WorldWideScience

Sample records for generation iv nuclear

  1. Generation-IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Harold

    2008-05-01

    Nuclear power technology has evolved through roughly three generations of system designs: a first generation of prototypes and first-of-a-kind units implemented during the period 1950 to 1970; a second generation of industrial power plants built from 1970 to the turn of the century, most of which are still in operation today; and a third generation of evolutionary advanced reactors which began being built by the turn of the 20^th century, usually called Generation III or III+, which incorporate technical lessons learned through more than 12,000 reactor-years of operation. The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is a cooperative international endeavor to develop advanced nuclear energy systems in response to the social, environmental and economic requirements of the 21^st century. Six Generation IV systems under development by GIF promise to enhance the future contribution and benefits of nuclear energy. All Generation IV systems aim at performance improvement, new applications of nuclear energy, and/or more sustainable approaches to the management of nuclear materials. High-temperature systems offer the possibility of efficient process heat applications and eventually hydrogen production. Enhanced sustainability is achieved primarily through adoption of a closed fuel cycle with reprocessing and recycling of plutonium, uranium and minor actinides using fast reactors. This approach provides significant reduction in waste generation and uranium resource requirements.

  2. Nuclear Data Needs for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rullhusen, Peter

    2006-04-01

    Nuclear data needs for generation IV systems. Future of nuclear energy and the role of nuclear data / P. Finck. Nuclear data needs for generation IV nuclear energy systems-summary of U.S. workshop / T. A. Taiwo, H. S. Khalil. Nuclear data needs for the assessment of gen. IV systems / G. Rimpault. Nuclear data needs for generation IV-lessons from benchmarks / S. C. van der Marck, A. Hogenbirk, M. C. Duijvestijn. Core design issues of the supercritical water fast reactor / M. Mori ... [et al.]. GFR core neutronics studies at CEA / J. C. Bosq ... [et al]. Comparative study on different phonon frequency spectra of graphite in GCR / Young-Sik Cho ... [et al.]. Innovative fuel types for minor actinides transmutation / D. Haas, A. Fernandez, J. Somers. The importance of nuclear data in modeling and designing generation IV fast reactors / K. D. Weaver. The GIF and Mexico-"everything is possible" / C. Arrenondo Sánchez -- Benmarks, sensitivity calculations, uncertainties. Sensitivity of advanced reactor and fuel cycle performance parameters to nuclear data uncertainties / G. Aliberti ... [et al.]. Sensitivity and uncertainty study for thermal molten salt reactors / A. Biduad ... [et al.]. Integral reactor physics benchmarks- The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPHEP) / J. B. Briggs, D. W. Nigg, E. Sartori. Computer model of an error propagation through micro-campaign of fast neutron gas cooled nuclear reactor / E. Ivanov. Combining differential and integral experiments on [symbol] for reducing uncertainties in nuclear data applications / T. Kawano ... [et al.]. Sensitivity of activation cross sections of the Hafnium, Tanatalum and Tungsten stable isotopes to nuclear reaction mechanisms / V. Avrigeanu ... [et al.]. Generating covariance data with nuclear models / A. J. Koning. Sensitivity of Candu-SCWR reactors physics calculations to nuclear data files / K. S

  3. Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum for Generation IV Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anghel, C. (Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)); Penttilae, S. (Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland))

    2010-03-15

    A network for material issues for Generation IV nuclear power has been initiated within the Nordic countries. The objectives of the Generation IV Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum (NOMAGE4) are to put the basis of a sustainable forum for Gen IV issues, especially focussing on fuels, cladding, structural materials and coolant interaction. Other issues include reactor physics, dynamics and diagnostics, core and fuel design. The present report summarizes the work performed during the year 2009. The efforts made include identification of organisations involved in Gen IV issues in the Nordic countries, update of the forum website, http://www.studsvik.se/GenerationIV, and investigation of capabilities for research within the area of Gen IV. Within the NOMAGE4 project a seminar on Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems has been organized during 15-16th of October 2009. The aim of the seminar was to provide a forum for exchange of information, discussion on future research needs and networking of experts on Generation IV reactor concepts. As an outcome of the NOMAGE4, a few collaboration project proposals have been prepared/planned in 2009. The network was welcomed by the European Commission and was mentioned as an exemplary network with representatives from industries, universities, power companies and research institutes. NOMAGE4 has been invited to participate to the 'European Energy Research Alliance, EERA, workshop for nuclear structural materials' http://www.eera-set.eu/index.php?index=41 as external observers. Future plans include a new Nordic application for continuation of NOMAGE4 network. (author)

  4. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Ten-Year Program Plan Fiscal Year 2005, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-03-01

    As reflected in the U.S. ''National Energy Policy'', nuclear energy has a strong role to play in satisfying our nation's future energy security and environmental quality needs. The desirable environmental, economic, and sustainability attributes of nuclear energy give it a cornerstone position, not only in the U.S. energy portfolio, but also in the world's future energy portfolio. Accordingly, on September 20, 2002, U.S. Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham announced that, ''The United States and nine other countries have agreed to develop six Generation IV nuclear energy concepts''. The Secretary also noted that the systems are expected to ''represent significant advances in economics, safety, reliability, proliferation resistance, and waste minimization''. The six systems and their broad, worldwide research and development (R&D) needs are described in ''A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems'' (hereafter referred to as the Generation IV Roadmap). The first 10 years of required U.S. R&D contributions to achieve the goals described in the Generation IV Roadmap are outlined in this Program Plan.

  5. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Task 5 Report: Generation IV Reactor Virtual Mockup Proof-of-Principle Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Task 5 report is part of a 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Created a virtual mockup of PBMR reactor cavity and discussed applications of virtual mockup technology to improve Gen IV design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning.

  6. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Final report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Mockups applied to design review of AP600/1000, Construction planning for AP 600, and AP 1000 maintenance evaluation. Proof of concept study also performed for GenIV PBMR models.

  7. A Study on the Planning of Technology Development and Research for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Moon Hee; Kim, H. R.; Kim, H. J. and others

    2005-08-15

    This study aimed at the planning the domestic technology development of the Gen IV and the formulating the international collaborative project contents and executive plan for 'A Validity Assessment and Policies of the R and D of Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems'. The results of the study include follows; - Survey of the technology state in the fields of the Gen IV system specific technologies and the common technologies, and the plans of the international collaborative research - Drawing up the executive research and development plan by the experts of the relevant technology field for the systems which Korean will participate in. - Formulating the effective conduction plan of the program reflecting the view of the experts from the industry, the university and the research institute. - Establishing the plan for estimation of the research fund and the manpower for the efficient utilization of the domestic available resources. This study can be useful material for evaluating the appropriateness of the Korea's participation in the international collaborative development of the Gen IV, and can be valuably utilized to establish the strategy for the effective conduction of the program. The executive plan of the research and development which was produced in this study will be used to the basic materials for the establishing the guiding direction and the strategic conduction of the program when the research and development is launched in the future.

  8. EVALUATION METHODOLOGY FOR PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF GENERATION IV NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARI, R.; ET AL.

    2006-03-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology approach developed by the Generation IV International Forum Expert Group on Proliferation Resistance & Physical Protection for evaluation of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection robustness of Generation IV nuclear energy systems options. The methodology considers a set of alternative systems and evaluates their resistance or robustness to a collection of potential threats. For the challenges considered, the response of the system to these challenges is assessed and expressed in terms of outcomes. The challenges to the system are given by the threats posed by potential proliferant States and sub-national adversaries on the nuclear systems. The characteristics of the Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate their response to the threats and determine their resistance against the proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and theft threats. System response encompasses three main elements: (1) System Element Identification. The nuclear energy system is decomposed into smaller elements (subsystems) at a level amenable to further analysis. (2) Target Identification and Categorization. A systematic process is used to identify and select representative targets for different categories of pathways, within each system element, that actors (proliferant States or adversaries) might choose to use or attack. (3) Pathway Identification and Refinement. Pathways are defined as potential sequences of events and actions followed by the proliferant State or adversary to achieve its objectives (proliferation, theft or sabotage). For each target, individual pathway segments are developed through a systematic process, analyzed at a high level, and screened where possible. Segments are connected into full pathways and analyzed in detail. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of PR&PP measures. Measures are high-level characteristics of a pathway that include

  9. Evaluation Methodology For Proliferation Resistance And Physical Protection Of Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems: An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Bjornard; R. Bari; R. Nishimura; P. Peterson; J. Roglans; D. Bley; J. Cazalet; G.G.M. Cojazzi; P. Delaune; M. Golay; G. Rendad; G. Rochau; M. Senzaki; I. Therios; M. Zentner

    2006-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology approach developed by the Generation IV International Forum Expert Group on Proliferation Resistance & Physical Protection for evaluation of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection robustness of Generation IV nuclear energy systems options. The methodology considers a set of alternative systems and evaluates their resistance or robustness to a collection of potential threats. For the challenges considered, the response of the system to these challenges is assessed and expressed in terms of outcomes. The challenges to the system are given by the threats posed by potential proliferant States and sub-national adversaries on the nuclear systems. The characteristics of the Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate their response to the threats and determine their resistance against the proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and theft threats. System response encompasses three main elements: 1.System Element Identification. The nuclear energy system is decomposed into smaller elements (subsystems) at a level amenable to further analysis. 2.Target Identification and Categorization. A systematic process is used to identify and select representative targets for different categories of pathways, within each system element, that actors (proliferant States or adversaries) might choose to use or attack. 3.Pathway Identification and Refinement. Pathways are defined as potential sequences of events and actions followed by the proliferant State or adversary to achieve its objectives (proliferation, theft or sabotage). For each target, individual pathway segments are developed through a systematic process, analyzed at a high level, and screened where possible. Segments are connected into full pathways and analyzed in detail. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of PR&PP measures. Measures are high-level characteristics of a pathway that include

  10. Design of Radiation-Tolerant Structural Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, T.R.; Was, G.S.; Bruemmer, S.M.; Gan, J.; Ukai, S.

    2005-12-28

    The objective of this program is to improve the radiation tolerance of both austenitic and ferritic-martensitic (F-M) alloys projected for use in Generation IV systems. The expected materials limitations of Generation IV components include: creep strength, dimensional stability, and corrosion/stress corrosion compatibility. The material design strategies to be tested fall into three main categories: (1) engineering grain boundaries; (2) alloying, by adding oversized elements to the matrix; and (3) microstructural/nanostructural design, such as adding matrix precipitates. These three design strategies were tested across both austenitic and ferritic-martensitic alloy classes

  11. Thermochemical investigation of molten fluoride salts for Generation IV nuclear applications - an equilibrium exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, J.P.M. van der

    2006-01-01

    The concept of the Molten Salt Reactor, one of the so-called Generation IV future reactors, is that the fuel, a fissile material, which is dissolved in a molten fluoride salt, circulates through a closed circuit. The heat of fission is transferred to a second molten salt coolant loop, the heat of wh

  12. Mechanisms Governing the Creep Behavior of High Temperature Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, Vijay [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Carroll, Laura [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sham, Sam [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-06

    This research project, which includes collaborators from INL and ORNL, focuses on the study of alloy 617 and alloy 800H that are candidates for applications as intermediate heat exchangers in GEN IV nuclear reactors, with an emphasis on the effects of grain size, grain boundaries and second phases on the creep properties; the mechanisms of dislocation creep, diffusional creep and cavitation; the onset of tertiary creep; and theoretical modeling for long-term predictions of materials behavior and for high temperature alloy design.

  13. Creep Behavior of High Temperature Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xingshuo

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is one of the leading concepts of the Generation IV nuclear reactor development, which is the core component of Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The major challenge in the research and development of NGNP is the performance and reliability of structure materials at high temperature. Alloy 617, with an exceptional combination of high temperature strength and oxidation resistance, has been selected as a primary candidate material for structural use, particularly in Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) which has an outlet temperature in the range of 850 to 950°C and an inner pressure from 5 to 20MPa. In order to qualify the material to be used at the operation condition for a designed service life of 60 years, a comprehensive scientific understanding of creep behavior at high temperature and low stress regime is necessary. In addition, the creep mechanism and the impact factors such as precipitates, grain size, and grain boundary characters need to be evaluated for the purpose of alloy design and development. In this study, thermomechanically processed specimens of alloy 617 with different grain sizes were fabricated, and creep tests with a systematic test matrix covering the temperatures of 850 to 1050°C and stress levels from 5 to 100MPa were conducted. Creep data was analyzed, and the creep curves were found to be unconventional without a well-defined steady-state creep. Very good linear relationships were determined for minimum creep rate versus stress levels with the stress exponents determined around 3-5 depending on the grain size and test condition. Activation energies were also calculated for different stress levels, and the values are close to 400kJ/mol, which is higher than that for self-diffusion in nickel. Power law dislocation climb-glide mechanism was proposed as the dominant creep mechanism in the test condition regime. Dynamic recrystallization happening at high strain range enhanced dislocation climb and

  14. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions Through the Use of Virtual Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Vaugh Whisker

    2004-02-28

    The objective of this multi-phase project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. The project will test the suitability of immersive virtual reality technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups. This report presents the results of the completed project.

  15. NOMAGE4 activities 2011. Part I, Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum for Generation IV Reactors: Status and activities in 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Nieuwenhove, R. (Institutt for Energiteknikk, OECD Halden Reactor Project (Norway))

    2012-01-15

    A network for materials issues has been initiated in 2009 within the Nordic countries. The original objectives of the Generation IV Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum (NOMAGE4) were to form the basis of a sustainable forum for Gen-IV issues, especially focusing on fuels, cladding, structural materials and coolant interaction. Over the last years, other issues such as reactor physics, thermal hydraulics, safety and waste have gained in importance (within the network) and therefore the scope of the forum has been enlarged and a more appropriate and more general name, NORDIC-GEN4, has been chosen for the forum. Further, the interaction with non-Nordic countries (such as The Netherlands (JRC, NRG) and Czech Republic (CVR)) will be increased. Within the NOMAGE4 project, a seminar was organized by IFE-Halden during 31 October - 1 November 2011. The seminar attracted 65 participants from 12 countries. The seminar provided a forum for exchange of information, discussion on future research reactor needs and networking of experts on Generation IV reactor concepts. The participants could also visit the Halden reactor site and the workshop. (Author)

  16. Multiscale Modeling of the Deformation of Advanced Ferritic Steels for Generation IV Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasr M. Ghoniem; Nick Kioussis

    2009-04-18

    The objective of this project is to use the multi-scale modeling of materials (MMM) approach to develop an improved understanding of the effects of neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of high-temperature structural materials that are being developed or proposed for Gen IV applications. In particular, the research focuses on advanced ferritic/ martensitic steels to enable operation up to 650-700°C, compared to the current 550°C limit on high-temperature steels.

  17. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the use of Virtual Environments: Task 1 Completion Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisker, V.E.; Baratta, A.J.; Shaw, T.S.; Winters, J.W.; Trikouros, N.; Hess, C.

    2002-11-26

    OAK B204 The objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. Specifically, this project will test the suitability of Immersive Projection Display (IPD) technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups.

  18. Generation IV nuclear energy system initiative. Large GFR core subassemblydesign for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, E. A.; Kulak, R. F.; Therios, I. U.; Wei, T. Y. C.

    2006-07-31

    Gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) designs are being developed to meet Gen IV goals of sustainability, economics, safety and reliability, and proliferation resistance and physical protection as part of an International Generation IV Nuclear Energy System Research Initiative effort. Different organizations are involved in the development of a variety of GFR design concepts. The current analysis has focused on the evaluation of low-pressure drop, pin-core designs with favorable passive cooling properties. Initial evaluation of the passive cooling safety case for the GFR during depressurized decay heat removal accidents with concurrent loss of electric power have resulted in requirements for a reduction of core power density to the 100 w/cc level and a low core pressure drop of 0.5 bars. Additional design constraints and the implementation of their constraints are evaluated in this study to enhance and passive cooling properties of the reactor. Passive cooling is made easier by a flat radial distribution of the decay heat. One goal of this study was to evaluate the radial power distribution and determine to what extent it can be flattened, since the decay heat is nearly proportional to the fission power at shutdown. In line with this investigation of the radial power profile, an assessment was also made of the control rod configuration. The layout provided a large number of control rod locations with a fixed area provided for control rods. The number of control rods was consistent with other fast reactor designs. The adequacy of the available control rod locations was evaluated. Future studies will be needed to optimize the control rod designs and evaluate the shutdown system. The case for low pressure drop core can be improved by the minimization of pressure drop sources such as the number of required fuel spacers in the subassembly design and by the details of the fuel pin design. The fuel pin design is determined by a number of neutronic, thermal-hydraulic (gas dynamics

  19. Improvement of Sodium Neutronic Nuclear Data for the Computation of Generation IV Reactors; Contribution a l'amelioration des donnees nucleaires neutroniques du sodium pour le calcul des reacteurs de generation IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archier, P.

    2011-09-14

    The safety criteria to be met for Generation IV sodium fast reactors (SFR) require reduced and mastered uncertainties on neutronic quantities of interest. Part of these uncertainties come from nuclear data and, in the particular case of SFR, from sodium nuclear data, which show significant differences between available international libraries (JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0, JENDL-4.0). The objective of this work is to improve the knowledge on sodium nuclear data for a better calculation of SFR neutronic parameters and reliable associated uncertainties. After an overview of existing {sup 23}Na data, the impact of the differences is quantified, particularly on sodium void reactivity effects, with both deterministic and stochastic neutronic codes. Results show that it is necessary to completely re-evaluate sodium nuclear data. Several developments have been made in the evaluation code Conrad, to integrate new nuclear reactions models and their associated parameters and to perform adjustments with integral measurements. Following these developments, the analysis of differential data and the experimental uncertainties propagation have been performed with Conrad. The resolved resonances range has been extended up to 2 MeV and the continuum range begins directly beyond this energy. A new {sup 23}Na evaluation and the associated multigroup covariances matrices were generated for future uncertainties calculations. The last part of this work focuses on the sodium void integral data feedback, using methods of integral data assimilation to reduce the uncertainties on sodium cross sections. This work ends with uncertainty calculations for industrial-like SFR, which show an improved prediction of their neutronic parameters with the new evaluation. (author) [French] Les criteres de surete exiges pour les reacteurs rapides au sodium de Generation IV (RNR-Na) se traduisent par la necessite d'incertitudes reduites et maitrisees sur les grandeurs neutroniques d'interet. Une part

  20. Investigation of a Novel NDE Method for Monitoring Thermomechanical Damage and Microstructure Evolution in Ferritic-Martensitic Steels for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Peter

    2013-09-30

    The main goal of the proposed project is the development of validated nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for in situ monitoring of ferritic-martensitic steels like Grade 91 9Cr-1Mo, which are candidate materials for Generation IV nuclear energy structural components operating at temperatures up to ~650{degree}C and for steam-generator tubing for sodium-cooled fast reactors. Full assessment of thermomechanical damage requires a clear separation between thermally activated microstructural evolution and creep damage caused by simultaneous mechanical stress. Creep damage can be classified as "negligible" creep without significant plastic strain and "ordinary" creep of the primary, secondary, and tertiary kind that is accompanied by significant plastic deformation and/or cavity nucleation and growth. Under negligible creep conditions of interest in this project, minimal or no plastic strain occurs, and the accumulation of creep damage does not significantly reduce the fatigue life of a structural component so that low-temperature design rules, such as the ASME Section III, Subsection NB, can be applied with confidence. The proposed research project will utilize a multifaceted approach in which the feasibility of electrical conductivity and thermo-electric monitoring methods is researched and coupled with detailed post-thermal/creep exposure characterization of microstructural changes and damage processes using state-of-the-art electron microscopy techniques, with the aim of establishing the most effective nondestructive materials evaluation technique for particular degradation modes in high-temperature alloys that are candidates for use in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) as well as providing the necessary mechanism-based underpinnings for relating the two. Only techniques suitable for practical application in situ will be considered. As the project evolves and results accumulate, we will also study the use of this technique for monitoring other GEN IV

  1. Advanced Non-Destructive Assessment Technology to Determine the Aging of Silicon Containing Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, T. W.; Olson, D. L.; Mishra, B.; King, J. C.; Fletcher, J.; Gerstenberger, L.; Lawrence, S.; Martin, A.; Mejia, C.; Meyer, M. K.; Kennedy, R.; Hu, L.; Kohse, G.; Terry, J.

    2011-06-01

    To create an in-situ, real-time method of monitoring neutron damage within a nuclear reactor core, irradiated silicon carbide samples are examined to correlate measurable variations in the material properties with neutron fluence levels experienced by the silicon carbide (SiC) during the irradiation process. The reaction by which phosphorus doping via thermal neutrons occurs in the silicon carbide samples is known to increase electron carrier density. A number of techniques are used to probe the properties of the SiC, including ultrasonic and Hall coefficient measurements, as well as high frequency impedance analysis. Gamma spectroscopy is also used to examine residual radioactivity resulting from irradiation activation of elements in the samples. Hall coefficient measurements produce the expected trend of increasing carrier concentration with higher fluence levels, while high frequency impedance analysis shows an increase in sample impedance with increasing fluence.

  2. Instruction by virtual reality to operation and security of a nuclear power plant of IV generation; Instruccion por realidad virtual a la operacion y seguridad de una central nuclear de generacion IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri O, J. C.; Baltasar M, J.; Valle H, J. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Campus Morelos, UNAM, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Col. Progreso, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)], e-mail: neriunam@ieee.org

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of LaNuVi project which is developing in the Engineering Faculty of National Autonomous University of Mexico, to have a virtual laboratory of nuclear reactors as tool of multidisciplinary education at basic and advanced levels in nuclear engineering area, involves training resources in audio visual and interactive form that allow to form a comprehension more realistic of operation of different systems and components. In this work is proposed to use educational resources, as the employees in the U.S. Army and in some centers of advanced education of medicine, where have been come proving concepts like projected reality, increased reality, tele transparency and others that present big benefits to learning-education process. The proposal here is to include the resource knew as serious game based learning. The focal point of stage that is presented is of a nuclear reactor PBMR like desalination and generator of controlled alternating energy and efficient that should put on in operation to allow the subsistence of a community in a desolated region of beginning second quarter of X XI century. For this purpose the designs are initiated and programmed several subsystems that allow the three-dimensional modeling of main components of a PBMR as well as of surrounding facilities. The obtained results and reaches of this design are presented. The product is in tests for a first version and it is hope to achieve a free and integral resource of national distribution for different cultural groups, interested in this type of advanced technology. (Author)

  3. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Task 4 Report: Virtual Mockup Maintenance Task Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Task 4 report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. This report focuses on using Full-scale virtual mockups for nuclear power plant training applications.

  4. Study of a fuel assembly for the nuclear reactor of IV generation cooled with supercritical water; Estudio de un ensamble de combustible para el reactor nuclear de generacion IV enfriado con agua supercritica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan M, A.; Martin del Campo M, C.; Francois L, J. L. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Espinosa P, G., E-mail: albrm29@yahoo.com [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (MX)

    2011-11-15

    In this work a neutron study is presented about a square assembly design of double line of fuel rods, with moderator box to the center of the arrangement, for a nuclear reactor cooled with supercritical water (SCWR). The SCWR reactor was chosen by the characteristics of its design, mainly because is based in light water reactors (PWR and BWR), and the operational experience that has of them allow to use models and similar programs to simulate the fuel and the nucleus of this type of reactors. To develop the necessary models and to carry out the design and analysis of the SCWR reactor, the neutron codes MCNPX and Helios were used. The reason of using both codes, is because the code MCNPX used thoroughly in the neutron simulation of these reactors, it has been our reference code to analyze the results obtained with the Helios code which results are more efficient because its calculation times are minors. In the nucleus design the same parameters for both codes were considered. The results show that the design with Helios is a viable option to simulate these reactors since their values of the neutrons multiplication factor are very similar to those obtained with MCNPX. On the other hand, it could be corroborated that the CASMO-4 code is inadequate to simulate the fuel to the temperature conditions and water pressure in the SCWR. (Author)

  5. 四代核电技术(高温堆)产业化探讨%Chinese Development of Generation IV Nuclear Power Technology--High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石磊; 肖国平; 鲁盛会; 张见营; 王芝芬; 李金英

    2015-01-01

    该文综述了四代核电技术(高温堆)的发展现状和技术特点,对中国高温气冷堆的产业化提出了建议,供政府及相关行业集团公司等参考。%The author reviewed the development of generation IV nuclear power technology --Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor(HTR) . Some The advice of industrialization of HTR in China was proposed.The article can give some advice for the government and relevant company.

  6. DNA Ligase IV regulates XRCC4 nuclear localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Dailia B; Kozlov, Mikhail; Chavez, Jose; Chu, Jennifer; Malu, Shruti; Hanna, Mary; Cortes, Patricia

    2014-09-01

    DNA Ligase IV, along with its interacting partner XRCC4, are essential for repairing DNA double strand breaks by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Together, they complete the final ligation step resolving the DNA break. Ligase IV is regulated by XRCC4 and XLF. However, the mechanism(s) by which Ligase IV control the NHEJ reaction and other NHEJ factor(s) remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that a C-terminal region of Ligase IV (aa 620-800), which encompasses a NLS, the BRCT I, and the XRCC4 interacting region (XIR), is essential for nuclear localization of its co-factor XRCC4. In Ligase IV deficient cells, XRCC4 showed deregulated localization remaining in the cytosol even after induction of DNA double strand breaks. DNA Ligase IV was also required for efficient localization of XLF into the nucleus. Additionally, human fibroblasts that harbor hypomorphic mutations within the Ligase IV gene displayed decreased levels of XRCC4 protein, implicating that DNA Ligase IV is also regulating XRCC4 stability. Our results provide evidence for a role of DNA Ligase IV in controlling the cellular localization and protein levels of XRCC4.

  7. An Economic Analysis of Generation IV Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J S; Lamont, A D; Rothwell, G S; Smith, C F; Greenspan, E; Brown, N; Barak, A

    2002-03-01

    This report examines some conditions necessary for Generation IV Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) to be competitive in the world energy market. The key areas that make nuclear reactors an attractive choice for investors are reviewed, and a cost model based on the ideal conditions is developed. Recommendations are then made based on the output of the cost model and on conditions and tactics that have proven successful in other industries. The Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS), a specific SMR design concept, is used to develop the cost model and complete the analysis because information about the ENHS design is readily available from the University of California at Berkeley Nuclear Engineering Department. However, the cost model can be used to analyze any of the current SMR designs being considered. On the basis of our analysis, we determined that the nuclear power industry can benefit from and SMRs can become competitive in the world energy market if a combination of standardization and simplification of orders, configuration, and production are implemented. This would require wholesale changes in the way SMRs are produced, manufactured and regulated, but nothing that other industries have not implemented and proven successful.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF RISK-BASED AND TECHNOLOGY-INDEPENDENT SAFETY CRITERIA FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William E. Kastenberg; Edward Blandford; Lance Kim

    2009-03-31

    This project has developed quantitative safety goals for Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. These safety goals are risk based and technology independent. The foundations for a new approach to risk analysis has been developed, along with a new operational definition of risk. This project has furthered the current state-of-the-art by developing quantitative safety goals for both Gen IV reactors and for the overall Gen IV nuclear fuel cycle. The risk analysis approach developed will quantify performance measures, characterize uncertainty, and address a more comprehensive view of safety as it relates to the overall system. Appropriate safety criteria are necessary to manage risk in a prudent and cost-effective manner. This study is also important for government agencies responsible for managing, reviewing, and for approving advanced reactor systems because they are charged with assuring the health and safety of the public.

  9. Updated Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, William R [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Halsey, William [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Hayner, George [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; Klett, James William [ORNL; McGreevy, Timothy E [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

    2005-12-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Program will address the research and development (R&D) necessary to support next-generation nuclear energy systems. Such R&D will be guided by the technology roadmap developed for the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) over two years with the participation of over 100 experts from the GIF countries. The roadmap evaluated over 100 future systems proposed by researchers around the world. The scope of the R&D described in the roadmap covers the six most promising Generation IV systems. The effort ended in December 2002 with the issue of the final Generation IV Technology Roadmap [1.1]. The six most promising systems identified for next generation nuclear energy are described within the roadmap. Two employ a thermal neutron spectrum with coolants and temperatures that enable hydrogen or electricity production with high efficiency (the Supercritical Water Reactor - SCWR and the Very High Temperature Reactor - VHTR). Three employ a fast neutron spectrum to enable more effective management of actinides through recycling of most components in the discharged fuel (the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor - GFR, the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor - LFR, and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor - SFR). The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) employs a circulating liquid fuel mixture that offers considerable flexibility for recycling actinides, and may provide an alternative to accelerator-driven systems. A few major technologies have been recognized by DOE as necessary to enable the deployment of the next generation of advanced nuclear reactors, including the development and qualification of the structural materials needed to ensure their safe and reliable operation. Accordingly, DOE has identified materials as one of the focus areas for Gen IV technology development.

  10. Structural materials for Gen-IV nuclear reactors: Challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, K. L.; Charit, I.

    2008-12-01

    Generation-IV reactor design concepts envisioned thus far cater toward a common goal of providing safer, longer lasting, proliferation-resistant and economically viable nuclear power plants. The foremost consideration in the successful development and deployment of Gen-IV reactor systems is the performance and reliability issues involving structural materials for both in-core and out-of-core applications. The structural materials need to endure much higher temperatures, higher neutron doses and extremely corrosive environment, which are beyond the experience of the current nuclear power plants. Materials under active consideration for use in different reactor components include various ferritic/martensitic steels, austenitic stainless steels, nickel-base superalloys, ceramics, composites, etc. This paper presents a summary of various Gen-IV reactor concepts, with emphasis on the structural materials issues depending on the specific application areas. This paper also discusses the challenges involved in using the existing materials under both service and off-normal conditions. Tasks become increasingly complex due to the operation of various fundamental phenomena like radiation-induced segregation, radiation-enhanced diffusion, precipitation, interactions between impurity elements and radiation-produced defects, swelling, helium generation and so forth. Further, high temperature capability (e.g. creep properties) of these materials is a critical, performance-limiting factor. It is demonstrated that novel alloy and microstructural design approaches coupled with new materials processing and fabrication techniques may mitigate the challenges, and the optimum system performance may be achieved under much demanding conditions.

  11. Nuclear power generation modern power station practice

    CERN Document Server

    1971-01-01

    Nuclear Power Generation focuses on the use of nuclear reactors as heat sources for electricity generation. This volume explains how nuclear energy can be harnessed to produce power by discussing the fundamental physical facts and the properties of matter underlying the operation of a reactor. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with an overview of nuclear physics, first by considering the structure of matter and basic physical concepts such as atomic structure and nuclear reactions. The second chapter deals with the requirements of a reactor as a heat source, along with the diff

  12. European cross-cutting research on structural materials for Generation IV and transmutation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazio, C., E-mail: concetta.fazio@nuklear.fzk.d [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Program Nuklear, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Alamo, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Almazouzi, A. [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie - Centre D' Etude de L' Energie Nucleaire, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); De Grandis, S. [Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie l' Energia e l' Ambiente, CR Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano Bologna (Italy); Gomez-Briceno, D. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Henry, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Malerba, L. [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie - Centre D' Etude de L' Energie Nucleaire, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Rieth, M. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Program Nuklear, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    It has been internationally recognized that materials science and materials development are key issues for the implementation of innovative reactor systems such as those defined in the framework of the Generation IV and advanced fuel cycle initiatives. In Europe, materials studies are considered within the Strategic Research Agenda of the Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform. Moreover, the European Commission has recently launched a 7th Framework Programme Research Project, named 'Generation IV and Transmutation Materials', that has the objective of addressing materials issues which are cross-cutting for more than one type of innovative reactor systems. The present work has been prepared with the aim of describing the rationale, the objectives, the work plan and the expected results of this research project.

  13. Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan: Focus on Very High Temperature Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, William R [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; McGreevy, Timothy E [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

    2008-08-01

    Since 2002, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems (Gen IV) Program has addressed the research and development (R&D) necessary to support next-generation nuclear energy systems. The six most promising systems identified for next-generation nuclear energy are described within this roadmap. Two employ a thermal neutron spectrum with coolants and temperatures that enable hydrogen or electricity production with high efficiency (the Supercritical Water Reactor-SCWR and the Very High Temperature Reactor-VHTR). Three employ a fast neutron spectrum to enable more effective management of actinides through recycling of most components in the discharged fuel (the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor-GFR, the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor-LFR, and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor-SFR). The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) employs a circulating liquid fuel mixture that offers considerable flexibility for recycling actinides and may provide an alternative to accelerator-driven systems. At the inception of DOE's Gen IV program, it was decided to significantly pursue five of the six concepts identified in the Gen IV roadmap to determine which of them was most appropriate to meet the needs of future U.S. nuclear power generation. In particular, evaluation of the highly efficient thermal SCWR and VHTR reactors was initiated primarily for energy production, and evaluation of the three fast reactor concepts, SFR, LFR, and GFR, was begun to assess viability for both energy production and their potential contribution to closing the fuel cycle. Within the Gen IV Program itself, only the VHTR class of reactors was selected for continued development. Hence, this document will address the multiple activities under the Gen IV program that contribute to the development of the VHTR. A few major technologies have been recognized by DOE as necessary to enable the deployment of the next generation of advanced nuclear reactors, including the development and qualification of

  14. A Project Management and Systems Engineering Structure for a Generation IV Very High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ed Gorski; Dennis Harrell; Finis Southworth

    2004-09-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) will be an advanced, very high temperature (approximately 1000o C. coolant outlet temperature), gas cooled nuclear reactor and is the nearest term of six Generation IV reactor technologies for nuclear assisted hydrogen production. In 2001, the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), a ten nation international forum working together with the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee (NERAC), agreed to proceed with the development of a technology roadmap and identified the next generation of nuclear reactor systems for producing new sources of power. Since a new reactor has not been licensed in the United States since the 1970s, the risks are too large for a single utility to assume in the development of an unprecedented Generation IV reactor. The government must sponsor and invest in the research to resolve major first of a kind (FOAK) issues through a full-scale demonstration prior to industry implementation. DOE’s primary mission for the VHTR is to demonstrate nuclear reactor assisted cogeneration of electricity and hydrogen while meeting the Generation IV goals for safety, sustainability, proliferation resistance and physical security and economics. The successful deployment of the VHTR as a demonstration project will aid in restarting the now atrophied U.S. nuclear power industry infrastructure. It is envisioned that VHTR project participants will include DOE Laboratories, industry partners such as designers, constructors, manufacturers, utilities, and Generation IV international countries. To effectively mange R&D, engineering, procurement, construction, and operation for this multi-organizational and technologically complex project, systems engineering will be used extensively to ensure delivery of the final product. Although the VHTR is an unprecedented FOAK system, the R&D, when assessed using the Office of Science and Technology Gate Model, falls primarily in the 3rd - Exploratory

  15. The Birth of Nuclear-Generated Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor-I (EBR-I), built in Idaho in 1949, generated the first usable electricity from nuclear power on December 20, 1951. More importantly, the reactor was used to prove that it was possible to create more nuclear fuel in the reactor than it consumed during operation -- fuel breeding. The EBR-I facility is now a National Historic Landmark open to the public.

  16. DESIGN AND LAYOUT CONCEPTS FOR COMPACT, FACTORY-PRODUCED, TRANSPORTABLE, GENERATION IV REACTOR SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mynatt Fred R.; Townsend, L.W.; Williamson, Martin; Williams, Wesley; Miller, Laurence W.; Khan, M. Khurram; McConn, Joe; Kadak, Andrew C.; Berte, Marc V.; Sawhney, Rapinder; Fife, Jacob; Sedler, Todd L.; Conway, Larry E.; Felde, Dave K.

    2003-11-12

    The purpose of this research project is to develop compact (100 to 400 MWe) Generation IV nuclear power plant design and layout concepts that maximize the benefits of factory-based fabrication and optimal packaging, transportation and siting. The reactor concepts selected were compact designs under development in the 2000 to 2001 period. This interdisciplinary project was comprised of three university-led nuclear engineering teams identified by reactor coolant type (water, gas, and liquid metal) and a fourth Industrial Engineering team. The reactors included a Modular Pebble Bed helium-cooled concept being developed at MIT, the IRIS water-cooled concept being developed by a team led by Westinghouse Electric Company, and a Lead-Bismuth-cooled concept developed by UT. In addition to the design and layout concepts this report includes a section on heat exchanger manufacturing simulations and a section on construction and cost impacts of proposed modular designs.

  17. 77 FR 135 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exemption 1.0 Background...-16, which authorizes operation of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (OCNGS). The...

  18. Status of advanced fuel candidates for Sodium Fast Reactor within the Generation IV International Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delage, F.; Carmack, J.; Lee, C. B.; Mizuno, T.; Pelletier, M.; Somers, J.

    2013-10-01

    The main challenge for fuels for future Sodium Fast Reactor systems is the development and qualification of a nuclear fuel sub-assembly which meets the Generation IV International Forum goals. The Advanced Fuel project investigates high burn-up minor actinide bearing fuels as well as claddings and wrappers to withstand high neutron doses and temperatures. The R&D outcome of national and collaborative programs has been collected and shared between the AF project members in order to review the capability of sub-assembly material and fuel candidates, to identify the issues and select the viable options. Based on historical experience and knowledge, both oxide and metal fuels emerge as primary options to meet the performance and the reliability goals of Generation IV SFR systems. There is a significant positive experience on carbide fuels but major issues remain to be overcome: strong in-pile swelling, atmosphere required for fabrication as well as Pu and Am losses. The irradiation performance database for nitride fuels is limited with longer term R&D activities still required. The promising core material candidates are Ferritic/Martensitic (F/M) and Oxide Dispersed Strengthened (ODS) steels.

  19. Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan: Focus on Very High Temperature Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, William R [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; McGreevy, Timothy E [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

    2008-08-01

    Since 2002, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems (Gen IV) Program has addressed the research and development (R&D) necessary to support next-generation nuclear energy systems. The six most promising systems identified for next-generation nuclear energy are described within this roadmap. Two employ a thermal neutron spectrum with coolants and temperatures that enable hydrogen or electricity production with high efficiency (the Supercritical Water Reactor-SCWR and the Very High Temperature Reactor-VHTR). Three employ a fast neutron spectrum to enable more effective management of actinides through recycling of most components in the discharged fuel (the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor-GFR, the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor-LFR, and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor-SFR). The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) employs a circulating liquid fuel mixture that offers considerable flexibility for recycling actinides and may provide an alternative to accelerator-driven systems. At the inception of DOE's Gen IV program, it was decided to significantly pursue five of the six concepts identified in the Gen IV roadmap to determine which of them was most appropriate to meet the needs of future U.S. nuclear power generation. In particular, evaluation of the highly efficient thermal SCWR and VHTR reactors was initiated primarily for energy production, and evaluation of the three fast reactor concepts, SFR, LFR, and GFR, was begun to assess viability for both energy production and their potential contribution to closing the fuel cycle. Within the Gen IV Program itself, only the VHTR class of reactors was selected for continued development. Hence, this document will address the multiple activities under the Gen IV program that contribute to the development of the VHTR. A few major technologies have been recognized by DOE as necessary to enable the deployment of the next generation of advanced nuclear reactors, including the development and qualification of

  20. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the worldwide nuclear fuel market. Long term projections of U.S. nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed. A discussion on decommissioning of nuclear power plants is included.

  1. Nuclear power generation incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Myerscough, PB

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power generation has undergone major expansion and developments in recent years; this third edition contains much revised material in presenting the state-of-the-art of nuclear power station designs currently in operation throughout the world. The volume covers nuclear physics and basic technology, nuclear station design, nuclear station operation, and nuclear safety. Each chapter is independent but with the necessary technical overlap to provide a complete work on the safe and economic design and operation of nuclear power stations.

  2. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Nuclear power is an important source of electric energy and the amount of nuclear-generated electricity continued to grow as the performance of nuclear power plants improved. In 1996, nuclear power plants supplied 23 percent of the electricity production for countries with nuclear units, and 17 percent of the total electricity generated worldwide. However, the likelihood of nuclear power assuming a much larger role or even retaining its current share of electricity generation production is uncertain. The industry faces a complex set of issues including economic competitiveness, social acceptance, and the handling of nuclear waste, all of which contribute to the uncertain future of nuclear power. Nevertheless, for some countries the installed nuclear generating capacity is projected to continue to grow. Insufficient indigenous energy resources and concerns over energy independence make nuclear electric generation a viable option, especially for the countries of the Far East.

  3. Next-generation Nuclear Data Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonzogni, A. A.

    2005-07-01

    The National Nuclear Data Center collects, evaluates, and disseminates nuclear physics data for basic nuclear research and applied nuclear technologies. We have recently produced a nuclear data portal featuring modern and powerful servers, relational database software, Linux operating system, and Java programming language. The portal includes nuclear structure, decay and reaction data, as well as literature information. Data can be searched for using optimized query forms; results are presented in tables and interactive plots. Additionally, a number of nuclear science tools, codes, applications, and links are provided. A brief tutorial of the different databases and products will be provided.

  4. Group IV nanotube transistors for next generation ubiquitous computing

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2014-06-04

    Evolution in transistor technology from increasingly large power consuming single gate planar devices to energy efficient multiple gate non-planar ultra-narrow (< 20 nm) fins has enhanced the scaling trend to facilitate doubling performance. However, this performance gain happens at the expense of arraying multiple devices (fins) per operation bit, due to their ultra-narrow dimensions (width) originated limited number of charges to induce appreciable amount of drive current. Additionally arraying degrades device off-state leakage and increases short channel characteristics, resulting in reduced chip level energy-efficiency. In this paper, a novel nanotube device (NTFET) topology based on conventional group IV (Si, SiGe) channel materials is discussed. This device utilizes a core/shell dual gate strategy to capitalize on the volume-inversion properties of an ultra-thin (< 10 nm) group IV nanotube channel to minimize leakage and short channel effects while maximizing performance in an area-efficient manner. It is also shown that the NTFET is capable of providing a higher output drive performance per unit chip area than an array of gate-all-around nanowires, while maintaining the leakage and short channel characteristics similar to that of a single gate-all-around nanowire, the latter being the most superior in terms of electrostatic gate control. In the age of big data and the multitude of devices contributing to the internet of things, the NTFET offers a new transistor topology alternative with maximum benefits from performance-energy efficiency-functionality perspective. © (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  5. Computer Generated Cardiac Model For Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, John F.; Miller, Tom R.

    1981-07-01

    A computer generated mathematical model of a thallium-201 myocardial image is described which is based on realistic geometric and physiological assumptions. The left ventricle is represented by an ellipsoid truncated by aortic and mitral valve planes. Initially, an image of a motionless left ventricle is calculated with the location, size, and relative activity of perfusion defects selected by the designer. The calculation includes corrections for photon attenuation by overlying structures and the relative distribution of activity within the tissues. Motion of the ventricular walls is simulated either by a weighted sum of images at different stages in the cardiac cycle or by a blurring function whose width varies with position. Camera and collimator blurring are estimated by the MTF of the system measured at a representative depth in a phantom. Statistical noise is added using a Poisson random number generator. The usefulness of this model is due to two factors: the a priori characterization of location and extent of perfusion defects and the strong visual similarity of the images to actual clinical studies. These properties should permit systematic evaluation of image processing algorithms using this model. The principles employed in developing this cardiac image model can readily be applied to the simulation of other nuclear medicine studies and to other medical imaging modalities including computed tomography, ultrasound, and digital radiography.

  6. Contribution of the IV generation fast reactors to the sustainable development; Contribucion de los reactores rapidos de IV Generacion al desarrollo sustentable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza G, G.; Klapp E, J.L. [ININ, Centro Nuclear ' Dr. Nabor Carrillo Flores' Carretera Mexico Toluca, S/N. 52750 La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: gmg@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    During the XXI century all the energy forms are necessary for the sustainable development. A balanced energy politics has to use a mixture of energy sources that completes the objective of responding to the increase in the demand and that it uses non emitting gases sources of greenhouse effect like the nuclear one. It is evident the great existent difficulty to turn the objectives of emissions for the coming years without having the nuclear energy. Later on, the process continued outlining serious commitments among the development necessity, the improvement of the level of life and the competitiveness, and the execution from the established environmental requirements to world level. It is very foregone that the energy nuclear become the best energy source to improve the environmental conditions and that new initiatives are determined in those that this energy will have an important paper. The solution is to build a nuclear central of advanced design, using technologies that its help to brake the diffusion of the nuclear weapons. The nucleo electric energy at great scale should be developed on the base of designs of reactors and innovative processes of fuel that can lend technological support to the not nuclear proliferation regime, and that at the same time they contribute to satisfy the electricity demand in the world. In a scenario of increase of energy demand, mainly in the development countries, and of growing interest in the pollutants reduction originated by the use of fossil fuels, the nuclear reactors of IV Generation arise as proposal and challenge. Meanwhile the search of new technologies and innovations become imperative, translating an enormous evolution, not only in the conceptual projects, as well as in the fuel cycle so that, in a scenario of open economy, turn its more competitive. Inside the reactors of fourth generation, the quick reactors are configured as those that more assist to such demands and they will be, without a doubt, the reactors in

  7. Next Generation Nuclear Plant GAP Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Sydney J [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Corwin, William R [ORNL; Fisher, Stephen Eugene [ORNL; Forsberg, Charles W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Morris, Robert Noel [ORNL; Moses, David Lewis [ORNL

    2008-12-01

    As a follow-up to the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) studies conducted recently by NRC on next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) safety, a study was conducted to identify the significant 'gaps' between what is needed and what is already available to adequately assess NGNP safety characteristics. The PIRT studies focused on identifying important phenomena affecting NGNP plant behavior, while the gap study gives more attention to off-normal behavior, uncertainties, and event probabilities under both normal operation and postulated accident conditions. Hence, this process also involved incorporating more detailed evaluations of accident sequences and risk assessments. This study considers thermal-fluid and neutronic behavior under both normal and postulated accident conditions, fission product transport (FPT), high-temperature metals, and graphite behavior and their effects on safety. In addition, safety issues related to coupling process heat (hydrogen production) systems to the reactor are addressed, given the limited design information currently available. Recommendations for further study, including analytical methods development and experimental needs, are presented as appropriate in each of these areas.

  8. 76 FR 79227 - Exemption Request Submitted by Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exelon Generation Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... COMMISSION Exemption Request Submitted by Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exelon Generation Company... Generation Company, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (Oyster... for Oyster Creek and NUREG-1437, Vol. 1, Supplement 28, ``Generic Environmental Impact Statement...

  9. 75 FR 33656 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station Environmental Assessment....2, as requested by Exelon Generation Company, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (Oyster Creek), located in Ocean County, New Jersey. Therefore, as required...

  10. Advanced ceramic materials for next-generation nuclear applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John

    2011-10-01

    The nuclear industry is at the eye of a 'perfect storm' with fuel oil and natural gas prices near record highs, worldwide energy demands increasing at an alarming rate, and increased concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have caused many to look negatively at long-term use of fossil fuels. This convergence of factors has led to a growing interest in revitalization of the nuclear power industry within the United States and across the globe. Many are surprised to learn that nuclear power provides approximately 20% of the electrical power in the US and approximately 16% of the world-wide electric power. With the above factors in mind, world-wide over 130 new reactor projects are being considered with approximately 25 new permit applications in the US. Materials have long played a very important role in the nuclear industry with applications throughout the entire fuel cycle; from fuel fabrication to waste stabilization. As the international community begins to look at advanced reactor systems and fuel cycles that minimize waste and increase proliferation resistance, materials will play an even larger role. Many of the advanced reactor concepts being evaluated operate at high-temperature requiring the use of durable, heat-resistant materials. Advanced metallic and ceramic fuels are being investigated for a variety of Generation IV reactor concepts. These include the traditional TRISO-coated particles, advanced alloy fuels for 'deep-burn' applications, as well as advanced inert-matrix fuels. In order to minimize wastes and legacy materials, a number of fuel reprocessing operations are being investigated. Advanced materials continue to provide a vital contribution in 'closing the fuel cycle' by stabilization of associated low-level and high-level wastes in highly durable cements, ceramics, and glasses. Beyond this fission energy application, fusion energy will demand advanced materials capable of withstanding the extreme environments of high

  11. Advanced ceramic materials for next-generation nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, John [Savannah River National Laboratory Aiken, SC 29802 (United States)

    2011-10-29

    The nuclear industry is at the eye of a 'perfect storm' with fuel oil and natural gas prices near record highs, worldwide energy demands increasing at an alarming rate, and increased concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have caused many to look negatively at long-term use of fossil fuels. This convergence of factors has led to a growing interest in revitalization of the nuclear power industry within the United States and across the globe. Many are surprised to learn that nuclear power provides approximately 20% of the electrical power in the US and approximately 16% of the world-wide electric power. With the above factors in mind, world-wide over 130 new reactor projects are being considered with approximately 25 new permit applications in the US. Materials have long played a very important role in the nuclear industry with applications throughout the entire fuel cycle; from fuel fabrication to waste stabilization. As the international community begins to look at advanced reactor systems and fuel cycles that minimize waste and increase proliferation resistance, materials will play an even larger role. Many of the advanced reactor concepts being evaluated operate at high-temperature requiring the use of durable, heat-resistant materials. Advanced metallic and ceramic fuels are being investigated for a variety of Generation IV reactor concepts. These include the traditional TRISO-coated particles, advanced alloy fuels for 'deep-burn' applications, as well as advanced inert-matrix fuels. In order to minimize wastes and legacy materials, a number of fuel reprocessing operations are being investigated. Advanced materials continue to provide a vital contribution in 'closing the fuel cycle' by stabilization of associated low-level and high-level wastes in highly durable cements, ceramics, and glasses. Beyond this fission energy application, fusion energy will demand advanced materials capable of withstanding the extreme

  12. Sargent-IV Project. Development of new methodologies for safety analysis of Generation IV reactors; Proyecto SARGEB-IV. Desarrollo de nuevas metodologias de analisis de seguridad para reactores de Generacion IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queral, C.; Gallego, E.; Jimenez, G.

    2013-07-01

    The main result of this paper is the proposal for the addition of new ingredients in the safety analysis methodologies for Generation-IV reactors that integrates the features of probabilistic safety analysis within deterministic. This ensures a higher degree of integration between the classical deterministic and probabilistic methodologies.

  13. Survey on the consciousness structure toward nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.; Yoshida, T. (Nomura Research Institute, Kamakura, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1981-05-01

    A survey on the popular consciousness toward nuclear power generation was carried out by direct means of questionnaire to 1600 persons, ages from 20 to 69, in power demand areas (Tokyo and Osaka) and power supply areas (sites of nuclear power generation) from early February to early March, 1980, and the recovery rate was 74.4% (1190 persons). The results are described by way of their explanation. The purpose is to clarify the structure of popular consciousness toward nuclear energy, in particular nuclear power generation, and the nature of its acceptance. That is, it was surveyed how general people in the power supply and the power demand areas are taking nuclear power generation concerning its need and safety, and further how the attitudes are constituted and vary.

  14. Treatment of Nuclear Data Covariance Information in Sample Generation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiler, Laura Painton; Adams, Brian M.; Wieselquist, William (ORNL)

    2017-10-01

    This report summarizes a NEAMS (Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation) project focused on developing a sampling capability that can handle the challenges of generating samples from nuclear cross-section data. The covariance information between energy groups tends to be very ill-conditioned and thus poses a problem using traditional methods for generated correlated samples. This report outlines a method that addresses the sample generation from cross-section matrices.

  15. 77 FR 16278 - License Renewal Application for Indian Point Nuclear Generating Units 2 and 3; Entergy Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION License Renewal Application for Indian Point Nuclear Generating Units 2 and 3; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: License renewal application; intent...

  16. High-order harmonic generation from polyatomic molecules including nuclear motion and a nuclear modes analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Bruun; Abu-Samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2010-01-01

    We present a generic approach for treating the effect of nuclear motion in high-order harmonic generation from polyatomic molecules. Our procedure relies on a separation of nuclear and electron dynamics where we account for the electronic part using the Lewenstein model and nuclear motion enters...... as a nuclear correlation function. We express the nuclear correlation function in terms of Franck-Condon factors, which allows us to decompose nuclear motion into modes and identify the modes that are dominant in the high-order harmonic generation process. We show results for the isotopes CH4 and CD4...... and thereby provide direct theoretical support for a recent experiment [S. Baker et al., Science 312, 424 (2006)] that uses high-order harmonic generation to probe the ultrafast structural nuclear rearrangement of ionized methane....

  17. 75 FR 33366 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Notice of Withdrawal of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Notice of Withdrawal of..., application for amendment to Facility Operating License No. DPR-16 for the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (Oyster Creek), located in Ocean County, New Jersey. The proposed amendment would have revised...

  18. Economic analysis of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Dong; Choi, Young Myung; Kim, Hwa Sup; Lee, Man Ki; Moon, Kee Hwan; Kim, Seung Su; Chae, Kyu Nam

    1996-12-01

    The major contents in this study are as follows : (1) Efforts are made to examine the role of nuclear energy considering environmental regulation. An econometric model for energy demand and supply including carbon tax imposition is established. (2) Analysis for the learning effect of nuclear power plant operation is performed. The study is focused to measure the effect of technology homogeneity on the operation performance. (3) A preliminary capital cost of the KALIMER is estimated by using cost computer program, which is developed in this study. (author). 36 refs.,46 tabs., 15 figs.

  19. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Richard R.; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Nigg, David W.; Gougar, Hans D.; Johnson, Richard W; Terry, William K.; Oh, Chang H.; McEligot, Donald W.; Johnsen, Gary W.; McCreery, Glenn E.; Yoon, Woo Y.; Sterbentz, James W.; Herring, J. Steve; Taiwo, Temitope A.; Wei, Thomas Y. C.; Pointer, William D.; Yang, Won S.; Farmer, Michael T.; Khalil, Hussein S.; Feltus, Madeline A.

    2010-12-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  20. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2010-12-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  1. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2007-01-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  2. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan -- PLN-2498

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2010-09-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  3. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. H. Southworth; P. E. MacDonald

    2003-11-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Project will demonstrate emissions-free nuclearassisted electricity and hydrogen production by 2015. The NGNP reactor will be a helium-cooled, graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor with a design goal outlet temperature of 1000 C or higher. The reactor thermal power and core configuration will be designed to assure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage during hypothetical accidents. The fuel cycle will be a once-through very high burnup low-enriched uranium fuel cycle. This paper provides a description of the project to build the NGNP at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The NGNP Project includes an overall reactor design activity and four major supporting activities: materials selection and qualification, NRC licensing and regulatory support, fuel development and qualification, and the hydrogen production plant. Each of these activities is discussed in the paper. All the reactor design and construction activities will be managed under the DOE’s project management system as outlined in DOE Order 413.3. The key elements of the overall project management system discussed in this paper include the client and project management organization relationship, critical decisions (CDs), acquisition strategy, and the project logic and timeline. The major activities associated with the materials program include development of a plan for managing the selection and qualification of all component materials required for the NGNP; identification of specific materials alternatives for each system component; evaluation of the needed testing, code work, and analysis required to qualify each identified material; preliminary selection of component materials; irradiation of needed sample materials; physical, mechanical, and chemical testing of unirradiated and irradiated materials; and documentation of final materials selections. The NGNP will be licensed by the NRC under 10 CFR 50 or 10

  4. The Generation in Between: A Perspective from the Keystone IV Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frederick M; Bliss, Erika; Dunn, Aaron; Edgoose, Jennifer; Elliott, Tricia C; Maxwell, Lisa C; Morris, Carl G; Phillips, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Keystone IV affirmed the value of relationships in family medicine, but each generation of family physicians took away different impressions and lessons. "Generation III," between the Baby Boomers and Millennials, reported conflict between their professional ideal of family medicine and the realities of current practice. But the Keystone conference also helped them appreciate core values of family medicine, their shared experience, and new opportunities for leadership.

  5. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.N. Wright

    2005-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Project is envisioned to demonstrate the following: (1) A full-scale prototype VHTR by about 2021; (2) High-temperature Brayton Cycle electric power production at full scale with a focus on economic performance; (3) Nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen (with about 10% of the heat) with a focus on economic performance; and (4) By test, the exceptional safety capabilities of the advanced gas-cooled reactors. Further, the NGNP program will: (1) Obtain a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) License to construct and operate the NGNP, this process will provide a basis for future performance based, risk-informed licensing; and (2) Support the development, testing, and prototyping of hydrogen infrastructures. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. The NGNP Materials R&D Program includes the following elements: (1) Developing a specific approach, program plan and other project management tools for

  6. Derivation of Energy Generated by Nuclear Fission-Fusion Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Kayano, Hideo; Teshigawara, Makoto; Konashi, Kenji; Yamamoto, Takuya

    1994-01-01

    In the solids which contain fissionable elements and deuterium, it is expected that the energy generated by nuclear fission contributes to the promotion of the D-D nuclear fusion in the solids. When nuclear fission occurs by neutrons in the solid, the fissionable elements divide into two fission product nuclei having the energy of 100MeV, respectively. It is expected that the hige energy fission products promote rapidly nuclear fision reaction by knocking out the D atoms in the solids and by ...

  7. Resource Needs for Nuclear Power Generation in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. B. Nyarko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power is a proven technology that has served humanity for the past fifty years. It has provided electricity for several countries and shall continue to serve as a viable base load source of electric power. The need for skilled human resources for nuclear practice cannot be overlooked in the quest of any nation to adopt the technology. The Ghana Atomic Energy Commission and the University of Ghana in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency have thus started a Graduate School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences to provide the human resources needed for nuclear power generation in Ghana. The School currently offers second degree courses as well as doctor of philosophy courses. Financial, land and water resource needs for nuclear power generation have been discussed. Availability of the national grid due to the deregulation of the electric power sector has also been discussed. Nuclear Fuel availability has been discussed along with the steps Ghana has to go through to obtain the technology to her development. The legal and legislative framework for nuclear power generation has also been presented. The programs currently available from the IAEA to assist Ghana to develop nuclear power have also been discussed. Conclusions have been drawn based on the discussions made.

  8. Nuclear Geoplosics Sourcebook. Volume IV. Part I. Empirical Analysis of Ground Motion from Above and Underground Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-01

    November 10, 1975. IV-1.8 Feynman , R. P., R. B. Leighton, and M. Sands, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol. II, Chapter 39, Addison Wesley, Massachusetts...Event, POR 6400, Sandia Laboratories, March 1971. IV-2.18 Preston, R. G., and V. E. Wheeler , Response of the Line-of-Sight Pipe to Ground Shock in the...Hupmobile Nuclear Effects Test, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory (Unpublished). IV-2.19 Randolph, P. L., R. G. Preston, and V. E. Wheeler , Preliminary

  9. Measurement of the neutron capture cross section of U{sup 234} in n-TOF at CERN for Generation IV nuclear reactors; Mesure de la section efficace de capture neutronique de l'{sup 234}U a n-TOF au CERN pour les reacteurs nucleaires de generation 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dridi, W

    2006-11-15

    Accurate and reliable neutron capture cross sections are needed in many research areas, including stellar nucleosynthesis, advanced nuclear fuel cycles, waste transmutation, and other applied programs. In particular, the accurate knowledge of U{sup 234}(n,{gamma}) reaction cross section is required for the design and realization of nuclear power plants based on the thorium fuel cycle. We have measured the neutron capture cross section of U{sup 234}, with a 4{pi} BaF{sub 2} Total Absorption Calorimeter, at the recently constructed neutron time-of-flight facility n-TOF at CERN in the energy range from 0.03 eV to 1 MeV. Monte-Carlo simulations with GEANT4 and MCNPX of the detector response have been performed. After the background subtraction and correction with dead time and pile-up, the capture yield from 0.03 eV up to 1.5 keV was derived. The analysis of the capture yield in terms of R-matrix resonance parameters is discussed. We have identified 123 resonances and measured the resonance parameters in the energy range from 0.03 eV to 1.5 keV. The mean radiative width <{gamma}{sub {gamma}}> is found to be (38.2 {+-} 1.5) meV and the mean spacing parameter is (11.0 {+-} 0.2) eV, both values agree well with recommended values.

