WorldWideScience

Sample records for generation method based

  1. Method to implement the CCD timing generator based on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binhua; Song, Qian; He, Chun; Jin, Jianhui; He, Lin

    2010-07-01

    With the advance of the PFPA technology, the design methodology of digital systems is changing. In recent years we develop a method to implement the CCD timing generator based on FPGA and VHDL. This paper presents the principles and implementation skills of the method. Taking a developed camera as an example, we introduce the structure, input and output clocks/signals of a timing generator implemented in the camera. The generator is composed of a top module and a bottom module. The bottom one is made up of 4 sub-modules which correspond to 4 different operation modes. The modules are implemented by 5 VHDL programs. Frame charts of the architecture of these programs are shown in the paper. We also describe implementation steps of the timing generator in Quartus II, and the interconnections between the generator and a Nios soft core processor which is the controller of this generator. Some test results are presented in the end.

  2. Photonic arbitrary waveform generator based on Taylor synthesis method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shasha; Ding, Yunhong; Dong, Jianji

    2016-01-01

    Arbitrary waveform generation has been widely used in optical communication, radar system and many other applications. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) on chip optical arbitrary waveform generator, which is based on Taylor synthesis method. In our scheme......, a Gaussian pulse is launched to some cascaded microrings to obtain first-, second- and third-order differentiations. By controlling amplitude and phase of the initial pulse and successive differentiations, we can realize an arbitrary waveform generator according to Taylor expansion. We obtain several typical...... waveforms such as square waveform, triangular waveform, flat-top waveform, sawtooth waveform, Gaussian waveform and so on. Unlike other schemes based on Fourier synthesis or frequency-to-time mapping, our scheme is based on Taylor synthesis method. Our scheme does not require any spectral disperser or large...

  3. OCL-BASED TEST CASE GENERATION USING CATEGORY PARTITIONING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jalila

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of fault detection techniques during initial stages of software development life cycle urges to improve reliability of a software product. Specification-based testing is one of the major criterions to detect faults in the requirement specification or design of a software system. However, due to the non-availability of implementation details, test case generation from formal specifications become a challenging task. As a novel approach, the proposed work presents a methodology to generate test cases from OCL (Object constraint Language formal specification using Category Partitioning Method (CPM. The experiment results indicate that the proposed methodology is more effective in revealing specification based faults. Furthermore, it has been observed that OCL and CPM form an excellent combination for performing functional testing at the earliest to improve software quality with reduced cost.

  4. Design of time interval generator based on hybrid counting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wang, Zhaoqi [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Lu, Houbing [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hefei Electronic Engineering Institute, Hefei 230037 (China); Chen, Lian [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Jin, Ge, E-mail: goldjin@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Time Interval Generators (TIGs) are frequently used for the characterizations or timing operations of instruments in particle physics experiments. Though some “off-the-shelf” TIGs can be employed, the necessity of a custom test system or control system makes the TIGs, being implemented in a programmable device desirable. Nowadays, the feasibility of using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to implement particle physics instrumentation has been validated in the design of Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) for precise time measurement. The FPGA-TDC technique is based on the architectures of Tapped Delay Line (TDL), whose delay cells are down to few tens of picosecond. In this case, FPGA-based TIGs with high delay step are preferable allowing the implementation of customized particle physics instrumentations and other utilities on the same FPGA device. A hybrid counting method for designing TIGs with both high resolution and wide range is presented in this paper. The combination of two different counting methods realizing an integratable TIG is described in detail. A specially designed multiplexer for tap selection is emphatically introduced. The special structure of the multiplexer is devised for minimizing the different additional delays caused by the unpredictable routings from different taps to the output. A Kintex-7 FPGA is used for the hybrid counting-based implementation of a TIG, providing a resolution up to 11 ps and an interval range up to 8 s.

  5. Design of time interval generator based on hybrid counting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Yuan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Lu, Houbing; Chen, Lian; Jin, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Time Interval Generators (TIGs) are frequently used for the characterizations or timing operations of instruments in particle physics experiments. Though some “off-the-shelf” TIGs can be employed, the necessity of a custom test system or control system makes the TIGs, being implemented in a programmable device desirable. Nowadays, the feasibility of using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to implement particle physics instrumentation has been validated in the design of Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) for precise time measurement. The FPGA-TDC technique is based on the architectures of Tapped Delay Line (TDL), whose delay cells are down to few tens of picosecond. In this case, FPGA-based TIGs with high delay step are preferable allowing the implementation of customized particle physics instrumentations and other utilities on the same FPGA device. A hybrid counting method for designing TIGs with both high resolution and wide range is presented in this paper. The combination of two different counting methods realizing an integratable TIG is described in detail. A specially designed multiplexer for tap selection is emphatically introduced. The special structure of the multiplexer is devised for minimizing the different additional delays caused by the unpredictable routings from different taps to the output. A Kintex-7 FPGA is used for the hybrid counting-based implementation of a TIG, providing a resolution up to 11 ps and an interval range up to 8 s.

  6. Research on Generating Method of Embedded Software Test Document Based on Dynamic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, MingCheng; Wu, XiangHu; Tao, YongChao; Liu, Ying

    2018-03-01

    This paper provides a dynamic model-based test document generation method for embedded software that provides automatic generation of two documents: test requirements specification documentation and configuration item test documentation. This method enables dynamic test requirements to be implemented in dynamic models, enabling dynamic test demand tracking to be easily generated; able to automatically generate standardized, standardized test requirements and test documentation, improved document-related content inconsistency and lack of integrity And other issues, improve the efficiency.

  7. State Generation Method for Humanoid Motion Planning Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyang Wang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to generate the original motion data for humanoid motion planning is presented in this paper. And a state generator is developed based on the genetic algorithm, which enables users to generate various motion states without using any reference motion data. By specifying various types of constraints such as configuration constraints and contact constraints, the state generator can generate stable states that satisfy the constraint conditions for humanoid robots. To deal with the multiple constraints and inverse kinematics, the state generation is finally simplified as a problem of optimizing and searching. In our method, we introduce a convenient mathematic representation for the constraints involved in the state generator, and solve the optimization problem with the genetic algorithm to acquire a desired state. To demonstrate the effectiveness and advantage of the method, a number of motion states are generated according to the requirements of the motion.

  8. State Generation Method for Humanoid Motion Planning Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyang Wang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to generate the original motion data for humanoid motion planning is presented in this paper. And a state generator is developed based on the genetic algorithm, which enables users to generate various motion states without using any reference motion data. By specifying various types of constraints such as configuration constraints and contact constraints, the state generator can generate stable states that satisfy the constraint conditions for humanoid robots.To deal with the multiple constraints and inverse kinematics, the state generation is finally simplified as a problem of optimizing and searching. In our method, we introduce a convenient mathematic representation for the constraints involved in the state generator, and solve the optimization problem with the genetic algorithm to acquire a desired state. To demonstrate the effectiveness and advantage of the method, a number of motion states are generated according to the requirements of the motion.

  9. Integrated Power Flow and Short Circuit Calculation Method for Distribution Network with Inverter Based Distributed Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Power flow calculation and short circuit calculation are the basis of theoretical research for distribution network with inverter based distributed generation. The similarity of equivalent model for inverter based distributed generation during normal and fault conditions of distribution network and the differences between power flow and short circuit calculation are analyzed in this paper. Then an integrated power flow and short circuit calculation method for distribution network with inverter based distributed generation is proposed. The proposed method let the inverter based distributed generation be equivalent to Iθ bus, which makes it suitable to calculate the power flow of distribution network with a current limited inverter based distributed generation. And the low voltage ride through capability of inverter based distributed generation can be considered as well in this paper. Finally, some tests of power flow and short circuit current calculation are performed on a 33-bus distribution network. The calculated results from the proposed method in this paper are contrasted with those by the traditional method and the simulation method, whose results have verified the effectiveness of the integrated method suggested in this paper.

  10. Method for Generating Pseudorandom Sequences with the Assured Period Based on R-blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ivanov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the characteristics of a new class of fast-acting pseudorandom number generators, based on the use of stochastic adders or R-blocks. A new method for generating pseudorandom sequences with the assured length of period is offered.

  11. Integrated Power Flow and Short Circuit Calculation Method for Distribution Network with Inverter Based Distributed Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shan; Tong, Xiangqian

    2016-01-01

    Power flow calculation and short circuit calculation are the basis of theoretical research for distribution network with inverter based distributed generation. The similarity of equivalent model for inverter based distributed generation during normal and fault conditions of distribution network and the differences between power flow and short circuit calculation are analyzed in this paper. Then an integrated power flow and short circuit calculation method for distribution network with inverte...

  12. Communication systems, transceivers, and methods for generating data based on channel characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Michael A; Young, Derek

    2012-09-18

    Examples of methods for generating data based on a communications channel are described. In one such example, a processing unit may generate a first vector representation based in part on at least two characteristics of a communications channel. A constellation having at least two dimensions may be addressed with the first vector representation to identify a first symbol associated with the first vector representation. The constellation represents a plurality of regions, each region associated with a respective symbol. The symbol may be used to generate data, which may stored in an electronic storage medium and used as a cryptographic key or a spreading code or hopping sequence in a modulation technique.

  13. Design of a new torque standard machine based on a torque generation method using electromagnetic force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Atsuhiro; Ueda, Kazunaga; Fujii, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    To allow the application of torque standards in various industries, we have been developing torque standard machines based on a lever deadweight system, i.e. a torque generation method using gravity. However, this method is not suitable for expanding the low end of the torque range, because of the limitations to the sizes of the weights and moment arms. In this study, the working principle of the torque generation method using an electromagnetic force was investigated by referring to watt balance experiments used for the redefinition of the kilogram. Applying this principle to a rotating coordinate system, an electromagnetic force type torque standard machine was designed and prototyped. It was experimentally demonstrated that SI-traceable torque could be generated by converting electrical power to mechanical power. Thus, for the first time, SI-traceable torque was successfully realized using a method other than that based on the force of gravity. (paper)

  14. Grid generation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Liseikin, Vladimir D

    2010-01-01

    This book is an introduction to structured and unstructured grid methods in scientific computing, addressing graduate students, scientists as well as practitioners. Basic local and integral grid quality measures are formulated and new approaches to mesh generation are reviewed. In addition to the content of the successful first edition, a more detailed and practice oriented description of monitor metrics in Beltrami and diffusion equations is given for generating adaptive numerical grids. Also, new techniques developed by the author are presented, in particular a technique based on the inverted form of Beltrami’s partial differential equations with respect to control metrics. This technique allows the generation of adaptive grids for a wide variety of computational physics problems, including grid clustering to given function values and gradients, grid alignment with given vector fields, and combinations thereof. Applications of geometric methods to the analysis of numerical grid behavior as well as grid ge...

  15. A Method for the Realization of an Interruption Generator Based on Voltage Source Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhui Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we described the structure and working principle of an interruption generator based on voltage source converters (VSCs. The main circuit parameters of the VSCs are determined according to the target of power transfer capability, harmonic suppression, and dynamic response capability. A state feedback linearization method in nonlinear differential geometry theory was used for dq axis current decoupling, based on the mathematical model used in the dq coordinate system of VSCs. The direct current control strategy was adopted to achieve the independent regulation of active power and reactive power. The proportional integral (PI link was used to optimize the dynamic performance of the controller, and PI parameters were adjusted. Disturbance voltage waves were generated by the regular sampling method. PSCAD/EMTDC simulation results and physical prototype experiments showed that the device could generate various disturbance voltage waveforms steadily, and had good dynamic and steady-state performance.

  16. Methods of Generating Key Sequences Based on Parameters of Handwritten Passwords and Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Lozhnikov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern encryption methods are reliable if strong keys (passwords are used, but the human factor issue cannot be solved by cryptographic methods. The best variant is binding all authenticators (passwords, encryption keys, and others to the identities. When a user is authenticated by biometrical characteristics, the problem of protecting a biometrical template stored on a remote server becomes a concern. The paper proposes several methods of generating keys (passwords by means of the fuzzy extractors method based on signature parameters without storing templates in an open way.

  17. Cyndi: a multi-objective evolution algorithm based method for bioactive molecular conformational generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Bai, Fang; Ouyang, Sisheng; Wang, Xicheng; Li, Honglin; Jiang, Hualiang

    2009-03-31

    Conformation generation is a ubiquitous problem in molecule modelling. Many applications require sampling the broad molecular conformational space or perceiving the bioactive conformers to ensure success. Numerous in silico methods have been proposed in an attempt to resolve the problem, ranging from deterministic to non-deterministic and systemic to stochastic ones. In this work, we described an efficient conformation sampling method named Cyndi, which is based on multi-objective evolution algorithm. The conformational perturbation is subjected to evolutionary operation on the genome encoded with dihedral torsions. Various objectives are designated to render the generated Pareto optimal conformers to be energy-favoured as well as evenly scattered across the conformational space. An optional objective concerning the degree of molecular extension is added to achieve geometrically extended or compact conformations which have been observed to impact the molecular bioactivity (J Comput -Aided Mol Des 2002, 16: 105-112). Testing the performance of Cyndi against a test set consisting of 329 small molecules reveals an average minimum RMSD of 0.864 A to corresponding bioactive conformations, indicating Cyndi is highly competitive against other conformation generation methods. Meanwhile, the high-speed performance (0.49 +/- 0.18 seconds per molecule) renders Cyndi to be a practical toolkit for conformational database preparation and facilitates subsequent pharmacophore mapping or rigid docking. The copy of precompiled executable of Cyndi and the test set molecules in mol2 format are accessible in Additional file 1. On the basis of MOEA algorithm, we present a new, highly efficient conformation generation method, Cyndi, and report the results of validation and performance studies comparing with other four methods. The results reveal that Cyndi is capable of generating geometrically diverse conformers and outperforms other four multiple conformer generators in the case of

  18. Cyndi: a multi-objective evolution algorithm based method for bioactive molecular conformational generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Honglin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conformation generation is a ubiquitous problem in molecule modelling. Many applications require sampling the broad molecular conformational space or perceiving the bioactive conformers to ensure success. Numerous in silico methods have been proposed in an attempt to resolve the problem, ranging from deterministic to non-deterministic and systemic to stochastic ones. In this work, we described an efficient conformation sampling method named Cyndi, which is based on multi-objective evolution algorithm. Results The conformational perturbation is subjected to evolutionary operation on the genome encoded with dihedral torsions. Various objectives are designated to render the generated Pareto optimal conformers to be energy-favoured as well as evenly scattered across the conformational space. An optional objective concerning the degree of molecular extension is added to achieve geometrically extended or compact conformations which have been observed to impact the molecular bioactivity (J Comput -Aided Mol Des 2002, 16: 105–112. Testing the performance of Cyndi against a test set consisting of 329 small molecules reveals an average minimum RMSD of 0.864 Å to corresponding bioactive conformations, indicating Cyndi is highly competitive against other conformation generation methods. Meanwhile, the high-speed performance (0.49 ± 0.18 seconds per molecule renders Cyndi to be a practical toolkit for conformational database preparation and facilitates subsequent pharmacophore mapping or rigid docking. The copy of precompiled executable of Cyndi and the test set molecules in mol2 format are accessible in Additional file 1. Conclusion On the basis of MOEA algorithm, we present a new, highly efficient conformation generation method, Cyndi, and report the results of validation and performance studies comparing with other four methods. The results reveal that Cyndi is capable of generating geometrically diverse conformers and outperforms

  19. Improved Taguchi method based contract capacity optimization for industrial consumer with self-owned generating units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hong-Tzer; Peng, Pai-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We propose an improved Taguchi method to determine the optimal contract capacities with SOGUs. ► We solve the highly discrete and nonlinear optimization problem for the contract capacities with SOGUs. ► The proposed improved Taguchi method integrates PSO in Taguchi method. ► The customer using the proposed optimization approach may save up to 12.18% of power expenses. ► The improved Taguchi method can also be well applied to the other similar problems. - Abstract: Contract capacity setting for industrial consumer with self-owned generating units (SOGUs) is a highly discrete and nonlinear optimization problem considering expenditure on the electricity from the utility and operation costs of the SOGUs. This paper proposes an improved Taguchi method that combines existing Taguchi method and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to solve this problem. Taguchi method provides fast converging characteristics in searching the optimal solution through quality analysis in orthogonal matrices. The integrated PSO algorithm generates new solutions in the orthogonal matrices based on the searching experiences during the evolution process to further improve the quality of solution. To verify feasibility of the proposed method, the paper uses the real data obtained from a large optoelectronics factory in Taiwan. In comparison with the existing optimization methods, the proposed improved Taguchi method has superior performance as revealed in the numerical results in terms of the convergence process and the quality of solution obtained.

  20. Matrix pencil method-based reference current generation for shunt active power filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terriche, Yacine; Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    response and works well under distorted and unbalanced voltage. Moreover, the proposed method can estimate the voltage phase accurately; this property enables the algorithm to compensate for both power factor and current unbalance. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified using simulation...... are using the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) in the frequency domain or the instantaneous p–q theory and the synchronous reference frame in the time domain. The DFT, however, suffers from the picket-fence effect and spectral leakage. On the other hand, the DFT takes at least one cycle of the nominal...... frequency. The time-domain methods show a weakness under voltage distortion, which requires prior filtering techniques. The aim of this study is to present a fast yet effective method for generating the RCC for SAPFs. The proposed method, which is based on the matrix pencil method, has a fast dynamic...

  1. Oxygen transport membrane reactor based method and system for generating electric power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Chakravarti, Shrikar; Li, Juan

    2017-02-07

    A carbon capture enabled system and method for generating electric power and/or fuel from methane containing sources using oxygen transport membranes by first converting the methane containing feed gas into a high pressure synthesis gas. Then, in one configuration the synthesis gas is combusted in oxy-combustion mode in oxygen transport membranes based boiler reactor operating at a pressure at least twice that of ambient pressure and the heat generated heats steam in thermally coupled steam generation tubes within the boiler reactor; the steam is expanded in steam turbine to generate power; and the carbon dioxide rich effluent leaving the boiler reactor is processed to isolate carbon. In another configuration the synthesis gas is further treated in a gas conditioning system configured for carbon capture in a pre-combustion mode using water gas shift reactors and acid gas removal units to produce hydrogen or hydrogen-rich fuel gas that fuels an integrated gas turbine and steam turbine system to generate power. The disclosed method and system can also be adapted to integrate with coal gasification systems to produce power from both coal and methane containing sources with greater than 90% carbon isolation.

  2. A novel method for energy harvesting simulation based on scenario generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Li, Taoshen; Xiao, Nan; Ye, Jin; Wu, Min

    2018-06-01

    Energy harvesting network (EHN) is a new form of computer networks. It converts ambient energy into usable electric energy and supply the electrical energy as a primary or secondary power source to the communication devices. However, most of the EHN uses the analytical probability distribution function to describe the energy harvesting process, which cannot accurately identify the actual situation for the lack of authenticity. We propose an EHN simulation method based on scenario generation in this paper. Firstly, instead of setting a probability distribution in advance, it uses optimal scenario reduction technology to generate representative scenarios in single period based on the historical data of the harvested energy. Secondly, it uses homogeneous simulated annealing algorithm to generate optimal daily energy harvesting scenario sequences to get a more accurate simulation of the random characteristics of the energy harvesting network. Then taking the actual wind power data as an example, the accuracy and stability of the method are verified by comparing with the real data. Finally, we cite an instance to optimize the network throughput, which indicate the feasibility and effectiveness of the method we proposed from the optimal solution and data analysis in energy harvesting simulation.

  3. Timetable-based simulation method for choice set generation in large-scale public transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Anderson, Marie Karen; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2016-01-01

    The composition and size of the choice sets are a key for the correct estimation of and prediction by route choice models. While existing literature has posed a great deal of attention towards the generation of path choice sets for private transport problems, the same does not apply to public...... transport problems. This study proposes a timetable-based simulation method for generating path choice sets in a multimodal public transport network. Moreover, this study illustrates the feasibility of its implementation by applying the method to reproduce 5131 real-life trips in the Greater Copenhagen Area...... and to assess the choice set quality in a complex multimodal transport network. Results illustrate the applicability of the algorithm and the relevance of the utility specification chosen for the reproduction of real-life path choices. Moreover, results show that the level of stochasticity used in choice set...

  4. TU-AB-BRA-02: An Efficient Atlas-Based Synthetic CT Generation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, X

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A major obstacle for MR-only radiotherapy is the need to generate an accurate synthetic CT (sCT) from MR image(s) of a patient for the purposes of dose calculation and DRR generation. We propose here an accurate and efficient atlas-based sCT generation method, which has a computation speed largely independent of the number of atlases used. Methods: Atlas-based sCT generation requires a set of atlases with co-registered CT and MR images. Unlike existing methods that align each atlas to the new patient independently, we first create an average atlas and pre-align every atlas to the average atlas space. When a new patient arrives, we compute only one deformable image registration to align the patient MR image to the average atlas, which indirectly aligns the patient to all pre-aligned atlases. A patch-based non-local weighted fusion is performed in the average atlas space to generate the sCT for the patient, which is then warped back to the original patient space. We further adapt a PatchMatch algorithm that can quickly find top matches between patches of the patient image and all atlas images, which makes the patch fusion step also independent of the number of atlases used. Results: Nineteen brain tumour patients with both CT and T1-weighted MR images are used as testing data and a leave-one-out validation is performed. Each sCT generated is compared against the original CT image of the same patient on a voxel-by-voxel basis. The proposed method produces a mean absolute error (MAE) of 98.6±26.9 HU overall. The accuracy is comparable with a conventional implementation scheme, but the computation time is reduced from over an hour to four minutes. Conclusion: An average atlas space patch fusion approach can produce highly accurate sCT estimations very efficiently. Further validation on dose computation accuracy and using a larger patient cohort is warranted. The author is a full time employee of Elekta, Inc.

  5. Probabilistic Wind Power Ramp Forecasting Based on a Scenario Generation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Florita, Anthony R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cui, Mingjian [University of Texas at Dallas; Feng, Cong [University of Texas at Dallas; Wang, Zhenke [University of Texas at Dallas; Zhang, Jie [University of Texas at Dallas

    2018-02-01

    Wind power ramps (WPRs) are particularly important in the management and dispatch of wind power and currently drawing the attention of balancing authorities. With the aim to reduce the impact of WPRs for power system operations, this paper develops a probabilistic ramp forecasting method based on a large number of simulated scenarios. An ensemble machine learning technique is first adopted to forecast the basic wind power forecasting scenario and calculate the historical forecasting errors. A continuous Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is used to fit the probability distribution function (PDF) of forecasting errors. The cumulative distribution function (CDF) is analytically deduced. The inverse transform method based on Monte Carlo sampling and the CDF is used to generate a massive number of forecasting error scenarios. An optimized swinging door algorithm is adopted to extract all the WPRs from the complete set of wind power forecasting scenarios. The probabilistic forecasting results of ramp duration and start-time are generated based on all scenarios. Numerical simulations on publicly available wind power data show that within a predefined tolerance level, the developed probabilistic wind power ramp forecasting method is able to predict WPRs with a high level of sharpness and accuracy.

  6. Probabilistic Wind Power Ramp Forecasting Based on a Scenario Generation Method: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Florita, Anthony R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cui, Mingjian [Univ. of Texas-Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States); Feng, Cong [Univ. of Texas-Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States); Wang, Zhenke [Univ. of Texas-Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States); Zhang, Jie [Univ. of Texas-Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Wind power ramps (WPRs) are particularly important in the management and dispatch of wind power, and they are currently drawing the attention of balancing authorities. With the aim to reduce the impact of WPRs for power system operations, this paper develops a probabilistic ramp forecasting method based on a large number of simulated scenarios. An ensemble machine learning technique is first adopted to forecast the basic wind power forecasting scenario and calculate the historical forecasting errors. A continuous Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is used to fit the probability distribution function (PDF) of forecasting errors. The cumulative distribution function (CDF) is analytically deduced. The inverse transform method based on Monte Carlo sampling and the CDF is used to generate a massive number of forecasting error scenarios. An optimized swinging door algorithm is adopted to extract all the WPRs from the complete set of wind power forecasting scenarios. The probabilistic forecasting results of ramp duration and start time are generated based on all scenarios. Numerical simulations on publicly available wind power data show that within a predefined tolerance level, the developed probabilistic wind power ramp forecasting method is able to predict WPRs with a high level of sharpness and accuracy.

  7. A sparse grid based method for generative dimensionality reduction of high-dimensional data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Bastian; Garcke, Jochen; Griebel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Generative dimensionality reduction methods play an important role in machine learning applications because they construct an explicit mapping from a low-dimensional space to the high-dimensional data space. We discuss a general framework to describe generative dimensionality reduction methods, where the main focus lies on a regularized principal manifold learning variant. Since most generative dimensionality reduction algorithms exploit the representer theorem for reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces, their computational costs grow at least quadratically in the number n of data. Instead, we introduce a grid-based discretization approach which automatically scales just linearly in n. To circumvent the curse of dimensionality of full tensor product grids, we use the concept of sparse grids. Furthermore, in real-world applications, some embedding directions are usually more important than others and it is reasonable to refine the underlying discretization space only in these directions. To this end, we employ a dimension-adaptive algorithm which is based on the ANOVA (analysis of variance) decomposition of a function. In particular, the reconstruction error is used to measure the quality of an embedding. As an application, the study of large simulation data from an engineering application in the automotive industry (car crash simulation) is performed.

  8. An efficient hole-filling method based on depth map in 3D view generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Haitao; Su, Xiu; Liu, Yilin; Xu, Huaiyuan; Wang, Yi; Chen, Xiaodong

    2018-01-01

    New virtual view is synthesized through depth image based rendering(DIBR) using a single color image and its associated depth map in 3D view generation. Holes are unavoidably generated in the 2D to 3D conversion process. We propose a hole-filling method based on depth map to address the problem. Firstly, we improve the process of DIBR by proposing a one-to-four (OTF) algorithm. The "z-buffer" algorithm is used to solve overlap problem. Then, based on the classical patch-based algorithm of Criminisi et al., we propose a hole-filling algorithm using the information of depth map to handle the image after DIBR. In order to improve the accuracy of the virtual image, inpainting starts from the background side. In the calculation of the priority, in addition to the confidence term and the data term, we add the depth term. In the search for the most similar patch in the source region, we define the depth similarity to improve the accuracy of searching. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the quality of the 3D virtual view subjectively and objectively.

  9. A Grasp-Pose Generation Method Based on Gaussian Mixture Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjia Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM-based grasp-pose generation method is proposed in this paper. Through offline training, the GMM is set up and used to depict the distribution of the robot's reachable orientations. By dividing the robot's workspace into small 3D voxels and training the GMM for each voxel, a look-up table covering all the workspace is built with the x, y and z positions as the index and the GMM as the entry. Through the definition of Task Space Regions (TSR, an object's feasible grasp poses are expressed as a continuous region. With the GMM, grasp poses can be preferentially sampled from regions with high reachability probabilities in the online grasp-planning stage. The GMM can also be used as a preliminary judgement of a grasp pose's reachability. Experiments on both a simulated and a real robot show the superiority of our method over the existing method.

  10. Analyzing Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 gene expression by a next generation sequencing based method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jakob S.; Petersen, Bent; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine

    2013-01-01

    at identifying PfEMP1 features associated with high virulence. Here we present the first effective method for sequence analysis of var genes expressed in field samples: a sequential PCR and next generation sequencing based technique applied on expressed var sequence tags and subsequently on long range PCR......, encoded by ~60 highly variable 'var' genes per haploid genome. PfEMP1 is exported to the surface of infected erythrocytes and is thought to be fundamental to immune evasion by adhesion to host and parasite factors. The highly variable nature has constituted a roadblock in var expression studies aimed...

  11. A SPIRAL-BASED DOWNSCALING METHOD FOR GENERATING 30 M TIME SERIES IMAGE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatial detail and updating frequency of land cover data are important factors influencing land surface dynamic monitoring applications in high spatial resolution scale. However, the fragmentized patches and seasonal variable of some land cover types (e. g. small crop field, wetland make it labor-intensive and difficult in the generation of land cover data. Utilizing the high spatial resolution multi-temporal image data is a possible solution. Unfortunately, the spatial and temporal resolution of available remote sensing data like Landsat or MODIS datasets can hardly satisfy the minimum mapping unit and frequency of current land cover mapping / updating at the same time. The generation of high resolution time series may be a compromise to cover the shortage in land cover updating process. One of popular way is to downscale multi-temporal MODIS data with other high spatial resolution auxiliary data like Landsat. But the usual manner of downscaling pixel based on a window may lead to the underdetermined problem in heterogeneous area, result in the uncertainty of some high spatial resolution pixels. Therefore, the downscaled multi-temporal data can hardly reach high spatial resolution as Landsat data. A spiral based method was introduced to downscale low spatial and high temporal resolution image data to high spatial and high temporal resolution image data. By the way of searching the similar pixels around the adjacent region based on the spiral, the pixel set was made up in the adjacent region pixel by pixel. The underdetermined problem is prevented to a large extent from solving the linear system when adopting the pixel set constructed. With the help of ordinary least squares, the method inverted the endmember values of linear system. The high spatial resolution image was reconstructed on the basis of high spatial resolution class map and the endmember values band by band. Then, the high spatial resolution time series was formed with these

  12. Knee Motion Generation Method for Transfemoral Prosthesis Based on Kinematic Synergy and Inertial Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Hiroshi; Wada, Takahiro

    2017-12-01

    Previous research has shown that the effective use of inertial motion (i.e., less or no torque input at the knee joint) plays an important role in achieving a smooth gait of transfemoral prostheses in the swing phase. In our previous research, a method for generating a timed knee trajectory close to able-bodied individuals, which leads to sufficient clearance between the foot and the floor and the knee extension, was proposed using the inertial motion. Limb motions are known to correlate with each other during walking. This phenomenon is called kinematic synergy. In this paper, we measure gaits in level walking of able-bodied individuals with a wide range of walking velocities. We show that this kinematic synergy also exists between the motions of the intact limbs and those of the knee as determined by the inertial motion technique. We then propose a new method for generating the motion of the knee joint using its inertial motion close to the able-bodied individuals in mid-swing based on its kinematic synergy, such that the method can adapt to the changes in the motion velocity. The numerical simulation results show that the proposed method achieves prosthetic walking similar to that of able-bodied individuals with a wide range of constant walking velocities and termination of walking from steady-state walking. Further investigations have found that a kinematic synergy also exists at the start of walking. Overall, our method successfully achieves knee motion generation from the initiation of walking through steady-state walking with different velocities until termination of walking.

  13. MR-based synthetic CT generation using a deep convolutional neural network method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao

    2017-04-01

    Interests have been rapidly growing in the field of radiotherapy to replace CT with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), due to superior soft tissue contrast offered by MRI and the desire to reduce unnecessary radiation dose. MR-only radiotherapy also simplifies clinical workflow and avoids uncertainties in aligning MR with CT. Methods, however, are needed to derive CT-equivalent representations, often known as synthetic CT (sCT), from patient MR images for dose calculation and DRR-based patient positioning. Synthetic CT estimation is also important for PET attenuation correction in hybrid PET-MR systems. We propose in this work a novel deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) method for sCT generation and evaluate its performance on a set of brain tumor patient images. The proposed method builds upon recent developments of deep learning and convolutional neural networks in the computer vision literature. The proposed DCNN model has 27 convolutional layers interleaved with pooling and unpooling layers and 35 million free parameters, which can be trained to learn a direct end-to-end mapping from MR images to their corresponding CTs. Training such a large model on our limited data is made possible through the principle of transfer learning and by initializing model weights from a pretrained model. Eighteen brain tumor patients with both CT and T1-weighted MR images are used as experimental data and a sixfold cross-validation study is performed. Each sCT generated is compared against the real CT image of the same patient on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Comparison is also made with respect to an atlas-based approach that involves deformable atlas registration and patch-based atlas fusion. The proposed DCNN method produced a mean absolute error (MAE) below 85 HU for 13 of the 18 test subjects. The overall average MAE was 84.8 ± 17.3 HU for all subjects, which was found to be significantly better than the average MAE of 94.5 ± 17.8 HU for the atlas-based method. The DCNN

  14. Generation of input parameters for OSPM calculations. Sensitivity analysis of a method based on a questionnaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignati, E.; Hertel, O.; Berkowicz, R. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Enviroment (Denmark); Raaschou-Nielsen, O. [Danish Cancer Society, Division of Cancer Epidemiology (Denmark)

    1997-05-01

    The method for generation of the input data for the calculations with OSPM is presented in this report. The described method which is based on information provided from a questionnaire, will be used for model calculations of long term exposure for a large number of children in connection with an epidemiological study. A test of the calculation method has been performed on a few locations in which detailed measurements of air pollution, meteorological data and traffic were available. Comparisons between measured and calculated concentrations were made for hourly, monthly and yearly values. Beside the measured concentrations, the test results were compared to results obtained with the optimal street configuration data and measured traffic. The main conclusions drawn from this investigation are: (1) The calculation method works satisfactory well for long term averages, whereas the uncertainties are high when short term averages are considered. (2) The street width is one of the most crucial input parameters for the calculation of street pollution levels for both short and long term averages. Using H.C. Andersens Boulevard as an example, it was shown that estimation of street width based on traffic amount can lead to large overestimation of the concentration levels (in this case 50% for NO{sub x} and 30% for NO{sub 2}). (3) The street orientation and geometry is important for prediction of short term concentrations but this importance diminished for longer term averages. (4) The uncertainties in diurnal traffic profiles can influence the accuracy of short term averages, but are less important for long term averages. The correlation is good between modelled and measured concentrations when the actual background concentrations are replaced with the generated values. Even though extreme situations are difficult to reproduce with this method, the comparison between the yearly averaged modelled and measured concentrations is very good. (LN) 20 refs.

  15. Inflow Turbulence Generation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Research activities on inflow turbulence generation methods have been vigorous over the past quarter century, accompanying advances in eddy-resolving computations of spatially developing turbulent flows with direct numerical simulation, large-eddy simulation (LES), and hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes-LES. The weak recycling method, rooted in scaling arguments on the canonical incompressible boundary layer, has been applied to supersonic boundary layer, rough surface boundary layer, and microscale urban canopy LES coupled with mesoscale numerical weather forecasting. Synthetic methods, originating from analytical approximation to homogeneous isotropic turbulence, have branched out into several robust methods, including the synthetic random Fourier method, synthetic digital filtering method, synthetic coherent eddy method, and synthetic volume forcing method. This article reviews major progress in inflow turbulence generation methods with an emphasis on fundamental ideas, key milestones, representative applications, and critical issues. Directions for future research in the field are also highlighted.

  16. [Research on fractal tones generating method for tinnitus rehabilitation based on musical instrument digital interface technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; He, Peiyu; Pan, Fan

    2014-08-01

    Tinnitus is a subjective sensation of sound without external stimulation. It has become ubiquitous and has therefore aroused much attention in recent years. According to the survey, ameliorating tinnitus based on special music and reducing pressure have good effects on the treatment of it. Meantime, vicious cycle chains between tinnitus and bad feelings have been broken. However, tinnitus therapy has been restricted by using looping music. Therefore, a method of generating fractal tones based on musical instrument digital interface (MIDI) technology and pink noise has been proposed in this paper. The experimental results showed that the fractal fragments were self-similar, incompletely reduplicate, and no sudden changes in pitches and would have a referential significance for tinnitus therapy.

  17. A piezoelectric-based infinite stiffness generation method for strain-type load sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shuwen; Shao, Shubao; Xu, Minglong; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Under certain application conditions like nanoindentation technology and the mechanical property measurement of soft materials, the elastic deformation of strain-type load sensors affects their displacement measurement accuracy. In this work, a piezoelectric-based infinite stiffness generation method for strain-type load sensors that compensates for this elastic deformation is presented. The piezoelectric material-based deformation compensation method is proposed. An Hottinger Baldwin Messtechnik GmbH (HBM) Z30A/50N load sensor acts as the foundation of the method presented in this work. The piezoelectric stack is selected based on its size, maximum deformation value, blocking force and stiffness. Then, a clamping and fixing structure is designed to integrate the HBM sensor with the piezoelectric stack. The clamping and fixing structure, piezoelectric stack and HBM load sensor comprise the sensing part of the enhanced load sensor. The load-deformation curve and the voltage-deformation curve of the enhanced load sensor are then investigated experimentally. Because a hysteresis effect exists in the piezoelectric structure, the relationship between the control signal and the deformation value of the piezoelectric material is nonlinear. The hysteresis characteristic in a quasi-static condition is studied and fitted using a quadratic polynomial, and its coefficients are analyzed to enable control signal prediction. Applied arithmetic based on current theory and the fitted data is developed to predict the control signal. Finally, the experimental effects of the proposed method are presented. It is shown that when a quasi-static load is exerted on this enhanced strain-type load sensor, the deformation is reduced and the equivalent stiffness appears to be almost infinite. (paper)

  18. Design Intend Solving: Dynamic Composition Method for Innovative Design Based on Virtual Cloud Manufacturing Resource Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Cong Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been growing interest in composition of cloud manufacturing resources (CMRs. Composition of CMRs is a feasible innovation to fulfill the user request while single cloud manufacturing resource cannot satisfy the functionality required by the user. In this paper, we propose a new case-based approach for the composition of CMRs. The basic idea of the present approach is to provide a computational framework for the composition of CMRs by imitating the common design method of reviewing past designs to obtain solution concepts for a new composite cloud manufacturing resource (CCMR. A notion of virtual cloud manufacturing resource generators (VCMRGs is introduced to conceptualize and represent underlying CCMRs contained in existing CCMRs. VCMRGs are derived from previous CCMRs and serve as new conceptual building blocks for the composition of CMRs. Feasible composite CMRs are generated by combining VCMRGs using some adaptation rules. The reuse of prior CCMRs is accomplished via VCMRGs within the framework of case-based reasoning. We demonstrate that the proposed approach yields lower execution time for fulfilling user request and shows good scalability.

  19. 8760-Based Method for Representing Variable Generation Capacity Value in Capacity Expansion Models: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Yinong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, James [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Capacity expansion models (CEMs) are widely used to evaluate the least-cost portfolio of electricity generators, transmission, and storage needed to reliably serve demand over the evolution of many years or decades. Various CEM formulations are used to evaluate systems ranging in scale from states or utility service territories to national or multi-national systems. CEMs can be computationally complex, and to achieve acceptable solve times, key parameters are often estimated using simplified methods. In this paper, we focus on two of these key parameters associated with the integration of variable generation (VG) resources: capacity value and curtailment. We first discuss common modeling simplifications used in CEMs to estimate capacity value and curtailment, many of which are based on a representative subset of hours that can miss important tail events or which require assumptions about the load and resource distributions that may not match actual distributions. We then present an alternate approach that captures key elements of chronological operation over all hours of the year without the computationally intensive economic dispatch optimization typically employed within more detailed operational models. The updated methodology characterizes the (1) contribution of VG to system capacity during high load and net load hours, (2) the curtailment level of VG, and (3) the potential reductions in curtailments enabled through deployment of storage and more flexible operation of select thermal generators. We apply this alternate methodology to an existing CEM, the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS). Results demonstrate that this alternate approach provides more accurate estimates of capacity value and curtailments by explicitly capturing system interactions across all hours of the year. This approach could be applied more broadly to CEMs at many different scales where hourly resource and load data is available, greatly improving the representation of challenges

  20. 8760-Based Method for Representing Variable Generation Capacity Value in Capacity Expansion Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-03

    Capacity expansion models (CEMs) are widely used to evaluate the least-cost portfolio of electricity generators, transmission, and storage needed to reliably serve load over many years or decades. CEMs can be computationally complex and are often forced to estimate key parameters using simplified methods to achieve acceptable solve times or for other reasons. In this paper, we discuss one of these parameters -- capacity value (CV). We first provide a high-level motivation for and overview of CV. We next describe existing modeling simplifications and an alternate approach for estimating CV that utilizes hourly '8760' data of load and VG resources. We then apply this 8760 method to an established CEM, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model (Eurek et al. 2016). While this alternative approach for CV is not itself novel, it contributes to the broader CEM community by (1) demonstrating how a simplified 8760 hourly method, which can be easily implemented in other power sector models when data is available, more accurately captures CV trends than a statistical method within the ReEDS CEM, and (2) providing a flexible modeling framework from which other 8760-based system elements (e.g., demand response, storage, and transmission) can be added to further capture important dynamic interactions, such as curtailment.

  1. Grid generation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Liseikin, Vladimir D

    2017-01-01

    This new edition provides a description of current developments relating to grid methods, grid codes, and their applications to actual problems. Grid generation methods are indispensable for the numerical solution of differential equations. Adaptive grid-mapping techniques, in particular, are the main focus and represent a promising tool to deal with systems with singularities. This 3rd edition includes three new chapters on numerical implementations (10), control of grid properties (11), and applications to mechanical, fluid, and plasma related problems (13). Also the other chapters have been updated including new topics, such as curvatures of discrete surfaces (3). Concise descriptions of hybrid mesh generation, drag and sweeping methods, parallel algorithms for mesh generation have been included too. This new edition addresses a broad range of readers: students, researchers, and practitioners in applied mathematics, mechanics, engineering, physics and other areas of applications.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic generation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masai, Tadahisa; Ishibashi, Eiichi; Kojima, Akihiro.

    1967-01-01

    The present invention relates to a magneto-hydrodynamic generation method which increases the conductivity of active gas and the generated energy. In the conventional method of open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic generation, the working fluid does not possess a favorable electric conductivity since the collision cross section is large when the combustion is carried out in a condition of excess oxygen. Furthermore, combustion under a condition of oxygen shortage is uncapable of completely converting the generated energy. The air preheater or boiler is not sufficient to collect the waste gas resulting in damage and other economic disadvantages. In the present invention, the combustion gas caused by excess fuel in the combuster is supplied to the generator as the working gas, to which air or fully oxidized air is added to be reheated. While incomplete gas used for heat collection is not adequate, the unburned damage may be eliminated by combusting again and increasing the gas temperature and heat collection rate. Furthermore, a diffuser is mounted at the rear side of the generator to decrease the gas combustion rate. Thus, even when directly absorbing the preheated fully oxidized air or the ordinary air, the boiler is free from damage caused by combustion delay or impulsive force. (M. Ishida)

  3. A DCT-Based Driving Cycle Generation Method and Its Application for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many widely used driving cycle (DC representing and generating methods are designed for traditional vehicles with internal combustion engines (ICE. The real-world driving is viewed as a sequence of acceleration, cruise, deceleration, and idle modes. The emission and fuel consumption in each period should be taken into account carefully. However, for electric vehicles (EVs, most of them are powered by low or zero-emission renewable energy sources. The working status and energy management algorithms of them are very different from traditional vehicles. To facilitate the EV design, we proposed a novel DC representing and construction method to generate DCs for EVs. The whole driving route is divided into several length-fixed segments and each of these segments is converted into a frequency sequence. After doing that, we can adjust the frequency and amplitude of the generated driving cycle directly. The experiment results showed that the proposed method was effective and convenient.

  4. A new method for generating an invariant iris private key based on the fuzzy vault system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Joo; Park, Kang Ryoung; Lee, Sung Joo; Bae, Kwanghyuk; Kim, Jaihie

    2008-10-01

    Cryptographic systems have been widely used in many information security applications. One main challenge that these systems have faced has been how to protect private keys from attackers. Recently, biometric cryptosystems have been introduced as a reliable way of concealing private keys by using biometric data. A fuzzy vault refers to a biometric cryptosystem that can be used to effectively protect private keys and to release them only when legitimate users enter their biometric data. In biometric systems, a critical problem is storing biometric templates in a database. However, fuzzy vault systems do not need to directly store these templates since they are combined with private keys by using cryptography. Previous fuzzy vault systems were designed by using fingerprint, face, and so on. However, there has been no attempt to implement a fuzzy vault system that used an iris. In biometric applications, it is widely known that an iris can discriminate between persons better than other biometric modalities. In this paper, we propose a reliable fuzzy vault system based on local iris features. We extracted multiple iris features from multiple local regions in a given iris image, and the exact values of the unordered set were then produced using the clustering method. To align the iris templates with the new input iris data, a shift-matching technique was applied. Experimental results showed that 128-bit private keys were securely and robustly generated by using any given iris data without requiring prealignment.

  5. Path-Wise Test Data Generation Based on Heuristic Look-Ahead Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Path-wise test data generation is generally considered an important problem in the automation of software testing. In essence, it is a constraint optimization problem, which is often solved by search methods such as backtracking algorithms. In this paper, the backtracking algorithm branch and bound and state space search in artificial intelligence are introduced to tackle the problem of path-wise test data generation. The former is utilized to explore the space of potential solutions and the latter is adopted to construct the search tree dynamically. Heuristics are employed in the look-ahead stage of the search. Dynamic variable ordering is presented with a heuristic rule to break ties, values of a variable are determined by the monotonicity analysis on branching conditions, and maintaining path consistency is achieved through analysis on the result of interval arithmetic. An optimization method is also proposed to reduce the search space. The results of empirical experiments show that the search is conducted in a basically backtrack-free manner, which ensures both test data generation with promising performance and its excellence over some currently existing static and dynamic methods in terms of coverage. The results also demonstrate that the proposed method is applicable in engineering.

  6. A Trajectory Generation Method Based on Edge Detection for Auto-Sealant Cartesian Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Samsul Maarif

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents algorithm ingenerating trajectory for sealant process using captured image. Cartesian robot as auto-sealant in manufacturing process has increased productivity, reduces human error and saves time. But, different sealant path in many engine models means not only different trajectory but also different program. Therefore robot with detection ability to generate its own trajectory is needed. This paper describes best lighting technique in capturing image and applies edge detection in trajectory generation as the solution. The algorithm comprises image capturing, Canny edge detection, integral projection in localizing outer most edge, scanning coordinates, and generating vector direction codes. The experiment results show that the best technique is diffuse lighting at 10 Cd. The developed method gives connected point to point trajectory which forms sealant path with a point to next point distance is equal to 90° motor rotation. Directional movement for point to point trajectory is controlled by generated codes which are ready to be sent by serial communication to robot controller as instruction for motors which actuate axes X and Y directions.

  7. AN IMPROVEMENT ON GEOMETRY-BASED METHODS FOR GENERATION OF NETWORK PATHS FROM POINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Akbari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Determining network path is important for different purposes such as determination of road traffic, the average speed of vehicles, and other network analysis. One of the required input data is information about network path. Nevertheless, the data collected by the positioning systems often lead to the discrete points. Conversion of these points to the network path have become one of the challenges which different researchers, presents many ways for solving it. This study aims at investigating geometry-based methods to estimate the network paths from the obtained points and improve an existing point to curve method. To this end, some geometry-based methods have been studied and an improved method has been proposed by applying conditions on the best method after describing and illustrating weaknesses of them.

  8. Automatic Optimizer Generation Method Based on Location and Context Information to Improve Mobile Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsik Son

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several location-based services (LBSs have been recently developed for smartphones. Among these are proactive LBSs, which provide services to smartphone users by periodically collecting background logs. However, because they consume considerable battery power, they are not widely used for various LBS-based services. Battery consumption, in particular, is a significant issue on account of the characteristics of mobile systems. This problem involves a greater service restriction when performing complex operations. Therefore, to successfully enable various services based on location, this problem must be solved. In this paper, we introduce a technique to automatically generate a customized service optimizer for each application, service type, and platform using location and situation information. By using the proposed technique, energy and computing resources can be more efficiently employed for each service. Thus, users should receive more effective LBSs on mobile devices, such as smartphones.

  9. Method and means for a spatial and temporal probe for laser-generated plumes based on density gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, E.S.; Chen, G.

    1990-05-01

    A method and means are disclosed for a spatial and temporal probe for laser generated plumes based on density gradients includes generation of a plume of vaporized material from a surface by an energy source. The probe laser beam is positioned so that the plume passes through the probe laser beam. Movement of the probe laser beam caused by refraction from the density gradient of the plume is monitored. Spatial and temporal information, correlated to one another, is then derived. 15 figs.

  10. Dynamic Model for Hydro-Turbine Generator Units Based on a Database Method for Guide Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A suitable dynamic model of rotor system is of great significance not only for supplying knowledge of the fault mechanism, but also for assisting in machine health monitoring research. Many techniques have been developed for properly modeling the radial vibration of large hydro-turbine generator units. However, an applicable dynamic model has not yet been reported in literature due to the complexity of the boundary conditions and exciting forces. In this paper, a finite element (FE rotor dynamic model of radial vibration taking account of operating conditions is proposed. A brief and practical database method is employed to model the guide bearing. Taking advantage of the method, rotating speed and bearing clearance can be considered in the model. A novel algorithm, which can take account of both transient and steady-state analysis, is proposed to solve the model. Dynamic response for rotor model of 125 MW hydro-turbine generator units in Gezhouba Power Station is simulated. Field data from Optimal Maintenance Information System for Hydro power plants (HOMIS are analyzed compared with the simulation. Results illustrate the application value of the model in providing knowledge of the fault mechanism and in failure diagnosis.

  11. Practical method for generation expansion planning based on the dynamic programming. Dynamic programming ni motozuku dengen keikaku shuho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, R.; Yasuda, K.; Yokoyama, R. (Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-05-20

    To supply cheap, high-reliable and a planty of the electricity is an important task of the electric supply system because the requirement for the electricity is rapidly increased in Japan. In order to solve this problem, the authors of the paper are developing a most suitable practical method based on algorithm, according to which the generation expansion planning is divided into two problems: the optimal generation mix and the optimal generation construction process and the two problems are solved respectively. But there are some bad points in the method, for example, there are only approximative practical restriction of the capacity of single machine and the existing electric supply etc., because the optimal generation mix is determined on the basis of non-linear planning. So, in the present paper, the electric supply support system is practically constructed while proposing an unified generation expansion planning based on the dynamic programming that is possible to consider these restrictions strictly and the usefullness of the method is inspected. 12 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Control strategy of grid-connected photovoltaic generation system based on GMPPT method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongfeng; Zhang, Xuyang; Hu, Bo; Liu, Jun; Li, Ligang; Gu, Yongqiang; Zhou, Bowen

    2018-02-01

    There are multiple local maximum power points when photovoltaic (PV) array runs under partial shading condition (PSC).However, the traditional maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm might be easily trapped in local maximum power points (MPPs) and cannot find the global maximum power point (GMPP). To solve such problem, a global maximum power point tracking method (GMPPT) is improved, combined with traditional MPPT method and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Under different operating conditions of PV cells, different tracking algorithms are used. When the environment changes, the improved PSO algorithm is adopted to realize the global optimal search, and the variable step incremental conductance (INC) method is adopted to achieve MPPT in optimal local location. Based on the simulation model of the PV grid system built in Matlab/Simulink, comparative analysis of the tracking effect of MPPT by the proposed control algorithm and the traditional MPPT method under the uniform solar condition and PSC, validate the correctness, feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  13. Analysis of Different Methods for Wave Generation and Absorption in a CFD-Based Numerical Wave Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adria Moreno Miquel

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the performance of different wave generation and absorption methods in computational fluid dynamics (CFD-based numerical wave tanks (NWTs is analyzed. The open-source CFD code REEF3D is used, which solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS equations to simulate two-phase flow problems. The water surface is computed with the level set method (LSM, and turbulence is modeled with the k-ω model. The NWT includes different methods to generate and absorb waves: the relaxation method, the Dirichlet-type method and active wave absorption. A sensitivity analysis has been conducted in order to quantify and compare the differences in terms of absorption quality between these methods. A reflection analysis based on an arbitrary number of wave gauges has been adopted to conduct the study. Tests include reflection analysis of linear, second- and fifth-order Stokes waves, solitary waves, cnoidal waves and irregular waves generated in an NWT. Wave breaking over a sloping bed and wave forces on a vertical cylinder are calculated, and the influence of the reflections on the wave breaking location and the wave forces on the cylinder is investigated. In addition, a comparison with another open-source CFD code, OpenFOAM, has been carried out based on published results. Some differences in the calculated quantities depending on the wave generation and absorption method have been observed. The active wave absorption method is seen to be more efficient for long waves, whereas the relaxation method performs better for shorter waves. The relaxation method-based numerical beach generally results in lower reflected waves in the wave tank for most of the cases simulated in this study. The comparably better performance of the relaxation method comes at the cost of larger computational requirements due to the relaxation zones that have to be included in the domain. The reflections in the NWT in REEF3D are generally lower than the published results for

  14. An Efficient Mesh Generation Method for Fractured Network System Based on Dynamic Grid Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuli Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Meshing quality of the discrete model influences the accuracy, convergence, and efficiency of the solution for fractured network system in geological problem. However, modeling and meshing of such a fractured network system are usually tedious and difficult due to geometric complexity of the computational domain induced by existence and extension of fractures. The traditional meshing method to deal with fractures usually involves boundary recovery operation based on topological transformation, which relies on many complicated techniques and skills. This paper presents an alternative and efficient approach for meshing fractured network system. The method firstly presets points on fractures and then performs Delaunay triangulation to obtain preliminary mesh by point-by-point centroid insertion algorithm. Then the fractures are exactly recovered by local correction with revised dynamic grid deformation approach. Smoothing algorithm is finally applied to improve the quality of mesh. The proposed approach is efficient, easy to implement, and applicable to the cases of initial existing fractures and extension of fractures. The method is successfully applied to modeling of two- and three-dimensional discrete fractured network (DFN system in geological problems to demonstrate its effectiveness and high efficiency.

  15. Two methods for damping torsional vibrations in DFIG-based wind generators using power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zuyi; Lu, Yupu; Xie, Da; Yu, Songtao; Wu, Wangping

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes novel damping control algorithms by using static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) and energy storage system (ESS) to damp torsional vibrations in doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbine systems. It first analyses the operating characteristics of STATCOM and ESS for regulating power variations to increase grid voltage stability. Then, new control strategies for STATCOM and ESS are introduced to damp the vibrations. It is followed by illustration of their effectiveness to damp the drive train torsional vibrations of wind turbines, which can be caused by grid disturbances, such as voltage sags and frequency fluctuations. Results suggest that STATCOM is a promising technology to mitigate the torsional vibrations caused by grid voltage sags. By contrast, the ESS connected to the point of common coupling (PCC) of wind turbine systems shows even obvious advantages because of its capability of absorbing/releasing both active and reactive power. It can thus be concluded that STATCOM is useful for stabilizing power system voltage fluctuations, and ESS is more effective both in regulating PCC voltage fluctuations and damping torsional vibrations caused by grid voltage frequency fluctuations.

