. Greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions produced by the coal-fired power industry represent approximately 70% of the total emissions in China’s industrial sector. In this study, 39 coal-fired power plants built in China between 2014 and 2015 were analyzed in regards to the co-effects oncarbon dioxide and air pollutant emissions generated directly and indirectly by end-of-pipe measures of pollution control. After completing the quantitative analysis with input data from 83units of power plants, we found that co-effects were positive only for air pollutant reductions through the implementation of desulfurization, denitrification, and dedusting measures, but co-effects were negative for carbon dioxide production because of the corresponding electricity use and chemical reactions that led to the increases in carbon dioxide emissions. We also performed an assessment of the synergistic coefficients to better understand the degree of co-effects. It will be important for researchers to take a comprehensive view of China’s coal-fired power plants and look for solutions that can maximize positive co-effects and achieve overall co-benefits of reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutants.

  12. Discussion on several issues related to fire protection design for large public buildings%大型公共建筑消防设计若干难点问题探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游宇航; 孙晓乾; 刘壮志

    2012-01-01

    针对目前大型公共建筑消防设计中存在的一些难点问题,根据规范的相关条文,结合工作实践对若干消防设计难点问题提出自己的观点:提出了中庭与环廊排烟的优化设计思路;探讨了不同功能建筑共用疏散楼梯的可行性;论证了相邻防火分区之间借用安全出口问题的前提条件;探讨了“准安全区”的概念和应用场所限制.%Focusing on some difficult fire protection issues for large public buildings, some new opinions were proposed according to the author's work experience and his understanding and analysis of China GB codes. An optimized smoke exhaust strategy was proposed for atrium and its surrounding corridors. The feasibility of common stair issue for different functions was discussed, and the usage of safety door to adjacent fire compartment and its precondition was illustrated in this article. The definition of quasi-safety zone was also cleared as well as its applied scope.

  13. Discussion on Recovery Protection for HVDC Thyristor Valve in the Non-periodic Firing Tests%HVDC晶闸管换流阀非周期触发试验中恢复期保护的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆建挺; 杨涛; 申萌; 钟磊; 周敏刚

    2011-01-01

    The non-periodic firing test is an important test of valve type tests for HVDC thyristor valve. For a complete valve, parallel capacitor method is normally adopted for testing. Some issues about recovery protection in the non-periodic firing tests have been discussed in this paper. Tests show that after the thyristor triggered, in recovery period, over high Aid At or re-triggered the thyristor, this may cause damage to thyristor. Base on this, the appropriate recommendations are proposed.%高压直流输电HVDC晶闸管换流阀的非周期触发试验是换流阀型式试验中的一项重要试验.对于完整的阀,通常采用并联电容器法进行试验.笔者比较了几个不同工程晶闸管换流阀的试验数据,探讨了晶闸管非周期触发试验中恢复期保护的几个问题.实验证明,晶闸管触发后恢复期内过高的du/dt或再次触发将可能导致晶闸管的损害,并提出了相应的建议.

  14. Hydrogen sulfide is endogenously generated in rat skeletal muscle and exerts a protective effect against oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Jian-tong; LI Wei; YANG Jin-yan; TANG Chao-shu; LI Qi; JIN Hong-fang