  10. POWER GENERATION FROM LIQUID METAL NUCLEAR FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, O.E.

    1958-12-23

    A nuclear reactor system is described wherein the reactor is the type using a liquid metal fuel, such as a dispersion of fissile material in bismuth. The reactor is designed ln the form of a closed loop having a core sectlon and heat exchanger sections. The liquid fuel is clrculated through the loop undergoing flssion in the core section to produce heat energy and transferrlng this heat energy to secondary fluids in the heat exchanger sections. The fission in the core may be produced by a separate neutron source or by a selfsustained chain reaction of the liquid fuel present in the core section. Additional auxiliary heat exchangers are used in the system to convert water into steam which drives a turbine.

  11. Extensive nuclear sphere generation in the human Alzheimer's brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe, Katharina; Bukhari, Hassan; Loosse, Christina; Leonhardt, Gregor; Glotzbach, Annika; Pawlas, Magdalena; Hess, Katharina; Theiss, Carsten; Müller, Thorsten

    2016-12-01

    Nuclear spheres are protein aggregates consisting of FE65, TIP60, BLM, and other yet unknown proteins. Generation of these structures in the cellular nucleus is putatively modulated by the amyloid precursor protein (APP), either by its cleavage or its phosphorylation. Nuclear spheres were preferentially studied in cell culture models and their existence in the human brain had not been known. Existence of nuclear spheres in the human brain was studied using immunohistochemistry. Cell culture experiments were used to study regulative mechanisms of nuclear sphere generation. The comparison of human frontal cortex brain samples from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients to age-matched controls revealed a dramatically and highly significant enrichment of nuclear spheres in the AD brain. Costaining demonstrated that neurons are distinctly affected by nuclear spheres, but astrocytes never are. Nuclear spheres were predominantly found in neurons that were negative for threonine 668 residue in APP phosphorylation. Cell culture experiments revealed that JNK3-mediated APP phosphorylation reduces the amount of sphere-positive cells. The study suggests that nuclear spheres are a new APP-derived central hallmark of AD, which might be of crucial relevance for the molecular mechanisms in neurodegeneration.

  12. ADVANCED CERAMIC MATERIALS FOR NEXT-GENERATION NUCLEAR APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J.

    2010-09-29

    Rising global energy demands coupled with increased environmental concerns point to one solution; they must reduce their dependence on fossil fuels that emit greenhouse gases. As the global community faces the challenge of maintaining sovereign nation security, reducing greenhouse gases, and addressing climate change nuclear power will play a significant and likely growing role. In the US, nuclear energy already provides approximately one-fifth of the electricity used to power factories, offices, homes, and schools with 104 operating nuclear power plants, located at 65 sites in 31 states. Additionally, 19 utilities have applied to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for construction and operating licenses for 26 new reactors at 17 sites. This planned growth of nuclear power is occurring worldwide and has been termed the 'nuclear renaissance.' As major industrial nations craft their energy future, there are several important factors that must be considered about nuclear energy: (1) it has been proven over the last 40 years to be safe, reliable and affordable (good for Economic Security); (2) its technology and fuel can be domestically produced or obtained from allied nations (good for Energy Security); and (3) it is nearly free of greenhouse gas emissions (good for Environmental Security). Already an important part of worldwide energy security via electricity generation, nuclear energy can also potentially play an important role in industrial processes and supporting the nation's transportation sector. Coal-to-liquid processes, the generation of hydrogen and supporting the growing potential for a greatly increased electric transportation system (i.e. cars and trains) mean that nuclear energy could see dramatic growth in the near future as we seek to meet our growing demand for energy in cleaner, more secure ways. In order to address some of the prominent issues associated with nuclear power generation (i.e., high capital costs, waste management

  13. Fundamental Understanding of Crack Growth in Structural Components of Generation IV Supercritical Light Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iouri I. Balachov; Takao Kobayashi; Francis Tanzella; Indira Jayaweera; Palitha Jayaweera; Petri Kinnunen; Martin Bojinov; Timo Saario

    2004-11-17

    This work contributes to the design of safe and economical Generation-IV Super-Critical Water Reactors (SCWRs) by providing a basis for selecting structural materials to ensure the functionality of in-vessel components during the entire service life. During the second year of the project, we completed electrochemical characterization of the oxide film properties and investigation of crack initiation and propagation for candidate structural materials steels under supercritical conditions. We ranked candidate alloys against their susceptibility to environmentally assisted degradation based on the in situ data measure with an SRI-designed controlled distance electrochemistry (CDE) arrangement. A correlation between measurable oxide film properties and susceptibility of austenitic steels to environmentally assisted degradation was observed experimentally. One of the major practical results of the present work is the experimentally proven ability of the economical CDE technique to supply in situ data for ranking candidate structural materials for Generation-IV SCRs. A potential use of the CDE arrangement developed ar SRI for building in situ sensors monitoring water chemistry in the heat transport circuit of Generation-IV SCWRs was evaluated and proved to be feasible.

  14. NNSA Program Develops the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Experts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brim, Cornelia P.; Disney, Maren V.

    2015-09-02

    NNSA is fostering the next generation of nuclear security experts is through its successful NNSA Graduate Fellowship Program (NGFP). NGFP offers its Fellows an exceptional career development opportunity through hands-on experience supporting NNSA mission areas across policy and technology disciplines. The one-year assignments give tomorrow’s leaders in global nuclear security and nonproliferation unparalleled exposure through assignments to Program Offices across NNSA.

  15. From the first nuclear power plant to fourth-generation nuclear power installations [on the 60th anniversary of the World's First nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kukharchuk, O. F.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Successful commissioning in the 1954 of the World's First nuclear power plant constructed at the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk signaled a turn from military programs to peaceful utilization of atomic energy. Up to the decommissioning of this plant, the AM reactor served as one of the main reactor bases on which neutron-physical investigations and investigations in solid state physics were carried out, fuel rods and electricity generating channels were tested, and isotope products were bred. The plant served as a center for training Soviet and foreign specialists on nuclear power plants, the personnel of the Lenin nuclear-powered icebreaker, and others. The IPPE development history is linked with the names of I.V. Kurchatov, A.I. Leipunskii, D.I. Blokhintsev, A.P. Aleksandrov, and E.P. Slavskii. More than 120 projects of various nuclear power installations were developed under the scientific leadership of the IPPE for submarine, terrestrial, and space applications, including two water-cooled power units at the Beloyarsk NPP in Ural, the Bilibino nuclear cogeneration station in Chukotka, crawler-mounted transportable TES-3 power station, the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan, and the BN-600 power unit at the Beloyarsk NPP. Owing to efforts taken on implementing the program for developing fast-neutron reactors, Russia occupied leading positions around the world in this field. All this time, IPPE specialists worked on elaborating the principles of energy supertechnologies of the 21st century. New large experimental installations have been put in operation, including the nuclear-laser setup B, the EGP-15 accelerator, the large physical setup BFS, the high-pressure setup SVD-2; scientific, engineering, and technological schools have been established in the field of high- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics, electrostatic accelerators of multicharge ions, plasma processes in thermionic converters and nuclear-pumped lasers, physics of compact

  16. BRUSLIB and NETGEN: the Brussels nuclear reaction rate library and nuclear network generator for astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Aikawa, M; Goriely, S; Jorissen, A; Takahashi, K

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear reaction rates are quantities of fundamental importance in astrophysics. Substantial efforts have been devoted in the last decades to measure or calculate them. The present paper presents for the first time a detailed description of the Brussels nuclear reaction rate library BRUSLIB and of the nuclear network generator NETGEN so as to make these nuclear data packages easily accessible to astrophysicists for a large variety of applications. BRUSLIB is made of two parts. The first one contains the 1999 NACRE compilation based on experimental data for 86 reactions with (mainly) stable targets up to Si. The second part of BRUSLIB concerns nuclear reaction rate predictions calculated within a statistical Hauser-Feshbach approximation, which limits the reliability of the rates to reactions producing compound nuclei with a high enough level density. These calculations make use of global and coherent microscopic nuclear models for the quantities entering the rate calculations. The use of such models is utterl...

  17. Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Waste Generation Based on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Transition Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, S. R. [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, W. I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    According to the recommendations submitted by the Public Engagement Commission on Spent Nuclear Fuel Management (PECOS), the government was advised to pick the site for an underground laboratory and interim storage facilities before the end of 2020 followed by the related research for permanent and underground disposal of spent fuel after 10 years. In the middle of the main issues, the factors of environmentally friendly and safe way to handle nuclear waste are inextricable from nuclear power generating nation to ensure the sustainability of nuclear power. For this purposes, the closed nuclear fuel cycle has been developed regarding deep geological disposal, pyroprocessing, and burner type sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) in Korea. Among two methods of an equilibrium model and a dynamic model generally used for screening nuclear fuel cycle system, the dynamic model is more appropriate to envisage country-specific environment with the transition phase in the long term and significant to estimate meaningful impacts based on the timedependent behavior of harmful wastes. This study aims at analyzing the spent nuclear fuel generation based on the long-term nuclear fuel cycle transition scenarios considered at up-to-date country specific conditions and comparing long term advantages of the developed nuclear fuel cycle option between once-through cycle and Pyro-SFR cycle. In this study, a dynamic analysis was carried out to estimate the long-term projection of nuclear electricity generation, installed capacity, spent nuclear fuel arising in different fuel cycle scenarios based on the up-to-date national energy plans.

  18. Future of nuclear energy for electricity generation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiorino, Jose R.; Moreira, Joao M.L.; Carajlescov, Pedro, E-mail: joserubens.maiorino@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: joao.moreira@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: pedro.carajlescov@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (CECS/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Aplicadas

    2015-07-01

    We discuss in this paper the medium- and long- terms evolution of nuclear power in Brazil considering official governmental studies and reports prepared by research groups. The documents reviewed include the national energy balance (BEN, 2014), the short-term planning (PDEE, 2023) and long-term planning (PNE-2030) documents emitted by EPE, and studies conducted by independent institutions and researchers. The studies consider different scenarios regarding gross national product growth and institutional development for the country and conclude that nuclear power should increase its role in Brazil. The generation matrix should diversity by 2030 and 2040 with hydropower decreasing its share from today's 70 % to values between 47 and 57 %. Nuclear power is considered a viable alternative for base load electricity generation in Brazil; to reduce generation risks during dry seasons, and to facilitate the operation of the whole power generation system. The share of nuclear power may reach values between 8 % and 15 % by 2040 according to different scenarios. To meet such growth and facilitate new investments, it is necessary to change the legal framework of the sector, and allow private ownership of enterprises to build and operate nuclear power plants in the country. (author)

  19. Foresight of nuclear generation at long term in Mexico;Prospectiva de la generacion nucleoelectrica en Mexico a largo plazo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guadarrama L, R.; Sanchez R, O. E.; Martin del Campo M, C., E-mail: rodrigoguadarrama28@hotmail.co [UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents an analysis of the nuclear generation expansion for the period 2008-2030. The main objective is to plan the expansion of electrical generation system at long term taking into account four decision criteria. These are, the total cost of generation, the risk associated whit changes in fuel prices, the diversity of the generation park and polluting emissions of global impact (greenhouse effect gases) and local effects (acid rain and suspended particles). The analyzed expansion plans were developed using a model of uni nodal planning called WASP-IV. The analysis methodology was based on four steps. The first consisted in developing, with model WASP-IV, different expansion plans of the electrical generation system that fulfill the energy demand and certain conditions of the study in which was optimized the additions program of generator units searching the minimal cost of electrical generation. The second step was to calculate the generation costs of each plan for two scenarios of fuel prices, also with model WASP-IV. Later was calculated the diversity index and the accumulated emissions during the expansion and the avoided emission of CO{sub 2} when units of combined cycle that burn natural gas are replaced by nuclear power units. (Author)

  20. Challenges of deploying nuclear energy for power generation in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Mohd Zamzam; Nazaruddin, Nurul Huda; Lye, Jonathan Tan Thiam

    2017-01-01

    Under the 10th Malaysia Plan (2010-2015) and the Economic Transformation Programme (ETP), nuclear energy was identified as a potential long-term option to be explored for electricity generation in Peninsular Malaysia. The energy sector in Malaysia currently faces several concerns including depleting domestic gas supply which will affect security and reliability of supply as well as overdependance on fossil fuels - mainly gas and imported coal, and nuclear energy may offer a possible solution to these issues as well as global climate change concern. Pursuing the nuclear option, Malaysia Nuclear Power Corporation (MNPC) is undertaking a series of comprehensive studies to facilitate an informed Government decision on the matter. This paper aims to discuss the many challenges towards the peaceful use of nuclear energy for electricity generation in the context of the New Energy Policy 2010 to achieve a balanced and sustainable energy mix. This effort will continue in the 11th Malaysia Plan (2016-2020) with emphasis on implementing a comprehensive communications plan and public awareness programme for the potential use of nuclear energy in the future. In analysing the challenges for the development of nuclear energy in Malaysia, the traditional triple bottom line (TBL) framework for sustainability, encompassing economic, social and environmental objectives is utilized. An additional factor, technical, is also included in the analysis to provide a more holistic view. It is opined that the main challenges of developing nuclear energy for electricity generation in a newcomer country like Malaysia can be attributed primarily to domestic non-technical factors compared to the technical factor.

  1. 76 FR 32237 - Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Notice of Availability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Notice of Availability... Plants and Public Meetings for the License Renewal of Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant... operation for Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant. Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant...

  2. Active Interrogation Using Electronic Neutron Generators for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester; Edward H. Seabury

    2008-08-01

    Active interrogation, a measurement technique which uses a radiation source to probe materials and generate unique signatures useful for characterizing those materials, is a powerful tool for assaying special nuclear material. The most commonly used technique for performing active interrogation is to use an electronic neutron generator as the probe radiation source. Exploiting the unique operating characteristics of these devices, including their monoenergetic neutron emissions and their ability to operate in pulsed modes, presents a number of options for performing prompt and delayed signature analyses using both photon and neutron sensors. A review of literature in this area shows multiple applications of the active neutron interrogation technique for performing nuclear nonproliferation measurements. Some examples include measuring the plutonium content of spent fuel, assaying plutonium residue in spent fuel hull claddings, assaying plutonium in aqueous fuel reprocessing process streams, and assaying nuclear fuel reprocessing facility waste streams to detect and quantify fissile material. This paper discusses the historical use of this technique and examines its context within the scope and challenges of next-generation nuclear fuel cycles and advanced concept nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

  3. Generating the option of a two-stage nuclear renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Robin W; Nuttall, William J

    2010-08-13

    Concerns about climate change, security of supply, and depleting fossil fuel reserves have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear power generation in Europe and North America, while other regions continue or initiate an expansion. We suggest that the first stage of this process will include replacing or extending the life of existing nuclear power plants, with continued incremental improvements in efficiency and reliability. After 2030, a large-scale second period of construction would allow nuclear energy to contribute substantially to the decarbonization of electricity generation. For nuclear energy to be sustainable, new large-scale fuel cycles will be required that may include fuel reprocessing. Here, we explore the opportunities and constraints in both time periods and suggests ways in which measures taken today might, at modest cost, provide more options in the decades to come. Careful long-term planning, along with parallel efforts aimed at containing waste products and avoiding diversion of material into weapons production, can ensure that nuclear power generation remains a carbon-neutral option.

  4. Efficiency of nuclear energy generation by hydrogen burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitalas, R.

    1989-03-01

    An explicit formula for the efficiency of the PP chain energy generation in terms of the branching fractions to the three PP chains is derived and the variation of the efficiency with temperature and hydrogen abundance is illustrated. The PP chain efficiency is shown to have a minimum as a function of Y/X. The combined efficiency of simultaneous nuclear energy generation by the PP chain and the equilibrium CN cycle is then presented. 6 refs.

  5. Ultrasonic Cleaning of Nuclear Steam Generator by Micro Bubble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Woo Tae [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Tae; Yoon, Sang Jung [Sae-An Engineering Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, we present ultrasonic cleaning technology for a nuclear steam generator using micro bubble. We could extend the boundary of ultrasonic cleaning by using micro bubbles in water. Ultrasonic energy measured was increased about 5 times after the generation of micro bubbles in water. Furthermore, ultrasound energy was measured to be strong enough to create cavitation even though the ultrasound sensor was about 2 meters away from the ultrasonic transducer

  6. New Generation Nuclear Plant -- High Level Functions and Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Ryskamp; E. J. Gorski; E. A. Harvego; S. T. Khericha; G. A. Beitel

    2003-09-01

    This functions and requirements (F&R) document was prepared for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The highest-level functions and requirements for the NGNP preconceptual design are identified in this document, which establishes performance definitions for what the NGNP will achieve. NGNP designs will be developed based on these requirements by commercial vendor(s).

  7. The Environmental Impact of Electrical Generation: Nuclear vs. Conventional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, John J., Ed.

    This minicourse, partially supported by the Division of Nuclear Education and Training of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, is an effort to describe the benefit-to-risk ratio of various methods of generating electrical power. It attempts to present an unbiased, straightforward, and objective view of the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear…

  8. Multiple nuclear ortholog next generation sequencing phylogeny of Daucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Next generation sequencing is helping to solve the data insufficiency problem hindering well-resolved dominant gene phylogenies. We used Roche 454 technology to obtain DNA sequences from 93 nuclear orthologs, dispersed throughout all linkage groups of Daucus. Of these 93 orthologs, ten were designed...

  9. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Materials Issues for Generation IV Systems : Status, Open Questions and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Gorse, Dominique; Mazière, Dominique; Pontikis, Vassilis

    2008-01-01

    Global warming, shortage of low-cost oil resources and the increasing demand for energy are currently controlling the world's economic expansion while often opposing desires for sustainable and peaceful development. In this context, atomic energy satisfactorily fulfills the criteria of low carbon gas production and high overall yield. However, in the absence of industrial fast-breeders the use of nuclear fuel is not optimal, and the production of high activity waste materials is at a maximum. These are the principal reasons for the development of a new, fourth generation of nuclear reactors, minimizing the undesirable side-effects of current nuclear energy production technology while increasing yields by increasing operation temperatures and opening the way for the industrial production of hydrogen through the decomposition of water. The construction and use of such reactors is hindered by several factors, including performance limitations of known structural materials, particularly if the life of the project...

  10. Generating highly polarized nuclear spins in solution using dynamic nuclear polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolber, J.; Ellner, F.; Fridlund, B.;

    2004-01-01

    and other low-γ nuclei. Subsequent to the DNP process, the solid sample is dissolved rapidly with a warm solvent to create a solution of molecules with highly polarized nuclear spins. Two main applications are proposed: high-resolution liquid state NMR with enhanced sensitivity, and the use......A method to generate strongly polarized nuclear spins in solution has been developed, using Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) at a temperature of 1.2K, and at a field of 3.354T, corresponding to an electron spin resonance frequency of 94GHz. Trityl radicals are used to directly polarize 13C...

  11. Simplified Design Criteria for Very High Temperature Applications in Generation IV Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGreevy, TE

    2004-12-15

    The goal of this activity is to provide simplified criteria which can be used in rapid feasibility assessments of the structural viability of very high temperature components in conceptual and early preliminary design phases for Generation IV reactors. The current criteria in ASME Code Section III, Subsection NH, hereafter referred to as NH, (and Code Case N-201 for core support structures) are difficult and require a complex deconstruction of finite element analysis results for their implementation. Further, and most important, times, temperatures and some materials of interest to the very high temperature Generation IV components are not covered by the current provisions of NH. Future revisions to NH are anticipated that will address very high temperature Generation IV components and materials requirements but, until that occurs interim guidance is required for design activities to proceed. These simplified criteria are for design guidance and are not necessarily in rigorous compliance with NH methodology. Rather, the objective is for criteria which address the early design needs of very high temperature Generation IV components and materials. The intent is to provide simplified but not overly conservative design methods. When more rigorous criteria and methods are incorporated in NH, the degree of conservatism should obviously be reduced. These criteria are based on currently available information. Although engineering judgments have been made in the formulation of these criteria they are not intended to require additional development or testing prior to implementation as a tool for use in conceptual and early preliminary design. Appendices are provided herein that contain useful information. The simplified methods were developed specifically with Alloy 617 in mind; however, they could be applied for the same intended purpose for other materials such as 9Cr-1Mo, Alloy 800H, etc. However, supporting design curves, stress allowables, and isochronous curves may

  12. Metal Fuel Development and Verification for Prototype Generation IV Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Chan Bock Lee; Jin Sik Cheon; Sung Ho Kim; Jeong-Yong Park; Hyung-Kook Joo

    2016-01-01

    Metal fuel is being developed for the prototype generation-IV sodium-cooled fast reactor (PGSFR) to be built by 2028. U–Zr fuel is a driver for the initial core of the PGSFR, and U–transuranics (TRU)–Zr fuel will gradually replace U–Zr fuel through its qualification in the PGSFR. Based on the vast worldwide experiences of U–Zr fuel, work on U–Zr fuel is focused on fuel design, fabrication of fuel components, and fuel verification tests. U–TRU–Zr fuel uses TRU recovered through pyroelectrochem...

  13. Technological Transfer from Research Nuclear Reactors to New Generation Nuclear Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Laura; Pavelescu, Margarit

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is the analysis of the technological transfer role in the nuclear field, with particular emphasis on nuclear reactors domain. The presentation is sustained by historical arguments. In this frame, it is very important to start with the achievements of the first nuclear systems, for instant those with natural uranium as fuel and heavy water as moderator, following in time through the history until the New Generation Nuclear Power Reactors. Starting with 1940, the accelerated development of the industry has implied the increase of the global demand for energy. In this respect, the nuclear energy could play an important role, being essentially an unlimited source of energy. However, the nuclear option faces the challenges of increasingly demanding safety requirements, economic competitiveness and public acceptance. Worldwide, a significant amount of experience has been accumulated during development, licensing, construction, and operation of nuclear power reactors. The experience gained is a strong basis for further improvements. Actually, the nuclear programs of many countries are addressing the development of advanced reactors, which are intended to have better economics, higher reliability, improved safety, and proliferation-resistant characteristics in order to overcome the current concerns about nuclear power. Advanced reactors, now under development, may help to meet the demand for energy power of both developed and developing countries as well as for district heating, desalination and for process heat. The paper gives historical examples that illustrate the steps pursued from first research nuclear reactors to present advanced power reactors. Emphasis was laid upon the fact that the progress is due to the great discoveries of the nuclear scientists using the technological transfer.

  14. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. O. Hayner; E.L. Shaber

    2004-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years.

  15. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Selection and Qualification Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Doug Hamelin; G. O. Hayner

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design is a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble bed thermal neutron spectrum reactor with an average reactor outlet temperature of at least 1000 C. The NGNP will use very high burn up, lowenriched uranium, TRISO-Coated fuel in a once-through fuel cycle. The design service life of the NGNP is 60 years.

  16. Generation of bovine transgenics using somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stice Steven L

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The ability to produce transgenic animals through the introduction of exogenous DNA has existed for many years. However, past methods available to generate transgenic animals, such as pronuclear microinjection or the use of embryonic stem cells, have either been inefficient or not available in all animals, bovine included. More recently somatic cell nuclear transfer has provided a method to create transgenic animals that overcomes many deficiencies present in other methods. This review summarizes the benefits of using somatic cell nuclear transfer to create bovine transgenics as well as the possible opportunities this method creates for the future.

  17. BRUSLIB and NETGEN: the Brussels nuclear reaction rate library and nuclear network generator for astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, M.; Arnould, M.; Goriely, S.; Jorissen, A.; Takahashi, K.

    2005-10-01

    Nuclear reaction rates are quantities of fundamental importance in astrophysics. Substantial efforts have been devoted in the last decades to measuring or calculating them. This paper presents a detailed description of the Brussels nuclear reaction rate library BRUSLIB and of the nuclear network generator NETGEN. BRUSLIB is made of two parts. The first one contains the 1999 NACRE compilation based on experimental data for 86 reactions with (mainly) stable targets up to Si. BRUSLIB provides an electronic link to the published, as well as to a large body of unpublished, NACRE data containing adopted rates, as well as lower and upper limits. The second part of BRUSLIB concerns nuclear reaction rate predictions to complement the experimentally-based rates. An electronic access is provided to tables of rates calculated within a statistical Hauser-Feshbach approximation, which limits the reliability of the rates to reactions producing compound nuclei with a high enough level density. These calculations make use of global and coherent microscopic nuclear models for the quantities entering the rate calculations. The use of such models makes the BRUSLIB rate library unique. A description of the Nuclear Network Generator NETGEN that complements the BRUSLIB package is also presented. NETGEN is a tool to generate nuclear reaction rates for temperature grids specified by the user. The information it provides can be used for a large variety of applications, including Big Bang nucleosynthesis, the energy generation and nucleosynthesis associated with the non-explosive and explosive hydrogen to silicon burning stages, or the synthesis of the heavy nuclides through the s-, α- and r-, rp- or p-processes.

  18. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 5: Graphite PIRTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Bratton, Rob [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Marsden, Barry [University of Manchester, UK; Srinivasan, Makuteswara [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Penfield, Scott [Technology Insights; Mitchell, Mark [PBMR (Pty) Ltd.; Windes, Will [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    2008-03-01

    Here we report the outcome of the application of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) process to the issue of nuclear-grade graphite for the moderator and structural components of a next generation nuclear plant (NGNP), considering both routine (normal operation) and postulated accident conditions for the NGNP. The NGNP is assumed to be a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), either a gas-turbine modular helium reactor (GTMHR) version [a prismatic-core modular reactor (PMR)] or a pebble-bed modular reactor (PBMR) version [a pebble bed reactor (PBR)] design, with either a direct- or indirect-cycle gas turbine (Brayton cycle) system for electric power production, and an indirect-cycle component for hydrogen production. NGNP design options with a high-pressure steam generator (Rankine cycle) in the primary loop are not considered in this PIRT. This graphite PIRT was conducted in parallel with four other NRC PIRT activities, taking advantage of the relationships and overlaps in subject matter. The graphite PIRT panel identified numerous phenomena, five of which were ranked high importance-low knowledge. A further nine were ranked with high importance and medium knowledge rank. Two phenomena were ranked with medium importance and low knowledge, and a further 14 were ranked medium importance and medium knowledge rank. The last 12 phenomena were ranked with low importance and high knowledge rank (or similar combinations suggesting they have low priority). The ranking/scoring rationale for the reported graphite phenomena is discussed. Much has been learned about the behavior of graphite in reactor environments in the 60-plus years since the first graphite rectors went into service. The extensive list of references in the Bibliography is plainly testament to this fact. Our current knowledge base is well developed. Although data are lacking for the specific grades being considered for Generation IV (Gen IV

  19. The Nuclear Network Generator NETGEN v10.0: A Tool for Nuclear Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Goriely, S.; Jorissen, A.; Takahashi, K.; Arnould, M.

    2011-09-01

    We present an updated release of the Brussels Nuclear Network Generator. NETGEN is a tool to help astrophysicists build nuclear reaction networks by generating tables of rates of light-particle (mostly n, p, α) induced reactions, nucleus-nucleus fusion reactions, and photodisintegrations, as well as β-decays and electron captures on temperature grids specified by the user. Nuclear reaction networks relevant to a large variety of astrophysical situations can be constructed, including Big-Bang nucleosynthesis, stellar hydrostatic and explosive hydrogen-, helium- and later burning phases, as well as the synthesis of heavy nuclides (s-, r-, p-, rp-, α-processes). The latest version, NETGEN v10.0, is available on the ULB-IAA website www.astro.ulb.ac.be/Netgen/form.html.

  20. The formation of hydrophilic Np(IV) complexes and their potential application in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, I.; Taylor, R.J.; Brown, G. [British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    1998-06-12

    A series of organic ligands have been screened for their effectiveness as complexants for Np(IV) in a neptunium rejection stage of an advanced PUREX process. Four of these species, formohydroxamic acid, acetohydroxamic acid, glycolic acid and pyruvic acid, readily form hydrophilic complexes with Np(IV) and can strip the actinide from 30% TBP/OK (30% tributylphosphate in odourless kerosene) into nitric acid. Near infra-red spectroscopy has been used to monitor Np(IV) complexation in nitric acid. Distribution experiments have been undertaken between nitric acid and 30% TBP/OK to examine the effect of ligand and nitric acid concentration on Np(IV) stripping. Finally, it has been shown that the extractability of U(VI) is unaffected by the presence of these ligands and all can be used to selectively strip Np(IV) from a U(VI) product stream in an advanced PUREX process. (orig.) 11 refs.

  1. Reducing Risk for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Beck II; Harold J. Heydt; Emmanuel O. Opare; Kyle B. Oswald

    2010-07-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, managed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is directed by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, to research, develop, design, construct, and operate a prototype forth generation nuclear reactor to meet the needs of the 21st Century. As with all large projects developing and deploying new technologies, the NGNP has numerous risks that need to be identified, tracked, mitigated, and reduced in order for successful project completion. A Risk Management Plan (RMP) was created to outline the process the INL is using to manage the risks and reduction strategies for the NGNP Project. Integral to the RMP is the development and use of a Risk Management System (RMS). The RMS is a tool that supports management and monitoring of the project risks. The RMS does not only contain a risk register, but other functionality that allows decision makers, engineering staff, and technology researchers to review and monitor the risks as the project matures.

  2. Biologically relevant mono- and di-nuclear manganese II/III/IV complexes of mononegative pentadentate ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baffert, Carole; Collomb, Marie-Nöelle; Deronzier, Alain

    2003-01-01

    were characterised by UV-visible spectroscopy, ESI mass spectrometry and cyclic voltammetry. In addition, III-IV and II-III species were electrochemically generated. Thus the new mononegative pentadentate ligand systems display significant flexibility in the range of Mn oxidation states and species...

  3. Managing Model Data Introduced Uncertainties in Simulator Predictions for Generation IV Systems via Optimum Experimental Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turinsky, Paul J [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Abdel-Khalik, Hany S [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Stover, Tracy E [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2011-03-01

    An optimization technique has been developed to select optimized experimental design specifications to produce data specifically designed to be assimilated to optimize a given reactor concept. Data from the optimized experiment is assimilated to generate posteriori uncertainties on the reactor concept’s core attributes from which the design responses are computed. The reactor concept is then optimized with the new data to realize cost savings by reducing margin. The optimization problem iterates until an optimal experiment is found to maximize the savings. A new generation of innovative nuclear reactor designs, in particular fast neutron spectrum recycle reactors, are being considered for the application of closing the nuclear fuel cycle in the future. Safe and economical design of these reactors will require uncertainty reduction in basic nuclear data which are input to the reactor design. These data uncertainty propagate to design responses which in turn require the reactor designer to incorporate additional safety margin into the design, which often increases the cost of the reactor. Therefore basic nuclear data needs to be improved and this is accomplished through experimentation. Considering the high cost of nuclear experiments, it is desired to have an optimized experiment which will provide the data needed for uncertainty reduction such that a reactor design concept can meet its target accuracies or to allow savings to be realized by reducing the margin required due to uncertainty propagated from basic nuclear data. However, this optimization is coupled to the reactor design itself because with improved data the reactor concept can be re-optimized itself. It is thus desired to find the experiment that gives the best optimized reactor design. Methods are first established to model both the reactor concept and the experiment and to efficiently propagate the basic nuclear data uncertainty through these models to outputs. The representativity of the experiment

  4. Managing Model Data Introduced Uncertainties in Simulator Predictions for Generation IV Systems via Optimum Experimental Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turinsky, Paul J; Abdel-Khalik, Hany S; Stover, Tracy E

    2011-03-31

    An optimization technique has been developed to select optimized experimental design specifications to produce data specifically designed to be assimilated to optimize a given reactor concept. Data from the optimized experiment is assimilated to generate posteriori uncertainties on the reactor concept’s core attributes from which the design responses are computed. The reactor concept is then optimized with the new data to realize cost savings by reducing margin. The optimization problem iterates until an optimal experiment is found to maximize the savings. A new generation of innovative nuclear reactor designs, in particular fast neutron spectrum recycle reactors, are being considered for the application of closing the nuclear fuel cycle in the future. Safe and economical design of these reactors will require uncertainty reduction in basic nuclear data which are input to the reactor design. These data uncertainty propagate to design responses which in turn require the reactor designer to incorporate additional safety margin into the design, which often increases the cost of the reactor. Therefore basic nuclear data needs to be improved and this is accomplished through experimentation. Considering the high cost of nuclear experiments, it is desired to have an optimized experiment which will provide the data needed for uncertainty reduction such that a reactor design concept can meet its target accuracies or to allow savings to be realized by reducing the margin required due to uncertainty propagated from basic nuclear data. However, this optimization is coupled to the reactor design itself because with improved data the reactor concept can be re-optimized itself. It is thus desired to find the experiment that gives the best optimized reactor design. Methods are first established to model both the reactor concept and the experiment and to efficiently propagate the basic nuclear data uncertainty through these models to outputs. The representativity of the experiment

  5. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from

  6. HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH,RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

    2003-06-01

    OAK B202 HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER. Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from

  7. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2002. Volume IV: Nuclear Energy and Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.; Gschwend, B. (eds.)

    2003-03-01

    Highlights in research and operation Projects established in previous years have yielded relevant and first-of-a-kind results, which have gained broad attention, both nationally and internationally, and which are presented in detail in this report. A few outstanding examples are cited below:Successful first measurements with highly active samples in LWR-PROTEUS Phase II (high burn-up fuel) have shown significant dependency of reactivity on burn-up, and increasing discrepancies between calculated and measured reactivity values with burn-up. As a consequence of these findings, the Swiss utilities wish to extend this phase. On-call calculations in the framework of the STARS project have been used to modify the feedwater system of the Leibstadt NPP. The modification has been subsequently confirmed during a turbine trip. An international consortium has been established for the ARTIST project (aerosol behaviour in the case of steam generator tube rupture). First tests showed higher aerosol retention than expected. The MEGAPIE project remains ongoing, and plans for post-irradiation examination (PIE) have now been established. Investigation of the leak which occurred in the LISOR loop in the Hot Lab has positively identified the cause of failure. PSI's contribution to the China Energy Technology Programme has been completed and documented. Among other results, the programme provided evidence for lower total costs (including externalities) by using 'clean coal' technologies. In parallel, and to assure continuation of the successful collaboration with the European research programmes, NES has participated in 27 'Expressions of Interest' for Integrated Projects and Networks of Excellence within the 6th EU Framework Programme. On the operational level, the year 2002 was marked by a series of significant events: The Federal Institutes of Technology, to which PSI belongs, have drawn up strategic plans for the years 2004-2007. The proposed PSI

  8. Human Reliability for the Next Generation of Nuclear Experts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, Cameron W [ORNL; Eisele, Gerhard R [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    As the nuclear renaissance progresses and today s nuclear and radiological experts retire, a new generation of experts will ultimately be recruited, trained, and replace the old guard. Selecting individuals who have the attitudes and values appropriate to work in the nuclear industry and who have the best qualifications for the position will be a key to the success of this renaissance. In a world with deep divisions on political and social issues; how a State, agency, or company assures that those hired can be trusted with the access to, and responsibilities for, nuclear and/or radiological materials is an important consideration. Human interactions invariably rely on the offering of assurance and the receipt of trust. A fundamental element in any human relationship is knowing when to trust and when to doubt. When are assurances to be believed or questioned? Human reliability programs (HRP) are used to assure a person s truthfulness and loyalty to the State. An HRP program has a number of elements and may not fit all cultures in the same form. An HRP can vary in scope from simple background checks of readily available data to full field investigations and testing. This presentation discusses possible elements for an HRP from regulation to implementation and the issues related to each element. The effects of an HRP on potential recruits will be discussed.

  9. Electrosleeve process for in-situ nuclear steam generator repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, R.A. [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, ON (Canada); Moran, T.E. [Framatome Technologies Inc., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Renaud, E. [Babcock and Wilcox Industries Ltd., Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    Degradation of steam generator (SG) tubing by localized corrosion is a widespread problem in the nuclear industry that can lead to costly forced out-ages, unit de-rating, SG replacement or even the permanent shutdown of a reactor. In response to the onset of SG tubing degradation at Ontario Hydro's Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS) Unit 5, and the determined unsuitability of conventional repair methods (mechanically expanded or welded sleeves) for Alloy 400, an alternative repair technology was developed. Electrosleeve is a non-intrusive, low-temperature process that involves the electrodeposition of a nanocrystalline nickel microalloy forming a continuously bonded, structural layer over the internal diameter of the degraded region. This technology is designed to provide a long-term pressure boundary repair, fully restoring the structural integrity of the damaged region to its original state. This paper describes the Electrosleeve process for SG tubing repair and the unique properties of the advanced sleeve material. The successful installation of Electrosleeves that have been in service for more than three years in Alloy 400 SG tubing at the Pickering-5 CANDU unit, the more recent extension of the technology to Alloy 600 and its demonstration in a U.S. pressurized water reactor (PWR), is presented. A number of PWR operators have requested plant operating technical specification changes to permit Electrosleeve SG tube repair. Licensing of the Electrosleeve by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is expected imminently. (author)

  10. Alternative similarity renormalization group generators in nuclear structure calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Dicaire, Nuiok M; Navratil, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The similarity renormalization group (SRG) has been successfully applied to soften interactions for ab initio nuclear calculations. In almost all practical applications in nuclear physics, an SRG generator with the kinetic energy operator is used. With this choice, a fast convergence of many-body calculations can be achieved, but at the same time substantial three-body interactions are induced even if one starts from a purely two-nucleon (NN) Hamiltonian. Three-nucleon (3N) interactions can be handled by modern many-body methods. However, it has been observed that when including initial chiral 3N forces in the Hamiltonian, the SRG transformations induce a non-negligible four-nucleon interaction that cannot be currently included in the calculations for technical reasons. Consequently, it is essential to investigate alternative SRG generators that might suppress the induction of many-body forces while at the same time might preserve the good convergence. In this work we test two alternative generators with oper...

  11. Nuclear data banks generation by interpolation; Generacion de bancos de datos nucleares mediante interpolacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo M, J. A

    1999-07-01

    Nuclear Data Bank generation, is a process in which a great amount of resources is required, both computing and humans. If it is taken into account that at some times it is necessary to create a great amount of those, it is convenient to have a reliable tool that generates Data Banks with the lesser resources, in the least possible time and with a very good approximation. In this work are shown the results obtained during the development of INTPOLBI code, use to generate Nuclear Data Banks employing bicubic polynominal interpolation, taking as independent variables the uranium and gadolinia percents. Two proposal were worked, applying in both cases the finite element method, using one element with 16 nodes to carry out the interpolation. In the first proposals the canonic base was employed, to obtain the interpolating polynomial and later, the corresponding linear equation systems. In the solution of this systems the Gaussian elimination methods with partial pivot was applied. In the second case, the Newton base was used to obtain the mentioned system, resulting in a triangular inferior matrix, which structure, applying elemental operations, to obtain a blocks diagonal matrix, with special characteristics and easier to work with. For the validation tests, a comparison was made between the values obtained with INTPOLBI and INTERTEG (create at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (MX) with the same purpose) codes, and Data Banks created through the conventional process, that is, with nuclear codes normally used. Finally, it is possible to conclude that the Nuclear Data Banks generated with INTPOLBI code constitute a very good approximation that, even though do not wholly replace conventional process, however are helpful in cases when it is necessary to create a great amount of Data Banks.

  12. Generation of nuclear data bank by interpolation; Generacion de bancos de datos nucleares mediante interpolacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Nuclear Data Bank generation, is a process in which a great amount of resources is required, both computing and humans. If it is taken into account that at some times it is necessary to create a great amount of those, it is convenient to have a reliable tool that generates Data Banks with the lesse resources, in the least possible time and with a very good approximation. In this work are shown the results obtained during the development of INTPOLBI code, used to generate Nuclear Data Banks employing bi-cubic polynomial interpolation, takings as independent variables the uranium and gadolinia percents. Two proposal were worked, applying in both cases the finite element methods, using one element with 16 nodes to carry out the interpolation. In the first proposal the canonic base was employed to obtain the interpolating polynomial and later, the corresponding linear equations systems. In the solution of this system the Gaussian elimination methods with partial pivot was applied. In the second case, the Newton base was used to obtain the mentioned system, resulting in a triangular inferior matrix, which structure, applying elemental operations, to obtain a blocks diagonal matrix, with special characteristics and easier to work with. For the validations test, a comparison was made between the values obtained with INTPOLBI and INTERTEG (created at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas with the same purpose) codes, and Data Banks created through the conventional process, with nuclear code normally used. Finally, it is possible to conclude that the Nuclear Data Banks generated with INTPOLBI code constitute a very good approximation that, even though do not wholly replace conventional process, however are helpful in cases when it is necessary to create a great amount of Data Banks.

  13. Nonlinear H-infinity control of nuclear steam generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Fernando Pinto

    Motivated by the fact that problems related to the control of steam generators are responsible for a significant amount of downtime in nuclear power plants, this thesis investigates the applicability of linear and nonlinear Hinfinity theory to the control of nuclear steam generators. A nonlinear model based on mass, energy, and momentum balances was developed for a U-tube steam generator, with the water level and steam quality at the exit of the riser considered as state variables. In this model the steam flow to the turbines and the heat flow from the primary to the secondary side are represented as disturbances affecting the system, while the feedwater flow is used to compensate for changes in the water level. The performance specifications for the feedback loop are encoded using weight functions incorporated into an augmented plant, and the control problem is formulated to minimize the effects of disturbances on the controlled variables. The solution of the optimization problem is reduced to the solution of a set of differential equations, which, in the linear case, is equivalent to the solution of Riccati equations. The linear Hinfinity controller and filter were obtained for the U-tube steam generator with and without weight functions, and simulations for a 50 s ramp transient resulting in 50% decrease in the heat and steam flows were performed over 300 s. The use of weights provided less variation in the water level, and an excellent noise rejection capability was observed. For the nonlinear Hinfinity formulation a finite-difference method was used to solve the state and costate equations numerically for optimal feedwater flow minimizing water level variations. The combined solution of the state equation in the forward direction and the costate equations in the backward direction converged in 10 iteractions. The nonlinear controller results in less variation in the water level than the corresponding linear Hinfinity controller, demonstrating the feasibility

  14. Materials research in support of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackman, J. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This presentation outlines the activities of CANMET-MTL in materials research in support of nuclear power generation. CANMET-MTL is a Government of Canada research laboratory specializing in materials (metals and metal-based materials). Its mandate is to improve the competitive, social and environmental performance of Canadian industries in the area of metals. These include the economic benefits from value-added processing and manufacturing, materials for clean energy production and improved energy efficiency in processing and product end-use.

  15. International Intercomparison Exercise for Nuclear Accident Dosimetry at the DAF Using GODIVA-IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, David [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hudson, Becka [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Program operated under the direction of Dr. Jerry McKamy completed the first NNSA Nuclear Accident Dosimetry exercise on May 27, 2016. Participants in the exercise were from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), Savanah River Site (SRS), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), US Navy, the Atomic Weapons Establishment (United Kingdom) under the auspices of JOWOG 30, and the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (France) by special invitation and NCSP memorandum of understanding. This exercise was the culmination of a series of Integral Experiment Requests (IER) that included the establishment of the Nuclear Criticality Experimental Research Center, (NCERC) the startup of the Godiva Reactor (IER-194), the establishment of a the Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Laboratory (NAD LAB) in Mercury, NV, and the determination of reference dosimetry values for the mixed neutron and photon radiation field of Godiva within NCERC.

  16. Non-destructive research methods applied on materials for the new generation of nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartošová, I.; Slugeň, V.; Veterníková, J.; Sojak, S.; Petriska, M.; Bouhaddane, A.

    2014-06-01

    The paper is aimed on non-destructive experimental techniques applied on materials for the new generation of nuclear reactors (GEN IV). With the development of these reactors, also materials have to be developed in order to guarantee high standard properties needed for construction. These properties are high temperature resistance, radiation resistance and resistance to other negative effects. Nevertheless the changes in their mechanical properties should be only minimal. Materials, that fulfil these requirements, are analysed in this work. The ferritic-martensitic (FM) steels and ODS steels are studied in details. Microstructural defects, which can occur in structural materials and can be also accumulated during irradiation due to neutron flux or alpha, beta and gamma radiation, were analysed using different spectroscopic methods as positron annihilation spectroscopy and Barkhausen noise, which were applied for measurements of three different FM steels (T91, P91 and E97) as well as one ODS steel (ODS Eurofer).

  17. Uncertainty Quantification in the Reliability and Risk Assessment of Generation IV Reactors: Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vierow, Karen; Aldemir, Tunc

    2009-09-10

    The project entitled, “Uncertainty Quantification in the Reliability and Risk Assessment of Generation IV Reactors”, was conducted as a DOE NERI project collaboration between Texas A&M University and The Ohio State University between March 2006 and June 2009. The overall goal of the proposed project was to develop practical approaches and tools by which dynamic reliability and risk assessment techniques can be used to augment the uncertainty quantification process in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods and PRA applications for Generation IV reactors. This report is the Final Scientific/Technical Report summarizing the project.

  18. 75 FR 8149 - Arizona Public Service Company, et al. Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2, and 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... species. No impacts are expected to historic and cultural resources, or to socioeconomic resources... Nuclear Regulatory Commission. James R. Hall, Senior Project Manager, Plant Licensing Branch IV,...

  19. Cooperative retraction of bundled type IV pili enables nanonewton force generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Biais

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The causative agent of gonorrhea, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, bears retractable filamentous appendages called type IV pili (Tfp. Tfp are used by many pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria to carry out a number of vital functions, including DNA uptake, twitching motility (crawling over surfaces, and attachment to host cells. In N. gonorrhoeae, Tfp binding to epithelial cells and the mechanical forces associated with this binding stimulate signaling cascades and gene expression that enhance infection. Retraction of a single Tfp filament generates forces of 50-100 piconewtons, but nothing is known, thus far, on the retraction force ability of multiple Tfp filaments, even though each bacterium expresses multiple Tfp and multiple bacteria interact during infection. We designed a micropillar assay system to measure Tfp retraction forces. This system consists of an array of force sensors made of elastic pillars that allow quantification of retraction forces from adherent N. gonorrhoeae bacteria. Electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy were used in combination with this novel assay to assess the structures of Tfp. We show that Tfp can form bundles, which contain up to 8-10 Tfp filaments, that act as coordinated retractable units with forces up to 10 times greater than single filament retraction forces. Furthermore, single filament retraction forces are transient, whereas bundled filaments produce retraction forces that can be sustained. Alterations of noncovalent protein-protein interactions between Tfp can inhibit both bundle formation and high-amplitude retraction forces. Retraction forces build over time through the recruitment and bundling of multiple Tfp that pull cooperatively to generate forces in the nanonewton range. We propose that Tfp retraction can be synchronized through bundling, that Tfp bundle retraction can generate forces in the nanonewton range in vivo, and that such high forces could affect infection.

  20. Self-organization of dynein motors generates meiotic nuclear oscillations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven K Vogel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic nuclear oscillations in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe are crucial for proper chromosome pairing and recombination. We report a mechanism of these oscillations on the basis of collective behavior of dynein motors linking the cell cortex and dynamic microtubules that extend from the spindle pole body in opposite directions. By combining quantitative live cell imaging and laser ablation with a theoretical description, we show that dynein dynamically redistributes in the cell in response to load forces, resulting in more dynein attached to the leading than to the trailing microtubules. The redistribution of motors introduces an asymmetry of motor forces pulling in opposite directions, leading to the generation of oscillations. Our work provides the first direct in vivo observation of self-organized dynamic dynein distributions, which, owing to the intrinsic motor properties, generate regular large-scale movements in the cell.

  1. Thorium and its future importance for nuclear energy generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lainetti, Paulo E.O., E-mail: lainetti@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Thorium was discovered in 1828 by the Swedish chemist Jons J. Berzelius. Despite some advantages over uranium for use in nuclear reactors, its main use, in the almost two centuries since its discovery, the use of thorium was restricted to use for gas mantles, especially in the early twentieth century. In the beginning of the Nuclear Era, many countries had interested on thorium, particularly during the 1950-1970 period. There are about 435 nuclear reactors in the world nowadays. They need more than 65.000 tons of uranium yearly. The future world energy needs will increase and, even if we assumed a conservative contribution of nuclear generation, it will be occur a significant increasing in the uranium prices, taking into account that uranium, as used in the present thermal reactors, is a finite resource. Thorium is nearly three times more abundant than uranium in the Earth's crust. Despite thorium is not a fissile material, {sup 232}Th can be converted to {sup 233}U (fissile) more efficiently than {sup 238}U to {sup 239}Pu. Besides this, since it is possible to convert thorium waste into nonradioactive elements, thorium is an environment-friendly alternative energy source. Thorium fuel cycle is also inherently resistant to proliferation. Some papers evaluate the thorium resources in Brazil over 1.200.000 metric t. Then, the thorium alternative must be seriously considered in Brazil for strategic reasons. In this paper a brief history of thorium is presented, besides a review of the world thorium utilization and a discussion about advantages and restrictions of thorium use. (author)

  2. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan, Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.E. Mizia; W.E. Windes; W.R. Corwin; T.D. Burchell; C.E. Duty; Y. Katoh; J.W. Klett; T.E. McGreevy; R.K. Nanstad; W. Ren; P.L. Rittenhouse; L.L. Snead; R.W. Swindeman; D.F. Wlson

    2007-09-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 950°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Some of the general and administrative aspects of the R&D Plan include: • Expand American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standards in support of the NGNP Materials R&D Program. • Define and develop inspection needs and the procedures for those inspections. • Support selected university materials related R&D activities that would be of direct benefit to the NGNP Project. • Support international materials related collaboration activities through the DOE sponsored Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Materials and Components (M&C) Project Management Board (PMB). • Support document review activities through the Materials Review Committee (MRC) or other suitable forum.

  3. Innovative open air brayton combined cycle systems for the next generation nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohuri, Bahman

    The purpose of this research was to model and analyze a nuclear heated multi-turbine power conversion system operating with atmospheric air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a molten salt, or liquid metal, to gas heat exchanger reaching a peak temperature of 660 0C. The effects of adding a recuperator or a bottoming steam cycle have been addressed. The calculated results are intended to identify paths for future work on the next generation nuclear power plant (GEN-IV). This document describes the proposed system in sufficient detail to communicate a good understanding of the overall system, its components, and intended uses. The architecture is described at the conceptual level, and does not replace a detailed design document. The main part of the study focused on a Brayton --- Rankine Combined Cycle system and a Recuperated Brayton Cycle since they offer the highest overall efficiencies. Open Air Brayton power cycles also require low cooling water flows relative to other power cycles. Although the Recuperated Brayton Cycle achieves an overall efficiency slightly less that the Brayton --- Rankine Combined Cycle, it is completely free of a circulating water system and can be used in a desert climate. Detailed results of modeling a combined cycle Brayton-Rankine power conversion system are presented. The Rankine bottoming cycle appears to offer a slight efficiency advantage over the recuperated Brayton cycle. Both offer very significant advantages over current generation Light Water Reactor steam cycles. The combined cycle was optimized as a unit and lower pressure Rankine systems seem to be more efficient. The combined cycle requires a lot less circulating water than current power plants. The open-air Brayton systems appear to be worth investigating, if the higher temperatures predicted for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant do materialize.

  4. Generation of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV-Inhibiting Peptides from β-Lactoglobulin Secreted by Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguru Shigemori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that hydrolysates of β-lactoglobulin (BLG prepared using gastrointestinal proteases strongly inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV activity in vitro. In this study, we developed a BLG-secreting Lactococcus lactis strain as a delivery vehicle and in situ expression system. Interestingly, trypsin-digested recombinant BLG from L. lactis inhibited DPP-IV activity, suggesting that BLG-secreting L. lactis may be useful in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  5. Nuclear Safeguards Infrastructure Required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Mark Schanfein; Philip Casey Durst

    2012-07-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) is a Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) to be constructed near Idaho Falls, Idaho The NGNP is intrinsically safer than current reactors and is planned for startup ca. 2021 Safety is more prominent in the minds of the Public and Governing Officials following the nuclear reactor meltdown accidents in Fukushima, Japan The authors propose that the NGNP should be designed with International (IAEA) Safeguards in mind to support export to Non-Nuclear-Weapons States There are two variants of the NGNP design; one using integral Prismatic-shaped fuel assemblies in a fixed core; and one using recirculating fuel balls (or Pebbles) The following presents the infrastructure required to safeguard the NGNP This infrastructure is required to safeguard the Prismatic and Pebble-fueled NGNP (and other HTGR/VHTR) The infrastructure is based on current Safeguards Requirements and Practices implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for similar reactors The authors of this presentation have worked for decades in the area of International Nuclear Safeguards and are recognized experts in this field Presentation for INMM conference in July 2012.

  6. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1999. Volume IV: Nuclear Energy and Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Brian; Gschwend, Beatrice [eds.

    2000-07-01

    Nuclear energy related research in Switzerland is concentrated at PSI's Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department (NES). The total effort invested in nuclear energy research in 1999 amounted to about 185 py/a and 4.7 MCHF of investment and maintenance costs. Approximately half of the salary, investment and maintenance costs are externally funded, primarily by the Swiss Utilities, the national co-operative for the disposal of nuclear waste (NAGRA), the Federal Office of Energy (BFE) through the nuclear safety inspectorate (HSK) and the Federal Office for Science and Education (BBW) in connection with the EU Framework Programmes; an increasing part of external funding is coming from domestic and foreign industry (nuclear component and fuel suppliers). The activities of the department are concentrated on three main domains of: Safety and related problems of operating plants; safety features of future reactor and fuel cycles; waste management. 4 % of the total resources are invested in addressing more global aspects of energy. Many of the programs are part of collaborations with universities, industry, or international organisations. Progress in 1999 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 1999 is also provided.

  7. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1998. Volume IV: Nuclear Energy and Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birchley, Jon; Ringele, Ruth [eds.

    1999-09-01

    Nuclear energy related research in Switzerland is concentrated at PSI`s Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department (NES). The total effort invested in nuclear energy research in 1998 amounted to about 195 py/a and 4.5 millions CHF of investment and maintenance costs. Approximately half of the salary, investment and maintenance costs are externally funded, primarily by the Swiss Utilities, the national co-operative for the disposal of nuclear waste (NAGRA), the Federal Office of Energy (BFE) through the nuclear safety inspectorate (HSK) and the Federal Office for Science and Education (BBW) in connection with the EC Framework Programmes; an increasing part of external funding is coming from domestic and foreign industry (nuclear component and fuel suppliers). The activities of the department are concentrated on three main domains of: Safety and related problems of operating plants; safety features of future reactor and fuel cycles; waste management. 4 % of the total resources are invested in addressing more global aspects of energy. Many of the programs are part of collaborations with universities, industry, or international organisations. A list of scientific publications in 1998 is included. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  8. ENDF/B-VII.0: Next Generation Evaluated Nuclear Data Library for Nuclear Science and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, M B; Oblozinsky, P; Herman, M; Greene, N M; McKnight, R D; Smith, D L; Young, P G; MacFarlane, R E; Hale, G M; Haight, R C; Frankle, S; Kahler, A C; Kawano, T; Little, R C; Madland, D G; Moller, P; Mosteller, R; Page, P; Talou, P; Trellue, H; White, M; Wilson, W B; Arcilla, R; Dunford, C L; Mughabghab, S F; Pritychenko, B; Rochman, D; Sonzogni, A A; Lubitz, C; Trumbull, T H; Weinman, J; Brown, D; Cullen, D E; Heinrichs, D; McNabb, D; Derrien, H; Dunn, M; Larson, N M; Leal, L C; Carlson, A D; Block, R C; Briggs, B; Cheng, E; Huria, H; Kozier, K; Courcelle, A; Pronyaev, V; der Marck, S

    2006-10-02

    We describe the next generation general purpose Evaluated Nuclear Data File, ENDF/B-VII.0, of recommended nuclear data for advanced nuclear science and technology applications. The library, released by the U.S. Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) in December 2006, contains data primarily for reactions with incident neutrons, protons, and photons on almost 400 isotopes. The new evaluations are based on both experimental data and nuclear reaction theory predictions. The principal advances over the previous ENDF/B-VI library are the following: (1) New cross sections for U, Pu, Th, Np and Am actinide isotopes, with improved performance in integral validation criticality and neutron transmission benchmark tests; (2) More precise standard cross sections for neutron reactions on H, {sup 6}Li, {sup 10}B, Au and for {sup 235,238}U fission, developed by a collaboration with the IAEA and the OECD/NEA Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC); (3) Improved thermal neutron scattering; (4) An extensive set of neutron cross sections on fission products developed through a WPEC collaboration; (5) A large suite of photonuclear reactions; (6) Extension of many neutron- and proton-induced reactions up to an energy of 150 MeV; (7) Many new light nucleus neutron and proton reactions; (8) Post-fission beta-delayed photon decay spectra; (9) New radioactive decay data; and (10) New methods developed to provide uncertainties and covariances, together with covariance evaluations for some sample cases. The paper provides an overview of this library, consisting of 14 sublibraries in the same, ENDF-6 format, as the earlier ENDF/B-VI library. We describe each of the 14 sublibraries, focusing on neutron reactions. Extensive validation, using radiation transport codes to simulate measured critical assemblies, show major improvements: (a) The long-standing underprediction of low enriched U thermal assemblies is removed; (b) The {sup 238}U, {sup 208}Pb, and {sup 9}Be reflector

  9. Metal fuel development and verification for prototype generation- IV Sodium- Cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chan Bock; Cheon, Jin Sik; Kim, Sung Ho; Park, Jeong Yong; Joo, Hyung Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Metal fuel is being developed for the prototype generation-IV sodium-cooled fast reactor (PGSFR) to be built by 2028. U-Zr fuel is a driver for the initial core of the PGSFR, and U -transuranics (TRU)-Zr fuel will gradually replace U-Zr fuel through its qualification in the PGSFR. Based on the vast worldwide experiences of U-Zr fuel, work on U-Zr fuel is focused on fuel design, fabrication of fuel components, and fuel verification tests. U-TRU-Zr fuel uses TRU recovered through pyroelectrochemical processing of spent PWR (pressurized water reactor) fuels, which contains highly radioactive minor actinides and chemically active lanthanide or rare earth elements as carryover impurities. An advanced fuel slug casting system, which can prevent vaporization of volatile elements through a control of the atmospheric pressure of the casting chamber and also deal with chemically active lanthanide elements using protective coatings in the casting crucible, was developed. Fuel cladding of the ferritic-martensitic steel FC92, which has higher mechanical strength at a high temperature than conventional HT9 cladding, was developed and fabricated, and is being irradiated in the fast reactor.