  16. Bioactive conformational generation of small molecules: A comparative analysis between force-field and multiple empirical criteria based methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Hualiang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conformational sampling for small molecules plays an essential role in drug discovery research pipeline. Based on multi-objective evolution algorithm (MOEA, we have developed a conformational generation method called Cyndi in the previous study. In this work, in addition to Tripos force field in the previous version, Cyndi was updated by incorporation of MMFF94 force field to assess the conformational energy more rationally. With two force fields against a larger dataset of 742 bioactive conformations of small ligands extracted from PDB, a comparative analysis was performed between pure force field based method (FFBM and multiple empirical criteria based method (MECBM hybrided with different force fields. Results Our analysis reveals that incorporating multiple empirical rules can significantly improve the accuracy of conformational generation. MECBM, which takes both empirical and force field criteria as the objective functions, can reproduce about 54% (within 1Å RMSD of the bioactive conformations in the 742-molecule testset, much higher than that of pure force field method (FFBM, about 37%. On the other hand, MECBM achieved a more complete and efficient sampling of the conformational space because the average size of unique conformations ensemble per molecule is about 6 times larger than that of FFBM, while the time scale for conformational generation is nearly the same as FFBM. Furthermore, as a complementary comparison study between the methods with and without empirical biases, we also tested the performance of the three conformational generation methods in MacroModel in combination with different force fields. Compared with the methods in MacroModel, MECBM is more competitive in retrieving the bioactive conformations in light of accuracy but has much lower computational cost. Conclusions By incorporating different energy terms with several empirical criteria, the MECBM method can produce more reasonable conformational

  17. Research of the method of pseudo-random number generation based on asynchronous cellular automata with several active cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilan Stepan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, there are many tasks that are aimed at studying the dynamic changes in physical processes. These tasks do not give advance known result. The solution of such problems is based on the construction of a dynamic model of the object. Successful structural and functional implementation of the object model can give a positive result in time. This approach uses the task of constructing artificial biological objects. To solve such problems, pseudo-random number generators are used, which also find wide application for information protection tasks. Such generators should have good statistical properties and give a long repetition period of the generated pseudo-random bit sequence. This work is aimed at improving these characteristics. The paper considers the method of forming pseudo-random sequences of numbers on the basis of aperiodic cellular automata with two active cells. A pseudo-random number generator is proposed that generates three bit sequences. The first two bit sequences are formed by the corresponding two active cells in the cellular automaton. The third bit sequence is the result of executing the XOR function over the bits of the first two sequences and it has better characteristics compared to them. The use of cellular automata with two active cells allowed to improve the statistical properties of the formed bit sequence, as well as its repetition period. This is proved by using graphical tests for generators built based on cellular automata using the neighborhoods of von Neumann and Moore. The tests showed high efficiency of the generator based on an asynchronous cellular automaton with the neighborhood of Moore. The proposed pseudo-random number generators have good statistical properties, which makes it possible to use them in information security systems, as well as for simulation tasks of various dynamic processes.

  18. Laser Based In Situ Techniques: Novel Methods for Generating Extreme Conditions in TEM Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, M; Lagrange, T; Reed, B; Armstrong, M; Campbell, G; DeHope, W; Kim, J; King, W; Masiel, D; Browning, N

    2008-02-25

    The Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope (DTEM) is introduced as a novel tool for in situ processing of materials. Examples of various types of dynamic studies outline the advantages and differences of laser-based heating in the DTEM in comparison to conventional (resistive) heating in situ TEM methods. We demonstrate various unique capabilities of the drive laser, namely, in situ processing of nanoscale materials, rapid and high temperature phase transformations, and controlled thermal activation of materials. These experiments would otherwise be impossible without the use of the DTEM drive laser. Thus, the potential of the DTEM to as a new technique to process and characterize the growth of a myriad of micro and nanostructures is demonstrated.

  19. Three-phase short circuit calculation method based on pre-computed surface for doubly fed induction generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J.; Liu, Q.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an improved short circuit calculation method, based on pre-computed surface to determine the short circuit current of a distribution system with multiple doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs). The short circuit current, injected into power grid by DFIG, is determined by low voltage ride through (LVRT) control and protection under grid fault. However, the existing methods are difficult to calculate the short circuit current of DFIG in engineering practice due to its complexity. A short circuit calculation method, based on pre-computed surface, was proposed by developing the surface of short circuit current changing with the calculating impedance and the open circuit voltage. And the short circuit currents were derived by taking into account the rotor excitation and crowbar activation time. Finally, the pre-computed surfaces of short circuit current at different time were established, and the procedure of DFIG short circuit calculation considering its LVRT was designed. The correctness of proposed method was verified by simulation.

  20. Application of the entropy generation minimization method to a solar heat exchanger: A pseudo-optimization design process based on the analysis of the local entropy generation maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giangaspero, Giorgio; Sciubba, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an application of the entropy generation minimization method to the pseudo-optimization of the configuration of the heat exchange surfaces in a Solar Rooftile. An initial “standard” commercial configuration is gradually improved by introducing design changes aimed at the reduction of the thermodynamic losses due to heat transfer and fluid friction. Different geometries (pins, fins and others) are analysed with a commercial CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code that also computes the local entropy generation rate. The design improvement process is carried out on the basis of a careful analysis of the local entropy generation maps and the rationale behind each step of the process is discussed in this perspective. The results are compared with other entropy generation minimization techniques available in the recent technical literature. It is found that the geometry with pin-fins has the best performance among the tested ones, and that the optimal pin array shape parameters (pitch and span) can be determined by a critical analysis of the integrated and local entropy maps and of the temperature contours. - Highlights: ► An entropy generation minimization method is applied to a solar heat exchanger. ► The approach is heuristic and leads to a pseudo-optimization process with CFD as main tool. ► The process is based on the evaluation of the local entropy generation maps. ► The geometry with pin-fins in general outperforms all other configurations. ► The entropy maps and temperature contours can be used to determine the optimal pin array design parameters

  1. Method to Calculate the Electricity Generated by a Photovoltaic Cell, Based on Its Mathematical Model Simulations in MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morcillo-Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical method for calculating the electrical energy generated by a PV panel (kWhr through MATLAB simulations based on the mathematical model of the cell, which obtains the “Mean Maximum Power Point” (MMPP in the characteristic V-P curve, in response to evaluating historical climate data at specific location. This five-step method calculates through MMPP per day, per month, or per year, the power yield by unit area, then electrical energy generated by PV panel, and its real conversion efficiency. To validate the method, it was applied to Sewage Treatment Plant for a Group of Drinking Water and Sewerage of Yucatan (JAPAY, México, testing 250 Wp photovoltaic panels of five different manufacturers. As a result, the performance, the real conversion efficiency, and the electricity generated by five different PV panels in evaluation were obtained and show the best technical-economic option to develop the PV generation project.

  2. CORALINA: a universal method for the generation of gRNA libraries for CRISPR-based screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köferle, Anna; Worf, Karolina; Breunig, Christopher; Baumann, Valentin; Herrero, Javier; Wiesbeck, Maximilian; Hutter, Lukas H; Götz, Magdalena; Fuchs, Christiane; Beck, Stephan; Stricker, Stefan H

    2016-11-14

    The bacterial CRISPR system is fast becoming the most popular genetic and epigenetic engineering tool due to its universal applicability and adaptability. The desire to deploy CRISPR-based methods in a large variety of species and contexts has created an urgent need for the development of easy, time- and cost-effective methods enabling large-scale screening approaches. Here we describe CORALINA (comprehensive gRNA library generation through controlled nuclease activity), a method for the generation of comprehensive gRNA libraries for CRISPR-based screens. CORALINA gRNA libraries can be derived from any source of DNA without the need of complex oligonucleotide synthesis. We show the utility of CORALINA for human and mouse genomic DNA, its reproducibility in covering the most relevant genomic features including regulatory, coding and non-coding sequences and confirm the functionality of CORALINA generated gRNAs. The simplicity and cost-effectiveness make CORALINA suitable for any experimental system. The unprecedented sequence complexities obtainable with CORALINA libraries are a necessary pre-requisite for less biased large scale genomic and epigenomic screens.

  3. Heat and electricity generating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buter, J.

    1977-01-01

    A short synopsis on the actual methods of heating of lodgings and of industrial heat generation is given. Electricity can be generated in steam cycles heated by burning of fossil fuels or by nuclear energy. A valuable contribution to the electricity economy is produced in the hydroelectric power plants. Besides these classical methods, also the different procedures of direct electricity generation are treated: thermoelectric, thermionic, magnetohydrodynamic power sources, solar and fuel cells. (orig.) [de

  4. A third-generation density-functional-theory-based method for calculating canonical molecular orbitals of large molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Toshiyuki; Sato, Fumitoshi

    2014-07-28

    We used grid-free modified Cholesky decomposition (CD) to develop a density-functional-theory (DFT)-based method for calculating the canonical molecular orbitals (CMOs) of large molecules. Our method can be used to calculate standard CMOs, analytically compute exchange-correlation terms, and maximise the capacity of next-generation supercomputers. Cholesky vectors were first analytically downscaled using low-rank pivoted CD and CD with adaptive metric (CDAM). The obtained Cholesky vectors were distributed and stored on each computer node in a parallel computer, and the Coulomb, Fock exchange, and pure exchange-correlation terms were calculated by multiplying the Cholesky vectors without evaluating molecular integrals in self-consistent field iterations. Our method enables DFT and massively distributed memory parallel computers to be used in order to very efficiently calculate the CMOs of large molecules.

  5. Comparative systems biology between human and animal models based on next-generation sequencing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-Qi; Li, Gong-Hua; Huang, Jing-Fei

    2013-04-01

    Animal models provide myriad benefits to both experimental and clinical research. Unfortunately, in many situations, they fall short of expected results or provide contradictory results. In part, this can be the result of traditional molecular biological approaches that are relatively inefficient in elucidating underlying molecular mechanism. To improve the efficacy of animal models, a technological breakthrough is required. The growing availability and application of the high-throughput methods make systematic comparisons between human and animal models easier to perform. In the present study, we introduce the concept of the comparative systems biology, which we define as "comparisons of biological systems in different states or species used to achieve an integrated understanding of life forms with all their characteristic complexity of interactions at multiple levels". Furthermore, we discuss the applications of RNA-seq and ChIP-seq technologies to comparative systems biology between human and animal models and assess the potential applications for this approach in the future studies.

  6. A method to generate equivalent energy spectra and filtration models based on measurement for multidetector CT Monte Carlo dosimetry simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Adam C.; Zhang Di; Kim, Hyun J.; DeMarco, John J.; Cagnon, Chris H.; Angel, Erin; Cody, Dianna D.; Stevens, Donna M.; Primak, Andrew N.; McCollough, Cynthia H.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a method for generating x-ray source models for performing Monte Carlo (MC) radiation dosimetry simulations of multidetector row CT (MDCT) scanners. These so-called ''equivalent'' source models consist of an energy spectrum and filtration description that are generated based wholly on the measured values and can be used in place of proprietary manufacturer's data for scanner-specific MDCT MC simulations. Required measurements include the half value layers (HVL 1 and HVL 2 ) and the bowtie profile (exposure values across the fan beam) for the MDCT scanner of interest. Using these measured values, a method was described (a) to numerically construct a spectrum with the calculated HVLs approximately equal to those measured (equivalent spectrum) and then (b) to determine a filtration scheme (equivalent filter) that attenuates the equivalent spectrum in a similar fashion as the actual filtration attenuates the actual x-ray beam, as measured by the bowtie profile measurements. Using this method, two types of equivalent source models were generated: One using a spectrum based on both HVL 1 and HVL 2 measurements and its corresponding filtration scheme and the second consisting of a spectrum based only on the measured HVL 1 and its corresponding filtration scheme. Finally, a third type of source model was built based on the spectrum and filtration data provided by the scanner's manufacturer. MC simulations using each of these three source model types were evaluated by comparing the accuracy of multiple CT dose index (CTDI) simulations to measured CTDI values for 64-slice scanners from the four major MDCT manufacturers. Comprehensive evaluations were carried out for each scanner using each kVp and bowtie filter combination available. CTDI experiments were performed for both head (16 cm in diameter) and body (32 cm in diameter) CTDI phantoms using both central and peripheral measurement positions. Both equivalent source model types

  7. New method of analysis wave processes in pulse generators based on lines with distributed parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleptsov, S N; Sleptsov, A N [NSC ' Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2001-07-01

    Structure and superconductivity of thick polycrystalline niobium-carbon coatings (Nb{sub 1-x}C{sub x}, O {<=} x < 0.3) deposited from low-energy self-ion-atomic Nb- and C- fluxes onto substrates with the temperature range 500...650 K were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction, TEM of oxidic replicas and resistivity measurement method at low temperature. It is founded, that Nb{sub 1-x}C{sub x} coatings with carbon concentration range 9...15 at.% have an unusual high superconducting transition temperature T{sub C} approx 12 K. Dependency of critical current density of these coatings on temperature is not monotonous and have a sharp bend near T{sub C} approx approx 9.5 K Structural analysis of these coatings has revealed they have a quasi-ternary phase composition consisting of Nb(b.c.c.), sub-carbide Nb{sub 2}C(c.p.h.) and metastable carbide 'Nbc{sub x}' with f.c.c. structure. The results obtained are discussed from a point of view of 'NbC{sub x}' phase forming at Nb and Nb{sub 2}C phases interface. It is also shown, that Nb{sub 1-x}C{sub x} coatings with carbon concentration less than 5 at.% revealed supersaturated solid solution and have T{sub C} approx approx 9.5 K. Kinetics of diffusive decomposition of niobium-carbon coatings during isothermal annealing was also investigated.

  8. Semantic attributes based texture generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Huifang; Gan, Yanhai; Qi, Lin; Dong, Junyu; Madessa, Amanuel Hirpa

    2018-04-01

    Semantic attributes are commonly used for texture description. They can be used to describe the information of a texture, such as patterns, textons, distributions, brightness, and so on. Generally speaking, semantic attributes are more concrete descriptors than perceptual features. Therefore, it is practical to generate texture images from semantic attributes. In this paper, we propose to generate high-quality texture images from semantic attributes. Over the last two decades, several works have been done on texture synthesis and generation. Most of them focusing on example-based texture synthesis and procedural texture generation. Semantic attributes based texture generation still deserves more devotion. Gan et al. proposed a useful joint model for perception driven texture generation. However, perceptual features are nonobjective spatial statistics used by humans to distinguish different textures in pre-attentive situations. To give more describing information about texture appearance, semantic attributes which are more in line with human description habits are desired. In this paper, we use sigmoid cross entropy loss in an auxiliary model to provide enough information for a generator. Consequently, the discriminator is released from the relatively intractable mission of figuring out the joint distribution of condition vectors and samples. To demonstrate the validity of our method, we compare our method to Gan et al.'s method on generating textures by designing experiments on PTD and DTD. All experimental results show that our model can generate textures from semantic attributes.

  9. Exergy-based method for analyzing the composition of the electricity cost generated in gas-fired combined cycle plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarraf Borelli, Samuel Jose [Promon Engenharia Ltda., Av. Presidente Juscelino Kubitschek, 1830, Itaim, CEP:04543-900 Sao Paulo/SP (Brazil)], E-mail: sborelli@terra.com.br; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de [Environmental and Thermal Engineering Laboratory, Polytechnic School, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, 1289, Cidade Universitaria, CEP:05508-900 Sao Paulo/SP (Brazil)], E-mail: silvio.oliveira@poli.usp.br

    2008-02-15

    The proposed method to analyze the composition of the cost of electricity is based on the energy conversion processes and the destruction of the exergy through the several thermodynamic processes that comprise a combined cycle power plant. The method uses thermoeconomics to evaluate and allocate the cost of exergy throughout the processes, considering costs related to inputs and investment in equipment. Although the concept may be applied to any combined cycle or cogeneration plant, this work develops only the mathematical modeling for three-pressure heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) configurations and total condensation of the produced steam. It is possible to study any nx1 plant configuration (n sets of gas turbine and HRSGs associated to one steam turbine generator and condenser) with the developed model, assuming that every train operates identically and in steady state. The presented model was conceived from a complex configuration of a real power plant, over which variations may be applied in order to adapt it to a defined configuration under study [Borelli SJS. Method for the analysis of the composition of electricity costs in combined cycle thermoelectric power plants. Master in Energy Dissertation, Interdisciplinary Program of Energy, Institute of Eletro-technical and Energy, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2005 (in Portuguese)]. The variations and adaptations include, for instance, use of reheat, supplementary firing and partial load operation. It is also possible to undertake sensitivity analysis on geometrical equipment parameters.

  10. Exergy-based method for analyzing the composition of the electricity cost generated in gas-fired combined cycle plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borelli, Samuel Jose Sarraf [Promon Engenharia Ltda., Av. Presidente Juscelino Kubitschek, 1830, Itaim, CEP:04543-900 Sao Paulo/SP (Brazil); De Oliveira Junior, Silvio [Environmental and Thermal Engineering Laboratory, Polytechnic School, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, 1289, Cidade Universitaria, CEP:05508-900 Sao Paulo/SP (Brazil)

    2008-02-15

    The proposed method to analyze the composition of the cost of electricity is based on the energy conversion processes and the destruction of the exergy through the several thermodynamic processes that comprise a combined cycle power plant. The method uses thermoeconomics to evaluate and allocate the cost of exergy throughout the processes, considering costs related to inputs and investment in equipment. Although the concept may be applied to any combined cycle or cogeneration plant, this work develops only the mathematical modeling for three-pressure heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) configurations and total condensation of the produced steam. It is possible to study any n x 1 plant configuration (n sets of gas turbine and HRSGs associated to one steam turbine generator and condenser) with the developed model, assuming that every train operates identically and in steady state. The presented model was conceived from a complex configuration of a real power plant, over which variations may be applied in order to adapt it to a defined configuration under study [Borelli SJS. Method for the analysis of the composition of electricity costs in combined cycle thermoelectric power plants. Master in Energy Dissertation, Interdisciplinary Program of Energy, Institute of Eletro-technical and Energy, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2005 (in Portuguese)]. The variations and adaptations include, for instance, use of reheat, supplementary firing and partial load operation. It is also possible to undertake sensitivity analysis on geometrical equipment parameters. (author)

  11. Exergy-based method for analyzing the composition of the electricity cost generated in gas-fired combined cycle plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarraf Borelli, Samuel Jose; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de

    2008-01-01

    The proposed method to analyze the composition of the cost of electricity is based on the energy conversion processes and the destruction of the exergy through the several thermodynamic processes that comprise a combined cycle power plant. The method uses thermoeconomics to evaluate and allocate the cost of exergy throughout the processes, considering costs related to inputs and investment in equipment. Although the concept may be applied to any combined cycle or cogeneration plant, this work develops only the mathematical modeling for three-pressure heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) configurations and total condensation of the produced steam. It is possible to study any nx1 plant configuration (n sets of gas turbine and HRSGs associated to one steam turbine generator and condenser) with the developed model, assuming that every train operates identically and in steady state. The presented model was conceived from a complex configuration of a real power plant, over which variations may be applied in order to adapt it to a defined configuration under study [Borelli SJS. Method for the analysis of the composition of electricity costs in combined cycle thermoelectric power plants. Master in Energy Dissertation, Interdisciplinary Program of Energy, Institute of Eletro-technical and Energy, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2005 (in Portuguese)]. The variations and adaptations include, for instance, use of reheat, supplementary firing and partial load operation. It is also possible to undertake sensitivity analysis on geometrical equipment parameters

  12. Time-series-based hybrid mathematical modelling method adapted to forecast automotive and medical waste generation: Case study of Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpušenkaitė, Aistė; Ruzgas, Tomas; Denafas, Gintaras

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the study was to create a hybrid forecasting method that could produce higher accuracy forecasts than previously used 'pure' time series methods. Mentioned methods were already tested with total automotive waste, hazardous automotive waste, and total medical waste generation, but demonstrated at least a 6% error rate in different cases and efforts were made to decrease it even more. Newly developed hybrid models used a random start generation method to incorporate different time-series advantages and it helped to increase the accuracy of forecasts by 3%-4% in hazardous automotive waste and total medical waste generation cases; the new model did not increase the accuracy of total automotive waste generation forecasts. Developed models' abilities to forecast short- and mid-term forecasts were tested using prediction horizon.

  13. Generation Method of Multipiecewise Linear Chaotic Systems Based on the Heteroclinic Shil’nikov Theorem and Switching Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the heteroclinic Shil’nikov theorem and switching control, a kind of multipiecewise linear chaotic system is constructed in this paper. Firstly, two fundamental linear systems are constructed via linearization of a chaotic system at its two equilibrium points. Secondly, a two-piecewise linear chaotic system which satisfies the Shil’nikov theorem is generated by constructing heteroclinic loop between equilibrium points of the two fundamental systems by switching control. Finally, another multipiecewise linear chaotic system that also satisfies the Shil’nikov theorem is obtained via alternate translation of the two fundamental linear systems and heteroclinic loop construction of adjacent equilibria for the multipiecewise linear system. Some basic dynamical characteristics, including divergence, Lyapunov exponents, and bifurcation diagrams of the constructed systems, are analyzed. Meanwhile, computer simulation and circuit design are used for the proposed chaotic systems, and they are demonstrated to be effective for the method of chaos anticontrol.

  14. CNV-RF Is a Random Forest-Based Copy Number Variation Detection Method Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsongo, Getiria; Baughn, Linda B; Bower, Matthew; Henzler, Christine; Schomaker, Matthew; Silverstein, Kevin A T; Thyagarajan, Bharat

    2016-11-01

    Simultaneous detection of small copy number variations (CNVs) (<0.5 kb) and single-nucleotide variants in clinically significant genes is of great interest for clinical laboratories. The analytical variability in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and artifacts in coverage data because of issues with mappability along with lack of robust bioinformatics tools for CNV detection have limited the utility of targeted NGS data to identify CNVs. We describe the development and implementation of a bioinformatics algorithm, copy number variation-random forest (CNV-RF), that incorporates a machine learning component to identify CNVs from targeted NGS data. Using CNV-RF, we identified 12 of 13 deletions in samples with known CNVs, two cases with duplications, and identified novel deletions in 22 additional cases. Furthermore, no CNVs were identified among 60 genes in 14 cases with normal copy number and no CNVs were identified in another 104 patients with clinical suspicion of CNVs. All positive deletions and duplications were confirmed using a quantitative PCR method. CNV-RF also detected heterozygous deletions and duplications with a specificity of 50% across 4813 genes. The ability of CNV-RF to detect clinically relevant CNVs with a high degree of sensitivity along with confirmation using a low-cost quantitative PCR method provides a framework for providing comprehensive NGS-based CNV/single-nucleotide variant detection in a clinical molecular diagnostics laboratory. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Model validation of solar PV plant with hybrid data dynamic simulation based on fast-responding generator method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a significant number of large-scale solar photovoltaic (PV plants have been put into operation or been under planning around the world. The model accuracy of solar PV plant is the key factor to investigate the mutual influences between solar PV plants and a power grid. However, this problem has not been well solved, especially in how to apply the real measurements to validate the models of the solar PV plants. Taking fast-responding generator method as an example, this paper presents a model validation methodology for solar PV plant via the hybrid data dynamic simulation. First, the implementation scheme of hybrid data dynamic simulation suitable for DIgSILENT PowerFactory software is proposed, and then an analysis model of solar PV plant integration based on IEEE 9 system is established. At last, model validation of solar PV plant is achieved by employing hybrid data dynamic simulation. The results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in solar PV plant model validation.

  16. Application of the EGM Method to a LED-Based Spotlight: A Constrained Pseudo-Optimization Design Process Based on the Analysis of the Local Entropy Generation Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Sciubba

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the entropy generation minimization (EGM method is applied to an industrial heat transfer problem: the forced convective cooling of a LED-based spotlight. The design specification calls for eighteen diodes arranged on a circular copper plate of 35 mm diameter. Every diode dissipates 3 W and the maximum allowedtemperature of the plate is 80 °C. The cooling relies on the forced convection driven by a jet of air impinging on the plate. An initial complex geometry of plate fins is presented and analyzed with a commercial CFD code that computes the entropy generation rate. A pseudo-optimization process is carried out via a successive series of design modifications based on a careful analysis of the entropy generation maps. One of the advantages of the EGM method is that the rationale behind each step of the design process can be justified on a physical basis. It is found that the best performance is attained when the fins are periodically spaced in the radial direction.

  17. Non-linear M -sequences Generation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. R. Garifullina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a new method for modeling a pseudorandom number generator based on R-blocks. The gist of the method is the replacement of a multi digit XOR element by a stochastic adder in a parallel binary linear feedback shift register scheme.

  18. First step towards a non-adiabatic description of the fission process based on the Generator Coordinate Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacroix D.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the different theoretical approaches able to describe fission, microscopic ones can help us in the understanding of this process, as they have the advantage of describing the nuclear structure and the dynamics in a consistent manner. The sole input of the calculations is the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Such a microscopic time-dependent and quantum mechanical formalism has already been used, based on the Gaussian Overlap Approximation of the Generator Coordinate Method with the adiabatic approximation, to analyze the collective dynamics of low-energy fission in 238U [1]. However, at higher energies, a few MeV above the barrier, the adiabatic approximation doesn’t seem valid anymore. Indeed, manifestations of proton pair breaking have been observed in 238U and 239U for an excitation energy of 2.3 MeV above the barrier [2–4]. Taking the intrinsic excitations into account during the fission process will enable us to determine the coupling between collective and intrinsic degrees of freedom, in particular from saddle to scission. Guidelines of the new formalism under development are presented and some preliminary results on overlaps between non excited and excited states are discussed.

  19. Real-time and encryption efficiency improvements of simultaneous fusion, compression and encryption method based on chaotic generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jridi, Maher; Alfalou, Ayman

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, enhancement of an existing optical simultaneous fusion, compression and encryption (SFCE) scheme in terms of real-time requirements, bandwidth occupation and encryption robustness is proposed. We have used and approximate form of the DCT to decrease the computational resources. Then, a novel chaos-based encryption algorithm is introduced in order to achieve the confusion and diffusion effects. In the confusion phase, Henon map is used for row and column permutations, where the initial condition is related to the original image. Furthermore, the Skew Tent map is employed to generate another random matrix in order to carry out pixel scrambling. Finally, an adaptation of a classical diffusion process scheme is employed to strengthen security of the cryptosystem against statistical, differential, and chosen plaintext attacks. Analyses of key space, histogram, adjacent pixel correlation, sensitivity, and encryption speed of the encryption scheme are provided, and favorably compared to those of the existing crypto-compression system. The proposed method has been found to be digital/optical implementation-friendly which facilitates the integration of the crypto-compression system on a very broad range of scenarios.

  20. First Step Towards a Non-Adiabatic Description of the Fission Process Based on the Generator Coordinate Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, R.; Goutte, H.; Gogny, D.; Dubray, N.; Lacroix, D.

    2009-01-01

    Among the different theoretical approaches able to describe fission, microscopic ones can help us in the understanding of this process, as they have the advantage of describing the nuclear structure and the dynamics in a consistent manner. The sole input of the calculations is the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Such a microscopic time-dependent and quantum mechanical formalism has already been used, based on the Gaussian Overlap Approximation of the Generator Coordinate Method with the adiabatic approximation, to analyze the collective dynamics of low-energy fission in 238 U. However, at higher energies, a few MeV above the barrier, the adiabatic approximation doesn't seem valid anymore. Indeed, manifestations of proton pair breaking have been observed in 238 U and 239 U for an excitation energy of 2.3 MeV above the barrier. Taking the intrinsic excitations into account during the fission process will enable us to determine the coupling between collective and intrinsic degrees of freedom, in particular from saddle to scission. Guidelines of the new formalism under development are presented and some preliminary results on overlaps between non excited and excited states are discussed.

  1. Collective motion and the generator coordinate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, E.J.V. de

    1981-01-01

    The generator coordinate method is used to construct a collective subspace of the many-body Hylbert space. The construction is based on the analysis of the properties of the overlaps of the generator states. Some well-known misbehaviours of the generator coordinate weight functions are clearly identified as of kinematical origin. A standard orthonormal representation in the collective subspace is introduced which eliminates them. It is also indicated how appropriate collective dynamical variables can be defined a posteriori. To illustrate the properties of the collective subspaces applications are made to a) translational invariant overlap kernels b) to one and two-conjugate parameter families of generator states. (Author) [pt

  2. Dynamic Server-Based KML Code Generator Method for Level-of-Detail Traversal of Geospatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxes, Gregory; Mixon, Brian; Linger, TIm

    2013-01-01

    Web-based geospatial client applications such as Google Earth and NASA World Wind must listen to data requests, access appropriate stored data, and compile a data response to the requesting client application. This process occurs repeatedly to support multiple client requests and application instances. Newer Web-based geospatial clients also provide user-interactive functionality that is dependent on fast and efficient server responses. With massively large datasets, server-client interaction can become severely impeded because the server must determine the best way to assemble data to meet the client applications request. In client applications such as Google Earth, the user interactively wanders through the data using visually guided panning and zooming actions. With these actions, the client application is continually issuing data requests to the server without knowledge of the server s data structure or extraction/assembly paradigm. A method for efficiently controlling the networked access of a Web-based geospatial browser to server-based datasets in particular, massively sized datasets has been developed. The method specifically uses the Keyhole Markup Language (KML), an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGS) standard used by Google Earth and other KML-compliant geospatial client applications. The innovation is based on establishing a dynamic cascading KML strategy that is initiated by a KML launch file provided by a data server host to a Google Earth or similar KMLcompliant geospatial client application user. Upon execution, the launch KML code issues a request for image data covering an initial geographic region. The server responds with the requested data along with subsequent dynamically generated KML code that directs the client application to make follow-on requests for higher level of detail (LOD) imagery to replace the initial imagery as the user navigates into the dataset. The approach provides an efficient data traversal path and mechanism that can be

  3. Ontology-based configuration of problem-solving methods and generation of knowledge-acquisition tools: application of PROTEGE-II to protocol-based decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, S W; Eriksson, H; Gennari, J H; Shahar, Y; Musen, M A

    1995-06-01

    PROTEGE-II is a suite of tools and a methodology for building knowledge-based systems and domain-specific knowledge-acquisition tools. In this paper, we show how PROTEGE-II can be applied to the task of providing protocol-based decision support in the domain of treating HIV-infected patients. To apply PROTEGE-II, (1) we construct a decomposable problem-solving method called episodic skeletal-plan refinement, (2) we build an application ontology that consists of the terms and relations in the domain, and of method-specific distinctions not already captured in the domain terms, and (3) we specify mapping relations that link terms from the application ontology to the domain-independent terms used in the problem-solving method. From the application ontology, we automatically generate a domain-specific knowledge-acquisition tool that is custom-tailored for the application. The knowledge-acquisition tool is used for the creation and maintenance of domain knowledge used by the problem-solving method. The general goal of the PROTEGE-II approach is to produce systems and components that are reusable and easily maintained. This is the rationale for constructing ontologies and problem-solving methods that can be composed from a set of smaller-grained methods and mechanisms. This is also why we tightly couple the knowledge-acquisition tools to the application ontology that specifies the domain terms used in the problem-solving systems. Although our evaluation is still preliminary, for the application task of providing protocol-based decision support, we show that these goals of reusability and easy maintenance can be achieved. We discuss design decisions and the tradeoffs that have to be made in the development of the system.

  4. Statistical method evaluation for differentially methylated CpGs in base resolution next-generation DNA sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Baheti, Saurabh; Sun, Zhifu

    2018-05-01

    High-throughput bisulfite methylation sequencing such as reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS), Agilent SureSelect Human Methyl-Seq (Methyl-seq) or whole-genome bisulfite sequencing is commonly used for base resolution methylome research. These data are represented either by the ratio of methylated cytosine versus total coverage at a CpG site or numbers of methylated and unmethylated cytosines. Multiple statistical methods can be used to detect differentially methylated CpGs (DMCs) between conditions, and these methods are often the base for the next step of differentially methylated region identification. The ratio data have a flexibility of fitting to many linear models, but the raw count data take consideration of coverage information. There is an array of options in each datatype for DMC detection; however, it is not clear which is an optimal statistical method. In this study, we systematically evaluated four statistic methods on methylation ratio data and four methods on count-based data and compared their performances with regard to type I error control, sensitivity and specificity of DMC detection and computational resource demands using real RRBS data along with simulation. Our results show that the ratio-based tests are generally more conservative (less sensitive) than the count-based tests. However, some count-based methods have high false-positive rates and should be avoided. The beta-binomial model gives a good balance between sensitivity and specificity and is preferred method. Selection of methods in different settings, signal versus noise and sample size estimation are also discussed.

  5. Classification-based comparison of pre-processing methods for interpretation of mass spectrometry generated clinical datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoefsloot Huub CJ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass spectrometry is increasingly being used to discover proteins or protein profiles associated with disease. Experimental design of mass-spectrometry studies has come under close scrutiny and the importance of strict protocols for sample collection is now understood. However, the question of how best to process the large quantities of data generated is still unanswered. Main challenges for the analysis are the choice of proper pre-processing and classification methods. While these two issues have been investigated in isolation, we propose to use the classification of patient samples as a clinically relevant benchmark for the evaluation of pre-processing methods. Results Two in-house generated clinical SELDI-TOF MS datasets are used in this study as an example of high throughput mass-spectrometry data. We perform a systematic comparison of two commonly used pre-processing methods as implemented in Ciphergen ProteinChip Software and in the Cromwell package. With respect to reproducibility, Ciphergen and Cromwell pre-processing are largely comparable. We find that the overlap between peaks detected by either Ciphergen ProteinChip Software or Cromwell is large. This is especially the case for the more stringent peak detection settings. Moreover, similarity of the estimated intensities between matched peaks is high. We evaluate the pre-processing methods using five different classification methods. Classification is done in a double cross-validation protocol using repeated random sampling to obtain an unbiased estimate of classification accuracy. No pre-processing method significantly outperforms the other for all peak detection settings evaluated. Conclusion We use classification of patient samples as a clinically relevant benchmark for the evaluation of pre-processing methods. Both pre-processing methods lead to similar classification results on an ovarian cancer and a Gaucher disease dataset. However, the settings for pre

  6. The Methodical Bases of Assessment of Innovation Processes in the Sphere of Power Generation with Use of Opportunities of Cognitive Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikhlyaeva Nataliya V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the methodical bases of assessing the innovation processes of power generating companies with use of opportunities of cognitive modeling. It is specified that the method of cognitive modeling allows to remove contradictions concerning the interrelationship of the factors determining the innovation processes of the energy generating companies that usually arise when the results of research on the elements of the innovation system are being coordinated. Based on the arguments and practical examples, provided in the article, it was concluded that application of the method of cognitive modeling in the process of assessing the innovative capabilities of energy-generating companies is a sufficiently flexible and effective tool for supporting decision-making on strategic directions of their development.

  7. A Kalman Filter-Based Method to Generate Continuous Time Series of Medium-Resolution NDVI Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sedano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A data assimilation method to produce complete temporal sequences of synthetic medium-resolution images is presented. The method implements a Kalman filter recursive algorithm that integrates medium and moderate resolution imagery. To demonstrate the approach, time series of 30-m spatial resolution NDVI images at 16-day time steps were generated using Landsat NDVI images and MODIS NDVI products at four sites with different ecosystems and land cover-land use dynamics. The results show that the time series of synthetic NDVI images captured seasonal land surface dynamics and maintained the spatial structure of the landscape at higher spatial resolution. The time series of synthetic medium-resolution NDVI images were validated within a Monte Carlo simulation framework. Normalized residuals decreased as the number of available observations increased, ranging from 0.2 to below 0.1. Residuals were also significantly lower for time series of synthetic NDVI images generated at combined recursion (smoothing than individually at forward and backward recursions (filtering. Conversely, the uncertainties of the synthetic images also decreased when the number of available observations increased and combined recursions were implemented.

  8. Assessing triclosan-induced ecological and trans-generational effects in natural phytoplankton communities: a trait-based field method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomati, Francesco; Nizzetto, Luca

    2013-07-01

    We exposed replicated phytoplankton communities confined in semi-permeable membrane-based mesocosms to 0, 0.1, 1 and 10 μg L(-1) triclosan (TCS) and placed them back in their original environment to investigate the occurrence of trans-generational responses at individual, population and community levels. TCS diffused out of mesocosms with a half-life of less than 8 h, so that only the parental generation was directly stressed. At the beginning of the experiment and after 7 days (approximately 2 generations) we analysed responses in the phytoplankton using scanning flow-cytometry. We acquired information on several individually expressed phenotypic traits, such as size, biovolume, pigment fluorescence and packaging, for thousands of individuals per replicated population and derived population and community aggregated traits. We found significant changes in community functioning (increased productivity in terms of biovolume and total fluorescence), with maximal effects at 1 μg L(-1) TCS. We detected significant and dose-dependent responses on population traits, such as changes in abundance for several populations, increased average size and fluorescence of cells, and strong changes in within-population trait mean and variance (suggesting micro-evolutionary effects). We applied the Price equation approach to partition community effects (changes in biovolume or fluorescence) in their physiological and ecological components, and quantified the residual component (including also evolutionary responses). Our results suggested that evolutionary or inheritable phenotypic plasticity responses may represent a significant component of the total observed change following exposure and over relatively small temporal scales.

  9. Devices and methods for generating an aerosol

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio; Scribano, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol generators and methods of generating aerosols are provided. The aerosol can be generated at a stagnation interface between a hot, wet stream and a cold, dry stream. The aerosol has the benefit that the properties of the aerosol can

  10. An Experience of Forest Inventory by Photo Interpretation Method Based on Advanced Firmware and Digital Aerial Photographs of New Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Arkhipov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The main stages of the developed technology of forest inventory by interpretation method, named «From survey – to project», with the use of modern aerial survey data, special software and hardware are discussed in the paper. A need for development of high-end technology of forest inventory is due to increasing demands of state, business, and civil community for actual and correct information about forests. The tasks of research were: integration software and hardware into single technology, testing on the real object, and development of recommendations for introduction into production and forming of system of preparing specialists for forest interpretation. Positive results of experimental works by measurement and analytical forest interpretation in stereo regime on base of photogrammetric software were obtained by specialists from Russia, Croatia, Belarus, and Sweden. In the technology «From survey – to project», the following instruments are used: photogrammetric complex Vision Map A3, digital photogrammetric system Photomod, program «ESAUL», GIS ArcGIS, special hardware for stereo visualization. Results of testing this technology are shown on example of model territory. Comparison of results of forest inventory obtained by interpretation method and results of control inventory obtained by enumeration method demonstrated that errors of determination of main forest inventory characteristics do not exceed the norms. The advantages of practical use of the technology are shown. It has been noted that forest inventory by interpretation method is a complex psychophysiological process and it requires an attraction of specialists with high qualification on base of special training. It is indicated the necessity of forming system for training forest inventory specialists on interpretation method. The designed and prepared curriculums and training manuals for interpretation method in forestry are listed.

  11. A Novel Method for Generating Encryption Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dascalescu Ana Cristina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the informational society, which has led to an impressive growth of the information volume circulating in the computer networks, has accelerated the evolution and especially the use of modern cryptography instruments. Today, the commercial products use standard cryptographic libraries that implement certified and tested cryptographic algorithms. Instead, the fragility ofencryption algorithms is given by compositional operations like key handling or key generation. In this sense, the article proposes an innovative method to generate pseudorandom numbers which can be used for the construction of secure stream encryption keys. The proposed method is based on the mathematical complements based on the algebra of the finite fields and uses a particularized structure of the linear feedback shift registers.

  12. Power generation systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Chao, Yi (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A power generation system includes a plurality of submerged mechanical devices. Each device includes a pump that can be powered, in operation, by mechanical energy to output a pressurized output liquid flow in a conduit. Main output conduits are connected with the device conduits to combine pressurized output flows output from the submerged mechanical devices into a lower number of pressurized flows. These flows are delivered to a location remote of the submerged mechanical devices for power generation.

  13. Analyzing driving forces behind changes in energy vulnerability of Spanish electricity generation through a Divisia index-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández González, P.; Moreno, B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose and develop the LMDI approach to factorize changes in electricity bill vulnerability. • Spanish vulnerability (1995–2011) markedly grew mainly by increasing gas dependence. • Fuel price increase and growing importance of electricity damage energy security. • Energy intensity advances & fuel diversification: insufficient to drive vulnerability. • Main recommendation: enhance internal energy market and common external EU strategy. - Abstract: High energy dependence on fossil raises vulnerability concerns about security of supply and energy cost. This research examines the impact of high dependence of imported fuels for power generation in Spain through the quantification and analysis of the driving forces behind the change in its electricity bill. Following logarithmic mean Divisia indexes approach, we present and perform a new method that enables a complete decomposition of changes in electricity vulnerability into contributions from several drivers. In fact, we identify five predefined factors behind the variations in vulnerability in Spain during the 1998–2011 period: fuel price, average heat rate, fuel dependence, degree of electricity importance and energy intensity. The application of this approach reveals a significant increase in Spanish vulnerability in the last two decades, promoted by increments in fuel price and importance of electricity over the primary energy consumption, but especially by increasing fuel dependence (particularly gas dependence). Therefore, findings mainly advocate for those strategies aimed at reducing Spanish energy dependence. Also those improving thermal efficiency and energy intensity are indicated

  14. Generation of uniformly distributed dose points for anatomy-based three-dimensional dose optimization methods in brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahanas, M; Baltas, D; Giannouli, S; Milickovic, N; Zamboglou, N

    2000-05-01

    We have studied the accuracy of statistical parameters of dose distributions in brachytherapy using actual clinical implants. These include the mean, minimum and maximum dose values and the variance of the dose distribution inside the PTV (planning target volume), and on the surface of the PTV. These properties have been studied as a function of the number of uniformly distributed sampling points. These parameters, or the variants of these parameters, are used directly or indirectly in optimization procedures or for a description of the dose distribution. The accurate determination of these parameters depends on the sampling point distribution from which they have been obtained. Some optimization methods ignore catheters and critical structures surrounded by the PTV or alternatively consider as surface dose points only those on the contour lines of the PTV. D(min) and D(max) are extreme dose values which are either on the PTV surface or within the PTV. They must be avoided for specification and optimization purposes in brachytherapy. Using D(mean) and the variance of D which we have shown to be stable parameters, achieves a more reliable description of the dose distribution on the PTV surface and within the PTV volume than does D(min) and D(max). Generation of dose points on the real surface of the PTV is obligatory and the consideration of catheter volumes results in a realistic description of anatomical dose distributions.

  15. An efficient depth map preprocessing method based on structure-aided domain transform smoothing for 3D view generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Depth image-based rendering (DIBR, which is used to render virtual views with a color image and the corresponding depth map, is one of the key techniques in the 2D to 3D conversion process. Due to the absence of knowledge about the 3D structure of a scene and its corresponding texture, DIBR in the 2D to 3D conversion process, inevitably leads to holes in the resulting 3D image as a result of newly-exposed areas. In this paper, we proposed a structure-aided depth map preprocessing framework in the transformed domain, which is inspired by recently proposed domain transform for its low complexity and high efficiency. Firstly, our framework integrates hybrid constraints including scene structure, edge consistency and visual saliency information in the transformed domain to improve the performance of depth map preprocess in an implicit way. Then, adaptive smooth localization is cooperated and realized in the proposed framework to further reduce over-smoothness and enhance optimization in the non-hole regions. Different from the other similar methods, the proposed method can simultaneously achieve the effects of hole filling, edge correction and local smoothing for typical depth maps in a united framework. Thanks to these advantages, it can yield visually satisfactory results with less computational complexity for high quality 2D to 3D conversion. Numerical experimental results demonstrate the excellent performances of the proposed method.

  16. A likelihood ratio-based method to predict exact pedigrees for complex families from next-generation sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Verena; Kamphans, Tom; Mundlos, Stefan; Robinson, Peter N; Krawitz, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technology considerably changed the way we screen for pathogenic mutations in rare Mendelian disorders. However, the identification of the disease-causing mutation amongst thousands of variants of partly unknown relevance is still challenging and efficient techniques that reduce the genomic search space play a decisive role. Often segregation- or linkage analysis are used to prioritize candidates, however, these approaches require correct information about the degree of relationship among the sequenced samples. For quality assurance an automated control of pedigree structures and sample assignment is therefore highly desirable in order to detect label mix-ups that might otherwise corrupt downstream analysis. We developed an algorithm based on likelihood ratios that discriminates between different classes of relationship for an arbitrary number of genotyped samples. By identifying the most likely class we are able to reconstruct entire pedigrees iteratively, even for highly consanguineous families. We tested our approach on exome data of different sequencing studies and achieved high precision for all pedigree predictions. By analyzing the precision for varying degrees of relatedness or inbreeding we could show that a prediction is robust down to magnitudes of a few hundred loci. A java standalone application that computes the relationships between multiple samples as well as a Rscript that visualizes the pedigree information is available for download as well as a web service at www.gene-talk.de CONTACT: heinrich@molgen.mpg.deSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. [Intel random number generator-based true random number generator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Shen, Hong

    2004-09-01

    To establish a true random number generator on the basis of certain Intel chips. The random numbers were acquired by programming using Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 via register reading from the random number generator (RNG) unit of an Intel 815 chipset-based computer with Intel Security Driver (ISD). We tested the generator with 500 random numbers in NIST FIPS 140-1 and X(2) R-Squared test, and the result showed that the random number it generated satisfied the demand of independence and uniform distribution. We also compared the random numbers generated by Intel RNG-based true random number generator and those from the random number table statistically, by using the same amount of 7500 random numbers in the same value domain, which showed that the SD, SE and CV of Intel RNG-based random number generator were less than those of the random number table. The result of u test of two CVs revealed no significant difference between the two methods. Intel RNG-based random number generator can produce high-quality random numbers with good independence and uniform distribution, and solves some problems with random number table in acquisition of the random numbers.

  18. Apparatuses and methods for generating electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R; Tremblay, Paul L

    2013-08-06

    Apparatuses and methods relating to generating an electric field are disclosed. An electric field generator may include a semiconductive material configured in a physical shape substantially different from a shape of an electric field to be generated thereby. The electric field is generated when a voltage drop exists across the semiconductive material. A method for generating an electric field may include applying a voltage to a shaped semiconductive material to generate a complex, substantially nonlinear electric field. The shape of the complex, substantially nonlinear electric field may be configured for directing charged particles to a desired location. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed.

  19. Method for protecting an electric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnle, Barry W.; Roberts, Jeffrey B.; Folkers, Ralph W.

    2008-11-18

    A method for protecting an electrical generator which includes providing an electrical generator which is normally synchronously operated with an electrical power grid; providing a synchronizing signal from the electrical generator; establishing a reference signal; and electrically isolating the electrical generator from the electrical power grid if the synchronizing signal is not in phase with the reference signal.

  20. Microplasma generator and methods therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Jeffrey A

    2015-04-14

    A low-temperature, atmospheric-pressure microplasma generator comprises at least one strip of metal on a dielectric substrate. A first end of the strip is connected to a ground plane and the second end of the strip is adjacent to a grounded electrode, with a gap being defined between the second end of the strip and the grounded electrode. High frequency power is supplied to the strip. The frequency is selected so that the length of the strip is an odd integer multiple of 1/4 of the wavelength traveling on the strip. A microplasma forms in the gap between the second end of the strip and the grounded electrode due to electric fields in that region. A microplasma generator array comprises a plurality of strongly-coupled resonant strips in close proximity to one another. At least one of the strips has an input for high-frequency electrical power. The remaining strips resonate due to coupling from the at least one powered strip. The array can provide a continuous line or ring of plasma. The microplasma generator can be used to alter the surface of a substrate, such as by adding material (deposition), removal of material (etching), or modifying surface chemistry.

  1. Improved method for methane generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A method for treatment of a material comprising lignocellulosic fibres is disclosed. More particularly, the treatment increases the accessibility of the lignocellulosic fibres for following microbial or biological processes....

  2. Comparison of elution efficiency of 99Mo/99mTc generator using theoretical and a free web based software method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiran Kumar, J.K.; Sharma, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Singh, B.; Bhattacharaya, A.; Mittal, B.R.; Gayana, S.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Generator is constructed on the principle of decay growth relationship between a long lived parent radionuclide and short lived daughter radionuclide. Difference in chemical properties of daughter and parent radionuclide helps in efficient separation of the two radionuclides. Aim and Objectives: The present study was designed to calculate the elution efficiency of the generator using the traditional formula based method and free web based software method. Materials and Methods: 99 Mo/ 99m Tc MON.TEK (Monrol, Gebze) generator and sterile 0.9% NaCl vial and vacuum vial in the lead shield were used for the elution. A new 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator (calibrated activity 30GBq) calibrated for thursday was received on monday morning in our department. Generator was placed behind lead bricks in fume hood. The rubber plugs of both vacuum and 0.9% NaCl vial were wiped with 70% isopropyl alcohol swabs. Vacuum vial placed inside the lead shield was inserted in the vacuum position simultaneously 10 ml NaCl vial was inserted in the second slot. After 1-2 min vacuum vial was removed without moving the emptied 0.9%NaCl vial. The vacuum slot was covered with another sterile vial to maintain sterility. The RAC was measured in the calibrated dose calibrator (Capintec, 15 CRC). The elution efficiency was calculated theoretically and using free web based software (Apache Web server (www.apache.org) and PHP (www.php.net). Web site of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (www.aimn.it). Results: The mean elution efficiency calculated by theoretical method was 93.95% +0.61. The mean elution efficiency as calculated by the software was 92.85% + 0.89. There was no statistical difference in both the methods. Conclusion: The free web based software provides precise and reproducible results and thus saves time and mathematical calculation steps. This enables a rational use of available activity and also enabling a selection of the type and number of

  3. An Improved STARFM with Help of an Unmixing-Based Method to Generate High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Remote Sensing Data in Complex Heterogeneous Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dengfeng; Zhang, Jinshui; Zhu, Xiufang; Pan, Yaozhong; Liu, Hongli; Yuan, Zhoumiqi; Yun, Ya

    2016-02-05

    Remote sensing technology plays an important role in monitoring rapid changes of the Earth's surface. However, sensors that can simultaneously provide satellite images with both high temporal and spatial resolution haven't been designed yet. This paper proposes an improved spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model (STARFM) with the help of an Unmixing-based method (USTARFM) to generate the high spatial and temporal data needed for the study of heterogeneous areas. The results showed that the USTARFM had higher accuracy than STARFM methods in two aspects of analysis: individual bands and of heterogeneity analysis. Taking the predicted NIR band as an example, the correlation coefficients (r) for the USTARFM, STARFM and unmixing methods were 0.96, 0.95, 0.90, respectively (p-value data fusion problems faced when using STARFM. Additionally, the USTARFM method could help researchers achieve better performance than STARFM at a smaller window size from its heterogeneous land surface quantitative representation.

  4. Fault-tolerant control for current sensors of doubly fed induction generators based on an improved fault detection method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hui; Yang, Chao; Hu, Yaogang

    2014-01-01

    Fault-tolerant control of current sensors is studied in this paper to improve the reliability of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). A fault-tolerant control system of current sensors is presented for the DFIG, which consists of a new current observer and an improved current sensor fault...... detection algorithm, and fault-tolerant control system are investigated by simulation. The results indicate that the outputs of the observer and the sensor are highly coherent. The fault detection algorithm can efficiently detect both soft and hard faults in current sensors, and the fault-tolerant control...

  5. Modeling, analysis and comparison of TSR and OTC methods for MPPT and power smoothing in permanent magnet synchronous generator-based wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasiri, M.; Milimonfared, J.; Fathi, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Small signal modeling of PMSG wind turbine with two controllers are introduced. • Poles and zeroes analyzing of OTC and TSR methods is performed. • Generator output power with varying wind speed in PMSG wind turbine is studied. • MPPT capability of OTC and TSR methods to wind speed variations are compared. • Power smoothing capability and reducing mechanical stress of both methods are studied. - Abstract: This paper presents a small signal modeling of a direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based on wind turbine which is connected to the grid via back-to-back converters. The proposed small signal model includes two maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controllers: tip speed ratio (TSR) control and optimal torque control (OTC). These methods are analytically compared to illustrate MPPT and power smoothing capability. Then, to compare the MPPT and power smoothing operation of the mentioned methods, simulations are performed in MATLAB/Simulink software. From the simulation results, OTC is highly efficient in power smoothing enhancement and has clearly good performance to extract maximum power from wind; however, TSR control has definitely fast responses to wind speed variations with the expense of higher fluctuations due to its non-minimum phase characteristic

  6. A Steady-State Analysis Method for Modular Multilevel Converters Connected to Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator-Based Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Modular multilevel converters (MMCs have shown great potential in the area of multi-megawatt wind energy conversion system (WECS based on permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs. However, the studies in this area are few, and most of them refer to the MMC used in high-voltage direct current (HVDC systems, and hence the characteristics of the PMSG are not considered. This paper proposes a steady-state analysis method for MMCs connected to a PMSG-based WECS. In the proposed method, only the wind speed (operating condition is required as input, and all the electrical quantities in the MMC, including the amplitudes, phase angles and their harmonics, can be calculated step by step. The analysis method is built on the proposed d-q frame mathematical model. Interactions of electrical quantities between the MMC and PMSG are comprehensively considered. Moreover, a new way to calculate the average switching functions are adopted in order to improve the accuracy of the analysis method. Applications of the proposed method are also presented, which includes the characteristic analysis of capacitor voltage ripples and the capacitor sizing. Finally, the accuracy of the method and the correctness of the analysis are verified by simulations and experiments.

