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Sample records for generation generacion electrica

  1. Sun, wind and electric generation; Sol, viento y generacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    A description is made of the electric generation known as the photovoltaic-wind power hybrid systems at the generation station of X-Calak which is located in the zone known as Punta Herrero-X-Calak Corridor, in the Southern coast of the Quintana Roo State. This is a technology in development, in which the solar and the wind energy are combined, to offer an alternative of electric generation that can be economical, reliable and of low impact on the environment. Mention is made of the experiences gathered in this station as well as the results obtained [Espanol] Se describe la tecnologia de generacion electrica conocida como sistemas hibridos fotovoltaico-eolico en la planta generadora de X-Calak, la cual esta localizada en la zona conocida como el corredor Punta Herrero-X-Calak, en la costa sur del estado de Quintana Roo. Esta es una tecnologia en desarrollo, en donde se combina la energia solar y energia eolica, para ofrecer una alternativa de generacion electrica que pretende ser economica, confiable y de bajo impacto sobre el medio ambiente. Se mencionan las experiencias obtenidas en esta planta asi como los resultados obtenidos

  2. Clean generation of electric energy; Generacion limpia de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Juan M.; Torres, Emmanuel [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Unidad Guadalajara (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    This article deals on the existing alternatives of renewable energy for generation of electricity free from polluting sequels within the Mexican territory and presents a global overview on the electricity generation in Mexico. Wind power, hydraulic energy, biomass, photovoltaic and fuel cells are sources of renewable energy that could contribute to Mexico's sustainable development, for this reason it is discussed on the main sources of renewable energy in Mexico - solar and wind energy, mini-hydraulic, biomass and geothermal -, on their development and evolution, cost, insertion projects and obstacles for their correct development in this country. [Spanish] Este articulo versa sobre las alternativas de energia renovable existentes para una generacion de electricidad libre de secuelas contaminantes dentro del territorio mexicano y presenta un panorama global sobre la generacion de electricidad en Mexico. La energia eolica, hidraulica, biomasa, fotovoltaica y las celdas de combustible son fuentes de energia renovable que podrian contribuir al desarrollo sustentable de Mexico, por esto se arguye sobre las principales fuentes de energia renovable en Mexico -energia solar, eolica, minihidraulica, biomasa y geotermia-, sobre su desarrollo y evolucion, costo, proyectos de insercion y obstaculos para su correcto desarrollo en ese pais.

  3. Wind energy for electricity generation; Generacion electrica con energia del viento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M.; Borja Diaz, Marco Antonio R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-09-01

    A description is made of electricity generation utilizing wind energy (Eoloelectric Generation). The case of Mexico is reviewed in respect to this technology, mentioning a small power plant of 1.5 Megawatts installed by the Comision Federal de Electricidad in the zone of La Ventosa in the State of Oaxaca. Mention is made of the possible causes why Mexico has not advanced in this type of power plants for power generation as in other countries like Germany, Spain and India. The advance in these countries is shown as well as the growth statistics of the wind power in the world. It is concluded that there is not in Mexico a strategy for wind energy utilization for electricity generation in spite of the potential benefits this technology offers [Espanol] Se describe el caso de la generacion electrica utilizando la energia del viento (Generacion Eoloelectrica). Se aborda el caso de Mexico respecto a esta tecnologia, mencionando una pequena central de 1.5 Megawatts (MW) instalada por la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) en la zona de la Ventosa, Oaxaca. Se mencionan las posibles causas por las que en Mexico este tipo de centrales de generacion de energia no ha avanzado como en otros paises, por ejemplo: Alemania, Espana y la India. Se muestran los avances de estos paises, asi como una estadistica del crecimiento de la generacion eoloelectrica en el mundo. Se concluye en que no existe en Mexico una estrategia para la generacion eoloelectrica a pesar de los beneficios potenciales que ofrece esta tecnologia

  4. Analysis methodology for economic technical feasibility studies in offshore electrical generation systems; Metodologia de analisis para estudios de factibilidad tecnica economica en sistemas de generacion electrica costa fuera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscal Escalante, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    An analysis methodology followed in the development of technique-economic feasibility studies of systems of electrical generation in offshore electrical installations is presented, including the obtaining of the curves of the turbine and generator performance, the technical considerations for the formulation of the operation scenes and the calculations of the economic evaluation of a real scenario. [Spanish] Se muestra una metodologia de analisis seguida en el desarrollo de estudios de factibilidad tecnica-economica de sistemas de generacion electrica en instalaciones electricas costa fuera, incluyendo la obtencion de las curvas de comportamiento de la turbina y el generador, las consideraciones tecnicas para la formulacion de los escenarios de operacion y los calculos de la evaluacion economica de un escenario real.

  5. Towards a distributed electric generation scheme with non-conventional energies; Hacia un esquema de generacion electrica distribuida con energias no convencionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Several factors contributed to the existence of large electric systems as we know them today, such as: the increase of the electric demand by the advancement of the industrial development, the appearance of electric equipment, and household devices and by the advancement in the engineering systems, just to mention a few of them. With all this, the third part of the World population still does not have access to the electricity service. The efforts that the small electric enterprises perform to carry the service up to the site where it is required, every day time becomes more expensive and less effective. Exhausted by the weight of a huge economic debt, many electric utilities of the developing countries find each time more difficult to obtain financing to extend the power lines. This situation becomes still more serious with the present privatization scheme of the electric utilities. Although new technologies are being developed to counteract the negative effects caused by the large electricity generation power plants, the society seems to begin to show preferences for more benign to the environment options. The scheme of distributed generation can be given in to modalities: By means of isolated systems in remote sites, where there is not access to the conventional services; and with systems interconnected with the electric network where this is available [Espanol] Varios factores contribuyeron a la aparicion de los grandes sistemas electricos como los conocemos hoy en dia, tales como: el crecimiento de la demanda electrica por el avance del desarrollo industrial, la aparicion de equipos electricos y aparatos electrodomesticos y por avances en la ingenieria de los sistemas, por mencionar algunos. Con todo ello, la tercera parte de la poblacion mundial no tiene aun acceso al servicio electrico. Los esfuerzos que realizan las companias electricas para llevar el servicio hasta donde se requiere, resultan cada vez mas costosos y menos efectivos. Agobiadas por el peso

  6. Analysis of the energy portfolio for electricity generation; Analisis del portafolio energetico para la generacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G.; Esquivel E, J., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    The planning of electricity generation systems considers several factors that must be taken into account in order to design systems that are economical, reliable and sustainable. For this purpose, the Financial Portfolio Theory is applicable to the energy portfolio or the diversification of electricity generation technologies, such as is the combined cycle, wind, thermoelectric and nuclear. This paper presents an application of the Portfolio Theory to the national energy system, based on the total generation costs for each technology, which allows determining the average variance portfolio and the respective share of each of the electricity generation technologies considered, obtaining a portfolio of electricity generation with the maximum possible return for the risk taken in the investments. This paper describes the basic aspects of the Portfolio Theory and its methodology, in which matrices are implemented for the solution of the resulting Lagrange system. (Author)

  7. The electric power generation in Mexico and its environmental impacts: Past, present and future; La generacion electrica en Mexico y sus impactos ambientales: Pasado, presente y futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla Martinez, Juan [Programa Universitario de Energia (PUE), Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the historical evolution, past and present of the installed capacity and of the electric power generation, as well as the fuel consumption and the associated green-house gases emission. Also, under the technique of economic scenarios and future towns (in short and mediate terms) the potential needs of installed capacity, generation, mix and fuel consumption and associated green gases emissions is analyzed. Later on a comment is made on the energy implications of the substitution of fuels policies and the environmental Standards. Finally, a series of comments is established on the possible technological directions for the sector, from the stand point of generation efficiency and its effects in the reduction of emissions [Espanol] El proposito del presente trabajo es analizar la evolucion historica, pasada y presente, de la capacidad instalada y de la generacion electrica, asi como el consumo de combustibles y las emisiones de gases de invernadero asociadas. Tambien se analiza bajo la tecnica de escenarios economicos y poblaciones a futuro (en el corto y mediano plazo) las posibles necesidades de capacidad instalada, generacion, mezcla y consumo de combustibles y emisiones de gases de invernadero asociadas. Posteriormente se comenta sobre las implicaciones energeticas de las politicas de sustitucion de combustibles y estandares ambientales. Por ultimo se establecen una serie de comentarios sobre las posibles direcciones tecnologicas para el sector, desde el punto de vista de la eficiencia de generacion y sus efectos en la reduccion de las emisiones

  8. Options of electric generation and sustainability; Opciones de generacion electrica y sustentabilidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Campo M, C. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In this paper a study on the sustainability of the main electricity generation options is presented. The study is based on a matrix of sustainability indicators developed in Switzerland. A revision of some sustainability studies performed in countries with certain energy diversity and with experience in nuclear power plants operation, is done. Studies, in general, are performed for the power plant life cycle, taking into account economic aspects, fuel prices impact on electricity generation costs, fuel reserves indicators and material consumption. Air emission, waste production and human health impact data are also presented. All the results lead to confirm that nuclear energy has a high degree of sustainability vis a vis other options based on fossil fuels and renewable. Finally some comments are presented in order to highlight the importance that nuclear energy might have in the sustainable development of Mexico. (Author)

  9. The PBMR electric power generation plant; La planta de generacion de energia electrica PBMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez S, G.; Santacruz I, I.; Martin del Campo M, C. [FI-UNAM, 04500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)] e-mail: gabriela_perez@engineer.com

    2003-07-01

    This work has as purpose to diffuse in a general way the technology of the one modulate reactor of pebble bed. Because our country is in developing ways, the electric power demand goes in increase with that which it is presented the great challenge of satisfying this necessity, not only being in charge of the one fact per se, but also involving the environmental aspect and of security. Both factors are covered by the PBMR technology, which we approach in their basic aspects with the purpose that the public opinion knows it and was familiarized with this type of reactors that well could represent a solution for our growing electricity demand. We will treat this reactor visualizing it like part of a generation plant defining in first place to the itself reactor. We will see because that the system PBMR consists of 2 main sections: the reactor and the unit of energy conversion, highlighting that the principle of the PBMR reactor operation is based on the thermodynamic Brayton cycle cooled by helium and that, in turn, it transmits the energy in form of heat toward a gas turbine. In what concerns to the fuel, it peculiar design due to its spherical geometry is described, aspect that make to this reactor different from the traditional ones that use fuel rods. In fact in the fuel spheres of the PBMR it is where it resides great part of it inherent security since each particle of fuel, consistent in uranium dioxide, is lined one with coal and silicon carbide those which form an impenetrable barrier containing to the fuel and those radioactive products that result of the nuclear reactions. Such particles are encapsulated in graphite to form the sphere or 'pebble', of here born the name of this innovative technology. (Author)

  10. Supervisory control for hybrid systems of electrical generation based on fuzzy logic; Control supervisorio para sistemas hibridos de generacion electrica basado en logica difusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagunas M, Javier; Ortega S, Cesar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Caratozzolo M, Patricia [Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, campus Cd. de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The development and integration of hybrid systems of electrical generation (SHGE) of small capacity: The intention of these developments is its implementation in isolated or far away communities from conventional electric networks, that contribute in the own productive processes of these towns. As part of these work a system of control for their hybrid system wind-photovoltaic- internal combustion machine was developed that operates nowadays in a system installed in Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. However, in the two past years, the GENC has worked, altogether with the Management of Control and Instrumentation of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and the Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (CENIDET) (National Center of Research and Technological Development), to incorporate an intelligent control technique in the regulation of the hybrid systems of wind-photovoltaic-machine of internal combustion type. Lemos de Pereira rises that the main problems of the present technology of the SHGE are related to the control and supervision of the power systems. The system that is in charge of the actions of load control and dispatch is denominated supervisory control. This controller supervises the operation of all the components, regulates the entry or exiting of operation of the generation systems, as well as the loads. [Spanish] El desarrollo e integracion de sistemas hibridos de generacion electrica (SHGE) de pequena capacidad. El proposito de estos desarrollos es su implementacion en comunidades aisladas o alejadas de la red electrica convencional, las cuales contribuyan en los procesos productivos propios de estos poblados. Como parte de dichos trabajos se desarrollo un sistema de control para su sistema hibrido eolico-fotovoltaico-maquina de combustion interna que opera actualmente en un sistema instalado en Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Ahora bien, en los dos ultimos anos, la GENC ha trabajado, en conjunto con la Gerencia de Control e

  11. Supervisory fussy control for an electric generating hybrid system; Control supervisorio difuso para un sistema hibrido de generacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagunas Mendoza, Javier

    2004-11-15

    the fuzzy supervisory controller were compared with a conventional controller. The results shows that the supervisory controller fulfills the three main objectives of the system operation: I) to reduce the fuel consumption of the back-up system, II) to reduce the depth of the discharge of the battery bank, and III) to keep fully charged the battery bank as much as possible in order to make a better use of the available free renewable energy sources. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de un controlador supervisorio difuso para un sistema hibrido de generacion electrica (SHGE). En este trabajo se definio la configuracion y los elementos que componen el SHGE a utilizar, producto de la revision de configuraciones de sistemas hibridos propuestas actualmente. La configuracion del SHGE incluye: arreglos fotovoltaicos y aerogeneradores como fuentes de generacion renovable, una maquina de combustion interna como sistema de respaldo, un banco de baterias como medio de almacenamiento de energia, cargas electricas en corriente alterna y un inversor CD/CA para poder alimentarlas. Tambien a partir de la configuracion propuesta se buscaron y seleccionaron los modelos matematicos de los diferentes elementos del sistema. Se llevo a cabo la validacion de los modelos a traves de la comparacion de la salida contra datos reales obtenidos en un SHGE instalado en Pachuca. Con los modelos se llevo a cabo el desarrollo de un programa de simulacion para un SHGE en Matlab. Se determino la funcion principal del controlador supervisorio dentro del SHGE. La funcion es satisfacer el o los objetivos de operacion del sistema. La filosofia de operacion del controlador supervisorio se definio a partir de la configuracion electrica propuesta y de los objetivos de operacion del sistema. Por lo que respecta al desarrollo del controlador supervisorio, se llevo a cabo una revision de los controladores supervisorios actuales que utilizan alguna tecnica de control inteligente. A partir de

  12. Electrochemical generation of energy: from the portable electronic devices to industrial plants; Generacion electroquimica de energia electrica: de los dispositivos electronicos portatiles a las plantas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Varela, Javier [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Unidad Saltillo (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    This article proposes the electrical energy generation via electrochemistry as substitute of petroleum and discusses on the development of low and high temperature fuel cells fed by diverse types of fuels: electrolyte fuel cells of polymeric membrane, PEM cells H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}, cell of direct alcohol consumption, PEM cells and bio-fuel cells, SOFC cells and bio-fuel cells. It presents its constitution, operation principles, and use plausibility, present situation in the market, advantages and disadvantages, as well as already made cell insertion projects. [Spanish] Este trabajo propone la generacion de energia electrica via electroquimica como sustituto del petroleo y discurre sobre el desarrollo de celdas de combustible de baja y alta temperatura alimentadas por diversos tipos de combustibles: celdas de combustible de electrolito de membrana polimerica, celda PEM H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}, celda de consumo directo de alcohol, celdas PEM y biocombustibles, celdas de combustible de oxido solido y biocombustibles. Expone su constitucion, principios de operacion, plausibilidad de uso, situacion actual en el mercado, ventajas y desventajas, asi como proyectos de insercion de celdas ya realizados.