  10. Physico-chemical properties of the new generation IV iron preparations ferumoxytol, iron isomaltoside 1000 and ferric carboxymaltose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiser, Susann; Rentsch, Daniel; Dippon, Urs; Kappler, Andreas; Weidler, Peter G; Göttlicher, Jörg; Steininger, Ralph; Wilhelm, Maria; Braitsch, Michaela; Funk, Felix; Philipp, Erik; Burckhardt, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    The advantage of the new generation IV iron preparations ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), ferumoxytol (FMX), and iron isomaltoside 1000 (IIM) is that they can be administered in relatively high doses in a short period of time. We investigated the physico-chemical properties of these preparations and compared them with those of the older preparations iron sucrose (IS), sodium ferric gluconate (SFG), and low molecular weight iron dextran (LMWID). Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy indicated akaganeite structures (β-FeOOH) for the cores of FCM, IIM and IS, and a maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) structure for that of FMX. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies confirmed the structure of the carbohydrate of FMX as a reduced, carboxymethylated, low molecular weight dextran, and that of IIM as a reduced Dextran 1000. Polarography yielded significantly different fingerprints of the investigated compounds. Reductive degradation kinetics of FMX was faster than that of FCM and IIM, which is in contrast to the high stability of FMX towards acid degradation. The labile iron content, i.e. the amount of iron that is only weakly bound in the polynuclear iron core, was assessed by a qualitative test that confirmed decreasing labile iron contents in the order SFG ≈ IS > LMWID ≥ FMX ≈ IIM ≈ FCM. The presented data are a step forward in the characterization of these non-biological complex drugs, which is a prerequisite to understand their cellular uptake mechanisms and the relationship between the structure and physiological safety as well as efficacy of these complexes.

  11. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1995. Annex IV: PSI nuclear energy and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birchley, J.; Roesel, R.; Doesburg, R. van [eds.] [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-09-01

    Nuclear energy research in Switzerland is concentrated at PSI`s Department F4. It is explicitly mentioned in the Institute`s official charter and commands about one fifth of the Institute`s federal resources. Presently, PSI invests approx. 200 py/a in nuclear energy research, one third of this being externally funded; the share of external funding in investment costs totals approx. 50%. This funding is provided by the Swiss utilities and the NAGRA, the Safety Authority (HSK) and the former National Fund for Energy Research (NEFF). PSI`s activities in nuclear research concentrate on three main areas: safety of operating plants, safety features of future reactor concepts and waste management. 7% of personnel are invested in addressing global aspects of energy. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  12. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IV. Commercial potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) report provides time and cost estimates for positioning new nuclear power systems for commercial deployment. The assessment also estimates the rates at which the new systems might penetrate the domestic market, assuming the continuing viability of the massive light-water reactor network that now exists worldwide. This assessment does not recommend specific, detailed program plans and budgets for individual systems; however, it is clear from this analysis that any of the systems investigated could be deployed if dictated by national interest.

  13. ENDF/B-VII.0: Next Generation Evaluated Nuclear Data Library for Nuclear Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, M. B.; Obložinský, P.; Herman, M.; Greene, N. M.; McKnight, R. D.; Smith, D. L.; Young, P. G.; MacFarlane, R. E.; Hale, G. M.; Frankle, S. C.; Kahler, A. C.; Kawano, T.; Little, R. C.; Madland, D. G.; Moller, P.; Mosteller, R. D.; Page, P. R.; Talou, P.; Trellue, H.; White, M. C.; Wilson, W. B.; Arcilla, R.; Dunford, C. L.; Mughabghab, S. F.; Pritychenko, B.; Rochman, D.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Lubitz, C. R.; Trumbull, T. H.; Weinman, J. P.; Brown, D. A.; Cullen, D. E.; Heinrichs, D. P.; McNabb, D. P.; Derrien, H.; Dunn, M. E.; Larson, N. M.; Leal, L. C.; Carlson, A. D.; Block, R. C.; Briggs, J. B.; Cheng, E. T.; Huria, H. C.; Zerkle, M. L.; Kozier, K. S.; Courcelle, A.; Pronyaev, V.; van der Marck, S. C.

    2006-12-01

    We describe the next generation general purpose Evaluated Nuclear Data File, ENDF/B-VII.0, of recommended nuclear data for advanced nuclear science and technology applications. The library, released by the U.S. Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) in December 2006, contains data primarily for reactions with incident neutrons, protons, and photons on almost 400 isotopes, based on experimental data and theory predictions. The principal advances over the previous ENDF/B-VI library are the following: (1) New cross sections for U, Pu, Th, Np and Am actinide isotopes, with improved performance in integral validation criticality and neutron transmission benchmark tests; (2) More precise standard cross sections for neutron reactions on H, 6Li, 10B, Au and for 235,238U fission, developed by a collaboration with the IAEA and the OECD/NEA Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC); (3) Improved thermal neutron scattering; (4) An extensive set of neutron cross sections on fission products developed through a WPEC collaboration; (5) A large suite of photonuclear reactions; (6) Extension of many neutron- and proton-induced evaluations up to 150 MeV; (7) Many new light nucleus neutron and proton reactions; (8) Post-fission beta-delayed photon decay spectra; (9) New radioactive decay data; (10) New methods for uncertainties and covariances, together with covariance evaluations for some sample cases; and (11) New actinide fission energy deposition. The paper provides an overview of this library, consisting of 14 sublibraries in the same ENDF-6 format as the earlier ENDF/B-VI library. We describe each of the 14 sublibraries, focusing on neutron reactions. Extensive validation, using radiation transport codes to simulate measured critical assemblies, show major improvements: (a) The long-standing underprediction of low enriched uranium thermal assemblies is removed; (b) The 238U and 208Pb reflector biases in fast systems are largely removed; (c) ENDF/B-VI.8 good

  14. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 2000. Volume IV: Nuclear Energy and Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Brian; Gschwend, Beatrice [eds.

    2001-03-01

    Nuclear energy related research in Switzerland is concentrated at PSI's Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department (NES). The activities of the department are concentrated on three main domains of: Safety and related problems of operating plants; safety features of future reactor and fuel cycles; waste management. Comprehensive assessments of energy systems are carried out in cooperation with PSI's General Energy Research Department. Many of the programs are part of collaborations with universities, industry, or international organisations. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2000 is also provided.

  15. 78 FR 16302 - Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant, Application for Amendment to Facility Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant, Application for Amendment to Facility Operating... Operating License No. DPR-72 for the Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant (CR-3), located in...

  16. 76 FR 53972 - Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit No. 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit No. 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Notice of... Facility Operating License No. DPR-72 for Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear generating Plant (CR-3), currently...

  17. Steam Generator tube integrity -- US Nuclear Regulatory Commission perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E.L.; Sullivan, E.J.

    1997-02-01

    In the US, the current regulatory framework was developed in the 1970s when general wall thinning was the dominant degradation mechanism; and, as a result of changes in the forms of degradation being observed and improvements in inspection and tube repair technology, the regulatory framework needs to be updated. Operating experience indicates that the current U.S. requirements should be more stringent in some areas, while in other areas they are overly conservative. To date, this situation has been dealt with on a plant-specific basis in the US. However, the NRC staff is now developing a proposed steam generator rule as a generic framework for ensuring that the steam generator tubes are capable of performing their intended safety functions. This paper discusses the current U.S. regulatory framework for assuring steam generator (SG) tube integrity, the need to update this regulatory framework, the objectives of the new proposed rule, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory guide (RG) that will accompany the rule, how risk considerations affect the development of the new rule, and some outstanding issues relating to the rule that the NRC is still dealing with.

  18. Hipse: an event generator for nuclear collisions at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, D.; Van Lauwe, A.; Durand, D

    2003-11-01

    An event generator, HIPSE (Heavy-Ion Phase-Space Exploration), dedicated to the description of nuclear collisions in the intermediate energy range is presented. Based on the sudden approximation and on geometrical hypothesis, it can conveniently simulate heavy-ion interactions at all impact parameters and thus can constitute a valuable tool for the understanding of processes such as neck emission or multifragmentation in peripheral or/and central collisions. After a detailed description of the ingredients of the model, first comparisons with experimental data collected by the INDRA collaboration are shown. Special emphasis is put on the kinematical characteristics of fragments and light particles observed at all impact parameters for Xe+Sn reactions at 25 and 50 MeV/u and Ni + Ni at 82 MeV/u. (authors)

  19. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Resilient Control System Functional Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynne M. Stevens

    2010-07-01

    Control Systems and their associated instrumentation must meet reliability, availability, maintainability, and resiliency criteria in order for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) to be economically competitive. Research, perhaps requiring several years, may be needed to develop control systems to support plant availability and resiliency. This report functionally analyzes the gaps between traditional and resilient control systems as applicable to HTGRs, which includes the Next Generation Nuclear Plant; defines resilient controls; assesses the current state of both traditional and resilient control systems; and documents the functional gaps existing between these two controls approaches as applicable to HTGRs. This report supports the development of an overall strategy for applying resilient controls to HTGRs by showing that control systems with adequate levels of resilience perform at higher levels, respond more quickly to disturbances, increase operational efficiency, and increase public protection.

  20. NEXT GENERATION NUCLEAR PLANT LICENSING BASIS EVENT SELECTION WHITE PAPER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Holbrook

    2010-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a licensed commercial high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) plant capable of producing the electricity and high temperature process heat for industrial markets supporting a range of end-user applications. The NGNP Project has adopted the 10 CFR 52 Combined License (COL) application process, as recommended in the Report to Congress, dated August 2008, as the foundation for the NGNP licensing strategy. NRC licensing of the NGNP plant utilizing this process will demonstrate the efficacy of licensing future HTGRs for commercial industrial applications. This white paper is one in a series of submittals that will address key generic issues of the COL priority licensing topics as part of the process for establishing HTGR regulatory requirements.

  1. Irradiation effects in oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Ni-base alloys for Gen. IV nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oono, Naoko; Ukai, Shigeharu; Kondo, Sosuke; Hashitomi, Okinobu; Kimura, Akihiko

    2015-10-01

    Oxide particle dispersion strengthened (ODS) Ni-base alloys are irradiated by using simulation technique (Fe/He dual-ion irradiation) to investigate the reliability to Gen. IV high-temperature reactors. The fine oxide particles with less than 10 nm in average size and approximately 8.0 × 1022 m-3 in number density remained after 101 dpa irradiation. The tiny helium bubbles were inside grains, not at grain-boundaries; it is advantageous effect of oxide particles which trap the helium atoms at the particle-matrix interface. Ni-base ODS alloys demonstrated their great ability to overcome He embrittlement.

  2. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Intermediate Heat Exchanger Acquisition Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizia, Ronald Eugene [Idaho National Laboratory

    2008-04-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C to 950°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor, and use low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. The purpose of this report is to address the acquisition strategy for the NGNP Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX).This component will be operated in flowing, impure helium on the primary and secondary side at temperatures up to 950°C. There are major high temperature design, materials availability, and fabrication issues that need to be addressed. The prospective materials are Alloys 617, 230, 800H and X, with Alloy 617 being the leading candidate for the use at 950°C. The material delivery schedule for these materials does not pose a problem for a 2018 start up as the vendors can quote reasonable delivery times at the moment. The product forms and amount needed must be finalized as soon as possible. An

  3. Efficient Generation of Chemiluminescence during the reduction of manganese(IV) ions with lactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaplev, Yu. B.

    2016-12-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of chemiluminescence during the reduction of manganese(IV) ions with lactic acid in an H2SO4-AcOH medium are studied. Kinetic spectrophotometric measurements are used to determine the profiles of change in the concentrations of Mn(IV) and Mn(III) ions during the reaction. The results from kinetic spectrophotometric measurements are compared to the light yield kinetics. The quantum chemiluminescence and chemiexcitation yields reach record values.

  4. SVBR-100 module-type fast reactor of the IV generation for regional power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrodnikov, A. V.; Toshinsky, G. I.; Komlev, O. G.; Stepanov, V. S.; Klimov, N. N.

    2011-08-01

    In the report the following is presented: basic conceptual provisions of the innovative nuclear power technology (NPT) based on modular fast reactors (FR) SVBR-100, summarized results of calculations of the reactor, analysis of the opportunities of multi-purpose application of such reactor facilities (RF) including export potentials with due account of nonproliferation requirements. The most important features of the proposed NPT analyzed in the report are as follows: (1) integral (monoblock) arrangement of the primary circuit equipment with entire elimination of the primary circuit pipelines and valves that considerably reduces the construction and assembly works period and coupling with high boiling point of lead-bismuth coolant (LBC) deterministically eliminates accidents of the LOCA type, (2) option for 100 MWe power and dimensions of the reactor provide: on the one hand, an opportunity to transport the reactor monoblock in factory-readiness by railway as well as other kinds of transport, on the other hand, core breeding ratio (CBR) exceeds 1 while MOX-fuel is used. The preferable area of application of RF SVBR-100 is regional and small power requiring power-units of electric power in a range of (100-600) MW, which could be used for cogeneration-based district heating while locating them nearby cities as well as for generation of electric power in a mode of load tracking in the regions with low network systems.

  5. Nuclear Fusion Effects Induced in Intense Laser-Generated Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Torrisi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deutered polyethylene (CD2n thin and thick targets were irradiated in high vacuum by infrared laser pulses at 1015W/cm2 intensity. The high laser energy transferred to the polymer generates plasma, expanding in vacuum at supersonic velocity, accelerating hydrogen and carbon ions. Deuterium ions at kinetic energies above 4 MeV have been measured by using ion collectors and SiC detectors in time-of-flight configuration. At these energies the deuterium–deuterium collisions may induce over threshold fusion effects, in agreement with the high D-D cross-section valuesaround 3 MeV energy. At the first instants of the plasma generation, during which high temperature, density and ionacceleration occur, the D-D fusions occur as confirmed by the detection of mono-energetic protonsand neutrons with a kinetic energy of 3.0 MeV and 2.5 MeV, respectively, produced by the nuclear reaction. The number of fusion events depends strongly on the experimental set-up, i.e. on the laser parameters (intensity, wavelength, focal spot dimension, target conditions (thickness, chemical composition, absorption coefficient, presence of secondary targets and used geometry (incidence angle, laser spot, secondary target positions.A number of D-D fusion events of the order of 106÷7 per laser shot has been measured.

  6. Experimental observations to the electrical field for electrorefining of spent nuclear fuel in the Mark-IV electrorefiner.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S. X.

    1998-05-13

    Experimental results from the pilot scale electrorefiner (Mark-IV ER) treating spent nuclear fuel are reported in this article. The electrorefining processes were carried out in a LiCl-KCl-UCl{sub 3} electrolyte. It has been noted that spool of molten cadmium below the electrolyte plays an important role in the electrorefining operations. In addition, formations of electrical shorting path between anode baskets and the electrorefiner vessel were observed, which lessened the uranium dissolution process from anode baskets, however appeared to improve the morphology of cathode deposit. The FIDAP simulation code was used to calculate the electrical potential field distributions and the potential gradient near the cathode. The effect of the electrical shorting between anode baskets and electrorefiner vessel on the morphology of cathode products is discussed.

  7. Dependable Hydrogen and Industrial Heat Generation from the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles V. Park; Michael W. Patterson; Vincent C. Maio; Piyush Sabharwall

    2009-03-01

    The Department of Energy is working with industry to develop a next generation, high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGR) as a part of the effort to supply the US with abundant, clean and secure energy. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, led by the Idaho National Laboratory, will demonstrate the ability of the HTGR to generate hydrogen, electricity, and high-quality process heat for a wide range of industrial applications. Substituting HTGR power for traditional fossil fuel resources reduces the cost and supply vulnerability of natural gas and oil, and reduces or eliminates greenhouse gas emissions. As authorized by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, industry leaders are developing designs for the construction of a commercial prototype producing up to 600 MWt of power by 2021. This paper describes a variety of critical applications that are appropriate for the HTGR with an emphasis placed on applications requiring a clean and reliable source of hydrogen. An overview of the NGNP project status and its significant technology development efforts are also presented.

  8. Management of radioactive waste generated in nuclear medicine; Gestion de los residuos radiactivos generados en medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz Perez, P.

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear medicine is a clinical specialty in which radioactive material is used in non-encapsulated form, for the diagnosis and treatment of patients. Nuclear medicine involves administering to a patient a radioactive substance, usually liquid, both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This process generates solid radioactive waste (syringes, vials, gloves) and liquid (mainly the patient's urine). (Author)

  9. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2001. Volume IV: Nuclear Energy and Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.L. (ed.)

    2002-03-01

    The year 2001 was marked by the extensive audit of energy research at PSI. The audit took place on 21/22 June, and nuclear energy research was evaluated by five international experts. It was possible to present the quality and relevance of our research in a convincing way. This, together with optimal use of the available resources in our department Nuclear Energy and Safety (NES), prompted the highly welcome result that the auditors attested a high degree of scientific quality to the NES projects in general, with some of them judged to be of world-class standard. They recommended all audited projects be maintained, adequate resources to be allocated accordingly and, if necessary, an increase of public funding in nuclear energy research to be granted to achieve this. Finally, it was recommended that energy research should be explicitly mentioned in the statement of the ultimate mission of PSI. At the level of 'daily work', efforts in several directions related to the future of the Hotlab were one of the main focuses during the past year. On the one hand, the safety-related backfitting of the facility (particularly in regard to fire protection) has been continued, and was coupled with intensive planning studies, and with a thorough radiological cleaning of the labs; this invariably led to some impediment to the current research activities. Despite external burdens, which have led to some delays and additional costs, three of the four refurbishment phases have been completed, and the corresponding laboratories were brought back into operation after inspection and approval by the regulatory authority HSK. Given the size and complexity of the project, progress must be considered very satisfactory. A list of scientific publications in 2000 is also provided.

  10. Transient analysis of a PV power generator charging a capacitor for measurement of the I-V characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Marwan M. [Energy Research Centre, An Najah National University, P.O. Box 721 Nablus (PS)

    2006-10-15

    Measuring the I-V characteristics is of high importance since it can be considered as a quality and performance certificate for each PV generator. The most precise and inexpensive measuring method is represented in capacitor charging by the PV generator. Using the equivalent circuit of the PV generator with a capacitor as load and applying transient analysis on the circuit, we obtain the capacitor charging voltage and current as a function of time, as well as their differentials as a function of short circuit current and capacitor size. The derived equations facilitate the calculation of proper capacitance size for measuring the I-V characteristics, and considers the acquisition speed of the measuring system as demonstrated through two measurement samples in this paper. The capacitor size is directly and indirectly proportional to the short circuit current and open circuit voltage of the PV generator, respectively. Accordingly, the paper presents a capacitance calculation chart, which enables selecting the correct capacitance for measuring the I-V characteristics by a computerized data acquisition system. (author)

  11. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research and development (R&D) on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. Use of a liquid salt coolant is also being evaluated. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: (1) Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (2) Demonstrate safe and economical nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, will perform R&D that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: (1) High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior; (2) High temperature materials qualification; (3) Design methods development and validation; (4) Hydrogen production technologies; and (5) Energy conversion. The current R&D work is addressing fundamental issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs. This document describes the NGNP R&D planned and currently underway in the first three topic areas listed above. The NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is presented in Section 2, the NGNP Materials R&D Program Plan is presented in Section 3, and the NGNP Design Methods Development and Validation R&D Program is presented

  12. Validation of nuclear criticality safety software and 27 energy group ENDF/B-IV cross sections. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.L. Jr. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); D`Aquila, D.M. [Lockheed Martin Utility Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The original validation report, POEF-T-3636, was documented in August 1994. The document was based on calculations that were executed during June through August 1992. The statistical analyses in Appendix C and Appendix D were completed in October 1993. This revision is written to clarify the margin of safety being used at Portsmouth for nuclear criticality safety calculations. This validation gives Portsmouth NCS personnel a basis for performing computerized KENO V.a calculations using the Lockheed Martin Nuclear Criticality Safety Software. The first portion of the document outlines basic information in regard to validation of NCSS using ENDF/B-IV 27-group cross sections on the IBM3090 at ORNL. A basic discussion of the NCSS system is provided, some discussion on the validation database and validation in general. Then follows a detailed description of the statistical analysis which was applied. The results of this validation indicate that the NCSS software may be used with confidence for criticality calculations at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. For calculations of Portsmouth systems using the specified codes and systems covered by this validation, a maximum k{sub eff} including 2{sigma} of 0.9605 or lower shall be considered as subcritical to ensure a calculational margin of safety of 0.02. The validation of NCSS on the IBM 3090 at ORNL was extended to include NCSS on the IBM 3090 at K-25.

  13. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Evaluation of Siting a HTGR Co-generation Plant on an Operating Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.E. Demick

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project of siting a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) plant on an existing nuclear plant site that is located in an area of significant industrial activity. This is a co-generation application in which the HTGR Plant will be supplying steam and electricity to one or more of the nearby industrial plants.

  14. Nuclear data evaluation and group constant generation for reactor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Doh; Kil, Chung Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Data testing of ENDF/B-VI.2 was performed and ACE-format continuous point-wise cross section library from ENDF/B-VI.2 for MCNP was validated through CSEWG benchmark and power plant mockup experiments. The calculated k-effective of ORNL-1, -2, -3, -4 and -10 with ENDF/B-VI are low by about 0.5% but those of L-7, -8, -9, -10 and -11 show good agreement with experiments. Overall results for uranium core with ENDF/B-VI is low in critically than with ENDF/B-V. The calculated results with ENDF/B-VI for PNL-6 {approx} 12 of plutonium core and PNL-30 {approx} 35 of mixed oxide core show good agreement with the experiments. The results of critically calculation for fast core benchmark do not show large difference between ENDF/B-VI and -V. But the calculated results of reaction rate ratio with ENDF/B-VI are improved, compared with ENDF/B-V. The calculated power distribution for VENUS PWR mockup core and typical BWR core of GE with both of ENDF/B-VI and -V agree well with measured values. From the above results, newly generated MCNP library from ENDF/B-VI is useful for nuclear and shielding design and analysis. 5 figs, 13 tabs, 11 refs. (Author).

  15. A Second Generation Radioactive Nuclear Beam Facility at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Äystö, J; Lindroos, M; Ravn, H L; Van Duppen, P

    2000-01-01

    The proposed Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) at CERN would be an ideal driver for a proton-driven second-generation Radioactive Nuclear Beam facility. We propose to investigate the feasibility of constructing such a facility at CERN close to the present PS Booster ISOLDE facility. The existing ISOLDE facility would be fed with a 10 micro-amps proton beam from SPL, providing the physics community with a low-intensity experimental area. A second, new facility would be built with target stations deep underground, permitting proton beam intensities of more than 100 micro-amps. The secondary beams can be post-accelerated to 20-100 MeV/u and there will be a storage ring complex and large segmented detectors in the experimental area. Also, benefits from a muon-ion collider or from merging the ions and muons should be investigated. Since the antiproton decelerator would be nearby, the opportunities for antiprotonic radioactive atom studies should be pursued as well.

  16. Modeling a Helical-coil Steam Generator in RELAP5-3D for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan V. Hoffer; Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan A. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Options for the primary heat transport loop heat exchangers for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant are currently being evaluated. A helical-coil steam generator is one heat exchanger design under consideration. Safety is an integral part of the helical-coil steam generator evaluation. Transient analysis plays a key role in evaluation of the steam generators safety. Using RELAP5-3D to model the helical-coil steam generator, a loss of pressure in the primary side of the steam generator is simulated. This report details the development of the steam generator model, the loss of pressure transient, and the response of the steam generator primary and secondary systems to the loss of primary pressure. Back ground on High Temperature Gas-cooled reactors, steam generators, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant is provided to increase the readers understanding of the material presented.

  17. Nordic Forum for Generation IV Reactors,Status and activities in 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Nieuwenhove, Rudi; Lauritzen, Bent; Nonbøl, Erik

    The Nordic-Gen4 (continuation from NOMAGE4) seminar was this year hosted by DTU Nutech at Risø, Denmark. The seminar was well attended (49 participants from 12 countries). The presentations covered many as-pects in Gen-IV reactor research and gave a good overview of the activi-ties within this fi...

  18. COBRA-IV PC: A personal computer version of COBRA-IV-I for thermal-hydraulic analysis of rod bundle nuclear fuel elements and cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    COBRA-IV PC is a modified version of COBRA-IV-I, adapted for use with most IBM PC and PC-compatible desktop computers. Like COBRA-IV-I, COBRA-IV PC uses the subchannel analysis approach to determine the enthalpy and flow distribution in rod bundles for both steady-state and transient conditions. The steady-state and transient solution schemes used in COBRA-IIIC are still available in COBRA-IV PC as the implicit solution scheme option. An explicit solution scheme is also available, allowing the calculation of severe transients involving flow reversals, recirculations, expulsions, and reentry flows, with a pressure or flow boundary condition specified. In addition, several modifications have been incorporated into COBRA-IV PC to allow the code to run on the PC. These include a reduction in the array dimensions, the removal of the dump and restart options, and the inclusion of several code modifications by Oregon State University, most notably, a critical heat flux correlation for boiling water reactor fuel and a new solution scheme for cross-flow distribution calculations. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Databases and tools for nuclear astrophysics applications BRUSsels Nuclear LIBrary (BRUSLIB), Nuclear Astrophysics Compilation of REactions II (NACRE II) and Nuclear NETwork GENerator (NETGEN)

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Yi; Jorissen, Alain; Chen, Guangling; Arnould, Marcel; 10.1051/0004-6361/201220537

    2012-01-01

    An update of a previous description of the BRUSLIB+NACRE package of nuclear data for astrophysics and of the web-based nuclear network generator NETGEN is presented. The new version of BRUSLIB contains the latest predictions of a wide variety of nuclear data based on the most recent version of the Brussels-Montreal Skyrme-HFB model. The nuclear masses, radii, spin/parities, deformations, single-particle schemes, matter densities, nuclear level densities, E1 strength functions, fission properties, and partition functions are provided for all nuclei lying between the proton and neutron drip lines over the 8<=Z<=110 range, whose evaluation is based on a unique microscopic model that ensures a good compromise between accuracy, reliability, and feasibility. In addition, these various ingredients are used to calculate about 100000 Hauser-Feshbach n-, p-, a-, and gamma-induced reaction rates based on the reaction code TALYS. NACRE is superseded by the NACRE II compilation for 15 charged-particle transfer react...

  20. Technical characteristics of new generation of nuclear power plants; Charakterystyka techniczna elektrowni jadrowych nowej generacji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janczak, R.; Mikulski, A.; Staron, E. [Instytut Energii Atomowej, Swierk-Otwock (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    The concept of Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR) as a new generation of nuclear reactors for energetics have been presented. The influence of reactor accidents (TMI and Chernobyl) on technical and scientific development of nuclear reactors has been discussed from the view point of safety assurance and requirements being defined by American and European Nuclear Regulatory commission. 12 refs, 14 figs.

  1. New U.S. Nuclear Generation: 2010-2030

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The report's key finding is that new nuclear capacity in NEMS-RFF from 2015 to 2020 under the current levels of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) loan guarantees is similar to the marginal increase in new capacity from lowering the nominal return-on-equity (ROE) in NEMS-RFF for new nuclear power from 17 to 14 percent. This equivalence allows for an analysis of the costs and benefits of increasing DOE loan guarantees to new nuclear plants.

  2. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. E. MacDonald

    2005-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research and development (R&D) on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. Use of a liquid salt coolant is also being evaluated. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Demonstrate safe and economical nuclearassisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, will perform R&D that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior High temperature materials qualification Design methods development and validation Hydrogen production technologies Energy conversion. The current R&D work is addressing fundamental issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs. This document describes the NGNP R&D planned and currently underway in the first three topic areas listed above. The NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is presented in Section 2, the NGNP Materials R&D Program Plan is presented in Section 3, and the NGNP Design Methods Development and Validation R&D Program is presented in Section 4. The DOE-funded hydrogen

  3. Eugene P. Wigner’s Visionary Contributions to Generations-I through IV Fission Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carré Frank

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among Europe’s greatest scientists who fled to Britain and America in the 1930s, Eugene P. Wigner made instrumental advances in reactor physics, reactor design and technology, and spent nuclear fuel processing for both purposes of developing atomic weapons during world-war II and nuclear power afterwards. Wigner who had training in chemical engineering and self-education in physics first gained recognition for his remarkable articles and books on applications of Group theory to Quantum mechanics, Solid state physics and other topics that opened new branches of Physics.

  4. Eugene P. Wigner's Visionary Contributions to Generations-I through IV Fission Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Frank

    2014-09-01

    Among Europe's greatest scientists who fled to Britain and America in the 1930s, Eugene P. Wigner made instrumental advances in reactor physics, reactor design and technology, and spent nuclear fuel processing for both purposes of developing atomic weapons during world-war II and nuclear power afterwards. Wigner who had training in chemical engineering and self-education in physics first gained recognition for his remarkable articles and books on applications of Group theory to Quantum mechanics, Solid state physics and other topics that opened new branches of Physics.

  5. Databases and tools for nuclear astrophysics applications. BRUSsels Nuclear LIBrary (BRUSLIB), Nuclear Astrophysics Compilation of REactions II (NACRE II) and Nuclear NETwork GENerator (NETGEN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Goriely, S.; Jorissen, A.; Chen, G. L.; Arnould, M.

    2013-01-01

    An update of a previous description of the BRUSLIB + NACRE package of nuclear data for astrophysics and of the web-based nuclear network generator NETGEN is presented. The new version of BRUSLIB contains the latest predictions of a wide variety of nuclear data based on the most recent version of the Brussels-Montreal Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model. The nuclear masses, radii, spin/parities, deformations, single-particle schemes, matter densities, nuclear level densities, E1 strength functions, fission properties, and partition functions are provided for all nuclei lying between the proton and neutron drip lines over the 8 ≤ Z ≤ 110 range, whose evaluation is based on a unique microscopic model that ensures a good compromise between accuracy, reliability, and feasibility. In addition, these various ingredients are used to calculate about 100 000 Hauser-Feshbach neutron-, proton-, α-, and γ-induced reaction rates based on the reaction code TALYS. NACRE is superseded by the NACRE II compilation for 15 charged-particle transfer reactions and 19 charged-particle radiative captures on stable targets with mass numbers A < 16. NACRE II features the inclusion of experimental data made available after the publication of NACRE in 1999 and up to 2011. In addition, the extrapolation of the available data to the very low energies of astrophysical relevance is improved through the systematic use of phenomenological potential models. Uncertainties in the rates are also evaluated on this basis. Finally, the latest release v10.0 of the web-based tool NETGEN is presented. In addition to the data already used in the previous NETGEN package, it contains in a fully documented form the new BRUSLIB and NACRE II data, as well as new experiment-based radiative neutron capture cross sections. The full new versions of BRUSLIB, NACRE II, and NETGEN are available electronically from the nuclear database at http://www.astro.ulb.ac.be/NuclearData. The nuclear material is presented in

  6. Phase transitions and anionic dynamics of dimethylammonium hexachlorotellurate(IV) as studied by pulsed nuclear quadrupole resonance of chlorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Atsushi; Horiuchi, Keizo; Ikeda, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Daiyu

    1989-01-01

    The temperature dependence of 35Cl NQR frequencies has been reinvestigated for dimethylammonium hexachlorotellurate(IV) using an FT NQR spectrometer. A new line is observed just above the lowest-frequency line already reported for the intermediate-temperature phase. In the lowest-temperature phase, the temperature dependence is definitely determined by finding new lines. The NQR frequencies can be precisely measured even in the vicinity of the phase transitions. The temperature dependence of the nuclear quadrupole relaxation time, T1Q of 35Cl and 37Cl nuclei has also been observed. In a temperature range 64-160 K, the isotope ratio, T1Q( 37Cl)/ T1Q( 35Cl) is 1.5 for each line, suggesting that the quadrupolar relaxation arises mainly from the libration of the complex anion. Above 160 K, T1Q decreases very rapidly with increasing temperature for each line. This can be interpreted in terms of the onset of the reorientation of the anion as a whole, which is responsible for the fade-out phenomenon of the two lines occurring near 220 K. The nature of the phase transitions and the anionic dynamics are discussed in detail. Especially, the phase transition at 96 K which is rather unusual and is explained through softening of the librations and the rotational displacement of the anions successively operated.

  7. Nuclear power generation safe and competitive - now and in future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf-Dieter, Krebs [European Nuclear Society and Framatome ANP (Germany); Hoffman, D.R. [American Nuclear Society and Excel Services Corp. (United States)

    2002-07-01

    ENC brings together scientists, academics, chief executives and all the major players from both the European and world nuclear utilities, to debate on the nuclear energy from technical, commercial and political perspectives. The abstracts of presentation from this conference are proposed in this paper grouped in four main themes: innovative reactors and fuel cycle; waste management including partitioning and transmutation and ADS development; experimental, research reactors and neutron sources; operation, maintenance, inspection and thermal hydraulics. (A.L.B.)

  8. Nordic forum for generation IV reactors, status and activities in 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Nieuwenhove, R. [Institutt for Energiteknikk, OECD Halden Reactor Project, Kjeller (Norway); Lauritzen, B.; Nonboel, E. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Nutech, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2012-12-15

    The Nordic-Gen4 (continuation from NOMAGE4) seminar was this year hosted by DTU Nutech at Risoe, Denmark. The seminar was well attended (49 participants from 12 countries). The presentations covered many aspects in Gen-IV reactor research and gave a good overview of the activities within this field at the various institutes and universities. The present report contains book of abstracts. The individual Power Point presentations are indexed in INIS and may be found at http://nordic-gen4.org/seminars/nordic-gen4-riso-2012-2/ (LN)

  9. Nuclear Energy In Switzerland: It's going ahead. Challenges For The Swiss Nuclear Society Young Generation Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streit, Marco [Aare-Tessin Ltd for Electricity, Bahnhofquai 12, CH-4601 Olten (Switzerland); Bichsel, Thomas [BKW FMB Energie AG, NPP Muehleberg, CH-3203 Muehleberg (Switzerland); Fassbender, Andre [NPP Goesgen-Daeniken AG, CH-4658 Daeniken (Switzerland); Horvath, Matthias [National Emergency Operations Centre, CH-8044 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Swiss energy policy is focused on generating domestic electric power without combusting fossil fuels for already four decades. Roughly 60% of the electricity is generated in hydroelectric plants, which is possible due to the country's favourable topography; the remaining 40% are produced by the country's five nuclear power plants (NPPs). As in any other country nuclear power has its enemies in Switzerland. Due to the direct democracy system in Switzerland the nuclear opposition has a lot of possibilities to disturb the energy policy. Since 1969, when the first Swiss nuclear power plant went online, four plebiscites were held on the issue of civil use of nuclear energy. Four times Swiss citizens voted in favour of further operation of the existing plants also in the latest battle for nuclear energy, which was won in 2003. In 2005 and 2006 several Swiss studies about the future energy situation, especially the electricity situation, have been published. All off them show clearly that there will be a big gab around the year 2020 when the oldest three nuclear power plants will fade out. A public debate was started, how to solve the problem. Beside others, building new nuclear power plants was mentioned and discussed rationally. In 2007 the energy police of the Swiss government changed into a more nuclear friendly position and at the end of the same year some electricity companies lunched a new build program. Hosting the International Youth Nuclear Congress 2008 (IYNC 2008) in Switzerland seems to be just the right moment for the nuclear industry in our country. The slightly changed surroundings effected the organization of Swiss Nuclear Society (SNS) and SNS Young Generation Group (SNSYG) and enlarged the fields of activities for SNSYG. Those activities mentioned in the previous chapters will be developed in the future. The discussion about new builds in Switzerland has started and because of that more nuclear activities in Switzerland will occur. And surely

  10. Membranes for H2 generation from nuclear powered thermochemical cycles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenoff, Tina Maria; Ambrosini, Andrea; Garino, Terry J.; Gelbard, Fred; Leung, Kevin; Navrotsky, Alexandra (University of California, Davis, CA); Iyer, Ratnasabapathy G. (University of California, Davis, CA); Axness, Marlene

    2006-11-01

    In an effort to produce hydrogen without the unwanted greenhouse gas byproducts, high-temperature thermochemical cycles driven by heat from solar energy or next-generation nuclear power plants are being explored. The process being developed is the thermochemical production of Hydrogen. The Sulfur-Iodide (SI) cycle was deemed to be one of the most promising cycles to explore. The first step of the SI cycle involves the decomposition of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} into O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O at temperatures around 850 C. In-situ removal of O{sub 2} from this reaction pushes the equilibrium towards dissociation, thus increasing the overall efficiency of the decomposition reaction. A membrane is required for this oxygen separation step that is capable of withstanding the high temperatures and corrosive conditions inherent in this process. Mixed ionic-electronic perovskites and perovskite-related structures are potential materials for oxygen separation membranes owing to their robustness, ability to form dense ceramics, capacity to stabilize oxygen nonstoichiometry, and mixed ionic/electronic conductivity. Two oxide families with promising results were studied: the double-substituted perovskite A{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}Co{sub 1-y}B{sub y}O{sub 3-{delta}} (A=La, Y; B=Cr-Ni), in particular the family La{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}Co{sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCM), and doped La{sub 2}Ni{sub 1-x}M{sub x}O{sub 4} (M = Cu, Zn). Materials and membranes were synthesized by solid state methods and characterized by X-ray and neutron diffraction, SEM, thermal analyses, calorimetry and conductivity. Furthermore, we were able to leverage our program with a DOE/NE sponsored H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition reactor study (at Sandia), in which our membranes were tested in the actual H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition step.

  11. Assessment of the Technical Maturity of Generation IV Concepts for Test or Demonstration Reactor Applications, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned a study the suitability of different advanced reactor concepts to support materials irradiations (i.e. a test reactor) or to demonstrate an advanced power plant/fuel cycle concept (demonstration reactor). As part of the study, an assessment of the technical maturity of the individual concepts was undertaken to see which, if any, can support near-term deployment. A Working Group composed of the authors of this document performed the maturity assessment using the Technical Readiness Levels as defined in DOE’s Technology Readiness Guide . One representative design was selected for assessment from of each of the six Generation-IV reactor types: gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR), lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR), molten salt reactor (MSR), supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), and very high temperature reactor (VHTR). Background information was obtained from previous detailed evaluations such as the Generation-IV Roadmap but other technical references were also used including consultations with concept proponents and subject matter experts. Outside of Generation IV activity in which the US is a party, non-U.S. experience or data sources were generally not factored into the evaluations as one cannot assume that this data is easily available or of sufficient quality to be used for licensing a US facility. The Working Group established the scope of the assessment (which systems and subsystems needed to be considered), adapted a specific technology readiness scale, and scored each system through discussions designed to achieve internal consistency across concepts. In general, the Working Group sought to determine which of the reactor options have sufficient maturity to serve either the test or demonstration reactor missions.

  12. The Next Generation of Platinum Drugs: Targeted Pt(II) Agents, Nanoparticle Delivery, and Pt(IV) Prodrugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Timothy C; Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan; Lippard, Stephen J

    2016-03-09

    The platinum drugs, cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, prevail in the treatment of cancer, but new platinum agents have been very slow to enter the clinic. Recently, however, there has been a surge of activity, based on a great deal of mechanistic information, aimed at developing nonclassical platinum complexes that operate via mechanisms of action distinct from those of the approved drugs. The use of nanodelivery devices has also grown, and many different strategies have been explored to incorporate platinum warheads into nanomedicine constructs. In this Review, we discuss these efforts to create the next generation of platinum anticancer drugs. The introduction provides the reader with a brief overview of the use, development, and mechanism of action of the approved platinum drugs to provide the context in which more recent research has flourished. We then describe approaches that explore nonclassical platinum(II) complexes with trans geometry or with a monofunctional coordination mode, polynuclear platinum(II) compounds, platinum(IV) prodrugs, dual-threat agents, and photoactivatable platinum(IV) complexes. Nanoparticles designed to deliver platinum(IV) complexes will also be discussed, including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, upconversion nanoparticles, and polymeric micelles. Additional nanoformulations, including supramolecular self-assembled structures, proteins, peptides, metal-organic frameworks, and coordination polymers, will then be described. Finally, the significant clinical progress made by nanoparticle formulations of platinum(II) agents will be reviewed. We anticipate that such a synthesis of disparate research efforts will not only help to generate new drug development ideas and strategies, but also will reflect our optimism that the next generation of approved platinum cancer drugs is about to arrive.

  13. Final Design for an International Intercomparison Exercise for Nuclear Accident Dosimetry at the DAF Using Godiva-IV: IER-148 CED-2 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrichs, Dave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Beller, Tim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Burch, Jennifer [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cummings, Rick [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States) Nevada National Security Site; Duluc, Matthieu [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Sûrete Nucleaire (ISRN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Gadd, Milan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goda, Joetta [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hickman, David [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McAvoy, Doug [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rathbone, Bruce [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sullivan, Randy [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Trompier, Francois [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Sûrete Nucleaire (ISRN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Veinot, Ken [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ward, Dann [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Will, Rashelle [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States) Nevada National Security Site; Wilson, Chris [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom); Zieziulewicz, Thomas [Knolls Atomic Power Lab. (KAPL), Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2014-09-30

    This document is the Final Design (CED-2) Report for IER-148, “International Inter-comparison Exercise for Nuclear Accident Dosimetry at the DAF Using Godiva-IV.” The report describes the structure of the exercise consisting of three irradiations; identifies the participating laboratories and their points of contact; provides the details of all dosimetry elements and their placement in proximity to Godiva-IV on support stands or phantoms ; and lists the counting and spectroscopy equipment each laboratory will utilize in the Mercury NAD Lab. The exercise is tentatively scheduled for one week in August 2015.

  14. Possible Nuclear Safeguards Applications: Workshop on Next-Generation Laser Compton Gamma Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, J. Matthew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Physics Division

    2016-11-17

    These are a set of slides for the development of a next-generation photon source white paper. The following topics are covered in these slides: Nuclear Safeguards; The Nuclear Fuel Cycle; Precise isotopic determination via NRF; UF6 Enrichment Assay; and Non-Destructive Assay of Spent Nuclear Fuel. In summary: A way to non-destructively measure precise isotopics of ~kg and larger samples has multiple uses in nuclear safeguards; Ideally this is a compact, fieldable device that can be used by international inspectors. Must be rugged and reliable; A next-generation source can be used as a testing ground for these techniques as technology develops.

  15. Calcium signals can freely cross the nuclear envelope in hippocampal neurons: somatic calcium increases generate nuclear calcium transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bading Hilmar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling is important for learning- and neuronal survival-associated gene expression. However, it is unknown whether calcium signals generated by neuronal activity at the cell membrane and propagated to the soma can unrestrictedly cross the nuclear envelope to invade the nucleus. The nuclear envelope, which allows ion transit via the nuclear pore complex, may represent a barrier for calcium and has been suggested to insulate the nucleus from activity-induced cytoplasmic calcium transients in some cell types. Results Using laser-assisted uncaging of caged calcium compounds in defined sub-cellular domains, we show here that the nuclear compartment border does not represent a barrier for calcium signals in hippocampal neurons. Although passive diffusion of molecules between the cytosol and the nucleoplasm may be modulated through changes in conformational state of the nuclear pore complex, we found no evidence for a gating mechanism for calcium movement across the nuclear border. Conclusion Thus, the nuclear envelope does not spatially restrict calcium transients to the somatic cytosol but allows calcium signals to freely enter the cell nucleus to trigger genomic events.

  16. Review on studies for external cost of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Heung [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Won Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    External cost is cost imposed on a third party when producing or consuming a good or service. Since the 1990s, the external costs of nuclear powered electricity production have been studied. Costs are a very important factor in policy decision and the external cost is considered for cost comparison on electricity production. As for nuclear fuel cycle, a chosen technology will determine the external cost. However, there has been little research on this issue. For this study, methods for external cost on nuclear power production have been surveyed and analyzed to develop an approach for evaluating external cost on nuclear fuel cycles. Before the Fukushima accident, external cost research had focused on damage costs during normal operation of a fuel cycle. However, accident cost becomes a major concern after the accident. Various considerations for external cost including accident cost have been used to different studies, and different methods have been applied corresponding to the considerations. In this study, the results of the evaluation were compared and analyzed to identify methodological applicability to the external cost estimation with nuclear fuel cycles.

  17. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Research and Development Technical Program Plan -- PLN-2498

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2008-09-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  18. 78 FR 20144 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Project Manager, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC...-0063. NRC's Agencywide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS): You may access publicly...) configurations provide either a 30-minute fire resistance rating, or in one case a 24-minute fire resistance...

  19. Detailed requirements for a next generation nuclear data structure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-07-05

    This document attempts to compile the requirements for the top-levels of a hierarchical arrangement of nuclear data such as found in the ENDF format. This set of requirements will be used to guide the development of a new data structure to replace the legacy ENDF format.

  20. ZONE: a finite element mesh generator. [In FORTRAN IV for CDC 7600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, M. J.

    1976-05-01

    The ZONE computer program is a finite-element mesh generator which produces the nodes and element description of any two-dimensional geometry. The geometry is subdivided into a mesh of quadrilateral and triangular zones arranged sequentially in an ordered march through the geometry. The order of march can be chosen so that the minimum bandwidth is obtained. The node points are defined in terms of the x and y coordinates in a global rectangular coordinate system. The zones generated are quadrilaterals or triangles defined by four node points in a counterclockwise sequence. Node points defining the outside boundary are generated to describe pressure boundary conditions. The mesh that is generated can be used as input to any two-dimensional as well as any axisymmetrical structure program. The output from ZONE is essentially the input file to NAOS, HONDO, and other axisymmetric finite element programs. 14 figures. (RWR)

  1. The development and use of radionuclide generators in nuclear medicine -- recent advances and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1998-03-01

    Although the trend in radionuclide generator research has declined, radionuclide generator systems continue to play an important role in nuclear medicine. Technetium-99m obtained from the molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator system is used in over 80% of all diagnostic clinical studies and there is increasing interest and use of therapeutic radioisotopes obtained from generator systems. This paper focuses on a discussion of the major current areas of radionuclide generator research, and the expected areas of future research and applications.

  2. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Steam Generator and Intermediate Heat Exchanger Materials Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Wright

    2010-09-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic (TRISO)-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Today’s high-temperature alloys and associated ASME Codes for reactor applications are approved up to 760°C. However, some primary system components, such as the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) for the NGNP will require use of materials that can withstand higher temperatures. The thermal, environmental, and service life conditions of the NGNP will make selection and qualification of some high-temperature materials a significant challenge. Examples include materials for the core barrel and core internals, such as the control rod sleeves. The requirements of the materials for the IHX are among the most demanding. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. A number of solid solution strengthened nickel based alloys have been considered for

  3. Nuclear Power and Justice between Generations. A Moral Analysis of Fuel Cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taebi, B.

    2010-01-01

    When we produce nuclear power we are depleting a non-renewable resource (uranium) that will eventually not be available to future generations. Furthermore the ensuing nuclear waste needs to be isolated from the biosphere for long periods of time to come. This gives rise to the problem of justice to

  4. Design Features and Technology Uncertainties for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Ryskamp; Phil Hildebrandt; Osamu Baba; Ron Ballinger; Robert Brodsky; Hans-Wolfgang Chi; Dennis Crutchfield; Herb Estrada; Jeane-Claude Garnier; Gerald Gordon; Richard Hobbins; Dan Keuter; Marilyn Kray; Philippe Martin; Steve Melancon; Christian Simon; Henry Stone; Robert Varrin; Werner von Lensa

    2004-06-01

    This report presents the conclusions, observations, and recommendations of the Independent Technology Review Group (ITRG) regarding design features and important technology uncertainties associated with very-high-temperature nuclear system concepts for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The ITRG performed its reviews during the period November 2003 through April 2004.

  5. Preliminary materials selection issues for the next generation nuclear plant reactor pressure vessel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Majumdar, S.; Shankar, P. S.; Shah, V. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-03-21

    In the coming decades, the United States and the entire world will need energy supplies to meet the growing demands due to population increase and increase in consumption due to global industrialization. One of the reactor system concepts, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), with helium as the coolant, has been identified as uniquely suited for producing hydrogen without consumption of fossil fuels or the emission of greenhouse gases [Generation IV 2002]. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected this system for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, to demonstrate emissions-free nuclear-assisted electricity and hydrogen production within the next 15 years. The NGNP reference concepts are helium-cooled, graphite-moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactors with a design goal outlet helium temperature of {approx}1000 C [MacDonald et al. 2004]. The reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. The use of molten salt coolant, especially for the transfer of heat to hydrogen production, is also being considered. The NGNP is expected to produce both electricity and hydrogen. The process heat for hydrogen production will be transferred to the hydrogen plant through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX). The basic technology for the NGNP has been established in the former high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) and demonstration plants (DRAGON, Peach Bottom, AVR, Fort St. Vrain, and THTR). In addition, the technologies for the NGNP are being advanced in the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) project, and the South African state utility ESKOM-sponsored project to develop the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). Furthermore, the Japanese HTTR and Chinese HTR-10 test reactors are demonstrating the feasibility of some of the planned components and materials. The proposed high operating temperatures in the VHTR place significant constraints on the choice of material selected for the reactor pressure vessel for

  6. Determination of steam wetness in the steam-generating equipment of nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorburov, V. I.; Gorburov, D. V.; Kuz'min, A. V.

    2012-05-01

    Calculation and experimental methods for determining steam wetness in horizontal steam generators for nuclear power stations equipped with VVER reactors, namely, the classic salt technique and calculations based on operating parameters are discussed considered and compared.

  7. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Technology Development Roadmaps: The Technical Path Forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Collins

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Systems, Subsystems, and Components, establishes a baseline for the current technology readiness status, and provides a path forward to achieve increasing levels of technical maturity.

  8. Uranium droplet nuclear reactor core with MHD generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghaie, Samim; Kumar, Ratan

    An innovative concept employing liquid uranium droplets as fuel in an ultrahigh-temperature vapor core reactor (UTVR) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator power system for space power generation has been studied. Metallic vapor in superheated form acts as a working fluid for a closed-Rankine-type thermodynamic cycle. Usage of fuel and working fluid in this form assures certain advantages. The major technical issues emerging as a result involve a method for droplet generation, droplet transport in the reactor core, heat generation in the fuel and transport to the metallic vapor, and materials compatibility. A qualitative and quantitative attempt to resolve these issues has indicated the promise and tentative feasibility of the system.

  9. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project 2009 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Demick; Jim Kinsey; Keith Perry; Dave Petti

    2010-05-01

    The mission of the NGNP Project is to broaden the environmental and economic benefits of nuclear energy technology to the United States and other economies by demonstrating its applicability to market sectors not served by light water reactors (LWRs). Those markets typically use fossil fuels to fulfill their energy needs, and high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) like the NGNP can reduce this dependence and the resulting carbon footprint.

  10. Analysis of supercritical CO{sub 2} cycle control strategies and dynamic response for Generation IV Reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2011-04-12

    The analysis of specific control strategies and dynamic behavior of the supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle has been extended to the two reactor types selected for continued development under the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative; namely, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) and the Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). Direct application of the standard S-CO{sub 2} recompression cycle to the VHTR was found to be challenging because of the mismatch in the temperature drop of the He gaseous reactor coolant through the He-to-CO{sub 2} reactor heat exchanger (RHX) versus the temperature rise of the CO{sub 2} through the RHX. The reference VHTR features a large temperature drop of 450 C between the assumed core outlet and inlet temperatures of 850 and 400 C, respectively. This large temperature difference is an essential feature of the VHTR enabling a lower He flow rate reducing the required core velocities and pressure drop. In contrast, the standard recompression S-CO{sub 2} cycle wants to operate with a temperature rise through the RHX of about 150 C reflecting the temperature drop as the CO{sub 2} expands from 20 MPa to 7.4 MPa in the turbine and the fact that the cycle is highly recuperated such that the CO{sub 2} entering the RHX is effectively preheated. Because of this mismatch, direct application of the standard recompression cycle results in a relatively poor cycle efficiency of 44.9%. However, two approaches have been identified by which the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can be successfully adapted to the VHTR and the benefits of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle, especially a significant gain in cycle efficiency, can be realized. The first approach involves the use of three separate cascaded S-CO{sub 2} cycles. Each S-CO{sub 2} cycle is coupled to the VHTR through its own He-to-CO{sub 2} RHX in which the He temperature is reduced by 150 C. The three respective cycles have efficiencies of 54, 50, and 44%, respectively, resulting in a net cycle

  11. Analysis of supercritical CO{sub 2} cycle control strategies and dynamic response for Generation IV Reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2011-04-12

    The analysis of specific control strategies and dynamic behavior of the supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle has been extended to the two reactor types selected for continued development under the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative; namely, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) and the Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). Direct application of the standard S-CO{sub 2} recompression cycle to the VHTR was found to be challenging because of the mismatch in the temperature drop of the He gaseous reactor coolant through the He-to-CO{sub 2} reactor heat exchanger (RHX) versus the temperature rise of the CO{sub 2} through the RHX. The reference VHTR features a large temperature drop of 450 C between the assumed core outlet and inlet temperatures of 850 and 400 C, respectively. This large temperature difference is an essential feature of the VHTR enabling a lower He flow rate reducing the required core velocities and pressure drop. In contrast, the standard recompression S-CO{sub 2} cycle wants to operate with a temperature rise through the RHX of about 150 C reflecting the temperature drop as the CO{sub 2} expands from 20 MPa to 7.4 MPa in the turbine and the fact that the cycle is highly recuperated such that the CO{sub 2} entering the RHX is effectively preheated. Because of this mismatch, direct application of the standard recompression cycle results in a relatively poor cycle efficiency of 44.9%. However, two approaches have been identified by which the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can be successfully adapted to the VHTR and the benefits of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle, especially a significant gain in cycle efficiency, can be realized. The first approach involves the use of three separate cascaded S-CO{sub 2} cycles. Each S-CO{sub 2} cycle is coupled to the VHTR through its own He-to-CO{sub 2} RHX in which the He temperature is reduced by 150 C. The three respective cycles have efficiencies of 54, 50, and 44%, respectively, resulting in a net cycle

  12. Biological Effects of Laser Radiation. Volume IV. Optical Second Harmonic Generation in Biological Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-17

    the result of a photochemical rather tha a phototherml 3 mob~aim. The specific concern of this chesis is the generation of optical eecoed-harmoi...local fundamental field at frequency w and a, 0 and * are complex coefficients . While 9q. (3) is a scalar equation, it still reflects an important...aniso- tropic property of a nonlinear dipole. That is, the coefficient 8 and all other even order term coefficients vanish if )j simply changes sign

  13. Production of gel {sup 99m}Tc generators for Nuclear Medicine at the Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, R.E

    1996-07-01

    The development and testing of the gel-type {sup 99m}Tc generator technology has been going on for several years at the Nuclear Power Institute of China. This generator type has already been licensed by the Ministry of Health. With the co-operation of the IAEA, under Model Project CPR/2/006,it is intended to upgrade and optimise the existing facility for large scale production and continue to improve the generator performance in terms of quality and reliability of its use in nuclear medicine. The expert mission objective was to carry out final laboratory tests to assess the performance of the gel- type {sup 99m}Tc, locally produced, as well as to assess the suitability of the corresponding {sup 99m}Tc eluate for nuclear medicine studies. In particular, the expert tested the suitability of the {sup 99m}Tc for the labelling of sensitive biomolecules and its general performance in a nuclear medicine service

  14. Technology development for nuclear power generation for space application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Ribeiro, Guilherme B.; Braz Filho, Francisco A.; Nascimento, Jamil A.; Placco, Guilherme M., E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: lamartine.guimaraes@pq.cnpq.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Energia Nuclear; Faria, Saulo M. de [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    For a few years now, the TERRA project is developing several technology pieces to foster nuclear space applications. In this way, a nuclear reactor concept has been developed as a first proposal. Together, the problem of heat to electricity conversion has been addressed. A closed Brayton cycle is being built and a Stirling machine is being worked out and perfected. In addition, two types of heat pipes are being look at. One related with high temperature made of Mo13Re, an especial alloy. And a second one made of copper, which mainly could be used as a passive heat rejection. In this way, all major areas of interest in a micro station to be used in space has been addressed. A new passive technology has been inferred and is related with Tesla turbine or its evolution, known as multi fluid passive turbine. This technology has the potential to either: improve the Brayton cycle or its efficiency. In this paper, some details are discussed and some will be shown during the presentation, as the work evolve. (author)

  15. Unlocking the Standard Model. IV. N=2 generations of quarks : spectrum and mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Machet, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The Glashow-Salam-Weinberg model for 2 generations of quarks is extended to 8 composite Higgs multiplets, with no adjunction of extra fermions. It is the minimal number of Higgs doublets required to suitably account, simultaneously, for the spectrum of pseudoscalar mesons that can be built with 4 quarks and for the mass of the W gauge bosons. These masses being used as input, together with elementary low energy considerations for the pions, we calculate all other parameters, masses and couplings. We focus in this work on the spectrum of the 8 Higgs bosons (which all potentially contribute to the W and quark masses), and on the mixing (Cabibbo) angle, leaving the study of couplings to a subsequent work. The Higgs bosons fall into one triplet, two doublets and one singlet. In the triplet stand three states with masses \\sqrt{2} x that of heaviest pseudoscalar meson D_s, which, for 2 generations, pushes them up to 2.80 GeV. The 2 components of the first doublet have masses close to 1.25 GeV. The singlet has a mas...

  16. Classification review of dental adhesive systems: from the IV generation to the universal type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofan, Eshrak; Sofan, Afrah; Palaia, Gaspare; Tenore, Gianluca; Romeo, Umberto; Migliau, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Adhesive dentistry has undergone great progress in the last decades. In light of minimal-invasive dentistry, this new approach promotes a more conservative cavity design, which relies on the effectiveness of current enamel-dentine adhesives. Adhesive dentistry began in 1955 by Buonocore on the benefits of acid etching. With changing technologies, dental adhesives have evolved from no-etch to total-etch (4(th) and 5(th) generation) to self-etch (6(th), 7(th) and 8(th) generation) systems. Currently, bonding to dental substrates is based on three different strategies: 1) etch-and-rinse, 2) self-etch and 3) resin-modified glass-ionomer approach as possessing the unique properties of self-adherence to the tooth tissue. More recently, a new family of dentin adhesives has been introduced (universal or multi-mode adhesives), which may be used either as etch-and-rinse or as self-etch adhesives. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on the current knowledge for each adhesive system according to their classification that have been advocated by many authorities in most operative/restorative procedures. As noted by several valuable studies that have contributed to understanding of bonding to various substrates helps clinicians to choose the appropriate dentin bonding agents for optimal clinical outcomes.

  17. Classification review of dental adhesive systems: from the IV generation to the universal type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofan, Eshrak; Sofan, Afrah; Palaia, Gaspare; Tenore, Gianluca; Romeo, Umberto; Migliau, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Summary Adhesive dentistry has undergone great progress in the last decades. In light of minimal-invasive dentistry, this new approach promotes a more conservative cavity design, which relies on the effectiveness of current enamel-dentine adhesives. Adhesive dentistry began in 1955 by Buonocore on the benefits of acid etching. With changing technologies, dental adhesives have evolved from no-etch to total-etch (4th and 5th generation) to self-etch (6th, 7th and 8th generation) systems. Currently, bonding to dental substrates is based on three different strategies: 1) etch-and-rinse, 2) self-etch and 3) resin-modified glass-ionomer approach as possessing the unique properties of self-adherence to the tooth tissue. More recently, a new family of dentin adhesives has been introduced (universal or multi-mode adhesives), which may be used either as etch-and-rinse or as self-etch adhesives. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on the current knowledge for each adhesive system according to their classification that have been advocated by many authorities in most operative/restorative procedures. As noted by several valuable studies that have contributed to understanding of bonding to various substrates helps clinicians to choose the appropriate dentin bonding agents for optimal clinical outcomes. PMID:28736601

  18. Electro-nuclear neutron generator – XADS at ITEP

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A M Kozodaev; N D Gavrilin; M M Igumnov; V N Konev; N V Lazarev; A M Raskopin; V V Seliverstov; O V Shvedov; E B Volkov

    2007-02-01

    In this report, the purpose and status of the currently constructed ITEP experimental accelerator driven system (XADS) are discussed. This hybrid electro-nuclear facility of moderate power integrates the pulse proton linac (36 MeV, 0.5 mA) and heavy water sub-critical blanket assembly (heat power of 100 kW). Most parts of the equipment units are ordered for industrial manufacturing and some are under development. The facility is supposed to be used for investigations of a wide range of problems concerning both the target-blanket assembly and the accelerator-driver and at the same time explore the dynamical processes arising during their combined operation. Some other applications of the proton beam and neutron source are also discussed. It is possible in future to increase the current and energy of proton or heavy ion beam.