  7. SU-E-J-219: A Dixon Based Pseudo-CT Generation Method for MR-Only Radiotherapy Treatment Planning of the Pelvis and Head and Neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maspero, M.; Meijer, G.J.; Lagendijk, J.J.W.; Berg, C.A.T. van den [Department of Radiotherapy, UMC Utrecht (Netherlands); Seevinck, P.R.; Viergever, M.A. [Image Science Institute, UMC Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an image processing method for MRI-based generation of electron density maps, known as pseudo-CT (pCT), without usage of model- or atlas-based segmentation, and to evaluate the method in the pelvic and head-neck region against CT. Methods: CT and MRI scans were obtained from the pelvic region of four patients in supine position using a flat table top only for CT. Stratified CT maps were generated by classifying each voxel based on HU ranges into one of four classes: air, adipose tissue, soft tissue or bone.A hierarchical region-selective algorithm, based on automatic thresholding and clustering, was used to classify tissues from MR Dixon reconstructed fat, In-Phase (IP) and Opposed-Phase (OP) images. First, a body mask was obtained by thresholding the IP image. Subsequently, an automatic threshold on the Dixon fat image differentiated soft and adipose tissue. K-means clustering on IP and OP images resulted in a mask that, via a connected neighborhood analysis, allowing the user to select the components corresponding to bone structures.The pCT was estimated through assignment of bulk HU to the tissue classes. Bone-only Digital Reconstructed Radiographs (DRR) were generated as well. The pCT images were rigidly registered to the stratified CT to allow a volumetric and voxelwise comparison. Moreover, pCTs were also calculated within the head-neck region in two volunteers using the same pipeline. Results: The volumetric comparison resulted in differences <1% for each tissue class. A voxelwise comparison showed a good classification, ranging from 64% to 98%. The primary misclassified classes were adipose/soft tissue and bone/soft tissue. As the patients have been imaged on different table tops, part of the misclassification error can be explained by misregistration. Conclusion: The proposed approach does not rely on an anatomy model providing the flexibility to successfully generate the pCT in two different body sites. This research is founded by Zon

  8. GLM Proxy Data Generation: Methods for Stroke/Pulse Level Inter-Comparison of Ground-Based Lightning Reference Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Kenneth L.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Bateman, Monte G.; Cecil, Daniel J.; Rudlosky, Scott D.; Petersen, Walter Arthur; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    In order to produce useful proxy data for the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in regions not covered by VLF lightning mapping systems, we intend to employ data produced by ground-based (regional or global) VLF/LF lightning detection networks. Before using these data in GLM Risk Reduction tasks, it is necessary to have a quantitative understanding of the performance of these networks, in terms of CG flash/stroke DE, cloud flash/pulse DE, location accuracy, and CLD/CG classification error. This information is being obtained through inter-comparison with LMAs and well-quantified VLF/LF lightning networks. One of our approaches is to compare "bulk" counting statistics on the spatial scale of convective cells, in order to both quantify relative performance and observe variations in cell-based temporal trends provided by each network. In addition, we are using microsecond-level stroke/pulse time correlation to facilitate detailed inter-comparisons at a more-fundamental level. The current development status of our ground-based inter-comparison and evaluation tools will be presented, and performance metrics will be discussed through a comparison of Vaisala s Global Lightning Dataset (GLD360) with the NLDN at locations within and outside the U.S.

  9. Micromotor-based energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Virendra V; Soto, Fernando; Kaufmann, Kevin; Wang, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    A micromotor-based strategy for energy generation, utilizing the conversion of liquid-phase hydrogen to usable hydrogen gas (H2), is described. The new motion-based H2-generation concept relies on the movement of Pt-black/Ti Janus microparticle motors in a solution of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) fuel. This is the first report of using NaBH4 for powering micromotors. The autonomous motion of these catalytic micromotors, as well as their bubble generation, leads to enhanced mixing and transport of NaBH4 towards the Pt-black catalytic surface (compared to static microparticles or films), and hence to a substantially faster rate of H2 production. The practical utility of these micromotors is illustrated by powering a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell car by an on-board motion-based hydrogen and oxygen generation. The new micromotor approach paves the way for the development of efficient on-site energy generation for powering external devices or meeting growing demands on the energy grid. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. An analytically-based method for predicting the noise generated by the interaction between turbulence and a serrated leading edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, J. R.; Peake, N.

    2018-05-01

    This paper considers the interaction of turbulence with a serrated leading edge. We investigate the noise produced by an aerofoil moving through a turbulent perturbation to uniform flow by considering the scattered pressure from the leading edge. We model the aerofoil as an infinite half plane with a leading edge serration, and develop an analytical model using a Green's function based upon the work of Howe. This allows us to consider both deterministic eddies and synthetic turbulence interacting with the leading edge. We show that it is possible to reduce the noise by using a serrated leading edge compared with a straight edge, but the optimal noise-reducing choice of serration is hard to predict due to the complex interaction. We also consider the effect of angle of attack, and find that in general the serrations are less effective at higher angles of attack.

  11. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.

  12. Devices and methods for generating an aerosol

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2016-03-03

    Aerosol generators and methods of generating aerosols are provided. The aerosol can be generated at a stagnation interface between a hot, wet stream and a cold, dry stream. The aerosol has the benefit that the properties of the aerosol can be precisely controlled. The stagnation interface can be generated, for example, by the opposed flow of the hot stream and the cold stream. The aerosol generator and the aerosol generation methods are capable of producing aerosols with precise particle sizes and a narrow size distribution. The properties of the aerosol can be controlled by controlling one or more of the stream temperatures, the saturation level of the hot stream, and the flow times of the streams.

  13. A method for generating hydrogen from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godin, Paul; Mascarello, Jean; Millet, Jacques.

    1974-01-01

    Description is given of a method and an installation for generating hydrogen from water, through an endothermic cycle of several successive chemical reactions involving intermediate substances regenerated during said cycle, said reactions occuring at different temperatures. The reaction which takes place at the highest temperature is carried out electrochemically. This can be applied to power-generating units comprising a nuclear reactor [fr

  14. Method and system of nuclear energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, W.

    1975-01-01

    The method is based on the nuclear reaction Li 6 (n,α)H 3 . Thermal neutrons, whose generation require a power reactor, are fed to a lithium deuterite target in such a manner that part of the tritons produced in this reaction undergo nuclear fusion of the kind d(T,n)α with the deuterons of the target. The remaining tritons are reacted with additional deuterons. The tritium produced in this reaction is processed and fed back to the lithium target over a triton source. It is also possible to process the tritium to a target, feed deuterons to it, and in addition to give the neutrons produced from the T(d,n)α reaction after slowing down to thermal energy to the lithium target. (DG/LH) [de

  15. Steam generator leak detection using acoustic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goluchko, V.V.; Sokolov, B.M.; Bulanov, A.N.

    1982-05-01

    The main requirements to meet by a device for leak detection in sodium - water steam generators are determined. The potentialities of instrumentation designed based on the developed requirements have been tested using a model of a 550 kw steam generator [fr

  16. Method of operating a thermoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael G; Cowgill, Joshua D

    2013-11-05

    A method for operating a thermoelectric generator supplying a variable-load component includes commanding the variable-load component to operate at a first output and determining a first load current and a first load voltage to the variable-load component while operating at the commanded first output. The method also includes commanding the variable-load component to operate at a second output and determining a second load current and a second load voltage to the variable-load component while operating at the commanded second output. The method includes calculating a maximum power output of the thermoelectric generator from the determined first load current and voltage and the determined second load current and voltage, and commanding the variable-load component to operate at a third output. The commanded third output is configured to draw the calculated maximum power output from the thermoelectric generator.

  17. Deterministic and probabilistic interval prediction for short-term wind power generation based on variational mode decomposition and machine learning methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yachao; Liu, Kaipei; Qin, Liang; An, Xueli

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Variational mode decomposition is adopted to process original wind power series. • A novel combined model based on machine learning methods is established. • An improved differential evolution algorithm is proposed for weight adjustment. • Probabilistic interval prediction is performed by quantile regression averaging. - Abstract: Due to the increasingly significant energy crisis nowadays, the exploitation and utilization of new clean energy gains more and more attention. As an important category of renewable energy, wind power generation has become the most rapidly growing renewable energy in China. However, the intermittency and volatility of wind power has restricted the large-scale integration of wind turbines into power systems. High-precision wind power forecasting is an effective measure to alleviate the negative influence of wind power generation on the power systems. In this paper, a novel combined model is proposed to improve the prediction performance for the short-term wind power forecasting. Variational mode decomposition is firstly adopted to handle the instability of the raw wind power series, and the subseries can be reconstructed by measuring sample entropy of the decomposed modes. Then the base models can be established for each subseries respectively. On this basis, the combined model is developed based on the optimal virtual prediction scheme, the weight matrix of which is dynamically adjusted by a self-adaptive multi-strategy differential evolution algorithm. Besides, a probabilistic interval prediction model based on quantile regression averaging and variational mode decomposition-based hybrid models is presented to quantify the potential risks of the wind power series. The simulation results indicate that: (1) the normalized mean absolute errors of the proposed combined model from one-step to three-step forecasting are 4.34%, 6.49% and 7.76%, respectively, which are much lower than those of the base models and the hybrid

  18. Optimization of the beam shaping assembly in the D-D neutron generators-based BNCT using the response matrix method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasesaz, Y; Khalafi, H; Rahmani, F

    2013-12-01

    Optimization of the Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) has been performed using the MCNP4C Monte Carlo code to shape the 2.45 MeV neutrons that are produced in the D-D neutron generator. Optimal design of the BSA has been chosen by considering in-air figures of merit (FOM) which consists of 70 cm Fluental as a moderator, 30 cm Pb as a reflector, 2mm (6)Li as a thermal neutron filter and 2mm Pb as a gamma filter. The neutron beam can be evaluated by in-phantom parameters, from which therapeutic gain can be derived. Direct evaluation of both set of FOMs (in-air and in-phantom) is very time consuming. In this paper a Response Matrix (RM) method has been suggested to reduce the computing time. This method is based on considering the neutron spectrum at the beam exit and calculating contribution of various dose components in phantom to calculate the Response Matrix. Results show good agreement between direct calculation and the RM method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Method of Erasing Data Using Random Number Generators

    OpenAIRE

    井上,正人

    2012-01-01

    Erasing data is an indispensable step for disposal of computers or external storage media. Except physical destruction, erasing data means writing random information on entire disk drives or media. We propose a method which erases data safely using random number generators. These random number generators create true random numbers based on quantum processes.

  20. Radiolabeling of DOTA-like conjugated peptides with generator-produced 68Ga and using NaCl-based cationic elution method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Dirk; Breeman, Wouter A P; Klette, Ingo; Gottschaldt, Michael; Odparlik, Andreas; Baehre, Manfred; Tworowska, Izabela; Schultz, Michael K

    2017-01-01

    Gallium-68 (68Ga) is a generator-produced radionuclide with a short half-life (t½ = 68 min) that is particularly well suited for molecular imaging by positron emission tomography (PET). Methods have been developed to synthesize 68Ga-labeled imaging agents possessing certain drawbacks, such as longer synthesis time because of a required final purification step, the use of organic solvents or concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl). In our manuscript, we provide a detailed protocol for the use of an advantageous sodium chloride (NaCl)-based method for radiolabeling of chelator-modified peptides for molecular imaging. By working in a lead-shielded hot-cell system, 68Ga3+ of the generator eluate is trapped on a cation exchanger cartridge (100 mg, ∼8 mm long and 5 mm diameter) and then eluted with acidified 5 M NaCl solution directly into a sodium acetate-buffered solution containing a DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) or DOTA-like chelator-modified peptide. The main advantages of this procedure are the high efficiency and the absence of organic solvents. It can be applied to a variety of peptides, which are stable in 1 M NaCl solution at a pH value of 3–4 during reaction. After labeling, neutralization, sterile filtration and quality control (instant thin-layer chromatography (iTLC), HPLC and pH), the radiopharmaceutical can be directly administered to patients, without determination of organic solvents, which reduces the overall synthesis-to-release time. This procedure has been adapted easily to automated synthesis modules, which leads to a rapid preparation of 68Ga radiopharmaceuticals (12–16 min). PMID:27172166

  1. Method and apparatus for thermal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangus, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for power generation from a recirculating superheat-reheat circuit with multiple expansion stages which alleviates complex control systems and minimizes thermal cycling of system components, particularly the reheater. The invention includes preheating cold reheat fluid from the first expansion stage prior to its entering the reheater with fluid from the evaporator or drum component

  2. Apparatus and method for thermal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, P.; Redding, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    An improved thermal power plant and method of power generation is described which minimizes thermal stress and chemical impurity buildup in the vaporizing component, particularly beneficial under loss of normal feed fluid and startup conditions. The invention is particularly applicable to a liquid metal fast breeder reactor plant

  3. Methods and procedures of succession of generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homann, A.; Bendzko, R.

    2001-01-01

    The presentation describes the methods and procedures of the succession of generations in the nuclear industry. The industrial development required specialised knowledge and creativity on a changing level. The relations ship between knowledge-transfer and transfer of the responsibility must be taken into account. The knowledge-transfer has to be planned as an investment. (authors)

  4. Stator current harmonics evolution by neural network method based on CFE/SS algorithm for ACEC generator of Rey Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleymani, S.; Ranjbar, A.M.; Mirabedini, H.

    2001-01-01

    One method for on-line fault diagnosis in synchronous generator is stator current harmonics analysis. Then artificial neural network is considered in this paper in order to evaluate stator current harmonics in different loads. Training set of artificial neural network is made ready by generator modeling, finite element method and state space model. Many points from generator capability curve are used in order to complete this set. Artificial neural network which is used in this paper is a percept ron network with a single hidden layer, Eight hidden neurons and back propagation algorithm. Results are indicated that the trained artificial neural network can identify stator current harmonics for arbitrary load from the capability curve. The error is less than 10% in comparison with values obtained directly from the CFE-SS algorithm. The rating parameters of modeled generator are 43950 (kV A), 11(KV), 3000 (rpm), 50 (H Z), (P F=0.8)

  5. Novel methods of ozone generation by micro-plasma concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fateev, A.; Chiper, A.; Chen, W.; Stamate, E.

    2008-02-15

    The project objective was to study the possibilities for new and cheaper methods of generating ozone by means of different types of micro-plasma generators: DBD (Dielectric Barrier Discharge), MHCD (Micro-Hollow Cathode Discharge) and CPED (Capillary Plasma Electrode Discharge). This project supplements another current project where plasma-based DeNOx is being studied and optimised. The results show potentials for reducing ozone generation costs by means of micro-plasmas but that further development is needed. (ln)

  6. A Novel Method to Magnetic Flux Linkage Optimization of Direct-Driven Surface-Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Based on Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper pays attention to magnetic flux linkage optimization of a direct-driven surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous generator (D-SPMSG. A new compact representation of the D-SPMSG nonlinear dynamic differential equations to reduce system parameters is established. Furthermore, the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of new D-SPMSG equations in the process of varying magnetic flux linkage are considered, which are illustrated by Lyapunov exponent spectrums, phase orbits, Poincaré maps, time waveforms and bifurcation diagrams, and the magnetic flux linkage stable region of D-SPMSG is acquired concurrently. Based on the above modeling and analyses, a novel method of magnetic flux linkage optimization is presented. In addition, a 2 MW D-SPMSG 2D/3D model is designed by ANSYS software according to the practical design requirements. Finally, five cases of D-SPMSG models with different magnetic flux linkages are simulated by using the finite element analysis (FEA method. The nephograms of magnetic flux density are agreement with theoretical analysis, which both confirm the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  7. Modeling thrombin generation: plasma composition based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen E; Everse, Stephen J; Mann, Kenneth G; Orfeo, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Thrombin has multiple functions in blood coagulation and its regulation is central to maintaining the balance between hemorrhage and thrombosis. Empirical and computational methods that capture thrombin generation can provide advancements to current clinical screening of the hemostatic balance at the level of the individual. In any individual, procoagulant and anticoagulant factor levels together act to generate a unique coagulation phenotype (net balance) that is reflective of the sum of its developmental, environmental, genetic, nutritional and pharmacological influences. Defining such thrombin phenotypes may provide a means to track disease progression pre-crisis. In this review we briefly describe thrombin function, methods for assessing thrombin dynamics as a phenotypic marker, computationally derived thrombin phenotypes versus determined clinical phenotypes, the boundaries of normal range thrombin generation using plasma composition based approaches and the feasibility of these approaches for predicting risk.

  8. The Rack-Gear Tool Generation Modelling. Non-Analytical Method Developed in CATIA, Using the Relative Generating Trajectories Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodor, V. G.; Baroiu, N.; Susac, F.; Oancea, N.

    2016-11-01

    The modelling of a curl of surfaces associated with a pair of rolling centrodes, when it is known the profile of the rack-gear's teeth profile, by direct measuring, as a coordinate matrix, has as goal the determining of the generating quality for an imposed kinematics of the relative motion of tool regarding the blank. In this way, it is possible to determine the generating geometrical error, as a base of the total error. The generation modelling allows highlighting the potential errors of the generating tool, in order to correct its profile, previously to use the tool in machining process. A method developed in CATIA is proposed, based on a new method, namely the method of “relative generating trajectories”. They are presented the analytical foundation, as so as some application for knows models of rack-gear type tools used on Maag teething machines.

  9. Lexicon generation methods, lexicon generation devices, and lexicon generation articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Richard J [Richland, WA; McCall, Jonathon D [West Richland, WA; Whitney, Paul D [Richland, WA; Gregory, Michelle L [Richland, WA; Turner, Alan E [Kennewick, WA; Hetzler, Elizabeth G [Kennewick, WA; White, Amanda M [Kennewick, WA; Posse, Christian [Seattle, WA; Nakamura, Grant C [Kennewick, WA

    2010-10-26

    Lexicon generation methods, computer implemented lexicon editing methods, lexicon generation devices, lexicon editors, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a lexicon generation method includes providing a seed vector indicative of occurrences of a plurality of seed terms within a plurality of text items, providing a plurality of content vectors indicative of occurrences of respective ones of a plurality of content terms within the text items, comparing individual ones of the content vectors with respect to the seed vector, and responsive to the comparing, selecting at least one of the content terms as a term of a lexicon usable in sentiment analysis of text.

  10. Proposed guidelines for synthetic accelerogram generation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, D.E.; Rizzo, P.C.; Shukla, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    With the advent of high speed digital computation machines and discrete structural analysis techniques, it has become attractive to use synthetically generated accelerograms as input in the seismic design and analysis of structures. Several procedures are currently available which can generate accelerograms which match a given design response spectra while not paying significant attention to other properties of seismic accelerograms. This paper studies currently available artificial time history generation techniques from the standpoint of various properties of seismic time histories consisting of; 1. Response Spectra; 2. Peak Ground Acceleration; 3. Total Duration; 4. Time dependent enveloping functions defining the rise time to strong motion, duration of significant shaking and decay of the significant shaking portion of the seismic record; 5. Fourier Amplitude and Phase Spectra; 6. Ground Motion Parameters; 7. Apparent Frequency; with the aim of providing guidelines of the time history parameters based on historic strong motion seismic records. (Auth.)

  11. Evaluation of a weather generator-based method for statistically downscaling non-stationary climate scenarios for impact assessment at a point scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    The non-stationarity is a major concern for statistically downscaling climate change scenarios for impact assessment. This study is to evaluate whether a statistical downscaling method is fully applicable to generate daily precipitation under non-stationary conditions in a wide range of climatic zo...

  12. ORTHO IMAGE AND DTM GENERATION WITH INTELLIGENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bagheri

    2013-10-01

    Finally the artificial intelligence methods, like genetic algorithms as well as neural networks, were examined on sample data for optimizing interpolation and for generating Digital Terrain Models. The results then were compared with existing conventional methods and it appeared that these methods have a high capacity in heights interpolation and that using these networks for interpolating and optimizing the weighting methods based on inverse distance leads to a high accurate estimation of heights.

  13. The generator coordinate method in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, B.G.

    1981-01-01

    The generator coordinate method is introduced as a physical description of a N-body system in a subspace of a reduced number of degrees of freedom. Special attention is placed on the identification of these special, 'collective' degrees of freedom. It is shown in particular that the method has close links with the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and also that considerations of differential geometry are useful in the theory. A set of applications is discussed and in particular the case of nuclear collisions is considered. (Author) [pt

  14. Method of generating a computer readable model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A method of generating a computer readable model of a geometrical object constructed from a plurality of interconnectable construction elements, wherein each construction element has a number of connection elements for connecting the construction element with another construction element. The met......A method of generating a computer readable model of a geometrical object constructed from a plurality of interconnectable construction elements, wherein each construction element has a number of connection elements for connecting the construction element with another construction element....... The method comprises encoding a first and a second one of the construction elements as corresponding data structures, each representing the connection elements of the corresponding construction element, and each of the connection elements having associated with it a predetermined connection type. The method...... further comprises determining a first connection element of the first construction element and a second connection element of the second construction element located in a predetermined proximity of each other; and retrieving connectivity information of the corresponding connection types of the first...

  15. A rule-based software test data generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deason, William H.; Brown, David B.; Chang, Kai-Hsiung; Cross, James H., II

    1991-01-01

    Rule-based software test data generation is proposed as an alternative to either path/predicate analysis or random data generation. A prototype rule-based test data generator for Ada programs is constructed and compared to a random test data generator. Four Ada procedures are used in the comparison. Approximately 2000 rule-based test cases and 100,000 randomly generated test cases are automatically generated and executed. The success of the two methods is compared using standard coverage metrics. Simple statistical tests showing that even the primitive rule-based test data generation prototype is significantly better than random data generation are performed. This result demonstrates that rule-based test data generation is feasible and shows great promise in assisting test engineers, especially when the rule base is developed further.

  16. Graph based techniques for tag cloud generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leginus, Martin; Dolog, Peter; Lage, Ricardo Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Tag cloud is one of the navigation aids for exploring documents. Tag cloud also link documents through the user defined terms. We explore various graph based techniques to improve the tag cloud generation. Moreover, we introduce relevance measures based on underlying data such as ratings...... or citation counts for improved measurement of relevance of tag clouds. We show, that on the given data sets, our approach outperforms the state of the art baseline methods with respect to such relevance by 41 % on Movielens dataset and by 11 % on Bibsonomy data set....

  17. Stability improvement of induction generator-based wind turbine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Hu, Y.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    The stability improvement of induction-generator-based wind turbine systems under power system fault conditions has been studied. Two types of generators are considered, namely rotor short-circuited induction generators and dynamic slip-controlled wound rotor induction generators. The factors...... affecting the stability are analysed. The characteristics of the induction-generator-based wind turbines are described, and possible methods of improving stability of the wind generators are discussed. The system modelling is presented, and then the discussed methods of improving stability are investigated...

  18. Entropy generation method to quantify thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boregowda, S. C.; Tiwari, S. N.; Chaturvedi, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper presents a thermodynamic approach to assess the quality of human-thermal environment interaction and quantify thermal comfort. The approach involves development of entropy generation term by applying second law of thermodynamics to the combined human-environment system. The entropy generation term combines both human thermal physiological responses and thermal environmental variables to provide an objective measure of thermal comfort. The original concepts and definitions form the basis for establishing the mathematical relationship between thermal comfort and entropy generation term. As a result of logic and deterministic approach, an Objective Thermal Comfort Index (OTCI) is defined and established as a function of entropy generation. In order to verify the entropy-based thermal comfort model, human thermal physiological responses due to changes in ambient conditions are simulated using a well established and validated human thermal model developed at the Institute of Environmental Research of Kansas State University (KSU). The finite element based KSU human thermal computer model is being utilized as a "Computational Environmental Chamber" to conduct series of simulations to examine the human thermal responses to different environmental conditions. The output from the simulation, which include human thermal responses and input data consisting of environmental conditions are fed into the thermal comfort model. Continuous monitoring of thermal comfort in comfortable and extreme environmental conditions is demonstrated. The Objective Thermal Comfort values obtained from the entropy-based model are validated against regression based Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) values. Using the corresponding air temperatures and vapor pressures that were used in the computer simulation in the regression equation generates the PMV values. The preliminary results indicate that the OTCI and PMV values correlate well under ideal conditions. However, an experimental study

  19. A comparison between two methods of generating power, heat and refrigeration via biomass based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: A thermodynamic and environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazaei, M.; Rahimi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two novel trigeneration systems based biomass and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell are compared. • A complete environmental analysis for three different cases is conducted. • Digester based system has 14.56% more exergetic efficiency than gasifier based one. • Gasifier based system has 14.31% more energetic efficiency than Digester based one. • Gasifier, Digester and air heat exchanger have the highest exergy destruction. - Abstract: Utilization of biomass energy is of prevalence focus these days. Using these fuels to run the fuel cells is of primary interest. In this regard, two new trigeneration systems (producing power and heating alongside with cooling) based on solid oxide fuel cell fed by either the syngas or biogas are proposed. The performance of systems is analyzed and compared with each other from the thermodynamic viewpoint. Applying the conservation of mass and energy as well as the exergy for each system component and using the engineering equation solver, the system’s performance are modeled. Through a parametric study, the effects of some key variables such as the current density and the fuel utilization factor in the systems’ performance are investigated. In addition, considering the system as a combination of three subsystems, that is, the power generation system, heat and power generation system and trigeneration system, an environmental impact assessment in terms of Carbon dioxide emission is carried out for both digester based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and gasifier based one. It is observed that using biogas from digester leads to more exergetic (which is 14.56%) and less energetic efficiency (Which is 14.31%), with a Carbon dioxide emission of 17.87 ton/MW h for the tri-generation system. The value of this parameter is 21.32 ton/MW h when gasifier is used as the supplier of fuel for solid oxide fuel cell.

  20. The frequency-independent control method for distributed generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderi, Siamak; Pouresmaeil, Edris; Gao, Wenzhong David

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a novel frequency-independent control method suitable for distributed generation (DG) is presented. This strategy is derived based on the . abc/. αβ transformation and . abc/. dq transformation of the ac system variables. The active and reactive currents injected by the DG are contr......In this paper a novel frequency-independent control method suitable for distributed generation (DG) is presented. This strategy is derived based on the . abc/. αβ transformation and . abc/. dq transformation of the ac system variables. The active and reactive currents injected by the DG...

  1. Microscopic approach to the generator coordinate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, Q.; Gogny, D.; Weiss, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we solve different theoretical problems associated with the calculation of the kernel occurring in the Hill-Wheeler integral equations within the framework of generator coordinate method. In particular, we extend the Wick's theorem to nonorthogonal Bogoliubov states. Expressions for the overlap between Bogoliubov states and for the generalized density matrix are also derived. These expressions are valid even when using an incomplete basis, as in the case of actual calculations. Finally, the Hill-Wheeler formalism is developed for a finite range interaction and the Skyrme force, and evaluated for the latter. 20 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  2. Method for generating hydrogen for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Lee, Sheldon H. D.; Carter, John David; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-03-30

    A method of producing a H.sub.2 rich gas stream includes supplying an O.sub.2 rich gas, steam, and fuel to an inner reforming zone of a fuel processor that includes a partial oxidation catalyst and a steam reforming catalyst or a combined partial oxidation and stream reforming catalyst. The method also includes contacting the O.sub.2 rich gas, steam, and fuel with the partial oxidation catalyst and the steam reforming catalyst or the combined partial oxidation and stream reforming catalyst in the inner reforming zone to generate a hot reformate stream. The method still further includes cooling the hot reformate stream in a cooling zone to produce a cooled reformate stream. Additionally, the method includes removing sulfur-containing compounds from the cooled reformate stream by contacting the cooled reformate stream with a sulfur removal agent. The method still further includes contacting the cooled reformate stream with a catalyst that converts water and carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and H.sub.2 in a water-gas-shift zone to produce a final reformate stream in the fuel processor.

  3. Component-Based Cartoon Face Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Sepehri Nejad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a cartoon face generation method that stands on a component-based facial feature extraction approach. Given a frontal face image as an input, our proposed system has the following stages. First, face features are extracted using an extended Active Shape Model. Outlines of the components are locally modified using edge detection, template matching and Hermit interpolation. This modification enhances the diversity of output and accuracy of the component matching required for cartoon generation. Second, to bring cartoon-specific features such as shadows, highlights and, especially, stylish drawing, an array of various face photographs and corresponding hand-drawn cartoon faces are collected. These cartoon templates are automatically decomposed into cartoon components using our proposed method for parameterizing cartoon samples, which is fast and simple. Then, using shape matching methods, the appropriate cartoon component is selected and deformed to fit the input face. Finally, a cartoon face is rendered in a vector format using the rendering rules of the selected template. Experimental results demonstrate effectiveness of our approach in generating life-like cartoon faces.

  4. Synchronization Methods for Three Phase Distributed Power Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timbus, Adrian Vasile; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, it is a general trend to increase the electricity production using Distributed Power Generation Systems (DPGS) based on renewable energy resources such as wind, sun or hydrogen. If these systems are not properly controlled, their connection to the utility network can generate problems...... on the grid side. Therefore, considerations about power generation, safe running and grid synchronization must be done before connecting these systems to the utility network. This paper is mainly dealing with the grid synchronization issues of distributed systems. An overview of the synchronization methods...

  5. Method for steam generator water level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a nuclear power plant, a method of controlling the steam generator water level, wherein the steam generator has an upper level tap corresponding to an upper level, a lower level, a riser positioned between the lower and upper taps, and level sensor means for indicating water level between a first range limit and a second range limit, the sensor means being connected to at least the lower tap. It comprises: calculating a measure of velocity head at about the lower level tap; calculating a measure of full water level as the upper level less the measure of velocity head; calibrating the level sensor means to provide an output at the first limit corresponding to an input thereto representative of the measure of full level; calculating a high level setpoint equal to the level of the riser less a bias amount which is a function of the position of the riser relative to the span between the taps; and controlling the water level when the sensor means indicates that the high level setpoint has been reached

  6. Thermonuclear reaction generation method and device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imazaki, Kazuo

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of and a device for causing thermonuclear reaction capable of obtaining extremely high profits (about 1000 times), capable of forming a target which is strong against instability upon implosion as a problem of an inertia process and capable of realizing utilization of nuclear fusion. Namely, elementary particles such as pion, muon and K particles are deposited a portion or some portion of thermonuclear fuel materials by using high energy ions and highly brilliant γ rays generated from a high energy accelerator. The thermonuclear fuel materials are compressed to high density. The nuclear fusion reaction is promoted to ignite and burn thermonuclear fuels. A portion of nuclear fuels is ignited selectively by the means. High profits can be obtained. Since there is no need to attain implosion rate required for self ignition of nuclear fuels, a target of low aspect ratio can be used. (I.S.)

  7. EXPRESS METHOD OF BARCODE GENERATION FROM FACIAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Kukharev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a method of generating of standard type linear barcodes from facial images is proposed. The method is based on use of the histogram of facial image brightness, averaging the histogram on a limited number of intervals, quantization of results in a range of decimal numbers from 0 to 9 and table conversion into the final barcode. The proposed solution is computationally low-cost and not requires the use of specialized software on image processing that allows generating of facial barcodes in mobile systems, and thus the proposed method can be interpreted as an express method. Results of tests on the Face94 and CUHK Face Sketch FERET Databases showed that the proposed method is a new solution for use in the real-world practice and ensures the stability of generated barcodes in changes of scale, pose and mirroring of a facial image, and also changes of a facial expression and shadows on faces from local lighting. The proposed method is based on generating of a standard barcode directly from the facial image, and thus contains the subjective information about a person's face.

  8. Alternative methods of modeling wind generation using production costing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligan, M.R.; Pang, C.K.

    1996-08-01

    This paper examines the methods of incorporating wind generation in two production costing models: one is a load duration curve (LDC) based model and the other is a chronological-based model. These two models were used to evaluate the impacts of wind generation on two utility systems using actual collected wind data at two locations with high potential for wind generation. The results are sensitive to the selected wind data and the level of benefits of wind generation is sensitive to the load forecast. The total production cost over a year obtained by the chronological approach does not differ significantly from that of the LDC approach, though the chronological commitment of units is more realistic and more accurate. Chronological models provide the capability of answering important questions about wind resources which are difficult or impossible to address with LDC models

  9. Primitive polynomials selection method for pseudo-random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikin, I. V.; Alnajjar, Kh

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we suggested the method for primitive polynomials selection of special type. This kind of polynomials can be efficiently used as a characteristic polynomials for linear feedback shift registers in pseudo-random number generators. The proposed method consists of two basic steps: finding minimum-cost irreducible polynomials of the desired degree and applying primitivity tests to get the primitive ones. Finally two primitive polynomials, which was found by the proposed method, used in pseudorandom number generator based on fuzzy logic (FRNG) which had been suggested before by the authors. The sequences generated by new version of FRNG have low correlation magnitude, high linear complexity, less power consumption, is more balanced and have better statistical properties.

  10. A development of the direct Lyapunov method for the analysis of transient stability of a system of synchronous generators based on the determination of non- stable equilibria on a multidimensional sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Stepanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A development of the direct Lyapunov method for the analysis of transient stability of a system of synchronous generators based on the determination of non- stable equilibria on a multidimensional sphere.We consider the problem of transient stability analysis for a system of synchronous generators under the action of strong perturbations. The aim of our work is to develop methods to analyze a transient stability of the system of synchronous generators, which allow getting trustworthy results on reserve transient stability under different perturbations. For the analysis of transient stability, we use the direct Lyapunov method.One of the problems for this method application is to find the Lypunov function that well reflects the properties of a parallel system of synchronous generators. The most reliable results were obtained when the analysis of transient stability was performed with a Lyapunov function of energy type. Another problem for application of the direct Lyapunov method is to determine the critical value of the Lyapunov function, which requires finding the non-stable equilibria of the system. Determination of the non-stable equilibria requires studying the Lyapunov function in a multidimensional space in a neighborhood of a stable equilibrium for the post-breakdown system; this is a complicated non-linear problem.In the paper, we propose a method for determination of the non-stable equilibria on a multidimensional sphere. The method is based on a search of a minimum of the Lyapunov function on a multidimensional sphere the center of which is a stable equilibrium. Our method allows, comparing with the other, e.g., gradient methods, reliable finding a non-stable equilibrium and calculating the critical value. The reliability of our method is proved by numerical experiments. The developed methods and a program realized in a MATLAB package can be recommended for design of a post-breakdown control system of synchronous generators or as a

  11. I-F starting method with smooth transition to EMF based motion-sensorless vector control of PM synchronous motor/generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Teodorescu, Remus; Fatu, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel hybrid motion- sensorless control system for permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) using a new robust start-up method called I-f control, and a smooth transition to emf-based vector control. The I-f method is based on separate control of id, iq currents with the r......This paper proposes a novel hybrid motion- sensorless control system for permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) using a new robust start-up method called I-f control, and a smooth transition to emf-based vector control. The I-f method is based on separate control of id, iq currents......-adaptive compensator to eliminate dc-offset and phase-delay. Digital simulations for PMSM start-up with full load torque are presented for different initial rotor-positions. The transitions from I-f to emf motion-sensorless vector control and back as well, at very low-speeds, are fully validated by experimental...

  12. Comparison of steam generator methods in PISC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahdenperae, K.; Kankare, M.

    1996-01-01

    The main objective of the study (PISC III, action 5) was the experimental evaluation of the performance of methods used in in-service inspection of steam generator tubes used in nuclear power plants. The study was organized by the Joint Research Center of the European Community (JRC). The round robin test with blind boxes started in 1991. During the study training boxes and blind boxes were circulated in 29 laboratories in Europe, Japan and the USA. The boxes contained steam generator tubes with artificial and natural (chemically induced) flaws. The material was inconell. The blind boxes contained 66 tubes and 95 flaws. All flaws were introduced into different discontinuities, under support plates, above the tube sheet and into U-bends. The flaws included volumetric flaws (wastage, pitting, wear), axial and circumferential notches and chemically induced SCC cracks and IGA. After the round robin test the reference laboratory performed the destructive examination of reported flaws. The flaw detection probability (FDP) for all flaws and for teams inspecting all tubes was 60-85%. The detection of flaws deeper than 40% of the wall thickness was good. Flaws with a depth of less than 20% were not detected. When all flaws were considered, depth sizing was found to have a wide dispersion. Similarly, measured lengths did not as a rule correlate with true lengths. The classification of flaws in cracks and of volumetric flaws was not very successful, the correct classification probability being only about 70%. Evaluation of the flaws showed some shortcomings. The correct rejection probability was at best 83% for teams inspecting all boxes. (3 refs.)

  13. The Reliability of Randomly Generated Math Curriculum-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Gerald G.; Smith, Bradley H.; Pender, Carolyn; Malone, Patrick S.; Roberts, Jarod; Hall, John D.

    2015-01-01

    "Curriculum-Based Measurement" (CBM) is a direct method of academic assessment used to screen and evaluate students' skills and monitor their responses to academic instruction and intervention. Interventioncentral.org offers a math worksheet generator at no cost that creates randomly generated "math curriculum-based measures"…

  14. Method and apparatus for generating neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranberg, L.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus and method for generating high-energy neutrons are disclosed. Neutron emissive target material is deposited on one or more surfaces on a rotatable, hollow, toroidal target support. The surfaces are bombarded by beams of ions of generally rectangular cross section, so that when the bombarded surfaces are viewed end-wise, a compact, generally square source of neutrons is provided, such as is required for collimation. A combination of molecular and atomic ions emitted from at least one conventional accelerator are passed through a magnetic field for the purpose of separating the ions into one homogeneous group of atomic and one homogeneous group of molecular ions before the ions are allowed to impinge on the target surfaces. One accelerator directs ions to each target surface as the target rotates. Coolant is directed through a cavity within the toroidal support for the purpose of cooling the target support and target material. A refrigerated surface is placed in close proximity to the target surface to condense vapors which might prove harmful to the target and for thermally cooling said target

  15. Aggregated wind power generation probabilistic forecasting based on particle filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Pai; Guan, Xiaohong; Wu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method for probabilistic forecasting of aggregated wind power generation. • A dynamic system is established based on a numerical weather prediction model. • The new method handles the non-Gaussian and time-varying wind power uncertainties. • Particle filter is applied to forecast predictive densities of wind generation. - Abstract: Probability distribution of aggregated wind power generation in a region is one of important issues for power system daily operation. This paper presents a novel method to forecast the predictive densities of the aggregated wind power generation from several geographically distributed wind farms, considering the non-Gaussian and non-stationary characteristics in wind power uncertainties. Based on a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model, a dynamic system is established to formulate the relationship between the atmospheric and near-surface wind fields of geographically distributed wind farms. A recursively backtracking framework based on the particle filter is applied to estimate the atmospheric state with the near-surface wind power generation measurements, and to forecast the possible samples of the aggregated wind power generation. The predictive densities of the aggregated wind power generation are then estimated based on these predicted samples by a kernel density estimator. In case studies, the new method presented is tested on a 9 wind farms system in Midwestern United States. The testing results that the new method can provide competitive interval forecasts for the aggregated wind power generation with conventional statistical based models, which validates the effectiveness of the new method

  16. Second Order Generalized Integrator Based Reference Current Generation Method for Single-Phase Shunt Active Power Filters Under Adverse Grid Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Monfared, Mohammad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    The reference current generation (RCG) is a crucial part in the control of a shunt active power filter (APF). A variety of RCG techniques have been proposed in literature. Among these, the instantaneous reactive power theory, called pq theory, is probably the most widely used technique. The pq...... theory offers advantages such as satisfactory steady-state and dynamic performance, and at the same time simple digital implementation, however its application was limited to three-phase systems. To exploit the advantages of pq theory in single-phase systems, the single-phase pq theory has been proposed...... recently. In this paper, a simple and effective implementation of the single phase pq theory for single-phase shunt APFs is proposed. The suggested approach is based on employing second order generalized integrators (SOGI), and a phase locked loop (PLL). To fine tune the control parameters, a systematic...

  17. Measurement of micro Bubbles generated by a pressurized dissolution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, S; Tanaka, K; Tomiyama, A [Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Maeda, Y; Yamaguchi, S; Ito, Y, E-mail: hosokawa@mech.kobe-u.ac.j [Panasonic Electric Works Co., Ltd., 1048 Kadoma, Osaka 571-8686 (Japan)

    2009-02-01

    Diameters of micro-bubbles are apt to range from about one mm to several-hundred mm, and therefore, it is difficult to measure a correct diameter distribution using a single measurement method. In this study, diameters of bubbles generated by a pressurized dissolution method are measured by using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) and an image processing method, which is based on the Sobel filter and Hough transform. The diameter distribution and the Sauter mean diameter of micro bubbles are evaluated based on the diameters measured by both methods. Experiments are conducted for several mass flow rates of dissolved gas and of air bubbles entrained in the upstream of the decompression nozzle to examine effects of the entrained bubbles on bubble diameter. As a result, the following conclusions are obtained: (1) Diameter distribution of micro bubbles can be accurately measured for a wide range of diameter by using PDA and the image processing method. (2) The mean diameter of micro-bubbles generated by gasification of dissolved gas is smaller than that generated by breakup of air bubbles entrained in the upstream of the decompression nozzle. (3) The mean bubble diameter increases with the entrainment of air bubbles in the upstream of the decompression nozzle at a constant mass flow rate of dissolved gas.

  18. Measurement of micro Bubbles generated by a pressurized dissolution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, S; Tanaka, K; Tomiyama, A; Maeda, Y; Yamaguchi, S; Ito, Y

    2009-01-01

    Diameters of micro-bubbles are apt to range from about one mm to several-hundred mm, and therefore, it is difficult to measure a correct diameter distribution using a single measurement method. In this study, diameters of bubbles generated by a pressurized dissolution method are measured by using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) and an image processing method, which is based on the Sobel filter and Hough transform. The diameter distribution and the Sauter mean diameter of micro bubbles are evaluated based on the diameters measured by both methods. Experiments are conducted for several mass flow rates of dissolved gas and of air bubbles entrained in the upstream of the decompression nozzle to examine effects of the entrained bubbles on bubble diameter. As a result, the following conclusions are obtained: (1) Diameter distribution of micro bubbles can be accurately measured for a wide range of diameter by using PDA and the image processing method. (2) The mean diameter of micro-bubbles generated by gasification of dissolved gas is smaller than that generated by breakup of air bubbles entrained in the upstream of the decompression nozzle. (3) The mean bubble diameter increases with the entrainment of air bubbles in the upstream of the decompression nozzle at a constant mass flow rate of dissolved gas.

  19. Method to detect steam generator tube leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Kiyomi

    1994-01-01

    It is important for plant operation to detect minor leakages from the steam generator tube at an early stage, thus, leakage detection has been performed using a condenser air ejector gas monitor and a steam generator blow down monitor, etc. In this study highly-sensitive main steam line monitors have been developed in order to identify leakages in the steam generator more quickly and accurately. The performance of the monitors was verified and the demonstration test at the actual plant was conducted for their intended application to the plants. (author)

  20. Loss Minimizing Operation of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Based Wind Generation Systems Considering Reactive Power Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baohua, Zhang; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with control techniques for minimizing the operating loss of doubly fed induction generator based wind generation systems when providing reactive power. The proposed method achieves its goal through controlling the rotor side q-axis current in the synchronous reference frame...

  1. Estimating evaporative vapor generation from automobiles based on parking activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Xinyi; Tschantz, Michael; Fu, Joshua S.

    2015-01-01

    A new approach is proposed to quantify the evaporative vapor generation based on real parking activity data. As compared to the existing methods, two improvements are applied in this new approach to reduce the uncertainties: First, evaporative vapor generation from diurnal parking events is usually calculated based on estimated average parking duration for the whole fleet, while in this study, vapor generation rate is calculated based on parking activities distribution. Second, rather than using the daily temperature gradient, this study uses hourly temperature observations to derive the hourly incremental vapor generation rates. The parking distribution and hourly incremental vapor generation rates are then adopted with Wade–Reddy's equation to estimate the weighted average evaporative generation. We find that hourly incremental rates can better describe the temporal variations of vapor generation, and the weighted vapor generation rate is 5–8% less than calculation without considering parking activity. - Highlights: • We applied real parking distribution data to estimate evaporative vapor generation. • We applied real hourly temperature data to estimate hourly incremental vapor generation rate. • Evaporative emission for Florence is estimated based on parking distribution and hourly rate. - A new approach is proposed to quantify the weighted evaporative vapor generation based on parking distribution with an hourly incremental vapor generation rate

  2. Simple method to generate and fabricate stochastic porous scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Nan, E-mail: y79nzw@163.com; Gao, Lilan; Zhou, Kuntao

    2015-11-01

    Considerable effort has been made to generate regular porous structures (RPSs) using function-based methods, although little effort has been made for constructing stochastic porous structures (SPSs) using the same methods. In this short communication, we propose a straightforward method for SPS construction that is simple in terms of methodology and the operations used. Using our method, we can obtain a SPS with functionally graded, heterogeneous and interconnected pores, target pore size and porosity distributions, which are useful for applications in tissue engineering. The resulting SPS models can be directly fabricated using additive manufacturing (AM) techniques. - Highlights: • Random porous structures are constructed based on their regular counterparts. • Functionally graded random pores can be constructed easily. • The scaffolds can be directly fabricated using additive manufacturing techniques.

  3. Empirical Methods in Natural Language Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krahmer, Emiel; Theune, Mariet

    Natural language generation (NLG) is a subfield of natural language processing (NLP) that is often characterized as the study of automatically converting non-linguistic representations (e.g., from databases or other knowledge sources) into coherent natural language text. In recent years the field

  4. Method for servicing a steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.W. Jr.; Castner, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The servicing of a steam generator is made easier by mapping the tubesheet with a remotely controlled probe to locate precisely each hole in the sheet. The locations are stored and used to maneuver various tools into position to perform operations on each tube hole

  5. Anomaly transform methods based on total energy and ocean heat content norms for generating ocean dynamic disturbances for ensemble climate forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Vanya; Hense, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    In our study we use the anomaly transform, a special case of ensemble transform method, in which a selected set of initial oceanic anomalies in space, time and variables are defined and orthogonalized. The resulting orthogonal perturbation patterns are designed such that they pick up typical balanced anomaly structures in space and time and between variables. The metric used to set up the eigen problem is taken either as the weighted total energy with its zonal, meridional kinetic and available potential energy terms having equal contributions, or the weighted ocean heat content in which a disturbance is applied only to the initial temperature fields. The choices of a reference state for defining the initial anomalies are such that either perturbations on seasonal timescales and or on interannual timescales are constructed. These project a-priori only the slow modes of the ocean physical processes, such that the disturbances grow mainly in the Western Boundary Currents, in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the El Nino Southern Oscillation regions. An additional set of initial conditions is designed to fit in a least square sense data from global ocean reanalysis. Applying the AT produced sets of disturbances to oceanic initial conditions initialized by observations of the MPIOM-ESM coupled model on T63L47/GR15 resolution, four ensemble and one hind-cast experiments were performed. The weighted total energy norm is used to monitor the amplitudes and rates of the fastest growing error modes. The results showed minor dependence of the instabilities or error growth on the selected metric but considerable change due to the magnitude of the scaling amplitudes of the perturbation patterns. In contrast to similar atmospheric applications, we find an energy conversion from kinetic to available potential energy, which suggests a different source of uncertainty generation in the ocean than in the atmosphere mainly associated with changes in the density field.

  6. A MITE-based genotyping method to reveal hundreds of DNA polymorphisms in an animal genome after a few generations of artificial selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetreau Guillaume

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For most organisms, developing hundreds of genetic markers spanning the whole genome still requires excessive if not unrealistic efforts. In this context, there is an obvious need for methodologies allowing the low-cost, fast and high-throughput genotyping of virtually any species, such as the Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT. One of the crucial steps of the DArT technique is the genome complexity reduction, which allows obtaining a genomic representation characteristic of the studied DNA sample and necessary for subsequent genotyping. In this article, using the mosquito Aedes aegypti as a study model, we describe a new genome complexity reduction method taking advantage of the abundance of miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs in the genome of this species. Results Ae. aegypti genomic representations were produced following a two-step procedure: (1 restriction digestion of the genomic DNA and simultaneous ligation of a specific adaptor to compatible ends, and (2 amplification of restriction fragments containing a particular MITE element called Pony using two primers, one annealing to the adaptor sequence and one annealing to a conserved sequence motif of the Pony element. Using this protocol, we constructed a library comprising more than 6,000 DArT clones, of which at least 5.70% were highly reliable polymorphic markers for two closely related mosquito strains separated by only a few generations of artificial selection. Within this dataset, linkage disequilibrium was low, and marker redundancy was evaluated at 2.86% only. Most of the detected genetic variability was observed between the two studied mosquito strains, but individuals of the same strain could still be clearly distinguished. Conclusion The new complexity reduction method was particularly efficient to reveal genetic polymorphisms in Ae. egypti. Overall, our results testify of the flexibility of the DArT genotyping technique and open new

  7. Monitoring method for steam generator operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaoki, Tetsuo

    1991-01-01

    In an LMFBR plant having an once-through steam generator, reduction of life of a heat transfer pipe caused by heat cycle fatigue is monitored by early finding for the occurrence of abnormality in the inside of the steam generator and by continuous monitoring for the position of departure from nucleate boiling (DNB), which are difficult with existent static characteristic analysis codes. That is, RMS values of fluctuations in temperature signals sent from thermocouples for measuring the fluid temperature in the vicinity of heat transfer pipe disposed along a primary channel of the once-through type steam generator. The abnormality in heat transfer performance is monitored by the distribution change of the RMS values. Subsequently, DNB point on the side of water and steam is determined by the distribution of the RMS value. Then, accumulated values of the product between the time in which the starting point stays in the DNB region and a life consumption amount per unit time given in accordance with the operation condition are monitored. Accordingly, thermal fatigue failure of the heat transfer pipe due to temperature fluctuation in the DNB region is monitored. (I.S.)

  8. Distribution network planning method considering distributed generation for peak cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Wu; Cheng Haozhong; Zhang Xiubin; Yao Liangzhong

    2010-01-01

    Conventional distribution planning method based on peak load brings about large investment, high risk and low utilization efficiency. A distribution network planning method considering distributed generation (DG) for peak cutting is proposed in this paper. The new integrated distribution network planning method with DG implementation aims to minimize the sum of feeder investments, DG investments, energy loss cost and the additional cost of DG for peak cutting. Using the solution techniques combining genetic algorithm (GA) with the heuristic approach, the proposed model determines the optimal planning scheme including the feeder network and the siting and sizing of DG. The strategy for the site and size of DG, which is based on the radial structure characteristics of distribution network, reduces the complexity degree of solving the optimization model and eases the computational burden substantially. Furthermore, the operation schedule of DG at the different load level is also provided.

  9. Efficient Pruning Method for Ensemble Self-Generating Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Inoue

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, multiple classifier systems (MCS have been used for practical applications to improve classification accuracy. Self-generating neural networks (SGNN are one of the suitable base-classifiers for MCS because of their simple setting and fast learning. However, the computation cost of the MCS increases in proportion to the number of SGNN. In this paper, we propose an efficient pruning method for the structure of the SGNN in the MCS. We compare the pruned MCS with two sampling methods. Experiments have been conducted to compare the pruned MCS with an unpruned MCS, the MCS based on C4.5, and k-nearest neighbor method. The results show that the pruned MCS can improve its classification accuracy as well as reducing the computation cost.

  10. Optimal Output of Distributed Generation Based On Complex Power Increment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Bao, H.

    2017-12-01

    In order to meet the growing demand for electricity and improve the cleanliness of power generation, new energy generation, represented by wind power generation, photovoltaic power generation, etc has been widely used. The new energy power generation access to distribution network in the form of distributed generation, consumed by local load. However, with the increase of the scale of distribution generation access to the network, the optimization of its power output is becoming more and more prominent, which needs further study. Classical optimization methods often use extended sensitivity method to obtain the relationship between different power generators, but ignore the coupling parameter between nodes makes the results are not accurate; heuristic algorithm also has defects such as slow calculation speed, uncertain outcomes. This article proposes a method called complex power increment, the essence of this method is the analysis of the power grid under steady power flow. After analyzing the results we can obtain the complex scaling function equation between the power supplies, the coefficient of the equation is based on the impedance parameter of the network, so the description of the relation of variables to the coefficients is more precise Thus, the method can accurately describe the power increment relationship, and can obtain the power optimization scheme more accurately and quickly than the extended sensitivity method and heuristic method.

  11. Delay generation methods with reduced memory requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2003-01-01

    Modern diagnostic ultrasound beamformers require delay information for each sample along the image lines. In order to avoid storing large amounts of focusing data, delay generation techniques have to be used. In connection with developing a compact beamformer architecture, recursive algorithms were......) For the best parametric approach, the gate count was 2095, the maximum operation speed was 131.9 MHz, the power consumption at 40 MHz was 10.6 mW, and it requires 4 12-bit words for each image line and channel. 2) For the piecewise-linear approximation, the corresponding numbers are 1125 gates, 184.9 MHz, 7...

  12. Method and apparatus for generating acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, G.V.; Gopal, R.

    1982-01-01

    A portable source of acoustic waves comprises a sample of iron-nickel alloy including an austenite phase cooled to become martensite, and a wave guide to transmit the acoustic waves. The source is applied to the pressure boundary region of a pressurized water reactor to simulate an actual metal flaw and test the calibration of the monitoring and surveillance system. With at most 29.7% nickel in the sample, the source provides acoustic emission due to ductile deformation, and with at least 30% nickel the acoustic emission is characteristic of a brittle deformation. Thus, the monitoring and surveillance system can be tested in either or both situations. In the prior art, synthetic waveform signals were used for such calibration but found not suitable for on-line simulation of the surveillance system. This invention provides an improved system in that it generates true acoustic signals. (author)

  13. A simple method for generating exactly solvable quantum mechanical potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, B W

    1993-01-01

    A simple transformation method permitting the generation of exactly solvable quantum mechanical potentials from special functions solving second-order differential equations is reviewed. This method is applied to Gegenbauer polynomials to generate an attractive radial potential. The relationship of this method to the determination of supersymmetric quantum mechanical superpotentials is discussed, and the superpotential for the radial potential is also derived. (author)

  14. Electrical motor/generator drive apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui Jia

    2013-02-12

    The present disclosure includes electrical motor/generator drive systems and methods that significantly reduce inverter direct-current (DC) bus ripple currents and thus the volume and cost of a capacitor. The drive methodology is based on a segmented drive system that does not add switches or passive components but involves reconfiguring inverter switches and motor stator winding connections in a way that allows the formation of multiple, independent drive units and the use of simple alternated switching and optimized Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) schemes to eliminate or significantly reduce the capacitor ripple current.

  15. Ortho Image and DTM Generation with Intelligent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, H.; Sadeghian, S.