  13. Electric energy generation using biomass gasification; Generacion de energia electrica a partir de la gasificacion de biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, J.; Arauzo, J.; Gonzalo, Alberto; Sanchez, Jose Luis [Universidad de Zaragoza, Aragon (Spain). Inst. de Investigacion. Grupo de Procesos Termoquimicos; Rocha, J.D. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE); Mesa Perez, J.M. [Bioware Tecnologia, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Gasification experiments have been carried out with a atmospheric pressure down draft gasifier of a capacity of 250 kg/h of biomass. Biomass used have been almond shells and olive cut. Results obtained show a similar behaviour in gas composition with two biomass. A small fraction of the generated gas from the gasifier has been fed to a small generator of 4 kV A. The gas has been previously cleaned and dried by means of a scrubber and a condenser, to remove tar products. The generator has been operated with a great stability without any modification, and energy generated with gas from gasification are relatively close to the values obtained with conventional fuels such as gasoline or commercial butane. (author)

  14. Spanish generation market: structure, design and results; El Mercado de Generacion Electrica en Espana: Estructura, Funcionamiento y Resultados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosti, L.; Padilla, A. J.; Requejo, A.

    2007-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the structure, design and outcome of the Spanish generation market from 1998, when the market was liberalised, to date. More precisely, this paper reviews the history of the liberalisation process; describes the structure of the generation market and its evolution over time; analyses the existence of market power; and evaluates the outcome of the liberalisation process from the viewpoint of its impact on al locative efficiency, productive efficiency and dynamic efficiency. The paper concludes with a brief summary of recent regulatory reforms. (Author)

  15. Solar thermal power plants for heat and electricity generation; Presentacion de plantas termosolares para generacion de calor y energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Cajigal, V. [Solartronic S. A. de C. V., Cuernavaca (Mexico); Manzini, F.; Sanchez, A. [Laboratorio de Energia Solar (IIM-UNAM), Temixco (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    Solar thermal technology is presented for concentration into a point for the production of heat and energy in small and large scale, emphasis is made on the capacity for the combination with current technologies using fossil fuels for electricity generation and process steam, increasing the global efficiency of the power plants and notably reducing the pollutants emission to the air during the insolation hours. It is successfully compared with other solar-thermal technologies. [Espanol] Se presenta la tecnologia termosolar de concentracion puntual para produccion de calor y de energia en pequena y gran escala, se enfatiza su capacidad de combinacion con las tecnologias actuales que utilizan combustibles fosiles para produccion de electricidad y vapor de proceso, aumentando la eficiencia global de las plantas y reduciendo notablemente sus emisiones contaminantes a la atmosfera durante las horas de insolacion. Se le compara exitosamente con otras tecnologias termosolares.

  16. ABWR, an option for the electric generation in Mexico; ABWR, una opcion para la generacion electrica en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez T, A.M.; Ramirez S, J.R.; Xolocostli M, J.V. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: amgt@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The A BWR reactor (Advanced Boiling Water Reactor) it was developed in a project group among the Company TEPCO, (Tokyo Electric Power Company), Hitachi, Toshiba and General Electric. The A BWR is the first nuclear reactor of the type BWR third generation that entered in commercial operation in the 90 Th decade. One of those main characteristics of the A BWR are that the system of external recirculation has been eliminated, that is to say, the pumps and external recirculation pipes have been replaced by 10 internal recirculation pumps mounted in the inferior part of the pressure vessel, for that external recirculation systems neither the use of jet pumps are not needed. Another important characteristic of the A BWR is the simplification of the activation of the safety systems. The simplifications in the design of the A BWR and the use of new technologies have reduced the quantity of equipment and the time of construction compared with the previous designs of BWRs. The construction project for the A BWR consists of a period of construction from 48 to 54 months, measured since that the first concrete structure is placed until that it enters in commercial operation, in accordance with the documents liberated by G E. (Author)

  17. Hybrid system of generating electricity, solar eolic diesel San Juanico, Baja California Sur, Mexico; Sistema hibrido de generacion electrica, eolico solar diesel San Juanico, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta, Javier [Comision Federal de Electricidad, La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico); Johnston, Peter [Technology Development, Arizona (United States); Napikoski, Chester [Generation Engineering, Arizona (United States); Escutia, Ricardo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Baja California Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    that is generated thru the selling of electric energy, guarantees the sustainable operation of the system. [Spanish] La Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), y la empresa electrica norteamericana Arizona Public Service (APS), firmaron un convenio de colaboracion para desarrollar un proyecto de generacion de energia electrica con la utilizacion de energias renovables. Las premisas que se acordaron fueron las siguientes: 1. Enfoque del proyecto hacia una comunidad rural. 2. El costo de la obra debera ser menor al de su interconexion con el sistema convencional. 3. Aceptacion por parte de la comunidad, y autoridades gubernamentales. 4. Sustentabilidad de la operacion del sistema. Se efectuaron diversos analisis tecnicos y economicos asi como la evaluacion del recurso solar y eolico, estudio de impacto ambiental, plan de negocios para obtener la aprobacion de los recursos economicos ante instancias como Niagara Mohawk (NIMO), y la USAID, mediante la supervision de los Laboratorios Nacionales de Sandia. Despues de efectuarse las mediciones anemometricas y de radiacion solar, en diversas comunidades, se considero a la comunidad de San Juanico como la mas viable; tambien los aspectos de logistica, sociales, tamano de la comunidad y como detonador para las actividades economicas como la pesca y el turismo. La APS llevo a cabo el proyecto ejecutivo de conformidad con las recomendaciones de la Comision Federal de Electricidad. El proyecto consistio basicamente en la instalacion de 10 aerogeneradores de 10 Kw. c/u, un arreglo solar de 17 Kw., un inversor de 70 Kw., un banco de baterias de 432 Kwh., mas un motogenerador diesel de emergencia de 80 Kw. Ademas de la obra civil y electromecanica. Fue necesario involucrar a la poblacion en el conocimiento y seguimiento del proyecto desde sus inicios, ya que consideramos que este factor seria indispensable para lograr el exito del mismo. Se instalaron lamparas ahorradoras de energia en viviendas y alumbrado publico para optimizar el

  18. Fuzzy control for the operation of an electrical energy generation system based on standard fuel cells PEM; Control difuso para la operacion de un sistema de generacion de energia electrica basado en celdas de combustible tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez R, Miguel; Gutierrez A, Ruben [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Rodriguez P, Alejandro [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (Cenidet), Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Fuel cells, as totally clean power plants, have many applications in the industry in general, in the transport system, in the electricity generation for domestic consumption and in the communication systems, among others. When developing new forms of generation with renewable energy sources, it must be considered that petroleum will stop in being an available power resource. The interest in the study of the fuel cells has been increased in the last years because it is considered a solution to the supply of distributed energy problem. Therefore, already exist research institutions that are developing work on this technology. A generation of electrical energy system based on fuel cells is a nonlinear system where the control of the variables of the process, such as the temperature of the system and the pressurization of the reactants, are an important aspect for its proper operation, since it influences in the water balance and therefore in the global efficiency of the system. [Spanish] Las celdas de combustible, como fuente de energia totalmente limpia, tienen muchas aplicaciones en la industria en general: en el sistema de transporte, en la generacion de electricidad para consumo domestico y en los sistemas de comunicacion, entre otros. Al desarrollar nuevas formas de generacion con fuentes de energia renovables, se debe considerar que el petroleo dejara de ser un recurso energetico disponible. El interes en el estudio de las celdas de combustible se ha incrementado en los ultimos anos debido a que se le considera una solucion al problema de abasto de energia distribuida. Por lo tanto, ya existen instituciones de investigacion que estan desarrollando trabajos sobre esta tecnologia. Un sistema de generacion de energia electrica basado en celdas de combustible es un sistema no lineal en donde el control de las variables del proceso, tales como la temperatura del sistema y la presurizacion de los reactantes, es un aspecto importante para su buen funcionamiento, ya que

  19. Control voltage of the generator of auto-excited induction for applications on micro/mini generation o electric power; Control de voltaje del generador de induccion auto-excitado para aplicaciones de micro/mini generacion de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Montalvo, Emmanuel

    2006-09-15

    literature, since in this one it is only mentioned that the dynamics of the voltage and frequency change, but it is not shown how. In base of the dynamic behavior of the GIAE a scheme of simple control is proposed to regulate the generator voltage with the minimum of necessary elements, which is translated into a reduced cost, greater reliability and in addition provides a satisfactory voltage regulation. The control strategy is simple but functional, which permits its implementation without major complications. Finally an analysis is realized of the harmonic distortion produced by the proposed control. [Spanish] Aunque solamente una parte de la potencia mini/micro hidraulica ha sido explorada en nuestro pais, este tipo de generacion de energia electrica puede ser considerada como una forma viable de generacion de electricidad, principalmente por lo que respecta a los aspectos ecologicos, economicos y sociales. El impacto que pueden tener estas plantas en las regiones en las que son instaladas es siempre positivo: reduccion de costo de la energia, derrama economica, y principalmente un bienestar social. La energia electrica es uno de los pilares para el desarrollo economico de un pais y proporciona una mejor calidad de vida. En la actualidad la investigacion y la tecnologia orientada a la operacion y control de las micro/mini plantas de generacion ha despertado el interes de muchos investigadores en diversos paises del mundo como China, la India, Canada, USA, por mencionar algunos. El generador de induccion juega un papel crucial en la utilizacion de estas tecnologias. El trabajo de Basset y Potter en 1935, es la piedra angular sobre la posibilidad de generar energia haciendo uso de la maquina de induccion y un banco de capacitores conectado a las terminales de la maquina. Esta configuracion se conoce como generador de induccion auto-excitado (GIAE). Se han realizado diversas investigaciones que tratan sobre el principio de funcionamiento y el comportamiento dinamico de un

  20. Pequenas y microcentrales hidroelectricas: alternativa real de generacion electrica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sierra Vargas, Fabio Emiro; Sierra Alarcon, Adriana Fernanda; Guerrero Fajardo, Carlos Alberto

    2011-01-01

    ...), concentrando la descripcion en tres aspectos: las turbinas mas usadas, las caracteristicas de los generadores y una breve descripcion de la legislacion colombiana respecto a la pequena generacion...

  1. Renewable energies: A real option for the electrical generation in Mexico?; Energias renovables: opcion real para la generacion electrica en Mexico?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz V, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The renewable energies offer additional benefits to the kilowatts (kW) and kilowatts-hour (kWh) that they produce, because they include the creation of new jobs, a cleaner mean of generation and power assurance, among others. In view of this, most of the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and several developing nations have established goals for the renewable energies in their power plans. Many of these countries also have fomented the local development of industries of renewable energy and are penetrating aggressively in this new technology market. [Spanish] Las energias renovables ofrecen beneficios adicionales a los kilowatts (kW) y kilowatts-hora (kWh) que producen, pues incluyen la creacion de nuevos empleos, un medio mas limpio de generacion y seguridad energetica, entre otros. En vista de ello, la mayoria de los paises de la Organizacion de Cooperacion para el Desarrollo Economico (OCDE) y varias naciones en desarrollo han establecido metas para las energias renovables en sus planes energeticos. Muchos de estos paises tambien han fomentado el desarrollo local de industrias de energia renovable y estan penetrando agresivamente en este nuevo mercado de la tecnologia.

  2. Modeling and control of an electric power generation hybrid system; Modelado y control de un sistema hibrido de generacion de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Guzman, D; Aguilar Mejia, O; Tapia Olvera, R; Santiago Tepantlan, C. [Universidad Politecnica de Tulancingo, Huapalcalco, Hidalgo (Mexico)]. E-mail: omar.aguilar@upt.edu.mx

    2013-03-15

    With growing concerns on energy subject, the development of renewable energy sources is becoming more attractive. This paper presents the output power control of a wind energy conversion system based on a permanent magnet synchronous generator. The currents from voltage source inverter are controlled in a synchronous orthogonal dqo frame using a decoupled feed-forward control. Based on extensive simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK, it has been established that the performance of the controllers both in transient as well as in steady state is quite satisfactory. [Spanish] Con la creciente preocupacion en materia de energia, el desarrollo de fuentes de energia renovables es cada vez mas atractivo. Este trabajo presenta la regulacion de la potencia de salida de un sistema de generacion eolica basado en un generador sincrono de imanes permanentes. Las corrientes de la fuente inversora de voltaje son controladas en un marco de referencia ortogonal dqo usando un compensador por retroalimentacion en adelanto. Las simulaciones realizadas en MATLAB / Simulink, demuestran que los controladores presentan un excelente desempeno en estado transitorio, asi como en estado estacionario.

  3. Analysis of the generation of electric energy through the use of biogas obtained from sanitary fillings in Mexico; Analisis de la generacion de energia electrica a traves de biogas procedente de rellenos sanitarios en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda Sauvage, Tania Kalinka [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    Through this work a theoretical analysis conducted for the use of biogas obtained from sanitary landfills for the generation of electrical energy is presented, as well as the evaluation of the main elements that limit or favor the development of this technology in our country. In the introductory part of this work are presented some causes considered have favored the development of technologies as the one proposed here. In the first part it is exposed what the biogas is and what conditions are necessary for its production, which explains the production of biogas in the sanitary landfills, in addition, describes the distribution of the solid residues that give raise to the present situation of the sanitary landfills and the biogas production process in these. The work continues with a description of the electrical energy generation process through the gas originated in sanitary landfills, indicating the necessary conditions in order that the filling complies with its basic functions; following our process until obtaining the final item, electrical energy. For the description of the process and to analyze some factors that take part, it is advisable to include the main aspects of a plant located in Monterrey that occupies this technology. This project shows project shows off in a tangible form the barriers that this technology faces, as well as its main advantages and disadvantages. Are exposed the limiting factors of this technology in technological, economic, political and social aspects, the barriers that can and must overcome as well as the reasons that justify the effort to overcome them. Finally are presented the conclusions it arrives, as well as the commentaries and suggestions in respect to the subject. [Spanish] A traves de este trabajo se expone un analisis teorico efectuado al uso de biogas extraido de rellenos sanitarios para la generacion de energia electrica, asi como evaluar los principales elementos que limitan o favorecen el desarrollo de esta

  4. Criteria for the provision and assembly of the rotor blades of a 300 MW low pressure steam turbine for electrical generation; Criterios para el suministro y ensambles de la alabes de rotor de turbina de vapor de 300 MW baja presion para generacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertin, Galo; Felix, Jorge A.; Quijano, Octavio [Especialistas en Turbopartes, S.A. de C.V., Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    This paper presents some of the main criteria to consider from the inspection, disassembling and assembly of blades with different root types of a turbine rotor of steam turbines for power generation, having as an aim to count on a reliable rotor, fulfilling with the equipment original design and norms and international standards. [Spanish] Este trabajo presenta algunos de los criterios principales a considerar desde la inspeccion, desmontaje y montaje de alabes de diferentes tipos de raiz de un rotor de turbinas de vapor de generacion electrica, teniendo como finalidad contar con un rotor confiable, cumpliendo con el diseno original del equipo y con normas y estandares internacionales.