    2013-01-01

    Background Skeletal muscle has recently been recognized as an endocrine organ that can express,synthesize and secrete a variety of bioactive molecules which exert significant regulatory effects.Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is endogenously produced in mammalian tissues and participates in a number of physiological and pathophysiological processes.We aimed to verify whether H2S could be endogenously generated and released by rat skeletal muscle,and determine the biological effects of H2S in rat skeletal muscle.Methods The study was divided into two parts:detection of endogenous H2S generation and release in rat skeletal muscle and determination of antioxidative activity of skeletal muscle-derived H2S.H2S content and production in tissues were detected by sensitive sulfur electrode method.The expressions of H2S producing enzymes cystathionine β-synthase,cystathionine Y-lyase and mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting and their tissue distributions were observed by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent analysis.Rat skeletal muscular ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury model was created and evaluated by histological analysis under microscope.The malondialdehyde (MDA) contents,hydrogen peroxide levels,superoxide anion and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were detected using spectrophotometer.Results H2S could be endogenously generated and released by skeletal muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats (H2S content:(2.06±0.43) nmol/mg; H2S production:(0.17±0.06) nmol.min-1·mg-1).Gene and protein expressions of the three H2S producing enzymes were detected in skeletal muscle,as well as the liver and kidney.Endogenous H2S content and production were decreased in skeletal muscles of rats with I-R skeletal muscle injury (P <0.05).Furthermore,H2S significantly protected rat skeletal muscle against I-R injury and resulted in decreased MDA content,reduced hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion levels,but increased SOD activity and

  15. Fire Models and Design Fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Annemarie

    The aim of this project is to perform an experimental study on the influence of the thermal feedback on the burning behavior of well ventilated pre-flashover fires. For the purpose an experimental method has been developed. Here the same identical objects are tested under free burn conditions...... carried out by Carleton University and NRC-IRC performed on seven different types of fire loads representing commercial premises, comprise the tests used for the study. The results show that for some of the room test the heat release rate increased due to thermal feedback compared to free burn for a pre......-flashover fire. Two phenomena were observed, that relate well to theory was found. In an incipient phase the heat release rate rose with the temperature of the smoke layer/enclosure boundaries. This increase was also found to depend on the flammability properties of the burning object. The results also...

  16. Construction Characteristic of Foreign Country Oil Gathering Center Detective and Protective System for Fire and Gas%国外集油站火灾与气体检测及保护系统的施工特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李信龙; 程红

    2001-01-01

    The article introduces function of foreign country oil gatheringcenter detective and protective system for fire and gas, hand over of its installation and service from construction and installation angles. The article considers that the system is designed rationally, suitable for application in oil and chemical engineering and has high reliability.%从施工安装的角度,介绍火灾与气体检测及保护系统的基本功能、安装调试以及工程交工与服务的工作要求,认为该系统设计合理、可靠性高,能有效地进行火气保护,因而适合在国内石油、化工领域推广应用。

  17. Selections of locations, environmental protections and fire research for settlements of victims in the Wenchuan earthquake%汶川地震灾区安置点的选址、环保和防火探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓勇

    2009-01-01

    The selections of locations for settlements of victims in disaster areas considering floods and debris flows was studied,the impact of the size of the settlements and the materials used to build the transitional houses on the ecological environment was investigated,the specifications of fire protection design for settlements of victims were discussed, and suggestions on these issues were given.%研究了洪灾、泥石流对四川汶川地震灾区安置点选址的影响、安置点的规模,搭建板房所用板材对生态环境的影响以及安置点的防火设计,并就相关问题提出了建议.

  18. 发电机纵联差动保护误动原因分析%Cause Analysis of the Malfunction of the Longitudinal Differential Protection of a Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安甫; 徐明

    2012-01-01

    通过分析一起发电机纵差保护误动的原因,对差动保护两侧电流互感器的特性、差动回路阻抗进行比较,并全面复核保护定值,以避免在区外故障时,差动回路中产生不平衡电流,发生保护误动作。%Based on the cause analysis of the malfunction of the longitudinal differential protection of a generator,this essay compares the featm's and the differential circuit impedances between the two current transformers of the dif ferential protection. Besides, it also rechecks the fixed value of the protection to avoid protection malfunctions caused by unbalanced current in the differential circuit beyond the relay protection zone.

  19. Fire Brigade

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    With effect from 15 April 2004, the Fire Brigade will no longer issue master keys on loan. Contractors' personnel requiring access to locked premises in order to carry out work must apply to the CERN staff member responsible for the contract concerned.