    2013-10-01

    Nowadays the artificial intelligent algorithms has considered in GIS and remote sensing. Genetic algorithm and artificial neural network are two intelligent methods that are used for optimizing of image processing programs such as edge extraction and etc. these algorithms are very useful for solving of complex program. In this paper, the ability and application of genetic algorithm and artificial neural network in geospatial production process like geometric modelling of satellite images for ortho photo generation and height interpolation in raster Digital Terrain Model production process is discussed. In first, the geometric potential of Ikonos-2 and Worldview-2 with rational functions, 2D & 3D polynomials were tested. Also comprehensive experiments have been carried out to evaluate the viability of the genetic algorithm for optimization of rational function, 2D & 3D polynomials. Considering the quality of Ground Control Points, the accuracy (RMSE) with genetic algorithm and 3D polynomials method for Ikonos-2 Geo image was 0.508 pixel sizes and the accuracy (RMSE) with GA algorithm and rational function method for Worldview-2 image was 0.930 pixel sizes. For more another optimization artificial intelligent methods, neural networks were used. With the use of perceptron network in Worldview-2 image, a result of 0.84 pixel sizes with 4 neurons in middle layer was gained. The final conclusion was that with artificial intelligent algorithms it is possible to optimize the existing models and have better results than usual ones. Finally the artificial intelligence methods, like genetic algorithms as well as neural networks, were examined on sample data for optimizing interpolation and for generating Digital Terrain Models. The results then were compared with existing conventional methods and it appeared that these methods have a high capacity in heights interpolation and that using these networks for interpolating and optimizing the weighting methods based on inverse

  16. Assess and Predict Automatic Generation Control Performances for Thermal Power Generation Units Based on Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Yang, Zijiang; Gao, Song; Liu, Jinbiao

    2018-02-01

    Automatic generation control(AGC) is a key technology to maintain real time power generation and load balance, and to ensure the quality of power supply. Power grids require each power generation unit to have a satisfactory AGC performance, being specified in two detailed rules. The two rules provide a set of indices to measure the AGC performance of power generation unit. However, the commonly-used method to calculate these indices is based on particular data samples from AGC responses and will lead to incorrect results in practice. This paper proposes a new method to estimate the AGC performance indices via system identification techniques. In addition, a nonlinear regression model between performance indices and load command is built in order to predict the AGC performance indices. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated through industrial case studies.

  17. Fossil fuel combined cycle power generation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labinov, Solomon D [Knoxville, TN; Armstrong, Timothy R [Clinton, TN; Judkins, Roddie R [Knoxville, TN

    2008-10-21

    A method for converting fuel energy to electricity includes the steps of converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one mixed gas stream of lower average molecular weight including at least a first lower molecular weight gas and a second gas, the first and second gases being different gases, wherein the first lower molecular weight gas comprises H.sub.2 and the second gas comprises CO. The mixed gas is supplied to at least one turbine to produce electricity. The mixed gas stream is divided after the turbine into a first gas stream mainly comprising H.sub.2 and a second gas stream mainly comprising CO. The first and second gas streams are then electrochemically oxidized in separate fuel cells to produce electricity. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

  18. Generation method of educational materials using qualitative reasoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Seiichi; Yamada, Shigeo; Fujisawa, Noriyoshi.

    1992-01-01

    Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has developed a nuclear power plant educational system in which educational materials for several events are included. The system effectively teaches operators by tailoring the event explanations to their knowledge levels of understanding. The preparation of the educational materials, however, is laborious and this becomes one of the problems in the practical use of the system. Discussed in the present paper is a basic explanation generation method using qualitative reasoning. This has been developed to solve the problem. Qualitative equations describing a recirculation pumps trip were transformed into production rules. These were stored in the knowledge base of an event explanation generation system together with explanation sentences. When an operator selects a certain variable's time-interval in which he wants to know the reasons for a variable change, the inference engine searches for the rule which satisfies both the qualitative value and qualitative differential value concerned with this time-interval. Then the event explanation generation section provides explanations by combining the explanation sentences attached to the rules. This paper demonstrates that it is possible to apply qualitative reasoning to such complex reactor systems, and also that explanations can be generated using the simulation results from a transient analysis code. (author)

  19. An efficient parallel pseudorandom bit generator based

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, an asymmetric coupled map lattice (CML) combining sawtooth map as a local map is presented and its chaotic behaviours are analysed. Based on this asymmetric CML, a pseudorandom bit generator (PRBG) is proposed. The specific parameters of the system that make complicated floating-point computation ...

  20. Thermoelectric generator and method of forming same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.T.

    1981-01-01

    A thermoelectric device is disclosed which comprises the formation of a multiplicity of thermocouples on a substrate in a narrow strip form, the thermocouples being formed by printing with first and second inks formed of suitable different powdered metals with a proper binder or flux. The thermocouples are formed in series and the opposed coupled areas are melted to form an intermingling of the two metals and the strips may be formed in substantial lengths and rolled onto a reel, or in relatively short strip form and disposed in a side-by-side abutting relationship in substantial numbers to define a generally rectangular panel form with opposed ends in electrical connection. The method of forming the panels includes the steps of feeding a suitable substrate, either in a continuous roll or sheet form, through first and second printers to form the series connected multiplicity of thermocouples thereon. From the printers the sheet or strip passes through a melter such as an induction furnace and from the furnace it passes through a sheeter, if the strip is in roll form. The sheets are then slit into narrow strips relative to the thermocouples, printed thereon and the strips are then formed into a bundle. A predetermined number of bundles are assembled into a panel form

  1. Chaos-based Pseudo-random Number Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Barakat, Mohamed L.

    2014-04-10

    Various methods and systems related to chaos-based pseudo-random number generation are presented. In one example, among others, a system includes a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate a series of digital outputs and a nonlinear post processing circuit to perform an exclusive OR (XOR) operation on a first portion of a current digital output of the PRNG and a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output. In another example, a method includes receiving at least a first portion of a current output from a PRNG and performing an XOR operation on the first portion of the current PRNG output with a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output.

  2. Chaos-based Pseudo-random Number Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Barakat, Mohamed L.; Mansingka, Abhinav S.; Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa Ahmed; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    Various methods and systems related to chaos-based pseudo-random number generation are presented. In one example, among others, a system includes a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate a series of digital outputs and a nonlinear post processing circuit to perform an exclusive OR (XOR) operation on a first portion of a current digital output of the PRNG and a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output. In another example, a method includes receiving at least a first portion of a current output from a PRNG and performing an XOR operation on the first portion of the current PRNG output with a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output.

  3. Attribute-Based Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; Wiktor L. Adamowicz

    2003-01-01

    Stated preference methods of environmental valuation have been used by economists for decades where behavioral data have limitations. The contingent valuation method (Chapter 5) is the oldest stated preference approach, and hundreds of contingent valuation studies have been conducted. More recently, and especially over the last decade, a class of stated preference...

  4. Design of the Chaotic Signal Generator Based on LABVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Guo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduces a new method that can achieve the generation of Colpitts chaotic signal The system is based on virtual instrument platform and combined with MATLAB calculation to achieve the generation of Colpitts chaotic signal and making it analysis with autocorrelation and power spectrum at the same time. Signal channel output of chaotic signal was realized through USB-6009 acquisition module extending DA5405 high-speed DAC (Digital-to-Analog Converter chip. The system can adjust parameters based on customers’ requirements to achieve different frequency chaotic signal generation. Compared with the traditional autonomy Colpitts chaotic signal generator, this generator is simple and clear in structure, simple to operate, strong stability, easy to achieve etc.

  5. Synchronous Generator Model Parameter Estimation Based on Noisy Dynamic Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhausen, Sebastian; Paszek, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there have occurred system failures in many power systems all over the world. They have resulted in a lack of power supply to a large number of recipients. To minimize the risk of occurrence of power failures, it is necessary to perform multivariate investigations, including simulations, of power system operating conditions. To conduct reliable simulations, the current base of parameters of the models of generating units, containing the models of synchronous generators, is necessary. In the paper, there is presented a method for parameter estimation of a synchronous generator nonlinear model based on the analysis of selected transient waveforms caused by introducing a disturbance (in the form of a pseudorandom signal) in the generator voltage regulation channel. The parameter estimation was performed by minimizing the objective function defined as a mean square error for deviations between the measurement waveforms and the waveforms calculated based on the generator mathematical model. A hybrid algorithm was used for the minimization of the objective function. In the paper, there is described a filter system used for filtering the noisy measurement waveforms. The calculation results of the model of a 44 kW synchronous generator installed on a laboratory stand of the Institute of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science of the Silesian University of Technology are also given. The presented estimation method can be successfully applied to parameter estimation of different models of high-power synchronous generators operating in a power system.

  6. Enhancing SAT-Based Test Pattern Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; XIONG You-lun

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents modeling tools based on Boolean satisfiability (SAT) to solve problems of test generation for combinational circuits. It exploits an added layer to maintain circuit-related information and value justification relations to a generic SAT algorithm. It dovetails binary decision graphs (BDD) and SAT techniques to improve the efficiency of automatic test pattern generation (ATPG). More specifically, it first exploits inexpensive reconvergent fanout analysis of circuit to gather information on the local signal correlation by using BDD learning, then uses the above learned information to restrict and focus the overall search space of SAT-based ATPG. Its learning technique is effective and lightweight. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  7. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation. [Includes external environmental and societal costs and methods of evaluating them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

  8. Comparison of three human papillomavirus DNA detection methods: Next generation sequencing, multiplex-PCR and nested-PCR followed by Sanger based sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Allex Jardim; Galvão, Renata Silva; Miranda, Angelica Espinosa; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Chen, Zigui

    2016-05-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance for HPV infection using three laboratorial techniques. Ninty-five cervicovaginal samples were randomly selected; each was tested for HPV DNA and genotypes using 3 methods in parallel: Multiplex-PCR, the Nested PCR followed by Sanger sequencing, and the Next_Gen Sequencing (NGS) with two assays (NGS-A1, NGS-A2). The study was approved by the Brazilian National IRB (CONEP protocol 16,800). The prevalence of HPV by the NGS assays was higher than that using the Multiplex-PCR (64.2% vs. 45.2%, respectively; P = 0.001) and the Nested-PCR (64.2% vs. 49.5%, respectively; P = 0.003). NGS also showed better performance in detecting high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) and HPV16. There was a weak interobservers agreement between the results of Multiplex-PCR and Nested-PCR in relation to NGS for the diagnosis of HPV infection, and a moderate correlation for HR-HPV detection. Both NGS assays showed a strong correlation for detection of HPVs (k = 0.86), HR-HPVs (k = 0.91), HPV16 (k = 0.92) and HPV18 (k = 0.91). NGS is more sensitive than the traditional Sanger sequencing and the Multiplex PCR to genotype HPVs, with promising ability to detect multiple infections, and may have the potential to establish an alternative method for the diagnosis and genotyping of HPV. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Waypoint Generation Based on Sensor Aimpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    United States Government . AFIT/GAE/ENV/09-M01 WAYPOINT GENERATION BASED ON SENSOR AIMPOINT THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Aeronautical...BATCAM. Aviones physics parameters for the Procerus testbed, the Unicorn UAV, were provided by Procerus, which allowed another simulated MAV to 48 be...flown in the HIL tests. The AFIT Advanced Navigation Technologies (ANT) Center did not own a Unicorn UAV, so it could not be flown in flight tests

  10. Sizing an isolated wind-solar-fuel cell generation system based on the particle swarm optimization method; Dimensionamiento de un sistema de generacion aislado eolico-solar-celda de combustible basado en el metodo de optimizacion de enjambre de particulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Huerta, V; Ramirez-Arredondo, Juan M. [Universidad de Quintana Roo, Chetumal, Quintana Roo (Mexico)]. E-mail: vsanchez@gdl.cinvestav.mx; Arriaga-Hurtado, L. G. [CIDETEQ, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    Sizing an electric energy system requires an analysis of investment, maintenance and operating costs. In the case of a generation system that uses renewable sources, optimal capacity becomes more complex compared to a conventional system, because of the randomness of renewable resources (wind, solar) and the still high costs of wind and photovoltage generator modules. This work presents the optimal sizing of a wind-solar-fuel cell generation system, minimizing the costs of the system while satisfying the energy demands of an isolated charge. The optimization method used is based on an evolutionary programming technique known as particle swarms (PSO-particle swarm optimization). The generation of energy with a hybrid system is discussed, based on the profile of insolation and wind availability at the site, with the objective of satisfying a specific electric demand. [Spanish] El dimensionamiento de un sistema de generacion de energia electrica requiere un analisis de los costos de inversion, mantenimiento y operacion. En el caso de un sistema de generacion que utiliza fuentes renovables la capacidad optima resulta mas compleja con respecto a un sistema convencional, debido a la aleatoriedad de los recursos renovables (eolico, solar), y a los aun altos costos de generadores eolicos y modulos fotovoltaicos. En este trabajo se presenta el dimensionamiento optimo de un sistema de generacion eolico-solar-celda de combustible minimizando los costos del sistema que satisfaga la energia demandada por una carga aislada. El metodo de optimizacion utilizado esta basado en una tecnica de programacion evolutiva conocida como enjambre de particulas (PSO por sus siglas en ingles: particle swarm optimization). Se plantea la generacion de energia del sistema hibrido con base a la insolacion y el perfil del viento disponible en sitio, con objeto de satisfacer una demanda electrica determinada.

  11. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs., E-mail: tazsolt@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Cormos, C. C., E-mail: cormos@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Agachi, P. S. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, Postal code: 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  12. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO 2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint

  13. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  14. Identification of novel inhibitors for Pim-1 kinase using pharmacophore modeling based on a novel method for selecting pharmacophore generation subsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, Rand; Swellmeen, Lubna; Shaheen, Omar; Aboalhaija, Nour; Habash, Maha

    2016-01-01

    Targeting Proviral integration-site of murine Moloney leukemia virus 1 kinase, hereafter called Pim-1 kinase, is a promising strategy for treating different kinds of human cancer. Headed for this a total list of 328 formerly reported Pim-1 kinase inhibitors has been explored and divided based on the pharmacophoric features of the most active molecules into 10 subsets projected to represent potential active binding manners accessible to ligands within the binding pocket of Pim-1 kinase. Discovery Studio 4.1 (DS 4.1) was employed to detect potential pharmacophoric active binding manners anticipated by Pim-1 Kinase inhibitors. The pharmacophoric models were then allowed to compete within Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) framework with other 2D descriptors. Accordingly Genetic algorithm and multiple linear regression investigation were engaged to find the finest QSAR equation that has the best predictive power r 262 2 = 0.70, F = 119.14, r LOO 2 = 0.693, r PRESS 2 against 66 external test inhibitors = 0.71 q2 = 0.55. Three different pharmacophores appeared in the successful QSAR equation this represents three different binding modes for inhibitors within the Pim-1 kinase binding pocket. Pharmacophoric models were later used to screen compounds within the National Cancer Institute database. Several low micromolar Pim-1 Kinase inhibitors were captured. The most potent hits show IC50 values of 0.77 and 1.03 µM. Also, upon analyzing the successful QSAR Equation we found that some polycyclic aromatic electron-rich structures namely 6-Chloro-2-methoxy-acridine can be considered as putative hits for Pim-1 kinase inhibition.

  15. Balanced Civilization Map Generation based on Open Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barros, Gabriella; Togelius, Julian

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates how to incorporate real-world data into game content so that the content is playable and enjoyable while not misrepresenting the data. We propose a method for generating balanced Civilization maps based on Open Data, describing how to acquire, transform and integrate...

  16. Comparison of DNA Quantification Methods for Next Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Jérôme D; Ludlow, Andrew T; LaRanger, Ryan; Wright, Woodring E; Shay, Jerry W

    2016-04-06

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is a powerful tool that depends on loading a precise amount of DNA onto a flowcell. NGS strategies have expanded our ability to investigate genomic phenomena by referencing mutations in cancer and diseases through large-scale genotyping, developing methods to map rare chromatin interactions (4C; 5C and Hi-C) and identifying chromatin features associated with regulatory elements (ChIP-seq, Bis-Seq, ChiA-PET). While many methods are available for DNA library quantification, there is no unambiguous gold standard. Most techniques use PCR to amplify DNA libraries to obtain sufficient quantities for optical density measurement. However, increased PCR cycles can distort the library's heterogeneity and prevent the detection of rare variants. In this analysis, we compared new digital PCR technologies (droplet digital PCR; ddPCR, ddPCR-Tail) with standard methods for the titration of NGS libraries. DdPCR-Tail is comparable to qPCR and fluorometry (QuBit) and allows sensitive quantification by analysis of barcode repartition after sequencing of multiplexed samples. This study provides a direct comparison between quantification methods throughout a complete sequencing experiment and provides the impetus to use ddPCR-based quantification for improvement of NGS quality.

  17. Extensions of von Neumann's method for generating random variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monahan, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Von Neumann's method of generating random variables with the exponential distribution and Forsythe's method for obtaining distributions with densities of the form e/sup -G//sup( x/) are generalized to apply to certain power series representations. The flexibility of the power series methods is illustrated by algorithms for the Cauchy and geometric distributions

  18. The guitar chord-generating algorithm based on complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tao; Wang, Yi-fan; Du, Dan; Liu, Miao-miao; Siddiqi, Awais

    2016-02-01

    This paper aims to generate chords for popular songs automatically based on complex network. Firstly, according to the characteristics of guitar tablature, six chord networks of popular songs by six pop singers are constructed and the properties of all networks are concluded. By analyzing the diverse chord networks, the accompaniment regulations and features are shown, with which the chords can be generated automatically. Secondly, in terms of the characteristics of popular songs, a two-tiered network containing a verse network and a chorus network is constructed. With this network, the verse and chorus can be composed respectively with the random walk algorithm. Thirdly, the musical motif is considered for generating chords, with which the bad chord progressions can be revised. This method can make the accompaniments sound more melodious. Finally, a popular song is chosen for generating chords and the new generated accompaniment sounds better than those done by the composers.

  19. A Prediction-based Smart Meter Data Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Liu, Xiufeng; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2016-01-01

    With the prevalence of cloud computing and In-ternet of Things (IoT), smart meters have become one of the main components of smart city strategy. Smart meters generate large amounts of fine-grained data that is used to provide useful information to consumers and utility companies for decision......, mainly due to privacy issues. This paper proposes a smart meter data generator that can generate realistic energy consumption data by making use of a small real-world dataset as seed. The generator generates data using a prediction-based method that depends on historical energy consumption patterns along......-making. Now-a-days, smart meter analytics systems consist of analytical algorithms that process massive amounts of data. These analytics algorithms require ample amounts of realistic data for testing and verification purposes. However, it is usually difficult to obtain adequate amounts of realistic data...

  20. "Method, system and storage medium for generating virtual brick models"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    An exemplary embodiment is a method for generating a virtual brick model. The virtual brick models are generated by users and uploaded to a centralized host system. Users can build virtual models themselves or download and edit another user's virtual brick models while retaining the identity...

  1. Generating and testing methods for consumer-oriented product development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    In order to obtain a good insight into various design methods that can be used by product developers to enable them to develop and test useful domotics products (domotics: intelligent systems for the home), an inventory has been made of the methods used in the Netherlands. The inventory is directed at two categories of methods: (1) Methods of getting better acquainted with the user and/or the problem, and of generating novel solutions: generative methods; and (2) Methods of assessing solutions (through various phases of the designing process): testing methods. The first category of methods concentrates on the designing process. In other words: how can the designer realise as much as possible of the workability of (domotics) products during the designing process? The second category aims at testing a design (in whatever shape: drawing, prototype, functional computer animation, etc.) through its users. These are methods of assessing a design at various stages of the designing process [nl

  2. Trajectory Generation Method with Convolution Operation on Velocity Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Geon [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Doik [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    The use of robots is no longer limited to the field of industrial robots and is now expanding into the fields of service and medical robots. In this light, a trajectory generation method that can respond instantaneously to the external environment is strongly required. Toward this end, this study proposes a method that enables a robot to change its trajectory in real-time using a convolution operation. The proposed method generates a trajectory in real time and satisfies the physical limits of the robot system such as acceleration and velocity limit. Moreover, a new way to improve the previous method, which generates inefficient trajectories in some cases owing to the characteristics of the trapezoidal shape of trajectories, is proposed by introducing a triangle shape. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed method is shown through a numerical simulation and a comparison with the previous convolution method.

  3. Determination of feature generation methods for PTZ camera object tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Daniel D.; Black, Jonathan T.

    2012-06-01

    Object detection and tracking using computer vision (CV) techniques have been widely applied to sensor fusion applications. Many papers continue to be written that speed up performance and increase learning of artificially intelligent systems through improved algorithms, workload distribution, and information fusion. Military application of real-time tracking systems is becoming more and more complex with an ever increasing need of fusion and CV techniques to actively track and control dynamic systems. Examples include the use of metrology systems for tracking and measuring micro air vehicles (MAVs) and autonomous navigation systems for controlling MAVs. This paper seeks to contribute to the determination of select tracking algorithms that best track a moving object using a pan/tilt/zoom (PTZ) camera applicable to both of the examples presented. The select feature generation algorithms compared in this paper are the trained Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF), the Mixture of Gaussians (MoG) background subtraction method, the Lucas- Kanade optical flow method (2000) and the Farneback optical flow method (2003). The matching algorithm used in this paper for the trained feature generation algorithms is the Fast Library for Approximate Nearest Neighbors (FLANN). The BSD licensed OpenCV library is used extensively to demonstrate the viability of each algorithm and its performance. Initial testing is performed on a sequence of images using a stationary camera. Further testing is performed on a sequence of images such that the PTZ camera is moving in order to capture the moving object. Comparisons are made based upon accuracy, speed and memory.

  4. A method for generating subgroup parameters from resonance tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devan, K.; Mohanakrishnan, P.

    1993-01-01

    A method for generating subgroup or band parameters from resonance tables is described. A computer code SPART was written using this method. This code generates the subgroup parameters for any number of bands within the specified broad groups at different temperatures by reading the required input data from the binary cross section library in the Cadarache format. The results obtained with SPART code for two bands were compared with that obtained from GROUPIE code and a good agreement was obtained. Results of the generation of subgroup parameters in four bands for sample case of 239 Pu from resonance tables of Cadarache Ver.2 library is also presented. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Methods in Logic Based Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg

    1999-01-01

    Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC...

  6. Capacity expansion model of wind power generation based on ELCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Zong, Jin; Wu, Shengyu

    2018-02-01

    Capacity expansion is an indispensable prerequisite for power system planning and construction. A reasonable, efficient and accurate capacity expansion model (CEM) is crucial to power system planning. In most current CEMs, the capacity of wind power generation is considered as boundary conditions instead of decision variables, which may lead to curtailment or over construction of flexible resource, especially at a high renewable energy penetration scenario. This paper proposed a wind power generation capacity value(CV) calculation method based on effective load-carrying capability, and a CEM that co-optimizes wind power generation and conventional power sources. Wind power generation is considered as decision variable in this model, and the model can accurately reflect the uncertainty nature of wind power.

  7. Activity based costing (ABC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Saveta Tudorache

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the need and advantages are presented of using the Activity BasedCosting method, need arising from the need of solving the information pertinence issue. This issue has occurreddue to the limitation of classic methods in this field, limitation also reflected by the disadvantages ofsuch classic methods in establishing complete costs.

  8. Economics of coal-based electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemming, D F; Johnston, R; Teper, M

    1979-01-01

    The report deals with base-load electricity generation from coal and compares the economics of four alternative technologies: conventional pulverised-fuel (PF) boiler with steam cycle; atmospheric fluidised-bed (AFB) boiler with steam cycle; pressurised fluidised-bed (PFB) boiler with combined cycle; and integrated air-blown coal gasification with combined cycle systems are compared for both a high sulphur (3.5%) coal with environmental regulations requiring 85% sulphur removal, and for a low sulphur coal without sulphur removal. The results indicate that there is no single clear 'winner' among the advanced technologies. The optimum system depends on coal price, required rate-of-return, sulphur content of the coal, taxation regime etc. (34 refs.) (Available from IEA Coal Research, Economic Assessment Service)

  9. Problems of coal-based power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noskievic, P.

    1996-01-01

    Current problems of and future trends in coal-based power generation are discussed. The present situation is as follows: coal, oil and gas contribute to world fossil fuel resources 75%, 14%, and 11%, respectively, and if the current trend will continue, will be depleted in 240, 50, and 60 years, respectively; the maximum resource estimates (including resources that have not yet been discovered) are 50% higher for oil and 100% higher for gas, for coal such estimates have not been made. While the world prices of coal are expected to remain virtually constant, the prices of gas will probably increase to be twice as high in 2010. Thus, the role of coal may be higher in the next century than it is now, provided that due attention is paid to improving the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reducing their adverse environmental effects. A comparison of economic data for coal-fired and gas-fired power plants is as follows: Investment cost (USD/kW): 1400, 800; fixed running cost (USD/kW.y): 33.67, 9.0; variable running cost (USD/kWh): 0.30, 0.15; power use (kJ/kWh): 10.29, 7.91; annual availability (%): 70, 50; fuel price (USD/GJ): 1.00, 4.30; power price (USD/kWh): 4.28, 5.52. The investment cost for coal-fired plants covers new construction including flue gas purification. The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) seems to be the future of coal-based power generation. The future problems to be addressed include ways to reduce air pollution, improving the efficiency of the gas-steam cycle, and improving the combustion process particularly with a view to reducing substantially its environmental impact. (P.A.). 4 figs., 4 tabs., 9 refs

  10. Radon generator and the method of radium carrier fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerski, B.

    1992-01-01

    The radon generator construction and the method of radium carrier fabrication has been the subject of the patent. The generator is a cylindrical vessel with gas valves system and two filters inside. Between them the radium carrier has been located. As a carrier polyurethane foam has been used. The carrier is obtained in a generator vessel from polyester resin in the presence of activated mixture of engine oil, zinc-organic catalyst and toluene. To the obtained mixture the radium chloride in the solution of hydrochloric acid is added. The carrier foam is produced by mechanical stirring of substrates inside the vessel and drying in 50 C in a heater. 1 fig

  11. Realistic generation of natural phenomena based on video synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changbo; Quan, Hongyan; Li, Chenhui; Xiao, Zhao; Chen, Xiao; Li, Peng; Shen, Liuwei

    2009-10-01

    Research on the generation of natural phenomena has many applications in special effects of movie, battlefield simulation and virtual reality, etc. Based on video synthesis technique, a new approach is proposed for the synthesis of natural phenomena, including flowing water and fire flame. From the fire and flow video, the seamless video of arbitrary length is generated. Then, the interaction between wind and fire flame is achieved through the skeleton of flame. Later, the flow is also synthesized by extending the video textures using an edge resample method. Finally, we can integrate the synthesized natural phenomena into a virtual scene.

  12. Pulsed corona generation using a diode-based pulsed power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemen, A. J. M.; Grekhov, I. V.; van Heesch, E. J. M.; Yan, K.; Nair, S. A.; Korotkov, S. V.

    2003-10-01

    Pulsed plasma techniques serve a wide range of unconventional processes, such as gas and water processing, hydrogen production, and nanotechnology. Extending research on promising applications, such as pulsed corona processing, depends to a great extent on the availability of reliable, efficient and repetitive high-voltage pulsed power technology. Heavy-duty opening switches are the most critical components in high-voltage pulsed power systems with inductive energy storage. At the Ioffe Institute, an unconventional switching mechanism has been found, based on the fast recovery process in a diode. This article discusses the application of such a "drift-step-recovery-diode" for pulsed corona plasma generation. The principle of the diode-based nanosecond high-voltage generator will be discussed. The generator will be coupled to a corona reactor via a transmission-line transformer. The advantages of this concept, such as easy voltage transformation, load matching, switch protection and easy coupling with a dc bias voltage, will be discussed. The developed circuit is tested at both a resistive load and various corona reactors. Methods to optimize the energy transfer to a corona reactor have been evaluated. The impedance matching between the pulse generator and corona reactor can be significantly improved by using a dc bias voltage. At good matching, the corona energy increases and less energy reflects back to the generator. Matching can also be slightly improved by increasing the temperature in the corona reactor. More effective is to reduce the reactor pressure.

  13. The Researches on Cycle-Changeable Generation Settlement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    XU, Jun; LONG, Suyan; LV, Jianhu

    2018-03-01

    Through the analysis of the business characteristics and problems of price adjustment, a cycle-changeable generation settlement method is proposed to support any time cycle settlement, and put forward a complete set of solutions, including the creation of settlement tasks, time power dismantle, generating fixed cycle of electricity, net energy split. At the same time, the overall design flow of cycle-changeable settlement is given. This method supports multiple price adjustments during the month, and also is an effective solution to the cost reduction of month-after price adjustment.

  14. One New Method to Generate 3-Dimensional Virtual Mannequin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu-jin, Shi; Zhi-jun, Wang; Jia-jin, Le

    The personal virtual mannequin is very important in electronic made to measure (eMTM) system. There is one new easy method to generate personal virtual mannequin. First, the characteristic information of customer's body is got from two photos. Secondly, some human body part templates corresponding with the customer are selected from the templates library. Thirdly, these templates are modified and assembled according to certain rules to generate a personalized 3-dimensional human, and then the virtual mannequin is realized. Experimental result shows that the method is easy and feasible.

  15. A method of PSF generation for 3D brightfield deconvolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadrous, P J

    2010-02-01

    This paper addresses the problem of 3D deconvolution of through focus widefield microscope datasets (Z-stacks). One of the most difficult stages in brightfield deconvolution is finding the point spread function. A theoretically calculated point spread function (called a 'synthetic PSF' in this paper) requires foreknowledge of many system parameters and still gives only approximate results. A point spread function measured from a sub-resolution bead suffers from low signal-to-noise ratio, compounded in the brightfield setting (by contrast to fluorescence) by absorptive, refractive and dispersal effects. This paper describes a method of point spread function estimation based on measurements of a Z-stack through a thin sample. This Z-stack is deconvolved by an idealized point spread function derived from the same Z-stack to yield a point spread function of high signal-to-noise ratio that is also inherently tailored to the imaging system. The theory is validated by a practical experiment comparing the non-blind 3D deconvolution of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the point spread function generated using the method presented in this paper (called the 'extracted PSF') to a synthetic point spread function. Restoration of both high- and low-contrast brightfield structures is achieved with fewer artefacts using the extracted point spread function obtained with this method. Furthermore the deconvolution progresses further (more iterations are allowed before the error function reaches its nadir) with the extracted point spread function compared to the synthetic point spread function indicating that the extracted point spread function is a better fit to the brightfield deconvolution model than the synthetic point spread function.

  16. Using Drawings and Collages as Data Generation Methods With Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nokhanyo Nomakhwezi Mayaba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate data generation methods are key to a successful research project to attain rich and relevant data. When doing research with children, the methods selected should be age appropriate and enable them to contribute their ideas in the research process. However, data generation with children is not “child’s play”—it is a challenging task that requires careful design on the part of the researcher. We conducted a study in South Africa with children between the ages of 9 and 14 who were orphaned and rendered vulnerable by HIV and AIDS in order to explore if, and how, the use of participatory visual methods might enhance resilience. In this article, we provide a reflective account of the research process and discuss lessons learnt from our experiences of using drawings and collage as data generation methods when doing research with children. This article contributes to the literature on the use of participatory visual methods as data generation strategies with children highlighting some caveats and offering insight into how challenges could be circumvented.

  17. Steam generator tube rupture simulation using extended finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhasish, E-mail: smohanty@anl.gov; Majumdar, Saurin; Natesan, Ken

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Extended finite element method used for modeling the steam generator tube rupture. • Crack propagation is modeled in an arbitrary solution dependent path. • The FE model is used for estimating the rupture pressure of steam generator tubes. • Crack coalescence modeling is also demonstrated. • The method can be used for crack modeling of tubes under severe accident condition. - Abstract: A steam generator (SG) is an important component of any pressurized water reactor. Steam generator tubes represent a primary pressure boundary whose integrity is vital to the safe operation of the reactor. SG tubes may rupture due to propagation of a crack created by mechanisms such as stress corrosion cracking, fatigue, etc. It is thus important to estimate the rupture pressures of cracked tubes for structural integrity evaluation of SGs. The objective of the present paper is to demonstrate the use of extended finite element method capability of commercially available ABAQUS software, to model SG tubes with preexisting flaws and to estimate their rupture pressures. For the purpose, elastic–plastic finite element models were developed for different SG tubes made from Alloy 600 material. The simulation results were compared with experimental results available from the steam generator tube integrity program (SGTIP) sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). A reasonable correlation was found between extended finite element model results and experimental results.

  18. Steam generator tube rupture simulation using extended finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, Subhasish; Majumdar, Saurin; Natesan, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Extended finite element method used for modeling the steam generator tube rupture. • Crack propagation is modeled in an arbitrary solution dependent path. • The FE model is used for estimating the rupture pressure of steam generator tubes. • Crack coalescence modeling is also demonstrated. • The method can be used for crack modeling of tubes under severe accident condition. - Abstract: A steam generator (SG) is an important component of any pressurized water reactor. Steam generator tubes represent a primary pressure boundary whose integrity is vital to the safe operation of the reactor. SG tubes may rupture due to propagation of a crack created by mechanisms such as stress corrosion cracking, fatigue, etc. It is thus important to estimate the rupture pressures of cracked tubes for structural integrity evaluation of SGs. The objective of the present paper is to demonstrate the use of extended finite element method capability of commercially available ABAQUS software, to model SG tubes with preexisting flaws and to estimate their rupture pressures. For the purpose, elastic–plastic finite element models were developed for different SG tubes made from Alloy 600 material. The simulation results were compared with experimental results available from the steam generator tube integrity program (SGTIP) sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). A reasonable correlation was found between extended finite element model results and experimental results.

  19. A steam generating unit identification using subspace methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poshtan, J.; Mojallali, H.

    2002-01-01

    A Valid boiler model is a tool for the improvement of the steam generation control system and hence results boiler efficiency enhancement. However, methods of obtaining such a model are not readily found in the open literature and are often specific to a particular plant. This paper presents boiler model using a new method in system identification called S ubspace methods . This method is shown to provide an accurate state space model for boiler in a few numbers of operations, directly from input-output data without any prior knowledge of the system equations and any requirement to several stages of testing

  20. Method of generating ploynucleotides encoding enhanced folding variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Andrew M.; Kiss, Csaba; Waldo, Geoffrey S.

    2017-05-02

    The invention provides directed evolution methods for improving the folding, solubility and stability (including thermostability) characteristics of polypeptides. In one aspect, the invention provides a method for generating folding and stability-enhanced variants of proteins, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins, chromophoric proteins and enzymes. In another aspect, the invention provides methods for generating thermostable variants of a target protein or polypeptide via an internal destabilization baiting strategy. Internally destabilization a protein of interest is achieved by inserting a heterologous, folding-destabilizing sequence (folding interference domain) within DNA encoding the protein of interest, evolving the protein sequences adjacent to the heterologous insertion to overcome the destabilization (using any number of mutagenesis methods), thereby creating a library of variants. The variants in the library are expressed, and those with enhanced folding characteristics selected.

  1. Reducing waste generation and radiation exposure by analytical method modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    The primary goal of an analytical support laboratory has traditionally been to provide accurate data in a timely and cost effective fashion. Added to this goal is now the need to provide the same high quality data while generating as little waste as possible. At the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), we have modified and reengineered several methods to decrease generated waste and hence reduce radiation exposure. These method changes involved improving detection limits (which decreased the amount of sample required for analysis), decreasing reaction and analysis time, decreasing the size of experimental set-ups, recycling spent solvent and reagents, and replacing some methods. These changes had the additional benefits of reducing employee radiation exposure and exposure to hazardous chemicals. In all cases, the precision, accuracy, and detection limits were equal to or better than the replaced method. Most of the changes required little or no expenditure of funds. This paper describes these changes and discusses some of their applications

  2. Image Relaxation Matching Based on Feature Points for DSM Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shunyi; ZHANG Zuxun; ZHANG Jianqing

    2004-01-01

    In photogrammetry and remote sensing, image matching is a basic and crucial process for automatic DEM generation. In this paper we presented a image relaxation matching method based on feature points. This method can be considered as an extention of regular grid point based matching. It avoids the shortcome of grid point based matching. For example, with this method, we can avoid low or even no texture area where errors frequently appear in cross correlaton matching. In the mean while, it makes full use of some mature techniques such as probability relaxation, image pyramid and the like which have already been successfully used in grid point matching process. Application of the technique to DEM generaton in different regions proved that it is more reasonable and reliable.

  3. Optimized Method for Generating and Acquiring GPS Gold Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Rouabah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a simpler and faster Gold codes generator, which can be efficiently initialized to any desired code, with a minimum delay. Its principle consists of generating only one sequence (code number 1 from which we can produce all the other different signal codes. This is realized by simply shifting this sequence by different delays that are judiciously determined by using the bicorrelation function characteristics. This is in contrast to the classical Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR based Gold codes generator that requires, in addition to the shift process, a significant number of logic XOR gates and a phase selector to change the code. The presence of all these logic XOR gates in classical LFSR based Gold codes generator provokes the consumption of an additional time in the generation and acquisition processes. In addition to its simplicity and its rapidity, the proposed architecture, due to the total absence of XOR gates, has fewer resources than the conventional Gold generator and can thus be produced at lower cost. The Digital Signal Processing (DSP implementations have shown that the proposed architecture presents a solution for acquiring Global Positioning System (GPS satellites signals optimally and in a parallel way.

  4. Online Optimization Method for Operation of Generators in a Micro Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Miyamoto, Hideki; Matsuki, Junya; Iizuka, Toshio; Azuma, Hitoshi

    Recently a lot of studies and developments about distributed generator such as photovoltaic generation system, wind turbine generation system and fuel cell have been performed under the background of the global environment issues and deregulation of the electricity market, and the technique of these distributed generators have progressed. Especially, micro grid which consists of several distributed generators, loads and storage battery is expected as one of the new operation system of distributed generator. However, since precipitous load fluctuation occurs in micro grid for the reason of its smaller capacity compared with conventional power system, high-accuracy load forecasting and control scheme to balance of supply and demand are needed. Namely, it is necessary to improve the precision of operation in micro grid by observing load fluctuation and correcting start-stop schedule and output of generators online. But it is not easy to determine the operation schedule of each generator in short time, because the problem to determine start-up, shut-down and output of each generator in micro grid is a mixed integer programming problem. In this paper, the authors propose an online optimization method for the optimal operation schedule of generators in micro grid. The proposed method is based on enumeration method and particle swarm optimization (PSO). In the proposed method, after picking up all unit commitment patterns of each generators satisfied with minimum up time and minimum down time constraint by using enumeration method, optimal schedule and output of generators are determined under the other operational constraints by using PSO. Numerical simulation is carried out for a micro grid model with five generators and photovoltaic generation system in order to examine the validity of the proposed method.

  5. First Generation College Student Leadership Potential: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojan-Clark, Jane M.

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods research compared the leadership potential of traditionally aged first generation college students to that of college students whose parents are college educated. A college education provides advantages to those who can obtain it (Baum & Payea, 2004; Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005; Education and the Value of…

  6. Generator Coordinate Method Analysis of Xe and Ba Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiyama, Koji; Yoshinaga, Naotaka; Teruya, Eri

    Nuclear structure of Xe and Ba isotopes is studied in terms of the quantum-number projected generator coordinate method (GCM). The GCM reproduces well the energy levels of high-spin states as well as low-lying states. The structure of the low-lying states is analyzed through the GCM wave functions.

  7. A device and method for generating a polybinary signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to a method for generating an L-level polybinary signal, comprising the steps of: providing a baseband signal with a spectrum defined by a predefined frequency period, f p ; filtering the baseband signal using a low-pass filter having a pre-defined cut-off frequency...

  8. Development and utilization of the inorganic polymer materials for {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re generator based on (n, gamma) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Kosuke; Ishikawa, Koji; Terunuma, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Yoshio; Tatenuma, Katsuyoshi [KAKEN Co., Mito, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    A molybdenum (Mo) adsorbent called PZC (Poly Zirconium Compound) with high efficiency of Mo adsorption has been developed in order to generate {sup 99m}Tc from {sup 99}Mo produced from natural Mo by (n, gamma) method. The {sup 99m}Tc generator using PZC has cleared mostly the technical subjects. By the results of many experiments, cold and hot test with {sup 99}Mo activity from low level (10{sup 5} Bq) to high level (10{sup 10} Bq), it has been confirmed that the PZC method can be practically applied for the (n, gamma) {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generator. From the reasons that PZC has the ability and many merits such as high adsorption capacity (>250 mg-Mo/g-PZC) of Mo, high elution yield (av. 80%) of {sup 99m}Tc, the low breakthrough (<0.05 kBq-{sup 99m}Mo/MBq-{sup 99m}Tc) of {sup 99}Mo and others, the current (n, fission) {sup 99m}Tc generator utilizing {sup 99}Mo produced from enriched uranium will be taken the place by PZC method. In this paper, the practicability of PZC and a newly developed functional material PTC(Poly Titanium Compound) as the (n, gamma) {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generator, and an ability of PZC as the {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re generator will be shown. (author)

  9. Proposed Brookhaven accelerator-based neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, P.; Batchelor, K.; Chasman, R.; Rheaume, R.

    1976-01-01

    The d-Li Neutron Source concept, which includes a high-current dueteron linac, is an outgrowth of attempts made to use the BNL, 200-MeV proton linac BLIP facility to do radiation damage studies. It included a 100 mA, 30-MeV deuteron linear accelerator and a fast-flowing liquid lithium jet as the target. The latest design is not very different, except that the current is now 200 mA and the linac energy has been raised to 35 MeV. Both parameters, were changed to optimize the effectiveness of the facility with respect to flux, experimental volume and match to 14 MeV neutron-radiation-damage effects. The proposed Brookhaven Accelerator-based Neutron Generator is described with particular emphasis on the linear accelerator. The proposed facility is a practical and efficient way of producing the intense, high energy neutron beams needed for CTR material studies. The accelerator and liquid-metal technologies are well proven, state-of-the-art technologies. The fact that no new technology is required guarantees the possibility of meeting construction schedules, and more importantly, guarantees a high level of operational reliability

  10. History based batch method preserving tally means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Hyung Jin; Choi, Sung Hoon

    2012-01-01

    In the Monte Carlo (MC) eigenvalue calculations, the sample variance of a tally mean calculated from its cycle-wise estimates is biased because of the inter-cycle correlations of the fission source distribution (FSD). Recently, we proposed a new real variance estimation method named the history-based batch method in which a MC run is treated as multiple runs with small number of histories per cycle to generate independent tally estimates. In this paper, the history-based batch method based on the weight correction is presented to preserve the tally mean from the original MC run. The effectiveness of the new method is examined for the weakly coupled fissile array problem as a function of the dominance ratio and the batch size, in comparison with other schemes available

  11. Image-Based Geometric Modeling and Mesh Generation

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    As a new interdisciplinary research area, “image-based geometric modeling and mesh generation” integrates image processing, geometric modeling and mesh generation with finite element method (FEM) to solve problems in computational biomedicine, materials sciences and engineering. It is well known that FEM is currently well-developed and efficient, but mesh generation for complex geometries (e.g., the human body) still takes about 80% of the total analysis time and is the major obstacle to reduce the total computation time. It is mainly because none of the traditional approaches is sufficient to effectively construct finite element meshes for arbitrarily complicated domains, and generally a great deal of manual interaction is involved in mesh generation. This contributed volume, the first for such an interdisciplinary topic, collects the latest research by experts in this area. These papers cover a broad range of topics, including medical imaging, image alignment and segmentation, image-to-mesh conversion,...

  12. Study on boundary search method for DFM mesh generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The boundary mesh of the casting model was determined by direct calculation on the triangular facets extracted from the STL file of the 3D model. Then the inner and outer grids of the model were identified by the algorithm in which we named Inner Seed Grid Method. Finally, a program to automatically generate a 3D FDM mesh was compiled. In the paper, a method named Triangle Contraction Search Method (TCSM was put forward to ensure not losing the boundary grids; while an algorithm to search inner seed grids to identify inner/outer grids of the casting model was also brought forward. Our algorithm was simple, clear and easy to construct program. Three examples for the casting mesh generation testified the validity of the program.

  13. Generative Inferences Based on Learned Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dawn; Lu, Hongjing; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2017-01-01

    A key property of relational representations is their "generativity": From partial descriptions of relations between entities, additional inferences can be drawn about other entities. A major theoretical challenge is to demonstrate how the capacity to make generative inferences could arise as a result of learning relations from…

  14. Web service based system for generating input data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralev, Velin; Kraleva, Radoslava

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with a three-layer architectural model of a distributed information system based on Web services, which will be used for automatic generation of sets of input data. The information system will be constructed of a client layer, a service layer and of a data layer. The web services as a tool of developing distributed software systems will be presented briefly. A web service and the implementation of its web methods will be described. A way to use the developed web methods in real application will be proposed. Keywords: web services

  15. A new comparison method for dew-point generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Martti

    1999-12-01

    A new method for comparing dew-point generators was developed at the Centre for Metrology and Accreditation. In this method, the generators participating in a comparison are compared with a transportable saturator unit using a dew-point comparator. The method was tested by constructing a test apparatus and by comparing it with the MIKES primary dew-point generator several times in the dew-point temperature range from -40 to +75 °C. The expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of the apparatus was estimated to be between 0.05 and 0.07 °C and the difference between the comparator system and the generator is well within these limits. In particular, all of the results obtained in the range below 0 °C are within ±0.03 °C. It is concluded that a new type of a transfer standard with characteristics most suitable for dew-point comparisons can be developed on the basis of the principles presented in this paper.

  16. Apparatus, System, and Method for On-Chip Thermoelectricity Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2012-01-26

    An apparatus, system, and method for a thermoelectric generator. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric generator comprises a first thermoelectric region and a second thermoelectric region, where the second thermoelectric region may be coupled to the first thermoelectric region by a first conductor. In some embodiments, a second conductor may be coupled to the first thermoelectric region and a third conductor may be coupled to the second thermoelectric region. In some embodiments, the first conductor may be in a first plane, the first thermoelectric region and the second thermoelectric region may be in a second plane, and the second conductor and the third conductor may be in a third plane.

  17. Efficiency of Choice Set Generation Methods for Bicycle Routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Rieser-Schüssler, Nadine; W. Axhausen, Kay

    behaviour, observed choices and alternatives composing the choice set of each cyclist are necessary. However, generating the alternative choice sets can prove challenging. This paper analyses the efficiency of various choice set generation methods for bicycle routes in order to contribute to our...... travelling information with GPS loggers, compared to self-reported RP data, is more accurate geographic locations and routes. Also, the GPS traces give more reliable information on times and prevent trip underreporting, and it is possible to collect information on many trips by the same person without...

  18. Program generator for the Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo-Petravic, G.; Petravic, M.

    1978-04-01

    The Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) method has been found very effective for the solution of sparse systems of linear equations. Its implementation on a computer, however, requires a considerable amount of careful coding to achieve good machine efficiency. Furthermore, the resulting code is necessarily inflexible and cannot be easily adapted to different problems. We present in this paper a code generator GENIC which, given a small amount of information concerning the sparsity pattern and size of the system of equations, generates a solver package. This package, called SOLIC, is tailor made for a particular problem and can be easily incorporated into any user program

  19. Apparatus, System, and Method for On-Chip Thermoelectricity Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Fahad, Hossain M.; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2012-01-01

    An apparatus, system, and method for a thermoelectric generator. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric generator comprises a first thermoelectric region and a second thermoelectric region, where the second thermoelectric region may be coupled to the first thermoelectric region by a first conductor. In some embodiments, a second conductor may be coupled to the first thermoelectric region and a third conductor may be coupled to the second thermoelectric region. In some embodiments, the first conductor may be in a first plane, the first thermoelectric region and the second thermoelectric region may be in a second plane, and the second conductor and the third conductor may be in a third plane.

  20. Application of Integrated Neural Network Method to Fault Diagnosis of Nuclear Steam Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Gang; Yang Li

    2009-01-01

    A new fault diagnosis method based on integrated neural networks for nuclear steam generator (SG) was proposed in view of the shortcoming of the conventional fault monitoring and diagnosis method. In the method, two neural networks (ANNs) were employed for the fault diagnosis of steam generator. A neural network, which was used for predicting the values of steam generator operation parameters, was taken as the dynamics model of steam generator. The principle of fault monitoring method using the neural network model is to detect the deviations between process signals measured from an operating steam generator and corresponding output signals from the neural network model of steam generator. When the deviation exceeds the limit set in advance, the abnormal event is thought to occur. The other neural network as a fault classifier conducts the fault classification of steam generator. So, the fault types of steam generator are given by the fault classifier. The clear information on steam generator faults was obtained by fusing the monitoring and diagnosis results of two neural networks. The simulation results indicate that employing integrated neural networks can improve the capacity of fault monitoring and diagnosis for the steam generator. (authors)

  1. Fast calculation method for computer-generated cylindrical holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Fujii, Tomohiko; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

    2008-07-01

    Since a general flat hologram has a limited viewable area, we usually cannot see the other side of a reconstructed object. There are some holograms that can solve this problem. A cylindrical hologram is well known to be viewable in 360 deg. Most cylindrical holograms are optical holograms, but there are few reports of computer-generated cylindrical holograms. The lack of computer-generated cylindrical holograms is because the spatial resolution of output devices is not great enough; therefore, we have to make a large hologram or use a small object to fulfill the sampling theorem. In addition, in calculating the large fringe, the calculation amount increases in proportion to the hologram size. Therefore, we propose what we believe to be a new calculation method for fast calculation. Then, we print these fringes with our prototype fringe printer. As a result, we obtain a good reconstructed image from a computer-generated cylindrical hologram.

  2. A synthetic-eddy-method for generating inflow conditions for large-eddy simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrin, N.; Benhamadouche, S.; Laurence, D.; Prosser, R.

    2006-01-01

    The generation of inflow data for spatially developing turbulent flows is one of the challenges that must be addressed prior to the application of LES to industrial flows and complex geometries. A new method of generation of synthetic turbulence, suitable for complex geometries and unstructured meshes, is presented herein. The method is based on the classical view of turbulence as a superposition of coherent structures. It is able to reproduce prescribed first and second order one point statistics, characteristic length and time scales, and the shape of coherent structures. The ability of the method to produce realistic inflow conditions in the test cases of a spatially decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence and of a fully developed turbulent channel flow is presented. The method is systematically compared to other methods of generation of inflow conditions (precursor simulation, spectral methods and algebraic methods)

  3. Power-generation method using combined gas and steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C; Radtke, K; Keller, H J

    1997-03-20

    The invention concerns a method of power generation using a so-called COGAS (combined gas and steam) turbine installation, the aim being to improve the method with regard to the initial costs and energy consumption so that power can be generated as cheaply as possible. This is achieved by virtue of the fact that air taken from the surrounding atmosphere is splint into an essentially oxygen-containing stream and an essentially nitrogen-containing stream and the two streams fed further at approximately atmospheric pressure. The essentially nitrogen-containing stream is mixed with an air stream to form a mixed nitrogen/air stream and the mixed-gas stream thus produced is brought to combustion chamber pressure in the compressor of the gas turbine, the combustion of the combustion gases in the combustion chamber of the gas turbine being carried out with the greater part of this compressed mixed-gas stream. (author) figs.

  4. Rule-based Test Generation with Mind Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry Polivaev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces basic concepts of rule based test generation with mind maps, and reports experiences learned from industrial application of this technique in the domain of smart card testing by Giesecke & Devrient GmbH over the last years. It describes the formalization of test selection criteria used by our test generator, our test generation architecture and test generation framework.

  5. Spline-based automatic path generation of welding robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Xuejuan; Li Liangyu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible method for the representation of welded seam based on spline interpolation. In this method, the tool path of welding robot can be generated automatically from a 3D CAD model. This technique has been implemented and demonstrated in the FANUC Arc Welding Robot Workstation. According to the method, a software system is developed using VBA of SolidWorks 2006. It offers an interface between SolidWorks and ROBOGUIDE, the off-line programming software of FANUC robot. It combines the strong modeling function of the former and the simulating function of the latter. It also has the capability of communication with on-line robot. The result data have shown its high accuracy and strong reliability in experiments. This method will improve the intelligence and the flexibility of the welding robot workstation.

  6. Local Gaussian approximation in the generator coordinate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Naoki; Une, Tsutomu.

    1975-01-01

    A transformation from a non-orthogonal representation to an orthogonal representation of wave functions is studied in the generator coordinate method. A differential equation can be obtained by the transformation for a case that the eigenvalue equation of the overlap kernel is solvable. By assuming local Gaussian overlap, we derive a Schroedinger-type equation for the collective motion from the Hill-Wheeler integral equation. (auth.)

  7. Local Gaussian approximation in the generator coordinate method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, N [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of General Education; Une, Tsutomu

    1975-02-01

    A transformation from a non-orthogonal representation to an orthogonal representation of wave functions is studied in the generator coordinate method. A differential equation can be obtained by the transformation for a case that the eigenvalue equation of the overlap kernel is solvable. By assuming local Gaussian overlap, we derive a Schroedinger-type equation for the collective motion from the Hill-Wheeler integral equation.

  8. DNA based random key generation and management for OTP encryption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Liu, Xin; Sun, Manhui

    2017-09-01

    One-time pad (OTP) is a principle of key generation applied to the stream ciphering method which offers total privacy. The OTP encryption scheme has proved to be unbreakable in theory, but difficult to realize in practical applications. Because OTP encryption specially requires the absolute randomness of the key, its development has suffered from dense constraints. DNA cryptography is a new and promising technology in the field of information security. DNA chromosomes storing capabilities can be used as one-time pad structures with pseudo-random number generation and indexing in order to encrypt the plaintext messages. In this paper, we present a feasible solution to the OTP symmetric key generation and transmission problem with DNA at the molecular level. Through recombinant DNA technology, by using only sender-receiver known restriction enzymes to combine the secure key represented by DNA sequence and the T vector, we generate the DNA bio-hiding secure key and then place the recombinant plasmid in implanted bacteria for secure key transmission. The designed bio experiments and simulation results show that the security of the transmission of the key is further improved and the environmental requirements of key transmission are reduced. Analysis has demonstrated that the proposed DNA-based random key generation and management solutions are marked by high security and usability. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Validation test case generation based on safety analysis ontology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Chin-Feng; Wang, Wen-Shing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Current practice in validation test case generation for nuclear system is mainly ad hoc. ► This study designs a systematic approach to generate validation test cases from a Safety Analysis Report. ► It is based on a domain-specific ontology. ► Test coverage criteria have been defined and satisfied. ► A computerized toolset has been implemented to assist the proposed approach. - Abstract: Validation tests in the current nuclear industry practice are typically performed in an ad hoc fashion. This study presents a systematic and objective method of generating validation test cases from a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). A domain-specific ontology was designed and used to mark up a SAR; relevant information was then extracted from the marked-up document for use in automatically generating validation test cases that satisfy the proposed test coverage criteria; namely, single parameter coverage, use case coverage, abnormal condition coverage, and scenario coverage. The novelty of this technique is its systematic rather than ad hoc test case generation from a SAR to achieve high test coverage.