  19. 77 FR 40091 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating, Units 2 and 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... dockets to Carol Gallagher; telephone: 301-492- 3668; email: Carol.Gallagher@nrc.gov . Mail comments to.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Michael Wentzel, Division of License Renewal, Office of Nuclear...- 6459 or by email at: Michael.Wentzel@nrc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Accessing Information...

  20. The effects of nuclear power generators upon electronic instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. G.; Truscello, V. C.

    1970-01-01

    Radiation sensitivity of electronic instruments susceptible to neutron and gamma radiation is evaluated by means of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator /RTG/. The gamma field of the RTG affects instrument operation and requires shielding, the neutron field does not affect operation via secondary capture-gamma production.

  1. Natural Gas, Wind and Nuclear Options for Generating Electricity in a Carbon Constrained World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    A linear programming model is used to examine the impact of carbon taxes on the optimal generation mix in the Alberta electrical system. The model permits decommissioning of generating assets with high carbon dioxide emissions and investment in new gas-fired, wind and, in some scenarios, nuclear

  2. 78 FR 25486 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC., Combined License Application for Comanche Peak Nuclear Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... COMMISSION Luminant Generation Company, LLC., Combined License Application for Comanche Peak Nuclear Power... Generation Company, LLC. (Luminant) for the proposed facility to be located in Somervell County, Texas. In... or who encounter problems in accessing the documents located in ADAMS should contact the NRC...

  3. Natural Gas, Wind and Nuclear Options for Generating Electricity in a Carbon Constrained World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    A linear programming model is used to examine the impact of carbon taxes on the optimal generation mix in the Alberta electrical system. The model permits decommissioning of generating assets with high carbon dioxide emissions and investment in new gas-fired, wind and, in some scenarios, nuclear cap

  4. Changes in the Factors Influencing Public Acceptance of Nuclear Power Generation in Japan Since the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, Norifumi; Tsuchida, Shoji; Shiotani, Takamasa

    2016-01-01

    Public support for nuclear power generation has decreased in Japan since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011. This study examines how the factors influencing public acceptance of nuclear power changed after this event. The influence factors examined are perceived benefit, perceived risk, trust in the managing bodies, and pro-environmental orientation (i.e., new ecological paradigm). This study is based on cross-sectional data collected from two online nationwide surveys: one conducted in November 2009, before the nuclear accident, and the other in October 2011, after the accident. This study's target respondents were residents of Aomori, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures in the Tohoku region of Japan, as these areas were the epicenters of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the locations of nuclear power stations. After the accident, trust in the managing bodies was found to have a stronger influence on perceived risk, and pro-environmental orientation was found to have a stronger influence on trust in the managing bodies; however, perceived benefit had a weaker positive influence on public acceptance. We also discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  5. THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. IV. NGC 4216: A BOMBARDED SPIRAL IN THE VIRGO CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paudel, Sanjaya; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Ferriere, Etienne [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CNRS/INSU, Universite Paris Diderot, CEA/IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; MacArthur, Lauren A. [National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Cuillandre, Jean-Charles [Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corporation, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Mihos, J. Christopher [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Vollmer, Bernd [Observatoire Astronomique, Universite de Strasbourg and CNRS UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Balogh, Michael L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Carlberg, Ray G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Boissier, Samuel; Boselli, Alessandro [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Durrell, Patrick R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, One University Plaza, Youngstown, OH 44555 (United States); Emsellem, Eric; Michel-Dansac, Leo [Universite de Lyon 1, CRAL, Observatoire de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5574, 9 av. Charles Andre, F-69230 Saint-Genis Laval (France); Mei, Simona; Van Driel, Wim, E-mail: sanjaya.paudel@cea.fr [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 Place J. Janssen, F-92190 Meudon Cedex (France)

    2013-04-20

    The final stages of mass assembly of present-day massive galaxies are expected to occur through the accretion of multiple satellites. Cosmological simulations thus predict a high frequency of stellar streams resulting from this mass accretion around the massive galaxies in the Local Volume. Such tidal streams are difficult to observe, especially in dense cluster environments, where they are readily destroyed. We present an investigation into the origins of a series of interlaced narrow filamentary stellar structures, loops and plumes in the vicinity of the Virgo Cluster, edge-on spiral galaxy, NGC 4216 that were previously identified by the Blackbird telescope. Using the deeper, higher-resolution, and precisely calibrated optical CFHT/MegaCam images obtained as part of the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS), we confirm the previously identified features and identify a few additional structures. The NGVS data allowed us to make a physical study of these low surface brightness features and investigate their origin. The likely progenitors of the structures were identified as either already cataloged Virgo Cluster Catalog dwarfs or newly discovered satellites caught in the act of being destroyed. They have the same g - i color index and likely contain similar stellar populations. The alignment of three dwarfs along an apparently single stream is intriguing, and we cannot totally exclude that these are second-generation dwarf galaxies being born inside the filament from the debris of an original dwarf. The observed complex structures, including in particular a stream apparently emanating from a satellite of a satellite, point to a high rate of ongoing dwarf destruction/accretion in the region of the Virgo Cluster where NGC 4216 is located. We discuss the age of the interactions and whether they occurred in a group that is just falling into the cluster and shows signs of the so-called pre-processing before it gets affected by the cluster environment, or in a

  6. Aging of nuclear station diesel generators: Evaluation of operating and expert experience: Phase 1, Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoopingarner, K.R.; Vause, J.W.; Dingee, D.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.

    1987-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated operational and expert experience pertaining to the aging degradation of diesel generators in nuclear service. The research, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), identified and characterized the contribution of aging to emergency diesel generator failures. This report, Volume I, reviews diesel-generator experience to identify the systems and components most subject to aging degradation and isolates the major causes of failure that may affect future operational readiness. Evaluations show that as plants age, the percent of aging-related failures increases and failure modes change. A compilation is presented of recommended corrective actions for the failures identified. This study also includes a review of current, relevant industry programs, research, and standards. Volume II reports the results of an industry-wide workshop held on May 28 and 29, 1986 to discuss the technical issues associated with aging of nuclear service emergency diesel generators.

  7. Spare parts management for nuclear power generation facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Natalie Michele

    With deregulation, utilities in the power sector face a much more urgent imperative to emphasize cost efficiencies as compared to the days of regulation. One major opportunity for cost savings is through reductions in spare parts inventories. Most utilities are accustomed to carrying large volumes of expensive, relatively slow-moving parts because of a high degree of risk-averseness. This attitude towards risk is rooted in the days of regulation. Under regulation, companies recovered capital inventory costs by incorporating them into the base rate charged to their customers. In a deregulated environment, cost recovery is no longer guaranteed. Companies must therefore reexamine their risk profile and develop policies for spare parts inventory that are appropriate for a competitive business environment. This research studies the spare parts inventory management problem in the context of electric utilities, with a focus on nuclear power. It addresses three issues related to this problem: criticality, risk, and policy. With respect to criticality and risk, a methodology is presented that incorporates the use of influence diagrams and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). A new method is developed for group aggregation in the AHP when Saaty and Vargas' (2007) dispersion test fails and decision makers are unwilling or unable to revise their judgments. With respect to policy, a quantitative model that ranks the importance of keeping a part in inventory and recommends a corresponding stocking policy through the use of numerical simulation is developed. This methodology and its corresponding models will enable utilities that have transitioned from a regulated to a deregulated environment become more competitive in their operations while maintaining safety and reliability standards. Furthermore, the methodology developed is general enough so that other utility plants, especially those in the nuclear sector, will be able to use this approach. In addition to regulated

  8. Gas Foil Bearings for Space Propulsion Nuclear Electric Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Samuel A.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The choice of power conversion technology is critical in directing the design of a space vehicle for the future NASA mission to Mars. One candidate design consists of a foil bearing supported turbo alternator driven by a helium-xenon gas mixture heated by a nuclear reactor. The system is a closed-loop, meaning there is a constant volume of process fluid that is sealed from the environment. Therefore, foil bearings are proposed due to their ability to use the process gas as a lubricant. As such, the rotor dynamics of a foil bearing supported rotor is an important factor in the eventual design. The current work describes a rotor dynamic analysis to assess the viability of such a system. A brief technology background, assumptions, analyses, and conclusions are discussed in this report. The results indicate that a foil bearing supported turbo alternator is possible, although more work will be needed to gain knowledge about foil bearing behavior in helium-xenon gas.

  9. Evaluation of a sodium-water reaction event caused by steam generator tubes break in the prototype generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang June; Ha, Kwi Seok; Chang, Won Pyo; Kang, Seok Hun; Lee, Kwi Lim; Choi, Chi Woong; Lee, Seung Won; Yoo, Jin; Jeong, Jae Ho; Jeong, Tae Kyeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    The prototype generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactor (PGSFR) has been developed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. This reactor uses sodium as a reactor coolant to transfer the core heat energy to the turbine. Sodium has chemical characteristics that allow it to violently react with materials such as a water or steam. When a sodium–water reaction (SWR) occurs due to leakage or breakage of steam generator tubes, high-pressure waves and corrosive reaction products are produced, which threaten the structural integrity of the components of the intermediate heat-transfer system (IHTS) and the safety of the primary heat-transfer system (PHTS). In the PGSFR, SWR events are included in the design-basis event. This event should be analyzed from the viewpoint of the integrities of the IHTS and fuel rods. To evaluate the integrity of the IHTS based on the consequences of the SWR, the behaviors of the generated high-pressure waves are analyzed at the major positions of a failed IHTS loop using a sodium–water advanced analysis method-II code. The integrity of the fuel rods must be consistently maintained below the safety acceptance criteria to avoid the consequences of the SWR. The integrity of the PHTS is evaluated using the multidimensional analysis of reactor safety-liquid metal reactor code to model the whole plant.

  10. The potential of nuclear energy to generate clean electric power in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, Luiza C.; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Menzel, Francine; Giarola, Rodrigo S.; Coelho, Talita S., E-mail: luizastecher@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The generation of electricity in Brazil is concentrated in hydroelectric generation, renewable and clean source, but that does not satisfy all the demand and leads to necessity of a supplementary thermal sources portion. Considering the predictions of increase in demand for electricity in the next years, it becomes necessary to insert new sources to complement the production taking into account both the volume being produced and the needs of environmental preservation. Thus, nuclear power can be considered a potential supplementary source for electricity generation in Brazil as well as the country has large reserves of fissile material, the generation emits no greenhouse gases, the country has technological mastery of the fuel cycle and it enables the production of large volumes of clean energy. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the potential of nuclear energy in electricity production in Brazil cleanly and safely, ensuring the supplies necessary to maintain the country's economic growth and the increased demand sustainable. For this, will be made an analysis of economic and social indicators of the characteristics of our energy matrix and the availability of our sources, as well as a description of the nuclear source and arguments that justify a higher share of nuclear energy in the matrix of the country. Then, after these analysis, will notice that the generation of electricity from nuclear source has all the conditions to supplement safely and clean supply of electricity in Brazil. (author)

  11. The application of NEPIS in evaluation of nuclear power generation cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, J. W.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, Y. H. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency) tried to evaluate generation cost by means of NEPIS (Nuclear Economic Performance International System) based on the ABC(Activity-Based Costing) method which has been developed since 1997 in order to cope with competition improvement of world nuclear power and operation environment. From that, the '98 O and M cost of Southern California Edison Co., and Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Co., of U.S.A. was estimated to be 1.45 Cent/kWh and 2.3 Cent/kWh, respectively and that of Pacific Gas and Electric Co, of Hungary was 3.5 Cent/kWh. average '98 O and M Domestic nuclear power plant an was found to be 2.78 Cent/kWh. The standard O and M DB based on ABC might be required to evaluate domestic nuclear power plant O and M cost from NEPIS.

  12. FLUOMEG: a planar finite difference mesh generator for fluid flow problems with parallel boundaries. [In FORTRAN IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinstreuer, C.; Patterson, M.R.

    1980-05-01

    A two- or three-dimensional finite difference mesh generator capable of discretizing subrectangular flow regions (planar coordinates) with arbitrarily shaped bottom contours (vertical dimension) was developed. This economical, interactive computer code, written in FORTRAN IV and employing DISSPLA software together with graphics terminal, generates first a planar rectangular grid of variable element density according to the geometry and local kinematic flow patterns of a given fluid flow problem. Then subrectangular areas are deleted to produce canals, tributaries, bays, and the like. For three-dimensional problems, arbitrary bathymetric profiles (river beds, channel cross section, ocean shoreline profiles, etc.) are approximated with grid lines forming steps of variable spacing. Furthermore, the code works as a preprocessor numbering the discrete elements and the nodal points. Prescribed values for the principal variables can be automatically assigned to solid as well as kinematic boundaries. Cabinet drawings aid in visualizing the complete flow domain. Input data requirements are necessary only to specify the spacing between grid lines, determine land regions that have to be excluded, and to identify boundary nodes. 15 figures, 2 tables.

  13. 76 FR 24064 - Arizona Public Service Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2, and 3, Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... supercritical coal-fired generation; natural gas combined-cycle generation; new nuclear generation; a... water reactors located in Maricopa County, Arizona. The application for the renewed licenses complied...

  14. Effect of nuclear power generation on the electricity price in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Man Kee; Song, Kee Dong; Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Sung Kee; Lee, Yung Kun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    The main purpose of this study is to estimate the effect of nuclear power generation on the electricity price by analysing electricity supply sector. The effects on electricity price changes are estimated in terms of following respects: - Restriction on the additional introduction of nuclear power plant. - CO{sub 2} emission quantity control and carbon tax. A computer model by using Linear Programming optimization technique was also developed for these analyses. 10 figs, 12 tabs, 32 refs. (Author).

  15. Challenges in education and qualification of human resources for next nuclear generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pupak, Marcia Orrico [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mopupak@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    The general goal of this paper is to present an overview of Higher Education and personnel qualification for Nuclear Field by the perspective of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), also by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD and by the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). On the other hand to present the challenge of the Brazilian Government in redesigning, since 2003, the role of the state in order to make it active for younger generations, while promoting growth and social justice, has guided in all actions carried out under the Policy of Human Resources Management of public personnel. The government should be able to formulate and implement public policies and decide among various options, what is the most appropriate for its Human Resources. For this, they require the strengthening of strategic intelligence and government adoption of new ways of interaction and participation. The role played by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) in looking forward to replace and qualify its nuclear staff, as soon as up, since that the qualification of a human resource in this field demands more than one decade. Last but not least the proactive work of IPEN-CNEN/SP to encourage young generation to enter nuclear area, and the efforts of the Brazilian government to implement an integrated Nuclear Programme to form human resources, to attract and retain students in nuclear engineering and related specialized fields, and how this problem should attract the attention of the entire nuclear community, government and industry. (author)

  16. Super-Phenix benchmark used for comparison of PNC and CEA calculation methods, and of JENDL-3.2 and CARNAVAL IV nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, S.N. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-02-01

    The study was carried out within the framework of the PNC-CEA collaboration agreement. Data were provided, by CEA, for an experimental loading of a start-up core in Super-Phenix. This data was used at PNC to produce core flux snapshot calculations. CEA undertook a comparison of the PNC results with the equivalent calculations carried out by CEA, and also with experimental measurements from SPX. The results revealed a systematic radial flux tilt between the calculations and the reactor measurements, with the PNC tilts only {approx}30-40% of those from CEA. CEA carried out an analysis of the component causes of the radial tilt. It was concluded that a major cause of radial tilt differences between the PNC and CEA calculations lay in the nuclear datasets used: JENDL-3.2 and CARNAVAL IV. For the final stage of the study, PNC undertook a sensitivity analysis, to examine the detailed differences between the two sets of nuclear data. The sensitivity analysis showed that a relatively small number of nuclear data items contributed the bulk of the radial tilt difference between calculations with JENDL-3.2 and with CARNAVAL IV. A direct comparison between JENDL-3.2 and CARNAVAL IV data revealed the following. The Nu values showed little difference. The only large fission cross-section differences were at low energy. Although down-scattering reactions showed some large fractional differences, absolute differences were negligible compared with in-group scattering; for in-group scattering fractional differences were up to {approx}75%, but generally <20%. There were many large differences in capture cross-sections, generally {approx}30-200%. (J.P.N.)

  17. Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Charles D.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux. High thermal neutron fluxes generated from the action of a high power proton accelerator on a spallation target allows the efficient burn-up of higher actinide nuclear waste by a two-step process. Additionally, rapid burn-up of fission product waste for nuclides having small thermal neutron cross sections, and the practicality of small material inventories while achieving significant throughput derive from employment of such high fluxes. Several nuclear technology problems are addressed including 1. nuclear energy production without a waste stream requiring storage on a geological timescale, 2. the burn-up of defense and commercial nuclear waste, and 3. the production of defense nuclear material. The apparatus includes an accelerator, a target for neutron production surrounded by a blanket region for transmutation, a turbine for electric power production, and a chemical processing facility. In all applications, the accelerator power may be generated internally from fission and the waste produced thereby is transmuted internally so that waste management might not be required beyond the human lifespan.

  18. Foreign Trip Report MATGEN-IV Sep 24- Oct 26, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Caro, M S

    2007-10-30

    Gen-IV activities in France, Japan and US focus on the development of new structural materials for Gen-IV nuclear reactors. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) F/M steels have raised considerable interest in nuclear applications. Promising collaborations can be established seeking fundamental knowledge of relevant Gen-IV ODS steel properties (see attached travel report on MATGEN- IV 'Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors'). Major highlights refer to results on future Ferritic/Martensitic steel cladding candidates (relevant to Gen-IV materials properties for LFR Materials Program) and on thermodynamic and mechanic behavior of metallic FeCr binary alloys, base matrix for future candidate steels (for the LLNL-LDRD project on Critical Issues on Materials for Gen-IV Reactors).

  19. Lysine 271 but not lysine 210 of XRCC4 is required for the nuclear localization of XRCC4 and DNA ligase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuchi, Mikoto; Wanotayan, Rujira; Liu, Sicheng; Imamichi, Shoji; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa

    2015-06-12

    XRCC4 and DNA Ligase IV (LIG4) cooperate to join two DNA ends at the final step of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). However, it is not fully understood how these proteins are localized to the nucleus. Here we created XRCC4(K271R) mutant, as Lys271 lies within the putative nuclear localization signal (NLS), and XRCC4(K210R) mutant, as Lys210 was reported to undergo SUMOylation, implicated in the nuclear localization of XRCC4. Wild-type and mutated XRCC4 with EGFP tag were introduced into HeLa cell, in which endogenous XRCC4 had been knocked down using siRNA directed to 3'-untranslated region, and tested for the nuclear localization function by fluorescence microscopy. XRCC4(K271R) was defective in the nuclear localization of itself and LIG4, whereas XRCC4(K210R) was competent for the nuclear localization with LIG4. To examine DSB repair function, wild-type and mutated XRCC4 were introduced into XRCC4-deficient M10. M10-XRCC4(K271R), but not M10-XRCC4(K210R), showed significantly reduced surviving fraction after 2 Gy γ-ray irradiation as compared to M10-XRCC4(WT). The number of γ-H2AX foci remaining 2 h after 2 Gy γ-ray irradiation was significantly greater in M10-XRCC4(K271R) than in M10-XRCC4(WT), whereas it was only marginally increased in M10-XRCC4(K210R) as compared to M10-XRCC4(WT). The present results collectively indicated that Lys271, but not Lys210, of XRCC4 is required for the nuclear localization of XRCC4 and LIG4 and that the nuclear localizing ability is essential for DSB repair function of XRCC4.

  20. Nuclear power plants of the 4th generation: American Initiative in the context of an international policy. No frontiers for progress; Kernkraftwerke der vierten Generation: Amerikanische Initiative im Kontext internationaler Politik. Fortschritt ist laenderuebergreifend gepraegt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botzian, R. [Forschungsinstitut fuer internationale Politik und Sicherheit der Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, Ebenhausen (Isar) (Germany)

    2003-05-17

    This article tries to give an overview on more or less political questions of nuclear power generation in the context of technological developments over the years: chronology of the different generations of nuclear technological developments: ways to a higher safety; treatment of spent fuels; overview on the roadmap of the Generation IV International Forum - Nuclear Energy Systems; who defines the international agenda for nuclear energy?; the German position in the international environment. [German] In der aktuellen Konstellation steht einerseits eine global durchschlagende Reduktion der CO{sub 2}-Emissionen in den Sternen, andererseits wurde der Atomausstieg mit der Begruendung inakzeptabler Strahlungsrisiken zu einem weitverbreiteten gesellschaftspolitischen Credo [5]. In dieser Schwebelage haben die Amerikaner erneut die Initiative ergriffen und eine multilaterale wissenschaftlichtechnische Plattform fuer einen ausgedehnten und weltweiten Einsatz von Kernkraftwerken eingerichtet, und zwar mit einem Zeithorizont von drei Dekaden. Hierbei geht es weniger um voellig Neues als vielmehr um eine modifizierte Definition amerikanischer Interessen im Kontext der internationalen Nuklearpolitik. Dazu zaehlen vor allem Wirtschaftlichkeit sowie maximale Sicherheit vor schweren Unfaellen und vor unerlaubter Kernwaffenproduktion. (orig.)

  1. Comparing the sustainability parameters of renewable, nuclear and fossil fuel electricity generation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Annette; Strezov, Vladimir; Evans, Tim

    2010-09-15

    The sustainability parameters of electricity generation have been assessed by the application of eight key indicators. Photovoltaics, wind, hydro, geothermal, biomass, natural gas, coal and nuclear power have been assessed according to their price, greenhouse gas emissions, efficiency, land use, water use, availability, limitations and social impacts on a per kilowatt hour basis. The relevance of this information to the Australian context is discussed. Also included are the results of a survey on Australian opinions regarding electricity generation, which found that Australian prefer solar electricity above any other method, however coal, biomass and nuclear power have low acceptance.

  2. Accelerator-driven sub-critical reactor system (ADS) for nuclear energy generation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Kapoor

    2002-12-01

    In this talk we present an overview of accelerator-driven sub-critical reactor systems (ADS), and bring out their attractive features for the elimination of troublesome long-lived components of the spent fuel, as well as for nuclear energy generation utilizing thorium as fuel. In India, there is an interest in the programmes of development of high-energy and high-current accelerators due to the potential of ADS in utilizing the vast resources of thorium in the country for nuclear power generation. The accelerator related activities planned in this direction will be outlined.

  3. Updated projections of radioactive wastes to be generated by the U. S. nuclear power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kee, C.W.; Croft, A.G.; Blomeke, J.O.

    1976-12-01

    Eleven types of radioactive wastes to be generated within the fuel cycle operations of the U.S. nuclear power industry are defined, and projections are presented of their annual generation rates, shipping requirements, and accumulated characteristics over the remainder of this century. The power reactor complex is assumed to consist of uranium- and plutonium-fueled LWRs, HTGRs, and LMFBRs, and the installed nuclear electric capacity of the U.S. is taken as 68.1, 252, and 510 GW at the ends of calendar years 1980, 1990, and 2000, respectively. 72 tables.

  4. Advances in Nuclear Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frois, B.

    2005-04-01

    This paper briefly reviews the next generations of nuclear reactors and the perspectives of development of nuclear energy. Advanced reactors will progressively replace the existing ones during the next two decades. Future systems of the fourth generation are planned to be built beyond 2030. These systems have been studied in the framework of the "Generation IV" International Forum. The goals of these systems is to have a considerable increase in safety, be economically competitive and produce a significantly reduced volume of nuclear wastes. The closed fuel cycle is preferred.

  5. Stability analysis of the Korean prototype generation-IV sodium-cooled fast reactor using linear frequency domain approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Ji; Ha, Pham Nhu Viet; Lim, Jae Yong; Hahn, Do Hee; Kang, Chang Mu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Fast Reactor Development Div.

    2016-03-15

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing the 150 MWe Prototype Generation-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (PGSFR). The design concept is highly based on passive safety mechanisms, minimizing the need for engineered safety systems. Presently, it is of primary importance to assure the reactor dynamics and stability against small reactivity disturbances under power operating conditions. KAERI has therefore developed the NuSTAB code for stability analysis of the PGSFR. In NuSTAB, the neutron-kinetic and thermal-hydraulic coupling equations are linearized to form the characteristic equation, which is solved as a generalized eigenvalue problem for determining the decay ratio, an indicator of the system stability. In this paper, the stability of the PGSFR was analyzed by applying the point kinetic and spatial kinetic options in the NuSTAB code. System responses to temperature feedbacks including the Doppler effect, thermal expansion, coolant density change, and overall feedback were studied. The results indicate that the initial U and final TRU cores of the PGSFR are both inherently stable thanks to the temperature feedbacks.

  6. Evaluation of environmental data relating to selected nuclear power plant sites. Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murarka, I.P.

    1976-11-01

    Environmental monitoring data for 1973 through 1975 pertaining to the Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Station (which began commercial operation in December 1973) were analyzed by the most practical qualitative and quantitative methods. Evaluations of aquatic and terrestrial biotic data are presented in this report. The data indicate no significant immediate deleterious effects on the biota from plant operation, thus confirming preoperational predictions. Although the station has not operated long enough to reveal long-term deleterious effects, present indications do not lead to a concerned prediction that any are developing. Recommendations are suggested for improving monitoring techniques.

  7. Some nuclear chemical aspects of medical generator nuclide production at the Los Alamos hot cell facility

    CERN Document Server

    Fassbender, M; Heaton, R C; Jamriska, D J; Kitten, J J; Nortier, F M; Peterson, E J; Phillips, D R; Pitt, L R; Salazar, L L; Valdez, F O; 10.1524/ract.92.4.237.35596

    2004-01-01

    Generator nuclides constitute a convenient tool for applications in nuclear medicine. In this paper, some radiochemical aspects of generator nuclide parents regularly processed at Los Alamos are introduced. The bulk production of the parent nuclides /sup 68/Ge, /sup 82/Sr, /sup 109/Cd and /sup 88/Zr using charged particle beams is discussed. Production nuclear reactions for these radioisotopes, and chemical separation procedures are presented. Experimental processing yields correspond to 80%-98% of the theoretical thick target yield. Reaction cross sections are modeled using the code ALICE-IPPE; it is observed that the model largely disagrees with experimental values for the nuclear processes treated. Radionuclide production batches are prepared 1-6 times yearly for sales. Batch activities range from 40MBq to 75 GBq.

  8. Lysine 271 but not lysine 210 of XRCC4 is required for the nuclear localization of XRCC4 and DNA ligase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuchi, Mikoto; Wanotayan, Rujira; Liu, Sicheng; Imamichi, Shoji; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa, E-mail: yoshim@nr.titech.ac.jp

    2015-06-12

    XRCC4 and DNA Ligase IV (LIG4) cooperate to join two DNA ends at the final step of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). However, it is not fully understood how these proteins are localized to the nucleus. Here we created XRCC4{sup K271R} mutant, as Lys271 lies within the putative nuclear localization signal (NLS), and XRCC4{sup K210R} mutant, as Lys210 was reported to undergo SUMOylation, implicated in the nuclear localization of XRCC4. Wild-type and mutated XRCC4 with EGFP tag were introduced into HeLa cell, in which endogenous XRCC4 had been knocked down using siRNA directed to 3′-untranslated region, and tested for the nuclear localization function by fluorescence microscopy. XRCC4{sup K271R} was defective in the nuclear localization of itself and LIG4, whereas XRCC4{sup K210R} was competent for the nuclear localization with LIG4. To examine DSB repair function, wild-type and mutated XRCC4 were introduced into XRCC4-deficient M10. M10-XRCC4{sup K271R}, but not M10-XRCC4{sup K210R}, showed significantly reduced surviving fraction after 2 Gy γ-ray irradiation as compared to M10-XRCC4{sup WT}. The number of γ-H2AX foci remaining 2 h after 2 Gy γ-ray irradiation was significantly greater in M10-XRCC4{sup K271R} than in M10-XRCC4{sup WT}, whereas it was only marginally increased in M10-XRCC4{sup K210R} as compared to M10-XRCC4{sup WT}. The present results collectively indicated that Lys271, but not Lys210, of XRCC4 is required for the nuclear localization of XRCC4 and LIG4 and that the nuclear localizing ability is essential for DSB repair function of XRCC4. - Highlights: • XRCC4{sup K271R} is defective in the nuclear localization of itself and LIG4. • XRCC4{sup K210R} is competent for the nuclear localization of itself and LIG4. • XRCC4{sup K271R} is deficient in DSB repair function. • XRCC4{sup K210R} is mostly normal in DSB repair function.

  9. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Structures, Systems, and Components Safety Classification White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pete Jordan

    2010-09-01

    This white paper outlines the relevant regulatory policy and guidance for a risk-informed approach for establishing the safety classification of Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant and sets forth certain facts for review and discussion in order facilitate an effective submittal leading to an NGNP Combined Operating License application under 10 CFR 52.

  10. Hard Sludge Formation in Modern Steam Generators of Nuclear Power Plants Formation, Risks and Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmer, F.

    2013-07-01

    This article will discuss the physical and chemical reasons for the increased tendency to form hard sludge on the secondary side of modern nuclear steam generators (SG). The mechanism of hard sludge induced denting will be explained. Moreover, advice on operation and maintenance to mitigate hard sludge formation and denting damages will be presented.

  11. Development and application of computational fluid dynamics approaches within the European project THINS for the simulation of next generation nuclear power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papukchiev, Angel, E-mail: angel.papukchiev@grs.de [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching n. Munich (Germany); Roelofs, Ferry; Shams, Afaque [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Petten (Netherlands); Lecrivain, Gregory [Institute of Fluid Dynamics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Ambrosini, Walter [University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Thermal–hydraulic crosscutting issues related to Generation IV reactor concepts have been investigated within the European Project THINS. • New nuclear systems are characterized by various non-unity Prandtl number coolants. • Improvements in the turbulence modeling for innovative coolants have been achieved. • Extensive development and validation work has been done. - Abstract: Today computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is widely used in industrial companies, research institutes and technical safety organizations to supplement the design and analysis of diverse technical components and large systems. Such numerical programs are applied to better understand complex fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena. In the last decades there is an increasing interest in the nuclear community to utilize such advanced programs for the evaluation of different nuclear reactor safety issues, where traditional analysis tools show deficiencies. Within the FP7 European project THINS (Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative Nuclear Systems), CFD and coupled 1D-3D thermal–hydraulic simulations are being carried out. These are dedicated to the analysis of the thermal–hydraulics of gas, liquid metal and supercritical water cooled reactors. Such concepts utilize innovative fluids, which have different properties from the ones used in the current nuclear reactors. In order to improve the thermal–hydraulic predictions of their behavior, CFD development, application and validation activities are performed within THINS. This overview paper highlights some of the CFD related work within the European project.

  12. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1994. Annex IV: PSI nuclear energy and safety research progress report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.; Kallfelz, J.M.; Mathews, D. [eds.] [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1995-10-01

    Nuclear energy research in Switzerland is concentrated at PSI. It is explicitly mentioned in the Institute`s official charter and commands about one fifth of the Institute`s federal resources. Presently, PSI invests approx. 200 py/a in nuclear energy research, one third of this being externally funded; the share of external funding in investment costs totals approx. 50%. This funding is provided by the Swiss utilities and the NAGRA, the Safety Authority (HSK) and the former National Fund for Energy Research (NEFF). PSI`s activities in nuclear research concentrate on three main areas: safety of operating plants, safety features of future reactor concepts and waste management. 7% of personnel are invested in addressing global aspects of energy. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  13. 78 FR 49305 - Luminant Generation Company LLC, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Luminant Generation Company LLC, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Application... Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2, respectively, located in Somervell County, Texas. The...

  14. 78 FR 14361 - In the Matter of Luminant Generation Company LLC, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Luminant Generation Company LLC, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2; Order Approving the... authorizes the possession, use, and operation of the Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2 (CPNPP... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR...

  15. 78 FR 79709 - Duke Energy Florida, Inc., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant Post-Shutdown...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2013-31317] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-302; NRC-2013-0283] Duke Energy Florida, Inc., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ACTION: Notice of receipt; availability; public...

  16. Determination of leveled costs of electric generation for gas plants, coal and nuclear; Determinacion de costos nivelados de generacion electrica para plantas de gas, carbon y nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso V, G.; Palacios H, J.C.; Ramirez S, J.R.; Gomez, A. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: galonso@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The present work analyzes the leveled costs of electric generation for different types of nuclear reactors known as Generation III, these costs are compared with the leveled costs of electric generation of plants with the help of natural gas and coal. In the study several discount rates were used to determine their impact in the initial investment. The obtained results are comparable with similar studies and they show that it has more than enough the base of the leveled cost the nuclear option it is quite competitive in Mexico. Also in this study it is also thinks about the economic viability of a new nuclear power station in Mexico. (Author)

  17. Effect of pre-treatment on the generation of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV- and prolyl endopeptidase-inhibitory hydrolysates from bovine lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lafarga T.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of two different pre-treatments, high temperature (100 °C, 5 min and high pressure (600 MPa, 3 min, on the potential of the enzymes papain, collagenase and Alcalase® to generate bioactive hydrolysates containing dipeptidyl peptidase-IV- (DPP-IV; EC 3.4.14.5 and prolyl endopeptidase- (PEP; EC 3.4.21.26 inhibitory peptides from bovine lung. Both pre-treatments resulted in an increase in the degree of hydrolysis over a 24 h period (P < 0.001 and significantly increased the DPP-IV- and PEP-inhibitory activities of the generated hydrolysates (P < 0.001. Generated hydrolysates included an Alcalase hydrolysate of pressure-treated bovine lung, which was the most active, and showed DPP-IV and PEP half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 1.43 ± 0.06 and 3.62 ± 0.07 mg/ mL, respectively. The major peptides contained in this hydrolysate were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and results demonstrated that bovine lung is a good substrate for the release of bioactive peptides when proper pre-treatment and enzymatic treatment are applied.

  18. DRAGON: Monte Carlo Generator of Particle Production from a Fragmented Fireball in Ultrarelativistic Nuclear Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Boris

    2010-11-01

    A Monte Carlo generator of the final state of hadrons emitted from an ultrarelativistic nuclear collision is introduced. An important feature of the generator is a possible fragmentation of the fireball and emission of the hadrons from fragments. Phase space distribution of the fragments is based on the blast wave model extended to azimuthally non-symmetric fireballs. Parameters of the model can be tuned and this allows to generate final states from various kinds of fireballs. A facultative output in the OSCAR1999A format allows for a comprehensive analysis of phase-space distributions and/or use as an input for an afterburner. DRAGON's purpose is to produce artificial data sets which resemble those coming from real nuclear collisions provided fragmentation occurs at hadronisation and hadrons are emitted from fragments without any further scattering. Its name, DRAGON, stands for DRoplet and hAdron GeneratOr for Nuclear collisions. In a way, the model is similar to THERMINATOR, with the crucial difference that emission from fragments is included.

  19. Steam generator chemical cleaning at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevec, J.M. [Babcock and Wilcox, Alliance, OH (United States). R and D Division; Knollmeyer, P.M. [B and W Nuclear Technologies, Lynchburg, VA (United States); Paramithas, P. [Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Tonopah, AZ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The secondary side of the Palo Verde Units 2 and 3 steam generators were chemically cleaned in 1994. The primary purpose of the chemical cleaning was to remove deposits bridging between adjacent tubes and also to remove bulk tube and tubesheet deposits. A secondary objective was to remove deposits from the flow distribution plate-to-tube crevice. The chemical cleaning consisted of a magnetite dissolution step, a separate step aimed at removing deposits in the flow distribution plate crevices, and a final step to remove residual copper and passivate the carbon steel surfaces of the steam generator. Corrosion monitoring was employed during the cleaning to ensure that the cleaning resulted in corrosion to steam generator materials of construction that was below the predetermined chemical cleaning corrosion allowances. The process application, removal efficiency, and corrosion results are presented in this paper.

  20. Alignment dependent ultrafast electron-nuclear dynamics in high-order harmonic generation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Mu-Zi; Bian, Xue-Bin

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) process of diatomic molecular ion $\\mathrm{H}_2^+$ in non-Born-Oppenheimer approximations. The corresponding three-dimensional time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation is solved with arbitrary alignment angles. It is found that the nuclear motion can lead to spectral modulation of HHG. Redshifts are unique in molecular HHG which decrease with the increase of alignment angles of the molecules and are sensitive to the initial vibrational states. It can be used to extract the ultrafast electron-nuclear dynamics and image molecular structure.

  1. 78 FR 14842 - Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 3; Application for Renewal of License to Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... COMMISSION Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 3; Application for Renewal of License to Facility... operate the Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 3 (CR3), at 2609 megawatts thermal. The FPC... located near Crystal River, FL; the current operating license for the CR3 expires on December 3, 2016. The...

  2. Current Status and Future Outlook of Nuclear Power Generation in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yasuro; Yoshii, Ryosuke

    2007-07-01

    For Japan, a country poor in natural resources, in light of the tough energy situation in recent times, a National Energy Strategy with energy security at its core was established in May 2006. The key point of the Strategy is nuclear power generation, and the aim is to ensure that nuclear power generation continues to account for 30 to 40 percent or more of total electricity generated even after 2030. The first step to achieving this goal is to make maximum use of existing plants (55 plants, 49580MWe), and the aim is to achieve a 60-year service life by making improvements to plant operation and maintenance, such as extending current monitoring and maintenance of plant condition, and the implementation of plant aging management. In Japan, plant construction has been continuous since the 1970s. The current new plant construction plan (13 plants, 17230MWe) is to be achieved with a concerted, cohesive national effort. In addition, in order to complete the nuclear fuel cycle, a reprocessing plant is being constructed strictly for peaceful use, and construction of a site for disposing of high-level radioactive waste is also proceeding. Development of the next generation light water reactors and fast breeder reactor cycle is also underway. (auth)

  3. A nuclear Argonaute promotes multi-generational epigenetic inheritance and germline immortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Bethany; Burkhart, Kirk; Gu, Sam Guoping; Spracklin, George; Kershner, Aaron; Fritz, Heidi; Kimble, Judith; Fire, Andrew; Kennedy, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic information is frequently erased near the start of each new generation (1). In some cases, however, epigenetic information can be transmitted from parent to progeny (epigenetic inheritance) (2). A particularly striking example of epigenetic inheritance is dsRNA-mediated gene silencing (RNAi) in C. elegans, which can be inherited for more than five generations (3–8). To understand this process we conducted a genetic screen for animals defective for transmitting RNAi silencing signals to future generations. This screen identified the gene heritable RNAi defective (hrde)-1. hrde-1 encodes an Argonaute (Ago) that associates with small interfering (si)RNAs in germ cells of the progeny of animals exposed to dsRNA. In nuclei of these germ cells, HRDE-1 engages the Nrde nuclear RNAi pathway to direct H3K9me3 at RNAi targeted genomic loci and promote RNAi inheritance. Under normal growth conditions, HRDE-1 associates with endogenously expressed siRNAs, which direct nuclear gene silencing in germ cells. In hrde-1 or nuclear RNAi deficient animals, germline silencing is lost over generational time. Concurrently, these animals exhibit steadily worsening defects in gamete formation and function that ultimately lead to sterility. These results establish that the Ago HRDE-1 directs gene-silencing events in germ cell nuclei, which drive multi-generational RNAi inheritance and promote immortality of the germ cell lineage. We propose that C. elegans uses the RNAi inheritance machinery to transmit epigenetic information, accrued by past generations, into future generations to regulate important biological processes. PMID:22810588

  4. Geração hidrelétrica, termelétrica e nuclear Hydroelectric, thermal and nuclear generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Pinguelli Rosa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta a situação da produção de energia elétrica no Brasil e expõe os problemas para a implementação de um novo modelo no setor energético e para a inclusão de termelétricas em um grande sistema hidrelétrico. Questões ambientais são consideradas, particularmente as emissões de gás de efeito estufa. Atenta ainda para a possível construção de novos reatores nucleares no Brasil e destaca a importância da conservação energética e do uso de fontes de energia renovável.The situation of electric energy generation in Brazil is presented here, showing the problems in the implementation of the new model for the Power Sector, as well as in the inclusion of thermal plants in a very big hydroelectric system. Environment issues are considered, in particular the greenhouse gas emissions. The article pays attention to the possible construction of new nuclear reactors in Brazil. It is pointed out the importance of energy conservation and of using renewable energy sources.

  5. Educating Next Generation Nuclear Criticality Safety Engineers at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. D. Bess; J. B. Briggs; A. S. Garcia

    2011-09-01

    One of the challenges in educating our next generation of nuclear safety engineers is the limitation of opportunities to receive significant experience or hands-on training prior to graduation. Such training is generally restricted to on-the-job-training before this new engineering workforce can adequately provide assessment of nuclear systems and establish safety guidelines. Participation in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) can provide students and young professionals the opportunity to gain experience and enhance critical engineering skills. The ICSBEP and IRPhEP publish annual handbooks that contain evaluations of experiments along with summarized experimental data and peer-reviewed benchmark specifications to support the validation of neutronics codes, nuclear cross-section data, and the validation of reactor designs. Participation in the benchmark process not only benefits those who use these Handbooks within the international community, but provides the individual with opportunities for professional development, networking with an international community of experts, and valuable experience to be used in future employment. Traditionally students have participated in benchmarking activities via internships at national laboratories, universities, or companies involved with the ICSBEP and IRPhEP programs. Additional programs have been developed to facilitate the nuclear education of students while participating in the benchmark projects. These programs include coordination with the Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) Next Degree Program, the Collaboration with the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to train nuclear and criticality safety engineers, and student evaluations as the basis for their Master's thesis in nuclear engineering.

  6. Nuclear Co-generation: The Analysis of Technical Capabilities and Cost Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Reński

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a concept of the parallel connection of a nuclear power plant fitted to provide heat for district heating application, with the CHP and heat plants existing in the supply region, in this case with the heating systems of Wejherowo and Gdynia. Presented variant proposes to add heat to a nuclear power plant’s total output by supplying heat exchangers with the steam from bleeders of low pressure (LP turbine stage and from the crossover pipe between its high pressure (HP and intermediate pressure (IP stages. A detailed diagram of the EPR nuclear turbine system adapted to supply district heat is also presented. Also determined are the formulas for: electric power output of a nuclear CHP plant; electric power generated strictly in cogeneration, and the decrease in the electric power and energy resulting from the operation in cogeneration mode. Finally, the profitability (competitiveness criteria for a nuclear power plant adapted to supply district heat in a selected heat supply region were proposed.

  7. An alpha particle detector for a portable neutron generator for the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausladen, P. A.; Neal, J. S.; Mihalczo, J. T.

    2005-12-01

    A recoil alpha particle detector has been developed for use in a portable neutron generator. The associated particle sealed tube neutron generator (APSTNG) will be used as an interrogation source for the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS). With the coincident emission of 14.1 MeV neutrons and 3.5 MeV alpha particles produced by the D-T reaction, alpha detection determines the time and direction of the neutrons of interest for subsequent use as an active nuclear materials interrogation source. The alpha particle detector uses a ZnO(Ga) scintillator coating applied to a fiber optic face plate. Gallium-doped zinc oxide is a fast (inorganic scintillator with a high melting point (1975 °C). One detector has been installed in an APSTNG and is currently being tested. Initial results include a measured efficiency for 3.5 MeV alphas of 90%.

  8. Reconciling nuclear risk: The impact of the Fukushima accident on comparative preferences for nuclear power in UK electricity generation

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, C.; Elgueta, H.; Eiser, J.

    2015-01-01

    Polls conducted in the United Kingdom following the Fukushima nuclear accident (March 2011) indicated a fairly muted and temporary shift in public approval of nuclear power. This study investigated how: (a) comparative preferences for nuclear power in the U nited Kingdom might have been affected by the accident; and (b) how “supporters” of nuclear power reconciled their pro-nuclear attitude in the wake of the disaster. Between-subjects comparisons with a pre-Fukushima sample revealed our post...

  9. Progress toward generating a ferret model of cystic fibrosis by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Engelhardt John F; Li Ziyi

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Mammalian cloning by nuclear transfer from somatic cells has created new opportunities to generate animal models of genetic diseases in species other than mice. Although genetic mouse models play a critical role in basic and applied research for numerous diseases, often mouse models do not adequately reproduce the human disease phenotype. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one such disease. Targeted ablation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene in mice does not...

  10. Korea`s choice of a new generation of nuclear plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redding, J.R. [GE Nuclear Energy, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The ABWR and SBWR design, both under development at GE, provide the best platform for developing the next generation advanced plants. The ABWR, which is rapidly setting the standard for new nuclear reactor plants, is clearly the best choice to meet the present energy needs of Korea. And through a GE/Korea partnership to develop the plant of the next century, Korea will establish itself as a leader in innovative reactor technology.

  11. DRoplet and hAdron generator for nuclear collisions: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomášik, Boris

    2016-10-01

    The Monte Carlo generator DRAGON simulates hadron production in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions. The underlying theoretical description is provided by the blast-wave model. DRAGON includes second-order angular anisotropy in transverse shape and the amplitude of the transverse expansion velocity. It also allows to simulate hadron production from a fragmented fireball, e.g. as resulting from spinodal decomposition happening at the first-order phase transition.

  12. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) gas generation from N-Fuel in multi-canister overpacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, T.D.

    1996-08-01

    During the conversion from wet pool storage for spent nuclear fuel at Hanford, gases will be generated from both radiolysis and chemical reactions. The gas generation phenomenon needs to be understood as it applies to safety and design issues,specifically over pressurization of sealed storage containers,and detonation/deflagration of flammable gases. This study provides an initial basis to predict the implications of gas generation on the proposed functional processes for spent nuclear fuel conversion from wet to dry storage. These projections are based upon examination of the history of fuel manufacture at Hanford, irradiation in the reactors, corrosion during wet pool storage, available fuel characterization data and available information from literature. Gas generation via radiolysis and metal corrosion are addressed. The study examines gas generation, the boundary conditions for low medium and high levels of sludge in SNF storage/processing containers. The functional areas examined include: flooded and drained Multi-Canister Overpacks, cold vacuum drying, shipping and staging and long term storage.

  13. Disposal of Steam Generators from Decommissioning of PWR Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walberg, Mirko; Viermann, Joerg; Beverungen, Martin [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Hollestrasse 7A, 45127 Essen (Germany); Kemp, Lutz [Kernkraftwerk Stade GmbH and Co.oHG, Bassenflether Chaussee, 21683 Stade (Germany); Lindstroem, Anders [Studsvik Nuclear AB, SE-611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    Amongst other materials remarkable amounts of radioactively contaminated or activated scrap are generated from the dismantling of Nuclear Power Plants. These scrap materials include contaminated pipework, fittings, pumps, the reactor pressure vessel and other large components, most of them are heat exchangers. Taking into account all commercial and technical aspects an external processing and subsequent recycling of the material might be an advantageous option for many of these components. The disposal of steam generators makes up an especially challenging task because of their measures, their weight and compared to other heat exchangers high radioactive inventory. Based on its experiences from many years of disposal of smaller components of NPP still in operation or under decommissioning GNS and Studsvik Nuclear developed a concept for disposal of steam generators, also involving experiences made in Sweden. The concept comprises transport preparations and necessary supporting documents, the complete logistics chain, steam generator treatment and the processing of arising residues and materials not suitable for recycling. The first components to be prepared, shipped and treated according to this concept were four steam generators from the decommissioning of the German NPP Stade which were removed from the plant and shipped to the processing facility during the third quarter of 2007. Although the plant had undergone a full system decontamination, due to the remaining contamination in a number of plugged tubes the steam generators had to be qualified as industrial packages, type 2 (IP-2 packages), and according to a special requirement of the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection a license for a shipment under special arrangement had to be applied for. The presentation gives an overview of the calculations and evidences required within the course of the IP-2 qualification, additional requirements of the competent authorities during the licensing procedure as

  14. The development of new radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Callahan, A.P.; Mirzadeh, S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Brihaye, C.; Guillaume, M. (Liege Univ. (Belgium). Cyclotron Research Center)

    1991-01-01

    Radioisotope generator systems have traditionally played a central role in nuclear medicine in providing radioisotopes for both research and clinical applications. In this paper, the development of several tungsten-188/rhenium-188 prototype generators which provide rhenium-188 for radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) is discussed. The authors have recently demonstrated that carrier-free iridium-194 can be obtained from the activated carbon system from decay of reactor-produced osmium-194 for potential RAIT applications. Instrumentation advances such as the new generation of high-count-rate (fast) gamma camera systems for first-pass technology require the availability of generator-produced ultra short-lived radioisotopes for radionuclide angiography (RNA). The activated carbon generator is an efficient system to obtain ultra short-lived iridium-191 m from osmium-191 for RNA. In addition, the growing number of PET centers has stimulated research in generators which provide positron-emitting radioisotopes. Copper-62, obtained from the zinc-62 generator, is currently used for PET evaluation of organ perfusion. The availability of the parent radioisotopes, the fabrication and use of these generators, and the practical factors for use of these systems in the radiopharmacy are discussed. 74 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August, 2000 - July 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.C.

    2002-11-01

    OAK B188 High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August 2000 - July 2001. Currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process is available for commercialization nor has such a process been identified. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation sector of our economy. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion are thought to be responsible for global warming. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station. The benefits of this work will include the generation of a low-polluting transportable energy feedstock in an efficient method that has little or no implication for greenhouse gas emissions from a primary energy source whose availability and sources are domestically controlled. This will help to ensure energy for a future transportation/energy infrastructure that is not influenced/controlled by foreign governments. This report describes work accomplished during the second year (Phase 2) of a three year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.'' The emphasis of the first year (Phase 1) was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen from water, in which the primary energy input is high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear reactor and to select one (or, at most, three) for further detailed consideration. Phase 1 met its goals and did select one process, the sulfur-iodine process, for investigation in Phases 2 and 3. The combined goals of Phases 2 and 3 were to select the advanced nuclear reactor best

  16. Ethics Beyond Finitude: Responsibility towards Future Generations and Nuclear Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefquist, Lars

    2008-05-15

    This dissertation has three aims: 1. To evaluate several ethical theories about responsibility towards future generations. 2. To construct a theory about responsibility towards future generations. 3. To carry out an ethical evaluation of different nuclear waste management methods. Five theories are evaluated with the help of evaluative criteria, primarily: A theory must provide future generations with some independent moral status. A theory should acknowledge moral pluralism. A theory should provide some normative claims about real-world problems. Derek Parfit's theory provides future generations with full moral status. But it is incompatible with moral pluralism, and does not provide reasonable normative claims about real-world problems. Brian Barry's theory provides such claims and a useful idea about risk management, but it does not provide an argument why future generations ought to exist. Avner de-Shalit's theory explains why they ought to exist; however, his theory can not easily explain why we ought to care for other people than those in our own community. Emmanuel Agius' theory gives an ontological explanation for mankind's unity, but reduces conflicts of interests to a common good. Finally, Hans Jonas' theory shifts the focus from the situation of future generations to the preconditions of human life generally. However, his theory presupposes a specific ontology, which might be unable to motivate people to act. The concluding chapters describe a narrative theory of responsibility. It claims that we should comprehend ourselves as parts of the common story of mankind and that we ought to provide future generations with equal opportunities. This implies that we should avoid transferring risks and focus on reducing the long-term risks associated with the nuclear waste

  17. The Coming Nuclear Renaissance for Next Generation Safeguards Specialists--Maximizing Potential and Minimizing the Risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eipeldauer, Mary D [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    This document is intended to provide an overview of the workshop entitled 'The Coming Nuclear Renaissance for the Next Generation Safeguards Experts-Maximizing Benefits While Minimizing Proliferation Risks', conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in partnership with the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This document presents workshop objectives; lists the numerous participant universities and individuals, the nuclear nonproliferation lecture topics covered, and the facilities tours taken as part of the workshop; and discusses the university partnership sessions and proposed areas for collaboration between the universities and ORNL for 2009. Appendix A contains the agenda for the workshop; Appendix B lists the workshop attendees and presenters with contact information; Appendix C contains graphics of the evaluation form results and survey areas; and Appendix D summarizes the responses to the workshop evaluation form. The workshop was an opportunity for ORNL, Y-12, and SRNL staff with more than 30 years combined experience in nuclear nonproliferation to provide a comprehensive overview of their expertise for the university professors and their students. The overall goal of the workshop was to emphasize nonproliferation aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and to identify specific areas where the universities and experts from operations and national laboratories could collaborate.

  18. Composite Materials under Extreme Radiation and Temperature Environments of the Next Generation Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simos, N.

    2011-05-01

    In the nuclear energy renaissance, driven by fission reactor concepts utilizing very high temperatures and fast neutron spectra, materials with enhanced performance that exceeds are expected to play a central role. With the operating temperatures of the Generation III reactors bringing the classical reactor materials close to their performance limits there is an urgent need to develop and qualify new alloys and composites. Efforts have been focused on the intricate relations and the high demands placed on materials at the anticipated extreme states within the next generation fusion and fission reactors which combine high radiation fluxes, elevated temperatures and aggressive environments. While nuclear reactors have been in operation for several decades, the structural materials associated with the next generation options need to endure much higher temperatures (1200 C), higher neutron doses (tens of displacements per atom, dpa), and extremely corrosive environments, which are beyond the experience on materials accumulated to-date. The most important consideration is the performance and reliability of structural materials for both in-core and out-of-core functions. While there exists a great body of nuclear materials research and operating experience/performance from fission reactors where epithermal and thermal neutrons interact with materials and alter their physio-mechanical properties, a process that is well understood by now, there are no operating or even experimental facilities that will facilitate the extreme conditions of flux and temperature anticipated and thus provide insights into the behaviour of these well understood materials. Materials, however, still need to be developed and their interaction and damage potential or lifetime to be quantified for the next generation nuclear energy. Based on material development advances, composites, and in particular ceramic composites, seem to inherently possess properties suitable for key functions within the

  19. Evaluation of High-Performance Space Nuclear Electric Generators for Electric Propulsion Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Kross, Dennis A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Electric propulsion applications are enhanced by high power-to-mass ratios for their electric power sources. At multi-megawatt levels, we can expect thrust production systems to be less than 5 kg/kWe. Application of nuclear electric propulsion to human Mars missions becomes an attractive alternative to nuclear thermal propulsion if the propulsion system is less than about 10 kg/kWe. Recent references have projected megawatt-plus nuclear electric sources at specific mass values from less than 1 kg/kWe to about 5 kg/kWe. Various assumptions are made regarding power generation cycle (turbogenerator; MHD (magnetohydrodynamics)) and reactor heat source design. The present paper compares heat source and power generation options on the basis of a parametric model that emphasizes heat transfer design and realizable hardware concept. Pressure drop (important!) is included in the power cycle analysis, and MHD and turbogenerator cycles are compared. Results indicate that power source specific mass less than 5 kg/kWe is attainable, even if peak temperatures achievable are limited to 1500 K. Projections of specific mass less than 1 kg/kWe are unrealistic, even at the highest peak temperatures considered.

  20. Electron and nuclear dynamics of molecular clusters in ultraintense laser fields. IV. Coulomb explosion of molecular heteroclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, Isidore; Jortner, Joshua

    2004-11-01

    In this paper we present a theoretical and computational study of the temporal dynamics and energetics of Coulomb explosion of (CD4)(n) and (CH4)(n) (n=55-4213) molecular heteroclusters in ultraintense (I=10(16)-10(19) W cm(-2)) laser fields, addressing the manifestation of electron dynamics, together with nuclear energetic and kinematic effects on the heterocluster Coulomb instability. The manifestations of the coupling between electron and nuclear dynamics were explored by molecular dynamics simulations for these heteroclusters coupled to Gaussian laser fields (pulse width tau=25 fs), elucidating outer ionization dynamics, nanoplasma screening effects (being significant for Icharges and masses. Nonuniform heterocluster Coulomb explosion (eta >1) manifests an overrun effect of the light ions relative to the heavy ions, exhibiting the expansion of two spatially separated subclusters, with the light ions forming the outer subcluster at the outer edge of the spatial distribution. Important features of the energetics of heterocluster Coulomb explosion originate from energetic triggering effects of the driving of the light ions by the heavy ions (C(4+) for I=10(17)-10(18) W cm(-2) and C(6+) for I=10(19) W cm(-2)), as well as for kinematic effects. Based on the CVI assumption, scaling laws for the cluster size (radius R(0)) dependence of the energetics of uniform Coulomb explosion of heteroclusters (eta=1) were derived, with the size dependence of the average (E(j,av)) and maximal (E(j,M)) ion energies being E(j,av)=aR(0) (2) and E(j,M)=(5a/3)R(0) (2), as well as for the ion energy distributions P(E(j)) proportional to E(j) (1/2); E(j)1) result in an isotope effect, predicting the enhancement (by 9%-11%) of E(H,av) for Coulomb explosion of (C(4+)H(4) (+))(eta) (eta=3) relative to E(D,av) for Coulomb explosion of (C(4+)D(4) (+))(eta) (eta=1.5), with the isotope effect being determined by the ratio of the kinematic parameters for the pair of Coulomb exploding clusters

  1. Triggering the Generation of an Iron(IV)-Oxo Compound and Its Reactivity toward Sulfides by Ru-II Photocatalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Company, Anna; Sabenya, Gerard; Gonzalez-Bejar, Maria; Gomez, Laura; Clemancey, Martin; Blondin, Genevieve; Jasniewski, Andrew J.; Puri, Mayank; Browne, Wesley R.; Latour, Jean-Marc; Que, Lawrence; Costas, Miguel; Perez-Prieto, Julia; Lloret-Fillol, Julio

    2014-01-01

    The preparation of [Fe-IV(O)(MePy(2)tacn)](2+) (2, MePy(2)tacn = N-methyl-N,N-b is (2-picolyl)- 1,4,7-triazacy-clononane) by reaction of [Fe-II(MePy(2)tacn)(solvent)](2+) (1) and PhIO in CH3CN and its full characterization are described. This compound can also be prepared photochemically from its ir

  2. Triggering the Generation of an Iron(IV)-Oxo Compound and Its Reactivity toward Sulfides by Ru-II Photocatalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Company, Anna; Sabenya, Gerard; Gonzalez-Bejar, Maria; Gomez, Laura; Clemancey, Martin; Blondin, Genevieve; Jasniewski, Andrew J.; Puri, Mayank; Browne, Wesley R.; Latour, Jean-Marc; Que, Lawrence; Costas, Miguel; Perez-Prieto, Julia; Lloret-Fillol, Julio

    2014-01-01

    The preparation of [Fe-IV(O)(MePy(2)tacn)](2+) (2, MePy(2)tacn = N-methyl-N,N-b is (2-picolyl)- 1,4,7-triazacy-clononane) by reaction of [Fe-II(MePy(2)tacn)(solvent)](2+) (1) and PhIO in CH3CN and its full characterization are described. This compound can also be prepared photochemically from its

  3. Analysis of public consciousness structure and consideration of information supply against the nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimooka, Hiroshi [Institute of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    The Energy Engineering Research Institute carried out six times of questionnaire on analysis of public consciousness structure for fiscal years for 1986 to 1999, to obtain a lot of informations on public recognition against the nuclear power generation. In recent, as a feasibility on change of consciousness against the power generation was supposed by occurrence of the JCO critical accident forming the first victim in Japan on September, 1999 after investigation in fiscal year 1998, by carrying out the same questionnaire as one in previous fiscal year to the same objects after the accident, to analyze how evaluation, behavior determining factor and so forth on the power generation changed by the accident. In this paper, on referring to results of past questionnaires, were introduced on the questionnaire results and their analysis carried out before and after the JCO critical accident, to consider on information supply referred by them. (G.K.)