  20. Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... way to the nearest exit. Don't stop. Don't go back . In case of fire, do not try to rescue pets or possessions. Once you are out, do not go back in for any reason. Firefighters have the best chance of rescuing people who are trapped. Let firefighters know right away if anyone is missing. ...

  1. Installation of an on-site power generation facility using gas as a fuel used as an emergency power supply for fire fighting facilities; Shoboyo setsubinado no hijo dengen ni shiyosuru gas wo nenryo to suru jika hatsuden setsubi no donyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K. [Fire Defence Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-02-01

    This paper summarizes provisions in the Fire Service Law when an on-site power generation facility using gas as a fuel is used as an emergency power supply for fire fighting facilities. The provisions described include the following: regulations on output, number of facilities, operation systems and reserve fuels when installing a power generation facility burning gas exclusively used for normal power use and disaster prevention (a power generation facility using gaseous fuel to be used as a normal and emergency power supply in fire fighting facilities), precautions on operation of these facilities, and evaluation on assurance of stable supply source of the main fuel when no installation of the reserve fuel supply system is required. These regulations take the view of the current status of increase in the structures subjected to fire fighting activities that have installed on-site power generation facilities and cogeneration plants used as ordinary power supply systems. The regulations have become enforced based on the result of discussions on the said power generation facilities burning gas exclusively by the discussion committee for the on-site power generation facilities used as power supply systems for fire fighting facilities in the Nippon Engine Generator Association. 2 figs.

  2. Fire Event Data from Licensee Event Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — The purpose of this study data is to provide a metric with which to assess the effectiveness of improvements to the U.S. NRC's fire protection regulations in support...

  3. Protective role of G-CSF in dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute colitis through generating gut-homing macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkibaf, Shahab; Martins, Andrew J; Henry, Garth T; Kim, Sung Ouk

    2016-02-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a pleiotropic cytokine best known for its role in promoting the generation and function of neutrophils. G-CSF is also found to be involved in macrophage generation and immune regulation; however, its in vivo role in immune homeostasis is largely unknown. Here, we examined the role of G-CSF in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis using G-CSF receptor-deficient (G-CSFR(-/-)) mice. Mice were administered with 1.5% DSS in drinking water for 5days, and the severity of colitis was measured for the next 5days. GCSFR(-/-) mice were more susceptible to DSS-induced colitis than G-CSFR(+/+) or G-CSFR(-/+) mice. G-CSFR(-/-) mice harbored less F4/80(+) macrophages, but a similar number of neutrophils, in the intestine. In vitro, bone marrow-derived macrophages prepared in the presence of both G-CSF and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) (G-BMDM) expressed higher levels of regulatory macrophage markers such as programmed death ligand 2 (PDL2), CD71 and CD206, but not in arginase I, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, Ym1 (chitinase-like 3) and FIZZ1 (found in inflammatory zone 1), and lower levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), CD80 and CD86 than bone marrow-derived macrophages prepared in the presence of M-CSF alone (BMDM), in response to interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon (IFN)-γ, respectively. Adoptive transfer of G-BMDM, but not BMDM, protected G-CSFR(-/-) mice from DSS-induced colitis, and suppressed expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1β and iNOS in the intestine. These results suggest that G-CSF plays an important role in preventing colitis, likely through populating immune regulatory macrophages in the intestine.