  10. Method for repairing a steam turbine or generator rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.E.; Amos, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described for repairing low alloy steel steam turbine or generator rotors, the method comprising: a. machining mating attachments on a replacement end and a remaining portion of the original rotor; b. mating the replacement end and the original rotor; c. welding the replacement end to the original rotor by narrow-gap gas metal arc or submerged arc welding up to a depth of 1/2-2 inches from the rotor surface; d. gas tungsten arc welding the remaining 1/2-2 inches; e. boring out the mating attachment and at least the inside 1/4 inch of the welding; and f. inspecting the bore

  11. A straightness error measurement method matched new generation GPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X B; Lu, H; Jiang, X Q; Li, Z

    2005-01-01

    The axis of the non-diffracting beam produced by an axicon is very stable and can be adopted as the datum line to measure the spatial straightness error in continuous working distance, which may be short, medium or long. Though combining the non-diffracting beam datum-line with LVDT displace detector, a new straightness error measurement method is developed. Because the non-diffracting beam datum-line amends the straightness error gauged by LVDT, the straightness error is reliable and this method is matchs new generation GPS

  12. Value-based distributed generator placements for service quality improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Jen-Hao; Chen, Chi-Fa [Department of Electrical Engineering, I-Shou University, No. 1, Section 1, Syuecheng Road, Dashu Township, Kaohsiung Country 840 (Taiwan); Liu, Yi-Hwa [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei (Taiwan); Chen, Chia-Yen [Department of Computer Science, The University of Auckland (New Zealand)

    2007-03-15

    Distributed generator (DG) resources are small, self-contained electric generating plants that can provide power to homes, businesses or industrial facilities in distribution feeders. They can be used to reduce power loss and improve service reliability. However, the values of DGs are largely dependent on their types, sizes and locations as they were installed in distribution feeders. A value-based method is proposed in this paper to enhance the reliability and obtain the benefits for DG placement. The benefits of DG placement described in this paper include power cost saving, power loss reduction, and reliability enhancement. The costs of DG placement include the investment, maintenance and operating costs. The proposed value-based method tries to find the best tradeoff between the costs and benefits of DG placement and then find the optimal types of DG and their corresponding locations and sizes in distribution feeders. The derived formulations are solved by a genetic algorithm based method. Test results show that with proper types, sizes and installation site selection, DG placement can be used to improve system reliability, reduce customer interruption costs and save power cost; as well as enabling electric utilities to obtain the maximal economical benefits. (author)

  13. Addressing Next Generation Science Standards: A Method for Supporting Classroom Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellien, Tamara; Rothenburger, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) will define science education for the foreseeable future, yet many educators struggle to see the bridge between current practice and future practices. The inquiry-based methods used by Extension professionals (Kress, 2006) can serve as a guide for classroom educators. Described herein is a method of…

  14. Systems and methods for interpolation-based dynamic programming

    KAUST Repository

    Rockwood, Alyn

    2013-01-03

    Embodiments of systems and methods for interpolation-based dynamic programming. In one embodiment, the method includes receiving an object function and a set of constraints associated with the objective function. The method may also include identifying a solution on the objective function corresponding to intersections of the constraints. Additionally, the method may include generating an interpolated surface that is in constant contact with the solution. The method may also include generating a vector field in response to the interpolated surface.

  15. Systems and methods for interpolation-based dynamic programming

    KAUST Repository

    Rockwood, Alyn

    2013-01-01

    Embodiments of systems and methods for interpolation-based dynamic programming. In one embodiment, the method includes receiving an object function and a set of constraints associated with the objective function. The method may also include identifying a solution on the objective function corresponding to intersections of the constraints. Additionally, the method may include generating an interpolated surface that is in constant contact with the solution. The method may also include generating a vector field in response to the interpolated surface.

  16. Entropy-based benchmarking methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temurshoev, Umed

    2012-01-01

    We argue that benchmarking sign-volatile series should be based on the principle of movement and sign preservation, which states that a bench-marked series should reproduce the movement and signs in the original series. We show that the widely used variants of Denton (1971) method and the growth

  17. Generational differences of baccalaureate nursing students' preferred teaching methods and faculty use of teaching methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahoyde, Theresa

    Nursing education is experiencing a generational phenomenon with student enrollment spanning three generations. Classrooms of the 21st century include the occasional Baby Boomer and a large number of Generation X and Generation Y students. Each of these generations has its own unique set of characteristics that have been shaped by values, trends, behaviors, and events in society. These generational characteristics create vast opportunities to learn, as well as challenges. One such challenge is the use of teaching methods that are congruent with nursing student preferences. Although there is a wide range of studies conducted on student learning styles within the nursing education field, there is little research on the preferred teaching methods of nursing students. The purpose of this quantitative, descriptive study was to compare the preferred teaching methods of multi-generational baccalaureate nursing students with faculty use of teaching methods. The research study included 367 participants; 38 nursing faculty and 329 nursing students from five different colleges within the Midwest region. The results of the two-tailed t-test found four statistically significant findings between Generation X and Y students and their preferred teaching methods including; lecture, listening to the professor lecture versus working in groups; actively participating in group discussion; and the importance of participating in group assignments. The results of the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) found seventeen statistically significant findings between levels of students (freshmen/sophomores, juniors, & seniors) and their preferred teaching methods. Lecture was found to be the most frequently used teaching method by faculty as well as the most preferred teaching method by students. Overall, the support for a variety of teaching methods was also found in the analysis of data.

  18. Work system innovation: Designing improvement methods for generative capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, David; Møller, Niels

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how a work system’s capability for improvement is influenced by its improvement methods. Based on explorative case study at a Lean manufacturing facility, the methods problem solving and Appreciative Inquiry were compared through in-depth qualitative studies over a 12-month...

  19. Neutron generator based on adiabatic trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovin, I.N.; Zhil'tsov, V.A.; Panov, D.A.; Skovoroda, A.A.; Shatalov, G.E.; Shcherbakov, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    A possibility of 14 MeV neutron generator (NG) production on the basis of axial-symmetric adiabatic trap with MHD cusped armature for the testing of materials and elements of the DT reactor first wall and blanket structure is discussed. General requirements to NG are formulated. It is shown that the NG variant discussed meets the requirements formulated. Approximate calculation of the NG parameters has shown that total energy consumption by the generator does not exceed 220 MW at neutron flux specific capacity of 2.5 MW/m 2 and radiation test area of 5-6 m 2

  20. Evaluation of methods used for the direct generation of response spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayers, R.L.; Muraki, T.; Jones, L.R.; Donikian, R.

    1983-01-01

    The paper presents an alternate methodology by which seismic in-structure response spectra may be generated directly from either ground or floor excitation spectra. The method is based upon stochastic concepts and utilizes the modal superposition solution. The philosophy of the method is based upon the notion that the evaluation of 'peak' response in uncertain excitation environments is only meaningful in a probabilistic sense. This interpretation of response spectra facilitates the generation of in-structure spectra for any non-exceedance probability (NEP). The method is validated by comparisons with a set of deterministic time-history analyses with three example models: an eleven-story building model, a containment structure stick model, and a floor mounted control panel, subjected to ten input spectrum compatible acceleration time-histories. A significant finding resulting from these examples is that the time-history method portrayed substantial variation in the resulting in-structure spectra, and therefore is unreliable for the generation of spectra. It is shown that the average of the time-history generated spectra can be estimated by the direct generation procedure, and reliable spectra may be generated for 85 NEP levels. The methodology presented herein is shown to be valid for both primary and secondary systems. Also included in the paper, is a review of the stochastic methods proposed by Singh and Der Kiureghian et. al., and the Fourier transform method proposed by Scanlan et al. (orig./HP)

  1. A study of the relationship between the semi-classical and the generator coordinate methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, E.J.V. de; Souza Cruz, F.F. de.

    Using a very simple type of wave-packet which is obtained by letting unitary displacement operators having as generators canonical operators Q and P in the many-body Hilbert space act on a reference state, the relatinship between the semi-classical and the generator coordinate methods is investigated. The semi-classical method is based on the time-dependent variational principle whereas in the generator coordinate method the wave-packets are taken as generator states. To establish the equivalence of the two-methods, the concept of redundancy of the wave-packet and the importance of the zero-point energy effects are examined in detail, using tools developed in previous works. A numerical application to the case of the Goldhaber-Teller mode in 4 He is made. (Author) [pt

  2. Distributed Graph-Based State Space Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Stefan; Kant, Gijs; Rensink, Arend; De Lara, J.; Varro, D.

    LTSMIN provides a framework in which state space generation can be distributed easily over many cores on a single compute node, as well as over multiple compute nodes. The tool works on the basis of a vector representation of the states; the individual cores are assigned the task of computing all

  3. Parylene-based electret power generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Hsi-wen; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2008-01-01

    An electret power generator is developed using a new electret made of a charged parylene HT® thin-film polymer. Here, parylene HT® is a room-temperature chemical-vapor-deposited thin-film polymer that is MEMS and CMOS compatible. With corona charge implantation, the surface charge density of parylene HT® is measured as high as 3.69 mC m −2 . Moreover, it is found that, with annealing at 400 °C for 1 h before charge implantation, both the long-term stability and the high-temperature reliability of the electret are improved. For the generator, a new design of the stator/rotor is also developed. The new micro electret generator does not require any sophisticated gap-controlling structure such as tethers. With the conformal coating capability of parylene HT®, it is also feasible to have the electret on the rotors, which is made of either a piece of metal or an insulator. The maximum power output, 17.98 µW, is obtained at 50 Hz with an external load of 80 MΩ. For low frequencies, the generator can harvest 7.7 µW at 10 Hz and 8.23 µW at 20 Hz

  4. Automatic Tamil lyric generation based on ontological interpretation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work, we use an ontology to determine the semantic information from ... Hence, to study the context-based lyric generation process, we referred to ...... Mann C W and Moore A J 1981 Computer Generation of Multiparagraph English text.

  5. Size-Adjustable Microdroplets Generation Based on Microinjection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibao Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Microinjection is a promising tool for microdroplet generation, while the microinjection for microdroplets generation still remains a challenging issue due to the Laplace pressure at the micropipette opening. Here, we apply a simple and robust substrate-contacting microinjection method to microdroplet generation, presenting a size-adjustable microdroplets generation method based on a critical injection (CI model. Firstly, the micropipette is adjusted to a preset injection pressure. Secondly, the micropipette is moved down to contact the substrate, then, the Laplace pressure in the droplet is no longer relevant and the liquid flows out in time. The liquid constantly flows out until the micropipette is lifted, ending the substrate-contacting situation, which results in the recovery of the Laplace pressure at the micropipette opening, and the liquid injection is terminated. We carry out five groups of experiments whereupon 1600 images are captured within each group and the microdroplet radius of each image is detected. Then we determine the relationship among microdroplet radius, radius at the micropipette opening, time, and pressure, and, two more experiments are conducted to verify the relationship. To verify the effectiveness of the substrate-contacting method and the relationship, we conducted two experiments with six desired microdroplet radii are set in each experiment, by adjusting the injection time with a given pressure, and adjusting the injection pressure with a given time. Then, six arrays of microdroplets are obtained in each experiment. The results of the experiments show that the standard errors of the microdroplet radii are less than 2% and the experimental errors fall in the range of ±5%. The average operating speed is 20 microdroplets/min and the minimum radius of the microdroplets is 25 μm. This method has a simple experimental setup that enables easy manipulation and lower cost.

  6. A method for generating high resolution satellite image time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tao

    2014-10-01

    There is an increasing demand for satellite remote sensing data with both high spatial and temporal resolution in many applications. But it still is a challenge to simultaneously improve spatial resolution and temporal frequency due to the technical limits of current satellite observation systems. To this end, much R&D efforts have been ongoing for years and lead to some successes roughly in two aspects, one includes super resolution, pan-sharpen etc. methods which can effectively enhance the spatial resolution and generate good visual effects, but hardly preserve spectral signatures and result in inadequate analytical value, on the other hand, time interpolation is a straight forward method to increase temporal frequency, however it increase little informative contents in fact. In this paper we presented a novel method to simulate high resolution time series data by combing low resolution time series data and a very small number of high resolution data only. Our method starts with a pair of high and low resolution data set, and then a spatial registration is done by introducing LDA model to map high and low resolution pixels correspondingly. Afterwards, temporal change information is captured through a comparison of low resolution time series data, and then projected onto the high resolution data plane and assigned to each high resolution pixel according to the predefined temporal change patterns of each type of ground objects. Finally the simulated high resolution data is generated. A preliminary experiment shows that our method can simulate a high resolution data with a reasonable accuracy. The contribution of our method is to enable timely monitoring of temporal changes through analysis of time sequence of low resolution images only, and usage of costly high resolution data can be reduces as much as possible, and it presents a highly effective way to build up an economically operational monitoring solution for agriculture, forest, land use investigation

  7. Membrane-based processes for sustainable power generation using water

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-01-01

    Water has always been crucial to combustion and hydroelectric processes, but it could become the source of power in membrane-based systems that capture energy from natural and waste waters. Two processes are emerging as sustainable methods for capturing energy from sea water: pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis. These processes can also capture energy from waste heat by generating artificial salinity gradients using synthetic solutions, such as thermolytic salts. A further source of energy comes from organic matter in waste waters, which can be harnessed using microbial fuel-cell technology, allowing both wastewater treatment and power production. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  8. Membrane-based processes for sustainable power generation using water

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.

    2012-08-15

    Water has always been crucial to combustion and hydroelectric processes, but it could become the source of power in membrane-based systems that capture energy from natural and waste waters. Two processes are emerging as sustainable methods for capturing energy from sea water: pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis. These processes can also capture energy from waste heat by generating artificial salinity gradients using synthetic solutions, such as thermolytic salts. A further source of energy comes from organic matter in waste waters, which can be harnessed using microbial fuel-cell technology, allowing both wastewater treatment and power production. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimization Research of Generation Investment Based on Linear Programming Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Ge, Xueqian

    Linear programming is an important branch of operational research and it is a mathematical method to assist the people to carry out scientific management. GAMS is an advanced simulation and optimization modeling language and it will combine a large number of complex mathematical programming, such as linear programming LP, nonlinear programming NLP, MIP and other mixed-integer programming with the system simulation. In this paper, based on the linear programming model, the optimized investment decision-making of generation is simulated and analyzed. At last, the optimal installed capacity of power plants and the final total cost are got, which provides the rational decision-making basis for optimized investments.

  10. Experimental nonlocality-based randomness generation with nonprojective measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, S.; Mattar, A.; Gómez, E. S.; Cavalcanti, D.; Farías, O. Jiménez; Acín, A.; Lima, G.

    2018-04-01

    We report on an optical setup generating more than one bit of randomness from one entangled bit (i.e., a maximally entangled state of two qubits). The amount of randomness is certified through the observation of Bell nonlocal correlations. To attain this result we implemented a high-purity entanglement source and a nonprojective three-outcome measurement. Our implementation achieves a gain of 27% of randomness as compared with the standard methods using projective measurements. Additionally, we estimate the amount of randomness certified in a one-sided device-independent scenario, through the observation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering. Our results prove that nonprojective quantum measurements allow extending the limits for nonlocality-based certified randomness generation using current technology.

  11. Design of nuclear power generation plants adopting model engineering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waki, Masato

    1983-01-01

    The utilization of model engineering as the method of design has begun about ten years ago in nuclear power generation plants. By this method, the result of design can be confirmed three-dimensionally before actual production, and it is the quick and sure method to meet the various needs in design promptly. The adoption of models aims mainly at the improvement of the quality of design since the high safety is required for nuclear power plants in spite of the complex structure. The layout of nuclear power plants and piping design require the model engineering to arrange rationally enormous quantity of things in a limited period. As the method of model engineering, there are the use of check models and of design models, and recently, the latter method has been mainly taken. The procedure of manufacturing models and engineering is explained. After model engineering has been completed, the model information must be expressed in drawings, and the automation of this process has been attempted by various methods. The computer processing of design is in progress, and its role is explained (CAD system). (Kako, I.)

  12. Quantum information generation, storage and transmission based on nuclear spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharov, V. V.; Makarov, V. I.

    2018-05-01

    A new approach to quantum information generation, storage and transmission is proposed. It is shown that quantum information generation and storage using an ensemble of N electron spins encounter unresolvable implementation problems (at least at the present time). As an alternative implementation we discuss two promising radical systems, one with N equivalent nuclear spins and another with N nonequivalent nuclear spins. Detailed analysis shows that only the radical system containing N nonequivalent nuclei is perfectly matched for quantum information generation, storage and transmission. We develop a procedure based on pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and we apply it to the radical system with the set of nonequivalent nuclei. The resulting EPR spectrum contains 2N transition lines, where N is the number of the atoms with the nuclear spin 1/2, and each of these lines may be encoded with a determined qudit sequence. For encoding the EPR lines we propose to submit the radical system to two magnetic pulses in the direction perpendicular to the z axis of the reference frame. As a result, the radical system impulse response may be measured, stored and transmitted through the communications channel. Confirming our development, the ab initio analysis of the system with three anion radicals was done showing matching between the simulations and the theoretical predictions. The developed method may be easily adapted for quantum information generation, storage, processing and transmission in quantum computing and quantum communications applications.

  13. Fast generation of Fresnel holograms based on multirate filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Peter; Liu, Jung-Ping; Cheung, Wai-Keung; Poon, Ting-Chung

    2009-12-01

    One of the major problems in computer-generated holography is the high computation cost involved for the calculation of fringe patterns. Recently, the problem has been addressed by imposing a horizontal parallax only constraint whereby the process can be simplified to the computation of one-dimensional sublines, each representing a scan plane of the object scene. Subsequently the sublines can be expanded to a two-dimensional hologram through multiplication with a reference signal. Furthermore, economical hardware is available with which sublines can be generated in a computationally free manner with high throughput of approximately 100 M pixels/second. Apart from decreasing the computation loading, the sublines can be treated as intermediate data that can be compressed by simply downsampling the number of sublines. Despite these favorable features, the method is suitable only for the generation of white light (rainbow) holograms, and the resolution of the reconstructed image is inferior to the classical Fresnel hologram. We propose to generate holograms from one-dimensional sublines so that the above-mentioned problems can be alleviated. However, such an approach also leads to a substantial increase in computation loading. To overcome this problem we encapsulated the conversion of sublines to holograms as a multirate filtering process and implemented the latter by use of a fast Fourier transform. Evaluation reveals that, for holograms of moderate size, our method is capable of operating 40,000 times faster than the calculation of Fresnel holograms based on the precomputed table lookup method. Although there is no relative vertical parallax between object points at different distance planes, a global vertical parallax is preserved for the object scene as a whole and the reconstructed image can be observed easily.

  14. Power systems with nuclear-electric generators - Modelling methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeca, Serban Constantin

    2002-01-01

    This is a vast analysis on the issue of sustainable nuclear power development with direct conclusions regarding the Nuclear Programme of Romania. The work is targeting specialists and decision making boards. Specific to the nuclear power development is its public implication, the public being most often misinformed by non-professional media. The following problems are debated thoroughly: - safety, nuclear risk, respectively, is treated in chapter 1 and 7 aiming at highlighting the quality of nuclear power and consequently paving the way to public acceptance; - the environment considered both as resource of raw materials and medium essential for life continuation, which should be appropriately protected to ensure healthy and sustainable development of human society; its analysis is also presented in chapter 1 and 7, where the problem of safe management of radioactive waste is addressed too; - investigation methods based on information science of nuclear systems, applied in carrying out the nuclear strategy and planning are widely analyzed in the chapter 2, 3 and 6; - optimizing the processes by following up the structure of investment and operation costs, and, generally, the management of nuclear units is treated in the chapter 5 and 7; - nuclear weapon proliferation as a possible consequence of nuclear power generation is treated as a legal issue. The development of Romanian NPP at Cernavoda, practically, the core of the National Nuclear Programme, is described in chapter 8. Actually, the originality of the present work consists in the selection and adaptation from a multitude of mathematical models applicable to the local and specific conditions of nuclear power plant at Cernavoda. The Romanian economy development and power development oriented towards reduction of fossil fuel consumption and protection of environment, most reliably ensured by the nuclear power, is discussed in the frame of the world trends of the energy production. Various scenarios are

  15. Data communications method for mobile network in fourth generation communications system, involves delivering decoded data to mobile station from relay station, where mobile station receives data from both relay and base stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The method involves utilizing a base station (BS) (100) to transmit data to a relay station (RS) (110) and a mobile station (MS) (120), where the data includes two messages. The BS is utilized to transmit the two messages by utilizing a linear combination method, and the data is received in the RS...

  16. Simple method of generating and distributing frequency-entangled qudits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rui-Bo; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Fujiwara, Mikio; Takeoka, Masahiro; Wakabayashi, Ryota; Yamashita, Taro; Miki, Shigehito; Terai, Hirotaka; Gerrits, Thomas; Sasaki, Masahide

    2016-11-01

    High-dimensional, frequency-entangled photonic quantum bits (qudits for d-dimension) are promising resources for quantum information processing in an optical fiber network and can also be used to improve channel capacity and security for quantum communication. However, up to now, it is still challenging to prepare high-dimensional frequency-entangled qudits in experiments, due to technical limitations. Here we propose and experimentally implement a novel method for a simple generation of frequency-entangled qudts with d\\gt 10 without the use of any spectral filters or cavities. The generated state is distributed over 15 km in total length. This scheme combines the technique of spectral engineering of biphotons generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and the technique of spectrally resolved Hong-Ou-Mandel interference. Our frequency-entangled qudits will enable quantum cryptographic experiments with enhanced performances. This distribution of distinct entangled frequency modes may also be useful for improved metrology, quantum remote synchronization, as well as for fundamental test of stronger violation of local realism.

  17. Panel cutting method: new approach to generate panels on a hull in Rankine source potential approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jong Choi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a new hull panel generation algorithm, namely panel cutting method, was developed to predict flow phenomena around a ship using the Rankine source potential based panel method, where the iterative method was used to satisfy the nonlinear free surface condition and the trim and sinkage of the ship was taken into account. Numerical computations were performed to investigate the validity of the proposed hull panel generation algorithm for Series 60 (CB=0.60 hull and KRISO container ship (KCS, a container ship designed by Maritime and Ocean Engineering Research Institute (MOERI. The computational results were validated by comparing with the existing experimental data.

  18. Panel cutting method: new approach to generate panels on a hull in Rankine source potential approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee-Jong; Chun, Ho-Hwan; Park, Il-Ryong; Kim, Jin

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, a new hull panel generation algorithm, namely panel cutting method, was developed to predict flow phenomena around a ship using the Rankine source potential based panel method, where the iterative method was used to satisfy the nonlinear free surface condition and the trim and sinkage of the ship was taken into account. Numerical computations were performed to investigate the validity of the proposed hull panel generation algorithm for Series 60 (CB=0.60) hull and KRISO container ship (KCS), a container ship designed by Maritime and Ocean Engineering Research Institute (MOERI). The computational results were validated by comparing with the existing experimental data.

  19. Fuel processor and method for generating hydrogen for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shabbir [Naperville, IL; Lee, Sheldon H. D. [Willowbrook, IL; Carter, John David [Bolingbrook, IL; Krumpelt, Michael [Naperville, IL; Myers, Deborah J [Lisle, IL

    2009-07-21

    A method of producing a H.sub.2 rich gas stream includes supplying an O.sub.2 rich gas, steam, and fuel to an inner reforming zone of a fuel processor that includes a partial oxidation catalyst and a steam reforming catalyst or a combined partial oxidation and stream reforming catalyst. The method also includes contacting the O.sub.2 rich gas, steam, and fuel with the partial oxidation catalyst and the steam reforming catalyst or the combined partial oxidation and stream reforming catalyst in the inner reforming zone to generate a hot reformate stream. The method still further includes cooling the hot reformate stream in a cooling zone to produce a cooled reformate stream. Additionally, the method includes removing sulfur-containing compounds from the cooled reformate stream by contacting the cooled reformate stream with a sulfur removal agent. The method still further includes contacting the cooled reformate stream with a catalyst that converts water and carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and H.sub.2 in a water-gas-shift zone to produce a final reformate stream in the fuel processor.

  20. Numerical methods on flow instabilities in steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Ryuji; Hamada, Hirotsugu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Yanagisawa, Hideki

    2008-06-01

    The phenomenon of two-phase flow instability is important for the design and operation of many industrial systems and equipment, such as steam generators. The designer's job is to predict the threshold of flow instability in order to design around it or compensate for it. So it is essential to understand the physical phenomena governing such instability and to develop computational tools to model the dynamics of boiling systems. In Japan Atomic Energy Agency, investigations on heat transfer characteristics of steam generator are being performed for the development of Sodium-cooled Fast Breeder Reactor. As one part of the research work, the evaluations of two-phase flow instability in the steam generator are being carried out experimentally and numerically. In this report, the numerical methods were studied for two-phase flow instability analysis in steam generator. For numerical simulation purpose, the special algorithm to calculate inlet flow rate iteratively with inlet pressure and outlet pressure as boundary conditions for the density-wave instability analysis was established. There was no need to solve property derivatives and large matrices, so the spurious numerical instabilities caused by discontinuous property derivatives at boiling boundaries were avoided. Large time-step was possible. The flow instability in single heat transfer tube was successfully simulated with homogeneous equilibrium model by using the present algorithm. Then the drift-flux model including the effects of subcooled boiling and two phase slip was adopted to improve the accuracy. The computer code was developed after selecting the correlations of drift velocity and distribution parameter. The capability of drift flux model together with the present algorithm for simulating density-wave instability in single tube was confirmed. (author)

  1. Efficient pseudorandom generators based on the DDH assumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaeian Farashahi, R.; Schoenmakers, B.; Sidorenko, A.; Okamoto, T.; Wang, X.

    2007-01-01

    A family of pseudorandom generators based on the decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption is proposed. The new construction is a modified and generalized version of the Dual Elliptic Curve generator proposed by Barker and Kelsey. Although the original Dual Elliptic Curve generator is shown to be

  2. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2010-12-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  3. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan -- PLN-2498

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2010-09-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  4. A chemometric-assisted method for the simultaneous determination of malachite green and crystal violet in water based on absorbance-pH data generated by a homemade pH gradient apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuling; Yuan, Xuejie; Yang, Jing; Yuan, Jintao; Shi, Jiahua; Wang, Yali; Chen, Yuewen; Gao, Shufang

    2015-01-01

    An attractive method of generating second-order data was developed by a dropping technique to generate pH gradient simultaneously coupled with diode-array spectrophotometer scanning. A homemade apparatus designed for the pH gradient. The method and the homemade apparatus were used to simultaneously determine malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) in water samples. The absorbance-pH second-order data of MG or CV were obtained from the spectra of MG or CV in a series of pH values of HCl-KCl solution. The second-order data of mixtures containing MG and CV that coexisted with interferents were analyzed using multidimensional partial least-squares with residual bilinearization. The method and homemade apparatus were used to simultaneously determine MG and CV in fish farming water samples and in river ones with satisfactory results. The presented method and the homemade apparatus could serve as an alternative tool to handle some analysis problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An improved method for generating axenic entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shruti; Shokal, Upasana; Forst, Steven; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2015-09-19

    Steinernema carpocapsae are parasitic nematodes that invade and kill insects. The nematodes are mutualistically associated with the bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila and together form an excellent model to study pathogen infection processes and host anti-nematode/antibacterial immune responses. To determine the contribution of S. carpocapsae and their associated X. nematophila to the successful infection of insects as well as to investigate the interaction of each mutualistic partner with the insect immune system, it is important to develop and establish robust methods for generating nematodes devoid of their bacteria. To produce S. carpocapsae nematodes without their associated X. nematophila bacteria, we have modified a previous method, which involves the use of a X. nematophila rpoS mutant strain that fails to colonize the intestine of the worms. We confirmed the absence of bacteria in the nematodes using a molecular diagnostic and two rounds of an axenicity assay involving appropriate antibiotics and nematode surface sterilization. We used axenic and symbiotic S. carpocapsae to infect Drosophila melanogaster larvae and found that both types of nematodes were able to cause insect death at similar rates. Generation of entomopathogenic nematodes lacking their mutualistic bacteria provides an excellent tool to dissect the molecular and genetic basis of nematode parasitism and to identify the insect host immune factors that participate in the immune response against nematode infections.

  6. Activity – based costing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Èuchranová Katarína

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Activity based costing is a method of identifying and tracking the operating costs directly associated with processing items. It is the practice of focusing on some unit of output, such as a purchase order or an assembled automobile and attempting to determine its total as precisely as poccible based on the fixed and variable costs of the inputs.You use ABC to identify, quantify and analyze the various cost drivers (such as labor, materials, administrative overhead, rework. and to determine which ones are candidates for reduction.A processes any activity that accepts inputs, adds value to these inputs for customers and produces outputs for these customers. The customer may be either internal or external to the organization. Every activity within an organization comprimes one or more processes. Inputs, controls and resources are all supplied to the process.A process owner is the person responsible for performing and or controlling the activity.The direction of cost through their contact to partial activity and processes is a new modern theme today. Beginning of this method is connected with very important changes in the firm processes.ABC method is a instrument , that bring a competitive advantages for the firm.

  7. Optical Generation of Fuzzy-Based Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Eran; Mendlovic, David; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2002-08-01

    In the last third of the 20th century, fuzzy logic has risen from a mathematical concept to an applicable approach in soft computing. Today, fuzzy logic is used in control systems for various applications, such as washing machines, train-brake systems, automobile automatic gear, and so forth. The approach of optical implementation of fuzzy inferencing was given by the authors in previous papers, giving an extra emphasis to applications with two dominant inputs. In this paper the authors introduce a real-time optical rule generator for the dual-input fuzzy-inference engine. The paper briefly goes over the dual-input optical implementation of fuzzy-logic inferencing. Then, the concept of constructing a set of rules from given data is discussed. Next, the authors show ways to implement this procedure optically. The discussion is accompanied by an example that illustrates the transformation from raw data into fuzzy set rules.

  8. Generation and importance of linked and irreducible moment diagrams in the recursive residue generation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schek, I.; Wyatt, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Molecular multiphoton processes are treated in the Recursive Residue Generation Method (A. Nauts and R.E. Wyatt, Phys. Rev. Lett 51, 2238 (1983)) by converting the molecular-field Hamiltonian matrix into tridiagonal form, using the Lanczos equations. In this study, the self-energies (diagonal) and linking (off-diagaonal) terms in the tridiagonal matrix are obtained by comparing linked moment diagrams in both representations. The dynamics of the source state is introduced and computed in terms of the linked and the irreducible moments

  9. Thermoelectric Generators Based on Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Edith; Uhl, Stefanie; Jeandupeux, Laure; López, Pilar Pérez; Sanglard, Pauline; Vanoli, Ennio; Marti, Roger; Keppner, Herbert

    2018-06-01

    Looking at energy harvesting using body or waste heat for portable electronic or on-board devices, Ionic liquids are interesting candidates as thermoactive materials in thermoelectric generators (TEGs) because of their outstanding properties. Two different kinds of ionic liquid, with alkylammonium and choline as cations, were studied, whereby different anions and redox couples were combined. This study focussed on the intention to find non-hazardous and environmentally friendly ionic liquids for TEGs to be selected among the thousands that can potentially be used. Seebeck coefficients (SEs) as high as - 15 mV/K were measured, in a particular case for an electrode temperature difference of 20 K. The bottleneck of our TEG device is still the abundance of negative SE liquids matching the internal resistance with the existing positive SE-liquids at series connections. In this paper, we show further progress in finding increased negative SE liquids. For current extraction from the TEG, the ionic liquid must be blended with a redox couple, allowing carrier exchange in a cyclic process under a voltage which is incuced by the asymmetry of the generator in terms of hot and cold electrodes. In our study, two types of redox pairs were tested. It was observed that a high SE of an ionic liquid/redox blend is not a sufficient condition for high power output. It appears that more complex effects between the ionic liquid and the electrode determine the magnitude of the final current/power output. The physico-chemical understanding of such a TEG cell is not yet available.

  10. Template-based generation of natural language expressions with Controlled M-Grammar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelo, Lisette; Leermakers, M.C.J.; Rous, J.H.G.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for the generation of related natural-language expressions. The method is based on a formal grammar of the natural language in question, specified in the Controlled M-Grammar (CMG) formalism. In the CMG framework the generation of an utterance is controlled by a derivation

  11. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system based automatic generation control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, S.H.; Etemadi, A.H. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran)

    2008-07-15

    Fixed gain controllers for automatic generation control are designed at nominal operating conditions and fail to provide best control performance over a wide range of operating conditions. So, to keep system performance near its optimum, it is desirable to track the operating conditions and use updated parameters to compute control gains. A control scheme based on artificial neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), which is trained by the results of off-line studies obtained using particle swarm optimization, is proposed in this paper to optimize and update control gains in real-time according to load variations. Also, frequency relaxation is implemented using ANFIS. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated via simulations. Compliance of the proposed method with NERC control performance standard is verified. (author)

  12. Model Based Analysis and Test Generation for Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Schumann, Johann M.; Mehlitz, Peter C.; Lowry, Mike R.; Karsai, Gabor; Nine, Harmon; Neema, Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    We describe a framework for model-based analysis and test case generation in the context of a heterogeneous model-based development paradigm that uses and combines Math- Works and UML 2.0 models and the associated code generation tools. This paradigm poses novel challenges to analysis and test case generation that, to the best of our knowledge, have not been addressed before. The framework is based on a common intermediate representation for different modeling formalisms and leverages and extends model checking and symbolic execution tools for model analysis and test case generation, respectively. We discuss the application of our framework to software models for a NASA flight mission.

  13. Computer Animation Based on Particle Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Wcislo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main issues of a computer animation of a set of elastic macroscopic objects based on the particle method. The main assumption of the generated animations is to achieve very realistic movements in a scene observed on the computer display. The objects (solid bodies interact mechanically with each other, The movements and deformations of solids are calculated using the particle method. Phenomena connected with the behaviour of solids in the gravitational field, their defomtations caused by collisions and interactions with the optional liquid medium are simulated. The simulation ofthe liquid is performed using the cellular automata method. The paper presents both simulation schemes (particle method and cellular automata rules an the method of combining them in the single animation program. ln order to speed up the execution of the program the parallel version based on the network of workstation was developed. The paper describes the methods of the parallelization and it considers problems of load-balancing, collision detection, process synchronization and distributed control of the animation.

  14. EPA's analytical methods for water: The next generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hites, R.A.; Budde, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    By the late 1970s, it had become clear to EPA that organic compounds were polluting many of the nation's waters. By 1977, as a result of a lawsuit by several environmentally concerned plaintiffs, EPA had focused on a list of 114 'priority' organic pollutants. Its long-term goal was the regulation of specific compounds that were found to pose significant environmental problems, a daunting task. Tens of thousands of samples needed to be measured by hundreds of different laboratories. Clearly, there were concerns about the comparability of data among laboratories. The result was a series of laboratory-based analytical 'methods.' These EPA methods are detailed, step-by-step directions (recipes) that describe everything the analyst needs to know to complete a satisfactory analysis. During the 1970s the first set of methods was developed; this was the '600 series' for the analysis of organic compounds in wastewater. In 1979 and the 1980s, a set of '500 series' methods, focusing on drinking water, was developed. By now, many of the 500 and 600 series methods are in widespread use, and it is clear that there are considerably overlaps among the methods in terms of both procedures and analytes. Indiana University was asked by EPA to consider the question, 'Is it possible to revise or eliminate some of the 500 and 600 series methods and effect a savings of time and money?' This and related questions were studied and recommendations were developed

  15. Automatic Tamil lyric generation based on ontological interpretation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This system proposes an -gram based approach to automatic Tamil lyric generation, by the ontological semantic interpretation of the input scene. The approach is based on identifying the semantics conveyed in the scenario, thereby making the system understand the situation and generate lyrics accordingly. The heart of ...

  16. Mechanically based generative laws of morphogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beloussov, Lev V

    2008-01-01

    A deep (although at the first glance naïve) question which may be addressed to embryonic development is why during this process quite definite and accurately reproduced successions of precise and complicated shapes are taking place, or why, in several cases, the result of development is highly precise in spite of an extensive variability of intermediate stages. This problem can be attacked in two different ways. One of them, up to now just slightly employed, is to formulate robust macroscopic generative laws from which the observed successions of shapes could be derived. Another one, which dominates in modern embryology, regards the development as a succession of highly precise 'micropatterns', each of them arising due to the action of specific factors, having, as a rule, nothing in common with each other. We argue that the latter view contradicts a great bulk of firmly established data and gives no satisfactory answers to the main problems of development. Therefore we intend to follow the first way. By doing this, we regard developing embryos as self-organized systems transpierced by feedbacks among which we pay special attention to those linked with mechanical stresses (MS). We formulate a hypothesis of so-called MS hyper-restoration as a common basis for the developmentally important feedback loops. We present a number of examples confirming this hypothesis and use it for reconstructing prolonged chains of developmental events. Finally, we discuss the application of the same set of assumptions to the first steps of egg development and to the internal differentiation of embryonic cells

  17. Conceptual study on deep-underground energy generation base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayano, M.; Okawa, T.

    1992-01-01

    Mitsubishi Atomic Power Industries, Inc. (MAPI) and Taisei Corporation have started a conceptual study on a deep-underground energy generation base for future cities in the 21st century around the metropolitan area, which will be increasingly important from viewpoints of the autonomy and sharing of the energy supply to the future cities. The energy generation base consists of a gas cooled reactor with naturally safety features as the energy source, an electric generation base using the Alkali Metal Thermo-electric Converter (AMTEC), a hydrogen production plant with the Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE), a hydrogen storage plant with the Metal Hydride (MH), and a desalination plant. This paper describes a concept of the energy generation base and the structure in the deep-underground, in soft soil, then the basic system of each plant, and finally discusses the feasibility of the deep-underground energy generation base. (author)

  18. Generation of Submicron Bubbles using Venturi Tube Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiraputra, I. G. P. A. E.; Edikresnha, D.; Munir, M. M.; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    In this experiment, submicron bubbles that have diameters less than 1 millimeter were generated by mixing water and gas by hydrodynamic cavitation method. The water was forced to pass through a venturi tube in which the speed of the water will increase in the narrow section, the throat, of the venturi. When the speed of water increased, the pressure would drop at the throat of the venturi causing the outside air to be absorbed via the gas inlet. The gas was then trapped inside the water producing bubbles. The effects of several physical parameters on the characteristics of the bubbles will be discussed thoroughly in this paper. It was found that larger amount of gas pressure during compression will increase the production rate of bubbles and increase the density of bubble within water.

  19. A method for generating double-ring-shaped vector beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Chen; Xiao-Hui, Ling; Zhi-Hong, Chen; Qian-Guang, Li; Hao, Lv; Hua-Qing, Yu; Xu-Nong, Yi

    2016-07-01

    We propose a method for generating double-ring-shaped vector beams. A step phase introduced by a spatial light modulator (SLM) first makes the incident laser beam have a nodal cycle. This phase is dynamic in nature because it depends on the optical length. Then a Pancharatnam-Berry phase (PBP) optical element is used to manipulate the local polarization of the optical field by modulating the geometric phase. The experimental results show that this scheme can effectively create double-ring-shaped vector beams. It provides much greater flexibility to manipulate the phase and polarization by simultaneously modulating the dynamic and the geometric phases. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11547017), the Hubei Engineering University Research Foundation, China (Grant No. z2014001), and the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province, China (Grant No. 2014CFB578).

  20. Effect of nanoparticles generation method on ionic conductivity in Yttria stabilized zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khare, J.; Joshi, M.P.; Kukreja, L.M.; Satapathy, S.

    2013-01-01

    Yttria stabilized zirconia nanoparticles were generated in pulsed and CW mode of laser operation using CO 2 laser based laser vaporization method. Impedance spectroscopic measurements were carried out in frequency range of 100 Hz - 1 MHz at various temperatures ranging from room temperature to 500 C. The deconvolution of grain and grain boundary contribution were obtained from impedance spectra by an equivalent circuit analysis. Grain and grain boundary ionic conductivity of pellet made from nanoparticles generated in pulsed mode was two orders of magnitude large in comparison to pellets made from nanoparticles generated in CW mode of laser operation. The difference in ionic conductivities of pellets made from nanoparticles generated in pulsed mode and CW mode were explained on the basis of defect associations in nanoparticles produced during nanoparticles generation. (author)

  1. Nondestructive testing method for a new generation of electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Anton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the Smart City system needs reliable and smoothly operating electronic equipment. The study is aimed at developing a nondestructive testing method for electronic equipment and its components. This method can be used to identify critical design defects of printed circuit boards (PCB and to predict their service life, taking into account the nature of probable operating loads. The study uses an acoustic emission method to identify and localize critical design defects of printed circuit boards. Geometric dimensions of detected critical defects can be determined by the X-ray tomography method. Based on the results of the study, a method combining acoustic emission and X-ray tomography was developed for nondestructive testing of printed circuit boards. The stress-strain state of solder joints containing detected defects was analyzed. This paper gives an example of using the developed method for estimating the degree of damage to joints between PCB components and predicting the service life of the entire PCB.

  2. A Novel Multi-View-Angle Range Images Generation Method for Measurement of Complicated Polyhedron in 3D Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deming Kong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of generation method is proposed in this paper to acquire range images for complicated polyhedron in 3D space from a series of view angles. In the proposed generation method, concept of three-view drawing in mechanical cartography is introduced into the range image generation procedure. Negative and positive directions of x-, y-, and z-axes are selected as the view angles to generate the range images for complicated polyhedron in 3D space. Furthermore, a novel iterative operation of mathematical morphology is proposed to ensure that satisfactory range images can be generated for the polyhedron from all the selected view angles. Compared with the existing method based on single view angle and interpolation operation, structure features contained in surface of the complicated polyhedron can be represented more consistently with the reality by using the proposed multi-view-angle range images generation method. The proposed generation method is validated by using an experiment.

  3. A new pseudorandom number generator based on a complex number chaotic equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yang; Tong Xiao-Jun

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, various chaotic equation based pseudorandom number generators have been proposed. However, the chaotic equations are all defined in the real number field. In this paper, an equation is proposed and proved to be chaotic in the imaginary axis. And a pseudorandom number generator is constructed based on the chaotic equation. The alteration of the definitional domain of the chaotic equation from the real number field to the complex one provides a new approach to the construction of chaotic equations, and a new method to generate pseudorandom number sequences accordingly. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the sequences generated by the proposed pseudorandom number generator possess many good properties

  4. Generating method-specific Reference Ranges - A harmonious outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Graham R; Griffin, Alison; Halton, Kieran; Fitzgibbon, Maria C

    2017-12-01

    When laboratory Reference Ranges (RR) do not reflect analytical methodology, result interpretation can cause misclassification of patients and inappropriate management. This can be mitigated by determining and implementing method-specific RRs, which was the main objective of this study. Serum was obtained from healthy volunteers (Male + Female, n > 120) attending hospital health-check sessions during June and July 2011. Pseudo-anonymised aliquots were stored (at - 70 °C) prior t° analysis on Abbott ARCHITECT c16000 chemistry and i 2000SR immunoassay analysers. Data were stratified by gender where appropriate. Outliers were excluded statistically (Tukey method) to generate non-parametric RRs (2.5th + 97.5th percentiles). RRs were compared to those quoted by Abbott and UK Pathology Harmony (PH) where possible. For 7 selected tests, RRs were verified using a data mining approach. For chemistry tests (n = 23), Upper or Lower Reference Limits (LRL or URL) were > 20% different from Abbott ranges in 25% of tests (11% from PH ranges) but in 38% for immunoassay tests (n = 13). RRs (mmol/L) for sodium (138-144), potassium (3.8-4.9) and chloride (102-110) were considerably narrower than PH ranges (133-146, 3.5-5.0 and 95-108, respectively). The gender difference for ferritin (M: 29-441, F: 8-193 ng/mL) was more pronounced than reported by Abbott (M: 22-275, F: 5-204 ng/mL). Verification studies showed good agreement for chemistry tests (mean [SD] difference = 0.4% [1.2%]) but less so for immunoassay tests (27% [29%]), particularly for TSH (LRL). Where resource permits, we advocate using method-specific RRs in preference to other sources, particularly where method bias and lack of standardisation limits RR transferability and harmonisation.

  5. Thermoelectric generator cooling system and method of control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Gregory P; Meisner, Gregory P; Glassford, Daniel B

    2012-10-16

    An apparatus is provided that includes a thermoelectric generator and an exhaust gas system operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to heat a portion of the thermoelectric generator with exhaust gas flow through the thermoelectric generator. A coolant system is operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to cool another portion of the thermoelectric generator with coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator. At least one valve is controllable to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in a direction that opposes a direction of the exhaust gas flow under a first set of operating conditions and to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in the direction of exhaust gas flow under a second set of operating conditions.

  6. Research of second harmonic generation images based on texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Li, Yan; Gong, Haiming; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Zufang; Chen, Guannan

    2014-09-01

    Texture analysis plays a crucial role in identifying objects or regions of interest in an image. It has been applied to a variety of medical image processing, ranging from the detection of disease and the segmentation of specific anatomical structures, to differentiation between healthy and pathological tissues. Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy as a potential noninvasive tool for imaging biological tissues has been widely used in medicine, with reduced phototoxicity and photobleaching. In this paper, we clarified the principles of texture analysis including statistical, transform, structural and model-based methods and gave examples of its applications, reviewing studies of the technique. Moreover, we tried to apply texture analysis to the SHG images for the differentiation of human skin scar tissues. Texture analysis method based on local binary pattern (LBP) and wavelet transform was used to extract texture features of SHG images from collagen in normal and abnormal scars, and then the scar SHG images were classified into normal or abnormal ones. Compared with other texture analysis methods with respect to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, LBP combined with wavelet transform was demonstrated to achieve higher accuracy. It can provide a new way for clinical diagnosis of scar types. At last, future development of texture analysis in SHG images were discussed.

  7. Methods and apparatus for cooling wind turbine generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamah, Samir A [Niskayuna, NY; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya [Rexford, NY; Garg, Jivtesh [Schenectady, NY; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran [Niskayuna, NY; Jansen, Patrick Lee [Alplaus, NY; Carl, Jr., Ralph James

    2008-10-28

    A wind turbine generator includes a stator having a core and a plurality of stator windings circumferentially spaced about a generator longitudinal axis. A rotor is rotatable about the generator longitudinal axis, and the rotor includes a plurality of magnetic elements coupled to the rotor and cooperating with the stator windings. The magnetic elements are configured to generate a magnetic field and the stator windings are configured to interact with the magnetic field to generate a voltage in the stator windings. A heat pipe assembly thermally engaging one of the stator and the rotor to dissipate heat generated in the stator or rotor.

  8. Simple method for generating adjustable trains of picosecond electron bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Muggli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple, passive method for producing an adjustable train of picosecond electron bunches is demonstrated. The key component of this method is an electron beam mask consisting of an array of parallel wires that selectively spoils the beam emittance. This mask is positioned in a high magnetic dispersion, low beta-function region of the beam line. The incoming electron beam striking the mask has a time/energy correlation that corresponds to a time/position correlation at the mask location. The mask pattern is transformed into a time pattern or train of bunches when the dispersion is brought back to zero downstream of the mask. Results are presented of a proof-of-principle experiment demonstrating this novel technique that was performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility. This technique allows for easy tailoring of the bunch train for a particular application, including varying the bunch width and spacing, and enabling the generation of a trailing witness bunch.

  9. Construction of the Cylindrical Ozone Generator by Silent Discharge Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Purwadi; Widdi Usada; Suryadi; Isyuniarto; Sri Sukmajaya

    2002-01-01

    It has been constructed the ozone generator by silent discharge method. Anode and cathode of discharge tube were made of stainless steel (SS) in the cylinder form with diameters of 22 mm and 25 mm, the length of 100 mm and 110 mm, the equal thickness of 1 mm respectively. The dielectric was made of cylinder glass with diameter of 23 cm, the length of 105 cm and the thickness of 1 mm. The testing of apparatus was carried out by using discharge voltage of 12.5 kV and frequency of 1.5 kHz. Identification of the ozone gas formation was marked by the existing of special ozone smell and the separated of iodine molecule (yellow colour) from the potassium iodide solution which contaminated gas out put from the ozonizer. By using absorbing method can be shown that the ozone production rate was 0.196 mg/s by using oxygen gas input and 0.065 mg/s by using ordinary air input. (author)

  10. Introduction to the methods of estimating nuclear power generating costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-11-01

    The present report prepared by the Agency with the guidance and assistance of a panel of experts from Member States, the names of whom will be found at the end of this report, represents the first step in the methods of cost evaluation. The main objectives of the report are: (1) The preparation of a full list of the cost items likely to be encountered so that the preliminary estimates for a given nuclear power system can be relied upon in deciding on its economic merits. (2) A survey of the methods currently used for the estimation of the generating costs of the power produced by a nuclear station. The survey is intended for a wide audience ranging from engineers to public officials with an interest in the prospects of nuclear power. An attempt has therefore been made to refrain from detailed technical discussions in order to make the presentation easily understandable to readers with only a very general knowledge of the principles of nuclear engineering. 3 figs, tabs.

  11. Introduction to the methods of estimating nuclear power generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    The present report prepared by the Agency with the guidance and assistance of a panel of experts from Member States, the names of whom will be found at the end of this report, represents the first step in the methods of cost evaluation. The main objectives of the report are: (1) The preparation of a full list of the cost items likely to be encountered so that the preliminary estimates for a given nuclear power system can be relied upon in deciding on its economic merits. (2) A survey of the methods currently used for the estimation of the generating costs of the power produced by a nuclear station. The survey is intended for a wide audience ranging from engineers to public officials with an interest in the prospects of nuclear power. An attempt has therefore been made to refrain from detailed technical discussions in order to make the presentation easily understandable to readers with only a very general knowledge of the principles of nuclear engineering. 3 figs, tabs

  12. Wavelet-Based Signal Processing of Electromagnetic Pulse Generated Waveforms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ardolino, Richard S

    2007-01-01

    This thesis investigated and compared alternative signal processing techniques that used wavelet-based methods instead of traditional frequency domain methods for processing measured electromagnetic pulse (EMP) waveforms...

  13. Generation of transgene-free induced pluripotent stem cells with non-viral methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhao, Hua-shan; Zhang, Qiu-ling; Xu, Chang-lin; Liu, Chang-bai

    2013-03-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were originally generated from mouse fibroblasts by enforced expression of Yamanaka factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc). The technique was quickly reproduced with human fibroblasts or mesenchymal stem cells. Although having been showed therapeutic potential in animal models of sickle cell anemia and Parkinson's disease, iPS cells generated by viral methods do not suit all the clinical applications. Various non-viral methods have appeared in recent years for application of iPS cells in cell transplantation therapy. These methods mainly include DNA vector-based approaches, transfection of mRNA, and transduction of reprogramming proteins. This review summarized these non-viral methods and compare the advantages, disadvantages, efficiency, and safety of these methods.

  14. Shielded radioisotope generator and method for using same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, B.A.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclide generator for on-site radioisotope generation is disclosed in which the formation of a short-lived daughter radioisotope from its longer-lived parent features batch flow of eluting reagent interior of the generator in a completely shielded environment

  15. A microcomputer-based waveform generator for Moessbauer spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jianping; Chen Xiaomei

    1995-01-01

    A waveform generator for Moessbauer spectrometers based on 8751 single chip microcomputer is described. The reference wave form with high linearity is generated with a 12 bit DAC, and its amplitude is controlled with a 8 bit DAC. Because the channel advance and synchronous signals can be delayed arbitrarily, excellent folded spectra can be acquired. This waveform generator can be controlled with DIP switches on faceplate or series interface of the IBM-PC microcomputer

  16. Alternative method for steam generation for thermal oxidation of silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelman, Jeffrey J.

    2010-02-01

    Thermal oxidation of silicon is an important process step in MEMS device fabrication. Thicker oxide layers are often used as structural components and can take days or weeks to grow, causing high gas costs, maintenance issues, and a process bottleneck. Pyrolytic steam, which is generated from hydrogen and oxygen combustion, was the default process, but has serious drawbacks: cost, safety, particles, permitting, reduced growth rate, rapid hydrogen consumption, component breakdown and limited steam flow rates. Results from data collected over a 24 month period by a MEMS manufacturer supports replacement of pyrolytic torches with RASIRC Steamer technology to reduce process cycle time and enable expansion previously limited by local hydrogen permitting. Data was gathered to determine whether Steamers can meet or exceed pyrolytic torch performance. The RASIRC Steamer uses de-ionized water as its steam source, eliminating dependence on hydrogen and oxygen. A non-porous hydrophilic membrane selectively allows water vapor to pass. All other molecules are greatly restricted, so contaminants in water such as dissolved gases, ions, total organic compounds (TOC), particles, and metals can be removed in the steam phase. The MEMS manufacturer improved growth rate by 7% over the growth range from 1μm to 3.5μm. Over a four month period, wafer uniformity, refractive index, wafer stress, and etch rate were tracked with no significant difference found. The elimination of hydrogen generated a four-month return on investment (ROI). Mean time between failure (MTBF) was increased from 3 weeks to 32 weeks based on three Steamers operating over eight months.

  17. A price based automatic generation control using unscheduled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, a model for price based automatic generation control is presented. A modified control scheme is proposed which will prevent unintended unscheduled interchanges among the participants. The proposed scheme is verified by simulating it on a model of isolated area system having four generators. It has been ...

  18. A method for aggregating external operating conditions in multi-generation system optimization models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Münster, Marie; Ensinas, Adriano Viana

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel, simple method for reducing external operating condition datasets to be used in multi-generation system optimization models. The method, called the Characteristic Operating Pattern (CHOP) method, is a visually-based aggregation method that clusters reference data based...... on parameter values rather than time of occurrence, thereby preserving important information on short-term relations between the relevant operating parameters. This is opposed to commonly used methods where data are averaged over chronological periods (months or years), and extreme conditions are hidden...... in the averaged values. The CHOP method is tested in a case study where the operation of a fictive Danish combined heat and power plant is optimized over a historical 5-year period. The optimization model is solved using the full external operating condition dataset, a reduced dataset obtained using the CHOP...