  4. Developing the concept of maintenance and repairs in projects of power units for new-generation nuclear power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinovich, V. D.; Yanchenko, Yu. A.

    2012-05-01

    Results from conceptual elaboration of individual requirements for the system of maintenance and repairs that must be implemented in the projects of new-generation nuclear power stations are presented taking as an example the power unit project for a nuclear power station equipped with a standard optimized VVER reactor with enhanced information support (the so-called VVER TOI reactor). Implementation of these concepts will help to achieve competitiveness of such nuclear power stations in the domestic and international markets.

  5. Simulation modeling of nuclear steam generator water level process--a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao; Ou; Du

    2000-01-01

    Simulation modeling of the nuclear steam generator (SG) water level process in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (QNPP) is described in this paper. A practical methodology was adopted so that the model is both simple and accurate for control engineering implementation. The structure of the model is in the form of a transfer function, which was determined based on first-principles analysis and expert experience. The parameters of the model were obtained by taking advantage of the recorded historical response curves under the existing closed-loop control system. The results of process dimensional data verification and experimental tests demonstrate that the simulation model depicts the main dynamic characteristics of the SG water level process and is in accordance with the field recorded response curves. The model has been successfully applied to the design and test of an advanced digital feedwater control system in QNPP.

  6. Mechanical Properties and Microstructures of the HAZs of 11Cr F/M Steel for Gen-IV Nuclear Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongkui; Wang, Jian; Lu, Shanping; Rong, Lijian; Li, Dianzhong

    2015-02-01

    The weldability of a newly developed 11Cr ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steel to be used in Pb-Bi liquid cooled ADS for the fourth generation nuclear power station was studied by experiments and numerical simulation. In this work, an appropriate method for obtaining simulated heat-affected zones (HAZs) was developed. HAZs, including CG-HAZ, FG-HAZ, and IC-HAZ, were successfully simulated by Gleeble at heating rates of 209, 176, and 149 °C/s and peak temperatures of 1314, 1138, and 998 °C, respectively. Results of tension and impact tests indicated that the simulated HAZs had much higher strength and poorer toughness than the base metal. The poor toughness is caused by high carbon, silicon contents, and quenched martensitic microstructures. The tempering treatment is necessary for the developed steel before application in nuclear reactor.

  7. 78 FR 45987 - Vogtle Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... COMMISSION Vogtle Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Change to... COLs were issued to Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc., and Georgia Power Company, Oglethorpe... Search.'' For problems with ADAMS, please contact the NRC's Public Document Room (PDR) reference staff...

  8. 78 FR 45989 - Vogtle Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... COMMISSION Vogtle Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Change to... COLs were issued to Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc., and Georgia Power Company, Oglethorpe..., select ``ADAMS Public Documents'' and then select ``Begin Web-based ADAMS Search.'' For problems...

  9. Analysis of cat oocyte activation methods for the generation of feline disease models by nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrick Jason R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic cell nuclear transfer in cats offers a useful tool for the generation of valuable research models. However, low birth rates after nuclear transfer hamper exploitation of the full potential of the technology. Poor embryo development after activation of the reconstructed oocytes seems to be responsible, at least in part, for the low efficiency. The objective of this study was to characterize the response of cat oocytes to various stimuli in order to fine-tune existing and possibly develop new activation methods for the generation of cat disease models by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Methods First, changes in the intracellular free calcium concentration [Ca2+]i in the oocytes induced by a number of artificial stimuli were characterized. The stimuli included electroporation, ethanol, ionomycin, thimerosal, strontium-chloride and sodium (Na+-free medium. The potential of the most promising treatments (with or without subsequent incubation in the presence of cycloheximide and cytochalasin B to stimulate oocyte activation and support development of the resultant parthenogenetic embryos was then evaluated. Finally, the most effective methods were selected to activate oocytes reconstructed during nuclear transfer with fibroblasts from mucopolysaccharidosis I- and alpha-mannosidosis-affected cats. Results All treatments were able to elicit a [Ca2+]i elevation in the ooplasm with various characteristics. Pronuclear formation and development up to the blastocyst stage was most efficiently triggered by electroporation (60.5 +/- 2.9 and 11.5 +/- 1.7% and the combined thimerosal/DTT treatment (67.7 +/- 1.8 and 10.6 +/- 1.9%; incubation of the stimulated oocytes with cycloheximide and cytochalasin B had a positive effect on embryo development. When these two methods were used to activate oocytes reconstructed during nuclear transfer, up to 84.9% of the reconstructed oocytes cleaved. When the 2 to 4-cell embryos (a total of 220 were

  10. Core physics and safety analysis of Generation-IV Sodium Fast Reactors using existing and newly developed computational tools

    OpenAIRE

    Ochoa Valero, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    El futuro de la energía nuclear de fisión dependerá, entre otros factores, de la capacidad que las nuevas tecnologías demuestren para solventar los principales retos a largo plazo que se plantean. Los principales retos se pueden resumir en los siguientes aspectos: la capacidad de proporcionar una solución final, segura y fiable a los residuos radiactivos; así como dar solución a la limitación de recursos naturales necesarios para alimentar los reactores nucleares; y por último, una mejora rob...

  11. Technological status of reactor coolant pumps in generation III+ pressurized nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brecht, Bernhard; Bross, Stephan [KSB Aktiengesellschaft, Frankenthal (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    KSB has been developing and producing pumps for thermal power plants for nearly 90 years. Consequently, KSB also started to develop and manufacture pumps for all kinds of nuclear power plants from the very beginning of the civil use of nuclear energy. This is especially true for reactor coolant pumps for pressurized water reactors. For the generation of advanced evolutionary reactors (Generation III+ reactors), KSB developed an advanced shaft seal system which is also able to fulfill the requirements of station blackout conditions. The tests in the KSB test rigs, which were successfully completed in December 2015, proved the full functionality of the new design. For generation III+ passive plant reactors KSB developed a new reactor coolant pump type called RUV, which is based on the experience of classic reactor coolant pumps and reactor internal pumps. It is a very compact, hermetically sealed vertical pump-motor unit with a wet winding motor. A full scale prototype successfully passed the 1st stage qualification test program in October 2015.

  12. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Newly Generated Liquid Waste Demonstration Project Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, A.K.

    2000-02-01

    A research, development, and demonstration project for the grouting of newly generated liquid waste (NGLW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center is considered feasible. NGLW is expected from process equipment waste, decontamination waste, analytical laboratory waste, fuel storage basin waste water, and high-level liquid waste evaporator condensate. The potential grouted waste would be classed as mixed low-level waste, stabilized and immobilized to meet RCRA LDR disposal in a grouting process in the CPP-604 facility, and then transported to the state.

  13. Communication: Automatic code generation enables nuclear gradient computations for fully internally contracted multireference theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, Matthew K.; Shiozaki, Toru [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2015-02-07

    Analytical nuclear gradients for fully internally contracted complete active space second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2) are reported. This implementation has been realized by an automated code generator that can handle spin-free formulas for the CASPT2 energy and its derivatives with respect to variations of molecular orbitals and reference coefficients. The underlying complete active space self-consistent field and the so-called Z-vector equations are solved using density fitting. The implementation has been applied to the vertical and adiabatic ionization potentials of the porphin molecule to illustrate its capability.

  14. Generation of low-frequency electric and magnetic fields during large- scale chemical and nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adushkin, V.V. [Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. for Dynamics of the Geospheres; Dubinya, V.A.; Karaseva, V.A.; Soloviev, S.P.; Surkov, V.V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    We discuss the main parameters of the electric field in the surface layer of the atmosphere and the results of the investigations of the natural electric field variations. Experimental investigations of the electromagnetic field for explosions in air are presented. Electromagnetic signals generated by underground nuclear and chemical explosions are discussed and explosions for 1976--1991 are listed. Long term anomalies of the earth`s electromagnetic field in the vicinity of underground explosions were also investigated. Study of the phenomenon of the irreversible shock magnetization showed that in the zone nearest to the explosion the quasistatic magnetic field decreases in inverse proportion to the distance.

  15. Safety research of insulating materials of cable for nuclear power generating station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. K.; Choi, J. H.; Kong, Y. K.; Chang, H. S.

    1988-01-01

    The polymers PE, EPR, PVC, Neoprene, CSP, CLPE, EP and other similar substances are frequently used as insulation and protective covering for cables used in nuclear power generating stations. In order to test these materials for flame retardation, environmental resistance, and cable specifications, they were given the cable normal test, flame test, chemical tests, and subjected to design analysis and loss of coolant accident tests. Material was collected on spark tests and actual experience standards were established through these contributions and technology was accumulated.

  16. Effect of Hurricane Andrew on the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station from August 20--30, 1992. [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebdon, F.J. [Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew, a Category 4 hurricane, struck the Turkey Point Electrical Generating Station with sustained winds of 145 mph (233 km/h). This is the report of the team that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) jointly sponsored (1) to review the damage that the hurricane caused the nuclear units and the utility`s actions to prepare for the storm and recover from it, and (2) to compile lessons that might benefit other nuclear reactor facilities.

  17. Compaction Scale Up and Optimization of Cylindrical Fuel Compacts for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey J. Einerson; Jeffrey A. Phillips; Eric L. Shaber; Scott E. Niedzialek; W. Clay Richardson; Scott G. Nagley

    2012-10-01

    Multiple process approaches have been used historically to manufacture cylindrical nuclear fuel compacts. Scale-up of fuel compacting was required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project to achieve an economically viable automated production process capable of providing a minimum of 10 compacts/minute with high production yields. In addition, the scale-up effort was required to achieve matrix density equivalent to baseline historical production processes, and allow compacting at fuel packing fractions up to 46% by volume. The scale-up approach of jet milling, fluid-bed overcoating, and hot-press compacting adopted in the U.S. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development Program involves significant paradigm shifts to capitalize on distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of mixed waste. A series of designed experiments have been completed to optimize compaction conditions of time, temperature, and forming pressure using natural uranium oxycarbide (NUCO) fuel. Results from these experiments are included. The scale-up effort is nearing completion with the process installed and operational using nuclear fuel materials. The process is being certified for manufacture of qualification test fuel compacts for the AGR-5/6/7 experiment at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  18. The economic valuation on atmospheric improvement benefit by nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, S. J.; Yoo, S. H.; Han, S. Y.; Do, G. W.; Lee, J. S. [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The major contents are as follows : To begin with, major air pollutants' emissions and emission reduction facilities in industrial sectors including a power generation were investigated and the future prospect was suggested. Environmental effects by attributes of air pollutions were summarized through a extensive literature survey. And the concept of benefit-cost based upon social costs and economic values of generation was established to estimate atmospheric improvement benefits by using a nuclear power. As a result of investigating many valuation methodologies that can estimate economic values of environmental improvement, we adopted MAUA(multi-attribute utility assessment) as a research method and estimated environmental costs by air pollutant and by power generating source. Also, we presented foreign case studies related to social costs in power generating sector and horizontally compared study's results home and abroad. Then, we set up four scenarios based on total generation that the 5th long-term power resources planning forecasted and calculated economic values of atmospheric improvement benefits among scenarios. Further, we suggested the results incorporating uncertainty of estimation parameters. Finally, we suggested a rational ground to move toward environment-friendly energy consumption and proposed a plan for the national energy policy against the green age in the 21th century. 147 refs., 45 figs., 103 tabs. (Author)

  19. Copper benchmark experiment at the Frascati Neutron Generator for nuclear data validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelone, M., E-mail: maurizio.angelone@enea.it; Flammini, D.; Loreti, S.; Moro, F.; Pillon, M.; Villari, R.

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A benchmark experiment was performed using pure copper with 14 MeV neutrons. • The experiment was performed at the Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG). • Activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters and scintillators were used to measure reactions rates (RR), nuclear heating and neutron spectra. • The paper presents the RR measurements and the post analysis using MCNP5 and JEFF-3.1.1, JEFF-3.2 and FENDL-3.1 libraries. • C/Es are presented showing the need for deep revision of Cu cross sections. - Abstract: A neutronics benchmark experiment on a pure Copper block (dimensions 60 × 70 × 60 cm{sup 3}), aimed at testing and validating the recent nuclear data libraries for fusion applications, was performed at the 14-MeV Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG) as part of a F4E specific grant (F4E-FPA-395-01) assigned to the European Consortium on Nuclear Data and Experimental Techniques. The relevant neutronics quantities (e.g., reaction rates, neutron flux spectra, doses, etc.) were measured using different experimental techniques and the results were compared to the calculated quantities using fusion relevant nuclear data libraries. This paper focuses on the analyses carried-out by ENEA through the activation foils techniques. {sup 197}Au(n,γ){sup 198}Au, {sup 186}W(n,γ){sup 187}W, {sup 115}In(n,n′){sup 115}In, {sup 58}Ni(n,p){sup 58}Co, {sup 27}Al(n,α){sup 24}Na, {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92}Nb{sup m} activation reactions were used. The foils were placed at eight different positions along the Cu block and irradiated with 14 MeV neutrons. Activation measurements were performed by means of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Detailed simulation of the experiment was carried-out using MCNP5 Monte Carlo code and the European JEFF-3.1.1 and 3.2 nuclear cross-sections data files for neutron transport and IRDFF-v1.05 library for the reaction rates in activation foils. The calculated reaction rates (C) were compared to the experimental quantities (E) and

  20. 77 FR 66484 - PSEG Nuclear LLC; Hope Creek Generating Station and Salem Generating Station, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... winter weather-related entry conditions are based on forecasts issued by the National Weather Service... for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel,'' endorses the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) report, NEI 06-11, Revision 1, ``Managing Personnel Fatigue at Nuclear Power Plants,'' with clarifications, additions and...

  1. Automatic code generation enables nuclear gradient computations for fully internally contracted multireference theory

    CERN Document Server

    MacLeod, Matthew K

    2015-01-01

    Analytical nuclear gradients for fully internally contracted complete active space second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2) are reported. This implementation has been realized by an automated code generator that can handle spin-free formulas for the CASPT2 energy and its derivatives with respect to variations of molecular orbitals and reference coefficients. The underlying complete active space self-consistent field and the so-called Z-vector equations are solved using density fitting. With full internal contraction the size of first-order wave functions scales polynomially with the number of active orbitals. The CASPT2 gradient program and the code generator are both publicly available. This work enables the CASPT2 geometry optimization of molecules as complex as those investigated by respective single-point calculations.

  2. Generation of micronuclei during interphase by coupling between cytoplasmic membrane blebbing and nuclear budding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh-ichi Utani

    Full Text Available Micronucleation, mediated by interphase nuclear budding, has been repeatedly suggested, but the process is still enigmatic. In the present study, we confirmed the previous observation that there are lamin B1-negative micronuclei in addition to the positive ones. A large cytoplasmic bleb was found to frequently entrap lamin B1-negative micronuclei, which were connected to the nucleus by a thin chromatin stalk. At the bottom of the stalk, the nuclear lamin B1 structure appeared broken. Chromatin extrusion through lamina breaks has been referred to as herniation or a blister of the nucleus, and has been observed after the expression of viral proteins. A cell line in which extrachromosomal double minutes and lamin B1 protein were simultaneously visualized in different colors in live cells was established. By using these cells, time-lapse microscopy revealed that cytoplasmic membrane blebbing occurred simultaneously with the extrusion of nuclear content, which generated lamin B1-negative micronuclei during interphase. Furthermore, activation of cytoplasmic membrane blebbing by the addition of fresh serum or camptothecin induced nuclear budding within 1 to 10 minutes, which suggested that blebbing might be the cause of the budding. After the induction of blebbing, the frequency of lamin-negative micronuclei increased. The budding was most frequent during S phase and more efficiently entrapped small extrachromosomal chromatin than the large chromosome arm. Based on these results, we suggest a novel mechanism in which cytoplasmic membrane dynamics pulls the chromatin out of the nucleus through the lamina break. Evidence for such a mechanism was obtained in certain cancer cell lines including human COLO 320 and HeLa. The mechanism could significantly perturb the genome and influence cancer cell phenotypes.

  3. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant Graphite Creep Experiment Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaine Grover

    2010-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six gas reactor graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These graphite irradiations are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data, including irradiation creep, at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Very High Temperature Gas Reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain six stacks of graphite specimens, with half of the graphite specimens in each stack under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six stacks will have differing compressive loads applied to the top half of each pair of specimen stacks, while a seventh stack will not have a compressive load. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be the capability of sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any oxidation or off-gassing of the specimens occurs during initial start-up of

  4. Progress toward generating a ferret model of cystic fibrosis by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelhardt John F

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mammalian cloning by nuclear transfer from somatic cells has created new opportunities to generate animal models of genetic diseases in species other than mice. Although genetic mouse models play a critical role in basic and applied research for numerous diseases, often mouse models do not adequately reproduce the human disease phenotype. Cystic fibrosis (CF is one such disease. Targeted ablation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene in mice does not adequately replicate spontaneous bacterial infections observed in the human CF lung. Hence, several laboratories are pursuing alternative animal models of CF in larger species such as the pig, sheep, rabbits, and ferrets. Our laboratory has focused on developing the ferret as a CF animal model. Over the past few years, we have investigated several experimental parameters required for gene targeting and nuclear transfer (NT cloning in the ferret using somatic cells. In this review, we will discuss our progress and the hurdles to NT cloning and gene-targeting that accompany efforts to generate animal models of genetic diseases in species such as the ferret.

  5. Possible generation of heat from nuclear fusion in Earth’s inner core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Mikio

    2016-11-01

    The cause and source of the heat released from Earth’s interior have not yet been determined. Some research groups have proposed that the heat is supplied by radioactive decay or by a nuclear georeactor. Here we postulate that the generation of heat is the result of three-body nuclear fusion of deuterons confined in hexagonal FeDx core-centre crystals; the reaction rate is enhanced by the combined attraction effects of high-pressure (~364 GPa) and high-temperature (~5700 K) and by the physical catalysis of neutral pions: 2D + 2D + 2D → 21H + 4He + 2  + 20.85 MeV. The possible heat generation rate can be calculated as 8.12 × 1012 J/m3, based on the assumption that Earth’s primitive heat supply has already been exhausted. The H and He atoms produced and the anti-neutrino are incorporated as Fe-H based alloys in the H-rich portion of inner core, are released from Earth’s interior to the universe, and pass through Earth, respectively.

  6. X-ray-generated heralded macroscopical quantum entanglement of two nuclear ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen-Te; Keitel, Christoph H.; Pálffy, Adriana

    2016-09-01

    Heralded entanglement between macroscopical samples is an important resource for present quantum technology protocols, allowing quantum communication over large distances. In such protocols, optical photons are typically used as information and entanglement carriers between macroscopic quantum memories placed in remote locations. Here we investigate theoretically a new implementation which employs more robust x-ray quanta to generate heralded entanglement between two crystal-hosted macroscopical nuclear ensembles. Mössbauer nuclei in the two crystals interact collectively with an x-ray spontaneous parametric down conversion photon that generates heralded macroscopical entanglement with coherence times of approximately 100 ns at room temperature. The quantum phase between the entangled crystals can be conveniently manipulated by magnetic field rotations at the samples. The inherent long nuclear coherence times allow also for mechanical manipulations of the samples, for instance to check the stability of entanglement in the x-ray setup. Our results pave the way for first quantum communication protocols that use x-ray qubits.

  7. X-ray-generated heralded macroscopical quantum entanglement of two nuclear ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen-Te; Keitel, Christoph H; Pálffy, Adriana

    2016-09-19

    Heralded entanglement between macroscopical samples is an important resource for present quantum technology protocols, allowing quantum communication over large distances. In such protocols, optical photons are typically used as information and entanglement carriers between macroscopic quantum memories placed in remote locations. Here we investigate theoretically a new implementation which employs more robust x-ray quanta to generate heralded entanglement between two crystal-hosted macroscopical nuclear ensembles. Mössbauer nuclei in the two crystals interact collectively with an x-ray spontaneous parametric down conversion photon that generates heralded macroscopical entanglement with coherence times of approximately 100 ns at room temperature. The quantum phase between the entangled crystals can be conveniently manipulated by magnetic field rotations at the samples. The inherent long nuclear coherence times allow also for mechanical manipulations of the samples, for instance to check the stability of entanglement in the x-ray setup. Our results pave the way for first quantum communication protocols that use x-ray qubits.

  8. Possible generation of heat from nuclear fusion in Earth's inner core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Mikio

    2016-11-23

    The cause and source of the heat released from Earth's interior have not yet been determined. Some research groups have proposed that the heat is supplied by radioactive decay or by a nuclear georeactor. Here we postulate that the generation of heat is the result of three-body nuclear fusion of deuterons confined in hexagonal FeDx core-centre crystals; the reaction rate is enhanced by the combined attraction effects of high-pressure (~364 GPa) and high-temperature (~5700 K) and by the physical catalysis of neutral pions: (2)D + (2)D + (2)D → 2(1)H + (4)He + 2  + 20.85 MeV. The possible heat generation rate can be calculated as 8.12 × 10(12) J/m(3), based on the assumption that Earth's primitive heat supply has already been exhausted. The H and He atoms produced and the anti-neutrino are incorporated as Fe-H based alloys in the H-rich portion of inner core, are released from Earth's interior to the universe, and pass through Earth, respectively.

  9. A Critical Heat Generation for Safe Nuclear Fuels after a LOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Yong Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study applies a thermo-elasto-plastic-creep finite element procedure to the analysis of an accidental behavior of nuclear fuel as well as normal behavior. The result will be used as basic data for the robust design of nuclear power plant and fuels. We extended the range of mechanical strain from small or medium to large adopting the Hencky logarithmic strain measure in addition to the Green-Lagrange strain and Almansi strain measures, for the possible large strain situation in accidental environments. We found that there is a critical heat generation after LOCA without ECCS (event category 5, under which the cladding of fuel sustains the internal pressure and temperature for the time being for the rescue of the power plant. With the heat generation above the critical value caused by malfunctioning of the control rods, the stiffness of cladding becomes zero due to the softening by high temperature. The weak position of cladding along the length continuously bulges radially to burst and to discharge radioactive substances. This kind of cases should be avoid by any means.

  10. Gen IV Nuclear Energy Systems Interim Status Report on Pre-conceptual LFR Design Studies and Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, W G; Brown, N W; Smith, C F; Sienicki, J J; Moisseytsev, A V; Kim, S J; Smith, M A; Yang, W S; Williamson, M; Li, N

    2005-02-09

    Previous pre-conceptual core neutronics and system thermal hydraulics calculations initiated the investigation of viability of a Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR) lead-cooled small modular fast reactor concept.1 The calculations indicated that a single-phase natural circulation SSTAR reactor concept with good core reactor physics performance, good system thermal hydraulics performance, and a high Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle efficiency of 40 % may be viable at an electrical power of 18 MWe (45 MWt). Pre-conceptual studies of SSTAR viability have continued with the objective of improving the system thermal hydraulic performance and raising the plant efficiency as well as extending the neutronics analysis. This effort has been motivated by several considerations. First, the initial Pre-conceptual studies were focused upon a ''pancake'' core having a height-to-diameter of 0.5. It was found that a compact core with high average burn up could be realized with a height-to-diameter ratio of 0.8. Second, the initial assumed reactor vessel height of 12.2 meters limited the height of the Pb-to-CO{sub 2} in-reactor heat exchangers (HXs) which reduced the efficiency of supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton cycle power converter. It was found that by increasing the reactor vessel height to 18 meters, the greater driving head for single-phase natural circulation would offset both the greater pressure drop of the 0.8 height-to-diameter ratio core as well as the pressure drop of taller HXs. This has enabled the plant efficiency to be increased from 40 to 43 % and the plant electrical power to be raised from 18 to 20 MWe. Third, reactivity feedback coefficients, which had previously not been generated for SSTAR, have now been calculated for the core. The reactivity feedback coefficients provide a basis for future investigation of the autonomous load following and passive shutdown behavior of the reactor. The

  11. Developing the User Experience for a Next Generation Nuclear Fuel Cycle Simulator (NGFCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Paul H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Schneider, Erich [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Pascucci, Valerio [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Livnat, Yarden [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hiromoto, Robert [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Scopatz, Anthony [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Brossard, Dominique [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Scheufele, Dietram [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-07-30

    This project made substantial progress on its original aim for providing a modern user experience for nuclear fuel cycle analysis while also creating a robust and functional next- generation fuel cycle simulator. The Cyclus kernel experienced a dramatic clari cation of its interfaces and data model, becoming a full- edged agent-based framework, with strong support for third party developers of novel archetypes. The most important contribution of this project to the the development of Cyclus was the introduction of tools to facilitate archetype development. These include automated code generation of routine archetype components, metadata annotations to provide re ection and rich description of each data member's purpose, and mechanisms for input validation and output of complex data. A comprehensive social science investigation of decision makers' interests in nuclear fuel cycles, and speci cally their interests in nuclear fuel cycle simulators (NFCSs) as tools for understanding nuclear fuel cycle options, was conducted. This included document review and analysis, stakeholder interviews, and a survey of decision makers. This information was used to study the role of visualization formats and features in communicating information about nuclear fuel cycles. A exible and user-friendly tool was developed for building Cyclus analysis models, featuring a drag-and-drop interface and automatic input form generation for novel archetypes. Cycic allows users to design fuel cycles from arbitrary collections of facilities for the rst time, with mechanisms that contribute to consistency within that fuel cycle. Interacting with some of the metadata capabilities introduced in the above-mentioned tools to support archetype development, Cycic also automates the generation of user input forms for novel archetypes with little to no special knowledge required by the archetype developers. Translation of the fundamental metrics of Cyclus into more interesting quantities is

  12. Analysis of Emergency Diesel Generators Failure Incidents in Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Ronderio LaDavis

    In early years of operation, emergency diesel generators have had a minimal rate of demand failures. Emergency diesel generators are designed to operate as a backup when the main source of electricity has been disrupted. As of late, EDGs (emergency diesel generators) have been failing at NPPs (nuclear power plants) around the United States causing either station blackouts or loss of onsite and offsite power. These failures occurred from a specific type called demand failures. This thesis evaluated the current problem that raised concern in the nuclear industry which was averaging 1 EDG demand failure/year in 1997 to having an excessive event of 4 EDG demand failure year which occurred in 2011. To determine the next occurrence of the extreme event and possible cause to an event of such happening, two analyses were conducted, the statistical and root cause analysis. Considering the statistical analysis in which an extreme event probability approach was applied to determine the next occurrence year of an excessive event as well as, the probability of that excessive event occurring. Using the root cause analysis in which the potential causes of the excessive event occurred by evaluating, the EDG manufacturers, aging, policy changes/ maintenance practices and failure components. The root cause analysis investigated the correlation between demand failure data and historical data. Final results from the statistical analysis showed expectations of an excessive event occurring in a fixed range of probability and a wider range of probability from the extreme event probability approach. The root-cause analysis of the demand failure data followed historical statistics for the EDG manufacturer, aging and policy changes/ maintenance practices but, indicated a possible cause regarding the excessive event with the failure components. Conclusions showed the next excessive demand failure year, prediction of the probability and the next occurrence year of such failures, with an

  13. Nuclear systems of the future: international forum generation 4 and research and development projects at the Cea; Systemes nucleaires du futur: forum international generation 4 et projets de R et D du CEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, F

    2003-07-01

    To advance nuclear energy to meet future energy needs, ten countries have agreed to develop a future generation of nuclear energy systems, known as Generation 4. A technology road map to guide the Generation 4 effort was begun. This document presents the goals for these nuclear systems and the research programs of the Cea on the gas technology, GT-MHR, VHTR and GFR and the other systems as sodium Fast Neutron reactors, supercritical water and space nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  14. New Materials for NGNP/Gen IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert W. Swindeman; Douglas L. Marriott

    2009-12-18

    The bounding conditions were briefly summarized for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) that is the leading candidate in the Department of Energy Generation IV reactor program. Metallic materials essential to the successful development and proof of concept for the NGNP were identified. The literature bearing on the materials technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors was reviewed with emphasis on the needs identified for the NGNP. Several materials were identified for a more thorough study of their databases and behavioral features relative to the requirements ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 1, Subsection NH.

  15. Present and future nuclear power generation as a reflection of individual countries' resources and objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, I.Y.

    1987-06-26

    The nuclear reactor industry has been in a state of decline for more than a decade in most of the world. The reasons are numerous and often unique to the energy situation of individual countries. Two commonly cited issues influence decisions relating to construction of reactors: costs and the need, or lack thereof, for additional generating capacity. Public concern has ''politicized'' the nuclear industry in many non-communist countries, causing a profound effect on the economics of the option. The nuclear installations and future plans are reviewed on a country-by-country basis for 36 countries in the light of the resources and objectives of each. Because oil and gas for power production throughout the world are being phased out as much as possible, coal-fired generation currently tends to be the chosen alternative to nuclear power production. Exceptions occur in many of the less developed countries that collectively have a very limited operating experience with nuclear reactors. The Chernobyl accident in the USSR alarmed the public; however, national strategies and plans to build reactors have not changed markedly in the interim. Assuming that the next decade of nuclear power generation is uneventful, additional electrical demand would cause the nuclear power industry to experience a rejuvenation in Europe as well as in the US. 80 refs., 3 figs., 22 tabs.

  16. Electrical energy generation in Europe the current situation and perspectives in the use of renewable energy sources and nuclear power for regional electricity generation

    CERN Document Server

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The present book maximizes reader insights into the current and future roles to be played by different types of renewable energy sources and nuclear energy for the purpose of electricity generation in the European region as a whole and in a select group of European countries specifically. This book includes detailed analysis of the different types of renewable energy sources available in different European countries; the pros and cons of the use of the different types of renewables and nuclear energy for electricity generation; which energy options are available in the different European coun

  17. Molecular characterization and polyclonal antibody generation against core component CagX protein of Helicobacter pylori type IV secretion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Gopal Jee; Kumar, Awanish; Pal, Jagannath; Mukhopadhyay, Gauranga

    2014-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria Helicobacter pylori cause gastric ulcer, duodenal cancer, and found in almost half of the world’s residents. The protein responsible for this disease is secreted through type IV secretion system (TFSS) of H. pylori. TFSS is encoded by 40-kb region of chromosomal DNA known as cag-pathogenicity island (PAI). TFSS comprises of three major components: cytoplasmic/inner membrane ATPase, transmembrane core-complex and outer membranous pilli, and associated subunits. Core complex consists of CagX, CagT, CagM, and Cag3(δ) proteins as per existing knowledge. In this study, we have characterized one of the important component of core-complex forming sub-unit protein, i.e., CagX. Complete ORF of CagX except signal peptide coding region was cloned and expressed in pET28a vector. Purification of CagX protein was performed, and polyclonal anti-sera against full-length recombinant CagX were raised in rabbit model. We obtained a very specific and high titer, CagX anti-sera that were utilized to characterize endogenous CagX. Surface localization of CagX was also seen by immunofluorescence microscopy. In short for the first time a full-length CagX was characterized, and we showed that CagX is the part of high molecular weight core complex, which is important for assembly and function of H. pylori TFSS. PMID:24637488

  18. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials Research and Development Plan (PLN-2803)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Wright; R. N. Wright

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production, with an outlet gas temperature in the range of 750°C, and a design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic, or pebble bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic (TRISO)-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. This technology development plan details the additional research and development (R&D) required to design and license the NGNP RPV, assuming that A 508/A 533 is the material of construction. The majority of additional information that is required is related to long-term aging behavior at NGNP vessel temperatures, which are somewhat above those commonly encountered in the existing database from LWR experience. Additional data are also required for the anticipated NGNP environment. An assessment of required R&D for a Grade 91 vessel has been retained from the first revision of the R&D plan in Appendix B in somewhat less detail. Considerably more development is required for this steel compared to A 508/A 533 including additional irradiation testing for expected NGNP operating temperatures, high-temperature mechanical properties, and extensive studies of long-term microstructural stability.

  19. New generation nuclear fuel structures: dense particles in selectively soluble matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sickafus, Kurt E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Devlin, David J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jarvinen, Gordon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patterson, Brian M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pattillo, Steve G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdez, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Jonathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a technology for dispersing sub-millimeter sized fuel particles within a bulk matrix that can be selectively dissolved. This may enable the generation of advanced nuclear fuels with easy separation of actinides and fission products. The large kinetic energy of the fission products results in most of them escaping from the sub-millimeter sized fuel particles and depositing in the matrix during burning of the fuel in the reactor. After the fuel is used and allowed to cool for a period of time, the matrix can be dissolved and the fission products removed for disposal while the fuel particles are collected by filtration for recycle. The success of such an approach would meet a major goal of the GNEP program to provide advanced recycle technology for nuclear energy production. The benefits of such an approach include (1) greatly reduced cost of the actinide/fission product separation process, (2) ease of recycle of the fuel particles, and (3) a radiation barrier to prevent theft or diversion of the recycled fuel particles during the time they are re-fabricated into new fuel. In this study we describe a method to make surrogate nuclear fuels of micrometer scale W (shell)/Mo (core) or HfO2 particles embedded in an MgO matrix that allows easy separation of the fission products and their embedded particles. In brief, the method consists of physically mixing W-Mo or hafnia particles with an MgO precursor. Heating the mixture, in air or argon, without agitation, to a temperature is required for complete decomposition of the precursor. The resulting material was examined using chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and micro X-ray computed tomography and found to consist of evenly dispersed particles in an MgO + matrix. We believe this methodology can be extended to actinides and other matrix materials.

  20. Generation of transgenic Wuzhishan miniature pigs expressing monomeric red fluorescent protein by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yue; Kang, Jin-Dan; Li, Suo; Wang, Wei; Jin, Jun-Xue; Hong, Yu; Cui, Cheng-du; Yan, Chang-Guo; Yin, Xi-Jun

    2013-08-01

    Red fluorescent protein and its variants enable researchers to study gene expression, localization, and protein-protein interactions in vitro in real-time. Fluorophores with higher wavelengths are usually preferred since they efficiently penetrate tissues and produce less toxic emissions. A recently developed fluorescent protein marker, monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1), is particularly useful because of its rapid maturation and minimal interference with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and GFP-derived markers. We generated a pCX-mRFP1-pgk-neoR construct and evaluated the ability of mRFP1 to function as a fluorescent marker in transgenic Wuzhishan miniature pigs. Transgenic embryos were generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) of nuclei isolated from ear fibroblasts expressing mRFP1. Embryos generated by SCNT developed into blastocysts in vitro (11.65%; 31/266). Thereafter, a total of 685 transgenic embryos were transferred into the oviducts of three recipients, two of which became pregnant. Of these, one recipient had six aborted fetuses, whereas the other recipient gave birth to four offspring. All offspring expressed the pCX-mRFP1-pgk-neoR gene as shown by PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. The transgenic pigs expressed mRFP1 in all organs and tissues at high levels. These results demonstrate that Wuzhishan miniature pigs can express mRFP1. To conclude, this transgenic animal represents an excellent model with widespread applications in medicine and agriculture.

  1. Mutations of nuclear localization signals in mNANOG generate dominant negative mutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Juan; ZHANG XiaoFei; PEI DuanQing

    2009-01-01

    Mouse NANOG plays a critical role in maintaining self-renewal and pluripotency of embryonic stem cells.Yet,the precise mechanism of how mNANOG functions is still less known.Here,we report that mouse NANOG has two nuclear localization signals (NLS,RKQKMR and RMKCKR) which are respon-sible for the nuclear localization and transcriptional activity in the conserved homeobox domain.NLS mutants of mouse NANOG generate:3 mutants that are localized throughout the cells and lose the transectivation function.We further prove that all three NLS mutants may interact with the wild-type mouse NANOG like NANOG dimerization itself and inhibit the wild-type mouse NANOG activity,acting as dominant negative mutants.The NLS mutants of mouse NANOG may also inhibit activity of oct4 promoter in pluripotent cells,indicating that the NLS mutants can affect the endogenous mouse NANOG function in vivo.These data suggest that the NLS mutants of mouse NANOG may be used as a tool to regulate NANOG activity in pluripotent cells.

  2. Structural integrity analysis of the degraded drywell containment at the Oyster Creek Nuclear generating station.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, Jason P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the effects of the degradation experienced in the steel drywell containment at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Specifically, the structural integrity of the containment shell is examined in terms of the stress limits using the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code, Section III, Division I, Subsection NE, and examined in terms of buckling (stability) using the ASME B&PV Code Case N-284. Degradation of the steel containment shell (drywell) at Oyster Creek was first observed during an outage in the mid-1980s. Subsequent inspections discovered reductions in the shell thickness due to corrosion throughout the containment. Specifically, significant corrosion occurred in the sandbed region of the lower sphere. Since the presence of the wet sand provided an environment which supported corrosion, a series of analyses were conducted by GE Nuclear Energy in the early 1990s. These analyses examined the effects of the degradation on the structural integrity. The current study adopts many of the same assumptions and data used in the previous GE study. However, the additional computational recourses available today enable the construction of a larger and more sophisticated structural model.

  3. Research and Development Technology Development Roadmaps for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian McKirdy

    2011-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for process heat, hydrogen and electricity production. The reactor will be graphite moderated with helium as the primary coolant and may be either prismatic or pebble-bed. Although, final design features have not yet been determined. Research and Development (R&D) activities are proceeding on those known plant systems to mature the technology, codify the materials for specific applications, and demonstrate the component and system viability in NGNP relevant and integrated environments. Collectively these R&D activities serve to reduce the project risk and enhance the probability of on-budget, on-schedule completion and NRC licensing. As the design progresses, in more detail, toward final design and approval for construction, selected components, which have not been used in a similar application, in a relevant environment nor integrated with other components and systems, must be tested to demonstrate viability at reduced scales and simulations prior to full scale operation. This report and its R&D TDRMs present the path forward and its significance in assuring technical readiness to perform the desired function by: Choreographing the integration between design and R&D activities; and proving selected design components in relevant applications.

  4. Cat-state generation and stabilization for a nuclear spin through electric quadrupole interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulutay, Ceyhun

    2017-07-01

    Spin cat states are superpositions of two or more coherent spin states (CSSs) that are distinctly separated over the Bloch sphere. Additionally, the nuclei with angular momenta greater than 1/2 possess a quadrupolar charge distribution. At the intersection of these two phenomena, we devise a simple scheme for generating various types of nuclear-spin cat states. The native biaxial electric quadrupole interaction that is readily available in strained solid-state systems plays a key role here. However, the fact that built-in strain cannot be switched off poses a challenge for the stabilization of target cat states once they are prepared. We remedy this by abruptly diverting via a single rotation pulse the state evolution to the neighborhood of the fixed points of the underlying classical Hamiltonian flow. Optimal process parameters are obtained as a function of electric field gradient biaxiality and nuclear-spin angular momentum. The overall procedure is seen to be robust under 5% deviations from optimal values. We show that higher-level cat states with four superposed CSS can also be formed using three rotation pulses. Finally, for open systems subject to decoherence we extract the scaling of cat-state fidelity damping with respect to the spin quantum number. This reveals rates greater than the dephasing of individual CSSs. Yet, our results affirm that these cat states can preserve their fidelities for practically useful durations under the currently attainable decoherence levels.

  5. An innovative approach for Steam Generator Pressure Control of a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaikwad, Avinash J., E-mail: avinashg@barc.gov.in [Reactor Safety Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400094 (India); Vijayan, P.K. [Reactor Engineering Divisions, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400094 (India); Bhartiya, Sharad [Chemical Engineering Departments, IIT, Powai, Mumbai (India); Kumar, Rajesh; Lele, H.G.; Vaze, K.K. [Reactor Safety Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most of the transients/accidents have their origin in the mismatch among the heat generated in the reactor core and the heat removal in the SGs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The main objective of balancing the heat generation, transfer and removal gets lost due to simplification of SGPC leading to reduced availability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new Advanced Process Control (APC) is proposed to ride over the existing SGPC to achieve the goal of prompt removal of the heat transfer mismatch. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The APC logic will lead to overall performance improvements and plant availability for all other transients also. - Abstract: The main function of the Steam Generator Pressure Control (SGPC) Program is to match the power (heat) generation in the reactor core with the heat removal in the steam generators (SGs). For most of the designs these programs have been over simplified to cater to the limitation of the instrumentation and control, hardware and software. The main objective of balancing the heat generation, transfer and removal gets lost in the process, which leads to reduction in the availability of the nuclear power plant. This is reflected in under utilization of the process and control system provisions to avoid reactor trips on low/high pressure. Most of the transients/accidents have their origin in the mismatch among the heat generated in the reactor core and the heat removal in the SGs. A new Advanced Process Control (APC) based supervisory controller is proposed to ride over the existing SGPC to achieve the goal. This APC makes use of the estimated/measured heat generation-removal error to alter the SGPC set point to tide over the transients after detection. The transients are detected based on the magnitude of this error to activate the APC. After tiding over the transient successfully the control switches back to the existing SGPC. For evaluation of this error additional instrumentation is

  6. The evaluation of the pyrochemistry for the treatment of Gen IV nuclear fuels Inert matrix chlorination studies in the gas phase or molten chloride salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourg, S.; Péron, F.; Lacquement, J.

    2007-01-01

    The structure of the fuels for the future Gen IV nuclear reactors will be totally different from those of PWR, especially for the GFR concept including a closed cycle. In these reactors, fissile materials (carbides or nitrides of actinides) should be surrounded by an inert matrix. In order to build a reprocessing process scheme, the behavior of the potential inert matrices (silicon carbide, titanium nitride, and zirconium carbide and nitride) was studied by hydro- and pyrometallurgy. This paper deals with the chlorination results at high temperature by pyrometallurgy. For the first time, the reactivity of the matrix towards chlorine gas was assessed in the gas phase. TiN, ZrN and ZrC are very reactive from 400 °C whereas it is necessary to be over 900 °C for SiC to be as fast. In molten chloride melts, the bubbling of chlorine gas is less efficient than in gas phase but it is possible to attack the matrices. Electrochemical methods were also used to dissolve the refractory materials, leading to promising results with TiN, ZrN and ZrC. The massive SiC samples used were not conductive enough to be studied and in this case specific SiC-coated carbon electrodes were used. The key point of these studies was to find a method to separate the matrix compounds from the fissile material in order to link the head to the core of the process (electrochemical separation or liquid-liquid reductive extraction in the case of a pyrochemical reprocessing).

  7. Production of tungsten-188 and osmium-194 in a nuclear reactor for new clinical generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzadeh, S.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Callahan, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    Rhenium-188 and iridium-194 are potential candidates for radioimmunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies directed against tumor-associated antigens. Both nuclei are short-lived and decay by high energy {Beta}{minus} emission. In addition, both nuclei emit {gamma}-rays with energy suitable for imaging. An important characteristics is availability of {sup 188}Re and {sup 194}Ir from decay of reactor-produced parents ({sup 188}W and {sup 194}Os, respectively) in convenient generator systems. The {sup 188}W and {sup 194}Os are produced by double neutron capture of {sup 186}W and {sup 192}Os, respectively. The large scale production yields of {sup 188}W in several nuclear reactors will be presented. We also report a new management for the cross-section of {sup 193}Os(n,{gamma}){sup 194}Os reaction and discuss the feasibility of producing sufficient quantities of {sup 194}Os. 17 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Prismatic HTGR Conceptual Design Project - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saurwein, John

    2011-07-15

    This report is the Final Technical Report for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Prismatic HTGR Conceptual Design Project conducted by a team led by General Atomics under DOE Award DE-NE0000245. The primary overall objective of the project was to develop and document a conceptual design for the Steam Cycle Modular Helium Reactor (SC-MHR), which is the reactor concept proposed by General Atomics for the NGNP Demonstration Plant. The report summarizes the project activities over the entire funding period, compares the accomplishments with the goals and objectives of the project, and discusses the benefits of the work. The report provides complete listings of the products developed under the award and the key documents delivered to the DOE.

  9. STARLIB: A Next-Generation Reaction-Rate Library for Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Sallaska, A L; Champagne, A E; Goriely, S; Starrfield, S; Timmes, F X

    2013-01-01

    STARLIB is a next-generation, all-purpose nuclear reaction-rate library. For the first time, this library provides the rate probability density at all temperature grid points for convenient implementation in models of stellar phenomena. The recommended rate and its associated uncertainties are also included. Currently, uncertainties are absent from all other rate libraries, and, although estimates have been attempted in previous evaluations and compilations, these are generally not based on rigorous statistical definitions. A common standard for deriving uncertainties is clearly warranted. STARLIB represents a first step in addressing this deficiency by providing a tabular, up-to-date database that supplies not only the rate and its uncertainty but also its distribution. Because a majority of rates are lognormally distributed, this allows the construction of rate probability densities from the columns of STARLIB. This structure is based on a recently suggested Monte Carlo method to calculate reaction rates, w...

  10. "Life without nuclear power": A nuclear plant retirement formulation model and guide based on economics. San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station case: Economic impacts and reliability considerations leading to plant retirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasko, Frank

    Traditionally, electric utilities have been slow to change and very bureaucratic in nature. This culture, in and of itself, has now contributed to a high percentage of United States electric utilities operating uneconomical nuclear plants (Crooks, 2014). The economic picture behind owning and operating United States nuclear plants is less than favorable for many reasons including rising fuel, capital and operating costs (EUCG, 2012). This doctoral dissertation is specifically focused on life without nuclear power. The purpose of this dissertation is to create a model and guide that will provide electric utilities who currently operate or will operate uneconomical nuclear plants the opportunity to economically assess whether or not their nuclear plant should be retired. This economic assessment and stakeholder analysis will provide local government, academia and communities the opportunity to understand how Southern California Edison (SCE) embraced system upgrade import and "voltage support" opportunities to replace "base load" generation from San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) versus building new replacement generation facilities. This model and guide will help eliminate the need to build large replacement generation units as demonstrated in the SONGS case analysis. The application of The Nuclear Power Retirement Model and Guide will provide electric utilities with economic assessment parameters and an evaluation assessment progression needed to better evaluate when an uneconomical nuclear plant should be retired. It will provide electric utilities the opportunity to utilize sound policy, planning and development skill sets when making this difficult decision. There are currently 62 nuclear power plants (with 100 nuclear reactors) operating in the United States (EIA, 2014). From this group, 38 are at risk of early retirement based on the work of Cooper (2013). As demonstrated in my model, 35 of the 38 nuclear power plants qualify to move to the economic

  11. Environmental radiological studies downstream from Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Dawson, J.W.; Brunk, J.L.; Jokela, T.A.

    1985-03-22

    This report summarizes the information compiled in 1984 while assessing the environmental impact of radionuclides in aquatic releases from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station. Gamma-emitting radionuclides discharged since 1981 are found in many of the dietary components derived from the creeks receiving the effluent wastewater. Some soils and crops are found to contain radionuclides that originate from the contaminated water that was transferred to land during the irrigation season. /sup 134/Cs and /sup 137/Cs are the primary gamma-emitting radionuclides detected in the edible flesh of fish from the creeks. Concentrations in the flesh of fish decreased exponentially with distance from the plant. No significant differences in the /sup 137/Cs activity were found between male and female fish of equal size, but concentrations may vary in fish of different size, with the season and diet. 21% of the total /sup 137/Cs and /sup 134/Cs discharged between 1981 and 1984 is associated with the creek sediments to a distance of 27 km from the plant. Fractions of the missing inventory have been transferred to land during the irrigation season or to downstream regions more distant than 27 km from the plant. The radiocesium content of the sediments in 1984 decreased significantly in a downstream direction, much in the same manner as concentrations decreased in fish. Radioactivity originating from the plant was not above detection limits in any terrestrial food item sampled beyond 6.5 km from the plant. Based on the usage factors provided by individuals interviewed in a 1984 survey, the fish and aquatic-organism ingestion pathway contributed the largest radiological dose to humans utilizing products contaminated with the radionuclides in the liquid wastes discharged from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station in 1984.

  12. Measurements of tritium (HTO, TFWT, OBT) in environmental samples at varying distances from a nuclear generating station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotzer, T.G.; Workman, W.J.G

    1999-12-01

    Concentrations of tritium have been measured in environmental samples (vegetation, water, soil, air) from sites distal and proximal to a CANDU nuclear generating station in Southern Ontario (OPG-Pickering). Levels of tissue-free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT) in vegetation are as high as 24,000 TU immediately adjacent to the nuclear generating station and rapidly decrease to levels of tritium which are comparable to natural ambient concentrations for tritium in the environment (approximately {<=} 60 TU). Tritium concentrations (OBT, TFTW) have also been measured in samples of vegetation and tree rings growing substantial distances away from nuclear generating stations and are within a factor of 1 to 2 of the ambient levels of tritium measured in precipitation in several parts of Canada (approximately {<=}30 TU). (author)

  13. Measurements of tritium (HTO, TFWT, OBT) in environmental samples at varying distances from a nuclear generating station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotzer, T.G.; Workman, W.J.G

    1999-12-01

    Concentrations of tritium have been measured in environmental samples (vegetation, water, soil, air) from sites distal and proximal to a CANDU nuclear generating station in Southern Ontario (OPG-Pickering). Levels of tissue-free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT) in vegetation are as high as 24,000 TU immediately adjacent to the nuclear generating station and rapidly decrease to levels of tritium which are comparable to natural ambient concentrations for tritium in the environment (approximately {<=} 60 TU). Tritium concentrations (OBT, TFTW) have also been measured in samples of vegetation and tree rings growing substantial distances away from nuclear generating stations and are within a factor of 1 to 2 of the ambient levels of tritium measured in precipitation in several parts of Canada (approximately {<=}30 TU). (author)

  14. Generation of biallelic knock-out sheep via gene-editing and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Honghui; Wang, Gui; Hao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Guozhong; Qing, Yubo; Liu, Shuanghui; Qing, Lili; Pan, Weirong; Chen, Lei; Liu, Guichun; Zhao, Ruoping; Jia, Baoyu; Zeng, Luyao; Guo, Jianxiong; Zhao, Lixiao; Zhao, Heng; Lv, Chaoxiang; Xu, Kaixiang; Cheng, Wenmin; Li, Hushan; Zhao, Hong-Ye; Wang, Wen; Wei, Hong-Jiang

    2016-09-22

    Transgenic sheep can be used to achieve genetic improvements in breeds and as an important large-animal model for biomedical research. In this study, we generated a TALEN plasmid specific for ovine MSTN and transfected it into fetal fibroblast cells of STH sheep. MSTN biallelic-KO somatic cells were selected as nuclear donor cells for SCNT. In total, cloned embryos were transferred into 37 recipient gilts, 28 (75.7%) becoming pregnant and 15 delivering, resulting in 23 lambs, 12 of which were alive. Mutations in the lambs were verified via sequencing and T7EI assay, and the gene mutation site was consistent with that in the donor cells. Off-target analysis was performed, and no off-target mutations were detected. MSTN KO affected the mRNA expression of MSTN relative genes. The growth curve for the resulting sheep suggested that MSTN KO caused a remarkable increase in body weight compared with those of wild-type sheep. Histological analyses revealed that MSTN KO resulted in muscle fiber hypertrophy. These findings demonstrate the successful generation of MSTN biallelic-KO STH sheep via gene editing in somatic cells using TALEN technology and SCNT. These MSTN mutant sheep developed and grew normally, and exhibited increased body weight and muscle growth.

  15. Software emulator of nuclear pulse generation with different pulse shapes and pile-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechousek, Jiri; Konecny, Daniel; Novak, Petr; Kouril, Lukas; Kohout, Pavel; Celiktas, Cuneyt; Vujtek, Milan

    2016-08-01

    The optimal detection of output signals from nuclear counting devices represents one of the key physical factors that govern accuracy and experimental reproducibility. In this context, the fine calibration of the detector under diverse experimental scenarios, although time costly, is necessary. However this process can be rendered easier with the use of systems that work in lieu of emulators. In this report we describe an innovative programmable pulse generator device capable to emulate the scintillation detector signals, in a way to mimic the detector performances under a variety of experimental conditions. The emulator generates a defined number of pulses, with a given shape and amplitude in the form of a sampled detector signal. The emulator output is then used off-line by a spectrometric system in order to set up its optimal performance. Three types of pulse shapes are produced by our device, with the possibility to add noise and pulse pile-up effects into the signal. The efficiency of the pulse detection, pile-up rejection and/or correction, together with the dead-time of the system, are therein analyzed through the use of some specific algorithms for pulse processing, and the results obtained validate the beneficial use of emulators for the accurate calibration process of spectrometric systems.

  16. Software emulator of nuclear pulse generation with different pulse shapes and pile-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechousek, Jiri, E-mail: jiri.pechousek@upol.cz [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Konecny, Daniel [Department of Optics, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 77 146 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Novak, Petr; Kouril, Lukas; Kohout, Pavel [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Celiktas, Cuneyt [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Vujtek, Milan [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2016-08-21

    The optimal detection of output signals from nuclear counting devices represents one of the key physical factors that govern accuracy and experimental reproducibility. In this context, the fine calibration of the detector under diverse experimental scenarios, although time costly, is necessary. However this process can be rendered easier with the use of systems that work in lieu of emulators. In this report we describe an innovative programmable pulse generator device capable to emulate the scintillation detector signals, in a way to mimic the detector performances under a variety of experimental conditions. The emulator generates a defined number of pulses, with a given shape and amplitude in the form of a sampled detector signal. The emulator output is then used off-line by a spectrometric system in order to set up its optimal performance. Three types of pulse shapes are produced by our device, with the possibility to add noise and pulse pile-up effects into the signal. The efficiency of the pulse detection, pile-up rejection and/or correction, together with the dead-time of the system, are therein analyzed through the use of some specific algorithms for pulse processing, and the results obtained validate the beneficial use of emulators for the accurate calibration process of spectrometric systems.

  17. Dryout occurrence in a helically coiled steam generator for nuclear power application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santini L.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dryout phenomena have been experimentally investigated in a helically coiled steam generator tube. The experiences carried out in the present work are part of a wide experimental program devoted to the study of a GEN III+ innovative nuclear power plant [1].The experimental facility consists in an electrically heated AISI 316L stainless steel coiled tube. The tube is 32 meters long, 12.53 mm of inner diameter, with a coil diameter of 1m and a pitch of 0.79 m, resulting in a total height of the steam generator of 8 meters. The thermo-hydraulics conditions for dryout investigations covered a spectrum of mass fluxes between 199 and 810 kg/m2s, the pressures ranges from 10.7 to 60.7 bar, heat fluxes between 43.6 to 209.3 kW/m2.Very high first qualities dryout, between 0.72 and 0.92, were found in the range of explored conditions, comparison of our results with literature available correlations shows the difficulty in predicting high qualities dryout in helical coils., immediately following the heading. The text should be set to 1.15 line spacing. The abstract should be centred across the page, indented 15 mm from the left and right page margins and justified. It should not normally exceed 200 words.

  18. Monoenergetic proton emission from nuclear reaction induced by high intensity laser-generated plasmaa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, L.; Cavallaro, S.; Cutroneo, M.; Giuffrida, L.; Krasa, J.; Margarone, D.; Velyhan, A.; Kravarik, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Wolowski, J.; Szydlowski, A.; Rosinski, M.

    2012-02-01

    A 1016 W/cm2 Asterix laser pulse intensity, 1315 nm at the fundamental frequency, 300 ps pulse duration, was employed at PALS laboratory of Prague, to irradiate thick and thin primary CD2 targets placed inside a high vacuum chamber. The laser irradiation produces non-equilibrium plasma with deutons and carbon ions emission with energy of up to about 4 MeV per charge state, as measured by time-of-flight (TOF) techniques by using ion collectors and silicon carbide detectors. Accelerated deutons may induce high D-D cross section for fusion processes generating 3 MeV protons and 2.5 MeV neutrons, as measured by TOF analyses. In order to increase the mono-energetic proton yield, secondary CD2 targets can be employed to be irradiated by the plasma-accelerated deutons. Experiments demonstrated that high intensity laser pulses can be employed to promote nuclear reactions from which characteristic ion streams may be developed. Results open new scenario for applications of laser-generated plasma to the fields of ion sources and ion accelerators.

  19. Monoenergetic proton emission from nuclear reaction induced by high intensity laser-generated plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, L; Cavallaro, S; Cutroneo, M; Giuffrida, L; Krasa, J; Margarone, D; Velyhan, A; Kravarik, J; Ullschmied, J; Wolowski, J; Szydlowski, A; Rosinski, M

    2012-02-01

    A 10(16) W∕cm(2) Asterix laser pulse intensity, 1315 nm at the fundamental frequency, 300 ps pulse duration, was employed at PALS laboratory of Prague, to irradiate thick and thin primary CD(2) targets placed inside a high vacuum chamber. The laser irradiation produces non-equilibrium plasma with deutons and carbon ions emission with energy of up to about 4 MeV per charge state, as measured by time-of-flight (TOF) techniques by using ion collectors and silicon carbide detectors. Accelerated deutons may induce high D-D cross section for fusion processes generating 3 MeV protons and 2.5 MeV neutrons, as measured by TOF analyses. In order to increase the mono-energetic proton yield, secondary CD(2) targets can be employed to be irradiated by the plasma-accelerated deutons. Experiments demonstrated that high intensity laser pulses can be employed to promote nuclear reactions from which characteristic ion streams may be developed. Results open new scenario for applications of laser-generated plasma to the fields of ion sources and ion accelerators.

  20. Monoenergetic proton emission from nuclear reaction induced by high intensity laser-generated plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, L. [INFN-LNS Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dip.to di Fisica, Universita di Messina, V.le F.S. D' Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Cavallaro, S.; Giuffrida, L. [INFN-LNS Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Cutroneo, M. [Dip.to di Fisica, Universita di Messina, V.le F.S. D' Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Krasa, J.; Margarone, D.; Velyhan, A.; Ullschmied, J. [Institute of Physics, ASCR, v.v.i., 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Kravarik, J. [Czech Technical University, Faculty of Electro-Engineering, Prague (Czech Republic); Wolowski, J.; Szydlowski, A.; Rosinski, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, IPPLM, 23 Hery Str., 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-02-15

    A 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2} Asterix laser pulse intensity, 1315 nm at the fundamental frequency, 300 ps pulse duration, was employed at PALS laboratory of Prague, to irradiate thick and thin primary CD{sub 2} targets placed inside a high vacuum chamber. The laser irradiation produces non-equilibrium plasma with deutons and carbon ions emission with energy of up to about 4 MeV per charge state, as measured by time-of-flight (TOF) techniques by using ion collectors and silicon carbide detectors. Accelerated deutons may induce high D-D cross section for fusion processes generating 3 MeV protons and 2.5 MeV neutrons, as measured by TOF analyses. In order to increase the mono-energetic proton yield, secondary CD{sub 2} targets can be employed to be irradiated by the plasma-accelerated deutons. Experiments demonstrated that high intensity laser pulses can be employed to promote nuclear reactions from which characteristic ion streams may be developed. Results open new scenario for applications of laser-generated plasma to the fields of ion sources and ion accelerators.

  1. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 1: Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Sydney J [ORNL

    2008-03-01

    A phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) process was conducted for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) design. This design (in the conceptual stage) is a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) that generates both electricity and process heat for hydrogen production. Expert panels identified safety-relevant phenomena, ranked their importance, and assessed the knowledge levels in the areas of accidents and thermal fluids, fission-product transport and dose, high-temperature materials, graphite, and process heat for hydrogen production. This main report summarizes and documents the process and scope of the reviews, noting the major activities and conclusions. The identified phenomena, analyses, rationales, and associated ratings of the phenomena, plus a summary of each panel's findings, are presented. Individual panel reports for these areas are provided as attached volumes to this main report and provide considerably more detail about each panel's deliberations as well as a more complete listing of the phenomena that were evaluated.