  4. Brief introduction of the Shanghai East Gym Center plumbing system and fire protection system design%上海东方体育中心给排水及消防设计简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    脱宁; 周耀寰; 吴健斌

    2012-01-01

    Shanghai East Gym Center is an architectural complex including a comprehensive gym with 18 000 seats, a swimming and diving hall with 5 000 seats, a service center, and a outdoor swimming and diving hall with 5 000 seats. This paper introduced the comprehensive sym and swimming and diving hall design parameters of water supply system, hot water system, fire protection system, drainage system, reclaimed water system, and swimming pool water treatment system. The engineering characteristics were also summarized, including water saving and non-traditional water source utilization, energy- saving and recyclable energy utilization, swimming pool water treatment process selection, special requirement for fire protection system, and the pipe and equipment layout%上海东方体育中心包括18000座的综合体育馆、5000座的游泳跳水馆、赛事服务中心和5000座的室外游泳跳水场.介绍了综合体育馆和游泳跳水馆的给水系统、热水系统、消防系统、排水系统、中水系统及游泳池水处理系统的设计参数,并对工程设计特点如节水与非传统水源利用、节能与可再生能源利用、游泳池水处理工艺选用、水消防特殊要求、管道和设备布置等进行了总结.

  5. 40 CFR 30.18 - Hotel and motel fire safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hotel and motel fire safety. 30.18... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 30.18 Hotel and motel fire safety. The Hotel and Motel Fire Safety Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-391) establishes a number of...

  6. Phase 2 fire hazard analysis for the canister storage building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadanaga, C.T., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    The fire hazard analysis assesses the risk from fire in a facility to ascertain whether the fire protection policies are met. This document provides a preliminary FHA for the CSB facility. Open items have been noted in the document. A final FHA will be required at the completion of definitive design, prior to operation of the facility.

  7. Sensitivity analysis codes fire simulation; Analisis de sensibilidad en codigos de simulacion contra incendios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero Garcia, S.; Peco Espinosa, J.

    2010-07-01

    The fire simulation and analytical validation procedures have been gaining importance in the context of safety analysis and probabilistic deterministic Fire at Nuclear Power Plants. Meanwhile, the fire simulation codes have been accepted as valuable tools for risk analysis in fire protection. To evaluate the quality and predictability of the codes used in fire protection, they are validated with different experiments. This work is performed to find the dependency of the FDS output parameters against a certain input.

  8. Fire hazards analysis for W030 tank farm ventilation upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckfeldt, R.A.

    1996-07-17

    This Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) was prepared according to the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.7A,FIRE PROTECTION, 2-17-93. The purpose of this FHA is to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE 5480.7A are being met. This purpose is accomplished through a conservative comprehensive assessment of the risk from fire and other perils within individual fire areas of a DOE facility in relation to proposed fire protection. This FHA is based on conditions set forth within this document and is valid only under these conditions.

  9. Repository Subsurface Preliminary Fire Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard C. Logan

    2001-07-30

    This fire hazard analysis identifies preliminary design and operations features, fire, and explosion hazards, and provides a reasonable basis to establish the design requirements of fire protection systems during development and emplacement phases of the subsurface repository. This document follows the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (CRWMS M&O 2001c) which was prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''; Attachment 4 of AP-ESH-008, ''Hazards Analysis System''; and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''. The objective of this report is to establish the requirements that provide for facility nuclear safety and a proper level of personnel safety and property protection from the effects of fire and the adverse effects of fire-extinguishing agents.

  10. 41 CFR 102-80.90 - Is the Fire Administration Authorization Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-522) relevant to fire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is the Fire Administration Authorization Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-522) relevant to fire protection engineering? 102-80.90... Authorization Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-522) relevant to fire protection engineering? Yes, the...

  11. Human Factors in Fire Safety Management and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Othuman Mydin

    2014-01-01

    Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of potentially destructive fires. It involves the study of the behavior, compartmentalization, and investigation of fire and its related emergencies, as well as the research and development, production, testing and application of mitigating systems. Problems still occurred despite of the adequate fire safety systems installed. For most people in high-risk buildings, not all accidents were caused by ...