  19. Depth compensating calculation method of computer-generated holograms using symmetry and similarity of zone plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hui; Gong, Guanghong; Li, Ni

    2017-10-01

    Computer-generated hologram (CGH) is a promising 3D display technology while it is challenged by heavy computation load and vast memory requirement. To solve these problems, a depth compensating CGH calculation method based on symmetry and similarity of zone plates is proposed and implemented on graphics processing unit (GPU). An improved LUT method is put forward to compute the distances between object points and hologram pixels in the XY direction. The concept of depth compensating factor is defined and used for calculating the holograms of points with different depth positions instead of layer-based methods. The proposed method is suitable for arbitrary sampling objects with lower memory usage and higher computational efficiency compared to other CGH methods. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by numerical and optical experiments.

  20. Initialization methods and ensembles generation for the IPSL GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labetoulle, Sonia; Mignot, Juliette; Guilyardi, Eric; Denvil, Sébastien; Masson, Sébastien

    2010-05-01

    The protocol used and developments made for decadal and seasonal predictability studies at IPSL (Paris, France) are presented. The strategy chosen is to initialize the IPSL-CM5 (NEMO ocean and LMDZ atmosphere) model only at the ocean-atmosphere interface, following the guidance and expertise gained from ocean-only NEMO experiments. Two novel approaches are presented for initializing the coupled system. First, a nudging of sea surface temperature and wind stress towards available reanalysis is made with the surface salinity climatologically restored. Second, the heat, salt and momentum fluxes received by the ocean model are computed as a linear combination of the fluxes computed by the atmospheric model and by a CORE-style bulk formulation using up-to-date reanalysis. The steps that led to these choices are presented, as well as a description of the code adaptation and a comparison of the computational cost of both methods. The strategy for the generation of ensembles at the end of the initialization phase is also presented. We show how the technical environment of IPSL-CM5 (LibIGCM) was modified to achieve these goals.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINING SUPPRESSOR CONCENTRATION IN THE MCU NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT (NGS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Fondeur, F.; White, T.; Diprete, D.; Milliken, C.

    2013-07-31

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with identifying and developing at least one, but preferably two methods for quantifying the suppressor in the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) system. The suppressor is a guanidine derivative, N,N',N"-tris(3,7-dimethyloctyl)guanidine (TiDG). A list of 10 possible methods was generated, and screening experiments were performed for 8 of the 10 methods. After completion of the screening experiments, the non-aqueous acid-base titration was determined to be the most promising, and was selected for further development as the primary method. {sup 1}H NMR also showed promising results from the screening experiments, and this method was selected for further development as the secondary method. Other methods, including {sup 36}Cl radiocounting and ion chromatography, also showed promise; however, due to the similarity to the primary method (titration) and the inability to differentiate between TiDG and TOA (tri-n-ocytlamine) in the blended solvent, {sup 1}H NMR was selected over these methods. Analysis of radioactive samples obtained from real waste ESS (extraction, scrub, strip) testing using the titration method showed good results. Based on these results, the titration method was selected as the method of choice for TiDG measurement. {sup 1}H NMR has been selected as the secondary (back-up) method, and additional work is planned to further develop this method and to verify the method using radioactive samples. Procedures for analyzing radioactive samples of both pure NGS and blended solvent were developed and issued for the both methods.

  2. Pseudo-random bit generator based on Chebyshev map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, B. P.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we study a pseudo-random bit generator based on two Chebyshev polynomial maps. The novel derivative algorithm shows perfect statistical properties established by number of statistical tests.

  3. Random number generation based on digital differential chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fully digital differential chaos based random number generator. The output of the digital circuit is proved to be chaotic by calculating the output time series maximum Lyapunov exponent. We introduce a new post processing

  4. Boundary element numerical method for the electric field generated by oblique multi-needle electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU FuPing; WANG AnLing; WANG AnXuan; CAO YueZu; CHEN Qiang; YANG ChangChun

    2009-01-01

    According to the electric potential of oblique multi-needle electrodes (OMNE) in biological tissue, the discrete equations based on the indetermination linear current density were established by the boundary element integral equations (BEIE). The non-uniform distribution of the current flowing from multi-needle electrodes to conductive biological tissues was imaged by solving a set of linear equa-tions. Then, the electric field and potential generated by OMNE in biological tissues at any point may be determined through the boundary element method (BEM). The time of program running and stability of computing method are examined by an example. It demonstrates that the algorithm possesses a quick speed and the steady computed results. It means that this method has an important referenced significance for computing the field and the potential generated by OMNE in bio-tissue, which is a fast, effective and accurate computing method.

  5. Validation of statistical assessment method for the optimization of the inspection need for nuclear steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, K.; Voskamp, R.; Schmibauer, J.; Ostermeyer, H.; Nagel, G.

    2011-01-01

    The cost of steam generator inspections in nuclear power plants is high. A new quantitative assessment methodology for the accumulation of flaws due to stochastic causes like fretting has been developed for cases where limited inspection data is available. Additionally, a new quantitative assessment methodology for the accumulation of environment related flaws, caused e.g. by corrosion in steam generator tubes, has been developed. The method that combines deterministic information regarding flaw initiation and growth with stochastic elements connected to environmental aspects requires only knowledge of the experimental flaw accumulation history. The method, combining both types of flaw types, provides a complete description of the flaw accumulation and there are several possible uses of the method. The method can be used to evaluate the total life expectancy of the steam generator and simple statistically defined plugging criteria can be established based on flaw behaviour. This way the inspection interval and inspection coverage can be optimized with respect to allowable flaws and the method can recognize flaw type subsets requiring more frequent inspection intervals. The method can also be used to develop statistically realistic safety factors accounting for uncertainties in inspection flaw sizing and detection. The statistical assessment method has been showed to be robust and insensitive to different assessments of plugged tubes. Because the procedure is re-calibrated after each inspection, it reacts effectively to possible changes in the steam generator environment. Validation of the assessment method is provided for real steam generators, both in the case of stochastic damage as well as environment related flaws. (authors)

  6. Workplace-related generational characteristics of nurses: A mixed-method systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanin, Simone; Palese, Alvisa; Bressan, Valentina; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Kvist, Tarja

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and summarize workplace characteristics of three nursing generations: Baby Boomers, Generations X and Y. Generational differences affect occupational well-being, nurses' performance, patient outcomes and safety; therefore, nurse managers, administrators and educators are interested increasingly in making evidence-based decisions about the multigenerational nursing workforce. Mixed-method systematic review. Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Scopus (January 1991-January 2017). (1) The Joanna Briggs Institute's method for conducting mixed-method systematic reviews; (2) the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and (3) the Enhancing Transparency in Reporting the Synthesis of Qualitative Research guidelines. The studies' methodological quality was assessed with the Mixed-Methods Appraisal Tool. Quantitative and mixed-method studies were transformed into qualitative methods using a convergent qualitative synthesis and qualitative findings were combined with a narrative synthesis. Thirty-three studies were included with three main themes and 11 subthemes: (1) Job attitudes (work engagement; turnover intentions, reasons for leaving; reasons, incentives/disincentives to continue nursing); (2) Emotion-related job aspects (stress/resilience; well-being/job satisfaction; affective commitment; unit climate; work ethic) and (3) Practice and leadership-related aspects (autonomy; perceived competence; leadership relationships and perceptions). Baby Boomers reported lower levels of stress and burnout than did Generations X and Y, different work engagement, factors affecting workplace well-being and retention and greater intention to leave compared with Generation Y, which was less resilient, but more cohesive. Although several studies reported methodological limitations and conflicting findings, generational differences in nurses' job attitudes, emotional, practice and leadership factors should be considered to enhance

  7. COSINE software development based on code generation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Hao; Mo Wentao; Liu Shuo; Zhao Guang

    2013-01-01

    The code generation technology can significantly improve the quality and productivity of software development and reduce software development risk. At present, the code generator is usually based on UML model-driven technology, which can not satisfy the development demand of nuclear power calculation software. The feature of scientific computing program was analyzed and the FORTRAN code generator (FCG) based on C# was developed in this paper. FCG can generate module variable definition FORTRAN code automatically according to input metadata. FCG also can generate memory allocation interface for dynamic variables as well as data access interface. FCG was applied to the core and system integrated engine for design and analysis (COSINE) software development. The result shows that FCG can greatly improve the development efficiency of nuclear power calculation software, and reduce the defect rate of software development. (authors)

  8. Comparison of sensorless dimming control based on building modeling and solar power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Naeun; Kim, Jonghun; Jang, Cheolyong; Sung, Yoondong; Jeong, Hakgeun

    2015-01-01

    Artificial lighting in office buildings accounts for about 30% of the total building energy consumption. Lighting energy is important to reduce building energy consumption since artificial lighting typically has a relatively large energy conversion factor. Therefore, previous studies have proposed a dimming control using daylight. When applied dimming control, method based on building modeling does not need illuminance sensors. Thus, it can be applied to existing buildings that do not have illuminance sensors. However, this method does not accurately reflect real-time weather conditions. On the other hand, solar power generation from a PV (photovoltaic) panel reflects real-time weather conditions. The PV panel as the sensor improves the accuracy of dimming control by reflecting disturbance. Therefore, we compared and analyzed two types of sensorless dimming controls: those based on the building modeling and those that based on solar power generation using PV panels. In terms of energy savings, we found that a dimming control based on building modeling is more effective than that based on solar power generation by about 6%. However, dimming control based on solar power generation minimizes the inconvenience to occupants and can also react to changes in solar radiation entering the building caused by dirty window. - Highlights: • We conducted sensorless dimming control based on solar power generation. • Dimming controls using building modeling and solar power generation were compared. • The real time weather conditions can be considered by using solar power generation. • Dimming control using solar power generation minimizes inconvenience to occupants

  9. Probabilistic methodology for assessing steam generator tube inspection - Phase II: CANTIA - a probabilistic method for assessing steam generator tube inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.E.; Gorman, J.A.; Turner, A.P.L.

    1997-03-01

    The objectives of this project were to develop a computer-based method for probabilistic assessment of inspection strategies for steam generator tubes, and to document the source code and to provide a user's manual for it. The program CANTIA was created to fulfill this objective, and the documentation and verification of the code is provided in this volume. The user's manual for CANTIA is provided as a separate report. CANTIA uses Monte Carlo techniques to determine approximate probabilities of steam generator tube failures under accident conditions and primary-to-secondary leak rates under normal and accident conditions at future points in time. The program also determines approximate future flaw distributions and non-destructive examination results from the input data. The probabilities of failure and leak rates and the future flaw distributions can be influenced by performing inspections of the steam generator tubes at some future points in time, and removing defective tubes from the population. The effect of different inspection and maintenance strategies can therefore be determined as a direct effect on the probability of tube failure and primary-to-secondary leak rate

  10. Doppler method leak detection for LMFBR steam generators. Pt. 3. Investigation of detection sensitivity and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hiromichi; Kinoshita, Izumi

    2001-01-01

    To prevent the expansion of tube damage and to maintain structural integrity in the steam generators (SGs) of a fast breeder reactor (FBR), it is necessary to detect precisely and immediately any leakage of water from heat transfer tubes. Therefore, the Doppler method was developed. Previous studies have revealed that, in the SG full-sector model that simulates actual SGs, the Doppler method can detect bubbles of 0.4 l/s within a few seconds. However in consideration of the dissolution rate of hydrogen generated by a sodium-water reaction even from a small water leak, it is necessary to detect smaller leakages of water from the heat transfer tubes. The detection sensitivity of the Doppler method and the influence of background noise were experimentally investigated. In-water experiments were performed using the SG model. The results show that the Doppler method can detect bubbles of 0.01 l/s (equivalent to a water leak rate of about 0.01 g/s) within a few seconds and that the background noise has little effect on water leak detection performance. The Doppler method thus has great potential for the detection of water leakage in SGs. (author)

  11. New flowmetric measurement methods of power dissipated by an ultrasonic generator in an aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancier, Valérie; Leclercq, Didier

    2007-02-01

    Two new determination methods of the power dissipated in an aqueous medium by an ultrasound generator were developed. They are based on the use of a heat flow sensor inserted between a tank and a heat sink that allows to measure the power directly coming through the sensor. To be exploitable, the first method requires waiting for stationary flow. On the other hand, the second, extrapolated from the first one, makes it possible to determine the dissipated power in only five minutes. Finally, the results obtained with the flowmetric method are compared to the classical calorimetric ones.

  12. A qualitative model construction method of nuclear power plants for effective diagnostic knowledge generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Shinji; Endou, Akira; Kitamura, Yoshinobu; Sasajima, Munehiko; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Mizoguchi, Riichiro.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses a method to construct a qualitative model of a nuclear power plant, in order to generate effective diagnostic knowledge. The proposed method is to prepare deep knowledge to be provided to a knowledge compiler based upon qualitative reasoning (QR). Necessity of knowledge compilation for nuclear plant diagnosis will be explained first, and conventionally-experienced problems in qualitative reasoning and a proposed method to overcome this problem is shown next, then a sample procedure to build a qualitative nuclear plant model is demonstrated. (author)

  13. A Frequency Matching Method for Generation of a Priori Sample Models from Training Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Katrine; Cordua, Knud Skou; Frydendall, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a Frequency Matching Method (FMM) for generation of a priori sample models based on training images and illustrates its use by an example. In geostatistics, training images are used to represent a priori knowledge or expectations of models, and the FMM can be used to generate...... new images that share the same multi-point statistics as a given training image. The FMM proceeds by iteratively updating voxel values of an image until the frequency of patterns in the image matches the frequency of patterns in the training image; making the resulting image statistically...... indistinguishable from the training image....

  14. Apparatus and method for inhibiting the generation of excessive radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, F.; Chamberlain, J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for generating electron radiation or X-ray radiation. It comprises accelerator means for generating and accelerating electrons to form an electron beam which has a predetermined low intensity level for the generation of the electron radiation or a predetermined high intensity level for the generation of the X-ray radiation; supporting means for supporting a scattering foil and a target and for selectively moving either the foil into the trajectory of the electron beam having the low intensity level for generating the electron radiation upon impingement of the electrons there or on the target into the trajectory of the electron beam having the high intensity level for generating the X-ray radiation upon impingement of the electrons thereon; detecting means operable by the supporting means for sensing the position of the target relative to the trajectory of the electron beam; and inhibiting means coupled to the accelerator means and to the detecting means for preventing the generation of an electron beam having the high intensity level if the foil and not the target is positioned in the trajectory of the electron beam

  15. Stored Energy Balance for Distributed PV-Based Active Generators in an AC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Wu, Dan; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a decentralized strategy based on fuzzy logic is proposed for balancing the state of charge of the energy storage units for distributed PV-based active generators. The proposed method, weights the action of conventional droop control loops for privileging the charge of the energy...... expandable and can be applied to a several number of power generators interconnected in a microgrid. Frequency and voltage bus signaling is used in order to coordinate the control operation mode between units. Simulation results in a low-voltage, three-phase, islanded AC microgrid show the feasibility...... of the proposed method and its applicability even for several active generators....

  16. Right-Linear Languages Generated in Systems of Knowledge Representation based on LSG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Danciulescu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In Tudor (Preda (2010 a method for formal languages generation based on labeled stratified graph representations is sketched. The author proves that the considered method can generate regular languages and context-sensitive languages by considering an exemplification of the proposed method for a particular regular language and another one for a particular contextsensitive language. At the end of the study, the author highlights some open problems for future research among which we remind: (1 The study of the language families that can be generated by means of these structures; (2 The study of the infiniteness of the languages that can be represented in stratified graphs. In this paper, we extend the method presented in Tudor (Preda(2010, by considering the stratified graph formalism in a system of knowledge representation and reasoning. More precisely, we propose a method that can be applied for generating any Right Linear Language construction. Our method is proved and exemplified in several cases.

  17. BEAT: A Web-Based Boolean Expression Fault-Based Test Case Generation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T. Y.; Grant, D. D.; Lau, M. F.; Ng, S. P.; Vasa, V. R.

    2006-01-01

    BEAT is a Web-based system that generates fault-based test cases from Boolean expressions. It is based on the integration of our several fault-based test case selection strategies. The generated test cases are considered to be fault-based, because they are aiming at the detection of particular faults. For example, when the Boolean expression is in…

  18. A nodal method based on matrix-response method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocamora Junior, F.D.; Menezes, A.

    1982-01-01

    A nodal method based in the matrix-response method, is presented, and its application to spatial gradient problems, such as those that exist in fast reactors, near the core - blanket interface, is investigated. (E.G.) [pt

  19. A single-electron picture based on the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock method: application to the anisotropic ionization and subsequent high-harmonic generation of the CO molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmura, S.; Kato, T.; Oyamada, T.; Koseki, S.; Ohmura, H.; Kono, H.

    2018-02-01

    The mechanisms of anisotropic near-IR tunnel ionization and high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in a CO molecule are theoretically investigated by using the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) method developed for the simulation of multielectron dynamics of molecules. The multielectron dynamics obtained by numerically solving the equations of motion (EOMs) in the MCTDHF method is converted to a single orbital picture in the natural orbital representation where the first-order reduced density matrix is diagonalized. The ionization through each natural orbital is examined and the process of HHG is classified into different optical paths designated by a combinations of initial, intermediate and final natural orbitals. The EOMs for natural spin-orbitals are also derived within the framework of the MCTDHF, which maintains the first-order reduced density matrix to be a diagonal one throughout the time propagation of a many-electron wave function. The orbital dependent, time-dependent effective potentials that govern the dynamics of respective time-dependent natural orbitals are deduced from the derived EOMs, of which the temporal variation can be used to interpret the motion of the electron density associated with each natural spin-orbital. The roles of the orbital shape, multiorbital ionization, linear Stark effect and multielectron interaction in the ionization and HHG of a CO molecule are revealed by the effective potentials obtained. When the laser electric field points to the nucleus O from C, tunnel ionization from the C atom side is enhanced; a hump structure originating from multielectron interaction is then formed on the top of the field-induced distorted barrier of the HOMO effective potential. This hump formation, responsible for the directional anisotropy of tunnel ionization, restrains the influence of the linear Stark effect on the energy shifts of bound states.

  20. Current Control Method for Distributed Generation Power Generation Plants under Grid Fault Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Pedro; Luna, Alvaro; Hermoso, Juan Ramon

    2011-01-01

    The operation of distributed power generation systems under grid fault conditions is a key issue for the massive integration of renewable energy systems. Several studies have been conducted to improve the response of such distributed generation systems under voltage dips. In spite of being less s...

  1. Review of islanding detection methods for distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Mahat, Pukar; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of power system islanding and islanding detection techniques. Islanding detection techniques, for a distribution system with distributed generation (DG), can broadly be divided into remote and local techniques. A remote islanding detection technique is associated...

  2. Nuclear steam generator sludge lance method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirey, R.A.; Murray, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a sludge lancing system for removing sludge deposits from an interior region of a steam generator. It comprises: a peripheral fluid injection means for injecting a fluid at a high pressure about a periphery of the steam generator, the peripheral fluid injection means comprising at least one elongated fluid conduit, at least one injection nozzle and a joint positioned at a predetermined point along the elongated fluid conduit for permitting the peripheral fluid injection means to bend to a predetermined angle at the joint within the steam generator; a reciprocable fluid injection means for injecting a fluid at a high pressure toward the sludge deposits and dislodging the sludge deposits; and a supporting means positioned within the interior of the steam generator for supporting the reciprocable fluid injection means throughout the reciprocation of the reciprocable fluid injection means

  3. Automatic Generation of Setup for CNC Spring Coiler Based on Case-based Reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KU Xiangchen; WANG Runxiao; LI Jishun; WANG Dongbo

    2006-01-01

    When producing special-shape spring in CNC spring coiler, the setup of the coiler is often a manual work using a trial-and-error method. As a result, the setup of coiler consumes so much time and becomes the bottleneck of the spring production process. In order to cope with this situation, this paper proposes an automatic generation system of setup for CNC spring coiler using case-based reasoning (CBR). The core of the study contains: (1) integrated reasoning model of CBR system;(2) spatial shape describe of special-shape spring based on feature;(3) coiling case representation using shape feature matrix; and (4) case similarity measure algorithm. The automatic generation system has implemented with C++ Builder 6.0 and is helpful in improving the automaticity and efficiency of spring coiler.

  4. Cold weather hydrogen generation system and method of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Ken Wayne; Kowalski, Michael Thomas; Porter, Stephen Charles; Chow, Oscar Ken; Borland, Nicholas Paul; Goyette, Stephen Arthur

    2010-12-14

    A system for providing hydrogen gas is provided. The system includes a hydrogen generator that produces gas from water. One or more heat generation devices are arranged to provide heating of the enclosure during different modes of operation to prevent freezing of components. A plurality of temperature sensors are arranged and coupled to a controller to selectively activate a heat source if the temperature of the component is less than a predetermined temperature.

  5. Spur gears: Optimal geometry, methods for generation and Tooth Contact Analysis (TCA) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Zhang, Jiao

    1988-01-01

    The contents of this report include the following: (1) development of optimal geometry for crowned spur gears; (2) methods for their generation; and (3) tooth contact analysis (TCA) computer programs for the analysis of meshing and bearing contact on the crowned spur gears. The method developed for synthesis is used for the determination of the optimal geometry for crowned pinion surface and is directed to reduce the sensitivity of the gears to misalignment, localize the bearing contact, and guarantee the favorable shape and low level of the transmission errors. A new method for the generation of the crowned pinion surface has been proposed. This method is based on application of the tool with a surface of revolution that slightly deviates from a regular cone surface. The tool can be used as a grinding wheel or as a shaver. The crowned pinion surface can also be generated by a generating plane whose motion is provided by an automatic grinding machine controlled by a computer. The TCA program simulates the meshing and bearing contact of the misaligned gears. The transmission errors are also determined.

  6. Fast Reliability Assessing Method for Distribution Network with Distributed Renewable Energy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fan; Huang, Shaoxiong; Ding, Jinjin; Ding, Jinjin; Gao, Bo; Xie, Yuguang; Wang, Xiaoming

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a fast reliability assessing method for distribution grid with distributed renewable energy generation. First, the Weibull distribution and the Beta distribution are used to describe the probability distribution characteristics of wind speed and solar irradiance respectively, and the models of wind farm, solar park and local load are built for reliability assessment. Then based on power system production cost simulation probability discretization and linearization power flow, a optimal power flow objected with minimum cost of conventional power generation is to be resolved. Thus a reliability assessment for distribution grid is implemented fast and accurately. The Loss Of Load Probability (LOLP) and Expected Energy Not Supplied (EENS) are selected as the reliability index, a simulation for IEEE RBTS BUS6 system in MATLAB indicates that the fast reliability assessing method calculates the reliability index much faster with the accuracy ensured when compared with Monte Carlo method.

  7. Variational method for the minimization of entropy generation in solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, Sjoerd; Kessels, W. M. M., E-mail: w.m.m.kessels@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2015-04-07

    In this work, a method is presented to extend traditional solar cell simulation tools to make it possible to calculate the most efficient design of practical solar cells. The method is based on the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, which is used to derive an expression for the local entropy generation rate in the solar cell, making it possible to quantify all free energy losses on the same scale. The framework of non-equilibrium thermodynamics can therefore be combined with the calculus of variations and existing solar cell models to minimize the total entropy generation rate in the cell to find the most optimal design. The variational method is illustrated by applying it to a homojunction solar cell. The optimization results in a set of differential algebraic equations, which determine the optimal shape of the doping profile for given recombination and transport models.

  8. Epigenetic Tracking, a Method to Generate Arbitrary Shapes By Using Evolutionary-Developmental Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Fontana, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an Artificial Embryology method (called ``Epigenetic Tracking'') to generate predefined arbitrarily shaped 2-dimensional arrays of cells by means of evolutionary techniques. It is based on a model of development, whose key features are: i) the distinction bewteen ``normal'' and ``driver'' cells, being the latter able to receive guidance from the genome, ii) the implementation of the proliferation/apoptosis events in such a way that many cells are created/deleted at once, ...

  9. Improvement of non-destructive fissile mass assays in α low-level waste drums: A matrix correction method based on neutron capture gamma-rays and a neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallu, F.; Loche, F.

    2008-08-01

    Within the framework of radioactive waste control, non-destructive assay (NDA) methods may be employed. The active neutron interrogation (ANI) method is now well-known and effective in quantifying low α-activity fissile masses (mainly 235U, 239Pu, 241Pu) with low densities, i.e. less than about 0.4, in radioactive waste drums of volumes up to 200 l. The PROMpt Epithermal and THErmal interrogation Experiment (PROMETHEE [F. Jallu, A. Mariani, C. Passard, A.-C. Raoux, H. Toubon, Alpha low level waste control: improvement of the PROMETHEE 6 assay system performances. Nucl. Technol. 153 (January) (2006); C. Passard, A. Mariani, F. Jallu, J. Romeyer-Dherber, H. Recroix, M. Rodriguez, J. Loridon, C. Denis, PROMETHEE: an alpha low level waste assay system using passive and active neutron measurement methods. Nucl. Technol. 140 (December) (2002) 303-314]) based on ANI has been under development since 1996 to reach the incinerating α low level waste (LLW) criterion of about 50 Bq[α] per gram of crude waste (≈50 μg Pu) in 118 l drums on the date the drums are conditioned. Difficulties arise when dealing with matrices containing neutron energy moderators such as H and neutron absorbents such as Cl. These components may have a great influence on the fissile mass deduced from the neutron signal measured by ANI. For example, the calibration coefficient measured in a 118 l drum containing a cellulose matrix (density d = 0.144 g cm -3) may be 50 times higher than that obtained in a poly-vinyl-chloride matrix ( d = 0.253 g cm -3). Without any information on the matrix, the fissile mass is often overestimated due to safety procedures and by considering the most disadvantageous calibration coefficient corresponding to the most absorbing and moderating calibration matrix. The work discussed in this paper was performed at the CEA Nuclear Measurement Laboratory in France. It concerns the development of a matrix effect correction method, which consists in identifying and quantifying

  10. Improvement of non-destructive fissile mass assays in α low-level waste drums: A matrix correction method based on neutron capture gamma-rays and a neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jallu, F.; Loche, F.

    2008-01-01

    Within the framework of radioactive waste control, non-destructive assay (NDA) methods may be employed. The active neutron interrogation (ANI) method is now well-known and effective in quantifying low α-activity fissile masses (mainly 235 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu) with low densities, i.e. less than about 0.4, in radioactive waste drums of volumes up to 200 l. The PROMpt Epithermal and THErmal interrogation Experiment (PROMETHEE [F. Jallu, A. Mariani, C. Passard, A.-C. Raoux, H. Toubon, Alpha low level waste control: improvement of the PROMETHEE 6 assay system performances. Nucl. Technol. 153 (January) (2006); C. Passard, A. Mariani, F. Jallu, J. Romeyer-Dherber, H. Recroix, M. Rodriguez, J. Loridon, C. Denis, PROMETHEE: an alpha low level waste assay system using passive and active neutron measurement methods. Nucl. Technol. 140 (December) (2002) 303-314]) based on ANI has been under development since 1996 to reach the incinerating α low level waste (LLW) criterion of about 50 Bq[α] per gram of crude waste (∼50 μg Pu) in 118 l drums on the date the drums are conditioned. Difficulties arise when dealing with matrices containing neutron energy moderators such as H and neutron absorbents such as Cl. These components may have a great influence on the fissile mass deduced from the neutron signal measured by ANI. For example, the calibration coefficient measured in a 118 l drum containing a cellulose matrix (density d = 0.144 g cm -3 ) may be 50 times higher than that obtained in a poly-vinyl-chloride matrix (d = 0.253 g cm -3 ). Without any information on the matrix, the fissile mass is often overestimated due to safety procedures and by considering the most disadvantageous calibration coefficient corresponding to the most absorbing and moderating calibration matrix. The work discussed in this paper was performed at the CEA Nuclear Measurement Laboratory in France. It concerns the development of a matrix effect correction method, which consists in identifying and

  11. Improvement of non-destructive fissile mass assays in {alpha} low-level waste drums: A matrix correction method based on neutron capture gamma-rays and a neutron generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jallu, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA, DEN, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, Bat. 224, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)], E-mail: fanny.jallu@cea.fr; Loche, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA, DEN, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, Bat. 224, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2008-08-15

    Within the framework of radioactive waste control, non-destructive assay (NDA) methods may be employed. The active neutron interrogation (ANI) method is now well-known and effective in quantifying low {alpha}-activity fissile masses (mainly {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu) with low densities, i.e. less than about 0.4, in radioactive waste drums of volumes up to 200 l. The PROMpt Epithermal and THErmal interrogation Experiment (PROMETHEE [F. Jallu, A. Mariani, C. Passard, A.-C. Raoux, H. Toubon, Alpha low level waste control: improvement of the PROMETHEE 6 assay system performances. Nucl. Technol. 153 (January) (2006); C. Passard, A. Mariani, F. Jallu, J. Romeyer-Dherber, H. Recroix, M. Rodriguez, J. Loridon, C. Denis, PROMETHEE: an alpha low level waste assay system using passive and active neutron measurement methods. Nucl. Technol. 140 (December) (2002) 303-314]) based on ANI has been under development since 1996 to reach the incinerating {alpha} low level waste (LLW) criterion of about 50 Bq[{alpha}] per gram of crude waste ({approx}50 {mu}g Pu) in 118 l drums on the date the drums are conditioned. Difficulties arise when dealing with matrices containing neutron energy moderators such as H and neutron absorbents such as Cl. These components may have a great influence on the fissile mass deduced from the neutron signal measured by ANI. For example, the calibration coefficient measured in a 118 l drum containing a cellulose matrix (density d = 0.144 g cm{sup -3}) may be 50 times higher than that obtained in a poly-vinyl-chloride matrix (d = 0.253 g cm{sup -3}). Without any information on the matrix, the fissile mass is often overestimated due to safety procedures and by considering the most disadvantageous calibration coefficient corresponding to the most absorbing and moderating calibration matrix. The work discussed in this paper was performed at the CEA Nuclear Measurement Laboratory in France. It concerns the development of a matrix effect correction

  12. Extensive regularization of the coupled cluster methods based on the generating functional formalism: Application to gas-phase benchmarks and to the SN2 reaction of CHCl3 and OH- in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, Karol; Valiev, Marat

    2009-01-01

    The recently introduced energy expansion based on the use of generating functional (GF) [K. Kowalski and P. D. Fan, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 084112 (2009)] provides a way of constructing size-consistent noniterative coupled cluster (CC) corrections in terms of moments of the CC equations. To take advantage of this expansion in a strongly interacting regime, the regularization of the cluster amplitudes is required in order to counteract the effect of excessive growth of the norm of the CC wave function. Although proven to be efficient, the previously discussed form of the regularization does not lead to rigorously size-consistent corrections. In this paper we address the issue of size-consistent regularization of the GF expansion by redefining the equations for the cluster amplitudes. The performance and basic features of proposed methodology are illustrated on several gas-phase benchmark systems. Moreover, the regularized GF approaches are combined with quantum mechanical molecular mechanics module and applied to describe the S N 2 reaction of CHCl 3 and OH - in aqueous solution.

  13. Dynamic Frames Based Generation of 3D Scenes and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Radošević

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern graphic/programming tools like Unity enables the possibility of creating 3D scenes as well as making 3D scene based program applications, including full physical model, motion, sounds, lightning effects etc. This paper deals with the usage of dynamic frames based generator in the automatic generation of 3D scene and related source code. The suggested model enables the possibility to specify features of the 3D scene in a form of textual specification, as well as exporting such features from a 3D tool. This approach enables higher level of code generation flexibility and the reusability of the main code and scene artifacts in a form of textual templates. An example of the generated application is presented and discussed.

  14. [Bases and methods of suturing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, P M; Altintas, M A; Radtke, C; Meyer-Marcotty, M

    2009-05-01

    If pharmaceutic modulation of scar formation does not improve the quality of the healing process over conventional healing, the surgeon must rely on personal skill and experience. Therefore a profound knowledge of wound healing based on experimental and clinical studies supplemented by postsurgical means of scar management and basic techniques of planning incisions, careful tissue handling, and thorough knowledge of suturing remain the most important ways to avoid abnormal scarring. This review summarizes the current experimental and clinical bases of surgical scar management.

  15. THz generation from a nanocrystalline silicon-based photoconductive device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daghestani, N S; Persheyev, S; Cataluna, M A; Rose, M J; Ross, G

    2011-01-01

    Terahertz generation has been achieved from a photoconductive switch based on hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H), gated by a femtosecond laser. The nc-Si:H samples were produced by a hot wire chemical vapour deposition process, a process with low production costs owing to its higher growth rate and manufacturing simplicity. Although promising ultrafast carrier dynamics of nc-Si have been previously demonstrated, this is the first report on THz generation from a nc-Si:H material

  16. Novel power saving architecture for FBG based OCDMA code generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadola, Tolulope B.; Idris, Siti K.; Glesk, Ivan

    2013-10-01

    A novel architecture for generating incoherent, 2-dimensional wavelength hopping-time spreading optical CDMA codes is presented. The architecture is designed to facilitate the reuse of optical source signal that is unused after an OCDMA code has been generated using fiber Bragg grating based encoders. Effective utilization of available optical power is therefore achieved by cascading several OCDMA encoders thereby enabling 3dB savings in optical power.

  17. Encouraging the next generation into land-based industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowarth, Js

    2008-12-01

    Members of the Y-Generation (born between approximately 1978 and 1994) have expectations of careers, rewards and 'work-life balance' that are very different from those of previous generations. This paper discusses these differences, how the land-based industries can position in order to offer 'the career path of choice', and how doing so will be of benefit not only to employers but also to New Zealand.

  18. Random number generation based on digital differential chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2012-07-29

    In this paper, we present a fully digital differential chaos based random number generator. The output of the digital circuit is proved to be chaotic by calculating the output time series maximum Lyapunov exponent. We introduce a new post processing technique to improve the distribution and statistical properties of the generated data. The post-processed output passes the NIST Sp. 800-22 statistical tests. The system is written in Verilog VHDL and realized on Xilinx Virtex® FPGA. The generator can fit into a very small area and have a maximum throughput of 2.1 Gb/s.

  19. Efficient implementation of Bailey and Borwein pseudo-random number generator based on normal numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliakov, G.; Creighton, D.; Johnstone, M.; Wilkin, T.

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes an implementation of a Linear Congruential Generator (LCG) based on the binary representation of the normal number α, and of a combined generator based on that LCG. The base LCG with the modulus 333 provides a quality sequence with the period ≈3.7ṡ1015, which passes all but two statistical tests from BigCrush test suite. We improved on the original implementation by adapting Barrett's modular reduction method, which resulted in four-fold increase in efficiency. The combined generator has the period of ≈1023 and passes all tests from BigCrush suite.

  20. Systems and methods that generate height map models for efficient three dimensional reconstruction from depth information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Jan-Michael; Pollefeys, Marc Andre Leon; Gallup, David Robert

    2015-12-08

    Methods of generating a three dimensional representation of an object in a reference plane from a depth map including distances from a reference point to pixels in an image of the object taken from a reference point. Weights are assigned to respective voxels in a three dimensional grid along rays extending from the reference point through the pixels in the image based on the distances in the depth map from the reference point to the respective pixels, and a height map including an array of height values in the reference plane is formed based on the assigned weights. An n-layer height map may be constructed by generating a probabilistic occupancy grid for the voxels and forming an n-dimensional height map comprising an array of layer height values in the reference plane based on the probabilistic occupancy grid.

  1. MEMS-Based Power Generation Techniques for Implantable Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lueke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Implantable biosensing is attractive for both medical monitoring and diagnostic applications. It is possible to monitor phenomena such as physical loads on joints or implants, vital signs, or osseointegration in vivo and in real time. Microelectromechanical (MEMS-based generation techniques can allow for the autonomous operation of implantable biosensors by generating electrical power to replace or supplement existing battery-based power systems. By supplementing existing battery-based power systems for implantable biosensors, the operational lifetime of the sensor is increased. In addition, the potential for a greater amount of available power allows additional components to be added to the biosensing module, such as computational and wireless and components, improving functionality and performance of the biosensor. Photovoltaic, thermovoltaic, micro fuel cell, electrostatic, electromagnetic, and piezoelectric based generation schemes are evaluated in this paper for applicability for implantable biosensing. MEMS-based generation techniques that harvest ambient energy, such as vibration, are much better suited for implantable biosensing applications than fuel-based approaches, producing up to milliwatts of electrical power. High power density MEMS-based approaches, such as piezoelectric and electromagnetic schemes, allow for supplemental and replacement power schemes for biosensing applications to improve device capabilities and performance. In addition, this may allow for the biosensor to be further miniaturized, reducing the need for relatively large batteries with respect to device size. This would cause the implanted biosensor to be less invasive, increasing the quality of care received by the patient.

  2. MEMS-based power generation techniques for implantable biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueke, Jonathan; Moussa, Walied A

    2011-01-01

    Implantable biosensing is attractive for both medical monitoring and diagnostic applications. It is possible to monitor phenomena such as physical loads on joints or implants, vital signs, or osseointegration in vivo and in real time. Microelectromechanical (MEMS)-based generation techniques can allow for the autonomous operation of implantable biosensors by generating electrical power to replace or supplement existing battery-based power systems. By supplementing existing battery-based power systems for implantable biosensors, the operational lifetime of the sensor is increased. In addition, the potential for a greater amount of available power allows additional components to be added to the biosensing module, such as computational and wireless and components, improving functionality and performance of the biosensor. Photovoltaic, thermovoltaic, micro fuel cell, electrostatic, electromagnetic, and piezoelectric based generation schemes are evaluated in this paper for applicability for implantable biosensing. MEMS-based generation techniques that harvest ambient energy, such as vibration, are much better suited for implantable biosensing applications than fuel-based approaches, producing up to milliwatts of electrical power. High power density MEMS-based approaches, such as piezoelectric and electromagnetic schemes, allow for supplemental and replacement power schemes for biosensing applications to improve device capabilities and performance. In addition, this may allow for the biosensor to be further miniaturized, reducing the need for relatively large batteries with respect to device size. This would cause the implanted biosensor to be less invasive, increasing the quality of care received by the patient.

  3. 基于概率模型的ATC系统冲突目标生成算法%Probability-Based Method of Generating the Conflict Trajectories for ATC System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏志刚; 眭聪聪; 吴仁彪

    2011-01-01

    For testing the capability of short term conflict alerting of air traffic control system, two methods are usually used. The former is to set a higher threshold, use the real data testing whether the system can alert when distance between two flights gets lower than the threshold. However, this method is not reliable. The second method is simulating flights which will conflict and obtain their trajectory from calculating, and then send these data to ATC system to see its reaction. This method is usually too simple to test whether the system can pre-detect a conflict effectively. To solve these problems, a probabilistic approach is used in this paper to simulate air-crafts with given probability of conflicting. Firstly, we derived the conflict probability of turing flights from Prandaini' s method of conflict probability estimation for linear flight. Then using reverse derivation we got the motion parameters of two targets whose conflict probability was pre-setted. At last, we simulated this pair of targets' track and anlysised their conflict probability. The simulation results show that the targets' probability of conflict was in line with the previous assumption. The trajectories generated by this algorithm are more realistic then a more effective conclusion of ATC system' s capability of short term conflict alerting and pre-detecting will be provided.%通常用于测试空中交通管制(Air Traffic Control,ATC)自动化系统的飞行冲突告警功能的方法主要有放宽系统告警值和向系统输入模拟的飞行冲突目标的雷达数据.前一种方法存在不可靠性,第二种方法由于只产生简单的确定目标轨迹数据,因此只能简单地测试系统能否告警,无法对系统的飞行冲突预测能力作出评价.为了使用于测试系统的模拟雷达数据更符合实际飞行情况,并检测系统预测飞行冲突的技术水平,本文提出了一种基于飞行冲突概率模型的航迹模拟方法,通过对不同目标

  4. Osmosis-Based Pressure Generation: Dynamics and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suyi; Billeh, Yazan N.; Wang, K. W.; Mayer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes osmotically-driven pressure generation in a membrane-bound compartment while taking into account volume expansion, solute dilution, surface area to volume ratio, membrane hydraulic permeability, and changes in osmotic gradient, bulk modulus, and degree of membrane fouling. The emphasis lies on the dynamics of pressure generation; these dynamics have not previously been described in detail. Experimental results are compared to and supported by numerical simulations, which we make accessible as an open source tool. This approach reveals unintuitive results about the quantitative dependence of the speed of pressure generation on the relevant and interdependent parameters that will be encountered in most osmotically-driven pressure generators. For instance, restricting the volume expansion of a compartment allows it to generate its first 5 kPa of pressure seven times faster than without a restraint. In addition, this dynamics study shows that plants are near-ideal osmotic pressure generators, as they are composed of many small compartments with large surface area to volume ratios and strong cell wall reinforcements. Finally, we demonstrate two applications of an osmosis-based pressure generator: actuation of a soft robot and continuous volume delivery over long periods of time. Both applications do not need an external power source but rather take advantage of the energy released upon watering the pressure generators. PMID:24614529

  5. Osmosis-based pressure generation: dynamics and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Brandon R; Schroeder, Thomas B H; Li, Suyi; Billeh, Yazan N; Wang, K W; Mayer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes osmotically-driven pressure generation in a membrane-bound compartment while taking into account volume expansion, solute dilution, surface area to volume ratio, membrane hydraulic permeability, and changes in osmotic gradient, bulk modulus, and degree of membrane fouling. The emphasis lies on the dynamics of pressure generation; these dynamics have not previously been described in detail. Experimental results are compared to and supported by numerical simulations, which we make accessible as an open source tool. This approach reveals unintuitive results about the quantitative dependence of the speed of pressure generation on the relevant and interdependent parameters that will be encountered in most osmotically-driven pressure generators. For instance, restricting the volume expansion of a compartment allows it to generate its first 5 kPa of pressure seven times faster than without a restraint. In addition, this dynamics study shows that plants are near-ideal osmotic pressure generators, as they are composed of many small compartments with large surface area to volume ratios and strong cell wall reinforcements. Finally, we demonstrate two applications of an osmosis-based pressure generator: actuation of a soft robot and continuous volume delivery over long periods of time. Both applications do not need an external power source but rather take advantage of the energy released upon watering the pressure generators.

  6. Osmosis-based pressure generation: dynamics and application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon R Bruhn

    Full Text Available This paper describes osmotically-driven pressure generation in a membrane-bound compartment while taking into account volume expansion, solute dilution, surface area to volume ratio, membrane hydraulic permeability, and changes in osmotic gradient, bulk modulus, and degree of membrane fouling. The emphasis lies on the dynamics of pressure generation; these dynamics have not previously been described in detail. Experimental results are compared to and supported by numerical simulations, which we make accessible as an open source tool. This approach reveals unintuitive results about the quantitative dependence of the speed of pressure generation on the relevant and interdependent parameters that will be encountered in most osmotically-driven pressure generators. For instance, restricting the volume expansion of a compartment allows it to generate its first 5 kPa of pressure seven times faster than without a restraint. In addition, this dynamics study shows that plants are near-ideal osmotic pressure generators, as they are composed of many small compartments with large surface area to volume ratios and strong cell wall reinforcements. Finally, we demonstrate two applications of an osmosis-based pressure generator: actuation of a soft robot and continuous volume delivery over long periods of time. Both applications do not need an external power source but rather take advantage of the energy released upon watering the pressure generators.

  7. Method to produce a sup(99m)Tc generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.L.; Harris, O.A.

    1977-01-01

    A 400 millicurie Tc generator for medical application is made on the basis of chromatographic Al 2 O3 plased in a glass generator clumn. The Al 2 O 3 is subjected to thermal activation at 394K. A charge with sodium molybdate 99 solution training a pH value of 3.5 fallowe. After washing the generator with acetic, a 0.9% NaCl solution is added. The remaining solution is sucked off by introducing air through the column. The eluate has a molybdenum cost ent of 0.001 to 0.005 μCi Mo/mCi Tc 99m. The pH-value of the eluate is between 5.0 and 5.3. The aluminium ion content is less than 0.3 g/ml. (DG) [de

  8. Application of a heuristic search method for generation of fuel reload configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.; Nissan, E.

    1988-01-01

    A computerized heuristic search method for the generation and optimization of fuel reload configurations is proposed and investigated. The heuristic knowledge is expressed modularly in the form of ''IF-THEN'' production rules. The method was implemented in a program coded in the Franz LISP programming language and executed under the UNIX operating system. A test problem was formulated, based on a typical light water reactor reload problem with a few simplifications assumed, in order to allow formulation of the reload strategy into a relatively small number of rules. A computer run of the problem was performed with a VAX-780 machine. A set of 312 solutions was generated in -- 20 min of execution time. Testing of a few arbitrarily chosen configurations demonstrated reasonably good performance for the computer-generated solutions. A computerized generator of reload configurations may be used for the fast generation or modification of reload patterns and as a tool for the formulation, tuning, and testing of the heuristic knowledge rules used by an ''expert'' fuel manager

  9. Calculation of the importance-weighted neutron generation time using MCNIC method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feghhi, S.A.H.; Shahriari, M.; Afarideh, H.

    2008-01-01

    In advanced nuclear power systems, such as ADS, the need for reliable kinetics parameters is of considerable importance because of the lower value for β eff due to the large amount of transuranic elements loaded in the core of those systems. All reactor kinetic parameters are weighted quantities. In other words each neutron with a given position and energy is weighted with its importance. Neutron generation time as an important kinetic parameter, in all nuclear power systems has a significant role in the analysis of fast transients. The difference between non-weighted neutron generation time; Λ; standard in most Monte Carlo codes; and the weighted one Λ + can be quite significant depending on the type of the system. In previous work, based on the physical concept of neutron importance, a new method; MCNIC; using the MCNP code has been introduced for the calculation of neutron importance in fissionable assemblies for all criticality states. In the present work the applicability of MCNIC method has been extended for the calculation of the importance-weighted neutron generation time. The influence of reflector thickness on importance-weighted neutron generation time has been investigated by the development of an auxiliary code, IWLA, for a hypothetic assembly. The results of these calculations were compared with the non-weighted neutron generation times calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The difference between the importance-weighted and non-weighted quantity is more significant in a reflected system and increases with reflector thickness

  10. Development of quadruped walking locomotion gait generator using a hybrid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasni, F; Shafie, A A

    2013-01-01

    The earth, in many areas is hardly reachable by the wheeled or tracked locomotion system. Thus, walking locomotion system is becoming a favourite option for mobile robot these days. This is because of the ability of walking locomotion to move on the rugged and unlevel terrains. However, to develop a walking locomotion gait for a robot is not a simple task. Central Pattern Generator (CPGs) method is a biological inspired method that is introduced as a method to develop the gait for the walking robot recently to tackle the issue faced by the conventional method of pre-designed trajectory based method. However, research shows that even the CPG method do have some limitations. Thus, in this paper, a hybrid method that combines CPG and the pre-designed trajectory based method is introduced to develop a walking gait for quadruped walking robot. The 3-D foot trajectories and the joint angle trajectories developed using the proposed method are compared with the data obtained via the conventional method of pre-designed trajectory to confirm the performance

  11. Formal Specification Based Automatic Test Generation for Embedded Network Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Hye Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems have become increasingly connected and communicate with each other, forming large-scaled and complicated network systems. To make their design and testing more reliable and robust, this paper proposes a formal specification language called SENS and a SENS-based automatic test generation tool called TGSENS. Our approach is summarized as follows: (1 A user describes requirements of target embedded network systems by logical property-based constraints using SENS. (2 Given SENS specifications, test cases are automatically generated using a SAT-based solver. Filtering mechanisms to select efficient test cases are also available in our tool. (3 In addition, given a testing goal by the user, test sequences are automatically extracted from exhaustive test cases. We’ve implemented our approach and conducted several experiments on practical case studies. Through the experiments, we confirmed the efficiency of our approach in design and test generation of real embedded air-conditioning network systems.

  12. The strategy curve. A method for representing and interpreting generator bidding strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, N.; Taylor, P.

    1995-01-01

    The pool is the novel trading arrangement at the heart of the privatized electricity market in England and Wales. This central role in the new system makes it crucial that it is seen to function efficiently. Unfortunately, it is governed by a set of complex rules, which leads to a lack of transparency, and this makes monitoring of its operation difficult. This paper seeks to provide a method for illuminating one aspect of the pool, that of generator bidding behaviour. We introduce the concept of a strategy curve, which is a concise device for representing generator bidding strategies. This curve has the appealing characteristic of directly revealing any deviation in the bid price of a genset from the costs of generating electricity. After a brief discussion about what constitutes price and cost in this context we present a number of strategy curves for different days and provide some interpretation of their form, based in part on our earlier work with game theory. (author)

  13. Hydrogen generation systems and methods utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2017-12-19

    Systems, devices, and methods combine thermally stable reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen and a non-toxic liquid by-product. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Springs and other pressurization mechanisms pressurize and deliver an aqueous solution to the reaction. A check valve and other pressure regulation mechanisms regulate the pressure of the aqueous solution delivered to the reactant fuel material in the reactor based upon characteristics of the pressurization mechanisms and can regulate the pressure of the delivered aqueous solution as a steady decay associated with the pressurization force. The pressure regulation mechanism can also prevent hydrogen gas from deflecting the pressure regulation mechanism.

  14. A method of generating moving objects on the constrained network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Ma, Linbing

    2008-10-01

    Moving objects databases have become an important research issue in recent years. In case large real data sets acquired by GPS, PDA or other mobile devices are not available, benchmarking requires the generation of artificial data sets following the real-world behavior of spatial objects that change their locations over time. In the field of spatiotemporal databases, a number of publications about the generation of test data are restricted to few papers. However, most of the existing moving-object generators assume a fixed and often unrealistic mobility model and do not consider several important characteristics of the network. In this paper, a new generator is presented to solve these problems. First of all, the network is realistic transportation network of Guangzhou. Second, the observation records of vehicle flow are available. Third, in order to simplify the whole simulation process and to help us visualize the process, this framework is built under .Net development platform of Microsoft and ArcEngine9 environment.

  15. Efficiency of choice set generation methods for bicycle routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Rieser-Schussler, Nadine; Axhausen, Kay W.

    2014-01-01

    for scenic routes, dedicated cycle lanes, and road type. Data consisted of 778 bicycle trips traced by GPS and carried out by 139 persons living in the Greater Copenhagen Area, in Denmark. Results suggest that both the breadth first search on link elimination and the doubly stochastic generation function...

  16. Based on Penalty Function Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaq Baba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dual response surface for simultaneously optimizing the mean and variance models as separate functions suffers some deficiencies in handling the tradeoffs between bias and variance components of mean squared error (MSE. In this paper, the accuracy of the predicted response is given a serious attention in the determination of the optimum setting conditions. We consider four different objective functions for the dual response surface optimization approach. The essence of the proposed method is to reduce the influence of variance of the predicted response by minimizing the variability relative to the quality characteristics of interest and at the same time achieving the specific target output. The basic idea is to convert the constraint optimization function into an unconstraint problem by adding the constraint to the original objective function. Numerical examples and simulations study are carried out to compare performance of the proposed method with some existing procedures. Numerical results show that the performance of the proposed method is encouraging and has exhibited clear improvement over the existing approaches.

  17. A method for the rapid generation of nonsequential light-response curves of chlorophyll fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serôdio, João; Ezequiel, João; Frommlet, Jörg; Laviale, Martin; Lavaud, Johann

    2013-11-01

    Light-response curves (LCs) of chlorophyll fluorescence are widely used in plant physiology. Most commonly, LCs are generated sequentially, exposing the same sample to a sequence of distinct actinic light intensities. These measurements are not independent, as the response to each new light level is affected by the light exposure history experienced during previous steps of the LC, an issue particularly relevant in the case of the popular rapid light curves. In this work, we demonstrate the proof of concept of a new method for the rapid generation of LCs from nonsequential, temporally independent fluorescence measurements. The method is based on the combined use of sample illumination with digitally controlled, spatially separated beams of actinic light and a fluorescence imaging system. It allows the generation of a whole LC, including a large number of actinic light steps and adequate replication, within the time required for a single measurement (and therefore named "single-pulse light curve"). This method is illustrated for the generation of LCs of photosystem II quantum yield, relative electron transport rate, and nonphotochemical quenching on intact plant leaves exhibiting distinct light responses. This approach makes it also possible to easily characterize the integrated dynamic light response of a sample by combining the measurement of LCs (actinic light intensity is varied while measuring time is fixed) with induction/relaxation kinetics (actinic light intensity is fixed and the response is followed over time), describing both how the response to light varies with time and how the response kinetics varies with light intensity.

  18. COMPANY VALUATION METHODS BASED ON PATRIMONY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The methods used for the company valuation can be divided into 3 main groups: methods based on patrimony,methods based on financial performance, methods based both on patrimony and on performance. The companyvaluation methods based on patrimony are implemented taking into account the balance sheet or the financialstatement. The financial statement refers to that type of balance in which the assets are arranged according to liquidity,and the liabilities according to their financial maturity date. The patrimonial methods are based on the principle thatthe value of the company equals that of the patrimony it owns. From a legal point of view, the patrimony refers to allthe rights and obligations of a company. The valuation of companies based on their financial performance can be donein 3 ways: the return value, the yield value, the present value of the cash flows. The mixed methods depend both onpatrimony and on financial performance or can make use of other methods.

  19. Comments on US LMFBR steam generator base technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The development of steam generators for the LMFBR was recognized from the onset by the AEC, now DOE, as a difficult, challenging, and high-priority task. The highly reactive nature of sodium with water/steam requires that the sodium-water/steam boundaries of LMFBR steam generators possess a degree of leak-tightness reliability not normally attempted on a commercial scale. In addition, the LMFBR steam generator is subjected to high fluid temperatures and severe thermal transients. These requirements place great demand on materials, fabrication processes, and inspection methods; and even greater demands on the designer to provide steam generators that can meet these demanding requirements, be fabricated without unreasonable shop requirements, and tolerate off-normal effects

  20. Grammar-based feature generation for time-series prediction

    CERN Document Server

    De Silva, Anthony Mihirana

    2015-01-01

    This book proposes a novel approach for time-series prediction using machine learning techniques with automatic feature generation. Application of machine learning techniques to predict time-series continues to attract considerable attention due to the difficulty of the prediction problems compounded by the non-linear and non-stationary nature of the real world time-series. The performance of machine learning techniques, among other things, depends on suitable engineering of features. This book proposes a systematic way for generating suitable features using context-free grammar. A number of feature selection criteria are investigated and a hybrid feature generation and selection algorithm using grammatical evolution is proposed. The book contains graphical illustrations to explain the feature generation process. The proposed approaches are demonstrated by predicting the closing price of major stock market indices, peak electricity load and net hourly foreign exchange client trade volume. The proposed method ...