  5. Determination of leveled costs of electric generation for gas plants, coal and nuclear; Determinacion de costos nivelados de generacion electrica para plantas de gas, carbon y nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso V, G.; Palacios H, J.C.; Ramirez S, J.R.; Gomez, A. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: galonso@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The present work analyzes the leveled costs of electric generation for different types of nuclear reactors known as Generation III, these costs are compared with the leveled costs of electric generation of plants with the help of natural gas and coal. In the study several discount rates were used to determine their impact in the initial investment. The obtained results are comparable with similar studies and they show that it has more than enough the base of the leveled cost the nuclear option it is quite competitive in Mexico. Also in this study it is also thinks about the economic viability of a new nuclear power station in Mexico. (Author)

  6. Sustainability of sources of electric generation: indicators and global qualification using fuzzy logic; Sustentabilidad de fuentes de generacion electrica: indicadores y calificacion global empleando logica difusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Campo M, C.; Francois L, J.L. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: cmcm@fi-b.unam.mx

    2005-07-01

    A methodology developed to evaluate the sustainability of sources of electric generation but used in Mexico and in the World is presented. For it was applied one matrix of sustainability indicators that considers the principles and criteria of general sustainability as 'not exhaustion of natural resources', 'non production of non degradable waste', and 'not high sensibility to social and environmental factors'. The approaches to evaluate in a wide way these principles are numerous and to each approach associates an indicator, call sustainability indicator. The contribution of this work consists on the development of a methodology to qualify globally the sustainability of each option of electric generation, combining all the sustainability indicators. The methodology applies a system of diffuse control to build the function of global qualification of sustainability dependent of all the indicators. (Author)

  7. Potential large scale generation of electricity with wind energy in Mexico; Potencial de generacion electrica en gran escala con energia eolica en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldera Munoz, Enrique

    1997-12-31

    The technology of wind-electric stations for the conversion of wind-power into electricity massively generated and interconnected to the National electric systems is nowadays a mature technology. By the end of 1995 the world had an installed capacity in operation of 5,000 MW and what had been planned for year 2000 was to complete an installed capacity in operation 13,800 MW, in accordance with a Riso National Laboratory of Denmark study of 1995. This document describes the current status of this technology in Mexico, as well as the historic evolution of the electric sector [Espanol] La tecnologia de centrales eoloelectricas para la conversion de energia eolica a electricidad, generada masivamente e interconectada a los sistemas electricos nacionales, es en la actualidad una tecnologia madura. A finales de 1995 en el mundo habia una capacidad instalada en operacion de 5,000 MW y lo que se habia planificado para el ano 2000 eran completar en operacion 13,800 MW, segun encuesta realizada por Riso National Laboratory de Dinamarca en 1995. Este documento describe el estado actual de esta tecnologia en Mexico, asi como la evolucion historica del sector electrico

  8. Analysis and design of a dish/Stirling system for solar electric generation with a 2.7 kW air-cooled engine; Analisis y diseno de un sistema de generacion electrica termosolar con concentrador de disco parabolico y motor Stirling de 2.7 kW enfriado por aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran-Chacon, R.; Velazquez-Limon, N. [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mails: rbeltran1@uabc.edu.mx; nicolas.velazquez@uabc.edu.mx; Sauceda-Carvajal, D. [Universidad Politecnica de Baja California, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: dsaucedac@upbc.edu.mx

    2012-01-15

    This paper presents a mathematical modeling, simulation and design of a solar power system of a parabolic dish with an air-cooled Stirling engine of 2.7 kW. The model used for the solar concentrator, the cavity and the Stirling engine were successfully validated against experimental data. Based on a parametric study, the design of the components of the engine is carried out. The study shows that as system capacity increases, the overall efficiency is limited by the power required by the fan, since the design of the cooler needs greater amounts of heat removal by increasing the air flow without affecting the internal conditions of the process (mass flow of working gas and internal dimensions of the same). The system was optimized and achieves an overall efficiency of solar to electric energy conversion of 26.7%. This study shows that the use of an air-cooled Stirling engine is potentially attractive for power generation at low capacities. [Spanish] Este trabajo presenta un modelado matematico, la simulacion y diseno de un sistema de generacion electrica termosolar de disco parabolico con motor Stirling de 2.7 kW enfriado directamente por aire. El modelo utilizado para el concentrador, la cavidad y el motor Stirling, fueron validados satisfactoriamente con datos experimentales. Con base en un estudio parametrico se realizo el dimensionamiento de los componentes del motor. El estudio realizado muestra que conforme se incrementa la capacidad del sistema, la eficiencia global se ve limitada por la potencia requerida por el ventilador, dado que el diseno del enfriador necesita retirar mayores cantidades de calor aumentando el flujo de aire, sin afectar las condiciones internas del proceso (flujo masico del gas de trabajo y dimensiones internas del mismo). El sistema fue optimizado obteniendo una eficiencia global de conversion de energia solar a electrica de 26.7%. Este estudio muestra que el uso de un motor Stirling enfriado directamente por aire es potencialmente

  9. Speed control and generation of electric power of a gas turbine by means of fuzzy-logic; Control de velocidad y de generacion de potencia electrica de una turbina de gas mediante logica difusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahamaca Fernandez, Luis Jonathan

    2000-08-01

    The development of a fuzzy-logic control algorithm is presented. It was developed for the speed and load control of a gas turbine. The speed/load controller of the gas turbine which were conventional Pi's were completely replaced by the fuzzy-logic controllers. The fuzzy controllers correspond to MISO systems that has as input the error an its rate of change and as an output the control signal for the fuel valve. The fuzzy controller provides an algorithm that can turn a strategy of linguistic control (based on knowledge of experts) into a strategy of automatic control. The fuzzy controllers were validated by the development of functional test in a simulation of a nonlinear mathematical gas-turbine model. The controllers were programmed in C language in PC. Simulation test for the speed regulation and load tracking were used for the controller validation. The fuzzy controller had a good performance because the minimized the signal error produced by the set of programmed system perturbations (due to control actions). Besides, they had a better reference tracking then PI controllers. Consequently, the proposed fuzzy controllers have a better performance than the conventional control system. [Spanish] En este trabajo de tesis se presenta el diseno, programacion y evaluacion de un algoritmo de control basado en logica difusa para el control de velocidad y generacion de potencia electrica de una turbina de gas. En el esquema de control velocidad/carga de la turbina de gas, se sustituyeron completamente los dos controladores convencionales del tipo PI por controladores difusos, teniendo asi un control digital directo. Los controladores difusos corresponden a sistemas MISO que utilizan como variables de entrada el error y la derivada del error, y como variable de salida la senal de control a la valvula de combustible. De esta forma, un controlador difuso provee un algoritmo que puede convertir una estrategia de control linguistico (basado en conocimiento de expertos

  10. Models for power transformers monitoring in the intelligent electrical network: humidity and temperature of bubble generation; Modelos para el monitoreo de transformadores de potencia en la red electrica inteligente: humedad y temperatura de generacion de burbujas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linan Garcia, Roberto; Ponce Noyola, David; Guzman Lopez, Arali [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Betancourt Ramirez, Enrique; Tamez Torres, Gerardo [PROLEC GE, (Mexico)

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the development of two experimental models in order to ensure reliable operation of power transformers under emergency overload conditions. The first model estimates the moisture distribution in the transformer windings, while the second model estimates the safe operating temperature and time before steam bubbles generation presents. Additionally, an electronic device was designed and built, using the models developed, in order to monitor in real time both parameters. This device allows a more reliable operation of the transmission network, considering the transformers condition. [Spanish] Este documento presenta el desarrollo de dos modelos experimentales para asegurar la operacion confiable de transformadores de potencia bajo condiciones de sobrecarga de emergencia. El primer modelo estima la temperatura de operacion segura y el tiempo antes de que ocurra la generacion de burbujas de vapor. Ademas, se diseno y construyo un dispositivo electronico, usando los modelos desarrollados, con el fin de monitorear en tiempo real ambos parametros. Este dispositivo permite una operacion mas confiable de la red de transmision, considerando la condicion de los transformadores.

  11. Replacement of electrical protection of generation (main generator, main transformer and auxiliary transformers) and new associated monitoring system; Sustitucion de portecciones electricas de generacion (genrador principal, transformador principal y transformadores auxiliares) y nuevo sistema de supervision asociado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archilla, J.

    2013-07-01

    The replacement of the electrical protection of generation is a technological quantum leap, since moving from an analog system (known by) (all, intuitive and visual) to a digital (integrates the hardware on a single computer, much more powerful and programmable). The keys to overcoming the challenge are know to manage the technological leap, the operational limitations of plant (keep operating the)preferred sources of energy) and make a good design (including a review independent of the configuration of the relays, taking into account the experience (operational available).

  12. Procedures to enter the international market of the carbon and PEMEX electrical generation projects; Procedimientos para ingresar al mercado internacional del carbono y proyectos de generacion electrica de PEMEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeferino Abundis, Yolanda [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    The consumption and production of the electrical energy contribute to the gas emission that has the property of retaining heat in the atmosphere, giving rise to an increment in the global average temperature of the Earth, and causing a climatic change that the international scientific consensus describes as important alterations in the meteorological patterns. As a result of this, international actions were taken. The most ambitious agreement and by its quantified and obligatory character is presented the Kyoto Protocol, that forces the countries listed in Annex 1 to reduce their emissions through national measures and flexible mechanisms, within these last ones is the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) that contemplates the mutual cooperation between developed and developing countries in the participation of projects tending to the reduction of gas emissions of greenhouse effect. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) has large necessities of electrical energy and steam, and counts on projects with characteristics that under the CDM cover the characteristics to be technical and economically viable. [Spanish] El consumo y produccion de la energia electrica contribuye a la emision de gases que tienen la propiedad de retener calor en la atmosfera, dando lugar a un incremento en la temperatura promedio global de la Tierra, y provocando un cambio climatico que el consenso cientifico internacional describe como alteraciones importantes en los patrones meteorologicos. A raiz de esto, se tomaron acciones internacionales. El acuerdo mas ambicioso y por su caracter cuantificado y obligatorio lo representa el Protocolo de Kyoto, quien obliga a los paises listados en el Anexo 1 a reducir sus emisiones a traves de medidas nacionales y mecanismos flexibles, dentro de estos ultimos se encuentra el Mecanismo de Desarrollo Limpio (MDL) que contempla la cooperacion mutua entre paises desarrollados y en vias de desarrollo en la participacion de proyectos tendientes a la reduccion de emisiones

  13. Reliability of electric generation units by evaluating the loss of power and efficiency of turbines; Confiabilidad de las unidades de generacion electrica mediante la evaluacion de la perdida de potencia y eficiencia de las turbinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Solis, Jose Antonio; Cristalinas Navarro, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the specialized technical service to evaluate the loss of power and efficiency of an open steam turbine is to quantify these losses caused by the deterioration of internal seals, deterioration of the steam path geometry components (nozzles and blades) and increased roughness of the blades and nozzle surface due to erosion (steam, humidity and impacts) and, also, due to salts deposition. In the same way, to establish a set of recommendations, in order of importance by the attention of the Power Plant with the purpose of recovering the major quantity of power and efficiency lost by the steam turbine and assurance, by means of technical supervision of the activities set in the recommendations, and in accordance with CFE rules, international standards and the personal experience of the Instituto de Investogaciones Electricas (IIE), staff, an acceptable quality in rehabilitation of mechanical components such as the maintenance of the steam turbine itself. Using an application example, this paper describes, the methodology of execution of this kind of services. Also, the quality of the maintenance and the rehabilitation of the steam turbine components are quantified. [Spanish] El objetivo del servicio tecnico especializado para evaluar la perdida de potencia y eficiencia de una turbina de vapor abierta es cuantificar dichas perdidas a causa del deterioro de los sellos internos, del deterioro la geometria de referencia de los componentes del canal de vapor (alabes fijos y alabes moviles) y del aumento de la rugosidad de la superficie de los alabes a causa de la erosion (marcas de vapor, de humedad y de impactos) y de la deposicion de sales. Asimismo, establecer una serie de recomendaciones en orden prioritario para la atencion de la central, con el fin de recuperar la mayor parte de la potencia y eficiencia perdidas por la turbina y asegurando, mediante la supervision tecnica de las actividades resultantes de las recomendaciones y conforme a la normativa de la

  14. Fussy control for the operation of an electric energy generation system based in type PEM fuel cells; Control difuso para la operacion de un sistema de generacion de energia electrica basado en celdas de combustible tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Roman, Miguel

    2004-10-15

    In this work, the design of a control system with fuzzy PID controllers is reported. It combines the techniques of multimode control and gain scheduling as well as the design of a compensator that will reduce the interaction effects among control loops in a multivariable system. The simulated system is based on a non-lineal mathematical model. Its validity range supports up to 1440 watts, for a nominal design of 1 KW power. To carry out the fuzzy PID Controller's design, firstly the PID conventional controllers were designed for three operating points of power demand: 0 W, 500 W and 1000 W. The methodology adopted for the determination of the conventional PID controller's parameters was poles cancellation. This methodology demanded the lineal identification of the process for the three mentioned operating points: low, medium and high power. With the information obtained from the adjusted conventional controllers in the three operating points, the design of fuzzy PID controllers based on the TSK system was achieved. For this work, this method is equivalent to the technique of gain scheduling since only conventional PID controllers with the same structure are used. In addition, a control scheme using a compensator that had the function of reducing the interaction effects among the control loops was designed. The compensator was located between the controller and the plant and only introduces compensation factors among control signals, maintaining the direct path of the control loop in the original control scheme. Several tests of the whole operating range, in order to make a performance analysis of both the conventional PID controller and the fuzzy PID controller were carried out, introducing step form signals in the power demand. The performance of the generation system was validated as a function of an error based index minimization as well as on the actuator control signal shape. The dynamic coupling degree among the control loops was analyzed, as well

  15. Internalization of externalities in the generation costs of electric power centrals of carbon, combined cycle and nuclear; Internalizacion de externalidades en los costos de generacion de centrales electricas de carbon, ciclo combinado y nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez R, M.C. [Universidad Anahuac del Norte (Mexico); Palacios H, J.; Ramirez S, R.; Alonso V, G. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5 Ocoyoacac 52750 Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: fgrivera@avantel.net