  2. Preliminary issues associated with the next generation nuclear plant intermediate heat exchanger design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, K.; Moisseytsev, A.; Majumdar, S.

    2009-07-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant, with emphasis on production of both electricity and hydrogen, involves helium as the coolant and a closed-cycle gas turbine for power generation with a core outlet/gas turbine inlet temperature of 850-950 °C. In this concept, an intermediate heat exchanger is used to transfer the heat from primary helium from the core to the secondary fluid, which can be helium, a nitrogen/helium mixture, or a molten salt. This paper assesses the issues pertaining to shell-and-tube and compact heat exchangers. A detailed thermal-hydraulic analysis was performed to calculate heat transfer, temperature distribution, and pressure drop inside both printed circuit and shell-and-tube heat exchangers. The analysis included evaluation of the role of key process parameters, geometrical factors in heat exchanger designs, and material properties of structural alloys. Calculations were performed for helium-to-helium, helium-to-helium/nitrogen, and helium-to-salt heat exchangers.

  3. Free Radicals Generated by Ionizing Radiation Signal Nuclear Translocation of p53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J. D.; Pennington, M. E.; Craven, M. T.; Warters, R. L.

    1997-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor is a transcription factor that regulates several pathways, which function collectively to maintain the integrity of the genome. Nuclear localization is critical for wild-type function. However, the signals that regulate subcellular localization of p53 have not been identified. Here, we examine the effect of ionizing radiation on the subcellular localization of p53 in two cell lines in which p63 is normally sequestered in the cytoplasm and found that ionizing radiation caused a biphasic translocation response. p53 entered the nucleus 1-2 hours postirradiation (early response), subsequently emerged from the nucleus, and then again entered the nucleus 12-24 hours after the cells had been irradiated (delayed response). These changes in subcellular localization could be completely blocked by the free radical scavenger, WR1065. By comparison, two DNA-damaging agents that do not generate free radicals, mitomycin C and doxorubicin, caused translocation only after 12-24 h of exposure to the drugs, and this effect could not be inhibited by WR1065. Hence, although all three DNA-damaging agents induced relocalization of p53 to the nucleus, only the translocation caused by radiation was sensitive to free radical scavenging. We suggest that the free radicals generated by ionizing radiation can signal p53 translocation to the nucleus.

  4. Development and Validation of Temperature Dependent Thermal Neutron Scattering Laws for Applications and Safety Implications in Generation IV Reactor Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayman Hawari

    2008-06-20

    The overall obljectives of this project are to critically review the currently used thermal neutron scattering laws for various moderators as a function of temperature, select as well documented and representative set of experimental data sensitive to the neutron spectra to generate a data base of benchmarks, update models and models parameters by introducing new developments in thermalization theory and condensed matter physics into various computational approaches in establishing the scattering laws, benchmark the results against the experimentatl set. In the case of graphite, a validation experiment is performed by observing nutron slowing down as a function of temperatures equal to or greater than room temperature.

  5. Membrane tethering of APP c-terminal fragments is a prerequisite for T668 phosphorylation preventing nuclear sphere generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Hassan; Kolbe, Katharina; Leonhardt, Gregor; Loosse, Christina; Schröder, Elisabeth; Knauer, Shirley; Marcus, Katrin; Müller, Thorsten

    2016-11-01

    A central molecular hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the β- and γ-secretase-mediated cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), which causes the generation of different c-terminal fragments like C99, AICD57, or AICD50 that fully or in part contain the APP transmembrane domain. In this study, we demonstrate that membrane-tethered C99 is phosphorylated by JNK3A at residue T668 (APP695 numbering) to a higher extent than AICD57, whereas AICD50 is not capable of being phosphorylated. The modification decreases the turnover of APP, while the blockade of APP cleavage increases APP phosphorylation. Generation of nuclear spheres, complexes consisting of the translocated AICD, FE65 and other proteins, is significantly reduced as soon as APP c-terminal fragments are accessible for phosphorylation. This APP modification, which we identified as significantly reduced in high plaque-load areas of the human brain, is linearly dependent on the level of APP expression. Accordingly, we show that APP abundance is likewise capable of modulating nuclear sphere generation. Thus, the precise and complex regulation of APP phosphorylation, abundance, and cleavage impacts the generation of nuclear spheres, which are under discussion of being of relevance in neurodegeneration and dementia. Future pharmacological manipulation of nuclear sphere generation may be a promising approach for AD treatment.

  6. Generation of a Mn(IV)-Peroxo or Mn(III)-Oxo-Mn(III) Species upon Oxygenation of Mono- and Binuclear Thiolate-Ligated Mn(II) Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Ming; Wu, Wun-Yan; Chiang, Ming-Hsi; Bohle, D Scott; Lee, Gene-Hsiang

    2017-09-05

    A thiolate-bridged binuclear complex [PPN]2[(Mn(II)((TMS)PS3))2] (1, PPN = bis(triphenylphosphine)iminium and (TMS)PS3H3 = (2,2',2″-trimercapto-3,3',3″-tris(trimethylsilyl)triphenylphosphine)), prepared from the reaction of MnCl2/[PPN]Cl and Li3[(TMS)PS3], converts into a mononuclear complex [PPN][Mn(II)((TMS)PS3)(DABCO)] (2) in the presence of excess amounts of DABCO (DABCO = 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane). Variable temperature studies of solution containing 1 and DABCO by UV-vis spectroscopy indicate that 1 and 2 exist in significant amounts in equilibrium and mononuclear 2 is favored at low temperature. Treatment of 1 or 2 with the monomeric O2-side-on-bound [PPN][Mn(IV)(O2)((TMS)PS3)] (3) produces the mono-oxo-bridged dimer [PPN]2[(Mn(III)((TMS)PS3))2(μ-O)] (4). The electrochemistry of 1 and 2 reveals anodic peak(s) for a Mn(III/)Mn(II) redox couple at shifted potentials against Fc/Fc(+), indicating that both complexes can be oxidized by dioxygen. The O2 activation mediated by 1 and 2 is investigated in both solution and the solid state. Microcrystals of 2 rapidly react with air or dry O2 to generate the Mn(IV)-peroxo 3 in high yield, revealing a solid-to-solid transformation and two-electron reduction of O2. Oxygenation of 1 or 2 in solution, however, is affected by diffusion and transient concentration of dioxygen in the two different substrates, leading to generation of 3 and 4 in variable ratios.

  7. Generation of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene-targeted pigs via somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoqing; Xin, Jige; Fan, Nana; Zou, Qingjian; Huang, Jiao; Ouyang, Zhen; Zhao, Yu; Zhao, Bentian; Liu, Zhaoming; Lai, Sisi; Yi, Xiaoling; Guo, Lin; Esteban, Miguel A; Zeng, Yangzhi; Yang, Huaqiang; Lai, Liangxue

    2015-03-01

    The domestic pig has been widely used as an important large animal model. Precise and efficient genetic modification in pig provides a great promise in biomedical research. Recently, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) system has been successfully used to produce many gene-targeted animals. However, these animals have been generated by co-injection of Cas9 mRNA and single-guide RNA (sgRNA) into one-cell stage embryos, which mostly resulted in mosaicism of the modification. One or two rounds of further breeding should be performed to obtain homozygotes with identical genotype and phenotype. To address this issue, gene-targeted somatic cells can be used as donor for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to produce gene-targeted animals with single and identical mutations. In this study, we applied Cas9/sgRNAs to effectively direct gene editing in porcine fetal fibroblasts and then mutant cell colonies were used as donor to generate homozygous gene-targeted pigs through single round of SCNT. As a result, we successfully obtained 15 tyrosinase (TYR) biallelic mutant pigs and 20 PARK2 and PINK1 double-gene knockout (KO) pigs. They were all homozygous and no off-target mutagenesis was detected by comprehensive analysis. TYR (-/-) pigs showed typical albinism and the expression of parkin and PINK1 were depleted in PARK2 (-/-)/PINK1 (-/-) pigs. The results demonstrated that single- or double-gene targeted pigs can be effectively achieved by using the CRISPR/Cas9 system combined with SCNT without mosaic mutation and detectable off-target effects. This gene-editing system provides an efficient, rapid, and less costly manner to generate genetically modified pigs or other large animals.

  8. Threatened and endangered species evaluation for 75 licensed commercial nuclear power generating plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1997-03-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended, and related implementing regulations of the jurisdictional federal agencies, the U.S. Departments of Commerce and Interior, at 50 CFR Part 17. 1, et seq., require that federal agencies ensure that any action authorized, funded, or carried out under their jurisdiction is not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of any threatened or endangered species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitats for such species. The issuance and maintenance of a federal license, such as a construction permit or operating license issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a commercial nuclear power generating facility is a federal action under the jurisdiction of a federal agency, and is therefore subject to the provisions of the ESA. The U.S. Department of the Interior (through the Fish and Wildlife Service), and the U.S. Department of Commerce, share responsibility for administration of the ESA. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) deals with species that inhabit marine environments and anadromous fish, while the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is responsible for terrestrial and freshwater species and migratory birds. A species (or other distinct taxonomic unit such as subspecies, variety, and for vertebrates, distinct population units) may be classified for protection as `endangered` when it is in danger of extinction within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range. A `threatened` classification is provided to those animals and plants likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of their ranges. As of February 1997, there were about 1067 species listed under the ESA in the United States. Additionally there were approximately 125 species currently proposed for listing as threatened or endangered, and another 183 species considered to be candidates for formal listing proposals.

  9. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials Research and Development Plan (PLN-2803)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Wright; R. N. Wright

    2008-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic, or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development Program is responsible for performing research and development on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. Studies of potential Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels have been carried out as part of the pre-conceptual design studies. These design studies generally focus on American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code status of the steels, temperature limits, and allowable stresses. Three realistic candidate materials have been identified by this process: conventional light water reactor RPV steels A508/533, 2¼Cr-1Mo in the annealed condition, and modified 9Cr 1Mo ferritic martenistic steel. Based on superior strength and higher temperature limits, the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel has been identified by the majority of design engineers as the preferred choice for the RPV. All of the vendors have

  10. Westinghouse experiences with HTR as the basis for design of the New Generation of Nuclear Power Plants (NGNP); Experiencias de Estinghouse con el HTR como Base para el diseno de la Nueva Generacion de Centrales Nucleares (BGNP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoning, J.; Esch, M.; Knoche, D.; Freis, D.; Finken, H.; Drifhout, F.

    2010-07-01

    For more than three decades Germany had a very ambitious High Temperature Reactor (HTR) program which included numerous research activities and the construction and operation of two HTRs. The whole program had a volume of more than 6 billion D-Marks and covered activities of industry, research centres and universities. Within this program the physical feasibility of a pebble bed HTR was power for the first time in the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) research reactor at Research Centre Julich (FZJ). Later it served as a test bed for new developed fuel as well as test reactor for numerous successful experiments on the inherent safety of this special type of nuclear reactor. The subsequent power plant THTR-300 with a rated electrical power of 300 MWel at Hamm-Uentrop was constructed as a demonstration plant. With THTR-300 the feasibility of a large commercial pebble bed reactor was demonstrated. Both reactors were built in the state of North-Rhine Westphalia with its traditional resources of coal and its heavy and chemical industry. HTRs were specifically meant to provide process heat to these industries and with the Project Nuclear Process Heat (PNP) a plant was developed to serve this means. Based on this HTR specific expertise and on actual experience from AP1000TM development and construction, Westinghouse has the overall expertise in house to design a generation IV reactor system in the near term future. On HTR specific systems and components the maturity of the technology was demonstrated with THTR-300. Potential design approaches for future HTR concepts for process heat generation are discussed. (Author) 1 refs.

  11. Generation of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene knockout rabbits by homologous recombination and gene trapping through somatic cell nuclear transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Mingru Yin; Weihua Jiang; Zhenfu Fang; Pengcheng Kong; Fengying Xing; Yao Li; Xuejin Chen; Shangang Li

    2015-01-01

    The rabbit is a common animal model that has been employed in studies on various human disorders, and the generation of genetically modified rabbit lines is highly desirable. Female rabbits have been successfully cloned from cumulus cells, and the somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology is well established. The present study generated hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene knockout rabbits using recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated homologous recombination and SCNT....

  12. 75 FR 4426 - Florida Power and Light Company; Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Units 3 and 4; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... the beltline region of the Turkey Point Units 3 and 4 reactor pressure vessels. Environmental Impacts... COMMISSION Florida Power and Light Company; Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Units 3 and 4; Environmental..., located in Miami, Florida. In accordance with 10 CFR 51.21, the NRC prepared an environmental assessment...

  13. 77 FR 49463 - Southern California Edison, San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Units 2 and 3; Application and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... Edison Company (SCE, the licensee) for operation of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS... request (LAR) for SONGS, Units 2 and 3, dated July 29, 2011, requesting approval to convert the Current... Technical Specifications (STS) for Combustion Engineering Plants, NUREG-1432. In 1996, SONGS was the...

  14. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Intermediate Heat Exchanger Materials Research and Development Plan (PLN-2804)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Wright

    2008-04-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic (TRISO)-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Today’s high-temperature alloys and associated ASME Codes for reactor applications are approved up to 760°C. However, some primary system components, such as the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) for the NGNP will require use of materials that can withstand higher temperatures. The thermal, environmental, and service life conditions of the NGNP will make selection and qualification of some high-temperature materials a significant challenge. Examples include materials for the core barrel and core internals, such as the control rod sleeves. The requirements of the materials for the IHX are among the most demanding. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. A number of solid solution strengthened nickel based alloys have been considered for

  15. Experimental and computational studies of thermal mixing in next generation nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfried, Douglas Tyler

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is a proposed next generation nuclear power plant. The VHTR utilizes helium as a coolant in the primary loop of the reactor. Helium traveling through the reactor mixes below the reactor in a region known as the lower plenum. In this region there exists large temperature and velocity gradients due to non-uniform heat generation in the reactor core. Due to these large gradients, concern should be given to reducing thermal striping in the lower plenum. Thermal striping is the phenomena by which temperature fluctuations in the fluid and transferred to and attenuated by surrounding structures. Thermal striping is a known cause of long term material failure. To better understand and predict thermal striping in the lower plenum two separate bodies of work have been conducted. First, an experimental facility capable of predictably recreating some aspects of flow in the lower plenum is designed according to scaling analysis of the VHTR. Namely the facility reproduces jets issuing into a crossflow past a tube bundle. Secondly, extensive studies investigate the mixing of a non-isothermal parallel round triple-jet at two jet-to-jet spacings was conducted. Experimental results were validation with an open source computational fluid dynamics package, OpenFOAMRTM. Additional care is given to understanding the implementation of the realizable k-a and Launder Gibson RSM turbulence Models in OpenFOAMRTM. In order to measure velocity and temperature in the triple-jet experiment a detailed investigation of temperature compensated hotwire anemometry is carried out with special concern being given to quantify the error with the measurements. Finally qualitative comparisons of trends in the experimental results and the computational results is conducted. A new and unexpected physical behavior was observed in the center jet as it appeared to spread unexpectedly for close spacings (S/Djet = 1.41).

  16. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY IN DISPOSAL REPOSITORY OF HEAT-GENERATING NUCLEAR WASTE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bo; Saurí Suárez, Héctor; Becker, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Certain working scenarios in a disposal facility of heat-generating nuclear waste might lead to an enhanced level of radiation exposure for workers in such facilities. Hence, a realistic estimation of the personal dose during individual working scenarios is desired. In this study, the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle code MCNP6 (Pelowitz, D. B. (ed). MCNP6 user manual LA-CP-13-00634, Rev. 0 (2013)) was applied to simulate a representative radiation field in a disposal facility. A tool to estimate the personal dose was then proposed by taking into account the influence of individual motion sequences during working scenarios. As basis for this approach, a movable whole-body phantom was developed to describe individual body gestures of the workers during motion sequences. In this study, the proposed method was applied to the German concept of geological disposal in rock salt. The feasibility of the proposed approach was demonstrated with an example of working scenario in an emplacement drift of a rock salt mine.

  17. Hydrous mineral dehydration around heat-generating nuclear waste in bedded salt formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Amy B; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Caporuscio, Florie A; Robinson, Bruce A; Stauffer, Philip H

    2015-06-02

    Heat-generating nuclear waste disposal in bedded salt during the first two years after waste emplacement is explored using numerical simulations tied to experiments of hydrous mineral dehydration. Heating impure salt samples to temperatures of 265 °C can release over 20% by mass of hydrous minerals as water. Three steps in a series of dehydration reactions are measured (65, 110, and 265 °C), and water loss associated with each step is averaged from experimental data into a water source model. Simulations using this dehydration model are used to predict temperature, moisture, and porosity after heating by 750-W waste canisters, assuming hydrous mineral mass fractions from 0 to 10%. The formation of a three-phase heat pipe (with counter-circulation of vapor and brine) occurs as water vapor is driven away from the heat source, condenses, and flows back toward the heat source, leading to changes in porosity, permeability, temperature, saturation, and thermal conductivity of the backfill salt surrounding the waste canisters. Heat pipe formation depends on temperature, moisture availability, and mobility. In certain cases, dehydration of hydrous minerals provides sufficient extra moisture to push the system into a sustained heat pipe, where simulations neglecting this process do not.

  18. Spalax™ new generation: A sensitive and selective noble gas system for nuclear explosion monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Petit, G; Cagniant, A; Gross, P; Douysset, G; Topin, S; Fontaine, J P; Taffary, T; Moulin, C

    2015-09-01

    In the context of the verification regime of the Comprehensive nuclear Test ban Treaty (CTBT), CEA is developing a new generation (NG) of SPALAX™ system for atmospheric radioxenon monitoring. These systems are able to extract more than 6cm(3) of pure xenon from air samples each 12h and to measure the four relevant xenon radioactive isotopes using a high resolution detection system operating in electron-photon coincidence mode. This paper presents the performances of the SPALAX™ NG prototype in operation at Bruyères-le-Châtel CEA centre, integrating the most recent CEA developments. It especially focuses on an innovative detection system made up of a gas cell equipped with two face-to-face silicon detectors associated to one or two germanium detectors. Minimum Detectable activity Concentrations (MDCs) of environmental samples were calculated to be approximately 0.1 mBq/m(3) for the isotopes (131m)Xe, (133m)Xe, (133)Xe and 0.4 mBq/m(3) for (135)Xe (single germanium configuration). The detection system might be used to simultaneously measure particulate and noble gas samples from the CTBT International Monitoring System (IMS). That possibility could lead to new capacities for particulate measurements by allowing electron-photon coincidence detection of certain fission products.

  19. Field measurements of beta ray energy spectra in CANDU nuclear generating stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Y.S. (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Dept. of Physics); Hirning, C.R. (Ontario Hydro, Whitby, ON (Canada)); Yuen, P.S.; Aikens, M.S. (AECL Research, Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Labs.)

    1994-01-01

    Field measurements of beta ray energy spectra have been carried out at various locations in CANDU nuclear generating stations operated by Ontario Hydro. The beta ray energy spectrometer consists of a 5 cm diameter x 2 cm thick BC-404 plastic scintillator situated behind a 100 [mu]m thick, totally depleted, silicon detector. Photon events are rejected by requiring a coincidence between the two detectors. The spectrometer is capable of measuring electron energies from 125 keV to 3.5 MeV. Beta ray energy spectra have been measured for uncontaminated and contaminated fueling machine components, fueling machine swipes and a reactor containment vault. The degree of protection afforded by various articles of protective clothing has also been investigated for the various fueling machine components. Monte Carlo calculations have been used to estimate beta factors for 100 mg.cm[sup -2] and 240 mg.cm[sup -2] LiF-TLD chips, which are used as 'skin-and 'extremity' dosemeters in the Ontario Hydro Radiation Dosimetry Programme. (Author).

  20. D-D nuclear fusion processes induced in polyethylene foams by TW Laser-generated plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, L.; Cutroneo, M.; Cavallaro, S.; Ullschmied, J.

    2015-06-01

    Deuterium-Deuterium fusion processes were generated by focusing the 3 TW PALS Laser on solid deuterated polyethylene targets placed in vacuum. Deuterium ion acceleration of the order of 4 MeV was obtained using laser irradiance Iλ2 ˜ 5 × 1016 W μm2/cm2 on the target. Thin and thick targets, at low and high density, were irradiated and plasma properties were monitored "on line" and "off line". The ion emission from plasma was monitored with Thomson Parabola Spectrometer, track detectors and ion collectors. Fast semiconductor detectors based on SiC and fast plastic scintillators, both employed in time-of-flight configuration, have permitted to detect the characteristic 3.0 MeV protons and 2.45 MeV neutrons emission from the nuclear fusion reactions. From massive absorbent targets we have evaluated the neutron flux by varying from negligible values up to about 5 × 107 neutrons per laser shot in the case of foams targets, indicating a reaction rate of the order of 108 fusion events per laser shot using "advanced targets".

  1. D-D nuclear fusion processes induced in polyethylene foams by TW Laser-generated plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrisi L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deuterium-Deuterium fusion processes were generated by focusing the 3 TW PALS Laser on solid deuterated polyethylene targets placed in vacuum. Deuterium ion acceleration of the order of 4 MeV was obtained using laser irradiance Iλ2 ∼ 5 × 1016 W μm2/cm2 on the target. Thin and thick targets, at low and high density, were irradiated and plasma properties were monitored “on line” and “off line”. The ion emission from plasma was monitored with Thomson Parabola Spectrometer, track detectors and ion collectors. Fast semiconductor detectors based on SiC and fast plastic scintillators, both employed in time-of-flight configuration, have permitted to detect the characteristic 3.0 MeV protons and 2.45 MeV neutrons emission from the nuclear fusion reactions. From massive absorbent targets we have evaluated the neutron flux by varying from negligible values up to about 5 × 107 neutrons per laser shot in the case of foams targets, indicating a reaction rate of the order of 108 fusion events per laser shot using “advanced targets”.

  2. Homogenisation method for the dynamic analysis of a complete nuclear steam generator with fluid-structure interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrist, Jean-Francois [DCNS Propulsion-DI/STS, 44620 La Montagne (France)], E-mail: jean-francois.sigrist@dcn.fr; Broc, Daniel [CEA Saclay-DEMT/EMSI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2008-09-15

    The present paper deals with the dynamic analysis of a steam generator tube bundle with fluid-structure interaction modelling. As the coupled fluid-structure problem involves a huge number of degrees of freedom to account for the tube displacements and the fluid pressure evolutions, classical coupled method cannot be applied for industrial studies. In the present case, the three-dimensional fluid-structure problem is solved with an homogenisation method, which has been previously exposed and successfully validated for FSI modelling in a nuclear reactor [Sigrist, J.F., Broc, D., 2007a. Homogenisation method for the modal analysis of a nuclear reactor with internal structures modelling and fluid-structure interaction coupling. Nuclear Engineering and Design 237, 431-440]. Formulation of the homogenisation method for general two- and three-dimensional cases is exposed in the paper. Application to a simplified, however representative, model of an actual industrial nuclear component (steam generator) is proposed. The problem modelling, which includes tube bundle, primary and secondary fluids and pressure vessel, is performed with an engineering finite element code in which the homogenisation technique has been implemented. From the practical point of view, the analysis highlights the major fluid-structure interaction effects on the dynamic behaviour of the steam generator; from the theoretical point of view, the study demonstrates the efficiency of the homogenisation method for periodic fluid-structure problems modelling in industrial configurations.

  3. Human resource development for nuclear generation - from the perspective of a utility company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahar, Wan Shakirah Wan Abdul; Mostafa, Nor Azlan; Salim, Mohd Faiz

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia is currently in the planning phase of its nuclear power program, with the first unit targeted to be operational in 2030. Training of nuclear power plant (NPP) staffs are usually long and rigorous due to the complexity and safety aspects of nuclear power. As the sole electricity utility in the country, it is therefore essential that Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) prepares early in developing its human resource and nuclear expertise as a potential NPP owner-operator. A utility also has to be prudent in managing its work force efficiently and effectively, while ensuring that adequate preparations are being made to acquire the necessary nuclear knowledge with sufficient training lead time. There are several approaches to training that can be taken by a utility company with no experience in nuclear power. These include conducting feasibility studies and benchmarking exercises, preparing long term human resource development, increasing the exposure on nuclear power technology to both the top management and general staff, and employing the assistance of relevant agencies locally and abroad. This paper discusses the activities done and steps taken by TNB in its human resource development for Malaysia's nuclear power program.

  4. Preliminary issues associated with the next generation nuclear plant intermediate heat exchanger design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Moisseytsev, A.; Majumdar, S.; Shankar, P. S.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-04-05

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), which is an advanced high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) concept with emphasis on production of both electricity and hydrogen, involves helium as the coolant and a closed-cycle gas turbine for power generation with a core outlet/gas turbine inlet temperature of 900-1000 C. In the indirect cycle system, an intermediate heat exchanger is used to transfer the heat from primary helium from the core to the secondary fluid, which can be helium, nitrogen/helium mixture, or a molten salt. The system concept for the vary high temperature reactor (VHTR) can be a reactor based on the prismatic block of the GT-MHR developed by a consortium led by General Atomics in the U.S. or based on the PBMR design developed by ESKOM of South Africa and British Nuclear Fuels of U.K. This report has made a preliminary assessment on the issues pertaining to the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for the NGNP. Two IHX designs namely, shell and tube and compact heat exchangers were considered in the assessment. Printed circuit heat exchanger, among various compact heat exchanger (HX) designs, was selected for the analysis. Irrespective of the design, the material considerations for the construction of the HX are essentially similar, except may be in the fabrication of the units. As a result, we have reviewed in detail the available information on material property data relevant for the construction of HX and made a preliminary assessment of several relevant factors to make a judicious selection of the material for the IHX. The assessment included four primary candidate alloys namely, Alloy 617 (UNS N06617), Alloy 230 (UNS N06230), Alloy 800H (UNS N08810), and Alloy X (UNS N06002) for the IHX. Some of the factors addressed in this report are the tensile, creep, fatigue, creep fatigue, toughness properties for the candidate alloys, thermal aging effects on the mechanical properties, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code compliance

  5. Measurements of beta ray spectra in CANDU nuclear generating stations using a silicon detector coincidence telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Y.S.; Weizman, Y. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Dept. of Physics; Hirning, C.R. [Ontario Hydro, Whitby, ON (Canada). Health Physics Dept.

    1996-12-31

    The measurement of beta ray spectra at various work locations inside nuclear generating stations operated by Ontario Hydro is described. The measurements were carried out using an advanced coincidence telescope spectrometer using silicon detectors only. The spectrometer is capable of measuring electron energies over the range 60 keV- 2500 keV with close to 100% coincidence efficiency. Photon rejection is carried out by requiring a coincidence between either two or three silicon detectors. Monte Carlo calculations were then used to estimate beta correction factors for the LiF:Mg,Ti elements used in the Ontario Hydro thermoluminescence dosemeters. Averaging over all the measured beta correction factors for the `skin` chip (100 mg.cm{sup -2}) results in a value of 2.73 {+-} 0.77 and for the extremity dosemeter (240 mg.cm{sup -2}) an average value of 4.42 {+-} 1.17 is obtained. These values are 57% and 120% greater, respectively, than the current values used by Ontario Hydro. In addition, beta correction factors for nine representative spectra were calculated for 40 mg.cm{sup -2} chips and 20 mg.cm{sup -2} chips and the results demonstrate the benefits of decreased dosemeter thickness. The average value of the beta correction factor, as well as the spread in the beta correction factor, decreases dramatically from 4.8 {+-} 2.1 (240 mg.cm{sup -2}) to 1.29 ``1.2`` +-`` 0.1 (20 mg.cm{sup -2}). (author).

  6. Coordination Nature of 4-Mercaptoaniline to Sn(II Ion: Formation of a One Dimensional Coordination Polymer and Its Decomposition to a Mono Nuclear Sn(IV Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eon S. Burkett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The coordination of the bifunctional ligand 4-mercaptoaniline with aqueo us tin(II metal ion was studied. A coordination polymer was synthesized when an aqueous solution of SnCl2 was treated with 4-MA. The crystalline material is stable under atmospheric conditions retaining its oxidation state. However, when submerged in a solution saturated with oxygen, the compound oxidizes to a mononuclear tin(IV complex. Both the compounds were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Although the structure of the tin(IV complex was previously reported, crystal structure of this compound was redetermined.

  7. COBRA-IV-I: an interim version of COBRA for thermal-hydraulic analysis of rod bundle nuclear fuel elements and cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, C.L.; Stewart, C.W.; Cena, R.J.; Rowe, D.S.; Sutey, A.M.

    1976-03-01

    The COBRA-IV-I computer code uses the subchannel analysis approach to determine the enthalpy and flow distribution in rod bundles for both steady-state and transient conditions. The steady-state and transient solution schemes used in COBRA-IIIC are still available in COBRA-IV-I as the implicit solution scheme option. In addition to these techniques, a new explicit solution scheme is now available which allows the calculation of severe transients involving flow reversals, recirculations, expulsion and reentry flows, with a pressure or flow boundary condition specified. Significant storage compaction and reduced running times have been achieved to allow the calculation of problems involving hundreds of subchannels.

  8. Critical evaluation of the nonradiological environmental technical specifications. Volume 4. San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Cunningham, P.A.; Gray, D.D.; Kumar, K.D.

    1976-08-10

    A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental Technical Specifications program for Unit 1 of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS 1) was conducted for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program included an analysis of the hydrothermal and ecological monitoring data collected during 1975. The hydrothermal analysis includes a discussion of models used in plume predictions prior to plant operation and an evaluation of the present hydrothermal monitoring program. The ecological evaluation was directed toward reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of the various sampling programs designed to monitor the planktonic, benthic, and nektonic communities inhabiting the inshore coastal area in the vicinity of San Onofre.

  9. Interim report on the performance of 400-megawatt and larger nuclear and coal-fired generating units: performance through 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    This report is an update of DOE/ERA-0007, Interim Report on the Performance of 400 Megawatt and Larger Nuclear and Coal-Fired Generating Units - Performance Through 1975. The most recent EEI data for nuclear units and for coal units less than 600 MW(e) and having at least one full year of commercial operation are included in this analysis. The analyses cover the following: coal and nuclear units, 400-MW nameplate and larger; historical data through 1976; four industry-recognized performance indices (capacity factor, availability factor, equivalent availability, and forced outage rate); four types of geographical analysis (national, individual, individual utilities, and individual utilities by states); and rankings of states and utilities by performance indices. (MCW)

  10. High-fidelity MCNP modeling of a D-T neutron generator for active interrogation of special nuclear material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katalenich, Jeff; Flaska, Marek; Pozzi, Sara A.; Hartman, Michael R.

    2011-10-01

    Fast and robust methods for interrogation of special nuclear material (SNM) are of interest to many agencies and institutions in the United States. It is well known that passive interrogation methods are typically sufficient for plutonium identification because of a relatively high neutron production rate from 240Pu [1]. On the other hand, identification of shielded uranium requires active methods using neutron or photon sources [2]. Deuterium-deuterium (2.45 MeV) and deuterium-tritium (14.1 MeV) neutron-generator sources have been previously tested and proven to be relatively reliable instruments for active interrogation of nuclear materials [3,4]. In addition, the newest generators of this type are small enough for applications requiring portable interrogation systems. Active interrogation techniques using high-energy neutrons are being investigated as a method to detect hidden SNM in shielded containers [4,5]. Due to the thickness of some containers, penetrating radiation such as high-energy neutrons can provide a potential means of probing shielded SNM. In an effort to develop the capability to assess the signal seen from various forms of shielded nuclear materials, the University of Michigan Neutron Science Laboratory's D-T neutron generator and its shielding were accurately modeled in MCNP. The generator, while operating at nominal power, produces approximately 1×10 10 neutrons/s, a source intensity which requires a large amount of shielding to minimize the dose rates around the generator. For this reason, the existing shielding completely encompasses the generator and does not include beam ports. Therefore, several MCNP simulations were performed to estimate the yield of uncollided 14.1-MeV neutrons from the generator for active interrogation experiments. Beam port diameters of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm were modeled to assess the resulting neutron fluxes. The neutron flux outside the beam ports was estimated to be approximately 2×10 4 n/cm 2 s.

  11. I-V and DLTS study of generation and annihilation of deep-level defects in an oxygen-ion irradiated bipolar junction transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, K. V.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Ravindra, M.; Damle, R.

    A commercial bipolar junction transistor (2N 2219A, npn) irradiated with 84 MeV O6+-ions with fluence of the order of 1013 ions cm-2 is studied for radiation-induced gain degradation and deep-level defects or recombination centers. I-V measurements are made to study the gain degradation as a function of ion fluence. Properties such as activation energy, trap concentration and capture cross section of deep levels are studied by deep-level transient spectroscopy. Minority carrier trap energy levels with energies ranging from EC -0.17 eV to EC -0.55 eV are observed in the base-collector junction of the transistor. Majority carrier defect levels are also observed with energies ranging from EV +0.26 eV to EV +0.44 eV. The irradiated device is subjected to isothermal and isochronal annealing. The defects are seen to anneal above 250 °C. The defects generated in the base region of the transistor by displacement damage appear to be responsible for an increase in base current through Shockley-Read-Hall or multi-phonon recombination and consequent transistor gain degradation.

  12. Multi-region fuzzy logic controller with local PID controllers for U-tube steam generator in nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchalski Bartosz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, analysis of multi-region fuzzy logic controller with local PID controllers for steam generator of pressurized water reactor (PWR working in wide range of thermal power changes is presented. The U-tube steam generator has a nonlinear dynamics depending on thermal power transferred from coolant of the primary loop of the PWR plant. Control of water level in the steam generator conducted by a traditional PID controller which is designed for nominal power level of the nuclear reactor operates insufficiently well in wide range of operational conditions, especially at the low thermal power level. Thus the steam generator is often controlled manually by operators. Incorrect water level in the steam generator may lead to accidental shutdown of the nuclear reactor and consequently financial losses. In the paper a comparison of proposed multi region fuzzy logic controller and traditional PID controllers designed only for nominal condition is presented. The gains of the local PID controllers have been derived by solving appropriate optimization tasks with the cost function in a form of integrated squared error (ISE criterion. In both cases, a model of steam generator which is readily available in literature was used for control algorithms synthesis purposes. The proposed multi-region fuzzy logic controller and traditional PID controller were subjected to broad-based simulation tests in rapid prototyping software - Matlab/Simulink. These tests proved the advantage of multi-region fuzzy logic controller with local PID controllers over its traditional counterpart.

  13. The role of nuclear technology beyond power generation deserves wider recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, Redditch (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-15

    Building new nuclear power plants, extending the lifetimes of existing reactors or decommissioning plants are regular topics of debate surrounding the civil nuclear industry. Then there are the challenges faced in many countries that still await political leadership on solutions for the future safe long-term management of waste for the future. However, one aspect of the industry that impacts the everyday lives of the general public is often overlooked - and that is nuclear's role in protecting the global environment and public health.

  14. Synthesis, stability and reactivity of the first mononuclear nonheme oxoiron(IV) species with monoamido ligation: a putative reactive species generated from iron-bleomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitomi, Yutaka; Arakawa, Kengo; Kodera, Masahito

    2014-07-18

    The preparation and characterisation of an oxoiron(IV) species with monoamido ligation are described. Reactivity studies revealed the important role of the amido ligand in enhancing the ability of oxoiron(IV) complexes to promote hydrogen atom transfer from external alkanes.

  15. SPECIATION OF SELENIUM AND ARSENIC COMPOUNDS BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS WITH HYDRODYNAMICALLY MODIFIED ELECTROOSMOTIC FLOW AND ON-LINE REDUCTION OF SELENIUM(VI) TO SELENIUM(IV) WITH HYDRIDE GENERATION INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRIC DETECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) with hydride generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine four arsenicals and two selenium species. Selenate (SeVI) was reduced on-line to selenite (SeIV') by mixing the CE effluent with concentrated HCl. A microporo...

  16. 75 FR 3943 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    .... NPF-68 and NPF-81, issued to Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. (SNC, the licensee), for... contained in 10 CFR 73.55 by the March 31, 2010, implementation deadline. SNC has proposed an alternate...

  17. The Role of Nuclear Power in Reducing Risk of the Fossil Fuel Prices and Diversity of Electricity Generation in Tunisia: A Portfolio Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, Mohamed Ben; Aloui, Chaker; Chaton, Corinne; Souissi, Jomâa

    2010-04-01

    This paper applies real options and mean-variance portfolio theories to analyze the electricity generation planning into presence of nuclear power plant for the Tunisian case. First, we analyze the choice between fossil fuel and nuclear production. A dynamic model is presented to illustrate the impact of fossil fuel cost uncertainty on the optimal timing to switch from gas to nuclear. Next, we use the portfolio theory to manage risk of the electricity generation portfolio and to determine the optimal fuel mix with the nuclear alternative. Based on portfolio theory, the results show that there is other optimal mix than the mix fixed for the Tunisian mix for the horizon 2010-2020, with lower cost for the same risk degree. In the presence of nuclear technology, we found that the optimal generating portfolio must include 13% of nuclear power technology share.

  18. Impacts of nuclear plant shutdown on coal-fired power generation and infant health in the Tennessee Valley in the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severnini, Edson

    2017-04-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011 generated deep public anxiety and uncertainty about the future of nuclear energy. However, differently to fossil fuel plants, nuclear plants produce virtually no greenhouse gas emissions or air pollutants during power generation. Here we show the effect on air pollution and infant health in the context of the temporary closure of nuclear plants by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in the 1980s. After the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission intensified inspections throughout the nation, leading to the shutdown of two large nuclear power plants in the TVA area. In response to that shutdown, electricity generation shifted one to one to coal-fired power plants within TVA, increasing particle pollution in counties where they were located. Consequently, infant health may have deteriorated in the most affected places, indicating deleterious effects to public health.

  19. Analysis of fish diversion efficiency and survivorship in the fish return system at San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station

    OpenAIRE

    Love, Milton S.; Sandhu, Meenu; Stein, Jeffrey; Herbinson, Kevin T.; Moore, Robert H; Mullin, Michael; Stephens, John S.

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the efficiency of fish diversion and survivorship of diverted fishes in the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station Fish Return System in 1984 and 1985. Generally, fishes were diverted back to the ocean with high frequency, particularly in 1984. Most species were diverted at rates of 80% or more. Over 90% of the most abundant species, Engraulis mordax, were diverted. The system worked particularly well for strong-swimming forms such as Paralobrax clothratus, Atherinopsis cal...

  20. High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power - for the period August 1, 1999 through October 31, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Brown

    2000-01-01

    OAK B188 High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power - for the period August 1, 1999 through October 31, 1999. The highlights for this period are: (1) The methodologies for searching the literature for potentially attractive thermochemical water-splitting cycles, storing cycle and reference data, and screening the cycles have been established; and (2) The water-splitting cycle screening criteria were established on schedule.

  1. A Differential-Algebraic Model for the Once-Through Steam Generator of MHTGR-Based Multimodular Nuclear Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small modular reactors (SMRs are those fission reactors whose electrical output power is no more than 300 MWe. SMRs usually have the inherent safety feature that can be applicable to power plants of any desired power rating by applying the multimodular operation scheme. Due to its strong inherent safety feature, the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR, which uses helium as coolant and graphite as moderator and structural material, is a typical SMR for building the next generation of nuclear plants (NGNPs. The once-through steam generator (OTSG is the basis of realizing the multimodular scheme, and modeling of the OTSG is meaningful to study the dynamic behavior of the multimodular plants and to design the operation and control strategy. In this paper, based upon the conservation laws of mass, energy, and momentum, a new differential-algebraic model for the OTSGs of the MHTGR-based multimodular nuclear plants is given. This newly-built model can describe the dynamic behavior of the OTSG in both the cases of providing superheated steam and generating saturated steam. Numerical simulation results show the feasibility and satisfactory performance of this model. Moreover, this model has been applied to develop the real-time simulation software for the operation and regulation features of the world first underconstructed MHTGR-based commercial nuclear plant—HTR-PM.

  2. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant - Insights Gained from the INEEL Point Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip E. MacDonald; A. M. Baxter; P. D. Bayless; J. M. Bolin; H. D. Gougar; R. L. Moore; A. M. Ougouag; M. B. Richards; R. L. Sant; J. W. Sterbentz; W. K. Terry

    2004-08-01

    This paper provides the results of an assessment of two possible versions of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), a prismatic fuel type helium gas-cooled reactor and a pebble-bed fuel helium gas reactor. Insights gained regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the two designs are also discussed. Both designs will meet the three basic requirements that have been set for the NGNP: a coolant outlet temperature of 1000 C, passive safety, and a total power output consistent with that expected for commercial high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Two major modifications of the current Gas Turbine- Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) design were needed to obtain a prismatic block design with a 1000 C outlet temperature: reducing the bypass flow and better controlling the inlet coolant flow distribution to the core. The total power that could be obtained for different core heights without exceeding a peak transient fuel temperature of 1600 °C during a high or low-pressure conduction cooldown event was calculated. With a coolant inlet temperature of 490 °C and 10% nominal core bypass flow, it is estimated that the peak power for a 10-block high core is 686 MWt, for a 12-block high core is 786 MWt, and for a 14-block core is about 889 MWt. The core neutronics calculations showed that the NGNP will exhibit strongly negative Doppler and isothermal temperature coefficients of reactivity over the burnup cycle. In the event of rapid loss of the helium gas, there is negligible core reactivity change. However, water or steam ingress into the core coolant channels can produce a relatively large reactivity effect. Two versions of an annular pebble-bed NGNP have also been developed, a 300 and a 600 MWt module. From this work we learned how to design passively safe pebble bed reactors that produce more than 600 MWt. We also found a way to improve both the fuel utilization and safety by modifying the pebble design (by adjusting the fuel zone radius in the pebble to optimize the fuel

  3. Superiority of second over first generation chemotherapy in a randomized trial for stage III-IV intermediate and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL): the 1980-1985 EORTC trial. The EORTC Lymphoma Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carde, P; Meerwaldt, J H; van Glabbeke, M; Somers, R; Monconduit, M; Thomas, J; de Wolf-Peeters, C; de Pauw, B; Tanguy, A; Kluin-Nelemans, J C

    1991-06-01

    A first-generation CHOP-like cyclic combination chemotherapy (CT) regimen using cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 IV d1, hydroxorubicin (doxorubicin) 50 mg/m2 IV d1, VM26 60 mg/m2 IV d1, and prednisone 40 mg/m2 PO d1-5 (CHVmP) was compared to a second-generation combination wherein vincristine 1.4 mg/m2 IV and bleomycin 6 mg/m2 IM/IV were added at mid-interval (d15) to the former drugs (CHVmP + VB) in the treatment of intermediate- and high-grade malignant NHL. From April 1980 to January 1986, 141 eligible patients with stage III-IV unfavorable histologies (except T lymphoblastic NHL) entered this EORTC randomized trial. In both arms adjuvant radiotherapy (30 Gy) was given in instances of bulky or residual disease. In all patient subsets the outcome favored the second-generation regimen. The difference was even greater in patients with Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma (DLCL). At 5 years, overall survival was 53% with CHVmP + VB versus 29% (p = 0.002). The advantage was due to a higher complete remission (CR) rate (80% versus 50%, p = 0.01). Indeed, once CR was achieved the relapse-free survival (RFS) was not significantly influenced (59% versus 49%). No significant additional toxicity could be attributed to vincristine and bleomycin. This study demonstrates a clear benefit for intermediate- and high-risk malignant NHL and particularly DLCL from intercalating non-myelotoxic drugs at mid-cycle intervals, without adverse effects.

  4. FY2001 Final Report Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) on Advanced Nuclear Fuel Design in the Future Nuclear Energy Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, D.; Choi, J.-S.; DiSabatino, A.; Wirth, B.

    2001-09-30

    This study is to research the maturity of advanced nuclear fuel and cladding technology and to explore the suitability of existing technology for addressing the emerging requirements for Generation IV reactors and emerging thermal/fast spectrum reactors, while simultaneously addressing nuclear waste management, and proliferation resistance concerns.

  5. Iso standardization of theoretical activity evaluation method for low and intermediate level activated waste generated at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makoto Kashiwagi [JGC, Yokohama, 220-6001 (Japan); Garamszeghy, Mike [NWMO, Toronto, Ontario, M4T 2S3 (Canada); Lantes, Bertrand; Bonne, Sebastien [EDF UTO, 93192 Noisy le Grand (France); Pillette-Cousin, Lucien [AREVA TA, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Leganes, Jose Luis [ENRESA, 28043 Madrid (Spain); Volmert, Ben [NAGRA, CH-5430 Wettingen (Switzerland); James, David W. [DW James Consulting, North Oaks, MN 55127 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Disposal of low-and intermediate-level activated waste generated at nuclear power plants is being planned or carried out in many countries. The radioactivity concentrations and/or total quantities of long-lived, difficult-to-measure nuclides (DTM nuclides), such as C-14, Ni-63, Nb-94, α emitting nuclides etc., are often restricted by the safety case for a final repository as determined by each country's safety regulations, and these concentrations or amounts are required to be known and declared. With respect to waste contaminated by contact with process water, the Scaling Factor method (SF method), which is empirically based on sampling and analysis data, has been applied as an important method for determining concentrations of DTM nuclides. This method was standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and published in 2007 as ISO21238 'Scaling factor method to determine the radioactivity of low and intermediate-level radioactive waste packages generated at nuclear power plants' [1]. However, for activated metal waste with comparatively high concentrations of radioactivity, such as may be found in reactor control rods and internal structures, direct sampling and radiochemical analysis methods to evaluate the DTM nuclides are limited by access to the material and potentially high personnel radiation exposure. In this case, theoretical calculation methods in combination with empirical methods based on remote radiation surveys need to be used to best advantage for determining the disposal inventory of DTM nuclides while minimizing exposure to radiation workers. Pursuant to this objective a standard for the theoretical evaluation of the radioactivity concentration of DTM nuclides in activated waste, is in process through ISO TC85/SC5 (ISO Technical Committee 85: Nuclear energy, nuclear technologies, and radiological protection; Subcommittee 5: Nuclear fuel cycle). The project team for this ISO standard was formed in 2011 and

  6. The technology of the bearings used in the nuclear power generation system turbine generator units; Technologie des paliers equipant les groupes turbo-alternateurs du parc nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vialettes, J.M.; Rossato, M. [Service Ensembles de Production, Departement Machines, Direction des Etudes et Recherches, Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France)

    1997-01-01

    A bearing consists of all the stationary part which allow the relative motion in rotation or in translation, of a shaft line. Inside the bearing there is a journal bearing with a metallic anti-friction coating (the babbitt metal). The high power turbine generator unit rotors are supported by smooth transversal journal bearings fed with oil which fills the empty space and runs along the shaft. The technologies used for the bearings and the thrust bearings of the turbine generator units and the various shaft lines of the French CP0/CP1- and CP2/1300 MW-type nuclear power plants are described. The experience feedback is then discussed in terms of the dynamics of the shaft line, i.e. vibrational problems, the influence of the alignment and the babbitt metal incidents. (author) 4 refs., 11 figs.

  7. Decision-support tool for assessing future nuclear reactor generation portfolios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Jain (Shashi); F Roelofs; C.W. Oosterlee (Cornelis)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractCapital costs, fuel, operation and maintenance (O&M) costs, and electricity prices play a key role in the economics of nuclear power plants. Often standardized reactor designs are required to be locally adapted, which often impacts the project plans and the supply chain. It then becomes

  8. Embryonic stem cells generated by nuclear transfer of human somatic nuclei into rabbit oocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING CHEN; QING ZHANG YANG; DA YUAN CHEN; MIN KANG WANG; JIN SONG LI; SHAO LIANG HUANG; XIANG YIN KONG; YAO ZHOU SHI; ZHI QIANG WANG; JIA HUI XIA; ZHI GAO LONG; ZHI XU HE; ZHI GANG XUE; WEN XIANG DING; HUI ZHEN SHENG; AILIAN LIU; KAI WANG; WEN WEI MAO; JIAN XIN CHU; YONG LU; ZHENG FU FANG; YING TANG SHI

    2003-01-01

    To solve the problem of immune incompatibility, nuclear transplantation has been envisaged as a means to produce cells or tissues for human autologous transplantation. Here we have derived embryonic stem cells by the transfer of human somatic nuclei into rabbit oocytes. The number of blastocysts that developed from the fused nuclear transfer was comparable among nuclear donors at ages of 5, 42, 52 and 60 years, and nuclear transfer (NT) embryonic stem cells (ntES cells) were subsequently derived from each of the four age groups. These results suggest that human somatic nuclei can form ntES cells independent of the age of the donor. The derived ntES cells are human based on karyotype, isogenicity, in situ hybridization, PGR and immunocytochemistry with probes that distinguish between the various species. The ntES cells maintain the capability of sustained growth in an undifferentiated state, and form embryoid bodies, which, on further induction, give rise to cell types such as neuron and muscle, as well as mixed cell populations that express markers representative of all three germ layers. Thus, ntES cells derived from human somatic cells by NT to rabbit eggs retain phenotypes similar to those of conventional human ES cells, including the ability to undergo multilineage cellular differentiation.

  9. 78 FR 77726 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... facility is subject to all rules, regulations, and orders of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) now or... facility is subject to all rules, regulations, and orders of the NRC now or hereafter in effect. The.../indexing reference temperatures. The licensee proposes to use ASME Code Case N-629 and the...

  10. Decision-support tool for assessing future nuclear reactor generation portfolios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, S.; Roelofs, F; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2014-01-01

    Capital costs, fuel, operation and maintenance (O&M) costs, and electricity prices play a key role in the economics of nuclear power plants. Often standardized reactor designs are required to be locally adapted, which often impacts the project plans and the supply chain. It then becomes difficult to

  11. Expression of Leukemia-Associated Nup98 Fusion Proteins Generates an Aberrant Nuclear Envelope Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birthe Fahrenkrog

    Full Text Available Chromosomal translocations involving the nucleoporin NUP98 have been described in several hematopoietic malignancies, in particular acute myeloid leukemia (AML. In the resulting chimeric proteins, Nup98's N-terminal region is fused to the C-terminal region of about 30 different partners, including homeodomain (HD transcription factors. While transcriptional targets of distinct Nup98 chimeras related to immortalization are relatively well described, little is known about other potential cellular effects of these fusion proteins. By comparing the sub-nuclear localization of a large number of Nup98 fusions with HD and non-HD partners throughout the cell cycle we found that while all Nup98 chimeras were nuclear during interphase, only Nup98-HD fusion proteins exhibited a characteristic speckled appearance. During mitosis, only Nup98-HD fusions were concentrated on chromosomes. Despite the difference in localization, all tested Nup98 chimera provoked morphological alterations in the nuclear envelope (NE, in particular affecting the nuclear lamina and the lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α. Importantly, such aberrations were not only observed in transiently transfected HeLa cells but also in mouse bone marrow cells immortalized by Nup98 fusions and in cells derived from leukemia patients harboring Nup98 fusions. Our findings unravel Nup98 fusion-associated NE alterations that may contribute to leukemogenesis.

  12. 75 FR 52045 - Arizona Public Service Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 3; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ...- water nuclear power reactors,'' and 10 CFR part 50, appendix K, ``ECCS Evaluation Models,'' for Facility... Assessment Identification of the Proposed Action: The proposed action would permit the use of fuel rods with... exemption would allow up to eight lead fuel assemblies (LFAs) manufactured by Westinghouse with fuel...

  13. Expression of Leukemia-Associated Nup98 Fusion Proteins Generates an Aberrant Nuclear Envelope Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Martinelli, Valérie; Nilles, Nadine; Fruhmann, Gernot; Chatel, Guillaume; Juge, Sabine; Sauder, Ursula; Di Giacomo, Danika; Mecucci, Cristina; Schwaller, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations involving the nucleoporin NUP98 have been described in several hematopoietic malignancies, in particular acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the resulting chimeric proteins, Nup98's N-terminal region is fused to the C-terminal region of about 30 different partners, including homeodomain (HD) transcription factors. While transcriptional targets of distinct Nup98 chimeras related to immortalization are relatively well described, little is known about other potential cellular effects of these fusion proteins. By comparing the sub-nuclear localization of a large number of Nup98 fusions with HD and non-HD partners throughout the cell cycle we found that while all Nup98 chimeras were nuclear during interphase, only Nup98-HD fusion proteins exhibited a characteristic speckled appearance. During mitosis, only Nup98-HD fusions were concentrated on chromosomes. Despite the difference in localization, all tested Nup98 chimera provoked morphological alterations in the nuclear envelope (NE), in particular affecting the nuclear lamina and the lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α). Importantly, such aberrations were not only observed in transiently transfected HeLa cells but also in mouse bone marrow cells immortalized by Nup98 fusions and in cells derived from leukemia patients harboring Nup98 fusions. Our findings unravel Nup98 fusion-associated NE alterations that may contribute to leukemogenesis.

  14. 77 FR 25762 - In the Matter of Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc., Vogtle Electric Generating Plant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... The NRC has issued a general license to Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. (SNC), authorizing... part 72. This Order is being issued to SNC because it has identified near-term plans to store spent... accommodate the specific circumstances existing at SNC's facility, to achieve the intended objectives...

  15. The bungling giant : Atomic Energy Canada Limited and next-generation nuclear technology, 1980-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, I.J

    2003-07-01

    From 1980-1994 Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL), the Crown Corporation responsible for the development of nuclear technology in Canada, ventured into the market for small-scale, decentralized power systems with the Slowpoke Energy System (SES), a 10MW nuclear reactor for space heating in urban and remote areas. The SES was designed to be 'passively' or 'inherently' safe, such that even the most catastrophic failure of the system would not result in a serious accident (e.g. a meltdown or an explosion). This Canadian initiative, a beneficiary of the National Energy Program, was the first and by far the most successful attempt at a passively safe, decentralized nuclear power system anywhere in the world. Part one uses archival documentation and interviews with project leaders to reconstruct the history of the SES. The standard explanations for the failure of the project, cheap oil, public resistance to the technology, and lack of commercial expertise, are rejected. Part two presents an alternative explanation for the failure of AECL to commercialize the SES. In short, technological momentum towards large-scale nuclear designs led to structural restrictions for the SES project. These restrictions manifested themselves internally to the company (e.g., marginalization of the SES) and externally to the company (e.g., licensing). In part three, the historical lessons of the SES are used to refine one of the central tenets of Popper's political philosophy, 'piecemeal social engineering.' Popper's presentation of the idea is lacking in detail; the analysis of the SES provides some empirical grounding for the concept. I argue that the institutions surrounding traditional nuclear power represent a form utopian social engineering, leading to consequences such as the suspension of civil liberties to guarantee security of the technology. The SES project was an example of a move from the utopian social engineering of large

  16. Generation of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene knockout rabbits by homologous recombination and gene trapping through somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Mingru; Jiang, Weihua; Fang, Zhenfu; Kong, Pengcheng; Xing, Fengying; Li, Yao; Chen, Xuejin; Li, Shangang

    2015-11-02

    The rabbit is a common animal model that has been employed in studies on various human disorders, and the generation of genetically modified rabbit lines is highly desirable. Female rabbits have been successfully cloned from cumulus cells, and the somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology is well established. The present study generated hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene knockout rabbits using recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated homologous recombination and SCNT. Gene trap strategies were employed to enhance the gene targeting rates. The male and female gene knockout fibroblast cell lines were derived by different strategies. When male HPRT knockout cells were used for SCNT, no live rabbits were obtained. However, when female HPRT(+/-) cells were used for SCNT, live, healthy rabbits were generated. The cloned HPRT(+/-) rabbits were fertile at maturity. We demonstrate a new technique to produce gene-targeted rabbits. This approach may also be used in the genetic manipulation of different genes or in other species.

  17. Effect of nuclear motion on high-order harmonic generation of H$_2^+$ in intense ultrashort laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Hamed; Sabzyan, Hassan; Niknam, Ali Reza; Vafaee, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    High-order harmonic generation is investigated for H$_2^+$ and D$_2^+$ with and without Born-Oppenheimer approximation by numerical solution of full dimensional electronic time-dependent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation under 4-cycle intense laser pulses of 800 nm wavelength and $I$=4, 5, 7, 10 $\\times 10^{14}$ W$/$cm$^2$ intensities. For most harmonic orders, the intensity obtained for D$_2^+$ is higher than that for H$_2^+$, and the yield difference increases as the harmonic order increases. Only at some low harmonic orders, H$_2^+$ generates more intense harmonics compared to D$_2^+$. The results show that nuclear motion, ionization probability and system dimensionality must be simultaneously taken into account to properly explain the isotopic effects on high-order harmonic generation and to justify experimental observations.

  18. 53BP1 nuclear bodies form around DNA lesions generated by mitotic transmission of chromosomes under replication stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Claudia; Savic, Velibor; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Completion of genome duplication is challenged by structural and topological barriers that impede progression of replication forks. Although this can seriously undermine genome integrity, the fate of DNA with unresolved replication intermediates is not known. Here, we show that mild replication...... bodies shield chromosomal fragile sites sequestered in these compartments against erosion. Together, these data indicate that restoration of DNA or chromatin integrity at loci prone to replication problems requires mitotic transmission to the next cell generations....... increases after genetic ablation of BLM, a DNA helicase associated with dissolution of entangled DNA. Conversely, 53BP1 nuclear bodies are partially suppressed by knocking down SMC2, a condensin subunit required for mechanical stability of mitotic chromosomes. Finally, we provide evidence that 53BP1 nuclear...

  19. A concept of countermeasure against radioactive wastewater generated in disastrous nuclear accident such as Fukushima Daiichi site case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang-Wook; Lee, Keun-Young; Lee, Eil-Hee; Baek, Yeji; So, Ji-Yang; Chung, Dong-Young; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Before the operation of initial wastewater treatment systems supplied by AREVA and Kurion companies, which were installed about 6 months after the accident, the contaminated water was accumulated in reactor and turbine buildings, then was moved and stored in many hurriedly-prepared storage tanks including even mega float barge. The wastewater treatment systems using Cs-adsorption columns and desalination equipment was not properly operated and there were several small and big leakages of contaminated water from the wastewater treatment system and storage tanks, so that tremendous wastewater had been accumulated during those periods. That thereafter led to many secondary problems in management and treatment of the wastewater. Since the disastrous accident at Fukushima, several measures to more enhance safety of nuclear power plants located on coastal area have been asked. As one of them, a countermeasure against generation of tremendous radioactive wastewater in disastrous nuclear accident like the Fukushima Daiichi station was asked to be prepared.

  20. Initial Screening of Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles for High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.C.; Funk, J.F.; Showalter, S.K.

    1999-12-15

    OAK B188 Initial Screening of Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles for High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process, nor is such a process available for commercialization. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation sector of our economy. Fossil fuels are polluting and carbon dioxide emissions from their combustion are thought to be responsible for global warming. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station. Almost 800 literature references were located which pertain to thermochemical production of hydrogen from water and over 100 thermochemical watersplitting cycles were examined. Using defined criteria and quantifiable metrics, 25 cycles have been selected for more detailed study.