  1. Adaptive Backstepping Control Based on Floating Offshore High Temperature Superconductor Generator for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of offshore wind power, the doubly fed induction generator and permanent magnet synchronous generator cannot meet the increasing request of power capacity. Therefore, superconducting generator should be used instead of the traditional motor, which can improve generator efficiency, reduce the weight of wind turbines, and increase system reliability. This paper mainly focuses on nonlinear control in the offshore wind power system which is consisted of a wind turbine and a high temperature superconductor generator. The proposed control approach is based on the adaptive backstepping method. Its main purpose is to regulate the rotor speed and generator voltage, therefore, achieving the maximum power point tracking (MPPT, improving the efficiency of a wind turbine, and then enhancing the system’s stability and robustness under large disturbances. The control approach can ensure high precision of generator speed tracking, which is confirmed in both the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation.

  2. An Ethernet LAN based distributed generation system load shedding strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mu; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    This paper firstly analyzes and compares various communication technologies, and proposes a communication system for a distributed generation system (DGS) with wind turbines. Then the paper presents a novel simulation method of considering the interactions between the communication system and power...

  3. DNA-based random number generation in security circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearheart, Christy M; Arazi, Benjamin; Rouchka, Eric C

    2010-06-01

    DNA-based circuit design is an area of research in which traditional silicon-based technologies are replaced by naturally occurring phenomena taken from biochemistry and molecular biology. This research focuses on further developing DNA-based methodologies to mimic digital data manipulation. While exhibiting fundamental principles, this work was done in conjunction with the vision that DNA-based circuitry, when the technology matures, will form the basis for a tamper-proof security module, revolutionizing the meaning and concept of tamper-proofing and possibly preventing it altogether based on accurate scientific observations. A paramount part of such a solution would be self-generation of random numbers. A novel prototype schema employs solid phase synthesis of oligonucleotides for random construction of DNA sequences; temporary storage and retrieval is achieved through plasmid vectors. A discussion of how to evaluate sequence randomness is included, as well as how these techniques are applied to a simulation of the random number generation circuitry. Simulation results show generated sequences successfully pass three selected NIST random number generation tests specified for security applications.

  4. Methods for preventing steam generator failure or degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    PWR steam generators have suffered from a variety of degradation phenomena. This paper identifies the corrosion-related defects and their probable causes and suggests approaches to correct and prevent corrosive activity. In the attempt to solve the degradation problems, research programs have concentrated on modifying materials, stresses, and the chemical environment in both new and operating steam generators. The following corrosion-related defects have been studied: tube wastage, denting, primary side (ID) intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC), OD-initiated intergranular attack (IGA), pitting, and corrosion fatigue. Plants affected by wastage have greatly reduced their problem by adopting an all volatile treatment (AVT). In the case of denting, a less aggressive chemical environment is recommended. Primary side IGSCC responds to temperature reduction, stress relief, and material improvements, while flushing and boric acid addition minimizes OD-initiated IGA. It has further been shown that pitting can be minimized by sludge lancing and by reducing impurity ingress. (author)

  5. Wind turbine/generator set and method of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevington, Christopher M.; Bywaters, Garrett L.; Coleman, Clint C.; Costin, Daniel P.; Danforth, William L.; Lynch, Jonathan A.; Rolland, Robert H.

    2013-06-04

    A wind turbine comprising an electrical generator that includes a rotor assembly. A wind rotor that includes a wind rotor hub is directly coupled to the rotor assembly via a simplified connection. The wind rotor and generator rotor assembly are rotatably mounted on a central spindle via a bearing assembly. The wind rotor hub includes an opening having a diameter larger than the outside diameter of the central spindle adjacent the bearing assembly so as to allow access to the bearing assembly from a cavity inside the wind rotor hub. The spindle is attached to a turret supported by a tower. Each of the spindle, turret and tower has an interior cavity that permits personnel to traverse therethrough to the cavity of the wind rotor hub. The wind turbine further includes a frictional braking system for slowing, stopping or keeping stopped the rotation of the wind rotor and rotor assembly.

  6. Method and apparatus involving the generation of x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neal, W.R.; Little, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    An electron gun assembly generates an accelerated and sharply focused electron beam which is deflected in a predetermined path to impinge upon an extended split anode structure in a selected scanning pattern with approximately half the beam current impinging on each half of the split anode. A signal proportional to the difference between the two currents from each half of the split anode provides feedback control to the beam deflection system for constraining the beam to follow the fissure of the split anode. X-rays which are generated at the point of beam impingement on the split anode constitute a moving source of x-rays as the point of beam impingement travels in the selected pattern along the anode

  7. Masking as an effective quality control method for next-generation sequencing data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sajung; Yun, Sijung

    2014-12-13

    Next generation sequencing produces base calls with low quality scores that can affect the accuracy of identifying simple nucleotide variation calls, including single nucleotide polymorphisms and small insertions and deletions. Here we compare the effectiveness of two data preprocessing methods, masking and trimming, and the accuracy of simple nucleotide variation calls on whole-genome sequence data from Caenorhabditis elegans. Masking substitutes low quality base calls with 'N's (undetermined bases), whereas trimming removes low quality bases that results in a shorter read lengths. We demonstrate that masking is more effective than trimming in reducing the false-positive rate in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) calling. However, both of the preprocessing methods did not affect the false-negative rate in SNP calling with statistical significance compared to the data analysis without preprocessing. False-positive rate and false-negative rate for small insertions and deletions did not show differences between masking and trimming. We recommend masking over trimming as a more effective preprocessing method for next generation sequencing data analysis since masking reduces the false-positive rate in SNP calling without sacrificing the false-negative rate although trimming is more commonly used currently in the field. The perl script for masking is available at http://code.google.com/p/subn/. The sequencing data used in the study were deposited in the Sequence Read Archive (SRX450968 and SRX451773).

  8. A flocking based method for brain tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Ramon; Rivera, Mariano; Ramirez-Manzanares, Alonso

    2014-04-01

    We propose a new method to estimate axonal fiber pathways from Multiple Intra-Voxel Diffusion Orientations. Our method uses the multiple local orientation information for leading stochastic walks of particles. These stochastic particles are modeled with mass and thus they are subject to gravitational and inertial forces. As result, we obtain smooth, filtered and compact trajectory bundles. This gravitational interaction can be seen as a flocking behavior among particles that promotes better and robust axon fiber estimations because they use collective information to move. However, the stochastic walks may generate paths with low support (outliers), generally associated to incorrect brain connections. In order to eliminate the outlier pathways, we propose a filtering procedure based on principal component analysis and spectral clustering. The performance of the proposal is evaluated on Multiple Intra-Voxel Diffusion Orientations from two realistic numeric diffusion phantoms and a physical diffusion phantom. Additionally, we qualitatively demonstrate the performance on in vivo human brain data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. On the design of henon and logistic map-based random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magfirawaty; Suryadi, M. T.; Ramli, Kalamullah

    2017-10-01

    The key sequence is one of the main elements in the cryptosystem. True Random Number Generators (TRNG) method is one of the approaches to generating the key sequence. The randomness source of the TRNG divided into three main groups, i.e. electrical noise based, jitter based and chaos based. The chaos based utilizes a non-linear dynamic system (continuous time or discrete time) as an entropy source. In this study, a new design of TRNG based on discrete time chaotic system is proposed, which is then simulated in LabVIEW. The principle of the design consists of combining 2D and 1D chaotic systems. A mathematical model is implemented for numerical simulations. We used comparator process as a harvester method to obtain the series of random bits. Without any post processing, the proposed design generated random bit sequence with high entropy value and passed all NIST 800.22 statistical tests.

  10. Size distributions of micro-bubbles generated by a pressurized dissolution method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taya, C.; Maeda, Y.; Hosokawa, S.; Tomiyama, A.; Ito, Y.

    2012-03-01

    Size of micro-bubbles is widely distributed in the range of one to several hundreds micrometers and depends on generation methods, flow conditions and elapsed times after the bubble generation. Although a size distribution of micro-bubbles should be taken into account to improve accuracy in numerical simulations of flows with micro-bubbles, a variety of the size distribution makes it difficult to introduce the size distribution in the simulations. On the other hand, several models such as the Rosin-Rammler equation and the Nukiyama-Tanazawa equation have been proposed to represent the size distribution of particles or droplets. Applicability of these models to the size distribution of micro-bubbles has not been examined yet. In this study, we therefore measure size distribution of micro-bubbles generated by a pressurized dissolution method by using a phase Doppler anemometry (PDA), and investigate the applicability of the available models to the size distributions of micro-bubbles. Experimental apparatus consists of a pressurized tank in which air is dissolved in liquid under high pressure condition, a decompression nozzle in which micro-bubbles are generated due to pressure reduction, a rectangular duct and an upper tank. Experiments are conducted for several liquid volumetric fluxes in the decompression nozzle. Measurements are carried out at the downstream region of the decompression nozzle and in the upper tank. The experimental results indicate that (1) the Nukiyama-Tanasawa equation well represents the size distribution of micro-bubbles generated by the pressurized dissolution method, whereas the Rosin-Rammler equation fails in the representation, (2) the bubble size distribution of micro-bubbles can be evaluated by using the Nukiyama-Tanasawa equation without individual bubble diameters, when mean bubble diameter and skewness of the bubble distribution are given, and (3) an evaluation method of visibility based on the bubble size distribution and bubble

  11. Automatic Structure-Based Code Generation from Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Westergaard, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Automatic code generation based on Coloured Petri Net (CPN) models is challenging because CPNs allow for the construction of abstract models that intermix control flow and data processing, making translation into conventional programming constructs difficult. We introduce Process-Partitioned CPNs...... (PP-CPNs) which is a subclass of CPNs equipped with an explicit separation of process control flow, message passing, and access to shared and local data. We show how PP-CPNs caters for a four phase structure-based automatic code generation process directed by the control flow of processes....... The viability of our approach is demonstrated by applying it to automatically generate an Erlang implementation of the Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol specified by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)....

  12. Distributed network generation based on preferential attachment in ABS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Azadbakht (Keyvan); N. Bezirgiannis (Nikolaos); F.S. de Boer (Frank)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractGeneration of social networks using Preferential Attachment (PA) mechanism is proposed in the Barabasi-Albert model. In this mechanism, new nodes are introduced to the network sequentially and they attach to the existing nodes preferentially where the preference can be based on the

  13. Real Time Engineering Analysis Based on a Generative Component Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Klitgaard, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The present paper outlines the idea of a conceptual design tool with real time engineering analysis which can be used in the early conceptual design phase. The tool is based on a parametric approach using Generative Components with embedded structural analysis. Each of these components uses the g...

  14. Capacitance-Based Frequency Adjustment of Micro Piezoelectric Vibration Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Mao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro piezoelectric vibration generator has a wide application in the field of microelectronics. Its natural frequency is unchanged after being manufactured. However, resonance cannot occur when the natural frequencies of a piezoelectric generator and the source of vibration frequency are not consistent. Output voltage of the piezoelectric generator will sharply decline. It cannot normally supply power for electronic devices. In order to make the natural frequency of the generator approach the frequency of vibration source, the capacitance FM technology is adopted in this paper. Different capacitance FM schemes are designed by different locations of the adjustment layer. The corresponding capacitance FM models have been established. Characteristic and effect of the capacitance FM have been simulated by the FM model. Experimental results show that the natural frequency of the generator could vary from 46.5 Hz to 42.4 Hz when the bypass capacitance value increases from 0 nF to 30 nF. The natural frequency of a piezoelectric vibration generator could be continuously adjusted by this method.

  15. Capacitance-based frequency adjustment of micro piezoelectric vibration generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xinhua; He, Qing; Li, Hong; Chu, Dongliang

    2014-01-01

    Micro piezoelectric vibration generator has a wide application in the field of microelectronics. Its natural frequency is unchanged after being manufactured. However, resonance cannot occur when the natural frequencies of a piezoelectric generator and the source of vibration frequency are not consistent. Output voltage of the piezoelectric generator will sharply decline. It cannot normally supply power for electronic devices. In order to make the natural frequency of the generator approach the frequency of vibration source, the capacitance FM technology is adopted in this paper. Different capacitance FM schemes are designed by different locations of the adjustment layer. The corresponding capacitance FM models have been established. Characteristic and effect of the capacitance FM have been simulated by the FM model. Experimental results show that the natural frequency of the generator could vary from 46.5 Hz to 42.4 Hz when the bypass capacitance value increases from 0 nF to 30 nF. The natural frequency of a piezoelectric vibration generator could be continuously adjusted by this method.

  16. A Method of Generating Indoor Map Spatial Data Automatically from Architectural Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Weixin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Taking architectural plans as data source, we proposed a method which can automatically generate indoor map spatial data. Firstly, referring to the spatial data demands of indoor map, we analyzed the basic characteristics of architectural plans, and introduced concepts of wall segment, adjoining node and adjoining wall segment, based on which basic flow of indoor map spatial data automatic generation was further established. Then, according to the adjoining relation between wall lines at the intersection with column, we constructed a repair method for wall connectivity in relation to the column. Utilizing the method of gradual expansibility and graphic reasoning to judge wall symbol local feature type at both sides of door or window, through update the enclosing rectangle of door or window, we developed a repair method for wall connectivity in relation to the door or window and a method for transform door or window into indoor map point feature. Finally, on the basis of geometric relation between adjoining wall segment median lines, a wall center-line extraction algorithm was presented. Taking one exhibition hall's architectural plan as example, we performed experiment and results show that the proposed methods have preferable applicability to deal with various complex situations, and realized indoor map spatial data automatic extraction effectively.

  17. Stirling based micro co-generation system for single households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribberink, J.S.; Zutt, J.G.M.; Rabou, L.P.L.M.; Beckers, G.J.J. [ECN Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands); Baijens, C.A.W.; Luttikholt, J.J.M. [ATAG Verwarming, Lichtenvoorde (Netherlands)

    2000-04-01

    This paper describes the progress made in the ENATEC development program for a free piston Stirling engine based micro co-generation system that serves the supply of up to 1 kW{sub e} and up to 24 kW heat for domestic heating and/or for hot tap water production for single households at overall system efficiencies of 96%. Experiments show that the free piston Stirling engines from Stirling Technology Company run very reliably and controllably, and that the efficiency targets for the 1 kW{sub e} micro co-generation system are feasible. A ceramic foam burner with good heat transfer characteristics and low NOx emissions was developed. A demonstration micro co-generation unit was built and successfully presented. A 1 kW{sub e} free piston Stirling engine for the European market was developed. High efficiencies at full load and at part load, low emissions, low noise, and minimum maintenance make the Stirling engine based micro co-generation system an attractive candidate for the next generation of domestic boilers in Europe. 5 refs.

  18. Generation of Quasi-Gaussian Pulses Based on Correlation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POHOATA, S.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Gaussian pulses have been mostly used within communications, where some applications can be emphasized: mobile telephony (GSM, where GMSK signals are used, as well as the UWB communications, where short-period pulses based on Gaussian waveform are generated. Since the Gaussian function signifies a theoretical concept, which cannot be accomplished from the physical point of view, this should be expressed by using various functions, able to determine physical implementations. New techniques of generating the Gaussian pulse responses of good precision are approached, proposed and researched in this paper. The second and third order derivatives with regard to the Gaussian pulse response are accurately generated. The third order derivates is composed of four individual rectangular pulses of fixed amplitudes, being easily to be generated by standard techniques. In order to generate pulses able to satisfy the spectral mask requirements, an adequate filter is necessary to be applied. This paper emphasizes a comparative analysis based on the relative error and the energy spectra of the proposed pulses.

  19. Customer based distributed generation: Economics and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maribu, Karl Magnus

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a model for finding distributed generation systems that maximizes the economic benefits for buildings with electricity, heat and cooling loads. Important factors for profitability are identified using simulated data for a standard health care and office building in California. Under the assumed time of use (TOU) prices demand charges are critical factors for the profitability. Systems with lower reliability than promised can infer large losses to the developer. The outage risk is a diversifiable risk hence demands charges should not be a barrier to distributed generation adoption in a well functioning market. In a variety of natural gas and electricity price scenarios the optimal decision is to install distributed generation units with heat recovery and absorption cooling. The benefit maximizing solution reduces building carbon emissions in most scenarios. Low natural gas price scenarios have the highest carbon emissions. An introduction of a carbon tax can further reduce emissions. Small photovoltaic systems gets profitable at prices around 2.4 $/W and larger systems from prices around 1.8-2 $/W if they are analyzed independently from gas fueled generators. In competition with natural gas fueled equipment both the break-even cost and the installed capacity is reduced in both buildings. It is possible to find a profitable solution for real discount rates up to 20 percent under the base case solution for the health care building. High discount rates favor small less capital intensive base load generation systems with heat recovery. (Author)

  20. Market based generation: A promising market management option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, R.

    1992-01-01

    It is proposed to ease the tension between demand management and supply side management at electric utilities through the introduction of a concept called market management. Market management provides a framework for developing and evaluating the attractiveness of new products and services such as dispersed generation hardware, implementation services, and complementary pricing structures. A market management strategy is the definition of market segments, creating products for those segments, evaluation of the profitability of the product-segment combinations, commitment of resources to those segments, and development of product and marketing plans for those segments. A brief analysis of backup generation is presented as an example of market management. In this example, the customer that is backed up shares some portion of the capital and maintenance costs of the backup unit through priority service rates; the utility and customers that are not backed up can obtain the use of the generating resource but pay only a portion of its costs. Backup generation programs have been found to provide utilities with the ability to meet peak load requirements more cheaply than by investing in peaking capacity. Other benefits for utilities include protection of market share, more efficient rates, and a new source of revenues. With the advances in the technology of small-scale generation, utilities can examine bundling various pricing options with market based generation to offer alternative value-added service options to customer segments with demand characteristics that make these technologies attractive. 3 figs

  1. Generation of short electrical pulses based on bipolar transistorsny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gerding

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A system for the generation of short electrical pulses based on the minority carrier charge storage and the step recovery effect of bipolar transistors is presented. Electrical pulses of about 90 ps up to 800 ps duration are generated with a maximum amplitude of approximately 7V at 50Ω. The bipolar transistor is driven into saturation and the base-collector and base-emitter junctions become forward biased. The resulting fast switch-off edge of the transistor’s output signal is the basis for the pulse generation. The fast switching of the transistor occurs as a result of the minority carriers that have been injected and stored across the base-collector junction under forward bias conditions. If the saturated transistor is suddenly reverse biased the pn-junction will appear as a low impedance until the stored charge is depleted. Then the impedance will suddenly increase to its normal high value and the flow of current through the junction will turn to zero, abruptly. A differentiation of the output signal of the transistor results in two short pulses with opposite polarities. The differentiating circuit is implemented by a transmission line network, which mainly acts as a high pass filter. Both the transistor technology (pnp or npn and the phase of the transfer function of the differentating circuit influence the polarity of the output pulses. The pulse duration depends on the transistor parameters as well as on the transfer function of the pulse shaping network. This way of generating short electrical pulses is a new alternative for conventional comb generators based on steprecovery diodes (SRD. Due to the three-terminal structure of the transistor the isolation problem between the input and the output signal of the transistor network is drastically simplified. Furthermore the transistor is an active element in contrast to a SRD, so that its current gain can be used to minimize the power of the driving signal.

  2. A novel method of generating and remembering international morse codes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Charyulu, R.J.K.

    untethered communications have been advanced, despite as S.O.S International Morse Code will be at rescue as an emergency tool, when all other modes fail The details of hte method and actual codes have been enumerated....

  3. Optimization of Extraction Method of the Natural Coagulant from Descurainia Sophia Seed: Minimization of Color Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazyar Peyda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water treatment sometimes needs a coagulation and flocculation process to remove suspended and colloidal materials. Inorganic coagulants used create concerns about pollution of the environment and harmful effects on the human’s health. The studies carried out previously indicated the capability of an active coagulant agent extracted from Descurainia Sophia seed to remove turbidity of water. Methods: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of NaCl (0.05-1 gL-1, NaOH (0.01-0.1 gL-1, extraction duration (1-25 min and the ultrasound frequency (0-45-75 kHz, used in the extraction of Descurainia Sophia seed, on the generation of color in purified water and to provide a model to predict the effects of the studied variables on color generation. Extraction was performed using water as solvent, supplemented with NaCl and NaOH and irradiated by ultrasound. Design of experiments and analysis of results were conducted by the D-optimal method based on the response surface methodology (RSM. Results: The results demonstrated that only the effect of concentration of NaOH is significant in color generation (with p<0.05. Conclusion: The effect of NaOH on color generation in purified water is predictable by the use of a statistically valid linear model at a confidence level of 95%.

  4. Thermodynamic optimization of ground heat exchangers with single U-tube by entropy generation minimization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Min; Lai, Alvin C.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A second-law-based analysis is performed for single U-tube ground heat exchangers. ► Two expressions for the optimal length and flow velocity are developed for GHEs. ► Empirical velocities of GHEs are large compared to thermodynamic optimum values. - Abstract: This paper investigates thermodynamic performance of borehole ground heat exchangers with a single U-tube by the entropy generation minimization method which requires information of heat transfer and fluid mechanics, in addition to thermodynamics analysis. This study first derives an expression for dimensionless entropy generation number, a function that consists of five dimensionless variables, including Reynolds number, dimensionless borehole length, scale factor of pressures, and two duty parameters of ground heat exchangers. The derivation combines a heat transfer model and a hydraulics model for borehole ground heat exchangers with the first law and the second law of thermodynamics. Next, the entropy generation number is minimized to produce two analytical expressions for the optimal length and the optimal flow velocity of ground heat exchangers. Then, this paper discusses and analyzes implications and applications of these optimization formulas with two case studies. An important finding from the case studies is that widely used empirical velocities of circulating fluid are too large to operate ground-coupled heat pump systems in a thermodynamic optimization way. This paper demonstrates that thermodynamic optimal parameters of ground heat exchangers can probably be determined by using the entropy generation minimization method.

  5. Verification of a Subgroup Generation Method for Thorium Fuel Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Ohsung; Kim, Myunghyun

    2013-01-01

    Resonance parameter consists of subgroup level and weight. The subgroup weight is obtained by solving the ultrafine slowing down equation and fixed source problem. That means this cross section library procedure considers conservation of the shielded cross section for pin-cell in order to obtain subgroup parameters. There are some isotopes to be concerned for research such as actinides and thorium. Minor actinides(MA) are existing with very small amount in a spent fuel, but effect is not negligible in a high burnup fuel assemblies. Some MAs have high fission cross sections under thermal neutron spectrum. Thorium isotopes was not investigated as much as uranium, but it has high potential for future application. In this study, a new cross section library to be replaced with HELIOS library was generated and compared for the assembly calculation, specially for assembly with thorium. An average capture cross section value at a certain fuel pin and multiplication factor of assembly were compared with nTRACER calculation with HELIOS library and Monte Carlo calculation of MCNP with ENDF-B/II. The accuracy of library data generated for thorium isotope in nTRACER calculation was tested for WASB model. There was a great improvement in K-eff and capture cross section for this assembly compared with old library, HELIOS library

  6. CAMAC based Test Signal Generator using Re-configurable device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Atish; Raval, Tushar; Srivastava, Amit K; Reddy, D Chenna

    2010-01-01

    There are many different types of signal generators, with different purposes and applications (and at varying levels of expense). In general, no device is suitable for all possible applications. Hence the selection of signal generator is as per requirements. For SST-1 Data Acquisition System requirements, we have developed a CAMAC based Test Signal Generator module using Re-configurable device (CPLD). This module is based on CAMAC interface but can be used for testing both CAMAC and PXI Data Acquisition Systems in SST-1 tokamak. It can also be used for other similar applications. Unlike traditional signal generators, which are embedded hardware, it is a flexible hardware unit, programmable through Graphical User Interface (GUI) developed in LabVIEW application development tool. The main aim of this work is to develop a signal generator for testing our data acquisition interface for a large number of channels simultaneously. The module front panel has various connectors like LEMO and D type connectors for signal interface. The module can be operated either in continuous signal generation mode or in triggered mode depending upon application. This can be done either by front panel switch or through CAMAC software commands (for remote operation). Similarly module reset and trigger generation operation can be performed either through front panel push button switch or through software CAMAC commands. The module has the facility to accept external TTL level trigger and clock through LEMO connectors. The module can also generate trigger and the clock signal, which can be delivered to other devices through LEMO connectors. The module generates two types of signals: Analog and digital (TTL level). The analog output (single channel) is generated from Digital to Analog Converter through CPLD for various types of waveforms like Sine, Square, Triangular and other wave shape that can vary in amplitude as well as in frequency. The module is quite useful to test up to 32 channels

  7. Compensating customer-generators: a taxonomy describing methods of compensating customer-generators for electricity supplied to the grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Larry; Bell, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The increasing popularity of on-site power generation is driving the demand for methods to compensate customer-generators that supply electricity to the grid. Although many practices exist for providing such compensation, confusion surrounds the terms often used to describe such practices (notably, net metering and net billing). To help clarify this situation, the following paper proposes a taxonomy that distinguishes between 16 distinct compensation practices

  8. Multiple ECG Fiducial Points-Based Random Binary Sequence Generation for Securing Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guanglou; Fang, Gengfa; Shankaran, Rajan; Orgun, Mehmet A; Zhou, Jie; Qiao, Li; Saleem, Kashif

    2017-05-01

    Generating random binary sequences (BSes) is a fundamental requirement in cryptography. A BS is a sequence of N bits, and each bit has a value of 0 or 1. For securing sensors within wireless body area networks (WBANs), electrocardiogram (ECG)-based BS generation methods have been widely investigated in which interpulse intervals (IPIs) from each heartbeat cycle are processed to produce BSes. Using these IPI-based methods to generate a 128-bit BS in real time normally takes around half a minute. In order to improve the time efficiency of such methods, this paper presents an ECG multiple fiducial-points based binary sequence generation (MFBSG) algorithm. The technique of discrete wavelet transforms is employed to detect arrival time of these fiducial points, such as P, Q, R, S, and T peaks. Time intervals between them, including RR, RQ, RS, RP, and RT intervals, are then calculated based on this arrival time, and are used as ECG features to generate random BSes with low latency. According to our analysis on real ECG data, these ECG feature values exhibit the property of randomness and, thus, can be utilized to generate random BSes. Compared with the schemes that solely rely on IPIs to generate BSes, this MFBSG algorithm uses five feature values from one heart beat cycle, and can be up to five times faster than the solely IPI-based methods. So, it achieves a design goal of low latency. According to our analysis, the complexity of the algorithm is comparable to that of fast Fourier transforms. These randomly generated ECG BSes can be used as security keys for encryption or authentication in a WBAN system.

  9. Pseudo-random bit generator based on lag time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, M.; Campos-Cantón, E.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we present a pseudo-random bit generator (PRBG) based on two lag time series of the logistic map using positive and negative values in the bifurcation parameter. In order to hidden the map used to build the pseudo-random series we have used a delay in the generation of time series. These new series when they are mapped xn against xn+1 present a cloud of points unrelated to the logistic map. Finally, the pseudo-random sequences have been tested with the suite of NIST giving satisfactory results for use in stream ciphers.

  10. EPA Biofuels Research: Biofuel Vapor Generation and Monitoring Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interest in renewable fuels and alternative energy sources has stimulated development of alternatives to traditional petroleum-based fuels. The EPA's Office of Transportation Air Quality (OTAQ) requires information regarding the potential health hazards ofthese fuels regardin...

  11. A statistical method for predicting sound absorbing property of porous metal materials by using quartet structure generation set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Dong; Wu, Jiu Hui; Jing, Li

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A random internal morphology and structure generation-growth method, termed as the quartet structure generation set (QSGS), has been utilized based on the stochastic cluster growth theory for numerical generating the various microstructures of porous metal materials. • Effects of different parameters such as thickness and porosity on sound absorption performance of the generated structures are studied by the present method, and the obtained results are validated by an empirical model as well. • This method could be utilized to guide the design and fabrication of the sound-absorption porous metal materials. - Abstract: In this paper, a statistical method for predicting sound absorption properties of porous metal materials is presented. To reflect the stochastic distribution characteristics of the porous metal materials, a random internal morphology and structure generation-growth method, termed as the quartet structure generation set (QSGS), has been utilized based on the stochastic cluster growth theory for numerical generating the various microstructures of porous metal materials. Then by using the transfer-function approach along with the QSGS tool, we investigate the sound absorbing performance of porous metal materials with complex stochastic geometries. The statistical method has been validated by the good agreement among the numerical results for metal rubber from this method and a previous empirical model and the corresponding experimental data. Furthermore, the effects of different parameters such as thickness and porosity on sound absorption performance of the generated structures are studied by the present method, and the obtained results are validated by an empirical model as well. Therefore, the present method is a reliable and robust method for predicting the sound absorption performance of porous metal materials, and could be utilized to guide the design and fabrication of the sound-absorption porous metal materials

  12. Superconducting generators and motors and methods for employing same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomsic, Michael J.; Long, Larry

    2017-08-29

    A superconducting electrical generator or motor having a plurality of cryostats is described. The cryostats contain coolant and a first cryostat encloses at least one of a plurality of superconducting coils. A first coil is in superconducting electrical communication with a second coil contained in a second cryostat through a superconducting conduction cooling cable enclosing a conductor. The first cryostat and the second cryostat may be in fluid communication through at least one cryogen channel within the at least one superconducting conduction cooling cable. In other embodiments, none of the plurality of cryostats may be in fluid communication and the cable may be cooled by conduction along the conductor from the first or second cryostat, or from both. The conductor may have different segments at temperatures equal to or above the temperature of the coolant and the superconducting conduction cooling cables may be connected through quick connect fittings.

  13. New methods of generation of ultrashort laser pulses for ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinkova, Helena; Hamal, Karel; Kubecek, V.; Prochazka, Ivan

    1993-01-01

    To reach the millimeter satellite laser ranging accuracy, the goal for nineties, new laser ranging techniques have to be applied. To increase the laser ranging precision, the application of the ultrashort laser pulses in connection with the new signal detection and processing techniques, is inevitable. The two wavelength laser ranging is one of the ways to measure the atmospheric dispersion to improve the existing atmospheric correction models and hence, to increase the overall system ranging accuracy to the desired value. We are presenting a review of several nonstandard techniques of ultrashort laser pulses generation, which may be utilized for laser ranging: compression of the nanosecond pulses using stimulated Brillouin and Raman backscattering; compression of the mode-locked pulses using Raman backscattering; passive mode-locking technique with nonlinear mirror; and passive mode-locking technique with the negative feedback.

  14. Methods and criterions for IV generation system choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F; Fiorini, G. L.

    2005-01-01

    The international forum of IV generation has been built up in 2000, initiated by the American Energy Department with an initial participation of nine countries (and of ten today). In a primary phase of these works, which was finished in October 2002, the forum objects were to define the list of nuclear systems conditions which could be ready to use in 2030 to make a sustainable energy development, and select previously the most promising technology to attain these purposes. This article presents, with its trumps and limits, the methodology which was used to select, starting from 120 propositions, one set of 6 systems which includes key technologies for the nuclears of the 21st century. (Authors)

  15. Generational Learning Style Preferences Based on Computer-Based Healthcare Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Michaelle H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this mixed-method study was to determine the degree of perceived differences for auditory, visual and kinesthetic learning styles of Traditionalist, Baby Boomers, Generation X and Millennial generational healthcare workers participating in technology-assisted healthcare training. Methodology. This mixed-method research…

  16. Application of clustering analysis in the prediction of photovoltaic power generation based on neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K.; Guo, L. M.; Wang, Y. K.; Zafar, M. T.

    2017-11-01

    In order to select effective samples in the large number of data of PV power generation years and improve the accuracy of PV power generation forecasting model, this paper studies the application of clustering analysis in this field and establishes forecasting model based on neural network. Based on three different types of weather on sunny, cloudy and rainy days, this research screens samples of historical data by the clustering analysis method. After screening, it establishes BP neural network prediction models using screened data as training data. Then, compare the six types of photovoltaic power generation prediction models before and after the data screening. Results show that the prediction model combining with clustering analysis and BP neural networks is an effective method to improve the precision of photovoltaic power generation.

  17. Availability of thermodynamic system with multiple performance parameters based on vector-universal generating function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Qi; Shang Yanlong; Chen Lisheng; Zhao Yuguang

    2013-01-01

    Vector-universal generating function was presented to analyze the availability of thermodynamic system with multiple performance parameters. Vector-universal generating function of component's performance was defined, the arithmetic model based on vector-universal generating function was derived for the thermodynamic system, and the calculation method was given for state probability of multi-state component. With the stochastic simulation of the degeneration trend of the multiple factors, the system availability with multiple performance parameters was obtained under composite factors. It is shown by an example that the results of the availability obtained by the binary availability analysis method are somewhat conservative, and the results considering parameter failure based on vector-universal generating function reflect the operation characteristics of the thermodynamic system better. (authors)

  18. Post-processing Free Quantum Random Number Generator Based on Avalanche Photodiode Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yang; Liao Sheng-Kai; Liang Fu-Tian; Shen Qi; Liang Hao; Peng Cheng-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Quantum random number generators adopting single photon detection have been restricted due to the non-negligible dead time of avalanche photodiodes (APDs). We propose a new approach based on an APD array to improve the generation rate of random numbers significantly. This method compares the detectors' responses to consecutive optical pulses and generates the random sequence. We implement a demonstration experiment to show its simplicity, compactness and scalability. The generated numbers are proved to be unbiased, post-processing free, ready to use, and their randomness is verified by using the national institute of standard technology statistical test suite. The random bit generation efficiency is as high as 32.8% and the potential generation rate adopting the 32 × 32 APD array is up to tens of Gbits/s. (paper)

  19. Evaluation methods of solar contribution in solar aided coal-fired power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yong; Zhai, Rongrong; Zhao, Miaomiao; Yang, Yongping; Yan, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Five methods for evaluating solar contribution are analyzed. • Method based on the second law of thermodynamics and thermal economics is more suitable for SACPGS. • Providing reliable reference for the formulation of feed-in tariff policies in China. - Abstract: Solar aided coal-fired power plants utilize solar thermal energy to couple with coal-fired power plants of various types by adopting characteristics of different thermal needs of plants. In this way, the costly thermal storage system and power generating system will become unnecessary, meanwhile the intermittent and unsteady nature of power generation can be avoided. In addition, large-scale utilization of solar thermal power and energy saving can be achieved. With the ever-deepening analyses of solar aided coal-fired power plants, the contribution evaluating system of solar thermal power is worth further exploration. In this paper, five common evaluation methods of solar contribution are analyzed, and solar aided coal-fired power plants of 1000 MW, 600 MW and 330 MW are studied with these five methods in a comparative manner. Therefore, this study can serve as a theoretical reference for future research of evaluation methods and subsidies for new energy

  20. Entropy method combined with extreme learning machine method for the short-term photovoltaic power generation forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Pingzhou; Chen, Di; Hou, Yushuo

    2016-01-01

    As the world’s energy problem becomes more severe day by day, photovoltaic power generation has opened a new door for us with no doubt. It will provide an effective solution for this severe energy problem and meet human’s needs for energy if we can apply photovoltaic power generation in real life, Similar to wind power generation, photovoltaic power generation is uncertain. Therefore, the forecast of photovoltaic power generation is very crucial. In this paper, entropy method and extreme learning machine (ELM) method were combined to forecast a short-term photovoltaic power generation. First, entropy method is used to process initial data, train the network through the data after unification, and then forecast electricity generation. Finally, the data results obtained through the entropy method with ELM were compared with that generated through generalized regression neural network (GRNN) and radial basis function neural network (RBF) method. We found that entropy method combining with ELM method possesses higher accuracy and the calculation is faster.

  1. Nuclear power generating station equipment qualification method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fero, A.H.; Potochnik, L.M.; Riling, R.W.; Semethy, K.F.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a method of monitoring an object piece of qualified equipment in a nuclear power plant. It comprises providing a first passive mimic means for mimicking the effect of radiation received by the object piece on the object piece; providing a second mimic means for mimicking the effect of a thermal history of the object piece on the object piece and mounting the first passive mimic means and the second mimic means in close proximity to the object piece

  2. Apparatus and method for generating high density pulses of electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.; Oettinger, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described for the production of high density pulses of electrons using a laser energized emitter. Caesium atoms from a low pressure vapour atmosphere are absorbed on and migrate from a metallic target rapidly heated by a laser to a high temperature. Due to this heating time being short compared with the residence time of the caesium atoms adsorbed on the target surface, copious electrons are emitted which form a high current density pulse. (U.K.)

  3. A basic condition-based maintenance strategy for air-cooled turbine generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, T.; Griffith, G.; Hoof, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the methods of using condition-based maintenance (CBM) for turbine generators. Even though it is focused on the maintenance strategy for air-cooled generators, all types of power producers can realize benefits from a better maintenance strategy at lower costs. A reliable assessment of the actual unit condition requires detailed knowledge of the unit design, operational weaknesses, cost of maintenance and operational capabilities. (author)

  4. NOx generation method from recovered nitric acid by electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Shimizu, H.; Inoue, M.; Fujiso, M.; Shibuya, M.; Iwamoto, F.; Outou, Y.; Ochi, E.; Tsuyuki, T.

    1998-01-01

    An R and D has been conducted on an electrolytic NO x generation process utilizing recovered nitric acid from a PUREX reprocessing plant. The purpose of the study is to drastically reduce the amount of low-level-liquid waste(LLW). The research program phase-1, constituting mainly of electrochemical reaction mechanism study, material balance evaluation and process design study, finished in 1995. The results were presented in the previous papers). The research program phase-2 has started in 1995. The schedule is as follows: FY 1991-1994: Research program phase-1 Basic study using electrolysis equipment with 100-700 cm 2 electrodes FY 1995-1999: Research program phase-2 Process performance test by larger scale electrolysis equipment with 3.6 m 2 electrodes - pilot plant design (FY 1995) - pilot plant construction (FY 1996) - engineering data acquisition (FY 1997-1999). The process consists of many unit operations such as electrolysis, oxidation, nitric acid concentration, NO x compression and storage, NO x recovery, off-gas treatment and acid supplier. This paper outlines the pilot test plant. (author)

  5. Method and apparatus for generating highly luminous flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, G.M.

    1992-05-12

    A combustion process and apparatus are provided for generating a variable high temperature, highly luminous flame with low NOx emission by burning gaseous and liquid materials with oxygen and air. More particularly, the invention provides a process in which there is initial control of fuel, oxygen, and air flows and the delivery of the oxidizers to a burner as two oxidizing gases having different oxygen concentrations (for example, pure oxygen and air, or oxygen and oxygen-enriched air). A first oxidizing gas containing a high oxygen concentration is injected as a stream into the central zone of a combustion tunnel or chamber, and part of the fuel (preferably the major part) is injected into the central pyrolysis zone to mix with the first oxidizing gas to create a highly luminous high-temperature flame core containing microparticles of carbon of the proper size for maximum luminosity and high temperature, and a relatively small amount of hydrocarbon radicals. In addition, part of the fuel (preferably the minor part) is injected in a plurality of streams about the flame core to mix with a second oxidizing gas (containing a lower oxygen concentration than the first oxidizing gas) and injecting the second oxidizing mixture about the flame core and the minor fuel flow to mix with the minor fuel flow. This creates a plurality of fuel-lean (oxygen-rich) flames which are directed toward the luminous flame core to form a final flame pattern having high temperature, high luminosity, and low NOx content. 6 figs.

  6. Practical methods for generating alternating magnetic fields for biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Michael G.; Howe, Christina M.; Bono, David C.; Perreault, David J.; Anikeeva, Polina

    2017-08-01

    Alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) cause magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to dissipate heat while leaving surrounding tissue unharmed, a mechanism that serves as the basis for a variety of emerging biomedical technologies. Unfortunately, the challenges and costs of developing experimental setups commonly used to produce AMFs with suitable field amplitudes and frequencies present a barrier to researchers. This paper first presents a simple, cost-effective, and robust alternative for small AMF working volumes that uses soft ferromagnetic cores to focus the flux into a gap. As the experimental length scale increases to accommodate animal models (working volumes of 100s of cm3 or greater), poor thermal conductivity and volumetrically scaled core losses render that strategy ineffective. Comparatively feasible strategies for these larger volumes instead use low loss resonant tank circuits to generate circulating currents of 1 kA or greater in order to produce the comparable field amplitudes. These principles can be extended to the problem of identifying practical routes for scaling AMF setups to humans, an infrequently acknowledged challenge that influences the extent to which many applications of MNPs may ever become clinically relevant.

  7. Next Generation Sequencing Methods for Diagnosis of Epilepsy Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Dunn

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by an increased predisposition for seizures. Although this definition suggests that it is a single disorder, epilepsy encompasses a group of disorders with diverse aetiologies and outcomes. A genetic basis for epilepsy syndromes has been postulated for several decades, with several mutations in specific genes identified that have increased our understanding of the genetic influence on epilepsies. With 70-80% of epilepsy cases identified to have a genetic cause, there are now hundreds of genes identified to be associated with epilepsy syndromes which can be analyzed using next generation sequencing (NGS techniques such as targeted gene panels, whole exome sequencing (WES and whole genome sequencing (WGS. For effective use of these methodologies, diagnostic laboratories and clinicians require information on the relevant workflows including analysis and sequencing depth to understand the specific clinical application and diagnostic capabilities of these gene sequencing techniques. As epilepsy is a complex disorder, the differences associated with each technique influence the ability to form a diagnosis along with an accurate detection of the genetic etiology of the disorder. In addition, for diagnostic testing, an important parameter is the cost-effectiveness and the specific diagnostic outcome of each technique. Here, we review these commonly used NGS techniques to determine their suitability for application to epilepsy genetic diagnostic testing.

  8. Multi-model predictive control method for nuclear steam generator water level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Ke; Yuan Jingqi

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of a nuclear steam generator (SG) is very different according to the power levels and changes as time goes on. Therefore, it is an intractable as well as challenging task to improve the water level control system of the SG. In this paper, a robust model predictive control (RMPC) method is developed for the level control problem. Based on a multi-model framework, a combination of a local nominal model with a polytopic uncertain linear parameter varying (LPV) model is built to approximate the system's non-linear behavior. The optimization problem solved here is based on a receding horizon scheme involving the linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique. Closed loop stability and constraints satisfaction in the entire operating range are guaranteed by the feasibility of the optimization problem. Finally, simulation results show the effectiveness and the good performance of the proposed method

  9. A third-generation dispersion and third-generation hydrogen bonding corrected PM6 method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Jimmy Charnley; Christensen, Anders Steen; Svendsen, Casper Steinmann

    2014-01-01

    We present new dispersion and hydrogen bond corrections to the PM6 method, PM6-D3H+, and its implementation in the GAMESS program. The method combines the DFT-D3 dispersion correction by Grimme et al. with a modified version of the H+ hydrogen bond correction by Korth. Overall, the interaction...... in GAMESS, while the corresponding numbers for PM6-DH+ implemented in MOPAC are 54, 17, 15, and 2. The PM6-D3H+ method as implemented in GAMESS offers an attractive alternative to PM6-DH+ in MOPAC in cases where the LBFGS optimizer must be used and a vibrational analysis is needed, e.g., when computing...... vibrational free energies. While the GAMESS implementation is up to 10 times slower for geometry optimizations of proteins in bulk solvent, compared to MOPAC, it is sufficiently fast to make geometry optimizations of small proteins practically feasible....

  10. Long-Term Reserve Expansion of Power Systems With High Wind Power Penetration Using Universal Generating Function Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DING, YI; Wang, Peng; Goel, Lalit

    2010-01-01

    from long term planning point of view utilizing universal generating function (UGF) methods. The reliability models of wind farms and conventional generators are represented as the correspondin UGFs and the special operators for these UGFs are defined to evaluate the customer and the system...... reliabilities. The effect of transmission network on customer reliabilities is also considered in the system UGF. The power output models of wind turbine generators in a wind farm considering wind speed correlation and un-correlation are developed, respectively. A reliability-based reserve expansion method...

  11. Current state and development trends of inspections of steam generator tubes by eddy currents method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, S.; Herman, M.

    1988-01-01

    The requirements are presented for steam generator tube testing and the factors are discussed affecting the accuracy of measurement by the eddy currents method. The individual types of the eddy currents method are described, such as the single-frequency method, the multi-frequency method and the pulse eddy currents method. The demands are summed up on manipulator systems whose design is adapted to the steam generator configuration conditions. (E.S.). 5 figs., 16 possu

  12. Inverse method for stress monitoring in pressure components of steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duda, P.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to formulate a space marching method, which can be used to solve inverse multidimensional heat conduction problems. The method is designed to reconstruct the transient temperature distribution in a whole construction element based on measured temperatures taken at selected points inside or on the outer surface of the construction element. Next, the Finite Element Method is used to calculate thermal stresses and stresses caused by other loads such as, for instance, internal pressure. The developed method for solving temperature and total stress distribution will be tested using the measured temperatures generated from a direct solution. Transient temperature and total stress distribution obtained from method presented below will be compared with the values obtained from the direct solution. Finally, the presented method will be applied in order to monitor temperature and stress distribution in an outlet header using the real measured temperature values at seven points on the header's outer surface during the power boiler's shut down operation. The presented method allows to optimize the power block's start-up and shut-down operations, contributes to the reduction of heat loss during these operations and to the extension of power block's life. The fatigue and creep usage factor can be computed in an on-line mode. The presented method herein can be applied to monitoring systems that work in conventional as well as in nuclear power plants. (author)

  13. Identification of natural images and computer-generated graphics based on statistical and textural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fei; Li, Jiao-ting; Long, Min

    2015-03-01

    To discriminate the acquisition pipelines of digital images, a novel scheme for the identification of natural images and computer-generated graphics is proposed based on statistical and textural features. First, the differences between them are investigated from the view of statistics and texture, and 31 dimensions of feature are acquired for identification. Then, LIBSVM is used for the classification. Finally, the experimental results are presented. The results show that it can achieve an identification accuracy of 97.89% for computer-generated graphics, and an identification accuracy of 97.75% for natural images. The analyses also demonstrate the proposed method has excellent performance, compared with some existing methods based only on statistical features or other features. The method has a great potential to be implemented for the identification of natural images and computer-generated graphics. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Next Generation Campus Network Deployment Project Based on Softswitch

    OpenAIRE

    HU Feng; LIU Ziyan

    2011-01-01

    After analyzing the current networks of Guizhou University,we brought forward a scheme of next generation campus networks based on softswitch technology by choosing SoftX3000 switching system of HuaWei and provided the specific solution of accessing campus networks in this paper. It is proved that this scheme is feasible by using OPNET, which not only accomplished the integration of the PSTN and IP networks but also achieved the combining of voice services and data services.

  15. SABATPG-A Structural Analysis Based Automatic Test Generation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠诚; 潘榆奇; 闵应骅

    1994-01-01

    A TPG system, SABATPG, is given based on a generic structural model of large circuits. Three techniques of partial implication, aftereffect of identified undetectable faults and shared sensitization with new concepts of localization and aftereffect are employed in the system to improve FAN algorithm. Experiments for the 10 ISCAS benchmark circuits show that the computing time of SABATPG for test generation is 19.42% less than that of FAN algorithm.

  16. Generator of text-based assignments for programming courses

    OpenAIRE

    Jager, Mojca

    2013-01-01

    Verifying and assessing of knowledge represent important part of education. A teacher can verify knowledge on different ways, like classically oral and written, which are in majority still dominant types, and alternatively, which is based on student's current activities. During assembling the questions for written verification, many teachers nowadays help themselves using different test generators like Hot Potatoes, Moodle, Test Pilot, and others, they are all available on internet. At t...

  17. MCAPM: All particle method generator and collision package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathkopf, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    MCAPM (Monte Carlo All Particle Method) is a collection of subroutines that read the data necessary for and perform the physics involved in collisions of neutrons, protons, deuterons, helium-3, alphas, and gammas with background material. These subroutines are divided into two packages. The first package, gen2000, reads the cross sections and distributions from binary libraries that describe in-flight reactions and formats them in a form appropriate for use by the second package. Libraries are organized by incident particle type, but contain information describing the attributes of all output particles. The method of tabulating cross section data depends on the incident particle type. Neutron and charged particle cross sections are multi-group; gamma cross sections are log-log interpolated from an energy grid consistent over all target elements. The second package, bang2000, uses these data to perform the collision physics. Each Monte Carlo particle possesses a discrete energy value allowing the kinematics of collisions to be performed on a continuous energy basis. The result of the kinematics is the attributes (type, number, energy, and direction) of all the particles emerging from the collision. MCAPM is modular and has been ported to a variety of platforms

  18. Performance assessment of commercial relays for anti-islanding protection of rotating machine based distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katiraei, F. [Quanta Technology, Houston, TX (United States); Abbey, C. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre; Da Cunha, I. [LeapFrog Energy Technologies Inc., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Brisette, Y. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Research Inst

    2008-07-01

    According to power industry standards, distributed generation must stop energizing the power grid upon loss of the main system. Either passive or active methods may be used to fulfill this requirement. Passive methods rely on locally measured signals to determine whether the main grid is present, while active methods inject a perturbation into the system that will manifest itself in locally measured signals if the main grid is not present. This paper compared simulation and experimental results for various commercially available relays for passive anti-islanding protection of small (below 500 kW) distributed generators using either synchronous or induction generators. A commercial multifunction relay and an application specific relay for rate-of-change-of-frequency and vector shift were modelled in simulation. Simulation results were compared with tests using a 25 kV induction generator. Results obtained for the induction machine based DG were in good agreement with trip times associated with under/overvoltage relays. The poor results with frequency based relays may be attributed to the method used for calculating frequency. Sensitivity analysis on the degree of capacitor compensation revealed a small non-detection zone, suggesting that this risk should be evaluated for induction machine based interconnections. These results showed that accurate relay modeling is challenging, particularly for frequency based techniques. Other methods for relay testing, such as hardware-in-the-loop, may be more appropriate than simulation, and are more practical in terms of cost effectiveness, than extensive field trials. 7 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  19. Calculation of the energy provided by a PV generator. Comparative study: Conventional methods vs. artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almonacid, F.; Rus, C.; Perez-Higueras, P.; Hontoria, L.

    2011-01-01

    The use of photovoltaics for electricity generation purposes has recorded one of the largest increases in the field of renewable energies. The energy production of a grid-connected PV system depends on various factors. In a wide sense, it is considered that the annual energy provided by a generator is directly proportional to the annual radiation incident on the plane of the generator and to the installed nominal power. However, a range of factors is influencing the expected outcome by reducing the generation of energy. The aim of this study is to compare the results of four different methods for estimating the annual energy produced by a PV generator: three of them are classical methods and the fourth one is based on an artificial neural network developed by the R and D Group for Solar and Automatic Energy at the University of Jaen. The results obtained shown that the method based on an artificial neural network provides better results than the alternative classical methods in study, mainly due to the fact that this method takes also into account some second order effects, such as low irradiance, angular and spectral effects. -- Research highlights: → It is considered that the annual energy provided by a PV generator is directly proportional to the annual radiation incident on the plane of the generator and to the installed nominal power. → A range of factors are influencing the expected outcome by reducing the generation of energy (mismatch losses, dirt and dust, Ohmic losses,.). → The aim of this study is to compare the results of four different methods for estimating the annual energy produced by a PV generator: three of them are classical methods and the fourth one is based on an artificial neural network. → The results obtained shown that the method based on an artificial neural network provides better results than the alternative classical methods in study. While classical methods have only taken into account temperature losses, the method based in

  20. Modeling and Simulation of Generator Side Converter of Doubly Fed Induction Generator-Based Wind Power Generation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yougui; Zeng, Ping; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2010-01-01

    A real wind power generation system is given in this paper. SVM control strategy and vector control is applied for generator side converter and doubly fed induction generator respectively. First the mathematical models of the wind turbine rotor, drive train, generator side converter are described...

  1. Spin-torque generation in topological insulator based heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Fischer, Mark H.

    2016-03-11

    Heterostructures utilizing topological insulators exhibit a remarkable spin-torque efficiency. However, the exact origin of the strong torque, in particular whether it stems from the spin-momentum locking of the topological surface states or rather from spin-Hall physics of the topological-insulator bulk, remains unclear. Here, we explore a mechanism of spin-torque generation purely based on the topological surface states. We consider topological-insulator-based bilayers involving ferromagnetic metal (TI/FM) and magnetically doped topological insulators (TI/mdTI), respectively. By ascribing the key theoretical differences between the two setups to location and number of active surface states, we describe both setups within the same framework of spin diffusion of the nonequilibrium spin density of the topological surface states. For the TI/FM bilayer, we find large spin-torque efficiencies of roughly equal magnitude for both in-plane and out-of-plane spin torques. For the TI/mdTI bilayer, we elucidate the dominance of the spin-transfer-like torque. However, we cannot explain the orders of magnitude enhancement reported. Nevertheless, our model gives an intuitive picture of spin-torque generation in topological-insulator-based bilayers and provides theoretical constraints on spin-torque generation due to topological surface states.

  2. A fast method for the unit scheduling problem with significant renewable power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osório, G.J.; Lujano-Rojas, J.M.; Matias, J.C.O.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A model to the scheduling of power systems with significant renewable power generation is provided. • A new methodology that takes information from the analysis of each scenario separately is proposed. • Based on a probabilistic analysis, unit scheduling and corresponding economic dispatch are estimated. • A comparison with others methodologies is in favour of the proposed approach. - Abstract: Optimal operation of power systems with high integration of renewable power sources has become difficult as a consequence of the random nature of some sources like wind energy and photovoltaic energy. Nowadays, this problem is solved using Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) approach, which allows considering important statistical characteristics of wind and solar power production such as the correlation between consecutive observations, the diurnal profile of the forecasted power production, and the forecasting error. However, MCS method requires the analysis of a representative amount of trials, which is an intensive calculation task that increases considerably with the number of scenarios considered. In this paper, a model to the scheduling of power systems with significant renewable power generation based on scenario generation/reduction method, which establishes a proportional relationship between the number of scenarios and the computational time required to analyse them, is proposed. The methodology takes information from the analysis of each scenario separately to determine the probabilistic behaviour of each generator at each hour in the scheduling problem. Then, considering a determined significance level, the units to be committed are selected and the load dispatch is determined. The proposed technique was illustrated through a case study and the comparison with stochastic programming approach was carried out, concluding that the proposed methodology can provide an acceptable solution in a reduced computational time

  3. Kinematic method for beam energy determination at electrostatic generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, H.J.; Gersch, H.U.; Hentschel, E.; Wohlfahrt, D.