    2007-07-01

    The technologies of electric power generation that use fossil fuels, they incorporate in the Even Total Cost of Generation (CTNG) only the direct costs of generation (investment, fuel costs, operation costs and maintenance). nevertheless, the nuclear energy incorporates besides the direct costs, the externalities that causes to the human health and the environment. In this work the CTNG is calculated that incorporates the externalities, of a thermoelectric power station of coal, a plant of combined cycle and of four reactors of Generation III (ABWR, ACR, AP1000 and EPR). The obtained results show that the nuclear power station has smaller CTNG that the technologies that use fossil fuels. It is important to stand out that they are only considering the externalities of the stage of electricity generation, for what the mining phase and transport of the fuel toward the central are not considered in the present document. (Author)

  16. Estimation of requirements of eolic energy equivalent to the electric generation of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant; Estimacion de requerimientos de energia eolica equivalente a la generacion electrica de la Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia V, M.A.; Hernandez M, I.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Division de Ingenieria Electrica, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: maiki27@yahoo.com; Martin del Campo M, C. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, UNAM, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The advantages are presented that have the nuclear and eolic energy as for their low environmental impact and to the human health. An exercise is presented in the one that is supposed that the electric power generated by the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant (CNLV), with capacity of 1365 M W, it should be produced by eolic energy when in the years 2020 and 2025 the units 1 and 2 of the CNLV reach its useful life and be moved away. It is calculated the number of aero generators that would produce the electric power average yearly of the CNLV, that which is equal to install eolic parks with capacity of 2758 M W, without considering that it will also be invested in systems of back generation to produce electricity when the aero generators stops for lack of wind. (Author)

  17. Implementation of portfolio theory to the analysis of electricity generation in Mexico; Implementacion de la teoria del portafolio para el analisis de la generacion de energia electrica en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel E, J.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Palacios H, J. C., E-mail: jaime.esquivel@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    As part of the activities of economic analysis to the National Energy Strategy 2013-2027 of Mexico has been developed a computational platform to support decision-making based on the risk and performance in obtaining the optimum combination of technologies involved in the electricity generation. To this end, they consider five technologies: combined cycle, thermal coal, nuclear, hydro and wind. Each technology has been analyzed independently based on the total cost of generation level (given in dl s/KWh or dl s/MWh), leaning on documents as the Poise 2012-2026 and COPAR 2013. Subsequently by portfolio theory proposed by Markowitz, that combination of technologies that provide a greater benefit in the electricity generation is determined. In this study we consider two base work areas on which the proposed portfolios are reflected. The conformation of work areas is derived from the National Energy Strategy 2013-2027, considering a scenario with fossil technologies (combined cycle, thermal coal and nuclear) and other, making greater emphasis on the use of renewable technologies (combined cycle, hydro and wind). Finally, four portfolios are presented, each one with different percentages of ownership of technology in electricity generation, verifying the risk and performance of each combination. Of the analyzed portfolios, one corresponds to the mix of technologies which are currently in the country. The remaining derive the percentage share of combined-cycle technology, by subtracting 10% of their contribution and distributing it in three ways: by increasing the 10% share of nuclear technology; increasing 10% contribution of thermal coal technology and finally, extending the 5% of the electricity generation of nuclear technology and 5% increase in the electricity generation by wind technology. (Author)

  18. Ecologic Generation on electricity during the transport and distribution of natural gas; Generacion ecologica de energia electrica en los procesos de transporte y de distribucion de gas natural canalizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, A. M.

    2002-07-01

    The pipeline transmission and distribution of natural gas is carried out at high pressure. However, the pressure has to be reduced to supply the natural gas to local networks. The decrease of the pressure take place in the so-called Regulating an Metering Gas Stations. Currently, it is possible to make use of this gas expansion process to generate electrical energy by means of Gas Expanders. These technologies do not consume chemically natural gas to generate electricity and, consequently do not producer air-pollutants such as CO. SO2, and NOx in comparison with the fuel driven combustion technologies. Environmentally, the Gas Expanders are clean energy devices and should be legally kept in mind as the renewable energies are considered. (Author)

  19. Economic risks of the capacity expansion of electric power generation: impact of the nuclear energy; Riesgos economicos de la expansion de la capacidad de generacion de energia electrica: impacto de la energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieva G, R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Av. Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    Uncertainty and risks are inherent to the electric systems planning. The long period of construction that is characteristic of the electric sector works, as well as the long useful life of the generation assets and electric power transmission, they force to plan the expansion of the electric systems along horizons from 10 to 25 years. In periods so long of time it is impossible to predict with certainty the elements of the environment that could influence in the taking of decisions, like they are: the growth and the distribution of the electric power demand, the readiness and fuel prices; the investment costs of the technological options of generation and transmission, as well as the duration of the construction of future projects of new capacity addition. All expansion plan that will be propose, will be exposed to the uncertainty of the environment, gives place to risks or undesirable consequences. The nature of the risks, the strategies to delimit them and the outlines to assign them between the different interested parts and the diverse economic agents, depend in great measure of the legal and normative mark of the sector. In this work these topics are approached inside the reference mark of the Mexican public service of electric power. (Author)

  20. The fuel cells: Truths on the generation of clean and efficient electricity electrochemical way; Las celdas de combustible: Verdades sobre la generacion de electricidad limpia y eficiente via electroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano Castillo, Ulises [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In the search of alternative technologies for the generation of electrical energy, the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has put special attention in a technology that promises to be key in the next years: The fuel cells, it is for this reason that in this article a review of this type of cells is presented, as well as its basic characteristics and benefits as a result of its use for the generation of electrical energy. [Spanish] En la busqueda de tecnologias alternativas de generacion de energia electrica, el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha puesto atencion especial en una tecnologia que promete ser clave en los proximos anos: Las celdas de combustible, es por ello que en este articulo se presenta una resena de este tipo de celdas, asi como sus caracteristicas principales y beneficios como resultado de su utilizacion para la generacion de energia electrica.

  1. Environmental Problems Associated with the Electricity Generation; Problemas ambientales asociados a la generacion de electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manon Mercado, Alfredo [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1995-09-01

    The world population grow up at a rate of 80 millions each year and the electrical energy consumption rose 100% in the last 30 years. The annual consumption of electricity in developed countries is 7.2 MWh per capita. In less developed countries the average is 0.4 MWh. In Mexico is 1.15 MWh (1993). The electrical generation capacity in Mexico until August 1994, was 31306 MWe. The capacity distribution was: 66.2% of fossil fuel, 29.2% of hydroelectric, 2.2% of nuclear, 2.4% of geothermal and 0.01% of wind turbo generators. For the next eight years this capacity needs to be increased to 46000 MWe. For the year 2003, the annual demand is estimated in 160 TWh. The article presents data about air emissions, solid and liquid waste discharges, water consumption and land surface of seven electric generation technologies: carbon, oil, gas, nuclear, hydro, wind and geothermal. Fossil fuel power plants produce the highest air emissions and are important water and land consumers. Gas is the cleanest of the fossil fuel technologies. Hydroelectric power plants inundate large land surfaces. The nuclear plants discharge small amounts of noble gases and liquids of medium and low radioactive level. Solid radioactive wastes of used nuclear fuel are the main concern in this technology. The geothermal power plants discharge five times less carbon dioxide than the fossil plants. Neither NOx nor SOx are discharged to air, but H{sub 2}S is. The geothermal brine, after steam is utilized to produce electricity, is injected to the geothermal reservoir. Wind is the cleanest of the seven analysed technologies to produce electricity. [Espanol] A nivel mundial, la poblacion crece a razon de ochenta millones de habitantes por ano. El consumo de energia electrica se duplico entre 1960 y 1990. En paises desarrollados el consumo anual es del orden de 7.2 MWh por persona; en paises en desarrollo es de 0.4 MWh. En Mexico es de 1.15 MWh (1993). La capacidad de generacion de energia electrica instalada

  2. Demand management in steam generation?; Administracion de la demanda en la generacion de vapor?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plauchu L., A.; Plauchu A., J. A. [Ingenieros consultores (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Energy management has acquired capital importance in all the branches of the industrial activity and services either private o public and it has been, from years behind, more familiar the technology for the demand control in the electric power distribution systems, with excellent results in the energy conservation and economy. The rate of consumption for the different forms of energy shows the prevalence of the thermal energy in a variety of end uses. Not much or almost nothing has been said of the term Demand Management or Control in Steam Generation although 12% of the total energy supply is used for this purpose. Steam demand management and control can avoid unnecessary investments that bring along the increment of operational and maintenance problems and it is for sure that it will always give raise to a more rational and economical utilization of the real capacity of steam generation. A real case is commented. [Espanol] La administracion de la energia ha cobrado importancia capital en todos los giros de actividad industrial y de servicios, privados y publicos y es de varios anos atras cada vez mas familiar la tecnologia en el control de demanda en los sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica, con magnificos resultados en el ahorro, energetico y economico. La relacion de consumos para las diferentes formas de energia muestra el predominio de la energia termica en una variedad de usos finales. Poco o nada oimos del termino Administracion o Control de Demanda en la Generacion de Vapor aun cuando el 12% de la oferta total de energia tiene como destino esta aplicacion. La administracion y control de la demanda de vapor puede evitar inversiones innecesarias e incremento de problemas de operacion y mantenimiento y con seguridad reportaran siempre una utilizacion mas racional y economica de la capacidad real de generacion de vapor, se comenta un caso real.

  3. Prospective of the solar thermal technologies through concentration for the generation of electrical energy (Annexe 4 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Prospectiva de las tecnologias termosolares a concentracion para la generacion de potencia electrica (Anexo 4 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Berumen, Carlos [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    In this document are presented the technical-economical the present state of the technologies with electricity generation purposes at worldwide level and the technological prospective for the next years. At present it is estimated that in most of the power scenarios at worldwide level the situation will continue with a strong dependency in fossil fuels. The future dynamics of the energy procurement will depend on diverse factors such as energy efficiency, the international norms and regulations derived of the environmental impact and prices of the primary energy sources. The countries of the first world are developing new technologies of compatible character with the environment, with self-consumption intentions and with the vision of establishing new markets of export towards developing countries. In this context, several countries have established R y D programs for the generation of electricity through solar systems using the thermodynamic conversion. [Spanish] En este documento se presenta el estado actual tecnico-economico de las tecnologias con propositos de generacion de electricidad a nivel mundial y la prospectiva tecnologica para los proximos anos. En la actualidad se estima que en la mayoria de los escenarios energeticos a nivel mundial la situacion continuara con una fuerte dependencia de los combustibles fosiles. La dinamica futura del suministro de energia dependera de diversos factores como la eficiencia energetica, las normas y regulaciones derivadas del impacto ambiental y los precios internacionales de los energeticos. Los paises del primer mundo estan desarrollando nuevas tecnologias de caracter compatible con el medio ambiente, con propositos de autoconsumo y con la vision de establecer nuevos mercados de exportacion hacia paises en desarrollo. En este contexto, varios paises han establecido programas de Investigacion y Desarrollo para la generacion de electricidad a traves de sistemas solares utilizando la conversion termodinamica.

  4. Sizing an isolated wind-solar-fuel cell generation system based on the particle swarm optimization method; Dimensionamiento de un sistema de generacion aislado eolico-solar-celda de combustible basado en el metodo de optimizacion de enjambre de particulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Huerta, V; Ramirez-Arredondo, Juan M. [Universidad de Quintana Roo, Chetumal, Quintana Roo (Mexico)]. E-mail: vsanchez@gdl.cinvestav.mx; Arriaga-Hurtado, L. G. [CIDETEQ, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    Sizing an electric energy system requires an analysis of investment, maintenance and operating costs. In the case of a generation system that uses renewable sources, optimal capacity becomes more complex compared to a conventional system, because of the randomness of renewable resources (wind, solar) and the still high costs of wind and photovoltage generator modules. This work presents the optimal sizing of a wind-solar-fuel cell generation system, minimizing the costs of the system while satisfying the energy demands of an isolated charge. The optimization method used is based on an evolutionary programming technique known as particle swarms (PSO-particle swarm optimization). The generation of energy with a hybrid system is discussed, based on the profile of insolation and wind availability at the site, with the objective of satisfying a specific electric demand. [Spanish] El dimensionamiento de un sistema de generacion de energia electrica requiere un analisis de los costos de inversion, mantenimiento y operacion. En el caso de un sistema de generacion que utiliza fuentes renovables la capacidad optima resulta mas compleja con respecto a un sistema convencional, debido a la aleatoriedad de los recursos renovables (eolico, solar), y a los aun altos costos de generadores eolicos y modulos fotovoltaicos. En este trabajo se presenta el dimensionamiento optimo de un sistema de generacion eolico-solar-celda de combustible minimizando los costos del sistema que satisfaga la energia demandada por una carga aislada. El metodo de optimizacion utilizado esta basado en una tecnica de programacion evolutiva conocida como enjambre de particulas (PSO por sus siglas en ingles: particle swarm optimization). Se plantea la generacion de energia del sistema hibrido con base a la insolacion y el perfil del viento disponible en sitio, con objeto de satisfacer una demanda electrica determinada.