  1. A comparison of delayed radiobiological effects of depleted-uranium munitions versus fourth-generation nuclear weapons

    CERN Document Server

    Gsponer, A; Vitale, B; Gsponer, Andre; Hurni, Jean-Pierre; Vitale, Bruno

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the radiological burden due to the battle-field use of circa 400 tons of depleted-uranium munitions in Iraq (and of about 40 tons in Yugoslavia) is comparable to that arising from the hypothetical battle-field use of more than 600 kt (respectively 60 kt) of high-explosive equivalent pure-fusion fourth-generation nuclear weapons. Despite the limited knowledge openly available on existing and future nuclear weapons, there is sufficient published information on their physical principles and radiological effects to make such a comparison. In fact, it is shown that this comparison can be made with very simple and convincing arguments so that the main technical conclusions of the paper are undisputable -- although it would be worthwhile to supplement the hand calculations presented in the paper by more detailed computer simulations in order to consolidate the conclusions and refute any possible objections.

  2. Generation of embryonic stem cells from mouse adipose-tissue derived cells via somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yiren; Qin, Jilong; Zhou, Chikai; Li, Jinsong; Gao, Wei-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by nuclear transfer (NT-ESCs), or into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by the "Yamanaka method." However, recent studies have indicated that mouse and human iPSCs are prone to epigenetic and transcriptional aberrations, and that NT-ESCs correspond more closely to ESCs derived from in vitro fertilized embryos than iPSCs. In addition, the procedure of NT-ESCs does not involve gene modification. Demonstration of generation of NT-ESCs using an easily-accessible source of adult cell types would be very important. Adipose tissue is a source of readily accessible donor cells and can be isolated from both males and females at different ages. Here we report that NT-ESCs can be generated from adipose tissue-derived cells (ADCs). At morphological, mRNA and protein levels, these NT-ESCs show classic ESC colonies, exhibit alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity, and display normal diploid karyotypes. Importantly, these cells express pluripotent markers including Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and SSEA-1. Furthermore, they can differentiate in vivo into various types of cells from 3 germinal layers by teratoma formation assays. This study demonstrates for the first time that ESCs can be generated from the adipose tissue by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and suggests that ADCs can be a new donor-cell type for potential therapeutic cloning.

  3. 百万千瓦级核电汽轮发电机组选型%The Selecion of the speed of 1000MW Nuclear Steam Turbine Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪松

    2001-01-01

    This paper is to show how to select the speed of 1000MW nuclear steam turbine generator forour country's next nuclear power plants in accordance with the developing trend of the nuclear steam turbine generator abroad as well as a comprehensive analysis and comparison of full speed nuclear steam turbine generator and half speed steam turbine generator at 1000MW.%通过对国外核汽轮发电机组发展趋势的分析和对百万千瓦全转速与半转速机组的综合分析比较,简要阐述广东继岭澳一期电站工程后百万千瓦级核电站汽轮发电机组的选型问题。

  4. Roles of Radiolytic and Externally Generated H2 in the Corrosion of Fractured Spent Nuclear Fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nazhen; Wu, Linda; Qin, Zack; Shoesmith, David W

    2016-11-15

    A 2-D model for the corrosion of spent nuclear fuel inside a failed nuclear waste container has been modified to determine the influence of various redox processes occurring within fractures in the fuel. The corrosion process is driven by reaction of the fuel with the dominant α radiolysis product, H2O2. A number of reactions are shown to moderate or suppress the corrosion rate, including H2O2 decomposition and a number of reactions involving dissolved H2 produced either by α radiolysis or by the corrosion of the steel container vessel. Both sources of H2 lead to the suppression of fuel corrosion, with their relative importance being determined by the radiation dose rate, the steel corrosion rate, and the dimensions of the fractures in the fuel. The combination of H2 from these two sources can effectively prevent corrosion when only micromolar quantities of H2 are present.

  5. Triple nuclear reactions (d, n) in laser-generated plasma from deuterated targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, Lorenzo; Cutroneo, Mariapompea

    2017-06-01

    Measurements performed at Prague Asterix Laser System laboratory have permitted to study nuclear reactions in plasma produced by high intensity laser pulses (1016 W/cm2) accelerating high energetic ions. In particular, the laser irradiation of deuterated polyethylene (CD2) primary target, as thin foils, has produced the ion acceleration of C and D ions, and the presence of a thick LiD secondary target has produced nuclear reaction events due to the deuteron-deuteron, deuterons-lithium, and deuteron-carbon interactions. Fast and slow neutrons have been obtained mainly from the nuclear reactions 7Li(d, n)8Be, 2H(d, n)3He, and 12C(d, n)13N. Plasma monitoring and measurements of kinetic energies of produced particles in different directions were obtained using many detectors. The analyses were based on a semiconductor time-of-flight technique, an electric and magnetic ion deflection in a Thomson spectrometer, and ion track detectors. The maximum yields of neutrons produced in the used experimental conditions were evaluated to be about 4 × 108 and 3 × 108 neutrons/laser shot at energies of 14 MeV and 2.4 MeV, from the D-Li and D-D reactions, respectively, while the production of low energy neutrons from the third D-C reaction was negligible.

  6. Accelerated development of Zr-containing new generation ferritic steels for advanced nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Lizhen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yang, Ying [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sridharan, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The mission of the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) program is to develop crosscutting technologies for nuclear energy applications. Advanced structural materials with superior performance at elevated temperatures are always desired for nuclear reactors, which can improve reactor economics, safety margins, and design flexibility. They benefit not only new reactors, including advanced light water reactors (LWRs) and fast reactors such as the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) that is primarily designed for management of high-level wastes, but also life extension of the existing fleet when component exchange is needed. Developing and utilizing the modern materials science tools (experimental, theoretical, and computational tools) is an important path to more efficient alloy development and process optimization. The ultimate goal of this project is, with the aid of computational modeling tools, to accelerate the development of Zr-bearing ferritic alloys that can be fabricated using conventional steelmaking methods. The new alloys are expected to have superior high-temperature creep performance and excellent radiation resistance as compared to Grade 91. The designed alloys were fabricated using arc-melting and drop-casting, followed by hot rolling and conventional heat treatments. Comprehensive experimental studies have been conducted on the developed alloys to evaluate their hardness, tensile properties, creep resistance, Charpy impact toughness, and aging resistance, as well as resistance to proton and heavy ion (Fe2+) irradiation.

  7. Radiation chemistry for modern nuclear energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Szołucha, Monika M.

    2016-07-01

    Radiation chemistry plays a significant role in modern nuclear energy development. Pioneering research in nuclear science, for example the development of generation IV nuclear reactors, cannot be pursued without chemical solutions. Present issues related to light water reactors concern radiolysis of water in the primary circuit; long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel; radiation effects on cables and wire insulation, and on ion exchangers used for water purification; as well as the procedures of radioactive waste reprocessing and storage. Radiation effects on materials and enhanced corrosion are crucial in current (II/III/III+) and future (IV) generation reactors, and in waste management, deep geological disposal and spent fuel reprocessing. The new generation of reactors (III+ and IV) impose new challenges for radiation chemists due to their new conditions of operation and the usage of new types of coolant. In the case of the supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), water chemistry control may be the key factor in preventing corrosion of reactor structural materials. This paper mainly focuses on radiation effects on long-term performance and safety in the development of nuclear power plants.

  8. Design by theoretical and CFD analyses of a multi-blade screw pump evolving liquid lead for a Generation IV LFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrini, Marcello [GeNERG - DIME/TEC, University of Genova, via all’Opera Pia 15/a, 16145 Genova (Italy); Borreani, Walter [Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A., Corso F.M. Perrone 25, 16152 Genova (Italy); INFN, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Lomonaco, Guglielmo, E-mail: guglielmo.lomonaco@unige.it [GeNERG - DIME/TEC, University of Genova, via all’Opera Pia 15/a, 16145 Genova (Italy); INFN, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Magugliani, Fabrizio [Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A., Corso F.M. Perrone 25, 16152 Genova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) has both a long history and a penchant of innovation. With early work related to its use for submarine propulsion dating to the 1950s, Russian scientists pioneered the development of reactors cooled by heavy liquid metals (HLM). More recently, there has been substantial interest in both critical and subcritical reactors cooled by lead (Pb) or lead–bismuth eutectic (LBE), not only in Russia, but also in Europe, Asia, and the USA. The growing knowledge of the thermal-fluid-dynamic properties of these fluids and the choice of the LFR as one of the six reactor types selected by Generation IV International Forum (GIF) for further research and development has fostered the exploration of new geometries and new concepts aimed at optimizing the key components that will be adopted in the Advanced Lead Fast Reactor European Demonstrator (ALFRED), the 300 MW{sub t} pool-type reactor aimed at proving the feasibility of the design concept adopted for the European Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (ELFR). In this paper, a theoretical and computational analysis is presented of a multi-blade screw pump evolving liquid Lead as primary pump for the adopted reference conceptual design of ALFRED. The pump is at first analyzed at design operating conditions from the theoretical point of view to determine the optimal geometry according to the velocity triangles and then modeled with a 3D CFD code (ANSYS CFX). The choice of a 3D simulation is dictated by the need to perform a detailed spatial simulation taking into account the peculiar geometry of the pump as well as the boundary layers and turbulence effects of the flow, which are typically tri-dimensional. The use of liquid Lead impacts significantly the fluid dynamic design of the pump because of the key requirement to avoid any erosion affects. These effects have a major impact on the performance, reliability and lifespan of the pump. Albeit some erosion-related issues remain to be fully addressed, the results

  9. Nuclear Wavepacket Dynamics of Alkali Adsorbates on Metal Surfaces Studied by Time-Resolved Second Harmonic Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Watanabe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent efforts to understand the dynamics of coherent surface vibrations of alkali atoms adsorbed on metal surfaces. Time-resolved second harmonic generation is used for the coherent excitation and detection of the nuclear wavepacket dynamics of the surface modes. The principles of the measurement and the experimental details are described. The main focus is on coverage and excitation photon energy dependences of the coherent phonon dynamics for Na-, K-, and Cs-covered Cu(111. The excitation mechanism of the coherent phonon has been revealed by the ultrafast time-domain technique and theoretical modelings.

  10. Los Alamos National Laboratory new generation standard nuclear material storage container - the SAVY4000 design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Timothy Amos [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Incidents involving release of nuclear materials stored in containers of convenience such as food pack cans, slip lid taped cans, paint cans, etc. has resulted in defense board concerns over the lack of prescriptive performance requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has shared in these incidents and in response proactively moved into developing a performance based standard involving storage of nuclear material (RD003). This RD003 requirements document has sense been updated to reflect requirements as identified with recently issued DOE M 441.1-1 'Nuclear Material Packaging Manual'. The new packaging manual was issued at the encouragement of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board with a clear directive for protecting the worker from exposure due to loss of containment of stored materials. The Manual specifies a detailed and all inclusive approach to achieve a high level of protection; from package design & performance requirements, design life determinations of limited life components, authorized contents evaluations, and surveillance/maintenance to ensure in use package integrity over time. Materials in scope involve those stored outside an approved engineered-contamination barrier that would result in a worker exposure of in excess of 5 rem Committed Effective Does Equivalent (CEDE). Key aspects of meeting the challenge as developed around the SAVY-3000 vented storage container design will be discussed. Design performance and acceptance criteria against the manual, bounding conditions as established that the user must ensure are met to authorize contents in the package (based upon the activity of heat-source plutonium (90% Pu-238) oxide, which bounds the requirements for weapons-grade plutonium oxide), interface as a safety class system within the facility under the LANL plutonium facility DSA, design life determinations for limited life components, and a sense of design specific surveillance

  11. Worldwide assessment of steam-generator problems in pressurized-water-reactor nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, H.H.; Lu, S.C.

    1981-09-15

    Objective is to assess the reliability of steam generators of pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants in the United States and abroad. The assessment is based on operation experience of both domestic and foreign PWR plants. The approach taken is to collect and review papers and reports available from the literature as well as information obtained by contacting research institutes both here and abroad. This report presents the results of the assessment. It contains a general background of PWR plant operations, plant types, and materials used in PWR plants. A review of the worldwide distribution of PWR plants is also given. The report describes in detail the degradation problems discovered in PWR steam generators: their causes, their impacts on the performance of steam generators, and the actions to mitigate and avoid them. One chapter is devoted to operating experience of PWR steam generators in foreign countries. Another discusses the improvements in future steam generator design.

  12. Nuclear fuel cycle and sustainable development: strategies for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchard, J

    2004-07-01

    In this presentation, the author aims to define the major role of the nuclear energy in the future, according a sustainable development scenario. The today aging park and the new Generation IV technologies are presented. The transition scenario from Pu mono-recycling in PWRs to actinide global recycling in fast neutron Gen IV systems is also developed. Closed cycles and fast reactors appear as the appropriate answer to sustainable objectives in a vision of a large expansion. (A.L.B.)

  13. The spanish electric system operation. The contribution of nuclear generation; La operacion del sistema electrico espanol. Contribucion de la generacion nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvison, M. R.; Torre, M. de la

    2009-07-01

    Operation of an electric system encloses the collection of activities which extend from affective generation dispatch to issuing instruction for network manoeuvring along with international exchange scheduling. Based on the market mechanisms that apply to energy transactions, these tasks guarantee the security of supply end consumers, which is the final goal of the System Operators actions. In Spain this function is executed by Red Electrica de Espana (REE) since 1985, after being constituted as the first Transmission and System Operator (TSO) in the world. Additionally the variations to Law 54/1997 introduced by law 17/2007 also assign REE the function of sole transmission owner in the Spanish electric system. In order to achieve the aforementioned goal, nuclear energy plays in Spain a fundamental role in electric generation thanks to its high availability rate, the predictability of its fuel recharges, its high operational reliability, its geographical location, the stability of its costs and the security of supply given by the possibility of on-site fuel storage in the power plant. (Author)

  14. Study of molybdenum (VI) complexation and precipitation by zirconium (IV) in strongly acid medium. Application to nuclear spent fuel dissolution; Etude de la complexation et de la precipitation du molybdene (VI) par le zirconium (IV) en milieu tres acide. Application a la dissolution du combustible nucleaire irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esbelin, E

    1999-07-01

    These last years the formation of solid deposits has been observed in the dissolution workshops of the La Hague plant. A sample of the solid was withdrawn for expertise: molybdenum and zirconium are the two major components of the solid, identified as zirconium molybdate. This thesis consisted in the approach of the mechanisms in solution liable to induce precipitate formation. After a bibliographical overview on the chemistry of Mo(VI) in highly acidic solution, this system was studied by absorption spectrophotometry in perchloric medium. The implication of two major forms of Mo(VI) in a dimerization equilibrium was confirmed by this way and by {sup 95}Mo NMR. The principal parameters governing this equilibrium were identified. It is thus shown that the molybdenum dimerization reaction is exothermic. Disturbance of the Mo(VI) system in highly acidic solution by Zr(IV) was also studied. In a restricted experimental field, for which 'conventional' exploitation methodologies had to be adapted to the system, a main complex of stoichiometry 1:1 between Mo(VI) and Zr(IV) was found. The precipitation study of Mo(VI) by Zr(IV) under conditions close to those of the dissolution medium of nuclear spent fuel was undertaken. The main parameters which control precipitation kinetics were identified. The results obtained reveal that precipitation is controlled by a single macroscopic process and therefore can be described by a single equation. The solid obtained is composed of only one phase presenting a Mo:Zr non-stoichiometry when compared to the theoretical formula ZrMo{sub 2}O{sub 7}(OH){sub 2},2H{sub 2}O. At last, on the basis of the research results, a descriptive mechanism of the system is proposed in which intervenes a 1:1 intermediate complex, much more soluble than a probable 2:1 precipitation precursor. (author)

  15. Perspectives on Entangled Nuclear Particle Pairs Generation and Manipulation in Quantum Communication and Cryptography Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Dănilă

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Entanglement between two quantum elements is a phenomenon which presents a broad application spectrum, being used largely in quantum cryptography schemes and in physical characterisation of the universe. Commonly known entangled states have been obtained with photons and electrons, but other quantum elements such as quarks, leptons, and neutrinos have shown their informational potential. In this paper, we present the perspective of exploiting the phenomenon of entanglement that appears in nuclear particle interactions as a resource for quantum key distribution protocols.

  16. The planning of decommissioning activities within nuclear facilities - Generating a Baseline Decommissioning Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meek, N.C.; Ingram, S.; Page, J. [BNFL Environmental Services (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    BNFL Environmental Services has developed planning tools to meet the emerging need for nuclear liabilities management and decommissioning engineering both in the UK and globally. It can provide a comprehensive baseline planning service primarily aimed at nuclear power stations and nuclear plant. The paper develops the following issues: Decommissioning planning; The baseline decommissioning plan;The process; Work package; Compiling the information; Deliverables summary; Customer Benefits; - Planning tool for nuclear liability life-cycle management; - Robust and reliable plans based upon 'real' experience; - Advanced financial planning; - Ascertaining risk; - Strategy and business planning. The following Deliverables are mentioned:1. Site Work Breakdown Structure; 2. Development of site implementation strategy from the high level decommissioning strategy; 3. An end point definition for the site; 4. Buildings, operational systems and plant surveys; 5. A schedule of condition for the site; 6. Development of technical approach for decommissioning for each work package; 7. Cost estimate to WBS level 5 for each work package; 8. Estimate of decommissioning waste arisings for each work package; 9. Preparation of complete decommissioning programme in planning software to suit client; 10. Risk modelling of work package and overall project levels; 11. Roll up of costs into an overall cost model; 12. Cash flow, waste profiling and resource profiling against the decommissioning programme; 13. Preparation and issue of Final Report. Finally The BDP process is represented by a flowchart listing the following stages: [Power Station project assigned] {yields} [Review project and conduct Characterisation review of power station] {yields} [Identify work packages] {yields} [Set up WBS to level 3] {yields} [Assign work packages] {yields} [Update WBS to level 4] {yields}[Develop cost model] {yields} [Develop logic network] {yields} [Develop risk management procedure] ] {yields

  17. Next generation data acquisition systems for the CSIRO Nuclear Microprobe: Highly scaled versus customizable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Jamie S.; Ryan, Chris G.; Kirkham, Robin; Satoh, Takahiro; Pages, Anais

    2017-08-01

    Here we detail the new data acquisition system (DAS) developed for the CSIRO Nuclear Microprobe primarily to handle large detector arrays and to work in tandem with the Maia detector system. Both systems use HYMOD FPGA-based processors. The current DAQ system and its microscopy suite and beam handling have been integrated with the HYMOD system(s) to facilitate easy access to the either system. Examples of the new scanning modes available with the combined system are highlighted on a complex Cambrian black shale sample from the Yangtze basin in Southern China.

  18. A method for mechanical generation of radio frequency fields in nuclear magnetic resonance force microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Wagenaar, J J T; Donkersloot, R J; Marsman, F; de Wit, M; Bossoni, L; Oosterkamp, T H

    2016-01-01

    We present an innovative method for magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) with ultra-low dissipation, by using the higher modes of the mechanical detector as radio frequency (rf) source. This method allows MRFM on samples without the need to be close to an rf source. Furthermore, since rf sources require currents that give dissipation, our method enables nuclear magnetic resonance experiments at ultra-low temperatures. Removing the need for an on-chip rf source is an important step towards a MRFM which can be widely used in condensed matter physics.

  19. Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Graphite Creep Experiments for Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Blaine Grover

    2009-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six gas reactor graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These graphite irradiations are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Very High Temperature Gas Reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain seven separate stacks of graphite specimens. Six of the specimen stacks will have half of their graphite specimens under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six stacks will be organized into pairs with a different compressive load being applied to the top half of each pair of specimen stacks. The seventh stack will not have a compressive load on the graphite specimens during irradiation. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be the capability of sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any

  20. Asteroids IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    . Asteroids, like planets, are driven by a great variety of both dynamical and physical mechanisms. In fact, images sent back by space missions show a collection of small worlds whose characteristics seem designed to overthrow our preconceived notions. Given their wide range of sizes and surface compositions, it is clear that many formed in very different places and at different times within the solar nebula. These characteristics make them an exciting challenge for researchers who crave complex problems. The return of samples from these bodies may ultimately be needed to provide us with solutions. In the book Asteroids IV, the editors and authors have taken major strides in the long journey toward a much deeper understanding of our fascinating planetary ancestors. This book reviews major advances in 43 chapters that have been written and reviewed by a team of more than 200 international authorities in asteroids. It is aimed to be as comprehensive as possible while also remaining accessible to students and researchers who are interested in learning about these small but nonetheless important worlds. We hope this volume will serve as a leading reference on the topic of asteroids for the decade to come. We are deeply indebted to the many authors and referees for their tremendous efforts in helping us create Asteroids IV. We also thank the members of the Asteroids IV scientific organizing committee for helping us shape the structure and content of the book. The conference associated with the book, "Asteroids Comets Meteors 2014" held June 30-July 4, 2014, in Helsinki, Finland, did an outstanding job of demonstrating how much progress we have made in the field over the last decade. We are extremely grateful to our host Karri Muinonnen and his team. The editors are also grateful to the Asteroids IV production staff, namely Renée Dotson and her colleagues at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, for their efforts, their invaluable assistance, and their enthusiasm; they made life as

  1. Development policy on new generation of nuclear power combined with desalination in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The potential market for desalination industry is forecasted in China for a long term. A co-generation policy is proposed in power production and desalination. It has been predicted that the desalination would become a huge industry in China provided that the technology of desalination is improved and fresh water cost reduced to a certain level accepted by Chinese Residents.

  2. 75 FR 57820 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC.; Combined License Application for Comanche Peak Nuclear Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ..., Combined License (COL) Application, Docket Numbers 52-034 and 52-035, submitted by Luminant Generation... of a COL application until the NRC makes a finding under 10 CFR 52.103(g) pertaining to facility... Analysis Report (FSAR). The proposed exemption would allow Luminant to submit its COL application...

  3. Thermolysis of Half-Sandwich Vanadium(V) Imido Complexes to Generate Vanadium(III) Imido Species via a Vanadium(IV) Intermediate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batinas, Aurora A.; Dam, Jeroen; Meetsma, Auke; Hessen, Bart; Bouwkamp, Marco W.

    2010-01-01

    Thermolysis of half-sandwich vanadium imido complexes Cp(RN)V(i-Pr(2)N)Me (R = p-Tol, 1a; R = t-Bu, 1b) results in a mixture of products, including vanadium(IV) dimers [CpVMe](2)(mu-RN)(2), i-Pr(2)NH, i-PrNCMe(2), CH(4), and one or more paramagnetic species. In the presence of dmpe (dmpe =

  4. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers, Volumes 1, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyaya, Belle R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hines, J. Wesley [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Lu, Baofu [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2005-06-03

    The overall purpose of this Nuclear Engineering Education Research (NEER) project was to integrate new, innovative, and existing technologies to develop a fault diagnostics and characterization system for nuclear plant steam generators (SG) and heat exchangers (HX). Issues related to system level degradation of SG and HX tubing, including tube fouling, performance under reduced heat transfer area, and the damage caused by stress corrosion cracking, are the important factors that influence overall plant operation, maintenance, and economic viability of nuclear power systems. The research at The University of Tennessee focused on the development of techniques for monitoring process and structural integrity of steam generators and heat exchangers. The objectives of the project were accomplished by the completion of the following tasks. All the objectives were accomplished during the project period. This report summarizes the research and development activities, results, and accomplishments during June 2001 September 2004. Development and testing of a high-fidelity nodal model of a U-tube steam generator (UTSG) to simulate the effects of fouling and to generate a database representing normal and degraded process conditions. Application of the group method of data handling (GMDH) method for process variable prediction. Development of a laboratory test module to simulate particulate fouling of HX tubes and its effect on overall thermal resistance. Application of the GMDH technique to predict HX fluid temperatures, and to compare with the calculated thermal resistance.Development of a hybrid modeling technique for process diagnosis and its evaluation using laboratory heat exchanger test data. Development and testing of a sensor suite using piezo-electric devices for monitoring structural integrity of both flat plates (beams) and tubing. Experiments were performed in air, and in water with and without bubbly flow. Development of advanced signal processing methods using

  5. Nuclear design manual for generation of cross section and heterogeneous formfunction for CASMO-3/MASTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Ho; Cho, Byung Oh; Song, Jae Seong; Lee, Chung Chan

    1996-12-01

    A three-dimensional reactor core simulation code, MASTER, has been developed as a part of the ADONIS project in KAERI. CASMO-3 prepares various two-group cross sections for the constituents of a reactor core such as fuel assembly, radial and axial reflectors, control rod and detector for MASTER. This report includes the standard design procedure for generation of two-group cross sections and heterogeneous formfunction by CASMO-3/FORM for MASTER. (author). 16 refs., 16 tabs., 12 figs.

  6. Review of nuclear electricity generation and desalination plants and evaluation of SMART application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Han Ok; Kang, Hyung Suk; Cho, Bong Hyun; Yoon, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Lee, Young Jin; Kim, Joo Pyung; Lee, Doo Jeong; Chang, Moon Hee

    1998-03-01

    KAERI are developing a new advanced integral reactor named SMART for dual application purpose of the electric power generation and seawater desalination. This report are describing the general desalting methods with its technology development and the coupling schemes between electricity generation system and desalting system. Though MSF takes the most part of currently operating seawater desalination plants, MED and RO has been preferred in the past decade. MED has a advantage over MSF with the view to investment costs and energy efficiency. The coupling between electricity generation system and desalination system can be realized by using one of back pressure cycle, extraction cycle, and multi-shaft cycle. New design and operating strategy has to be established for various environment and load conditions. To evaluate the candidate desalination systems of SMART and the coupling method of it with other secondary systems, the desalted water and electricity were calculated through the several options. The result shows that back pressure cycle is preferred at the high water/power ratio and extraction cycle at the low value. If energy efficiency are only considered, RO will be best choice. (author). 17 refs., 12 tabs., 31 figs

  7. Novel Concepts for Damage-Resistant Alloys in Next Generation Nuclear Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen M. Bruemmer; Peter L. Andersen; Gary Was

    2002-12-27

    The discovery of a damage-resistant alloy based on Hf solute additions to a low-carbon 316SS is the highlight of the Phase II research. This damage resistance is supported by characterization of radiation-induced microstructures and microchemistries along with measurements of environmental cracking. The addition of Hf to a low-carbon 316SS reduced the detrimental impact of radiation by changing the distribution of Hf. Pt additions reduced the impact of radiation on grain boundary segregation but did not alter its effect on microstructural damage development or cracking. Because cracking susceptibility is associated with several material characteristics, separate effect experiments exploring strength effects using non-irradiated stainless steels were conducted. These crack growth tests suggest that irradiation strength by itself can promote environmental cracking. The second concept for developing damage resistant alloys is the use of metastable precipitates to stabilize the microstructure during irradiation. Three alloys have been tailored for evaluation of precipitate stability influences on damage evolution. The first alloy is a Ni-base alloy (alloy 718) that has been characterized at low neutron irradiation doses but has not been characterized at high irradiation doses. The other two alloys are Fe-base alloys (PH 17-7 and PH 17-4) that have similar precipitate structures as alloy 718 but is more practical in nuclear structures because of the lower Ni content and hence lesser transmutation to He.

  8. Novel Concepts for Damage-Resistant Alloys in Next Generation Nuclear Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen M. Bruemmer; Peter L. Andersen; Gary Was

    2002-12-27

    The discovery of a damage-resistant alloy based on Hf solute additions to a low-carbon 316SS is the highlight of the Phase II research. This damage resistance is supported by characterization of radiation-induced microstructures and microchemistries along with measurements of environmental cracking. The addition of Hf to a low-carbon 316SS reduced the detrimental impact of radiation by changing the distribution of Hf. Pt additions reduced the impact of radiation on grain boundary segregation but did not alter its effect on microstructural damage development or cracking. Because cracking susceptibility is associated with several material characteristics, separate effect experiments exploring strength effects using non-irradiated stainless steels were conducted. These crack growth tests suggest that irradiation strength by itself can promote environmental cracking. The second concept for developing damage resistant alloys is the use of metastable precipitates to stabilize the microstructure during irradiation. Three alloys have been tailored for evaluation of precipitate stability influences on damage evolution. The first alloy is a Ni-base alloy (alloy 718) that has been characterized at low neutron irradiation doses but has not been characterized at high irradiation doses. The other two alloys are Fe-base alloys (PH 17-7 and PH 17-4) that have similar precipitate structures as alloy 718 but is more practical in nuclear structures because of the lower Ni content and hence lesser transmutation to He.

  9. The European Research on Severe Accidents in Generation-II and -III Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Van Dorsselaere

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-three organisations from 22 countries network their capacities of research in SARNET (Severe Accident Research NETwork of excellence to resolve the most important remaining uncertainties and safety issues on severe accidents in existing and future water-cooled nuclear power plants (NPP. After a first project in the 6th Framework Programme (FP6 of the European Commission, the SARNET2 project, coordinated by IRSN, started in April 2009 for 4 years in the FP7 frame. After 2,5 years, some main outcomes of joint research (modelling and experiments by the network members on the highest priority issues are presented: in-vessel degraded core coolability, molten-corium-concrete-interaction, containment phenomena (water spray, hydrogen combustion…, source term issues (mainly iodine behaviour. The ASTEC integral computer code, jointly developed by IRSN and GRS to predict the NPP SA behaviour, capitalizes in terms of models the knowledge produced in the network: a few validation results are presented. For dissemination of knowledge, an educational 1-week course was organized for young researchers or students in January 2011, and a two-day course is planned mid-2012 for senior staff. Mobility of young researchers or students between the European partners is being promoted. The ERMSAR conference is becoming the major worldwide conference on SA research.

  10. Internalization of externalities in the generation costs of electric power centrals of carbon, combined cycle and nuclear; Internalizacion de externalidades en los costos de generacion de centrales electricas de carbon, ciclo combinado y nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez R, M.C. [Universidad Anahuac del Norte (Mexico); Palacios H, J.; Ramirez S, R.; Alonso V, G. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5 Ocoyoacac 52750 Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: fgrivera@avantel.net

    2007-07-01

    The technologies of electric power generation that use fossil fuels, they incorporate in the Even Total Cost of Generation (CTNG) only the direct costs of generation (investment, fuel costs, operation costs and maintenance). nevertheless, the nuclear energy incorporates besides the direct costs, the externalities that causes to the human health and the environment. In this work the CTNG is calculated that incorporates the externalities, of a thermoelectric power station of coal, a plant of combined cycle and of four reactors of Generation III (ABWR, ACR, AP1000 and EPR). The obtained results show that the nuclear power station has smaller CTNG that the technologies that use fossil fuels. It is important to stand out that they are only considering the externalities of the stage of electricity generation, for what the mining phase and transport of the fuel toward the central are not considered in the present document. (Author)

  11. Nuclear Ambitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China will begin to build the world’s first third-generation nuclear power plant at the Sanmen Nuclear Power Project in Sanmen City, coastal Zhejiang Province, in March 2009, accord-ing to the State Nuclear Power Technology Corp.

  12. An intracellular arrangement of Histoplasma capsulatum yeast-aggregates generates nuclear damage to the cultured murine alveolar macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayla De Souza Pitangui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasma capsulatum is responsible for a human systemic mycosis that primarily affects lung tissue. Macrophages are the major effector cells in humans that respond to the fungus, and the development of respiratory disease depends on the ability of Histoplasma yeast cells to survive and replicate within alveolar macrophages. Therefore, the interaction between macrophages and H. capsulatum is a decisive step in the yeast dissemination into host tissues. Although the role played by components of cell-mediated immunity in the host's defense system and the mechanisms used by the pathogen to evade the host immune response are well understood, knowledge regarding the effects induced by H. capsulatum in host cells at the nuclear level is limited. According to the present findings, H. capsulatum yeast cells display a unique architectural arrangement during the intracellular infection of cultured murine alveolar macrophages, characterized as a formation of aggregates that seem to surround the host cell nucleus, resembling a crown. This extranuclear organization of yeast-aggregates generates damage on the nucleus of the host cell, producing DNA fragmentation and inducing apoptosis, even though the yeast cells are not located inside the nucleus and do not trigger changes in nuclear proteins. The current study highlights a singular intracellular arrangement of H. capsulatum yeast near to the nucleus of infected murine alveolar macrophages that may contribute to the yeast’s persistence under intracellular conditions, since this fungal pathogen may display different strategies to prevent elimination by the host's phagocytic mechanisms.

  13. An Intracellular Arrangement of Histoplasma capsulatum Yeast-Aggregates Generates Nuclear Damage to the Cultured Murine Alveolar Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitangui, Nayla de Souza; Sardi, Janaina de Cássia Orlandi; Voltan, Aline R.; dos Santos, Claudia T.; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; da Silva, Rosangela A. M.; Souza, Felipe O.; Soares, Christiane P.; Rodríguez-Arellanes, Gabriela; Taylor, Maria Lucia; Mendes-Giannini, Maria J. S.; Fusco-Almeida, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum is responsible for a human systemic mycosis that primarily affects lung tissue. Macrophages are the major effector cells in humans that respond to the fungus, and the development of respiratory disease depends on the ability of Histoplasma yeast cells to survive and replicate within alveolar macrophages. Therefore, the interaction between macrophages and H. capsulatum is a decisive step in the yeast dissemination into host tissues. Although the role played by components of cell-mediated immunity in the host's defense system and the mechanisms used by the pathogen to evade the host immune response are well understood, knowledge regarding the effects induced by H. capsulatum in host cells at the nuclear level is limited. According to the present findings, H. capsulatum yeast cells display a unique architectural arrangement during the intracellular infection of cultured murine alveolar macrophages, characterized as a formation of aggregates that seem to surround the host cell nucleus, resembling a “crown.” This extranuclear organization of yeast-aggregates generates damage on the nucleus of the host cell, producing DNA fragmentation and inducing apoptosis, even though the yeast cells are not located inside the nucleus and do not trigger changes in nuclear proteins. The current study highlights a singular intracellular arrangement of H. capsulatum yeast near to the nucleus of infected murine alveolar macrophages that may contribute to the yeast's persistence under intracellular conditions, since this fungal pathogen may display different strategies to prevent elimination by the host's phagocytic mechanisms. PMID:26793172

  14. Use of the 2A peptide for generation of multi-transgenic pigs through a single round of nuclear transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Deng

    Full Text Available Multiple genetic modifications in pigs can essentially benefit research on agriculture, human disease and xenotransplantation. Most multi-transgenic pigs have been produced by complex and time-consuming breeding programs using multiple single-transgenic pigs. This study explored the feasibility of producing multi-transgenic pigs using the viral 2A peptide in the light of previous research indicating that it can be utilized for multi-gene transfer in gene therapy and somatic cell reprogramming. A 2A peptide-based double-promoter expression vector that mediated the expression of four fluorescent proteins was constructed and transfected into primary porcine fetal fibroblasts. Cell colonies (54.3% formed under G418 selection co-expressed the four fluorescent proteins at uniformly high levels. The reconstructed embryos, which were obtained by somatic cell nuclear transfer and confirmed to express the four fluorescent proteins evenly, were transplanted into seven recipient gilts. Eleven piglets were delivered by two gilts, and seven of them co-expressed the four fluorescent proteins at equivalently high levels in various tissues. The fluorescence intensities were directly observed at the nose, hoof and tongue using goggles. The results suggest that the strategy of combining the 2A peptide and double promoters efficiently mediates the co-expression of the four fluorescent proteins in pigs and is hence a promising methodology to generate multi-transgenic pigs by a single nuclear transfer.

  15. A performance assessment of a base isolation system for an emergency diesel generator in a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choun, Young Sun; Kim, Min Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    This study evaluates the performance of a coil spring-viscous damper system for the vibration and seismic isolation of an Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) by measuring its operational vibration and seismic responses. The vibration performance of a coil spring-viscous damper system was evaluated by the vibration measurements for an identical EDG set with different base systems - one with an anchor bolt system and the other with a coil spring-viscous damper system. The seismic performance of the coil spring-viscous damper system was evaluated by seismic tests with a scaled model of a base-isolated EDG on a shaking table. The effects of EDG base isolation on the fragility curve and core damage frequency in a nuclear power plant were also investigated through a case study.

  16. Contrast generation in the nuclear-spin tomography by pulsed ultrasound; Kontrasterzeugung in der Kernspintomographie durch gepulsten Ultraschall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehms, Ole Benjamin

    2009-07-10

    In the framework of this thesis a combined method of ultrasound and nuclear-spin tomography is presented. Via ultrasound pulses by the sound-radiation force in liquids and tissue phantoms motions are generated, which depend on ther viscoelastic properties. This motions are made visible by a motion-sensitive tomograph sequence in the phase image of the tomograph in form of a phase change. The first measurements on simple phantoms and liquids are presented. [German] Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird eine kombinierte Methode aus Ultraschall und Kernspintomographie vorgestellt. Ueber Ultraschallpulse werden durch die Schallstrahlungskraft in Fluessigkeiten und Gewebephantomen Bewegungen erzeugt, die von den viskoelastischen Eigenschaften abhaengen. Diese Bewegungen werden mit einer bewegungssensitiven Tomographensequenz im Phasenbild des Tomographen in Form einer Phasenaenderung sichtbar gemacht. Die ersten Messungen an einfachen Phantomen und Fluessigkeiten werden praesentiert. (orig.)

  17. Seismic structural fragility investigation for the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1 (Project I); SONGS-1 AFWS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesley, D.A.; Hashimoto, P.S.

    1982-04-01

    An evaluation of the seismic capacities of several of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1 (SONGS-1) structures was conducted to determine input to the overall probabilistic methodology developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Seismic structural fragilities to be used as input consist of median seismic capacities and their variabilities due to randomness and uncertainty. Potential failure modes were identified for each of the SONGS-1 structures included in this study by establishing the seismic load-paths and comparing expected load distributions to available capacities for the elements of each load-path. Particular attention was given to possible weak links and details. The more likely failure modes were screened for more detailed investigation.

  18. Alloys for 1000 degree C service in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant NERI 05-0191

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary S. Was; J.W. Jones; T. Pollock

    2009-01-15

    The objective of the proposed research is to define strategies for the improvement of alloys for structural components, such as the intermediate heat exchanger and primary-to-secondary piping, for service at 1000 degree C in the He environment of the NGNP. Specifically, we will investigate the oxidation/carburization behavior and microstructure stability and how these processes affect creep. While generating this data, the project will also develop a fundamental understanding of how impurities in the He environment affect these degradation processes and how this understanding can be used to develop more useful life prediction methodologies.

  19. Risk perception & strategic decision making :general insights, a framework, and specific application to electricity generation using nuclear energy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, Jeffrey D.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this report is to promote increased understanding of decision making processes and hopefully to enable improved decision making regarding high-consequence, highly sophisticated technological systems. This report brings together insights regarding risk perception and decision making across domains ranging from nuclear power technology safety, cognitive psychology, economics, science education, public policy, and neural science (to name a few). It forms them into a unique, coherent, concise framework, and list of strategies to aid in decision making. It is suggested that all decision makers, whether ordinary citizens, academics, or political leaders, ought to cultivate their abilities to separate the wheat from the chaff in these types of decision making instances. The wheat includes proper data sources and helpful human decision making heuristics; these should be sought. The chaff includes ''unhelpful biases'' that hinder proper interpretation of available data and lead people unwittingly toward inappropriate decision making ''strategies''; obviously, these should be avoided. It is further proposed that successfully accomplishing the wheat vs. chaff separation is very difficult, yet tenable. This report hopes to expose and facilitate navigation away from decision-making traps which often ensnare the unwary. Furthermore, it is emphasized that one's personal decision making biases can be examined, and tools can be provided allowing better means to generate, evaluate, and select among decision options. Many examples in this report are tailored to the energy domain (esp. nuclear power for electricity generation). The decision making framework and approach presented here are applicable to any high-consequence, highly sophisticated technological system.

  20. The economic viability of nuclear power in a fossil-fuel-rich country: Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Anthony

    2010-09-15

    This paper assesses the economic viability of investment in nuclear power generation in Australia and factors which may influence government policy towards such investments. It argues that the structure of the grid in Eastern Australia and the nature of the existing generator mix require nuclear technology that has similar attributes to combined cycle gas technology; i.e. modular construction of generating units, load following capability, low unit capital cost, and a general acceptance by the Australian public. The paper concludes that it is only Generation IV nuclear technology that has the potential to be part of Australia's energy mix after 2030.

  1. SBWR design update: Passively safe, nuclear power generation for the twenty first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upton, H.A.; Torbeck, J.E.; Billig, P.F.; Duncan, J.D.; Herzog, M. [General Electric Co., San Jose, CA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes the current state of design, development and testing of a new generation of Boiling Water Reactors, the SBWR. The SBWR is a plant that will be significantly simpler to build, operate and maintain compared to operating plants. In this paper, the design and performance of the reference 670 MWe SBWR is summarized, the economics of SBWR power generation is addressed and the current developments in component testing and integrated system testing are given. This paper specifically discusses the current innovations and key reference design features of the SBWR including the RPV, depressurization system, pressure suppression system, flammability control system (based on passive autocatalytic recombiners), gravity driven cooling system, the passive containment cooling system, isolation condenser system and other unique engineered safety features that rely on gravity or stored energy to ensure core cooling, decay heat removal, and ATWS mitigation. The component and integrated system development testing summarized includes key results of recently concluded PANTHERS condenser tests conducted at SIET in Italy, GIRAFFE non-condensable gas testing by Toshiba in Japan, and the ongoing testing at the PANDA facility at PSI in Switzerland.

  2. 77 FR 70847 - Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 2, Request for Action AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Request for...

  3. Generation of compartmentalized pressure by a nuclear piston governs cell motility in a 3D matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Ryan J; Koo, Hyun; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2014-08-29

    Cells use actomyosin contractility to move through three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrices. Contractility affects the type of protrusions cells use to migrate in 3D, but the mechanisms are unclear. In this work, we found that contractility generated high-pressure lobopodial protrusions in human cells migrating in a 3D matrix. In these cells, the nucleus physically divided the cytoplasm into forward and rear compartments. Actomyosin contractility with the nucleoskeleton-intermediate filament linker protein nesprin-3 pulled the nucleus forward and pressurized the front of the cell. Reducing expression of nesprin-3 decreased and equalized the intracellular pressure. Thus, the nucleus can act as a piston that physically compartmentalizes the cytoplasm and increases the hydrostatic pressure between the nucleus and the leading edge of the cell to drive lamellipodia-independent 3D cell migration.

  4. Impact of the High Flux Isotope Reactor HEU to LEU Fuel Conversion on Cold Source Nuclear Heat Generation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, David [ORNL

    2014-03-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration, staff members at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducting studies to determine whether the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) can be converted from high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. As part of these ongoing studies, an assessment of the impact that the HEU to LEU fuel conversion has on the nuclear heat generation rates in regions of the HFIR cold source system and its moderator vessel was performed and is documented in this report. Silicon production rates in the cold source aluminum regions and few-group neutron fluxes in the cold source moderator were also estimated. Neutronics calculations were performed with the Monte Carlo N-Particle code to determine the nuclear heat generation rates in regions of the HFIR cold source and its vessel for the HEU core operating at a full reactor power (FP) of 85 MW(t) and the reference LEU core operating at an FP of 100 MW(t). Calculations were performed with beginning-of-cycle (BOC) and end-of-cycle (EOC) conditions to bound typical irradiation conditions. Average specific BOC heat generation rates of 12.76 and 12.92 W/g, respectively, were calculated for the hemispherical region of the cold source liquid hydrogen (LH2) for the HEU and LEU cores, and EOC heat generation rates of 13.25 and 12.86 W/g, respectively, were calculated for the HEU and LEU cores. Thus, the greatest heat generation rates were calculated for the EOC HEU core, and it is concluded that the conversion from HEU to LEU fuel and the resulting increase of FP from 85 MW to 100 MW will not impact the ability of the heat removal equipment to remove the heat deposited in the cold source system. Silicon production rates in the cold source aluminum regions are estimated to be about 12.0% greater at BOC and 2.7% greater at EOC for the LEU core in comparison to the HEU core. Silicon is aluminum s major transmutation product and

  5. J-resistance curves for Inconel 690 and Incoloy 800 nuclear steam generators tubes at room temperature and at 300 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergant, Marcos A.; Yawny, Alejandro A.; Perez Ipiña, Juan E.

    2017-04-01

    The structural integrity of steam generator tubes is a relevant issue concerning nuclear plant safety. In the present work, J-resistance curves of Inconel 690 and Incoloy 800 nuclear steam generator tubes with circumferential and longitudinal through wall cracks were obtained at room temperature and 300 °C using recently developed non-standard specimens' geometries. It was found that Incoloy 800 tubes exhibited higher J-resistance curves than Inconel 690 for both crack orientations. For both materials, circumferential cracks resulted into higher fracture resistance than longitudinal cracks, indicating a certain degree of texture anisotropy introduced by the tube fabrication process. From a practical point of view, temperature effects have found to be negligible in all cases. The results obtained in the present work provide a general framework for further application to structural integrity assessments of cracked tubes in a variety of nuclear steam generator designs.

  6. Bulky N(,N)-(di)alkylethane-1,2-diamineplatinum(II) compounds as precursors for generating unsymmetrically substituted platinum(IV) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Verena; Göschl, Simone; Meier, Samuel M; Roller, Alexander; Jakupec, Michael A; Galanski, Markus; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2013-07-15

    Investigations of the influence of bulky groups in the equatorial ligand sphere of platinum(IV) compounds on the complexes' stability and reaction pattern were performed. Four dihydroxidoplatinum(IV) complexes were reacted with anhydrides, cinnamoyl chloride, and n-propyl isocyanate and yielded the symmetric dicarboxylated products or, if steric hindrance was observed, unsymmetrically substituted monocarboxylated analogues. With the aim of raising the steric demand, the following ligands were chosen: N-cyclohexylethane-1,2-diamine, N,N-dimethylethane-1,2-diamine, N,N-diethylethane-1,2-diamine, and N,N-diisopropylethane-1,2-diamine. All of the novel complexes were characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and reversed-phase HPLC; complexes B3, C3, C6, and D4 were also analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Additionally, the cytotoxicities of 10 compounds toward the cisplatin-sensitive cell line CH1 and the intrinsically cisplatin-resistant cell lines A549 and SW480 were investigated, and IC50 values down to the nanomolar range were found. To aid in the interpretation of structure-activity relationships, log k(w) values as a measure for the lipophilicity were determined for all of the new complexes, and the rates of reduction of C1, C3, and C4 relative to satraplatin were determined by means of NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS.

  7. The calculation and estimation of wastes generated by decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Tokai works and Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayame, Y.; Tanabe, T.; Takahashi, K.; Takeda, S. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Waste Management and Fuel Cycle Research Center, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    This investigation was conducted as a part of planning the low-level radioactive waste management program (LLW management program). The aim of this investigation was contributed to compile the radioactive waste database of JNC's LLW management program. All nuclear facilities of the Tokai works and Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center were investigated in this work. The wastes generated by the decommissioning of each nuclear facility were classified into radioactive waste and others (exempt waste and non-radioactive waste), and the amount of the wastes was estimated. The estimated amounts of radioactive wastes generated by decommissioning of the nuclear facilities are as follows. (1) Tokai works: The amount of waste generated by decommissioning of nuclear facilities of the Tokai works is about 1,079,100 ton. The amount of radioactive waste is about 15,400 ton. The amount of exempt waste and non-radioactive waste is about 1,063,700 ton. (2) Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center: The amount of waste generated by decommissioning of nuclear facilities of Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center is about 112,500 ton. The amount of radioactive waste is about 7,800 ton. The amount of exempt waste and non-radioactive waste is about 104,700 ton. (author)

  8. Integrity assurance of the secondary side of steam generator in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joung Soo; Kim, Hong Pyo; Lim, Yun Soo; Hwang, Seong Sik; Yi, Yong Sun; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Sung Soo; Jung, Man Gyo

    2005-09-15

    Residual stresses on the expansion transition regions of steam generator tubes expanded by explosive and hydraulic expansion techniques were measured using several different methods such as strain gauge, XRD, electrolytic polishing, and stress corrosion cracking methods. The SCC method was applied by measuring the cracking time using C-ring specimens to which precisely measured stress had been imposed and comparing the cracking time of the expanded tube specimens in order to estimate the magnitude of residual stress developed on the expansion transition regions. Axial residual stress on the outer surface of both, Inconel 600 and 690 tubes was measured to be mainly compressive, which can not induce circumferential ODSCC on the expansion transition regions. According to SCC test results, SCC was not observed to occur on the expansion transition regions of the expanded model specimen tubes, which means that the residual stresses developed on the expansion transition regions by the explosive and the hydraulic expansion methods are not big enough to induce SCC. However, sludge piled up on the top of tubesheet during operation of NPPs might change the stress state on the expansion transition regions, which can result in occurring SCC.

  9. A LOPA application to the hydrogen cooling system of the main electric generator of a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Flavia M.; Frutuoso e Melo, Paulo Fernando Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: flaviamvasconcelos@gmail.com; frutuoso@con.ufrj.br; Saldanha, P.L. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Reatores]. E-mail: saldanha@cnen.gov.br

    2008-07-01

    The Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) is a powerful analytical tool for assessing the adequacy of protection layers used to mitigate risks in a process plant. LOPA applies semi-quantitative measures to evaluate the frequency of potential incidents and the probability of failure of protection layers. This paper presents an application of the Layer of Protection Analysis technique to a nuclear power plant in order to evaluate the cooling system of an electric generator, so as to identify scenarios that might lead to a plant shutdown. Next, the frequencies of occurrence of these events and the probability of failure on demand of the independent protection layers are determined. Here a difficulty is related to the lack of failure and initiating event data. The consequences identified are listed as impact events and are classified as to their severity level. The initiating causes are listed for each impact event and the likelihood is estimated for each initiating cause. Independent Protection Layers (ILPs) are listed. The mitigated event likelihood is studied and additional ILPs can be evaluated and added to reduce the risk. As a conclusion, LOPA demonstrated that the hydrogen inner-cooling electric generator system is in compliance with the risk scenarios adopted for this study. Some suggestions were made in order to automate some manual actions to increase the system reliability. (author)

  10. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Wesley Hines

    2004-09-27

    The overall purpose of this Nuclear Engineering Education Research (NEER) project was to integrate new, innovative, and existing technologies to develop a fault diagnostics and characterization system for nuclear plant steam generators (SG) and heat exchangers (HX). Issues related to system level degradation of SG and HX tubing, including tube fouling, performance under reduced heat transfer area, and the damage caused by stress corrosion cracking, are the important factors that influence overall plant operation, maintenance, and economic viability of nuclear power systems. The research at The University of Tennessee focused on the development of techniques for monitoring process and structural integrity of steam generators and heat exchangers. The objectives of the project were accomplished by the completion of the following tasks. All the objectives were accomplished during the project period. This report summarizes the research and development activities, results, and accomplishments during June 2001-September 2004. (1) Development and testing of a high-fidelity nodal model of a U-tube steam generator (UTSG) to simulate the effects of fouling and to generate a database representing normal and degraded process conditions. Application of the group method of data handling (GMDH) method for process variable prediction. (2) Development of a laboratory test module to simulate particulate fouling of HX tubes and its effect on overall thermal resistance. Application of the GMDH technique to predict HX fluid temperatures, and to compare with the calculated thermal resistance. (3) Development of a hybrid modeling technique for process diagnosis and its evaluation using laboratory heat exchanger test data. (4) Development and testing of a sensor suite using piezo-electric devices for monitoring structural integrity of both flat plates (beams) and tubing. Experiments were performed in air, and in water with and without bubbly flow. (5) Development of advanced signal

  11. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. Volume 4. Radiological emergency response planning for nuclear power plants in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, W.W.S.

    1977-01-01

    This report reviews the state of emergency response planning for nuclear power plants in California. Attention is given to the role of Federal agencies, particularly the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in planning for both on and off site emergency measures and to the role of State and local agencies for off site planning. The relationship between these various authorities is considered. Existing emergency plans for nuclear power plants operating or being constructed in California are summarized. The developing role of the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission is examined.

  12. The effectiveness of power-generating complexes constructed on the basis of nuclear power plants combined with additional sources of energy determined taking risk factors into account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Khrustalev, V. A.; Portyankin, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    The effectiveness of combining nuclear power plants equipped with water-cooled water-moderated power-generating reactors (VVER) with other sources of energy within unified power-generating complexes is analyzed. The use of such power-generating complexes makes it possible to achieve the necessary load pickup capability and flexibility in performing the mandatory selective primary and emergency control of load, as well as participation in passing the night minimums of electric load curves while retaining high values of the capacity utilization factor of the entire power-generating complex at higher levels of the steam-turbine part efficiency. Versions involving combined use of nuclear power plants with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units for generating electricity are considered. In view of the fact that hydrogen is an unsafe energy carrier, the use of which introduces additional elements of risk, a procedure for evaluating these risks under different conditions of implementing the fuel-and-hydrogen cycle at nuclear power plants is proposed. Risk accounting technique with the use of statistical data is considered, including the characteristics of hydrogen and gas pipelines, and the process pipelines equipment tightness loss occurrence rate. The expected intensities of fires and explosions at nuclear power plants fitted with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units are calculated. In estimating the damage inflicted by events (fires and explosions) occurred in nuclear power plant turbine buildings, the US statistical data were used. Conservative scenarios of fires and explosions of hydrogen-air mixtures in nuclear power plant turbine buildings are presented. Results from calculations of the introduced annual risk to the attained net annual profit ratio in commensurable versions are given. This ratio can be used in selecting projects characterized by the most technically attainable and socially acceptable safety.

  13. Inelastic seismic behavior of post-installed anchors for nuclear safety related structures: Generation of experimental database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadik, Vinay, E-mail: vinay.mahadik@iwb.uni-stuttgart.de; Sharma, Akanshu; Hofmann, Jan

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Experiments for evaluating seismic behavior of anchors were performed. • Two undercut anchor products in use in nuclear facilities were considered. • Monotonic tension, shear and cycling tension tests at different crack widths. • Crack cycling tests at constant, in-phase and out-of phase tension loads. • Characteristics for the two anchors as a function of crack width were identified. - Abstract: Post installed (PI) anchors are often employed for connections between concrete structure and components or systems in nuclear power plants (NPP) and related facilities. Standardized practices for nuclear related structures demand stringent criteria, which an anchor has to satisfy in order to qualify for use in NPP related structures. In NPP and related facilities, the structure–component interaction in the event of an earthquake depends on the inelastic behavior of the concrete structure, the component system and also the anchorage system that connects them. For analysis, anchorages are usually assumed to be rigid. Under seismic actions, however, it is known that anchors may undergo significant plastic displacement and strength degradation. Analysis of structure–component interaction under seismic loads calls for numerical models simulating inelastic behavior of anchorage systems. A testing program covering different seismic loading scenarios in a reasonably conservative manner is required to establish a basis for generating numerical models of anchorage systems. Currently there is a general lack of modeling techniques to consider the inelastic behavior of anchorages in structure–component interaction under seismic loads. In this work, in view of establishing a basis for development of numerical models simulating the inelastic behavior of anchors, seismic tests on two different undercut anchors qualified for their use in NPP related structures were carried out. The test program was primarily based on the DIBt-KKW-Leitfaden (2010) guidelines

  14. Introduction of R&D on Generation IV Nuclear Energy System%第4代核能系统研发介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨孟嘉; 任俊生; 周志伟

    2004-01-01

    介绍国际核能界正在着手开发的第4代核能系统的背景和要达到的目标.第4代核能系统国际论坛根据第4代核能系统目标选择了6种最有希望的概念进行研发,文章简要介绍了它们的技术特点、主要设计参数以及技术上尚待解决的问题.

  15. Sample problems for the novice user of the AMPX-II system. [For generating coupled multigroup neutron--gamma libraries, in FORTRAN IV for IBM 360/91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, W.E. III; Roussin, R.W.; Petrie, L.M.; Diggs, B.R.; Comolander, H.E.

    1979-01-01

    Contents of the IBM version of the APMX system distributed by the Radiation Shielding Information Center (APMX-II) are described. Sample problems which demonstrate the procedure for implementing AMPX-II modules to generate point cross sections; generate multigroup neutron, photon production, and photon interaction cross sections for various transport codes; collapse multigroup cross sections; check, edit, and punch multigroup cross sections; and execute a one-dimensional discrete ordinates transport calculation are detailed. 25 figures, 9 tables.

  16. MAIL3.1 : a computer program generating cross section sets for SIMCRI, ANISN-JR, KENO IV, KENO V, MULTI-KENO, MULTI-KENO-2 and MULTI-KENO-3.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyama, Kenya; Komuro, Yuichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Takada, Tomoyuki; Kawasaki, Hiromitsu; Ouchi, Keisuke

    1998-02-01

    This report is a user`s manual of the computer program MAIL3.1 which generates various types of cross section sets for neutron transport programs such as SIMCRI, ANISN-JR, KENO IV, KENO V, MULTI-KENO, MULTI-KENO-2 and MULTI-KENO-3.0. MAIL3.1 is a revised version of MAIL3.0 that was opened in 1990. It has all of abilities of MAIL3.0 and has two more functions as shown in following. 1. AMPX-type cross section set generating function for KENO V. 2. Enhanced function for user of 16 group Hansen-Roach library. (author)

  17. Validation of a methodology for the study of generation cost of electric power for nuclear power plants; Validacion de una metodologia para el estudio de costos de generacion de electricidad de plantas nucleares de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega C, R.F.; Martin del Campo M, C. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rfortega@mexis.com

    2004-07-01

    It was developed a model for the calculation of costs of electric generation of nuclear plants. The developed pattern was validated with the one used by the United States Council for Energy Awareness (USCEA) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in studies of comparison of alternatives for electric generation of nuclear plants and fossil plants with base of gas and of coal in the United States described in the guides calls Technical Assessment Guides of EPRI. They are mentioned in qualitative form some changes in the technology of nucleo electric generation that could be included in the annual publication of Costs and Parameters of Reference for the Formulation of Projects of Investment in the Electric Sector of the Federal Commission of Electricity. These changes are in relation to the advances in the technology, in the licensing, in the construction and in the operation of the reactors called advanced as the A BWR built recently in Japan. (Author)

  18. Modeling a Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger with RELAP5-3D for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-01

    The main purpose of this report is to design a printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant and carry out Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) simulation using RELAP5-3D. Helium was chosen as the coolant in the primary and secondary sides of the heat exchanger. The design of PCHE is critical for the LOCA simulations. For purposes of simplicity, a straight channel configuration was assumed. A parallel intermediate heat exchanger configuration was assumed for the RELAP5 model design. The RELAP5 modeling also required the semicircular channels in the heat exchanger to be mapped to rectangular channels. The initial RELAP5 run outputs steady state conditions which were then compared to the heat exchanger performance theory to ensure accurate design is being simulated. An exponential loss of pressure transient was simulated. This LOCA describes a loss of coolant pressure in the primary side over a 20 second time period. The results for the simulation indicate that heat is initially transferred from the primary loop to the secondary loop, but after the loss of pressure occurs, heat transfers from the secondary loop to the primary loop.

  19. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. Volume 2. Radiological health and related standards for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, A.V.; Wong, Y.C.

    1977-01-01

    This report summarizes the status and basis of radiation protection standards, with a view to identifying how they particularly apply to nuclear power plants. The national and international organizations involved in the setting of standards are discussed, paying explicit attention to their jurisdictions and to the considerations they use in setting standards. The routine and accidental radioactive emissions from nuclear power plants are characterized, and the effect of these emissions on ambient radiation levels is discussed. The state of information on the relationship between radiation exposures and health effects is summarized.