    1975-06-01

    The applicability of the kinematics of nuclear reactions to the energy determination of a particle beam is discussed. Most favourable conditions are obtained for the kinematic cross over of particles elastically and inelastically scattered at targets with different masses. At tandem energies between 4 and 15 MeV this method permits an exact determination with a precision of about 1 keV. The scattered particles must be measured at about 170 0 with a precision of the scattering angle of 0.1 0 . For the energy determination of a proton beam the compounds LiF, LiCl, or deuterium enriched hydrocarbons are found to be proper target materials. Experimental results with a LiF-target are described. (author)

  4. Data Mining Methods to Generate Severe Wind Gust Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subana Shanmuganathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaining knowledge on weather patterns, trends and the influence of their extremes on various crop production yields and quality continues to be a quest by scientists, agriculturists, and managers. Precise and timely information aids decision-making, which is widely accepted as intrinsically necessary for increased production and improved quality. Studies in this research domain, especially those related to data mining and interpretation are being carried out by the authors and their colleagues. Some of this work that relates to data definition, description, analysis, and modelling is described in this paper. This includes studies that have evaluated extreme dry/wet weather events against reported yield at different scales in general. They indicate the effects of weather extremes such as prolonged high temperatures, heavy rainfall, and severe wind gusts. Occurrences of these events are among the main weather extremes that impact on many crops worldwide. Wind gusts are difficult to anticipate due to their rapid manifestation and yet can have catastrophic effects on crops and buildings. This paper examines the use of data mining methods to reveal patterns in the weather conditions, such as time of the day, month of the year, wind direction, speed, and severity using a data set from a single location. Case study data is used to provide examples of how the methods used can elicit meaningful information and depict it in a fashion usable for management decision making. Historical weather data acquired between 2008 and 2012 has been used for this study from telemetry devices installed in a vineyard in the north of New Zealand. The results show that using data mining techniques and the local weather conditions, such as relative pressure, temperature, wind direction and speed recorded at irregular intervals, can produce new knowledge relating to wind gust patterns for vineyard management decision making.

  5. Maximum Power Point Tracking Control of a Thermoelectric Generation System Using the Extremum Seeking Control Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssennoga Twaha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes and implements maximum power Point Tracking (MPPT control on thermoelectric generation system using an extremum seeking control (ESC algorithm. The MPPT is applied to guarantee maximum power extraction from the TEG system. The work has been carried out through modelling of thermoelectric generator/dc-dc converter system using Matlab/Simulink. The effectiveness of ESC technique has been assessed by comparing the results with those of the Perturb and Observe (P&O MPPT method under the same operating conditions. Results indicate that ESC MPPT method extracts more power than the P&O technique, where the output power of ESC technique is higher than that of P&O by 0.47 W or 6.1% at a hot side temperature of 200 °C. It is also noted that the ESC MPPT based model is almost fourfold faster than the P&O method. This is attributed to smaller MPPT circuit of ESC compared to that of P&O, hence we conclude that the ESC MPPT method outperforms the P&O technique.

  6. Pairing vibrational and isospin rotational states in a particle number and isospin projected generator coordinate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.T.; Muether, H.; Faessler, A.

    1978-01-01

    Pairing vibrational and isospin rotational states are described in different approximations based on particle number and isospin projected, proton-proton, neutron-neutron and proton-neutron pairing wave functions and on the generator coordinate method (GCM). The investigations are performed in models for which an exact group theoretical solution exists. It turns out that a particle number and isospin projection is essential to yield a good approximation to the ground state or isospin yrast state energies. For strong pairing correlations (pairing force constant equal to the single-particle level distance) isospin cranking (-ωTsub(x)) yields with particle number projected pairing wave function also good agreement with the exact energies. GCM wave functions generated by particle number and isospin projected BCS functions with different amounts of pairing correlations yield for the lowest T=0 and T=2 states energies which are practically indistinguishable from the exact solutions. But even the second and third lowest energies of charge-symmetric states are still very reliable. Thus it is concluded that also in realistic cases isospin rotational and pairing vibrational states may be described in the framework of the GCM method with isospin and particle number projected generating wave functions. (Auth.)

  7. Conceptual Design of GRIG (GUI Based RETRAN Input Generator)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyung Jin; Hwang, Su Hyun; Hong, Soon Joon; Lee, Byung Chul; Jang, Chan Su; Um, Kil Sup

    2007-01-01

    For the development of high performance methodology using advanced transient analysis code, it is essential to generate the basic input of transient analysis code by rigorous QA procedures. There are various types of operating NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants) in Korea such as Westinghouse plants, KSNP(Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant), APR1400 (Advance Power Reactor), etc. So there are some difficulties to generate and manage systematically the input of transient analysis code reflecting the inherent characteristics of various types of NPPs. To minimize the user faults and investment man power and to generate effectively and accurately the basic inputs of transient analysis code for all domestic NPPs, it is needed to develop the program that can automatically generate the basic input, which can be directly applied to the transient analysis, from the NPP design material. ViRRE (Visual RETRAN Running Environment) developed by KEPCO (Korea Electric Power Corporation) and KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) provides convenient working environment for Kori Unit 1/2. ViRRE shows the calculated results through on-line display but its capability is limited on the convenient execution of RETRAN. So it can not be used as input generator. ViSA (Visual System Analyzer) developed by KAERI is a NPA (Nuclear Plant Analyzer) using RETRAN and MARS code as thermal-hydraulic engine. ViSA contains both pre-processing and post-processing functions. In the pre-processing, only the trip data cards and boundary conditions can be changed through GUI mode based on pre-prepared text-input, so the capability of input generation is very limited. SNAP (Symbolic Nuclear Analysis Package) developed by Applied Programming Technology, Inc. and NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) provides efficient working environment for the use of nuclear safety analysis codes such as RELAP5 and TRAC-M codes. SNAP covers wide aspects of thermal-hydraulic analysis from model creation through data analysis

  8. Non-Aqueous Titration Method for Determining Suppressor Concentration in the MCU Next Generation Solvent (NGS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, Daniel H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-23

    A non-aqueous titration method has been used for quantifying the suppressor concentration in the MCU solvent hold tank (SHT) monthly samples since the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) was implemented in 2013. The titration method measures the concentration of the NGS suppressor (TiDG) as well as the residual tri-n-octylamine (TOA) that is a carryover from the previous solvent. As the TOA concentration has decreased over time, it has become difficult to resolve the TiDG equivalence point as the TOA equivalence point has moved closer. In recent samples, the TiDG equivalence point could not be resolved, and therefore, the TiDG concentration was determined by subtracting the TOA concentration as measured by semi-volatile organic analysis (SVOA) from the total base concentration as measured by titration. In order to improve the titration method so that the TiDG concentration can be measured directly, without the need for the SVOA data, a new method has been developed that involves spiking of the sample with additional TOA to further separate the two equivalence points in the titration. This method has been demonstrated on four recent SHT samples and comparison to results obtained using the SVOA TOA subtraction method shows good agreement. Therefore, it is recommended that the titration procedure be revised to include the TOA spike addition, and this to become the primary method for quantifying the TiDG.

  9. Non-Aqueous Titration Method for Determining Suppressor Concentration in the MCU Next Generation Solvent (NGS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L.; Jones, Daniel H.

    2017-01-01

    A non-aqueous titration method has been used for quantifying the suppressor concentration in the MCU solvent hold tank (SHT) monthly samples since the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) was implemented in 2013. The titration method measures the concentration of the NGS suppressor (TiDG) as well as the residual tri-n-octylamine (TOA) that is a carryover from the previous solvent. As the TOA concentration has decreased over time, it has become difficult to resolve the TiDG equivalence point as the TOA equivalence point has moved closer. In recent samples, the TiDG equivalence point could not be resolved, and therefore, the TiDG concentration was determined by subtracting the TOA concentration as measured by semi-volatile organic analysis (SVOA) from the total base concentration as measured by titration. In order to improve the titration method so that the TiDG concentration can be measured directly, without the need for the SVOA data, a new method has been developed that involves spiking of the sample with additional TOA to further separate the two equivalence points in the titration. This method has been demonstrated on four recent SHT samples and comparison to results obtained using the SVOA TOA subtraction method shows good agreement. Therefore, it is recommended that the titration procedure be revised to include the TOA spike addition, and this to become the primary method for quantifying the TiDG.

  10. Simple engineering design for complex thermoelectric generators based on reduced current approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijesooriyage, Waruna Dissanayaka; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are niche candidate for the field of energy management as electrical generator devices. Generally, comprehensive and accurate design techniques for TEGs (thermoelectric generators), such as reduced current approach (RCA), are complex and time consuming processes....... This study develops a simple, comprehensive and accurate TEG designing technique based on RCA. The proposed method can predict the most efficient TEG architecture with more than 97% accuracy comparing to the RCA over wide range of possible temperature and zT for present TEG applications. Moreover...

  11. Resonant wave energy harvester based on dielectric elastomer generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Giacomo; Pietro Rosati Papini, Gastone; Righi, Michele; Forehand, David; Ingram, David; Vertechy, Rocco; Fontana, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEGs) are a class of capacitive solid-state devices that employ highly stretchable dielectrics and conductors to convert mechanical energy into high-voltage direct-current electricity. Their promising performance in terms of convertible energy and power density has been mostly proven in quasi-static experimental tests with prescribed deformation. However, the assessment of their ability in harvesting energy from a dynamic oscillating source of mechanical energy is crucial to demonstrate their effectiveness in practical applications. This paper reports a first demonstration of a DEG system that is able to convert the oscillating energy carried by water waves into electricity. A DEG prototype is built using a commercial polyacrylate film (VHB 4905 by 3M) and an experimental campaign is conducted in a wave-flume facility, i.e. an artificial basin that makes it possible to generate programmed small-scale waves at different frequencies and amplitudes. In resonant conditions, the designed system demonstrates the delivery of a maximum of 0.87 W of electrical power output and 0.64 J energy generated per cycle, with corresponding densities per unit mass of dielectric elastomer of 197 W kg-1 and 145 J kg-1. Additionally, a notable maximum fraction of 18% of the input wave energy is converted into electricity. The presented results provide a promising demonstration of the operation and effectiveness of ocean wave energy converters based on elastic capacitive generators.

  12. Experience of pico/micro hydro based power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, S.S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Although India has approximately 150,000 megawatts of hydro potential, only a small portion is tapped. There is also significant untapped hydro potential in many developing countries such as Nepal, Bhutan, Vietnam, Indonesia and regions in South America and Africa. Small-scale hydroelectric power systems with capacities of up to a few megawatts are eco-friendly and sustainable. They can be classified based on unit sizes as pico (u pto 10 kilowatts), micro (10-100 kilowatts) and mini (100 kilowatts to a few megawatts) hydro systems. Mini hydro systems are always grid connected while micro can be either grid connected or off grid. Pico is always off grid. In India, there are thousands of favorable sites in this range that should be tapped for distributed power generation to electrify local communities. This need is reflected by the global emphasis on distributed power generation as well as the Government of India's policy to promote this type of power generation. A working stand alone pico-hydro power generating system has been successfully installed in 5 sites in Karnataka. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate the technical, managerial and economic feasibility of setting up small hydro projects in remote hilly areas of Karnataka, India and its positive environmental impact. The presentation discussed the site selection criteria; installed sites of pico hydro; system description; parts of the system; the electric load controller; types of electronic load controllers; and a description of the unit and control scheme. tabs., figs.

  13. Digital chaotic sequence generator based on coupled chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu-Bo, Liu; Jing, Sun; Jin-Shuo, Liu; Zheng-Quan, Xu

    2009-01-01

    Chaotic systems perform well as a new rich source of cryptography and pseudo-random coding. Unfortunately their digital dynamical properties would degrade due to the finite computing precision. Proposed in this paper is a modified digital chaotic sequence generator based on chaotic logistic systems with a coupling structure where one chaotic subsystem generates perturbation signals to disturb the control parameter of the other one. The numerical simulations show that the length of chaotic orbits, the output distribution of chaotic system, and the security of chaotic sequences have been greatly improved. Moreover the chaotic sequence period can be extended at least by one order of magnitude longer than that of the uncoupled logistic system and the difficulty in decrypting increases 2 128 *2 128 times indicating that the dynamical degradation of digital chaos is effectively improved. A field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of an algorithm is given and the corresponding experiment shows that the output speed of the generated chaotic sequences can reach 571.4 Mbps indicating that the designed generator can be applied to the real-time video image encryption. (general)

  14. MacroEvoLution: A New Method for the Rapid Generation of Novel Scaffold-Diverse Macrocyclic Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saupe, Jörn; Kunz, Oliver; Haustedt, Lars Ole; Jakupovic, Sven; Mang, Christian

    2017-09-04

    Macrocycles are a structural class bearing great promise for future challenges in medicinal chemistry. Nevertheless, there are few flexible approaches for the rapid generation of structurally diverse macrocyclic compound collections. Here, an efficient method for the generation of novel macrocyclic peptide-based scaffolds is reported. The process, named here as "MacroEvoLution", is based on a cyclization screening approach that gives reliable access to novel macrocyclic architectures. Classification of building blocks into specific pools ensures that scaffolds with orthogonally addressable functionalities are generated, which can easily be used for the generation of structurally diverse compound libraries. The method grants rapid access to novel scaffolds with scalable synthesis (multi gram scale) and the introduction of further diversity at a late stage. Despite being developed for peptidic systems, the approach can easily be extended for the synthesis of systems with a decreased peptidic character. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  15. Continuous energy Monte Carlo method based lattice homogeinzation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mancang; Yao Dong; Wang Kan

    2014-01-01

    Based on the Monte Carlo code MCNP, the continuous energy Monte Carlo multi-group constants generation code MCMC has been developed. The track length scheme has been used as the foundation of cross section generation. The scattering matrix and Legendre components require special techniques, and the scattering event method has been proposed to solve this problem. Three methods have been developed to calculate the diffusion coefficients for diffusion reactor core codes and the Legendre method has been applied in MCMC. To the satisfaction of the equivalence theory, the general equivalence theory (GET) and the superhomogenization method (SPH) have been applied to the Monte Carlo method based group constants. The super equivalence method (SPE) has been proposed to improve the equivalence. GET, SPH and SPE have been implemented into MCMC. The numerical results showed that generating the homogenization multi-group constants via Monte Carlo method overcomes the difficulties in geometry and treats energy in continuum, thus provides more accuracy parameters. Besides, the same code and data library can be used for a wide range of applications due to the versatility. The MCMC scheme can be seen as a potential alternative to the widely used deterministic lattice codes. (authors)

  16. Complete methodology on generating realistic wind speed profiles based on measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavriluta, Catalin; Spataru, Sergiu; Mosincat, Ioan

    2012-01-01

    , wind modelling for medium and large time scales is poorly treated in the present literature. This paper presents methods for generating realistic wind speed profiles based on real measurements. The wind speed profile is divided in a low- frequency component (describing long term variations...

  17. Support vector regression model based predictive control of water level of U-tube steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavaklioglu, Kadir, E-mail: kadir.kavaklioglu@pau.edu.tr

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Water level of U-tube steam generators was controlled in a model predictive fashion. • Models for steam generator water level were built using support vector regression. • Cost function minimization for future optimal controls was performed by using the steepest descent method. • The results indicated the feasibility of the proposed method. - Abstract: A predictive control algorithm using support vector regression based models was proposed for controlling the water level of U-tube steam generators of pressurized water reactors. Steam generator data were obtained using a transfer function model of U-tube steam generators. Support vector regression based models were built using a time series type model structure for five different operating powers. Feedwater flow controls were calculated by minimizing a cost function that includes the level error, the feedwater change and the mismatch between feedwater and steam flow rates. Proposed algorithm was applied for a scenario consisting of a level setpoint change and a steam flow disturbance. The results showed that steam generator level can be controlled at all powers effectively by the proposed method.

  18. Model-based automatic generation of grasping regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloss, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of automatically generating stable regions for a robotic end effector on a target object, given a model of the end effector and the object is discussed. In order to generate grasping regions, an initial valid grasp transformation from the end effector to the object is obtained based on form closure requirements, and appropriate rotational and translational symmetries are associated with that transformation in order to construct a valid, continuous grasping region. The main result of this algorithm is a list of specific, valid grasp transformations of the end effector to the target object, and the appropriate combinations of translational and rotational symmetries associated with each specific transformation in order to produce a continuous grasp region.

  19. Multiple exciton generation in quantum dot-based solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Heather; Jellicoe, Tom C.; Davis, Nathaniel J. L. K.; Böhm, Marcus L.

    2018-01-01

    Multiple exciton generation (MEG) in quantum-confined semiconductors is the process by which multiple bound charge-carrier pairs are generated after absorption of a single high-energy photon. Such charge-carrier multiplication effects have been highlighted as particularly beneficial for solar cells where they have the potential to increase the photocurrent significantly. Indeed, recent research efforts have proved that more than one charge-carrier pair per incident solar photon can be extracted in photovoltaic devices incorporating quantum-confined semiconductors. While these proof-of-concept applications underline the potential of MEG in solar cells, the impact of the carrier multiplication effect on the device performance remains rather low. This review covers recent advancements in the understanding and application of MEG as a photocurrent-enhancing mechanism in quantum dot-based photovoltaics.

  20. Ultrafast quantum random number generation based on quantum phase fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feihu; Qi, Bing; Ma, Xiongfeng; Xu, He; Zheng, Haoxuan; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2012-05-21

    A quantum random number generator (QRNG) can generate true randomness by exploiting the fundamental indeterminism of quantum mechanics. Most approaches to QRNG employ single-photon detection technologies and are limited in speed. Here, we experimentally demonstrate an ultrafast QRNG at a rate over 6 Gbits/s based on the quantum phase fluctuations of a laser operating near threshold. Moreover, we consider a potential adversary who has partial knowledge on the raw data and discuss how one can rigorously remove such partial knowledge with postprocessing. We quantify the quantum randomness through min-entropy by modeling our system and employ two randomness extractors--Trevisan's extractor and Toeplitz-hashing--to distill the randomness, which is information-theoretically provable. The simplicity and high-speed of our experimental setup show the feasibility of a robust, low-cost, high-speed QRNG.

  1. An Infrastructure for UML-Based Code Generation Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrmeister, Marco A.; Freitas, Edison P.; Pereira, Carlos E.

    The use of Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) techniques in the domain of distributed embedded real-time systems are gain importance in order to cope with the increasing design complexity of such systems. This paper discusses an infrastructure created to build GenERTiCA, a flexible tool that supports a MDE approach, which uses aspect-oriented concepts to handle non-functional requirements from embedded and real-time systems domain. GenERTiCA generates source code from UML models, and also performs weaving of aspects, which have been specified within the UML model. Additionally, this paper discusses the Distributed Embedded Real-Time Compact Specification (DERCS), a PIM created to support UML-based code generation tools. Some heuristics to transform UML models into DERCS, which have been implemented in GenERTiCA, are also discussed.

  2. A Hybrid Maximum Power Point Tracking Method for Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Rui; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Guangyou; Quan, Shuhai

    2017-05-01

    To make full use of the maximum output power of automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG) based on Bi2Te3 thermoelectric modules (TEMs), taking into account the advantages and disadvantages of existing maximum power point tracking methods, and according to the output characteristics of TEMs, a hybrid maximum power point tracking method combining perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm, quadratic interpolation and constant voltage tracking method was put forward in this paper. Firstly, it searched the maximum power point with P&O algorithms and a quadratic interpolation method, then, it forced the AETEG to work at its maximum power point with constant voltage tracking. A synchronous buck converter and controller were implemented in the electric bus of the AETEG applied in a military sports utility vehicle, and the whole system was modeled and simulated with a MATLAB/Simulink environment. Simulation results demonstrate that the maximum output power of the AETEG based on the proposed hybrid method is increased by about 3.0% and 3.7% compared with that using only the P&O algorithm and the quadratic interpolation method, respectively. The shorter tracking time is only 1.4 s, which is reduced by half compared with that of the P&O algorithm and quadratic interpolation method, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the tracked maximum power is approximately equal to the real value using the proposed hybrid method,and it can preferentially deal with the voltage fluctuation of the AETEG with only P&O algorithm, and resolve the issue that its working point can barely be adjusted only with constant voltage tracking when the operation conditions change.

  3. A nodal method based on the response-matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha Menezes Filho, A. da; Rocamora Junior, F.D.

    1983-02-01

    A nodal approach based on the Response-Matrix method is presented with the purpose of investigating the possibility of mixing two different allocations in the same problem. It is found that the use of allocation of albedo combined with allocation of direct reflection produces good results for homogeneous fast reactor configurations. (Author) [pt

  4. Investigation of reliability of EC method for inspection of VVER steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corak, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Complete and accurate non-destructive examinations (NDE) data provides the basis for performing mitigating actions and corrective repairs. It is important that detection and characterization of flaws are done properly at an early stage. EPRI Document PWR Steam Generator Examination Guidelines recommends an approach that is intended to provide the following: Ensure accurate assessment of steam generator tube integrity; Extend the reliable, cost effective, operating life of the steam generators, and Maximize the availability of the unit. Steam Generator Eddy Current Data Analysis Performance Demonstration represents the culmination of the intense two-year industry effort in the development of a performance demonstration program for eddy current testing (ECT) of steam generator tubing. It is referred to as the Industry Database (IDB) and provides a capability for individual organizations to implement SG ECT performance demonstration programs in accordance with the requirements specified in Appendices G and H of the ISI Guidelines. The Appendix G of EPRI Document PWR Steam Generator Examination Guidelines specifies personnel training and qualification requirements for NDE personnel who analyze NDE data for PWR steam generator tubing. Its purpose is to insure a continuing uniform knowledge base and skill level for data analysis. The European methodology document is intended to provide a general framework for development of qualifications for the inspection of specific components to ensure they are developed in a consistent way throughout Europe while still allowing qualification to be tailored in detail to meet different nation requirements. In the European methodology document one will not find a detailed description of how the inspection of a specific component should be qualified. A recommended practice is a document produced by ENIQ to support the production of detailed qualification procedures by individual countries. VVER SG tubes are inspected by EC method but a

  5. Data driven model generation based on computational intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmar, Peter; Gronz, Oliver; Faust, Christophe; Casper, Markus

    2010-05-01

    parameters with respect to a defined rating function and experimental data. To find A, we use for example a linear equation solver and RMSE-function. In practical process models, the number of Fuzzy sets and the according number of rules is fairly low. Nevertheless, creating the optimal model requires some experience. Therefore, we improved this development step by methods for automatic generation of Fuzzy sets, rules, and conclusions. Basically, the model achievement depends to a great extend on the selection of the conclusion variables. It is the aim that variables having most influence on the system reaction being considered and superfluous ones being neglected. At first, we use Kohonen maps, a specialized ANN, to identify relevant input variables from the large set of available system variables. A greedy algorithm selects a comprehensive set of dominant and uncorrelated variables. Next, the premise variables are analyzed with clustering methods (e.g. Fuzzy-C-means) and Fuzzy sets are then derived from cluster centers and outlines. The rule base is automatically constructed by permutation of the Fuzzy sets of the premise variables. Finally, the conclusion parameters are calculated and the total coverage of the input space is iteratively tested with experimental data, rarely firing rules are combined and coarse coverage of sensitive process states results in refined Fuzzy sets and rules. Results The described methods were implemented and integrated in a development system for process models. A series of models has already been built e.g. for rainfall-runoff modeling or for flood prediction (up to 72 hours) in river catchments. The models required significantly less development effort and showed advanced simulation results compared to conventional models. The models can be used operationally and simulation takes only some minutes on a standard PC e.g. for a gauge forecast (up to 72 hours) for the whole Mosel (Germany) river catchment.

  6. An Advanced Bayesian Method for Short-Term Probabilistic Forecasting of the Generation of Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bracale

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, among renewable distributed generation systems, wind generators are receiving a great deal of interest due to the great economic, technological, and environmental incentives they involve. However, the uncertainties due to the intermittent nature of wind energy make it difficult to operate electrical power systems optimally and make decisions that satisfy the needs of all the stakeholders of the electricity energy market. Thus, there is increasing interest determining how to forecast wind power production accurately. Most the methods that have been published in the relevant literature provided deterministic forecasts even though great interest has been focused recently on probabilistic forecast methods. In this paper, an advanced probabilistic method is proposed for short-term forecasting of wind power production. A mixture of two Weibull distributions was used as a probability function to model the uncertainties associated with wind speed. Then, a Bayesian inference approach with a particularly-effective, autoregressive, integrated, moving-average model was used to determine the parameters of the mixture Weibull distribution. Numerical applications also are presented to provide evidence of the forecasting performance of the Bayesian-based approach.

  7. A neural network driving curve generation method for the heavy-haul train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youneng Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The heavy-haul train has a series of characteristics, such as the locomotive traction properties, the longer length of train, and the nonlinear train pipe pressure during train braking. When the train is running on a continuous long and steep downgrade railway line, the safety of the train is ensured by cycle braking, which puts high demands on the driving skills of the driver. In this article, a driving curve generation method for the heavy-haul train based on a neural network is proposed. First, in order to describe the nonlinear characteristics of train braking, the neural network model is constructed and trained by practical driving data. In the neural network model, various nonlinear neurons are interconnected to work for information processing and transmission. The target value of train braking pressure reduction and release time is achieved by modeling the braking process. The equation of train motion is computed to obtain the driving curve. Finally, in four typical operation scenarios, comparing the curve data generated by the method with corresponding practical data of the Shuohuang heavy-haul railway line, the results show that the method is effective.

  8. GrandBase: generating actionable knowledge from Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Susie Fang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper aims to propose a system for generating actionable knowledge from Big Data and use this system to construct a comprehensive knowledge base (KB, called GrandBase. Design/methodology/approach – In particular, this study extracts new predicates from four types of data sources, namely, Web texts, Document Object Model (DOM trees, existing KBs and query stream to augment the ontology of the existing KB (i.e. Freebase. In addition, a graph-based approach to conduct better truth discovery for multi-valued predicates is also proposed. Findings – Empirical studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the approaches presented in this study and the potential of GrandBase. The future research directions regarding GrandBase construction and extension has also been discussed. Originality/value – To revolutionize our modern society by using the wisdom of Big Data, considerable KBs have been constructed to feed the massive knowledge-driven applications with Resource Description Framework triples. The important challenges for KB construction include extracting information from large-scale, possibly conflicting and different-structured data sources (i.e. the knowledge extraction problem and reconciling the conflicts that reside in the sources (i.e. the truth discovery problem. Tremendous research efforts have been contributed on both problems. However, the existing KBs are far from being comprehensive and accurate: first, existing knowledge extraction systems retrieve data from limited types of Web sources; second, existing truth discovery approaches commonly assume each predicate has only one true value. In this paper, the focus is on the problem of generating actionable knowledge from Big Data. A system is proposed, which consists of two phases, namely, knowledge extraction and truth discovery, to construct a broader KB, called GrandBase.

  9. A Tomographic method based on genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcanu, C.; Alecu, L.; Craciunescu, T.; Niculae, C.

    1997-01-01

    Computerized tomography being a non-destructive and non-evasive technique is frequently used in medical application to generate three dimensional images of objects. Genetic algorithms are efficient, domain independent for a large variety of problems. The proposed method produces good quality reconstructions even in case of very small number of projection angles. It requests no a priori knowledge about the solution and takes into account the statistical uncertainties. The main drawback of the method is the amount of computer memory and time needed. (author)

  10. A Rapid Generation Method of Character Doll with Rotatable Limbs Oriented to 3D Printer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lin; CHU Xiao-li; Nie Wen-chao

    2014-01-01

    Currently, 3D printing of the character dolls is a very practical application for the average person. But the model of doll which can be obtained is static so the posture of the doll is single. On the other hand, the modification of the model is very difficult to non-professions. This paper proposes an rapid generation method of character doll with rotatable limbs, which is through adding the sphere joint to the doll’s model automatically. After the model is segmented by drawing a line interactively, the sphere joint is created based on the segmentation boundary through entity modeling method. Lastly the two models of the doll and the joint are composited and printed. Some doll’s model are tested on the FDM(Fused Deposition Modeling) 3D printer using this process. The results are more interesting and the efficiency has been greatly improved compared with modifying the model manually.

  11. Practical Integration-Free Episomal Methods for Generating Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kime, Cody; Rand, Tim A; Ivey, Kathryn N; Srivastava, Deepak; Yamanaka, Shinya; Tomoda, Kiichiro

    2015-10-06

    The advent of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology has revolutionized biomedicine and basic research by yielding cells with embryonic stem (ES) cell-like properties. The use of iPS-derived cells for cell-based therapies and modeling of human disease holds great potential. While the initial description of iPS cells involved overexpression of four transcription factors via viral vectors that integrated within genomic DNA, advances in recent years by our group and others have led to safer and higher quality iPS cells with greater efficiency. Here, we describe commonly practiced methods for non-integrating induced pluripotent stem cell generation using nucleofection of episomal reprogramming plasmids. These methods are adapted from recent studies that demonstrate increased hiPS cell reprogramming efficacy with the application of three powerful episomal hiPS cell reprogramming factor vectors and the inclusion of an accessory vector expressing EBNA1. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. Method of controlling temperature of a thermoelectric generator in an exhaust system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Gregory P; Reynolds, Michael G; Cowgill, Joshua D

    2013-05-21

    A method of controlling the temperature of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in an exhaust system of an engine is provided. The method includes determining the temperature of the heated side of the TEG, determining exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG, and determining the exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. A rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG is predicted based on the determined temperature, the determined exhaust gas flow rate, and the determined exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. Using the predicted rate of change of temperature of the heated side, exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG is calculated that will result in a maximum temperature of the heated side of the TEG less than a predetermined critical temperature given the predicted rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG. A corresponding apparatus is provided.

  13. Synchronization of random bit generators based on coupled chaotic lasers and application to cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Ido; Butkovski, Maria; Peleg, Yitzhak; Zigzag, Meital; Aviad, Yaara; Reidler, Igor; Rosenbluh, Michael; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2010-08-16

    Random bit generators (RBGs) constitute an important tool in cryptography, stochastic simulations and secure communications. The later in particular has some difficult requirements: high generation rate of unpredictable bit strings and secure key-exchange protocols over public channels. Deterministic algorithms generate pseudo-random number sequences at high rates, however, their unpredictability is limited by the very nature of their deterministic origin. Recently, physical RBGs based on chaotic semiconductor lasers were shown to exceed Gbit/s rates. Whether secure synchronization of two high rate physical RBGs is possible remains an open question. Here we propose a method, whereby two fast RBGs based on mutually coupled chaotic lasers, are synchronized. Using information theoretic analysis we demonstrate security against a powerful computational eavesdropper, capable of noiseless amplification, where all parameters are publicly known. The method is also extended to secure synchronization of a small network of three RBGs.

  14. High-speed Dynamic Gait Generation Based on Asymmetrization of Impact Posture Using Telescopic Legs

    OpenAIRE

    浅野, 文彦

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for generating a dynamic gait based on anterior-posterior asymmetric impact posture tilting the robo's center of mass forward. The primary purpose of this method is to asymmetrize the impact posture by actuating the robot's telescopic-legs to make overcoming the potential barrier at mid-stance easy, and the mechanical energy is accordingly restored. First, we introduce a planar rimless wheel model with telescopic legs, and investigate the validity of the sta...

  15. Permanent magnet based dipole magnets for next generation light sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Watanabe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We have developed permanent magnet based dipole magnets for the next generation light sources. Permanent magnets are advantageous over electromagnets in that they consume less power, are physically more compact, and there is a less risk of power supply failure. However, experience with electromagnets and permanent magnets in the field of accelerators shows that there are still challenges to replacing main magnets of accelerators for light sources with permanent magnets. These include the adjustability of the magnetic field, the temperature dependence of permanent magnets, and the issue of demagnetization. In this paper, we present a design for magnets for future light sources, supported by experimental and numerical results.

  16. Wireless next generation networks a virtue-based trust model

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief proposes a trust model motivated by virtue epistemology, addressing the need for a more efficient and flexible trust model for wireless next generation networks. This theory of trust simplifies the computation and communication overhead of strictly cognitive-computational models of trust. Both the advantages and the challenges of virtue-based trust models are discussed. This brief offers new research and a general theory of rationality that enables users to interpret trust and reason as complementary mechanisms that guide our rational conduct at two different epistemic level

  17. Generating Explanations for Internet-based Business Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fischer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available It is widely established debriefing in business games is important and influences the students' learning performance. Most games only support game statistics instead of explaining solution paths. We suggest the automatic generation of explanations for internet-mediated business games to improve the debriefing quality. As a proof of concept we developed a prototype of an internet-based auction game embedding an open simulation model and an automatic explanation component helping students and teachers to analyse the decision making process. This paper describes the usefulness of automated explanations and the underlying generic software architecture.

  18. Generation of 3D Virtual Geographic Environment Based on Laser Scanning Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Jie; CHEN Xiaoyong; FumioYamazaki

    2003-01-01

    This paper demonstrates an experiment on the generation of 3D virtual geographic environment on the basis of experimental flight laser scanning data by a set of algorithms and methods that were developed to automatically interpret range images for extracting geo-spatial features and then to reconstruct geo-objects. The algorithms and methods for the interpretation and modeling of laser scanner data include triangulated-irregular-network (TIN)-based range image interpolation ; mathematical-morphology(MM)-based range image filtering,feature extraction and range image segmentation, feature generalization and optimization, 3D objects reconstruction and modeling; computergraphics (CG)-based visualization and animation of geographic virtual reality environment.

  19. Formulation of the verbal thought process based on generative rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suehiro, N; Fujisaki, H

    1984-01-01

    As assumption is made on the generative nature of the verbal thought process, based on an analogy between language use and verbal thought. A procedure is then presented for acquiring the set of generative rules from a given set of concept strings, leading to an efficient representation of verbal knowledge. The non-terminal symbols derived in the acquisition process are found to correspond to concepts and superordinate concepts in the human process of verbal thought. The validity of the formulation and the efficiency of knowledge representation is demonstrated by an example in which knowledge of biological properties of animals is reorganized into a set of generative rules. The process of inductive inference is then defined as a generalization of the acquired knowledge, and the principle of maximum simplicity of rules is proposed as a possible criterion for such generalization. The proposal is also tested by an example in which only a small part of a systematic body of knowledge is utilized to make interferences on the unknown parts of the system. 6 references.

  20. Sensor-Based Trajectory Generation for Advanced Driver Assistance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher James Shackleton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the trajectory generation problem for an advanced driver assistance system that could sense the driving state of the vehicle, so that a collision free trajectory can be generated safely. Specifically, the problem of trajectory generation is solved for the safety assessment of the driving state and to manipulate the vehicle in order to avoid any possible collisions. The vehicle senses the environment so as to obtain information about other vehicles and static obstacles ahead. Vehicles may share the perception of the environment via an inter-vehicle communication system. The planning algorithm is based on a visibility graph. A lateral repulsive potential is applied to adaptively maintain a trade-off between the trajectory length and vehicle clearance, which is the greatest problem associated with visibility graphs. As opposed to adaptive roadmap approaches, the algorithm exploits the structured nature of the environment for construction of the roadmap. Furthermore, the mostly organized nature of traffic systems is exploited to obtain orientation invariance, which is another limitation of both visibility graphs and adaptive roadmaps. Simulation results show that the algorithm can successfully solve the problem for a variety of commonly found scenarios.

  1. Fuzzy logic based variable speed wind generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes, M.G. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. PMC - Mecatronica; Bose, B.K. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Spiegel, Ronal J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.

    1996-12-31

    This work demonstrates the successful application of fuzzy logic to enhance the performance and control of a variable speed wind generation system. A maximum power point tracker control is performed with three fuzzy controllers, without wind velocity measurement, and robust to wind vortex and turbine torque ripple. A squirrel cage induction generator feeds the power to a double-sided PWM converter system which pumps the power to a utility grid or supplies to an autonomous system. The fuzzy logic controller FLC-1 searches on-line the generator speed so that the aerodynamic efficiency of the wind turbine is optimized. A second fuzzy controller FLC-2 programs the machine flux by on-line search so as to optimize the machine-converter system wind vortex. Detailed analysis and simulation studies were performed for development of the control strategy and fuzzy algorithms, and a DSP TMS320C30 based hardware with C control software was built for the performance evaluation of a laboratory experimental set-up. The theoretical development was fully validated and the system is ready to be reproduced in a higher power installation. (author) 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Automating methods to improve precision in Monte-Carlo event generation for particle colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleisberg, Tanju

    2008-01-01

    the soft and collinear divergencies 3. the finite part of the integrated subtraction terms, added back to make the full real correction term independent of the regularization method. Furthermore, integrators for all necessary phase space integrals are provided. The new implementation is based on the matrix element generator AMEGIC++. For one-loop calculations this tool can provide a significant facilitation: The main difficulties arise for the evaluation of n-point one-loop integrals for n>4. Most promising candidates to resolve this obstacle are semi-numerical approaches to integrate over the loop momentum. Such a technique has been explored. A new decomposition of loop integrals into phase-space integrals is proposed and semi-numerical strategies to evaluate the new integrals were developed. (orig.)

  3. Automating methods to improve precision in Monte-Carlo event generation for particle colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleisberg, Tanju

    2008-07-01

    the soft and collinear divergencies 3. the finite part of the integrated subtraction terms, added back to make the full real correction term independent of the regularization method. Furthermore, integrators for all necessary phase space integrals are provided. The new implementation is based on the matrix element generator AMEGIC++. For one-loop calculations this tool can provide a significant facilitation: The main difficulties arise for the evaluation of n-point one-loop integrals for n>4. Most promising candidates to resolve this obstacle are semi-numerical approaches to integrate over the loop momentum. Such a technique has been explored. A new decomposition of loop integrals into phase-space integrals is proposed and semi-numerical strategies to evaluate the new integrals were developed. (orig.)

  4. EP BASED PSO METHOD FOR SOLVING PROFIT BASED MULTI AREA UNIT COMMITMENT PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. VENKATESAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to solve the profit based multi area unit commitment problem (PBMAUCP using an evolutionary programming based particle swarm optimization (EPPSO method. The objective of this paper is to maximize the profit of generation companies (GENCOs with considering system social benefit. The proposed method helps GENCOs to make a decision, how much power and reserve should be sold in markets, and how to schedule generators in order to receive the maximum profit. Joint operation of generation resources can result in significant operational cost savings. Power transfer between the areas through the tie lines depends upon the operating cost of generation at each hour and tie line transfer limits. The tie line transfer limits were considered as a set of constraints during optimization process to ensure the system security and reliability. The overall algorithm can be implemented on an IBM PC, which can process a fairly large system in a reasonable period of time. Case study of four areas with different load pattern each containing 7 units (NTPS and 26 units connected via tie lines have been taken for analysis. Numerical results showed comparing the profit of evolutionary programming-based particle swarm optimization method (EPPSO with conventional dynamic programming (DP, evolutionary programming (EP, and particle swarm optimization (PSO method. Experimental results shows that the application of this evolutionary programming based particle swarm optimization method have the potential to solve profit based multi area unit commitment problem with lesser computation time.

  5. Evaluation of tube to collector connection by hydraulic expansion method in PGV-1000 steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashti, H.G.; Hashemi, B.; Jahromi, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The produced residual stresses in the collector body due to hydraulic expansion method have been compared with explosive method. → The residual stresses were obtained using two methods of FEM and strain gauging tests. → The effect of clearance between tube and collector on the residual stresses was investigated. → The contact stresses between the tube and collector interface were modeled and the required connection strength between tube and collector is estimated based on ASME rules and compared with FE results. - Abstract: Investigations on steam generators failure due to cracking in collector ligaments at perforated parts determined that connection process of the tubes to collector could be one of the main breakdown causes. The stability and strength of tube to collector joint is dependent to the geometry of tube and collector, the joining process and the operational conditions. In this research hydraulic expansion method has been considered as connection method of tube to collector. The Finite Element Method (FEM) was used to simulate the hydraulic expansion process and determine stress condition of the joints. The contact stresses between the tube and collector interface were modeled using contact elements of ANSYS program. Furthermore, the effect of clearance between tube and collector on the residual stresses around of joints was investigated. Some specimens from collector and tube materials were tested at various temperatures and their results were used at rate-independent multi-linear Mises plasticity model for FE analysis. Required connection strength between tube and collector is estimated based on ASME rules and compared with FE results. The results show that the residual tensile stresses could be greatly increased by decreasing of initial clearance. The highest value of residual stresses was observed around of collector holes nevertheless it was considerably lesser than obtained residual stresses in explosive method. The

  6. Color image definition evaluation method based on deep learning method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Li, YingChun

    2018-01-01

    In order to evaluate different blurring levels of color image and improve the method of image definition evaluation, this paper proposed a method based on the depth learning framework and BP neural network classification model, and presents a non-reference color image clarity evaluation method. Firstly, using VGG16 net as the feature extractor to extract 4,096 dimensions features of the images, then the extracted features and labeled images are employed in BP neural network to train. And finally achieve the color image definition evaluation. The method in this paper are experimented by using images from the CSIQ database. The images are blurred at different levels. There are 4,000 images after the processing. Dividing the 4,000 images into three categories, each category represents a blur level. 300 out of 400 high-dimensional features are trained in VGG16 net and BP neural network, and the rest of 100 samples are tested. The experimental results show that the method can take full advantage of the learning and characterization capability of deep learning. Referring to the current shortcomings of the major existing image clarity evaluation methods, which manually design and extract features. The method in this paper can extract the images features automatically, and has got excellent image quality classification accuracy for the test data set. The accuracy rate is 96%. Moreover, the predicted quality levels of original color images are similar to the perception of the human visual system.

  7. Violence against adolescents: an analysis based on the categories gender and generation

    OpenAIRE

    Gessner, Rafaela; Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa da; Oliveira, Rebeca Nunes Guedes de

    2014-01-01

    Exploratory and descriptive study based on quantitative and qualitative methods that analyze the phenomenon of violence against adolescents based on gender and generational categories. The data source was reports of violence from the Curitiba Protection Network from 2010 to 2012 and semi-structured interviews with 16 sheltered adolescents. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0 and the qualitative data were subjected to content analysis. The adolescents were victims ...

  8. A Classification-oriented Method of Feature Image Generation for Vehicle-borne Laser Scanning Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Bisheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method of feature image generation of point clouds to automatically classify dense point clouds into different categories is proposed, such as terrain points, building points. The method first uses planar projection to sort points into different grids, then calculates the weights and feature values of grids according to the distribution of laser scanning points, and finally generates the feature image of point clouds. Thus, the proposed method adopts contour extraction and tracing means to extract the boundaries and point clouds of man-made objects (e.g. buildings and trees in 3D based on the image generated. Experiments show that the proposed method provides a promising solution for classifying and extracting man-made objects from vehicle-borne laser scanning point clouds.

  9. Equivalent Method of Integrated Power Generation System of Wind, Photovoltaic and Energy Storage in Power Flow Calculation and Transient Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The integrated power generation system of wind, photovoltaic (PV) and energy storage is composed of several wind turbines, PV units and energy storage units. The detailed model of integrated generation is not suitable for the large-scale powe.r system simulation because of the model's complexity and long computation time. An equivalent method for power flow calculation and transient simulation of the integrated generation system is proposed based on actual projects, so as to establish the foundation of such integrated system simulation and analysis.

  10. Model-Based Method for Sensor Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatan, Farrokh

    2012-01-01

    Fault detection, diagnosis, and prognosis are essential tasks in the operation of autonomous spacecraft, instruments, and in situ platforms. One of NASA s key mission requirements is robust state estimation. Sensing, using a wide range of sensors and sensor fusion approaches, plays a central role in robust state estimation, and there is a need to diagnose sensor failure as well as component failure. Sensor validation can be considered to be part of the larger effort of improving reliability and safety. The standard methods for solving the sensor validation problem are based on probabilistic analysis of the system, from which the method based on Bayesian networks is most popular. Therefore, these methods can only predict the most probable faulty sensors, which are subject to the initial probabilities defined for the failures. The method developed in this work is based on a model-based approach and provides the faulty sensors (if any), which can be logically inferred from the model of the system and the sensor readings (observations). The method is also more suitable for the systems when it is hard, or even impossible, to find the probability functions of the system. The method starts by a new mathematical description of the problem and develops a very efficient and systematic algorithm for its solution. The method builds on the concepts of analytical redundant relations (ARRs).

  11. Secure Image Encryption Based On a Chua Chaotic Noise Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Andreatos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a secure image cryptography telecom system based on a Chua's circuit chaotic noise generator. A chaotic system based on synchronised Master–Slave Chua's circuits has been used as a chaotic true random number generator (CTRNG. Chaotic systems present unpredictable and complex behaviour. This characteristic, together with the dependence on the initial conditions as well as the tolerance of the circuit components, make CTRNGs ideal for cryptography. In the proposed system, the transmitter mixes an input image with chaotic noise produced by a CTRNG. Using thresholding techniques, the chaotic signal is converted to a true random bit sequence. The receiver must be able to reproduce exactly the same chaotic noise in order to subtract it from the received signal. This becomes possible with synchronisation between the two Chua's circuits: through the use of specific techniques, the trajectory of the Slave chaotic system can be bound to that of the Master circuit producing (almost identical behaviour. Additional blocks have been used in order to make the system highly parameterisable and robust against common attacks. The whole system is simulated in Matlab. Simulation results demonstrate satisfactory performance, as well as, robustness against cryptanalysis. The system works with both greyscale and colour jpg images.

  12. Cellular Automata-Based Parallel Random Number Generators Using FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. K. Hoe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular computing represents a new paradigm for implementing high-speed massively parallel machines. Cellular automata (CA, which consist of an array of locally connected processing elements, are a basic form of a cellular-based architecture. The use of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs for implementing CA accelerators has shown promising results. This paper investigates the design of CA-based pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs using an FPGA platform. To improve the quality of the random numbers that are generated, the basic CA structure is enhanced in two ways. First, the addition of a superrule to each CA cell is considered. The resulting self-programmable CA (SPCA uses the superrule to determine when to make a dynamic rule change in each CA cell. The superrule takes its inputs from neighboring cells and can be considered itself a second CA working in parallel with the main CA. When implemented on an FPGA, the use of lookup tables in each logic cell removes any restrictions on how the super-rules should be defined. Second, a hybrid configuration is formed by combining a CA with a linear feedback shift register (LFSR. This is advantageous for FPGA designs due to the compactness of the LFSR implementations. A standard software package for statistically evaluating the quality of random number sequences known as Diehard is used to validate the results. Both the SPCA and the hybrid CA/LFSR were found to pass all the Diehard tests.

  13. Simulation of SOFCs based power generation system using Aspen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pianko-Oprych Paulina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a thermodynamic Aspen simulation model for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, SOFCs, based power generation system. In the first step, a steady-state SOFCs system model was developed. The model includes the electrochemistry and the diffusion phenomena. The electrochemical model gives good agreement with experimental data in a wide operating range. Then, a parametric study has been conducted to estimate effects of the oxygen to carbon ratio, O/C, on reformer temperature, fuel cell temperature, fuel utilization, overall fuel cell performance, and the results are discussed in this paper. In the second step, a dynamic analysis of SOFCs characteristic has been developed. The aim of dynamic modelling was to find the response of the system against the fuel utilization and the O/C ratio variations. From the simulations, it was concluded that both developed models in the steady and dynamic state were reasonably accurate and can be used for system level optimization studies of the SOFC based power generation system.

  14. Topology-Based Methods in Visualization 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Garth, Christoph; Weinkauf, Tino

    2017-01-01

    This book presents contributions on topics ranging from novel applications of topological analysis for particular problems, through studies of the effectiveness of modern topological methods, algorithmic improvements on existing methods, and parallel computation of topological structures, all the way to mathematical topologies not previously applied to data analysis. Topological methods are broadly recognized as valuable tools for analyzing the ever-increasing flood of data generated by simulation or acquisition. This is particularly the case in scientific visualization, where the data sets have long since surpassed the ability of the human mind to absorb every single byte of data. The biannual TopoInVis workshop has supported researchers in this area for a decade, and continues to serve as a vital forum for the presentation and discussion of novel results in applications in the area, creating a platform to disseminate knowledge about such implementations throughout and beyond the community. The present volum...

  15. A novel method for automated grid generation of ice shapes for local-flow analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogretim, Egemen; Huebsch, Wade W.

    2004-02-01

    Modelling a complex geometry, such as ice roughness, plays a key role for the computational flow analysis over rough surfaces. This paper presents two enhancement ideas in modelling roughness geometry for local flow analysis over an aerodynamic surface. The first enhancement is use of the leading-edge region of an airfoil as a perturbation to the parabola surface. The reasons for using a parabola as the base geometry are: it resembles the airfoil leading edge in the vicinity of its apex and it allows the use of a lower apparent Reynolds number. The second enhancement makes use of the Fourier analysis for modelling complex ice roughness on the leading edge of airfoils. This method of modelling provides an analytical expression, which describes the roughness geometry and the corresponding derivatives. The factors affecting the performance of the Fourier analysis were also investigated. It was shown that the number of sine-cosine terms and the number of control points are of importance. Finally, these enhancements are incorporated into an automated grid generation method over the airfoil ice accretion surface. The validations for both enhancements demonstrate that they can improve the current capability of grid generation and computational flow field analysis around airfoils with ice roughness.

  16. Wind Turbine Generator Efficiency Based on Powertrain Combination and Annual Power Generation Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmyung Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbine generators are eco-friendly generators that produce electric energy using wind energy. In this study, wind turbine generator efficiency is examined using a powertrain combination and annual power generation prediction, by employing an analysis model. Performance testing was conducted in order to analyze the efficiency of a hydraulic pump and a motor, which are key components, and so as to verify the analysis model. The annual wind speed occurrence frequency for the expected installation areas was used to predict the annual power generation of the wind turbine generators. It was found that the parallel combination of the induction motors exhibited a higher efficiency when the wind speed was low and the serial combination showed higher efficiency when wind speed was high. The results of predicting the annual power generation considering the regional characteristics showed that the power generation was the highest when the hydraulic motors were designed in parallel and the induction motors were designed in series.

  17. A Novel Generation Method for the PV Power Time Series Combining the Decomposition Technique and Markov Chain Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Shenzhi; Ai, Xiaomeng; Fang, Jiakun

    2017-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) power generation has made considerable developments in recent years. But its intermittent and volatility of its output has seriously affected the security operation of the power system. In order to better understand the PV generation and provide sufficient data support...... for analysis the impacts, a novel generation method for PV power time series combining decomposition technique and Markov chain theory is presented in this paper. It digs important factors from historical data from existing PV plants and then reproduce new data with similar patterns. In detail, the proposed...... method first decomposes the PV power time series into ideal output curve, amplitude parameter series and random fluctuating component three parts. Then generating daily ideal output curve by the extraction of typical daily data, amplitude parameter series based on the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC...

  18. Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Network for Procedural 3D Landscape Generation Based on DEM

    OpenAIRE

    Wulff-Jensen, Andreas; Rant, Niclas Nerup; Møller, Tobias Nordvig; Billeskov, Jonas Aksel

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel framework for improving procedural generation of 3D landscapes using machine learning. We utilized a Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Network (DC-GAN) to generate heightmaps. The network was trained on a dataset consisting of Digital Elevation Maps (DEM) of the alps. During map generation, the batch size and learning rate were optimized for the most efficient and satisfying map production. The diversity of the final output was tested against Perlin noise u...

  19. Distinguishing Computer-Generated Graphics from Natural Images Based on Sensor Pattern Noise and Deep Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Yao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Computer-generated graphics (CGs are images generated by computer software. The rapid development of computer graphics technologies has made it easier to generate photorealistic computer graphics, and these graphics are quite difficult to distinguish from natural images (NIs with the naked eye. In this paper, we propose a method based on sensor pattern noise (SPN and deep learning to distinguish CGs from NIs. Before being fed into our convolutional neural network (CNN-based model, these images—CGs and NIs—are clipped into image patches. Furthermore, three high-pass filters (HPFs are used to remove low-frequency signals, which represent the image content. These filters are also used to reveal the residual signal as well as SPN introduced by the digital camera device. Different from the traditional methods of distinguishing CGs from NIs, the proposed method utilizes a five-layer CNN to classify the input image patches. Based on the classification results of the image patches, we deploy a majority vote scheme to obtain the classification results for the full-size images. The experiments have demonstrated that (1 the proposed method with three HPFs can achieve better results than that with only one HPF or no HPF and that (2 the proposed method with three HPFs achieves 100% accuracy, although the NIs undergo a JPEG compression with a quality factor of 75.

  20. A method for generating large datasets of organ geometries for radiotherapy treatment planning studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Nan; Cerviño, Laura; Segars, Paul; Lewis, John; Shan, Jinlu; Jiang, Steve; Zheng, Xiaolin; Wang, Ge

    2014-01-01

    With the rapidly increasing application of adaptive radiotherapy, large datasets of organ geometries based on the patient’s anatomy are desired to support clinical application or research work, such as image segmentation, re-planning, and organ deformation analysis. Sometimes only limited datasets are available in clinical practice. In this study, we propose a new method to generate large datasets of organ geometries to be utilized in adaptive radiotherapy. Given a training dataset of organ shapes derived from daily cone-beam CT, we align them into a common coordinate frame and select one of the training surfaces as reference surface. A statistical shape model of organs was constructed, based on the establishment of point correspondence between surfaces and non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) representation. A principal component analysis is performed on the sampled surface points to capture the major variation modes of each organ. A set of principal components and their respective coefficients, which represent organ surface deformation, were obtained, and a statistical analysis of the coefficients was performed. New sets of statistically equivalent coefficients can be constructed and assigned to the principal components, resulting in a larger geometry dataset for the patient’s organs. These generated organ geometries are realistic and statistically representative