  5. Simulation of the park for electric generation of the Argentine Republic, analysis of its possible expansion with restrictions in the disposability of the fossil fuels; Simulacion del parque de generacion electrica de la Republica Argentina, analisis de su posible expansion con restricciones en la disponibilidad de los combustibles fosiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giubergia, J.H.; Coppari, N.R. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Unidad de Actividad Reactores y Centrales Nucleares, Avda. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650) San Martin, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rey, F.C. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Ezeiza, Presbitero Juan Gonzalez y Aragon 15, (B1802AYA) Ezeiza, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: giuberg@cnea.gov.ar

    2004-07-01

    In this work one simulates, using the program MESSAGE, the generation park electric of the Argentine Republic and their possible expansion, with restrictions in the readiness of fossil fuels. This, as other models of planning energetics promoted by IAEA, optimizes the expansion of the net having as function objective the smallest cost in the system. 25 years they were simulated, adopting like base the anus 2000 and considering different scenarios of internal and external demands. It was analysed the increase of the demand with restrictions in the readiness of the natural gas in the winter periods, since the Argentinean electric system has a great dependence of this fuel. To cover the increase of the electric demand, were selected the machines and fuels, at the moment available, with more technical and economic possibilities. In the scenarios without restrictions to the use of natural gas the program selects to the nuclear power station of Atucha II, to the increase of bench mark of the hydraulic power station of Yacireta and combined cycles that burn natural gas. In those in that the supply of natural gas is limited, it selects previously besides the signal ones, other nuclear power stations, other hydroelectric projects and turbines of gas operating with gas oil to cover the top requirements. (Author)

  6. The photovoltaic generators and the electric network; Los generadores fotovoltaicos y la red electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteaga Novoa, Oscar E.; Agredano Diaz, Jaime; Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The photovoltaic generators are analyzed as an option for the electricity supply. An analysis is made of the option that these systems be utilized in sites where it is difficult to extend the power lines an in sites where the electric service already exists, such as residences, commercial buildings, network support power stations, central power stations, all this in order that the photovoltaic systems interact with the electric network for the generation of part of the energy consumed in these sites. In order that the photovoltaic systems can be interconnected with the electric network it is required: energy quality, protection and safety of the systems and persons and normativity for the interconnection. Some of the national programs of countries like Japan, United States of America and some organs of the Commission of the European Community are described. In conclusion, it is expected that the costs of this technology decrease so these systems can be widely utilized [Espanol] Se analizan los generadores fotovoltaicos como una alternativa para el suministro electrico. Se analiza la opcion de que estos sistemas se utilicen en lugares en donde es dificil extender la red electrica y en sitios en donde el servicio electrico ya existe, tales como: residencias, edificios comerciales, estaciones de apoyo a la red, estaciones centrales, esto con la finalidad de que el sistema fotovoltaico interactue con la red electrica a fin de generar parte de la energia que se consume en estos sitios. Para que los sistemas fotovoltaicos puedan estar interconectados con la red electrica se requiere: calidad de la energia, proteccion y seguridad de los sistemas y personas, y normatividad para la interconexion. Se describen algunos programas nacionales de paises como Japon, Estados Unidos y algunos organismos de la Comision de Comunidades Europeas. En conclusion, se espera que los costos de esta tecnologia disminuyan para que estos sistemas puedan ser ampliamante utilizados

  7. Conventional and intelligent generalized supervisory control for combined cycle generating power stations.; Control supervisiorio generalizado convencional e inteligente para centrales de generacion de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez M, Miguel A; Sanchez P, Marino [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Gonzalez Rubio S, Jose L [Cento Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (Cenidet), Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Under the expectations of expansion of electric power generation in Mexico, this work exposes the development of a conventional and intelligent generalized supervisory control (CSG) for a combined cycle generation power plant. This one allows to obtain the optimal operation of the power plant through the automatic starting of the generating units and to obtain the maximum possible amount of electrical power in automatic and safe form. For the development of the CSG a control loop by temperature was implemented for the gas turbine system and a control loop by strangled pressure for the gas turbine and a control loop by strangled pressure for the steam turbine. The design of these supervisory systems was made with base in the critical limits on the involved variables of the process: blading average temperature, for the gas turbine (GT) and strangled pressure for the steam turbine (ST) [Spanish] Bajo estas expectativas de expansion de generacion de energia en Mexico, este trabajo expone el desarrollo de un control supervisorio generalizado (CSG) para una central generacion de ciclo combinado. Este permite lograr la operacion optima de la planta a traves del arranque automatico de las unidades generadoras y obtener la maxima cantidad posible de potencia electrica en forma automatica y segura. Para el desarrollo del CSG se implanto un lazo de control por temperatura para el sistema de turbina de gas y un lazo de control por presion estrangulada para la turbina de gas y un lazo de control por presion estrangulada para la turbina de vapor. El diseno de estos sistemas supervisorio se realizo con base en los limites criticos de las variables del proceso involucradas: temperatura promedio de empaletado para la turbina de gas (TG) y presion estrangulada para la turbina de vapor (TV)

  8. Generalized conventional and intelligent supervisory control system for combined cycle generation power plants; Sistema de control supervisorio generalizado convencional e inteligente para centrales de generacion de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Morales, Miguel Angel

    2004-12-15

    (conventional or intelligent) is possible to get more power generation than if we use the automatic methods based on feedback MW control. Consequently, the financial benefit due to the MW generated along a period of 2 months, is equivalent to return the investment required if the CCPP would had been repowered. Test also showed that with the fuzzy based SGC is possible to get a 'little more' power generation than if we use the PID based SGC. The development and implementation of the SGC was made in three phases: First Phase: Upgrading of the simulation dynamic mathematical model and implementation in a new software platform based on LabWindows/CVI. Second Phase: Design, implementation and testing of the PID based SGC. Third Phase: Design and implementation and testing of the Intelligent SGC, based in fuzzy logic. [Spanish] El programa de obras de generacion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) del ano 2004 al ano 2008 esta caracterizado por el dominio del proceso de ciclo combinado para la expansion de generacion de energia en Mexico [CFE, 2000]. De acuerdo con los datos presentados por esta fuente, el incremento estimado en la capacidad de generacion de potencia electrica es de 12876 MW, de los cuales las centrales de ciclo combinado aportaran 10655 MW, lo que representa el 82.75%. Bajo estas expectativas de expansion de generacion de energia en Mexico, en este trabajo de tesis se desarrollo un sistema de control supervisorio generalizado (CSG) convencional (PID) e inteligente (logica difusa) para una central de generacion de ciclo combinado, el cual permite lograr la operacion optima de la planta a traves del arranque automatico de las unidades generadoras y obtener la maxima cantidad posible de potencia electrica en forma automatica y segura. Para el desarrollo del CSG se implanto un lazo de control por temperatura para el sistema de turbina de gas (TG) y un lazo de control por presion estrangulada para la turbina de vapor (TV). El diseno de estos sistemas

  9. Current status of the second generation of parabolic trough solar concentrator for heat generation process designed at the IIE; Estado actual de la segunda generacion del concentrador solar de canal parabolico para generacion de calor de proceso disenado en el IIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Berumen, Carlos; Ramirez Benitez, Juan Rafael; Beltran Adan, Jose [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: cramos@iie.org.mx; rramirez@iie.org.mx; jose.beltran@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    The transformation industry normally uses thermal energy within its process, it obtains this energy burning fossils fuel, a new option is to use new technologies like the thermal solar technology like the parabolic trough, this is a long parabolic mirror used to reflect the sunlight and focused on an absorber tube with a heat-conducting fluid inside. The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) developed a prototype of parabolic trough that is operating in different industries, in this article are showing some improvements to the design, giving like result the second generation of the prototype of parabolic trough of the IIE. [Spanish] La industria de la transformacion normalmente utiliza energia termica dentro de su proceso, los medios convencionales para obtener esta energia es el quemar combustibles fosiles, una opcion que aplica nuevas tecnologias es el uso de la tecnologia termosolar a concentracion que le permitira a la industria utilizar el sol como fuente de energia primaria. El uso de esta tecnologia permitira a las empresas generar calor de proceso sin contaminar el ambiente, lo que dara como resultado empresas competitivas y autosuficientes. Para alcanzar temperaturas utiles a estas aplicaciones se requiere concentrar la energia solar en un area mas pequena, siendo la tecnologia mas extendida la de canal parabolico, el principio de operacion de esta tecnologia es la de concentrar la radiacion solar en el eje receptor preparado con una pintura especial para una mejor absorcion del calor y una cubierta de vidrio para evitar perdidas termicas, dentro del tubo circula un fluido caloportador el cual lleva el calor util hacia el proceso. El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) desarrollo un prototipo de canal parabolico, actualmente estan operando en diferentes industrias, resultado de estas aplicaciones se llevo a cabo una evaluacion del prototipo, se detectaron algunos puntos de mejoras al diseno, los cuales se exponen en este articulo, dando

  10. Mobil laboratory for the evaluation on site of the power electric equipment, second generation; Laboratorio movil para la evaluacion en sitio del equipo electrico de potencia, segunda generacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo C, Jaime; Escorsa M, Oscar; Estrada G, Javier A; Iturbe F, Marlene; Robles P, Edgar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    To the interior of the Generation of Electrical Equipment (GEE) of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, one of the main activities is the diagnosis of the electrical equipment in service. It is well known that the power equipment represents a strong investment that requires the guarantee that it has been manufactured, installed and operated satisfactorily. The life expectancy of these devices is of thirty years, however, many of them already have surpassed that expectation. The rehabilitation or substitution of the equipment implies new investments that are needed for an evaluation of the real condition of the equipment to carry out such rehabilitation. One of the tools necessary to carry out the diagnosis, is a movable laboratory that facilitates all the necessary tools to perform a meticulous analysis that would allow, the client, to make high cost decisions. The application of the movable laboratory is advisable from the inauguration of the equipment. The electrical mechanisms are factory tested in accordance with standardized protocols; it guarantees the fulfillment of the necessary requirements for a correct operation. Nevertheless, when taking them to the assembly site, these are subjected to a series of processes and mechanical stresses that could alter the equipment conditions and its integrity. [Spanish] Al interior de la Generacion de Equipos Electricos (GEE) del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, una de las principales actividades es el diagnostico del equipo electrico en servicio. Es bien sabido que los equipos de potencia representan una fuerte inversion que requiere la garantia de que se ha fabricado, instalado y operado satisfactoriamente. La esperanza de vida de estos dispositivos es de treinta anos, no obstante, muchos de ellos ya han superado esa expectativa. La rehabilitacion o sustitucion de equipos, implica nuevas inversiones que precisan un conocimiento del estado real del equipo para llevarla a cabo. Una de las herramientas

  11. Nuclear data banks generation by interpolation; Generacion de bancos de datos nucleares mediante interpolacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo M, J. A

    1999-07-01

    Nuclear Data Bank generation, is a process in which a great amount of resources is required, both computing and humans. If it is taken into account that at some times it is necessary to create a great amount of those, it is convenient to have a reliable tool that generates Data Banks with the lesser resources, in the least possible time and with a very good approximation. In this work are shown the results obtained during the development of INTPOLBI code, use to generate Nuclear Data Banks employing bicubic polynominal interpolation, taking as independent variables the uranium and gadolinia percents. Two proposal were worked, applying in both cases the finite element method, using one element with 16 nodes to carry out the interpolation. In the first proposals the canonic base was employed, to obtain the interpolating polynomial and later, the corresponding linear equation systems. In the solution of this systems the Gaussian elimination methods with partial pivot was applied. In the second case, the Newton base was used to obtain the mentioned system, resulting in a triangular inferior matrix, which structure, applying elemental operations, to obtain a blocks diagonal matrix, with special characteristics and easier to work with. For the validation tests, a comparison was made between the values obtained with INTPOLBI and INTERTEG (create at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (MX) with the same purpose) codes, and Data Banks created through the conventional process, that is, with nuclear codes normally used. Finally, it is possible to conclude that the Nuclear Data Banks generated with INTPOLBI code constitute a very good approximation that, even though do not wholly replace conventional process, however are helpful in cases when it is necessary to create a great amount of Data Banks.

  12. Generation of nuclear data bank by interpolation; Generacion de bancos de datos nucleares mediante interpolacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Nuclear Data Bank generation, is a process in which a great amount of resources is required, both computing and humans. If it is taken into account that at some times it is necessary to create a great amount of those, it is convenient to have a reliable tool that generates Data Banks with the lesse resources, in the least possible time and with a very good approximation. In this work are shown the results obtained during the development of INTPOLBI code, used to generate Nuclear Data Banks employing bi-cubic polynomial interpolation, takings as independent variables the uranium and gadolinia percents. Two proposal were worked, applying in both cases the finite element methods, using one element with 16 nodes to carry out the interpolation. In the first proposal the canonic base was employed to obtain the interpolating polynomial and later, the corresponding linear equations systems. In the solution of this system the Gaussian elimination methods with partial pivot was applied. In the second case, the Newton base was used to obtain the mentioned system, resulting in a triangular inferior matrix, which structure, applying elemental operations, to obtain a blocks diagonal matrix, with special characteristics and easier to work with. For the validations test, a comparison was made between the values obtained with INTPOLBI and INTERTEG (created at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas with the same purpose) codes, and Data Banks created through the conventional process, with nuclear code normally used. Finally, it is possible to conclude that the Nuclear Data Banks generated with INTPOLBI code constitute a very good approximation that, even though do not wholly replace conventional process, however are helpful in cases when it is necessary to create a great amount of Data Banks.

  13. Economic and environmental study for the wind power generation in the region of Bajio; Estudio economico y medio ambiental para la generacion de energia eolica en la region del Bajio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Patino, Jesus; Hernandez Figueroa, Miguel A.; Ireta Moreno, Fernando [Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus Irapuato-Salamanca, Salamanca, Guanajuato (Mexico)]. E-mail: jesusmp23@salamanca.ugto.mx; mahf@salamanca.ugto.mx; fireta@salamanca.ugto.mx; Rubio Maya, Carlos; Galvan Gonzalez, Sergio Ricardo [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmaya@umich.mx; srgalvan@umich.mx

    2010-11-15

    The presented study is divided into two main issues for wind energy generation: the economical scope, and the environment. A comparison from different perspectives is made between both costs. The study is focused in the Mexico central region called Bajio, where the wind data is obtained. The usage of different types of wind turbines is planned to generate electricity, and a comparison is made between them in different aspects. An invest of 20 years is expected for this equip. While comparing the costs, the estimated by emissions of CO{sup 2} by kW/h generated (environmental cost), with these cost it is showed the quantities of CO{sup 2} that can be stopped of emitting to the atmosphere by the use of fossil fuels. The data encourages the use of renewable energy in relation with the wind potential in the region. This is how the presented study shows the options of decision making to implement and viability of the usage of wind turbines for the production of electric energy under the wind conditions provided by the Bajio region. [Spanish] El estudio que se presenta se divide en dos principales puntos para la generacion de energia eolica: el ambito economico y el medio ambiental. Se realiza un comparativo entre ambos costos desde diferentes perspectivas. El estudio se concentra en la region del Bajio donde se obtienen los datos del viento. Se plantea el uso de diversos tipos de aerogeneradores para la generacion de energia electrica comparandolos entre si en varios aspectos. Para estos equipos se tiene contemplada una inversion a 20 anos. En la comparativa de costos resalta el estimado por la emision de CO{sup 2} por kW/h generado (Costo medioambiental), con este costo se pone de manifiesto las cantidades de CO{sup 2} que se pueden dejar de enviar a la atmosfera por el uso de combustibles fosiles, los datos alientan el uso de la energia renovable en relacion tambien al potencial de viento que se tiene en la region. De esta manera, el estudio presentado en el trabajo

  14. The electric energy and the environment in Mexico. Volume 3; Energia electrica y medio ambiente en Mexico. Volumen 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla Martinez, Juan [eds.] [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document is the third one of three volumes of the 1. Seminar on the Current Conditions and Perspectives of the Electric Sector in Mexico, organized by the Programa Universitario de Energia and the Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas (University Program of Energy and the Institute of Economic Research), both of them agencies of the Universidad Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). The titles of the three volumes are the following: Volume 1.- The opening of the Mexican Electric Sector to foreign investment. Volume 2.- Concrete innovation and technological learning experiences at the Luz y Fuerza del Centro enterprise. Volume 3.- The Electric Energy and the Environment in Mexico. This third volume covers the following subjects: Hydroelectricity, land use and water managing; the electric generation in Mexico and its environmental impact, the nuclear electricity and the handling of radioactive materials; the exposure to electromagnetic fields and its association with children`s leukemia; the energy in Mexico and the sustainable development; potential of electricity generation in large scale with wind power in Mexico; towards a scheme of distributed electric power generation with non-conventional energies and renewable energy sources in Mexico in the 21Century. These documents were elaborated by specialists of the electric sector, from the sector itself as well as from private and public academic entities [Espanol] Este documento constituye el tercero de tres volumenes del Primer Seminario sobre Situacion y Perspectivas del Sector Electrico en Mexico, organizado por el Programa Universitario de Energia y el Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, ambas dependencias de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). Los titulos de los tres volumenes son los siguientes: volumen 1: La apertura externa del sector electrico mexicano, volumen 2: Experiencias concretas de innovacion y aprendizaje tecnologico en la empresa Luz y Fuerza del Centro, volumen 3: Energia electrica

  15. Reliability of hydroelectric generation components, systems and units; Confiabilidad de componentes, sistemas y unidades de generacion hidroelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Sanchez, Ramon; Torres Toledano, Gerardo; Franco Nava, Jose Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This article presents a methodology for the calculation of the reliability of components, systems and hydroelectric generating units, as well as the scope of a computational system for the evaluation of such reliability. In the case of the reliability calculation of components and systems, the computer programs is not limited to hydro stations and can be used in other type of systems. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta una metodologia para calcular la confiabilidad de componentes, sistemas y unidades de generacion hidroelectrica, asi como el alcance de un sistema computacional para evaluar dicha confiabilidad. En el caso del calculo de confiabilidad de componentes y sistemas, el programa de computo no se limita a centrales hidroelectricas y puede utilizarse en otro tipo de sistemas.