  12. Fire Symfonier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Svend Hvidtfelt

    2009-01-01

    sidste fire symfonier. Den er måske snarere at opfatte som et præludium til disse. At påstå, at symfonierne fra Holmboes side er planlagt til at være beslægtede, ville være at gå for vidt. Alene de 26 år, der skiller den 10. fra den 13., gør påstanden - i bedste fald - dubiøs. Når deres udformning...... udkrystallisering som i de sidste små 30 år af hans virke har afkastet disse fire variationer over en grundlæggende central holmboesk fornemmelse for form, melodi, klang og rytme. Denne oplevelse har fået mig til at udforske symfonierne, for at finde til bunds i dette holmboeske fællestræk, som jeg mener her står...

  13. OMS engine firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    An Orbital maneuvering system (OMS) engine firing caused this bright glow at the aft end of the shuttle Challenger during STS-7. Also visible in the open payload bay are parts of the Shuttle pallet satellite (SPAS-01), the experiment package for NASA's Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA-2), the protective cradles for the Indonesian Palapa-B and Telesat Canada Anik C2 satellites, some getaway special (GAS) canisters and the Canadian built remote manipulator system (RMS). The earth's horizon can be seen above the orbiter.

  14. Design and Evaluation of a Protection Relay for a Wind Generator Based on the Positive- and Negative-Sequence Fault Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, T. Y.; Cha, Seung-Tae; Crossley, P. A.;

    2013-01-01

    To avoid undesirable disconnection of healthy wind generators (WGs) or a wind power plant, a WG protection relay should discriminate among faults, so that it can operate instantaneously for WG, connected feeder or connection bus faults, it can operate after a delay for inter-tie or grid faults...

  15. Protective effects of green tea polyphenols against benzo[a]pyrene-induced reproductive and trans-generational toxic effects in Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Chuankui; Wang, Yanli; Xiao, Zhengcao; Xiao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the protective effect of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)-induced reproductive and trans-generational toxicity, Japanese Medaka was injected intraperitoneally with BaP alone and co-injected with both BaP and GTP of different concentrations, respectively.

  16. Temperature of Steel Columns under Natural Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Wald

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Current fire design models for time-temperature development within structural elements as well as for structural behaviour are based on isolated member tests subjected to standard fire regimes, which serve as a reference heating, but do not model natural fire. Only tests on a real structure under a natural fire can evaluate future models of the temperature developments in a fire compartment, of the transfer of heat into the structure and of the overall structural behaviour under fire.To study overall structural behaviour, a research project was conducted on an eight storey steel frame building at the  Cardington Building Research Establishment laboratory on January 16, 2003. A fire compartment 11×7 m was prepared on the fourth floor. A fire load of 40 kg/m2 was applied with 100 % permanent mechanical load and 65 % of imposed load. The paper summarises the experimental programme and shows the temperature development of the gas in the fire compartment and of the fire protected columns bearing the unprotected floors.

  17. A Framework for Assessment of Intentional Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Mohammadfam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : It is not possible to live without using fire. However, fire could destruct human properties in a short time. One of the most important types of fire is intentional fire. This type of fire has become a great problem for insurance companies, fire departments, industries, government and business in the recent years. This study aimed to provide a framework for risk assessment of intentional fires . Methods: In the present study, risk assessment and management model for protecting critical properties and security vulnerability assessment model were used to develop a comprehensive framework for risk assessment of intentional fires. The framework was examined in an automotive industry . Results : The designed framework contained five steps as 1 asset inventory and prioritizing them according to their importance, 2 invasion assessment, 3 vulnerability assessment, 4 risk assessment and design and 5 implementation and evaluating the effectiveness of corrective/preventive actions. Thirty different scenarios for intentional fires were identified by implementing the designed framework in an automotive company, and then the associated risk of each scenario was quantitatively determined. Conclusion : Compared to seven models, the proposed framework represents its comprehension. Development of safety and security standards and a central security information bank to reduce security risks, including the risk of intentional fires is recommended .