  20. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) processing speed scores as measures of noncredible responding: The third generation of embedded performance validity indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdodi, Laszlo A; Abeare, Christopher A; Lichtenstein, Jonathan D; Tyson, Bradley T; Kucharski, Brittany; Zuccato, Brandon G; Roth, Robert M

    2017-02-01

    Research suggests that select processing speed measures can also serve as embedded validity indicators (EVIs). The present study examined the diagnostic utility of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtests as EVIs in a mixed clinical sample of 205 patients medically referred for neuropsychological assessment (53.3% female, mean age = 45.1). Classification accuracy was calculated against 3 composite measures of performance validity as criterion variables. A PSI ≤79 produced a good combination of sensitivity (.23-.56) and specificity (.92-.98). A Coding scaled score ≤5 resulted in good specificity (.94-1.00), but low and variable sensitivity (.04-.28). A Symbol Search scaled score ≤6 achieved a good balance between sensitivity (.38-.64) and specificity (.88-.93). A Coding-Symbol Search scaled score difference ≥5 produced adequate specificity (.89-.91) but consistently low sensitivity (.08-.12). A 2-tailed cutoff on the Coding/Symbol Search raw score ratio (≤1.41 or ≥3.57) produced acceptable specificity (.87-.93), but low sensitivity (.15-.24). Failing ≥2 of these EVIs produced variable specificity (.81-.93) and sensitivity (.31-.59). Failing ≥3 of these EVIs stabilized specificity (.89-.94) at a small cost to sensitivity (.23-.53). Results suggest that processing speed based EVIs have the potential to provide a cost-effective and expedient method for evaluating the validity of cognitive data. Given their generally low and variable sensitivity, however, they should not be used in isolation to determine the credibility of a given response set. They also produced unacceptably high rates of false positive errors in patients with moderate-to-severe head injury. Combining evidence from multiple EVIs has the potential to improve overall classification accuracy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Improvement of the decay heat removal characteristics of the generation IV gas-cooled fast reactor; Amelioration des caracteristiques de la dissipation de la chaleur de decroissance pour les reacteurs a neutrons rapides de quatrieme generation refroidi au gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epiney, A.S.

    2010-09-07

    The main drawback of the GFR is the difficulty to evacuate decay heat following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) due to the low thermal inertia of the core, as well as to the low coolant density. The present doctoral research focuses on the improvement of decay heat removal (DHR) for the Generation-IV GFR. The reference GFR system design considered in the thesis is the 2006 CEA concept, with a power of 2400 MWth. The CEA 2006 DHR strategy foresees, in all accidental cases (independent of the system pressure), that the reactor is shut down. For high pressure events, dedicated DHR loops with blowers and heat exchangers are designed to operate when the power conversion system cannot be used to provide acceptable core temperatures under natural convection conditions. For de-pressurized events, the strategy relies on a dedicated small containment (called the guard containment) providing an intermediate back-up pressure. The DHR blowers, designed to work under these pressure conditions, need to be powered either by the power grid or by batteries for at least 24 hours. The specific contributions of the present research - aimed at achieving enhanced passivity of the DHR system for the GFR - are design and analysis related to (1) the injection of heavy gas into the primary circuit after a LOCA, to enable natural convection cooling at an intermediate-pressure level, and (2) an autonomous Brayton loop to evacuate decay heat at low primary pressure in case of a loss of the guard containment pressure. Both these developments reduce the dependence on blower power availability considerably. First, the thermal-hydraulic codes used in the study - TRACE and CATHARE - are validated for gas cooling. The validation includes benchmark comparisons between the codes, serving to identify the sensitivity of the results to the different modeling assumptions. The parameters found to be the most sensitive in this analysis, such as heat transfer and friction models, are then validated via a

  2. Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession.

  3. 76 FR 52357 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... Branch 1-2, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear... Power Ratio (SLMCPR) values. The SLMCPR is established to assure that at least 99.9% of the fuel rods in... Reactor Fuel,'' Revision 18. The basis of the SLMCPR calculation is to ensure that during normal...

  4. Mitigating Community Impacts of Energy Development: Some Examples for Coal and Nuclear Generating Plants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelle, Elizabeth

    The Hartsville, Tennessee nuclear reactor site, the coal plant at Wheatland, Wyoming, and the nuclear plant at Skagit, Washington have mitigation plans developed in response to a federal, state, and local regulatory agency, respectively; the three mitigation plans aim at internalizing community-level social costs and benefits during the…

  5. Estimating cancer risk in relation to tritium exposure from routine operation of a nuclear-generating station in Pickering, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanigaratne, S; Holowaty, E; Jiang, H; Norwood, T A; Pietrusiak, M A; Brown, P

    2013-09-01

    Evidence suggests that current levels of tritium emissions from CANDU reactors in Canada are not related to adverse health effects. However, these studies lack tritium-specific dose data and have small numbers of cases. The purpose of our study was to determine whether tritium emitted from a nuclear-generating station during routine operation is associated with risk of cancer in Pickering, Ontario. A retrospective cohort was formed through linkage of Pickering and north Oshawa residents (1985) to incident cancer cases (1985-2005). We examined all sites combined, leukemia, lung, thyroid and childhood cancers (6-19 years) for males and females as well as female breast cancer. Tritium estimates were based on an atmospheric dispersion model, incorporating characteristics of annual tritium emissions and meteorology. Tritium concentration estimates were assigned to each cohort member based on exact location of residence. Person-years analysis was used to determine whether observed cancer cases were higher than expected. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine whether tritium was associated with radiation-sensitive cancers in Pickering. Person-years analysis showed female childhood cancer cases to be significantly higher than expected (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-3.38). The issue of multiple comparisons is the most likely explanation for this finding. Cox models revealed that female lung cancer was significantly higher in Pickering versus north Oshawa (HR = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.23-4.46) and that tritium was not associated with increased risk. The improved methodology used in this study adds to our understanding of cancer risks associated with low-dose tritium exposure. Tritium estimates were not associated with increased risk of radiationsensitive cancers in Pickering.

  6. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 2: Accident and Thermal Fluids Analysis PIRTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Sydney J [ORNL; Corradini, M. [University of Wisconsin; Fisher, Stephen Eugene [ORNL; Gauntt, R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Geffraye, G. [CEA, France; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Hassan, Y. [Texas A& M University; Moses, David Lewis [ORNL; Renier, John-Paul [ORNL; Schultz, R. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Wei, T. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    2008-03-01

    An accident, thermal fluids, and reactor physics phenomena identification and ranking process was conducted by a panel of experts on the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) design (consideration given to both pebble-bed and prismatic gas-cooled reactor configurations). Safety-relevant phenomena, importance, and knowledge base were assessed for the following event classes: (1) normal operation (including some reactor physics aspects), (2) general loss of forced circulation (G-LOFC), (3) pressurized loss-of-forced circulation (P-LOFC), (4) depressurized loss-of-forced circulation (D-LOFC), (5) air ingress (following D-LOFC), (6) reactivity transients - including anticipated transients without scram (ATWS), (7) processes coupled via intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) (IHX failure with molten salt), and (8) steam/water ingress. The panel's judgment of the importance ranking of a given phenomenon (or process) was based on the effect it had on one or more figures of merit or evaluation criteria. These included public and worker dose, fuel failure, and primary (and other safety) system integrity. The major phenomena of concern that were identified and categorized as high importance combined with medium to low knowledge follow: (1) core coolant bypass flows (normal operation), (2) power/flux profiles (normal operation), (3) outlet plenum flows (normal operation), (4) reactivity-temperature feedback coefficients for high-plutonium-content cores (normal operation and accidents), (5) fission product release related to the transport of silver (normal operation), (6)emissivity aspects for the vessel and reactor cavity cooling system (G-LOFC), (7) reactor vessel cavity air circulation and heat transfer (G-LOFC), and (8)convection/radiation heating of upper vessel area (P-LOFC).

  7. Eddy-current tests on operational evaluation of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants; Ensaios de Eddy-current na avaliacao do estado operacional de tubos de geradores de vapor de centrais nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Luiz Antonio Negro Martin [Faculdade de Engenharia Industrial (FEI), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energetica]. E-mail: luizlope@cci.fei.br; Ting, Daniel Kao Sun [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. Engenharia de Reatores]. E-mail: dksting@net.ipen.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a worldwide research on the technical and economical impacts due to failure in tube bundles of nuclear power plant steam generators. An Eddy current non destructive test using Foucault currents for the inspection and failure detection on the tubes, and also the main type of defects. The paper also presents the signals generated by a Zetec MIZ-40 test equipment. This paper also presents a brief description of an automatic system for data analysis which is under development by using a fuzzy logic and artificial intelligence.

  8. The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. IV - Generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes in laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Bradley J.; Tannenbaum, Eli; Kaplan, Isaac R.

    1987-05-01

    The effect of common sedimentary minerals (illite, Na-montmorillonite, or calcite) under different water concentrations on the generation and release of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and select alkenes from oil-prone kerogens was investigated. Matrices containing Green River Formation kerogen or Monterey Formation kerogen, alone or in the presence of minerals, were heated at 200 or 300 C for periods of up to 1000 hours, and the pyrolysis products were analyzed. The influence of the first two clay minerals was found to be critically dependent on the water content. Under the dry pyrolysis conditions, both minerals significantly reduced alkene formation; the C12+ n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids were mostly destroyed by montmorillonite, but underwent only minor alteration with illite. Under hydrous conditions (mineral/water of 2/1), the effects of both minerals were substantially reduced. Calcite had no significant effect on the thermal evolution of the hydrocarbons.

  9. Determination of activity by gamma spectrometry of radionuclides present in drums of residues generated in nuclear centrals; Determinacion de actividad por espectrometria gamma de radionucleidos presentes en tambores de residuos generados en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, J.C.; Fernandez, J. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: jaguiar@cae.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    The generation of radioactive residuals in nuclear centrals as CNA I (Atucha I Nuclear Central) and CNE (Embalse Nuclear Central) makes that the measurement of those radionuclides has been a previous stage to the waste management. A method used in those nuclear centrals it is the gamma spectrometry with HPGe detectors, previous to the immobilization of the residual in a cemented matrix, with this the contact with the external agents and its possible dispersion to the atmosphere in the short term is avoided. The ARN (Nuclear Regulatory Authority) of Argentina it carries out periodically intercomparisons and evaluations of the measurement and procedures systems used in the nuclear power stations for the correct measurement and determination of activity of radioactive residuals by gamma spectrometry. In this work an independent method of measurement is exposed to the nuclear power stations. To determine the activity of the residuals by gamma spectrometry deposited in drums, it is required of the precise knowledge of the efficiency curve for such geometry and matrix. Due to the RNA doesn't have a pattern of these characteristics, a mathematical model has been used to obtain this efficiency curve. For it, it is necessary to determine previously: 1) the geometric efficiency or solid angle sustained by the source-detector system (drum-detector) applying a mathematical model described in this work. 2) To estimate the auto-attenuation factor that present the photons in the cemented matrix, these calculations are carried out with a simple equation and its are verified with the Micro Shield 6.10 program. The container commonly used by these nuclear power stations its are drums for 220 liters constructed with SAE 1010 steel and with a thickness of 0.127 cm, with an approximate weight 7.73 Kg., internal diameter of 57.1 cm, and height: 87 cm. The results obtained until the moment register a discrepancy from 5 to 10% with relationship to the measurements carried out by the

  10. Role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. IV. Generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes in laboratory experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huizinga, B.J.; Tannenbaum, E.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1987-05-01

    A series of pyrolysis experiments, utilizing two different immature oil-prone kerogens mixed with common sedimentary minerals (calcite, illite, or Na-montmorillonite), was conducted to study the effects of minerals on the generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes during laboratory-simulated catagenesis of kerogen. The influence of clay minerals on the aliphatic hydrocarbons is critically dependent on the water concentration during laboratory thermal maturation. Under extremely low contents of water, C/sub 12+/-range n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids are mostly destroyed by montmorillonite but undergo only a minor alteration with illite. Both clay minerals significantly reduce alkene formation during dry pyrolysis. Under hydrous conditions (mineral/water = 2:1), the effects of the clay minerals are substantially reduced. In addition, the dry-pyrolysis experiments show that illite and montmorillonite preferentially retain large amounts of the polar constituents of bitumen, but not n-alkanes of acyclic isoprenoids. Therefore, bitumen fractionation according to polarity differences occurs in the presence of these clay minerals. By this process, n-alkanes, and acyclic isoprenoids are concentrated in the bitumen fraction that is not strongly adsorbed on the clay matrices. In contrast, calcite has no significant influence on the thermal evolution of the hydrocarbons. In addition, calcite is incapable of retaining bitumen. Therefore, the fractionation of n-alkanes or acyclic isoprenoids relative to the polar constituents of bitumen is insignificant in the presence of calcite.

  11. 75 FR 9622 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ...; Exemption 1.0 Background Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. (SNC, the licensee), is the holder of... specified in the SNC letter dated November 6, 2009, as supplemented November 20, 2009, the licensee...

  12. Neutron flux from a 14‐MeV neutron generator with tungsten filter for research in NDA methods for nuclear safeguards and security

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The Joint Research Centre has taken into operation a new experimental device designed for research in the fields of nuclear safeguards and security applications. The research projects currently undertaken include detection of shielded contraband materials, detection of fissile materials, and mass determination of small fissile materials in shielded containers. The device, called the Pulsed Neutron Interrogation Test Assembly (PUNITA), incorporates a pulsed 14‐MeV (D‐T) neutron generator and a...

  13. Nuclear energy data 2011

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

     . Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports on nuclear energy, contains official information provided by OECD member country governments on plans for new nuclear plant construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments as well as current and projected nuclear generating capacity to 2035. For the first time, it includes data for Chile, Estonia, Israel and Slovenia, which recently became OECD members. Key elements of this edition show a 2% increase in nuclear and total electricity production and a 0.5% increase in nuclear generating ca

  14. Interaction of radiation-generated radicals with myoglobin in aqueous solution—IV. Mechanism of interaction of hydroxyl radicals with oxymyoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitburn, Kevin D.; Hoffman, Morton Z.

    The interaction of radiation-generated ·OH/H· with oxymyoglobin (MbO 2) has been studied in the presence of catalase at pH 7.3 over the range of 5-510microM O 2. The conversion of MbO 2 to heme-modified products has been examined under conditions where depletion of O 2 in irradiated solutions both can and cannot be compensated by O 2-transfer across the solution phase boundary. In the theoretical limit of [O 2] → 0 in bulk solution, MbO 2 is converted stoichiometrically to ferri- and ferromyoglobin with G( MbO 2) ⋍ 6.0, G(ferroMb) ⋍ 3.0, and G(ferriMb) ⋍ 3.0. An increase in [O 2] in bulk solution beyond the zero-limit progressively suppresses the conversion of MbO 2 to the heme-modified derivatives. At [O 2] ⩾ 300 microM, an O 2-independent path of ferriMb formation with G ⋍ 0.6 is evident. Two sources of ferriMb induced by ·OH/H· are proposed: an O 2-independent path involving direct oxidative attack of ·OH at the oxyferroheme, and O 2-dependent paths of production of ferriMb and ferroMb involving the mediation of O 2-scavengable secondary hemeprotein radicals. It is suggested that the modifications of the heme group in the absence of O 2 are accompanied by redox modifications on the globin moiety. With increasing [O 2], similar redox modifications on the globin can occur without a mediating involvement of the prosthetic group. At high [O 2], involvement of the heme in modification of the globin is eliminated.

  15. Modeling of hydrogen/deuterium dynamics and heat generation on palladium nanoparticles for hydrogen storage and solid-state nuclear fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Tanabe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We modeled the dynamics of hydrogen and deuterium adsorbed on palladium nanoparticles including the heat generation induced by the chemical adsorption and desorption, as well as palladium-catalyzed reactions. Our calculations based on the proposed model reproduce the experimental time-evolution of pressure and temperature with a single set of fitting parameters for hydrogen and deuterium injection. The model we generated with a highly generalized set of formulations can be applied for any combination of a gas species and a catalytic adsorbent/absorbent. Our model can be used as a basis for future research into hydrogen storage and solid-state nuclear fusion technologies.

  16. Modeling of hydrogen/deuterium dynamics and heat generation on palladium nanoparticles for hydrogen storage and solid-state nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Katsuaki

    2016-01-01

    We modeled the dynamics of hydrogen and deuterium adsorbed on palladium nanoparticles including the heat generation induced by the chemical adsorption and desorption, as well as palladium-catalyzed reactions. Our calculations based on the proposed model reproduce the experimental time-evolution of pressure and temperature with a single set of fitting parameters for hydrogen and deuterium injection. The model we generated with a highly generalized set of formulations can be applied for any combination of a gas species and a catalytic adsorbent/absorbent. Our model can be used as a basis for future research into hydrogen storage and solid-state nuclear fusion technologies.

  17. Activation cross sections of $\\alpha$-particle induced nuclear reactions on hafnium and deuteron induced nuclear reaction on tantalum: production of $^{178}$W/$^{178m}$Ta generator

    CERN Document Server

    Tárk'anyi, F; Ditrói, F; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V; Uddin, M S

    2014-01-01

    In the frame of a systematic study of charged particle production routes of medically relevant radionuclei, the excitation function for indirect production of $^{178m}$Ta through $^{nat}$Hf($\\alpha$,xn)$^{178}$W-$^{178m}$Ta nuclear reaction was measured for the first time up to 40 MeV. In parallel, the side reactions $^{nat}$Hf($\\alpha$,x)$^{179,177,176,175}$W, $^{183,182,178g,177,176,175}$Ta, $^{179m,177m,175}$Hf were also assessed. Stacked foil irradiation technique and $\\gamma$-ray spectrometry were used. New experimental cross section data for the $^{nat}$Ta(d,xn)$^{178}$W reaction are also reported up to 40 MeV. The measured excitation functions are compared with the results of the ALICE-IPPE, and EMPIRE nuclear reaction model codes and with the TALYS 1.4 based data in the TENDL-2013 library. The thick target yields were deduced and compared with yields of other charged particle ((p,4n), (d,5n) and ($^3$He,x)) production routes for $^{178}$W.

  18. Recent Canadian advances in nuclear-based hydrogen production and the thermochemical Cu-Cl cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naterer, G. [Canada Research Chair Professor, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Suppiah, S. [Manager, Hydrogen Isotopes Technology Branch, AECL, Chalk River, Ontario K0J 1J0 (Canada); Lewis, M. [Chemist, Chemical Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Gabriel, K. [Associate Provost, Research, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A. [Professor of Mechanical Engineering, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Fowler, M. [Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Rizvi, G. [Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Easton, E.B. [Assistant Professor of Chemistry, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Ikeda, B.M.; Pioro, I. [Associate Professor, Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe St., Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4 (Canada); Kaye, M.H.; Lu, L. [Assistant Professor, Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Spekkens, P. [Vice President of Science and Technology Development, Ontario Power Generation, 889 Brock Road, Pickering, Ontario (Canada); Tremaine, P. [Professor of Chemistry, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Mostaghimi, J. [Canada Research Chair Professor, Mechanical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E5 (Canada); Avsec, J. [Assistant Professor, Faculty of Energy Technology, Univ. of Maribor, Hocevarjev trg 1, 8270 Krsko (Slovenia); Jiang, J. [Professor and NSERC/UNENE Senior Industrial Research Chair, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents recent Canadian advances in nuclear-based production of hydrogen by electrolysis and the thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle. This includes individual process and reactor developments within the Cu-Cl cycle, thermochemical properties, advanced materials, controls, safety, reliability, economic analysis of electrolysis at off-peak hours, and integrating hydrogen plants with Canada's nuclear power plants. These enabling technologies are being developed by a Canadian consortium, as part of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) for hydrogen production from the next generation of nuclear reactors. (author)

  19. The today situation and the nuclear sector perspectives in Usa; La situation actuelle et les perspectives du secteur nucleaire aux Etats-Unis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    In this analysis the author details and discusses the nuclear energy situation in the Usa: the park and the electric power production, the nuclear safety and the radiation protection, the licenses prolongation, the power increase, the regulation relative to the construction of new reactors, the combined construction permit and operating license, the uncertainties on the Yucca Mountain storage site and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership initiative, the 2006 perspectives and the IV generation reactors. (A.L.B.)

  20. Effects of Nuclear Energy on Sustainable Development and Energy Security: Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Case

    OpenAIRE

    Sungjoo Lee; Byungun Yoon; Juneseuk Shin

    2016-01-01

    We propose a stepwise method of selecting appropriate indicators to measure effects of a specific nuclear energy option on sustainable development and energy security, and also to compare an energy option with another. Focusing on the sodium-cooled fast reactor, one of the highlighted Generation IV reactors, we measure and compare its effects with the standard pressurized water reactor-based nuclear power, and then with coal power. Collecting 36 indicators, five experts select seven key indic...

  1. Comparison of open and closed U-Pu equilibrium fuel cycles for Generation-IV fast reactors with the EQL3D procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krepel, Jiri, E-mail: Jiri.Krepel@psi.ch [Laboratory for Reactor Physics and Systems Behaviour, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Pelloni, Sandro; Mikityuk, Konstantin [Laboratory for Reactor Physics and Systems Behaviour, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze open and closed fuel cycle of GFR, SFR, and LFR cores by means of ERANOS based EQL3D procedure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Equilibrium of open and closed fuel cycles were compared in terms of their performance and safety parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All three cores act in equilibrium closed cycle as iso-breeder and have similar fuel composition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In spite of the same fuel composition the Dopper constants and void reactivities strongly differ between the cores. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All three systems seem capable, from neutronics point of view, for the fuel cycle closure. - Abstract: The advanced fast reactors of the fourth generation should enable an indirect burning of poorly fissile {sup 238}U through {sup 239}Pu breeding and recycling of the actinides from their own spent fuel. The recycling or actually the fuel cycle closure can significantly reduce the amount of long-lived radioactive waste and the {sup 238}U burning can multiply the sustainability of the uranium fueled reactors. Regular periodic operation with the fuel recycling converges to an equilibrium cycle. To enable its simulation a numerical tool named equilibrium fuel cycle procedure for fast reactors (EQL3D) was developed in the FAST group of LRS at Paul Scherrer Institut. The procedure is based on the ERANOS code and can be used to yield the description of two basic situations: the equilibrium of an open fuel cycle and the equilibrium of a closed fuel cycle. The goals of the present study are (i) to apply EQL3D to the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR), Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), and Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR), (ii) to simulate and confirm the GFR, SFR, and LFR neutronics capability for closed fuel cycle, and (iii) to evaluate and compare the equilibrium cycle safety and performance parameters. The EQL3D capability enables to characterize the equilibrium cycle for complex reloading patterns

  2. Use of a Nonequilibrium MHD Generator for Conversion of SNTP Nuclear Thermal Rocket Exhaust to DC Electric Power for a Multimegawatt Nuclear Electric Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Charles J.

    1994-07-01

    This paper explores a method by which the energy of a high speed flowing gas can efficiently be converted into DC electric power by a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator. A nonequilibrium state may be created in the working fluid during the ionization process using an arc discharge. This nonequilibrium state may possibly be sustained in the fluid using the waste heat byproduct of the natural operation of the generator, if certain characteristics of the fluid/MHD system are maintained. The improved efficiency of the resulting nonequilibrium MHD generator not only allows the system to deliver increased power to the load, but reduces the amount of energy to be expelled from the closed fluid cycle by a radiator.

  3. Permission of change of limits in the vapor generators of the Atucha I Nuclear Central; Permiso de cambio de limites en los GVs de la CNA-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura, M. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Libertador 8250 (1429), Capital Federal (Argentina)]. e-mail: mventura@sede.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    In the mark of the modification of the Atucha-I Nuclear Central Installation (CNA-I) as consequence of the Introduction of the System 'Second Drain of Heat' (SSC), the Entity Responsible for the CNA-I (NASA) requested authorization to the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) to modify the value of the minimum level of water in the secondary side in the Steam generators (GVs) to activate the signal 'shoot of the Cut of the Reactor' (RESA-LLV). As the level in the GVs is one of those parameters that are used to shoot the Emergency Feeding System (RX), component of the SSC System, also was analyzed the change in the activation of the shoot signal of the 'Second Drain of Heat' (2SSC-LLV). The ARN uses for the study of the nuclear safety of nuclear power plants, the series of prediction programs RELAP5/MOD3.X. It participates of the evaluation and maintenance activities of these codes through specific agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US-NRC). It is necessary to account with programs of this type since the ARN it licenses the construction and operation of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) and other outstanding facilities and it inquires its operation according to its own standards. With these tools its are auditing the calculations that the Responsible Entities of the operation make to guarantee the operability of the NPPs assisting the mentioned standards. The analysis with computational codes is used as a tool to achieve the best understanding in the behavior of the plant in union with the engineering approach, the manual calculations, the data analysis and the experience in the operation of the machine. (Author)

  4. Nuclear systems of the future - generation 4. Proposals of strategic orientations for the nuclear systems of the future; Les systemes nucleaires du futur - generation 4. Propositions d'orientations strategiques pour les systemes nucleaires du futur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Several points, specific to France, must be taken into consideration for the long term strategic choice of future nuclear systems, in particular: taking the best profit of the progress potentialities of water reactors, optimizing the opportunities offered by the renewal of power plants in operation, integrating the consequences and the implementation of a strategy of optimized management of radioactive wastes, and looking for improvements that would make nuclear energy an active contributor to sustainable development. The prospective researches carried out by the CEA and its industrial partners have led to propose a R and D strategy with 3 complementary goals: search for innovations for water reactors, development of fast neutron reactors with closed fuel cycle (sodium fast reactor (SFR), gas fast reactor (GFR)), and development of key-technologies for nuclear hydrogen production (very high temperature reactor (VHTR)). The R and D effort concerns also the subcritical systems devoted to transmutation, the new cycle processes for a global management of actinides, and some other nuclear systems like the molten salt reactors (MSR) and the supercritical water reactors (SCWR). This paper presents the R and D strategy for each technology with its priorities, steps, financial means and collaborations. (J.S.)

  5. Phase IV of Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvarna, Viraj

    2010-04-01

    Not all Phase IV studies are post-marketing surveillance (PMS) studies but every PMS study is a phase IV study. Phase IV is also an important phase of drug development. In particular, the real world effectiveness of a drug as evaluated in an observational, non-interventional trial in a naturalistic setting which complements the efficacy data that emanates from a pre-marketing randomized controlled trial (RCT). No matter how many patients are studied pre-marketing in a controlled environment, the true safety profile of a drug is characterized only by continuing safety surveillance through a spontaneous adverse event monitoring system and a post-marketing surveillance/non-interventional study. Prevalent practice patterns can generate leads that could result in further evaluation of a new indication via the RCT route or even a signal that may necessitate regulatory action (change in labeling, risk management/minimization action plan). Disease registries are another option as are the large simple hybrid trials. Surveillance of spontaneously reported adverse events continues as long as a product is marketed. And so Phase IV in that sense never ends.

  6. Phase IV of Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viraj Suvarna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Not all Phase IV studies are post-marketing surveillance (PMS studies but every PMS study is a phase IV study. Phase IV is also an important phase of drug development. In particular, the real world effectiveness of a drug as evaluated in an observational, non-interventional trial in a naturalistic setting which complements the efficacy data that emanates from a pre-marketing randomized controlled trial (RCT. No matter how many patients are studied pre-marketing in a controlled environment, the true safety profile of a drug is characterized only by continuing safety surveillance through a spontaneous adverse event monitoring system and a post-marketing surveillance/non-interventional study. Prevalent practice patterns can generate leads that could result in further evaluation of a new indication via the RCT route or even a signal that may necessitate regulatory action (change in labeling, risk management/minimization action plan. Disease registries are another option as are the large simple hybrid trials. Surveillance of spontaneously reported adverse events continues as long as a product is marketed. And so Phase IV in that sense never ends.

  7. Nuclear energy data 2010

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    This 2010 edition of Nuclear Energy Data , the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of official statistics and country reports on nuclear energy, provides key information on plans for new nuclear plant construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments as well as current and projected nuclear generating capacity to 2035 in OECD member countries. This comprehensive overview provides authoritative information for policy makers, experts and other interested stakeholders.

  8. 四代核电NC-DCS产品解决方案简介%Brief Product Solution of 4th Generation of Nuclear NC-DCS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高景斌

    2014-01-01

    经历了福岛事件,核电的安全性更加被重视,四代核电因更安全性和经济性更加受到重视,是未来核电的发展方向。本文描述了具有我国自主知识产权的四代核电核心控制系统NC-DCS的产品解决方案,包括了解决方案的系统架构、网络、功能分配、主控制室设计、安全性冗余设计、通讯设计、校时设计等部分的内容。%After Fukushima, nuclear safety has been attached more attentions. Due to the more attentions on safety and economy, the four generation of nuclear power is the direction of development of nuclear power in the future. This paper describes the product solutions of NC-DCS with independent intellectual property rights of China's nuclear power core control system, including system architecture, solution of the network, function distribution, main control room design, safety redundancy design, communication design, time correction design and other parts design.

  9. Use of self-organizing maps for classification of defects in the tubes from the steam generator of nuclear power plants; Classificacao de defeitos em tubos de gerador de vapor de plantas nucleares utilizando mapas auto-organizaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Roberto Navarro de

    2002-07-01

    This thesis obtains a new classification method for different steam generator tube defects in nuclear power plants using Eddy Current Test signals. The method uses self-organizing maps to compare different signal characteristics efficiency to identify and classify these defects. A multiple inference system is proposed which composes the different extracted characteristic trained maps classification to infer the final defect type. The feature extraction methods used are the Wavelet zero-crossings representation, the linear predictive coding (LPC), and other basic signal representations on time like module and phase. Many characteristic vectors are obtained with combinations of these extracted characteristics. These vectors are tested to classify the defects and the best ones are applied to the multiple inference system. A systematic study of pre-processing, calibration and analysis methods for the steam generator tube defect signals in nuclear power plants is done. The method efficiency is demonstrated and characteristic maps with the main prototypes are obtained for each steam generator tube defect type. (author)

  10. 76 FR 388 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    .... The resulting bending action constrains the tubes in the tubesheet thereby restricting primary- to... tube below the top of the steam generator tubesheet from periodic steam generator tube inspections for..., ``Steam Generator Tube lnspection Report'' to remove reference to previous interim alternate repair...

  11. Limitations of Nuclear Power as a Sustainable Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Pearce

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review and analysis of the challenges that nuclear power must overcome in order to be considered sustainable. The results make it clear that not only do innovative technical solutions need to be generated for the fundamental inherent environmental burdens of nuclear energy technology, but the nuclear industry must also address difficult issues of equity both in the present and for future generations. The results show that if the concept of just sustainability is applied to the nuclear energy sector a global large-scale sustainable nuclear energy system to replace fossil fuel combustion requires the following: (i a radical improvement in greenhouse gas emissions intensity by improved technology and efficiency through the entire life cycle to prevent energy cannibalism during rapid growth; (ii the elimination of nuclear insecurity to reduce the risks associated with nuclear power so that the free market can indemnify it without substantial public nuclear energy insurance subsidies; (iii the elimination of radioactive waste at the end of life and minimization of environmental impact during mining and operations; and (iv the nuclear industry must regain public trust or face obsolescence as a swarm of renewable energy technologies quickly improve both technical and economic performance.

  12. 75 FR 76051 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota, Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ..., ``Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors,'' and appendix...\\TM\\ fuel rod cladding. Thus, an exemption from the requirements of 10 CFR 50.46 and Appendix K is needed to support the ] use of different fuel rod cladding material. Therefore, the licensee requested...

  13. Nuclear Concrete Materials Database Phase I Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Naus, Dan J [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    The FY 2011 accomplishments in Phase I development of the Nuclear Concrete Materials Database to support the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program are summarized. The database has been developed using the ORNL materials database infrastructure established for the Gen IV Materials Handbook to achieve cost reduction and development efficiency. In this Phase I development, the database has been successfully designed and constructed to manage documents in the Portable Document Format generated from the Structural Materials Handbook that contains nuclear concrete materials data and related information. The completion of the Phase I database has established a solid foundation for Phase II development, in which a digital database will be designed and constructed to manage nuclear concrete materials data in various digitized formats to facilitate electronic and mathematical processing for analysis, modeling, and design applications.

  14. Considerations of the Differences between Bedded and Domal Salt Pertaining to Disposal of Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sobolik, Steven R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-07-07

    Salt formations hold promise for eternal removal of nuclear waste from our biosphere. Germany and the United States have ample salt formations for this purpose, ranging from flat-bedded formations to geologically mature dome structures. As both nations revisit nuclear waste disposal options, the choice between bedded, domal, or intermediate pillow formations is once again a contemporary issue. For decades, favorable attributes of salt as a disposal medium have been extoled and evaluated, carefully and thoroughly. Yet, a sense of discovery continues as science and engineering interrogate naturally heterogeneous systems. Salt formations are impermeable to fluids. Excavation-induced fractures heal as seal systems are placed or natural closure progresses toward equilibrium. Engineering required for nuclear waste disposal gains from mining and storage industries, as humans have been mining salt for millennia. This great intellectual warehouse has been honed and distilled, but not perfected, for all nuances of nuclear waste disposal. Nonetheless, nations are able and have already produced suitable license applications for radioactive waste disposal in salt. A remaining conundrum is site location. Salt formations provide isolation and geotechnical barriers reestablish impermeability after waste is placed in the geology. Between excavation and closure, physical, mechanical, thermal, chemical, and hydrological processes ensue. Positive attributes for isolation in salt have many commonalities independent of the geologic setting. In some cases, specific details of the environment will affect the disposal concept and thereby define interaction of features, events and processes, while simultaneously influencing scenario development. Here we identify and discuss high-level differences and similarities of bedded and domal salt formations. Positive geologic and engineering attributes for disposal purposes are more common among salt formations than are significant differences

  15. Proceedings of the 2. MIT international conference on the next generation of nuclear power technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The goal of the conference was to try to attract a variety of points of view from well-informed people to debate issues concerning nuclear power. Hopefully from that process a better understanding of what one should be doing will emerge. In organizing the conference lessons learned from the previous one were applied. A continuous effort was made to see to it that the arguments for the alternatives to nuclear power were given abundant time for presentation. This is ultimately because nuclear power is going to have to compete with all of the energy technologies. Thus, in discussing energy strategy all of the alternatives must be considered in a reasonable fashion. The structure the conference used has seven sessions. The first six led up to the final session which was concerned with what the future nuclear power strategy should be. Each session focused upon a question concerning the future. None of these questions has a unique correct answer. Rather, topics are addressed where reasonable people can disagree. In order to state some of the important arguments for each session`s question, the combination of a keynote paper followed by a respondent was used. The respondent`s paper is not necessarily included to be a rebuttal to the keynote; but rather, it was recognized that two people will look at a complex question with different shadings. Through those two papers the intention was to get out the most important arguments affecting the question for the session. The purpose of the papers was to set the stage for about an hour of discussion. The real product of this conference was that discussion.

  16. Nuclear energy and renewable energies. Two technologies for the CO{sub 2}-free generation of electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, Hans-Josef [EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The worldwide energy demand will increase over the coming years. This is also causing a rise in demand for new fossil power plant capacities and at the same time we also need to achieve reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions in order to protect the climate. Ultimately, the only CO{sub 2}-free energy conversion methods that are open to us are renewables and nuclear energy. We need an open dialogue about our future energy mix. (orig.)

  17. Considerations of the Differences between Bedded and Domal Salt Pertaining to Disposal of Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sobolik, Steven R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-07-07

    Salt formations hold promise for eternal removal of nuclear waste from our biosphere. Germany and the United States have ample salt formations for this purpose, ranging from flat-bedded formations to geologically mature dome structures. As both nations revisit nuclear waste disposal options, the choice between bedded, domal, or intermediate pillow formations is once again a contemporary issue. For decades, favorable attributes of salt as a disposal medium have been extoled and evaluated, carefully and thoroughly. Yet, a sense of discovery continues as science and engineering interrogate naturally heterogeneous systems. Salt formations are impermeable to fluids. Excavation-induced fractures heal as seal systems are placed or natural closure progresses toward equilibrium. Engineering required for nuclear waste disposal gains from mining and storage industries, as humans have been mining salt for millennia. This great intellectual warehouse has been honed and distilled, but not perfected, for all nuances of nuclear waste disposal. Nonetheless, nations are able and have already produced suitable license applications for radioactive waste disposal in salt. A remaining conundrum is site location. Salt formations provide isolation, and geotechnical barriers reestablish impermeability after waste is placed in the geology. Between excavation and closure, physical, mechanical, thermal, chemical, and hydrological processes ensue. Positive attributes for isolation in salt have many commonalities independent of the geologic setting. In some cases, specific details of the environment will affect the disposal concept and thereby define interaction of features, events and processes, while simultaneously influencing scenario development. Here we identify and discuss high-level differences and similarities of bedded and domal salt formations. Positive geologic and engineering attributes for disposal purposes are more common among salt formations than are significant differences

  18. Application of perturbation methods for sensitivity analysis for nuclear power plant steam generators; Aplicacao da teoria de perturbacao a analise de sensibilidade em geradores de vapor de usinas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurjao, Emir Candeia

    1996-02-01

    The differential and GPT (Generalized Perturbation Theory) formalisms of the Perturbation Theory were applied in this work to a simplified U-tubes steam generator model to perform sensitivity analysis. The adjoint and importance equations, with the corresponding expressions for the sensitivity coefficients, were derived for this steam generator model. The system was numerically was numerically solved in a Fortran program, called GEVADJ, in order to calculate the sensitivity coefficients. A transient loss of forced primary coolant in the nuclear power plant Angra-1 was used as example case. The average and final values of functionals: secondary pressure and enthalpy were studied in relation to changes in the secondary feedwater flow, enthalpy and total volume in secondary circuit. Absolute variations in the above functionals were calculated using the perturbative methods, considering the variations in the feedwater flow and total secondary volume. Comparison with the same variations obtained via direct model showed in general good agreement, demonstrating the potentiality of perturbative methods for sensitivity analysis of nuclear systems. (author) 22 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Evaluation of two processes of hydrogen production starting from energy generated by high temperature nuclear reactors; Evaluacion de dos procesos de produccion de hidrogeno a partir de energia generada por reactores nucleares de alta temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle H, J., E-mail: jvalle@upmh.edu.mx [Universidad Politecnica Metropolitana de Hidalgo, Boulevard Acceso a Tolcayuca 1009, Ex-Hacienda San Javier, 43860 Tolcayuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    In this work an evaluation to two processes of hydrogen production using energy generated starting from high temperature nuclear reactors (HTGR's) was realized. The evaluated processes are the electrolysis of high temperature and the thermo-chemistry cycle Iodine-Sulfur. The electrolysis of high temperature, contrary to the conventional electrolysis, allows reaching efficiencies of up to 60% because when increasing the temperature of the water, giving thermal energy, diminishes the electric power demand required to separate the molecule of the water. However, to obtain these efficiencies is necessary to have water vapor overheated to more than 850 grades C, temperatures that can be reached by the HTGR. On the other hand the thermo-chemistry cycle Iodine-Sulfur, developed by General Atomics in the 1970 decade, requires two thermal levels basically, the great of them to 850 grades C for decomposition of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and another minor to 360 grades C approximately for decomposition of H I, a high temperature nuclear reactor can give the thermal energy required for the process whose products would be only hydrogen and oxygen. In this work these two processes are described, complete models are developed and analyzed thermodynamically that allow to couple each hydrogen generation process to a reactor HTGR that will be implemented later on for their dynamic simulation. The obtained results are presented in form of comparative data table of each process, and with them the obtained net efficiencies. (author)

  20. An overview of future sustainable nuclear power reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Poullikkas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an overview of the current and future nuclear power reactor technologies is carried out. In particular, the nuclear technology is described and the classification of the current and future nuclear reactors according to their generation is provided. The analysis has shown that generation II reactors currently in operation all around the world lack significantly in safety precautions and are prone to loss of coolant accident (LOCA. In contrast, generation III reactors, which are an evolution of generation II reactors, incorporate passive or inherent safety features that require no active controls or operational intervention to avoid accidents in the event of malfunction, and may rely on gravity, natural convection or resistance to high temperatures. Today, partly due to the high capital cost of large power reactors generating electricity and partly due to the consideration of public perception, there is a shift towards the development of smaller units. These may be built independently or as modules in a larger complex, with capacity added incrementally as required. Small reactors most importantly benefit from reduced capital costs, simpler units and the ability to produce power away from main grid systems. These factors combined with the ability of a nuclear power plant to use process heat for co-generation, make the small reactors an attractive option. Generally, modern small reactors for power generation are expected to have greater simplicity of design, economy of mass production and reduced installation costs. Many are also designed for a high level of passive or inherent safety in the event of malfunction. Generation III+ designs are generally extensions of the generation III concept, which include advanced passive safety features. These designs can maintain the safe state without the use of any active control components. Generation IV reactors, which are future designs that are currently under research and development, will

  1. Radioisotope Power System Delivery, Ground Support and Nuclear Safety Implementation: Use of the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for the NASA's Mars Science Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.G. Johnson; K.L. Lively; C.C. Dwight

    2014-07-01

    Radioisotope power systems have been used for over 50 years to enable missions in remote or hostile environments. They are a convenient means of supplying a few milliwatts up to a few hundred watts of useable, long-term electrical power. With regard to use of a radioisotope power system, the transportation, ground support and implementation of nuclear safety protocols in the field is a complex process that requires clear identification of needed technical and regulatory requirements. The appropriate care must be taken to provide high quality treatment of the item to be moved so it arrives in a condition to fulfill its missions in space. Similarly it must be transported and managed in a manner compliant with requirements for shipment and handling of special nuclear material. This presentation describes transportation, ground support operations and implementation of nuclear safety and security protocols for a radioisotope power system using recent experience involving the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Mars Science Laboratory, which launched in November of 2011.

  2. X-ray comb generation from nuclear-resonance-stabilized x-ray free-electron laser oscillator for fundamental physics and precision metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, B. W.; Kim, K.-J.

    2015-03-01

    An x-ray free-electron laser oscillator (XFELO) is a next-generation x-ray source, similar to free-electron laser oscillators at VUV and longer wavelengths but using crystals as high-reflectivity x-ray mirrors. Each output pulse from an XFELO is fully coherent with high spectral purity. The temporal coherence length can further be increased drastically, from picoseconds to microseconds or even longer, by phase-locking successive XFELO output pulses, using the narrow nuclear resonance lines of nuclei such as 57Fe as a reference. We show that the phase fluctuation due to the seismic activities is controllable and that due to spontaneous emission is small. The fluctuation of electron-bunch spacing contributes mainly to the envelope fluctuation but not to the phase fluctuation. By counting the number of standing-wave maxima formed by the output of the nuclear-resonance-stabilized (NRS) XFELO over an optically known length, the wavelength of the nuclear resonance can be accurately measured, possibly leading to a new length or frequency standard at x-ray wavelengths. A NRS-XFELO will be an ideal source for experimental x-ray quantum optics as well as other fundamental physics. The technique can be refined for other, narrower resonances such as 181Ta or 45Sc.

  3. X-ray comb generation from nuclear-resonance-stabilized x-ray free-electron laser oscillator for fundamental physics and precision metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Adams

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An x-ray free-electron laser oscillator (XFELO is a next-generation x-ray source, similar to free-electron laser oscillators at VUV and longer wavelengths but using crystals as high-reflectivity x-ray mirrors. Each output pulse from an XFELO is fully coherent with high spectral purity. The temporal coherence length can further be increased drastically, from picoseconds to microseconds or even longer, by phase-locking successive XFELO output pulses, using the narrow nuclear resonance lines of nuclei such as ^{57}Fe as a reference. We show that the phase fluctuation due to the seismic activities is controllable and that due to spontaneous emission is small. The fluctuation of electron-bunch spacing contributes mainly to the envelope fluctuation but not to the phase fluctuation. By counting the number of standing-wave maxima formed by the output of the nuclear-resonance-stabilized (NRS XFELO over an optically known length, the wavelength of the nuclear resonance can be accurately measured, possibly leading to a new length or frequency standard at x-ray wavelengths. A NRS-XFELO will be an ideal source for experimental x-ray quantum optics as well as other fundamental physics. The technique can be refined for other, narrower resonances such as ^{181}Ta or ^{45}Sc.

  4. X-Ray Comb Generation from Nuclear-Resonance-Stabilized X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Oscillator for Fundamental Physics and Precision Metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, B. W.; Kim, K. -J.

    2015-03-31

    An x-ray free-electron laser oscillator (XFELO) is a next-generation x-ray source, similar to free-electron laser oscillators at VUV and longer wavelengths but using crystals as high-reflectivity x-ray mirrors. Each output pulse from an XFELO is fully coherent with high spectral purity. The temporal coherence length can further be increased drastically, from picoseconds to microseconds or even longer, by phase-locking successive XFELO output pulses, using the narrow nuclear resonance lines of nuclei such as Fe-57 as a reference. We show that the phase fluctuation due to the seismic activities is controllable and that due to spontaneous emission is small. The fluctuation of electron-bunch spacing contributes mainly to the envelope fluctuation but not to the phase fluctuation. By counting the number of standing-wave maxima formed by the output of the nuclear-resonance-stabilized (NRS) XFELO over an optically known length, the wavelength of the nuclear resonance can be accurately measured, possibly leading to a new length or frequency standard at x-ray wavelengths. A NRS-XFELO will be an ideal source for experimental x-ray quantum optics as well as other fundamental physics. The technique can be refined for other, narrower resonances such as Ta-181 or Sc-45.

  5. Operational safety of turbine-generators at Loviisa nuclear power plant; Turbiini-generaattoreiden kaeyttoeturvallisuus Loviisan ydinvoimalaitoksella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virolainen, T.

    1997-06-01

    The goal of the study is to assess the operational safety of the turbine-generators at the Loviisa NPP. The lay-out, operation, control, monitoring and testing of turbine-generators have been studied. Taking these findings into consideration and by using operational data of Loviisa and other power plants, the most significant safety issues of the turbine-generator system have been identified. The frequencies for initiating events and possible consequences have been determined based on plant operational experience and related literature. (58 refs.).

  6. HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER FINAL RECHNICAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD AUGUST 1, 1999 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2002 REV. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH, RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

    2003-12-01

    OAK-B135 Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy [1-1,1-2]. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties [1-3,1-4]. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from fossil fuels has trace contaminants (primarily

  7. The evolution of nuclear energy Opportunities for the industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, M. T.

    2013-10-01

    At the turn of the XXI century, the world energy context underwent a significant change due mainly to the increases in the demand for energy in the developing countries, a rise in gas prices and increased government support of clean energies in response to environmental issues. these boundary conditions led rapidly to renewed interest in nuclear energy worldwide. The phrase a Renaissance in nuclear energy was included in almost all energy forecasts. Unexpectedly, however, just then years later the panorama changed once again: unconventional gas appeared as new energy source, the world financial crisis hampered investment, and the demand for energy fell. This panorama has lowered expectations with regard to the size of the nuclear energy renaissance to a less buoyant but more balance scenario of nuclear energy deployment that we could now dub as the evolution of nuclear energy. This article describes how fission nuclear energy has continuously been evolving to adjust itself to these changing scenarios, and, in particular, how it is being adapted itself to todays vision of the role of the nuclear energy in the long term. The analysis in this paper focuses on those programs that could bring opportunities for Spanish nuclear industry participation. Starting with the development programs affecting existing reactors already in operation, the analysis moves on the new builds of Light Water Reactors (LWR) Generation III+, to then address, in two sections, Research Reactors and finally, the opportunities presented by Generation IV technologies. The development of fusion technology is not covered in this paper. (Author)

  8. Statistical pulses generator. Application to nuclear instrumentation (1962); Generateur d'impulsions aleatoires. Application a l'instrumentation nucleaire (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beranger, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    This report describes a random pulses generator adapted to nuclear instrumentation. After a short survey on the statistical nature of electronic signals, the different ways for generating pulses with a Poisson's time-distribution are studied. The final generator built from a gaseous thyratron in a magnetic field is then described. Several tests are indicated : counting-rate stability, Pearson's criterion, distribution of time-intervals. Applications of the generator in 'whole testing' of nuclear instrumentation are then indicated for sealers, dead time measurements, time analyzers. In this application, pulse-height spectrums have been made by Poissonian sampling of a recurrent or random low-frequency signal. (author) [French] Cette etude decrit un generateur d'impulsions aleatoires et ses applications a l'instrumentation nucleaire. Apres un bref rappel sur la nature statistique des signaux en electronique nucleaire, sont passes en revue les principaux moyens d'obtenir des impulsions distribuees en temps suivant une loi de Poisson. Le generateur utilisant un thyratron a gaz dans un champ magnetique est ensuite decrit; diverses methodes de test sont appliquees (stabilite du taux de comptage, criterium de Pearson, spectre des intervalles ds temps). Les applications du generateur a l'electronique nucleaire dans le domaine des 'essais globaux' sont indiques: test des echelles de comptage et mesure des temps morts, test des analyseurs en temps apres division du taux de comptage par une puissance de deux, test des analyseurs multicanaux en amplitude. Pour cette derniere application, on a realise des spectres d'amplitudes suivant une loi connue, par echantillonnage poissonien d'un signal basse frequence recurrent ou aleatoire. (auteur)

  9. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2014.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  10. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2016.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  11. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2015.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  12. Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling of 137Cs generated from Nuclear Spent Fuel under Hypothetic Accidental Condition in the BNPP Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongkuk; Lee, Kwan-Hee; Yook, Daesik; Kim, Sung Il; Lee, Byung Soo

    2016-04-01

    This study presents the results of atmosphere dispersion modeling using CALPUFF code that are based on computational simulation to evaluate the environmental characteristics of the Barakah nuclear power plant (BNPP) in west area of UAE. According to meteorological data analysis (2012~2013), the winds from the north(7.68%) and west(9.05%) including NNW(41.63%), NW(28.55%), and WNW(6.31%) winds accounted for more than 90% of the wind directions. East(0.2%) and south(0.6%) direction wind, including ESE(0.31%), SE(0.38%), and SSE(0.38%) were rarely distributed during the simulation period. Seasonal effects were not showed. However, a discrepancy in the tendency between daytime and night-time was observed. Approximately 87% of the wind speed was distributed below 5.4m/s (17%, 47% and 23% between the speeds of 0.5-1.8m/s 1.8-3.3m/s and 3.3-5.4m/s, respectively) during the annual period. Seasonal wind speed distribution results presented very similar pattern of annual distribution. Wind speed distribution of day and night, on the other hand, had a discrepancy with annual modeling results than seasonal distribution in some sections. The results for high wind speed (more than 10.8m/s) showed that this wind blew from the west. This high wind speed is known locally as the 'Shamal', which occurs rarely, lasting one or two days with the strongest winds experienced in association with gust fronts and thunderstorms. Six variations of cesium-137 (137Cs) dispersion test were simulated under hypothetic severe accidental condition. The 137Cs dispersion was strongly influenced by the direction and speed of the main wind. From the test cases, east-south area of the BNPP site was mainly influenced by 137Cs dispersion. A virtual receptor was set and calculated for observation of the 137Cs movement and accumulation. Surface roughness tests were performed for the analysis of topographic conditions. According to the surface condition, there are various surface roughness length. Four types

  13. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Hillaris, Alexander; Nindos, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts which extend to the hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type IV IP bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprised 48 Interplanetary type IV bursts observed by the Wind/WAVES in the 13.825 MHz?20 KHz frequency range. The dynamic spec tra of the RSTN, DAM, ARTEMIS-IV, CULGOORA, Hiraiso and IZMIRAN Radio-spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona; these were supplemented with SXR ?ux recordings from GOES and CME data from LASCO. Positional information for the coronal bursts were obtained by the Nan\\c{c}ay radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs and SXR ?ares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact; their duration was on average 106 min. This type of events were, mostly, associated with M and X class ?ares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs; 32 of these events had CME...

  14. Nuclear energy data 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Publishing, OECD

    2005-01-01

    This 2005 edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers a projection horizon lengthened to 2025 for the first time.  It presents the reader with a comprehensive overview on the status and trends in nuclear electricity generation in OECD countries and in the various sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  15. Distributed fibre optic temperature measurement system for the safety monitoring of the next generation of large nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Fernandez, Alberto; Brichard, Benoit [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Center (Belgium); Hartog, Arthur H.; Hughes, Paul [SENSA, a Schlumberger Company (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The use of optical fibre distributed sensors for temperature sensing is a powerful way of monitoring, quasi simultaneously, thousands of points avoiding the requirement of optimum positioning of discrete temperature sensors. Their range of applications is rapidly expanding in the industry, and nowadays this fibre optic sensing technology is mature for industrial applications such as fire detection inside buildings and tunnels, process vessel monitoring, leak detection in cryogenic storage vessels (liquid natural gas (LNG), ammonia, ethylene) or oil wells and the measurement of energy cable thermal distribution for the power supply industry. These applications rely on the well known immunity of fibre optic sensors to electromagnetic interference and the ability of fibre sensors to be operated in hazardous environments. The nuclear industry shows a growing interest for the possibilities offered for temperature sensing applications. Fibre optic sensing technology could be considered as an alternative to classical measurements techniques in a wide range of applications. The potential of distributed temperature measurements for the monitoring of large nuclear infrastructures such as reactor containment buildings, nuclear waste repositories and reactor primary circuitry have already been shown. However, a major problem in the application of optical fibres in nuclear environments is the presence of ionizing radiation fields that induce an increase of the optical fibre attenuation. This radiation-induced degradation of the measurement signal could be critical since most commercially available distributed temperature sensors derive the temperature profile from the measurement of the Raman backscattered light intensity along the fibre, using optical time domain reflectometry techniques. The Raman signal comprises two elements: the Stokes and anti-Stokes lines. The longer wavelength Stokes line is only weakly temperature sensitive but the intensity of the backscattered light

  16. Neutron flux from a 14-MeV neutron generator with tungsten filter for research in NDA methods for nuclear safeguards and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennhofer, H.; Pedersen, B.; Crochemore, J.-M.

    2009-12-01

    The Joint Research Centre has taken into operation a new experimental device designed for research in the fields of nuclear safeguards and security applications. The research projects currently undertaken include detection of shielded contraband materials, detection of fissile materials, and mass determination of small fissile materials in shielded containers. The device, called the Pulsed Neutron Interrogation Test Assembly (PUNITA), incorporates a pulsed 14-MeV (D-T) neutron generator and a large graphite mantle surrounding the sample cavity. By pulsing the neutron generator with a frequency in the range of 10 to 150 Hz, a sample may be interrogated first by fast neutrons and a few hundred micro-seconds later by a pure thermal neutron flux. The permanent detection systems incorporated in PUNITA include 3He neutrons detectors, HPGe gamma detectors, and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors. We have studied the effects of placing a tungsten liner around the neutron generator target. The 14-MeV neutrons induce (n, 2n) and (n, 3n) reactions. In addition the mean neutron energy emitted from generator/tungsten assembly is reduced to about 1 MeV. Both of these effects increase the thermal neutron flux in the sample cavity. The paper describes the observed advantages of the tungsten liner with respect to increase in thermal flux, and better shielding capabilities of the nearby gamma and neutron detectors.

  17. Astragaloside IV, a Natural PPARγ Agonist, Reduces Aβ Production in Alzheimer's Disease Through Inhibition of BACE1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Wang, Yue; Hu, Jiang-Ping; Yu, Song; Li, Bao-Kun; Cui, Yong; Ren, Lu; Zhang, Li-De

    2016-03-29

    A number of epidemiological studies have established a link between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). So, nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) plays an important role in the treatment of AD. However, current PPARγ-targeting drugs such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are associated with undesirable side effects. We identified herbal extract with a small molecular, astragaloside IV (AS-IV), as a selective PPARγ natural agonist in nervous cells by developing a PPAR-PPRE pathway regulatory system. Cultured SH-SY5Y cells transfected with pEGFP-N1-BACE1 were treated with AS-IV for 24 h or AS-IV plus the PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 in vitro. APP/PS1 mice were intragastrically treated with AS-IV or AS-IV plus the GW9662 every 48 h for 3 months. Immunofluorescence, western blotting, and real-time PCR were used to examine the expression of PPARγ and BACE1. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to analyze the distribution of Aβ plaques in the APP/PS1 mouse brain. The levels of Aβ were determined using ELISA kits. AS-IV was shown to be a PPARγ agonist by establishing a high-throughput screening model for PPARγ agonists. The results showed that AS-IV treatment increased activity of PPARγ and inhibited BACE1 in vitro. As a result, Aβ levels decreased significantly. GW9662, which is a PPARγ antagonist, significantly blocked the beneficial role of AS-IV. In vivo, AS-IV treatment increased PPARγ and BACE1 expression and reduced neuritic plaque formation and Aβ levels in the brains of APP/PS1 mice. These effects of AS-IV could be effectively inhibited by GW9662. These results indicate that AS-IV may be a natural PPARγ agonist that suppressed activity of BACE1 and ultimately attenuates generation of Aβ. Therefore, AS-IV may be a promising agent for modulating Aβ-related pathology in AD.

  18. A techno-economic assessment of primary heat transport system decontamination in support of decommissioning Pickering Nuclear Generating Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husain, A.; Krasznai, J. [Kinectrics, Inc., Analytical and Waste Services Dept., Toronto, Ontario, (Canada); Vijay, R. [Ontario Power Generation, Nuclear Decommissioning Organization, Toronto, Ontario, (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The operating reactor units at Pickering are expected to be permanently shut down by approximately 2020 (this nominal date is for planning purposes only) and then decommissioned. OPG has adopted the 'Deferred Dismantling' strategy for decommissioning its nuclear plants. In contrast with prompt dismantling, radioactive decay leads to reduced dose expenditure during deferred dismantling. As part of the decommissioning strategy, chemical decontamination of the primary heat transport (PHT) system may be undertaken prior to Safe Storage. Decommissioning costs depend significantly on the chosen deferral period. The overall objective of the present work was to contribute to the optimization of the existing decommissioning plan by assessing the benefits of decontamination. Accordingly, an overall cost-benefit analysis for PHT system decontamination was performed. Details are presented in this paper. (author)

  19. Ion Acceleration and D-D Nuclear Fusion in Laser-Generated Plasma from Advanced Deuterated Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Torrisi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Deuterated polyethylene targets have been irradiated by means of a 1016 W/cm2 laser using 600 J pulse energy, 1315 nm wavelength, 300 ps pulse duration and 70 micron spot diameter. The plasma parameters were measured using on-line diagnostics based on ion collectors, SiC detectors and plastic scintillators, all employed in time-of-flight configuration. In addition, a Thomson parabola spectrometer, an X-ray streak camera, and calibrated neutron dosimeter bubble detectors were employed. Characteristic protons and neutrons at maximum energies of 3.0 MeV and 2.45 MeV, respectively, were detected, confirming that energy spectra of reaction products coming from deuterium-deuterium nuclear fusion occur. In thick advanced targets a fusion rate of the order of 2 × 108 fusions per laser shot was calculated.

  20. Ion acceleration and D-D nuclear fusion in laser-generated plasma from advanced deuterated polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, Lorenzo

    2014-10-23

    Deuterated polyethylene targets have been irradiated by means of a 1016 W/cm2 laser using 600 J pulse energy, 1315 nm wavelength, 300 ps pulse duration and 70 micron spot diameter. The plasma parameters were measured using on-line diagnostics based on ion collectors, SiC detectors and plastic scintillators, all employed in time-of-flight configuration. In addition, a Thomson parabola spectrometer, an X-ray streak camera, and calibrated neutron dosimeter bubble detectors were employed. Characteristic protons and neutrons at maximum energies of 3.0 MeV and 2.45 MeV, respectively, were detected, confirming that energy spectra of reaction products coming from deuterium-deuterium nuclear fusion occur. In thick advanced targets a fusion rate of the order of 2 × 108 fusions per laser sh