  16. The electric energy in Mexico and the sustainable development; La energia electrica en Mexico y el desarrollo sustentable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Aragon, Leticia [Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document explains the importance of the sustainable development in the electric energy, that is, that the technological advances in the electric sector do no hamper the future of the generations to come and generate potential problems such as: environmental pollution, unnecessary expenses in the realization of new technologies already executed. Mention is made of the relationship between nature and society, the ecological crisis, and the electric energy, seven points are given on how to control and treat waste waters, three points are given to handle and dispose of solid wastes, finally four points are given on the noise contamination control. It is concluded that the problem of reducing the environmental impact of the generation of electricity does not depend on the applied technology, since there are technological options for its solution, but on other more complex factors that deal with the generation of wealth, its distribution and the population growing [Espanol] En el presente documento se explica la importancia del desarrollo sustentable en la energia electrica, es decir que los avances tecnologicos en el sector energetico no entorpezcan el futuro de las generaciones venideras y generen posibles problemas como: contaminacion del medio ambiente, gastos innecesarios en la realizacion de las nuevas tecnologias realizadas. Se menciona la relacion entre la naturaleza y la sociedad, la crisis ecologica y la energia electrica, se dan siete puntos de como controlar y tratar aguas residuales, se proporcionan tres puntos para manejar y disponer de residuos solidos, por ultimo se dan cuatro puntos sobre el control de la contaminacion por ruido. Se concluye en que el problema de reducir el impacto ambiental por la generacion de electricidad no depende de la tecnologia empleada pues existen alternativas tecnologicas para su solucion, sino en otros aun mas complejos que tienen que ver con la generacion de la riqueza, su distribucion y el crecimiento de la poblacion

  17. Production costs in planning new generation projects; Costos de produccion en la planeacion de nuevos proyectos de generacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trejo Perez, Guillermo A. [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper outlines the historic circumstances that currently affect the Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LFC), as well as the need of applying new economic techniques to channel the required investments in order LFC adapts the generation of electric energy to the energy demand that it has to attend and recovers from the lack of investment in this line, given the autonomy conditions that nowadays prevail. Also, the technical-financial aspects that influence the decision making, are mentioned [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se esbozan las circunstancias historicas que ahora influyen en Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LFC), asi como la necesidad de aplicar las tecnicas economicas para la canalizacion de inversiones requeridas para que LFC adecue la generacion de energia a la demanda de energia que le corresponde atender y recuperarse de la falta de inversion en este renglon, dadas las condiciones de autonomia que ahora le atanen. Tambien se numeran los aspectos tecnico-financieros que influyen para la toma de decisiones

  18. Analysis of the interconnection of small generating power plants to the rural networks of medium tension; Analisis de la interconexion de pequenas plantas de generacion a las redes rurales de media tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Erape, Salomon

    2008-12-15

    different operational conditions, calculations of regulation and losses are made, and of problems in the steady state that the generators can cause to us. In this part of the thesis the operation form of the power plants is described, also an approximated quantification is made of the energy losses (kWh) and also a general overview is described on the asynchronous generators. Chapter 5. - This chapter deals with other cases whose purpose is of extending the knowledge on the subject; an ideal case is analyzed to define the terms that are used in distributed generation, it analyzes another interconnection case in medium tension with a more robust sub transmission system, it also analyzes the possible interconnection in high voltage. Approximate calculations are made of the energy losses of two of the exposed cases. Chapter 6. - The short circuit in the present condition is calculated and with generation, the sequence components of the involved elements, connection types of the producer's transformer; at the end of this chapter a revision is made of the interruptive capacities of the present equipment. Chapter 7. - A general analysis is made of the analyzed cases as well as final conclusions with recommendations on future works. The subject addressed in this thesis, is accompanied with many tables, figures and Annexes whose objective is to make the comprehension of the subject easier. [Spanish] La presente tesis trata un tema relacionado con generacion distribuida, trata especificamente de un caso real de la solicitud de interconexion de 2 plantas de generacion hidroelectricas con generadores sincronos propiedad de un permisionario que pretende interconectarse a la red de media tension, esta interconexion tiene una particularidad que no hace tan sencillo el analisis, esta caracteristica es de que tiene una potencia de generacion superior a la demanda local de la carga. El analisis se enfoca principalmente en los efectos de regulacion y perdidas, asi tambien se hacen

  19. Interconnection of industrial centers with the electric network of the public service; Interconexion de centros industriales con la red electrica del servicio publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales Sedano, Inocente; Lopez Velazquez, Juan Jose; Garcia Paredes, Job; Robles Pimentel, Edgar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Garcia Alvarez, David; Guzman Camacho, Benigno [Petroleos Mexicanos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The large industrial centers that have continuous production processes and consume high amounts of electrical energy, generally have their own power generation. The petrochemical complexes, the paper and steel factories and the sugar mills are examples of this type of centers. On the other hand, the new regulation for the generation of electrical energy that allows to the electrical energy interchange between private companies and the public network, has originated the necessity of connecting systems that formerly operated isolated. Since the original design of the isolated electrical systems was to operate in an independent form, making the interconnection can generate technical problems that must be analyzed and solved. In this paper, some experiences related with the behavior of electrical equipment when connected to operate with the public network, are presented. [Spanish] Los grandes centros industriales que tienen procesos de produccion continua y consumen altas cantidades de energia electrica, generalmente cuentan con generacion propia. Los complejos petroquimicos, las fabricas de papel y acero y los ingenios azucareros son ejemplos de este tipo de centros. Por otro lado, la nueva reglamentacion de generacion de energia electrica que permite el intercambio de energia electrica entre las companias privadas y la red publica, ha originado la necesidad de conectar sistemas que antes operaban aislados. Debido a que el diseno original de los sistemas electricos aislados fue trabajar en forma independiente, el realizar la interconexion puede generar problemas tecnicos que tienen que analizarse y resolverse. En este articulo, se presentan algunas experiencias relacionadas con el comportamiento del equipo electrico al operar conectado con la red publica.

  20. Utilization of sites of final disposition of municipal wastes for electrical power generation; Aprovechamiento de sitios de disposicion final de residuos municipales para generacion de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Sanchez, Felipe; Sarmiento Bleicher, Conrado [Departamento del Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    Mexico confronts very comprehensive environmental problems, and the solid wastes and their control are not the minor of the preoccupations on the matter. The present work tries to demonstrate the usefulness or the economic advantages and the use of a sanitary land fill as a power source, outlining the necessity and convenience of planning and of designing the future sanitary land fills, specially those of the important urban centers, thinking of its usefulness beyond a confinement of the materials that lack use or commercial value. [Spanish] Mexico afronta una problematica ambiental muy amplia, y los residuos solidos y su control no son la menor de las preocupaciones al respecto. El presente trabajo trata de demostrar la utilidad o rentabilidad del aprovechamiento de un relleno sanitario como fuente energetica, perfilando la necesidad y conveniencia de planear y disenar los futuros rellenos sanitarios, especialmente los de los centros urbanos importantes, pensando en su utilidad mas alla de un confinamiento de los materiales que carecen de uso o valor comercial.

  1. Advanced technology in the generation of ozone; Tecnologia avanzada en la generacion de ozono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Constant technological improvement is not alien to any area: for this reason, a series of essays have been carried out with the object of improving the lamps applied for the generation of ozone. Here, glass dielectrics have been replaced by dielectrics without glass, with the idea of choosing the optimal properties of the dielectric, improving tube construction geometries by way of the segmentation and serial connection of the dielectrics. Operating this way, the best results have been achieved in terms of energy consumption, ozone concentration, unitary generation capacity, equipment cost, and operational flexibility. (Author) 7 refs.

  2. Generation and characterization of microcracks in structural materials; Generacion y Caracterizacion de Microgrietas en materiales estructurales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez, E.; Frutos, J. de

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we study how to generate and accelerate, expansive phenomena within cementitious composites, considering elements of addiction using both fly ash and slag. We present results of monitoring of these processes from the beginning and characterize chemical, microstructural, and crystallographic by X-ray diffraction, backscattering electron microscopy, X-ray dispersive energy and mercury porosimetry. These data are supplemented with values of mechanical behavior of materials to determine their functionality. As a result of these studies, we propose a model for the generation and progression of microcracks for each alteration processes studied. (Author) 7 refs.

  3. Planning model for the expansion of the electrical generation system with risk demarcation criteria; Modelo para la planificacion de la expansion del sistema electrico de generacion con criterios de acotamiento de riesgo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Galicia, Julio Alberto; Nieva Gomez, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The general characteristics of a planning model for the electrical generation system expansion with risk demarcation criteria, as well as the main results of a representative study case of the Mexican Electrical System is presented. The model is based on a methodology of multiannual optimization for the generation expansion plans determination. In this context, every expansion plan defines the technology type to be installed, as well as the installation year, unit size and its location within a regional electric network. For this purpose, the model considers an interregional representation of the system identifying the necessary reinforcements to the capacity of the interregional connections. It also incorporates a Demarcation of Risk module that considers the uncertainty of the future scenarios of fuels prices to generate a set of expansion plans, among which includes the following: a) For every future of the fuel prices: the plan that diminishes the present value of the total cost (investment plus production). b) The plan that diminishes the economic risk derived from the uncertainty in the future of the fuel prices. c) A subgroup of expansion plans that are located in the efficient borders of decision, under the context of three criteria of interest: the economic risk, the investment cost of and the total cost in the future considered of greater relevance. [Spanish] Se presentan las caracteristicas generales de un modelo de planificacion de la expansion del sistema electrico de generacion con criterios de acotamiento de riesgo, asi como los principales resultados de un caso de estudio representativo del Sistema Electrico Mexicano. El modelo se basa en una metodologia de optimacion multi-anual para la determinacion de planes de expansion de la generacion. En este contexto, cada plan de expansion define el tipo de tecnologia que debera instalarse, asi como el ano de instalacion, el tamano de la unidad y su localizacion dentro de una red electrica regional. Para

  4. Energy sources and energy generation in the future; Fuentes de energia y la generacion del futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Pelegry, E.

    2001-07-01

    With this article, that gathers the conference imparted inside of the cycle Technologies and Power Supply Development: Gas or Coal, complementary alternatives, organized by the Spanish Club of the Energy (ENERCLUB), the author plants a series of questions over the sources of energy and the its generation in the future, in order to wake the reflections over the theme. (Author)

  5. Perspectives of the wind power generation in Uruguay; Perspectivas de la generacion eolica en Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Daniel Luis [Administracion Nacional de Usinas y Transmisiones Electricas (UTE), Montevideu (Uruguay)

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe, the journey for the development of power generation through source of wind, and to establish the elements that must be overcome to enable implementation of wind projects in Uruguay. For its achievement will be a descriptive framework that has been developing wind energy in the region, particularly as it relates to the Argentine case, as opposed to activities in the Uruguay in the same period. Carry out a review and interrelation between the greenhouse effect, the internalization of environmental costs and sustainable development concept, as well as analyzing the input of emissions to the environment by issuing sector. It will describe, briefly, the composition of the matrix of power generation in Uruguay. Subsequently analyzing the history of wind energy in Uruguay, the results of this experience and will be explored regarding the existence or absence of incentives within the existing legal framework. Finally, described the wind power perspectives in Uruguay and propound what will be the key steps and tools necessary to facilitate the development of this source of generation in the country.

  6. Data Series Generation for CPS Plants Simulation; Generacion de Series para Simulacion de Centrales Termosolares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez, G.; Valenzuela, R. X.; Ramirez, L.; Polo, J.

    2014-02-01

    Due to the problems with the environment and other issues arising from the use of oil as the main source of energy, such as unstable politics and economics, there has been a growing interest in the development of alternative forms of energy over the last few years. In this field, the sun is a fundamental element, since any form of existing energy derives from it, directly or indirectly. Taking in to consideration all of these renewable energies, we have decided to focus on solar thermal energy, seeing as it will play a vital role in the future particularly in countries such as Spain that have great solar potential. Amid this form of renewable energy, the parabolic cylinder concentrator power plants are technologies with one of the most promising futures. Power plants with sufficient technological developments to compete with the other forms of energies and that have an extensive margin for improvement. These power plants are the subject of the investigations carried out in this project. This project will try to establish and standardize some of the necessary procedures for the process of data prior to the simulation of energy with these types of power plants. The final objective is to help create a regulation where all these procedures are gathered together, and one that can be used as a guide for future investigations on the viability of these power plants. To achieve this, this project is comprised of various phases where different necessary investigations will be carried out in order to define the different points of the regulation. Firstly, the different casuistries will be investigated when analyzing the behavior of the estimated input data. At this stage, the selected variable (global or direct radiation), as well as the procedure used for the generation of the Monthly Reference Value, will be taken in to account, differentiating it in to two different typologies. The best method for the adjustment of the estimated data obtained from the satellite images will

  7. Direct generation of steam and electricity in a open cycle Rankine; Generacion directa de vapor y electricidad en un ciclo Rankine abierto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, Alvaro; Almanza, Rafael; Flores, Vicente [UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In this work the results of the experimental tests about steam and electricity generation are presented. This work carried out in the solar thermal power plant of the Institute of Engineering with direct steam generation in parabolic through. The global efficiency of the system is studied as for the conversion solar-electricity. The efficiency is determined and it describes the obtaining process of the main plant components, like they are, the solar steam generator, the steam motor and the electric generator. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de las pruebas experimentales de la generacion de vapor y electricidad realizadas en la planta solar del Instituto de Ingenieria con generacion directa de vapor en concentradores de canal parabolico. Se estudia la eficiencia global del sistema en cuanto a la conversion de energia solar-electricidad. Se determina la eficiencia y describe el proceso de obtencion de la misma y de los principales componentes de la planta como son, el generador de vapor solar, el motor de pistones de vapor y el alternador electrico.