  18. Fire Patterns and Drivers of Fires in the West African Tropical Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwomoh, F. K.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The West African tropical forest (referred to as the Upper Guinean forest, UGF), is a global biodiversity hotspot providing vital ecosystem services for the region's socio-economic and environmental wellbeing. It is also one of the most fragmented and human-modified tropical forest ecosystems, with the only remaining large patches of original forests contained in protected areas. However, these remnant forests are susceptible to continued fire-mediated degradation and forest loss due to intense climatic, demographic and land use pressures. We analyzed human and climatic drivers of fire activity in the sub-region to better understand the spatial and temporal patterns of these risks. We utilized MODIS active fire and burned area products to identify fire activity within the sub-region. We measured climatic variability using TRMM rainfall data and derived indicators of human land use from a variety of geospatial datasets. We used a boosted regression trees model to determine the influences of predictor variables on fire activity. Our analyses indicated that the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation is a key driving factor of fire activity in the UGF. Anthropogenic effects on fire activity in the area were evident through the influences of agriculture and low-density populations. These human footprints in the landscape make forests more susceptible to fires through forest fragmentation, degradation, and fire spread from agricultural areas. Forested protected areas within the forest savanna mosaic experienced frequent fires, whereas the more humid forest areas located in the south and south-western portions of the study area had fewer fires as these rainforests tend to offer some buffering against fire encroachment. These results improve characterization of UGF fire regime and expand our understanding of the spatio-temporal dynamics of tropical forest fires in response to human and climatic pressures.

  19. Predicting hydrological and erosional risks in fire-affected watersheds: recent advances and research gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2017-04-01

    Models can be invaluable tools to assess and manage the impacts of forest fires on hydrological and erosion processes. Immediately after fires, models can be used to identify priority areas for post-fire interventions or assess the risks of flooding and downstream contamination. In the long term, models can be used to evaluate the long-term implications of a fire regime for soil protection, surface water quality and potential management risks, or determine how changes to fire regimes, caused e.g. by climate change, can impact soil and water quality. However, several challenges make post-fire modelling particularly difficult: • Fires change vegetation cover and properties, such as by changing soil water repellency or by adding an ash layer over the soil; these processes, however are not described in currently used models, so that existing models need to be modified and tested. • Vegetation and soils recover with time since fire, changing important model parameters, so that the recovery processes themselves also need to be simulated, including the role of post-fire interventions. • During the window of vegetation and soil disturbance, particular weather conditions, such as the occurrence of severe droughts or extreme rainfall events, can have a large impact on the amount of runoff and erosion produced in burnt areas, so that models that smooth out these peak responses and rather simulate "long-term" average processes are less useful. • While existing models can simulate reasonable well slope-scale runoff generation and associated sediment losses and their catchment-scale routing, few models can accommodate the role of the ash layer or its transport by overland flow, in spite of its importance for soil fertility losses and downstream contamination. This presentation will provide an overview of the importance of post-fire hydrological and erosion modelling as well as of the challenges it faces and of recent efforts made to overcome these challenges. It will

  20. Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Semiannual technical report, January 14, 1997--August 14, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schorr, B.S.; Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1997-08-31

    Research is presently being conducted to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination in thermally sprayed metal matrix composite coatings for erosion and corrosion resistance in new coal-fired boilers. The research will be accomplished by producing model cermet composites using powder metallurgy and electrodeposition methods in which the effect of ceramic/metal combination for the erosion and corrosion resistance will be determined. These results will provide the basis for determining the optimum hard phase constituent size and volume percent in thermal spray coatings. Thermal spray coatings will be applied by our industrial sponsor and tested in our erosion and corrosion laboratories. Bulk powder processed Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were produced at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The composite samples contained 0, 21, 27, 37, and 45 volume percent Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with an average particle size of 12 um. Also, to deposit model Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings, an electrodeposition technique was developed and coatings with various volume fractions (0-35%) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were produced. The powder and electrodeposition processing of Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Composites provide the ability to produce two phase microstructure without changing the microstructure of the matrix material. Therefore, the effect of hard second phase particles size and volume fraction on erosion resistance could be analyzed.