  8. Modeling and simulation of the generation automatic control of electric power systems; Modelado y simulacion del control automatico de generacion de sistemas electricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero Ortiz, Ezequiel

    2002-12-01

    This work is devoted to the analysis of the Automatic Control of Electrical Systems Generation of power, as of the information that generates the loop with Load-Frequency Control and the Automatic Voltage Regulator loop. To accomplish the analysis, the control classical theory and feedback control systems concepts are applied. Thus also, the modern theory concepts are employed. The studies are accomplished in the digital computer through the MATLAB program and the available simulation technique in the SIMULINK tool. In this thesis the theoretical and physical concepts of the automatic control of generation are established; dividing it in load frequency control and automatic voltage regulator loops. The mathematical models of the two control loops are established. Later, the models of the elements are interconnected in order to integrate the loop with load frequency control and the digital simulation of the system is carried out. In first instance, the function of the primary control in are - machine, area - multi machine and multi area - multi machine power systems, is analyzed. Then, the automatic control of generation of the area and multi area power systems is studied. The economic dispatch concept is established and with this plan the power system multi area is simulated, there in after the energy exchange among areas in stationary stage is studied. The mathematical models of the component elements of the control loop of the automatic voltage regulator are interconnected. Data according to the nature of each component are generated and their behavior is simulated to analyze the system response. The two control loops are interconnected and a simulation is carry out with data generated previously, examining the performance of the automatic control of generation and the interaction between the two control loops. Finally, the Poles Positioning and the Optimum Control techniques of the modern control theory are applied to the automatic control of an area generation

  9. System for the reliability analysis of the electric energy supply; Sistema para el analisis de confiabilidad del suministro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perales, Favio; Martinez, Javier; Huesca, Francisco; Garcia, Norma; Nieva, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A computer tool, developed for the reliability evaluation of the electric energy supply, considering the faults in the generation and transmission systems, is presented. The application of the tool in planning the expansion and operation of the electric systems, the methodology of the solution employed and the various functions it accounts for, are described. At the end some illustrative examples of its applications by means of the studies with a model of representative characteristics of the interconnected national system. [Espanol] Se presenta una herramienta computacional desarrollada para evaluar la confiabilidad del suministro de energia electrica, considerando las fallas en los sistemas de generacion y transmision. Se describen las aplicaciones de la herramienta en la planeacion de la expansion y de la operacion de sistemas electricos, la metodologia de solucion empleada y las diversas funciones con que cuenta. Al final se presentan algunos ejemplos ilustrativos de sus aplicaciones mediante estudios con un modelo de caracteristicas representativas del sistema interconectado nacional.

  10. The spanish electric system operation. The contribution of nuclear generation; La operacion del sistema electrico espanol. Contribucion de la generacion nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvison, M. R.; Torre, M. de la

    2009-07-01

    Operation of an electric system encloses the collection of activities which extend from affective generation dispatch to issuing instruction for network manoeuvring along with international exchange scheduling. Based on the market mechanisms that apply to energy transactions, these tasks guarantee the security of supply end consumers, which is the final goal of the System Operators actions. In Spain this function is executed by Red Electrica de Espana (REE) since 1985, after being constituted as the first Transmission and System Operator (TSO) in the world. Additionally the variations to Law 54/1997 introduced by law 17/2007 also assign REE the function of sole transmission owner in the Spanish electric system. In order to achieve the aforementioned goal, nuclear energy plays in Spain a fundamental role in electric generation thanks to its high availability rate, the predictability of its fuel recharges, its high operational reliability, its geographical location, the stability of its costs and the security of supply given by the possibility of on-site fuel storage in the power plant. (Author)

  11. Renewable energies for power generation in Latin America: market, technologies and perspectives; Energias renovables para generacion de electricidad en America Latina: mercado, tecnologias y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Martino Jannuzzi, Gilberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP e International Energy Initiative (Brazil); De Buen Rodriguez, Odon [Energia, Tecnologia y Educacion, S.C., ENTE, S.C. (Mexico); Gorenstein Dedecca, Joao [International Energy Initiative, IEI (Brazil); Goncalves Nogueira, Larissa [International Energy Initiative, IEI (Brazil); Maia Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [International Energy Initiative, IEI (Brazil); Navarro, Judith [Energia, Tecnologia y Educacion, S.C., ENTE, S.C. (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    many environmental obstacles exist. Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru are the South American countries that still have the greatest availability of economically viable water resources to be exploited, since those countries do not even use 7% of the available potential. Venezuela and Paraguay stand out in South America as using more than 50% of the economically available potential for hydroelectric generation in the region. Geothermal energy is an important resource in Mexico and Central America, with an installed capacity of 965 MW and 502 MW in 2008, respectively. In those two cases, this is the primary source of power generation. Argentina's high-enthalpy fields are sufficient for geothermal use to generate energy, but there is no estimate of the generation potential. Chile is another country that tries to develop its geothermal potential. In 2009, the government of Chile requested bids for 20 contracts for geothermal energy exploitation. During the geothermal bidding process, 59 offers from exploitation projects were received and 9 companies were granted licenses for the 20 areas solicited. Biomass is an especially important energy resource in Brazil, where it has already surpassed CHP. It is also relevant in Argentina and Colombia, where it is associated with the alcohol-sugar industry and a growing interest in cogeneration systems. [Spanish] America Latina posee un rico patrimonio de recursos energeticos renovables, a pesar de que, historicamente, el aprovechamiento de estos recursos en la region se haya realizado a traves de grandes centrales de energia hidroelectrica. Sin embargo, hay un inmenso potencial de utilizacion mas amplia de nuevas fuentes de energia renovables: Pequenas Centrales Hidroelectricas (PCH), eolica, solar, geotermica, de acuerdo con lo que presenta en este informe. Considerando solamente las fuentes renovables utilizadas para la generacion de electricidad en los paises estudiados, se observa que dichas fuentes participan con entre el 2.5 y el 5

  12. Auto generation plant of Artigas landfill (Bilbao, Spain); Planta de autogeneracion electrica del vertedero de Artigas (Bilbao)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, N.; Dorronsoro, J.L.

    1996-07-01

    The disposition of MSW in the landfill generates a mixture of gases or {sup b}iogas{sup ,} its primary content is methane (50-60%) which has a very important energetic value, that can be very useful. In this sense, the present work point out the characteristics of the auto generation electrical plant of Artigas landfill, just like the results of the analytical study of the past two years. In this project which was partly funded by the UE, have participated Excmo. Ayuntamiento de Bilbao, EVE and CIEMAT. (Author) 6 refs.

  13. COMERCIO JUSTO Y RELEVO GENERACIONAL: LA EXPERIENCIA COLOMBIANA DE LA ASOCIACIÓN DE JÓVENES AGRICULTORES DEL VALLE. FAIR COMMERCE AND GENERATIONAL CHANGE: THE COLOMBIAN EXPERIENCE OF THE YOUNG FARMERS' ASSOCIATION FROM VALLE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Coscione.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los resultados de investigación en torno a experiencias concretas y exitosas de relevo generacional que buscan mantener viva la cultura campesina a pesar de la invasión del pensamiento urbano en el Departamento del Valle del Cauca, en donde, tanto la cooperación público-privada, como las relaciones internacionales de comercio justo han influido en la generación de un mayor nivel de sostenibilidad económica, social e inter-generacional. Abstract: This article presents the results of research into concrete and successful generational experiences seeking to keep the peasant culture alive despite the invasion of the urban thought in the State of Valle del Cauca. In it, both public and private cooperation and international relations of fair trade have influenced the generation of a higher level of economic, social, and intergenerational sustainability.

  14. Foresight of nuclear generation at long term in Mexico;Prospectiva de la generacion nucleoelectrica en Mexico a largo plazo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guadarrama L, R.; Sanchez R, O. E.; Martin del Campo M, C., E-mail: rodrigoguadarrama28@hotmail.co [UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents an analysis of the nuclear generation expansion for the period 2008-2030. The main objective is to plan the expansion of electrical generation system at long term taking into account four decision criteria. These are, the total cost of generation, the risk associated whit changes in fuel prices, the diversity of the generation park and polluting emissions of global impact (greenhouse effect gases) and local effects (acid rain and suspended particles). The analyzed expansion plans were developed using a model of uni nodal planning called WASP-IV. The analysis methodology was based on four steps. The first consisted in developing, with model WASP-IV, different expansion plans of the electrical generation system that fulfill the energy demand and certain conditions of the study in which was optimized the additions program of generator units searching the minimal cost of electrical generation. The second step was to calculate the generation costs of each plan for two scenarios of fuel prices, also with model WASP-IV. Later was calculated the diversity index and the accumulated emissions during the expansion and the avoided emission of CO{sub 2} when units of combined cycle that burn natural gas are replaced by nuclear power units. (Author)

  15. Generation of frequencies of megahertz order with ultrasound; Generacion de frecuencias del orden de megahertz con ultrasonido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrego, J. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Siles, S. [CICATA-IPN, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Cruz, A. [CINVESTAV-IPN, 07400 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Azorin, J. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    At the present time, to international scale they have been observing a series of interactions with the matter that have not been possible to explain until the moment. Some effects are the calls ''hot points'' whose development generates temperatures of the order of 5000 C, pressures of 500 atmospheres and superior gradients of temperature to the 600 C/s. Experimentally, with the help of spectrum analyzers, it has been possible to detect the production of frequencies of 23 GHz, starting from an ultrasonic pulse of 5 MHz. Also, by means of ultrasonic excitement achievement the decoloration of a solution of methylene blue, effect that alone it had been achieved with gamma radiation the one that is very well-known as ionizing. Another observed interesting aspect is the generation of an electric current with ultrasonic excitement in deionized water and two electrodes. (Author)

  16. Generation of solar radiation values by using Markov chains; Generacion de valores de radiacion usando cadenas de Markov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adaro, Jorge; Cesari, Daniela; Lema, Alba; Galimberti, Pablo [Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria]. E-mail: aadaro@ing.unrc.edu.ar

    2000-07-01

    The objective of the present work is to adopt a methodology that allows to generate sequences of values of global solar radiation. It is carried out a preliminary study on the generation of radiation sequence a concept of Chains of Markov. For it is analyzed it the readiness of data and it is investigated about the possibility of using such a methodology calculating values of indexes of clarity previously. With data of available radiation and provided the National Meteorological Service for Rio Cuarto, the preliminary study is carried out the preliminary study looking for to validated the pattern to the effects of being able to transfer the use of the methodology in other regions. (author)

  17. Generation of coordinates in PC for graphics of polar figure; Generacion de coordenadas en microcomputadora para graficado de figura polar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias B, L.R

    1991-10-15

    The preferential orientation, not alone it exists in metals, but also in minerals or in general in crystalline materials, notwithstanding in the metals it can be transformed by means of those processes of having mechanical worked such as laminate, wrapping, etc. To the preferable orientation of the crystals is also known as texture and since the properties of the crystalline materials lens depend on the orientation that present its glasses, it is important to know its texture. The difficulty for to represent and to describe the grade of preferential orientation in textured materials take to F. Weber to adapt the stereo graphic projection of a monocrystal to a poles figure. Later on, its appeared but methods to obtain the polar figure, among them, that of reflection of L. G. Schultz, but again a technique appears it specifies for its obtaining. In all the cases, the methodology is the following one: a) It is obtained by means of the diffraction process, the correspondent spectra in digitized form. b) it is applied process of having softened mathematician of the spectrum. c) there are determined the fi coordinates, beta and intensity for graph nts of the polar figure. d) Its are graph the points generated in c obtaining the polar figures. The objective of this work, is leaving of a softened spectra, to generate the coordinated fi, beta and corresponding intensity to proceed to their graph and generation of the polar figure. In this specific work, the methodology of Philips is used that consists in making a sweeping in hairspring form with the radiation to detect in these points the execution of the Bragg law. (Author)

  18. Formation of electrical islands conformed by a generator, a part from an electrical distributor and industrial plants; Formacion de islas electricas conformadas por un generador, parte de una distribuidora electrica y plantas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguero, J.L.; Beroqui, M.; Barbieri, B. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria. Instituto de Investigaciones Tecnologicas para Redes y Equipos Electricos

    2001-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe, through an example, the aspects of importance to be taken into consideration for a successful electric island formation in cases that have an important generation excess with respect to the demand, and in cases that result in a balanced condition.This paper is based on the accomplished investigations due to the need of a petrochemistry industry of increasing the reliability of its electric power provision.

  19. Application of unimodal optic fiber to communications among electric substations; Aplicacion de fibra optica unimodal a comunicaciones entre subestaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Pinon, Fernando; Hernandez Juarez, Taide [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-07-01

    The utilization of the unimodal fiber optics technology in the electric power systems, represents one of the best communication options because of its multiple advantages, that results in a better coordination of the technical and administrative activities, needed to carry the electric energy from its generation site to the most remote locations. In this document a study, in accordance with the available options for the design of communication systems via unimodal optic fiber, is presented. With this technology, ties of more than 100 kilometers without the need of repeating stations, can be made. [Espanol] La utilizacion de la tecnologia de fibra optica unimodal en los sistemas electricos de potencia representa una de las mejores alternativas de comunicacion por sus multiples ventajas que se traducen en una mejor coordinacion de las acitividades tecnicas y administrativas necesarias para llevar la energia electrica desde el lugar de generacion hasta los puntos mas distantes. En este documento se presenta un estudio de acuerdo a las opciones disponibles para el diseno de sistemas de comunicacion por fibra optica unimodal. Con esta tecnologia se pueden realizar enlaces mayores que 100 km sin necesidad de repetidores.

  20. Natural ionizing system to electrical protection and energy; Sistema ionizante natural de proteccion electrica y energias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabareda Fermin; Luis [Universidad de Los Andes (Venezuela)]. E-mail: lcabaredaf@gmail.com

    2013-03-15

    This is the new highest technology, 100% Venezuelan and unique in the world, technological innovation, world patent for maximum protection, security and zero risk (0) to all electrical and power generation systems: hydroelectric and thermoelectric power plants, wind, nuclear and solar power plants, etc; it's the only technology around the world that has the potential to disperse and propagate to land mass the enormous energies associated to the atmospheric discharges (lightning), which are in the order: 200,000 to 500,000 Amperes; 1,000 million Kilowatts and high-level transient voltage of 100 million Volts. This new high technology is the solution to the paradigm of Benjamin Franklin and it is the mechanism to end blackouts that produce so many damages and losses of billions of dollars to both generators and users of electrical service, throughout the world. [Spanish] Esta nueva mas alta tecnologia, 100% venezolana y unica en el mundo, innovacion tecnologica, patente mundial ofrece maxima proteccion, seguridad y riesgo cero (0) a todos los sistemas de generacion electrica: centrales hidroelectricas, termoelectricas, de viento, nucleares y solar, otros; es la unica tecnologia en el mundo que tiene el potencial para dispersar y propagar a la masa terrestre las enormes energias asociadas a las descargas atmosfericas (rayos) que estan en el orden de: 200.000 a 500.000 amperios, 1.000 millones de kilovatios y voltajes transitorios de alto nivel de 100 millones de voltios. Esta nueva alta tecnologia es la solucion al paradigma de Benjamin Franklin y es el mecanismo para eliminar apagones que producen danos y perdidas de billones de dolares para ambos: generados y usuarios del servicio electrico, alrededor del mundo.

  1. The distributed generation in Mexico: Which are the new perspectives associated to the institutional reforms of the electrical sector?; La generacion distribuida en Mexico: Cuales son las nuevas perspectivas asociadas a las reformas institucionales del sector electrico?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islas Samperio, Jorge [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Menanteau, Philippe [Departamento de Economia y Politica de la Energia, Universidad Pierre Mendes France (France)

    2004-06-15

    Historically, the electrical systems were constituted from local networks of small scale that were added together progressively to benefit from the effects of a more abundant demand and of the economies of scale in generation, that authorize the large interconnected systems. This logic at the moment seems to show certain limits, the factors that influence these technologies can vary greatly from one country to another, but nevertheless it is found in different degrees certain constants such as the search for a greater reliability in the electrical supply, the putting into work prevention policies of climatic change or the reforms of the electrical sector. In this work the influence of these factors was examined insisting particularly on the consequences of the opening of the electrical sector, departing from an analysis of the international experience in a first time and later examining the case of Mexico in the context of the present energy situation and the debate of the energy reform. The distributed generation: a new vector of technological opportunities in the electrical sector, the barriers for the diffusion of the distributed generation: the lessons of the international experience, the institutional problematic of the distributed generation within the effective legal framework of Mexico. [Spanish] Historicamente, los sistemas electricos se constituyeron a partir de redes locales de pequena escala que se fueron agregando progresivamente para beneficiarse de los efectos de una demanda mas abundante y de las economias de escala en generacion que autorizan los grandes sistemas interconectados. Esta logica parece actualmente mostrar ciertos limites, los factores que influyen sobre estas tecnologias pueden variar grandemente de un pais al otro, pero se encuentra, sin embargo, a grados diferentes ciertas constantes tales como la busqueda de una confiabilidad mas grande en el aprovisionamiento electrico, la puesta en obra de politicas de prevencion de cambio

  2. Renewable energies for power generation in Latin America: market, technologies and perspectives; Energias renovables para generacion de electricidad en America Latina: mercado, tecnologias y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Martino Jannuzzi, Gilberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP e International Energy Initiative (Brazil); De Buen Rodriguez, Odon [Energia, Tecnologia y Educacion, S.C., ENTE, S.C. (Mexico); Gorenstein Dedecca, Joao [International Energy Initiative, IEI (Brazil); Goncalves Nogueira, Larissa [International Energy Initiative, IEI (Brazil); Maia Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [International Energy Initiative, IEI (Brazil); Navarro, Judith [Energia, Tecnologia y Educacion, S.C., ENTE, S.C. (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    many environmental obstacles exist. Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru are the South American countries that still have the greatest availability of economically viable water resources to be exploited, since those countries do not even use 7% of the available potential. Venezuela and Paraguay stand out in South America as using more than 50% of the economically available potential for hydroelectric generation in the region. Geothermal energy is an important resource in Mexico and Central America, with an installed capacity of 965 MW and 502 MW in 2008, respectively. In those two cases, this is the primary source of power generation. Argentina's high-enthalpy fields are sufficient for geothermal use to generate energy, but there is no estimate of the generation potential. Chile is another country that tries to develop its geothermal potential. In 2009, the government of Chile requested bids for 20 contracts for geothermal energy exploitation. During the geothermal bidding process, 59 offers from exploitation projects were received and 9 companies were granted licenses for the 20 areas solicited. Biomass is an especially important energy resource in Brazil, where it has already surpassed CHP. It is also relevant in Argentina and Colombia, where it is associated with the alcohol-sugar industry and a growing interest in cogeneration systems. [Spanish] America Latina posee un rico patrimonio de recursos energeticos renovables, a pesar de que, historicamente, el aprovechamiento de estos recursos en la region se haya realizado a traves de grandes centrales de energia hidroelectrica. Sin embargo, hay un inmenso potencial de utilizacion mas amplia de nuevas fuentes de energia renovables: Pequenas Centrales Hidroelectricas (PCH), eolica, solar, geotermica, de acuerdo con lo que presenta en este informe. Considerando solamente las fuentes renovables utilizadas para la generacion de electricidad en los paises estudiados, se observa que dichas fuentes participan con entre el 2.5 y el 5

  3. Transient stability studies on industrial power systems interconnected to the transmission grid; Estudios de estabilidad transitoria en sistemas electricos industriales con generacion propia interconectaos con el sistema de transmision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon Guizar, J.G. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: jgc@iie.org.mx

    2010-10-15

    Aiming to ensure continuity in the electrical supply to critical processes, the electrical systems of large industrial plants, i.e. gas, and petrochemical industries usually posses local generation. Should the local generation be enough to satisfy the demand of the plant, then the interconnection with the public grid is commonly used as an important support for emergency conditions. This paper is concerned with the dynamical performance of two interconnected industrial power systems tied to the transmission system. Simulation results indicate that the frequency performance of one of the industrial plants, after the transients caused by the loss of the tie with the transmission system have died out, is greatly improved if both industrial plants remain connected after the disturbance. [Spanish] La continuidad en el suministro de energia electrica a procesos criticos de grandes complejos industriales, tales como plantas petroquimicas, procesadoras de gas, etc., es un aspecto de fundamental importancia para garantizar una operacion adecuada de este tipo de complejos. Con el proposito de mejorar la confiabilidad en el suministro de energia a los procesos criticos, los sistemas electricos de estos complejos industriales, generalmente cuentan con generacion propia. Si la capacidad de generacion instalada en los sistemas industriales es suficiente para satisfacer el total de la carga del complejo, la interconexion con el sistema de transmision es utilizada principalmente como respaldo durante condiciones de emergencia. En este articulo se analiza el comportamiento dinamico de dos sistemas industriales con generacion propia, disenados para operar en forma aislada, interconectados entre si, a traves de un enlace de 115 kV y con el sistema de transmision. Los resultados obtenidos indican que el comportamiento de la frecuencia en estado estable en uno de los complejos, posterior a la perdida del enlace con el sistema de transmision, mejora de manera considerable cuando estos

  4. Ana?lisis te?cnico de un central solar para la produccio?n de energi?a ele?ctrica en el canto?n Santa Isabel de la provincia del Azuay

    OpenAIRE

    Macancela V, Washington; Regalado C., Edmundo; Campoverde A, Freddy; Quizhpi P., Flavio

    2013-01-01

    Al igual que el modelo energe?tico mundial, la matriz ele?ctrica del Ecuador depende en parte de un sistema basado en fuentes de energi?a fo?sil y una fraccio?n del sistema es energi?a renovable, la primera contribuye con la emanacio?n de gases de efecto invernadero. Hoy en di?a el desarrollo e implementacio?n de tecnologi?as de generacio?n ele?ctrica orientadas directamente al cuidado del medio ambiente, se ha tornado sumamente importante. Entre otras razones por la cual se investiga sobr...

  5. Electrical energy saving in motors and frequency variators; Ahorro de energia electrica en motores y variadores de frecuencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Neri, Roger [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The necessity of saving energy is urgent and undeniable. We must already begin with the rational use of energy. Which is obtaining the maximum benefit of the consumed energy and of the necessary facilities for its generation, transmission and use. Guaranteeing at the same time an operation free of interferences or interruptions for the users. The electricity in alternating current does not allow its storage, reason why it is necessary to generate and distribute it at the precise moment when it is required. This forces to determine the proportions of the generation facilities, to be able to feed the periods of maximum demand called {sup p}eaks{sup .} It is this very point where the problem of the inappropriate use of the electrical energy starts. The energy waste is self-evident during the periods of low demand because of the low efficiency of the sub-utilized facilities. Electrical motors of the induction type use approximately more than 60% of the energy in the industry. If we use high efficiency motors instead of standard motors, a better advantage of the energy demanded from Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) is obtained. [Spanish] Es impostergable e innegable la necesidad de ahorrar energia. Tenemos que empezar ya con el uso racional de la energia: Obtener el maximo beneficio de la energia consumida y de las instalaciones necesarias para su generacion, transmision y utilizacion. Garantizando a los usuarios un funcionamiento sin interferencias o interrupciones. La electricidad en corriente alterna no permite su almacenamiento, por lo que es necesario generarla y distribuirla en el momento preciso en que es requerida. Esto obliga a dimensionar las instalaciones de generacion, para poder alimentar los periodos de maxima demanda llamados pico. Desde esta parte inicia el problema de la mala utilizacion de la energia electrica. Ya que en los periodos de baja demanda, las instalaciones se encuentran subutilizadas y si su eficiencia es muy baja, el desperdicio de

  6. LAS GENERACIONES DE DERECHOS HUMANOS

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Luño, Antonio-Enrique

    2013-01-01

    El artículo se dirige a plantear el sentido y relevancia del análisis generacional de los derechos humanos. Su texto pretende analizar los nuevos perfiles de las libertades en las sociedades tecnológicas. No en vano los derechos de la tercera generación ha sido considerados, desde determinadas ópticas de la doctrina anglosajona contemporánea, como respuestas jurídicas y políticas a la "contaminación de las liberdades"(liberties pollution), que constituyen el inquietante reverso de determinado...

  7. Tres generaciones del procedimiento administrativo

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Barnes

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo pretende explicar las diversas generaciones del procedimiento administrativo para así esbozar, a partir de sus virtudes y déficits, algunos de los valores y principios en juego. Entendemos por administración «imperativa» aquella que opera haciendo uso de potestades públicas y resuelve con carácter unilateral en un proceso jerárquico o en cascada, de arriba hacia abajo, mientras que la «cooperativa» se da cuando la administración no es autosuficiente y requiere de la colabo...

  8. De lo épico a lo cotidiano: Jóvenes y generaciones políticas en Chile From the Epic to the Everyday: Youth and Political Generations in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO TORO MAUREIRA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aunque la evidencia demuestra que la variable juventud es consistente para caracterizar fenómenos como desafección política, participación o cambio social, este artículo ensaya un nuevo tipo de división generacional que podría ser adoptado por futuras investigaciones: la generación política postplebiscito. A través de los datos de LAPOP, el artículo busca un nuevo acercamiento al análisis de la división joven - adulto, demostrando que, así como existen diferencias sustanciales entre ambos grupos, también las hay entre quienes participaron o no del plebiscito de 1988.Although the evidence in Chile shows that youth is an important variable for explaining levels of political engagement, electoral participation and social changes, this paper proposes a new generational category that could be adopted in future studies: The post-plebiscite political generation. Working with LAPOP data, this article seeks a new approach to analyzing the divide between youth and adults, showing that, although there are important differences between both groups, there are also significant contrasts between those who participated in the 1988 plebiscite and those who did not.

  9. Power generation from biomass estimation for projects of the clean development mechanism program; Estimacion de la generacion de energia a partir de biomasa para proyectos del programa de mecanismo de desarrollo limpio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Velazquez, Roberto; Munoz Ledo Carranza, Ramon; Flores Brito, Brenda Berenice; Cano Ruiz, Karla Itzel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In the present work, it is calculated the amount of energy and the reductions of greenhouse gases emissions that may be obtained taking advantage of organic wastes, such as, sugarcane bagasse and urban wastes. The appropriate use of these waster could generate up to 28% of the power requirements reported for the state of Morelos in 2005. Likewise, the Clean Development Mechanism could be employed to negotiate carbon certificates in such as way that the industrialized countries could meet with the goals implemented in the Kyoto Protocol and the state of Morelos could get the financial resource to be in the front technologic line with respect to the utilization of organic waster to generate power and to reduce greenhouse gases emissions. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se estima la cantidad de energia y reduccion de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero que podria obtenerse mediante el aprovechamiento de desechos industriales y municipales en el estado de Morelos, Mexico, tales como el bagazo de cana y la basura municipal. El uso adecuado de estos desechos podria generar hasta un 28% de los requerimientos energeticos de Morelos reportados en 2005. Asimismo, a traves del programa de Mecanismo de Desarrollo Limpio se podrian negociar certificados de carbono para que los paises industrializados cumplan las metas estipuladas en el Protocolo de Kyoto, y el estado de Morelos obtenga la inversion necesaria para estar a la vanguardia tecnologica en la utilizacion de desechos organicos para la generacion de energia y la reduccion de gases de efecto invernadero.

  10. Psicopatología en familiares de tres generaciones: un estudio epidemiológico en la Ciudad de México Psychopathology across three family generations: an epidemiological study in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge J. Caraveo-Anduaga

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar el riesgo para desarrollar psicopatología entre padres e hijos a lo largo de tres generaciones. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se utilizó el método del "estudio de la historia familiar". Para el estudio se utilizaron datos de una encuesta probabilística de hogares efectuada en 1995 en la Ciudad de México. Los probandos fueron adultos entre los 18 a 65 años de edad (n=1 932 a quienes se entrevistó utilizando la Entrevista Internacional Diagnóstica Compuesta. Además, se obtuvo información acerca de antecedentes psiquiátricos en sus padres empleando el método y los criterios diagnósticos de la historia familiar. Finalmente, en aquellos adultos con hijos de entre 4 a 16 años viviendo en el mismo hogar (n=925 se les aplicó un cuestionario para detectar la presencia de psicopatología en cada uno de sus hijos, obteniéndose información acerca de 1 686 niños y adolescentes. Para estimar el riesgo de morbilidad entre generaciones y la interacción entre éstas, se distinguió cuando sólo hubiera antecedentes en los abuelos, solamente en los padres y cuando estaban presentes en los abuelos y en los padres. La probabilidad de ser "caso" se obtuvo a partir de la razón de momios resultante de los análisis de regresión logística siguiendo tres diferentes modelos: el clásico, el con efectos aleatorios y el con ecuaciones de estimación generalizada con varianza robusta. RESULTADOS: La probabilidad de presentar psicopatología es entre dos a tres veces mayor cuando hay trastornos psiquiátricos en los padres. La probabilidad es mayor cuando existe comorbilidad entre diferentes tipos de trastornos. CONCLUSIONES: El riesgo para desarrollar psicopatología entre las generaciones es al menos moderado y relativamente estable. Los resultados sugieren que, en general, la transmisión de psicopatología entre las generaciones es acorde con la de un modelo genético mixto.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of psychiatric disorders across

  11. The Biogas from bio-energy electrical power plant of Nuevo Leon; Central electrica de biogas de bioenergia de Nuevo Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu F, Jose L [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Saldana M, Jaime L [Sistemas de Energia Internacional S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The biogas from bio-energy electrical power plant of Nuevo Leon represents, in all the national territory, the first experience on the advantage of biogas emitted by the sanitary landfills for the generation of electrical energy. Therefore, one of the specific objectives of this paper is the one of diffusion and reproduction of the same one in other cities of Mexico and Latin America. The project is framed within the world-wide policies on the control of emissions for the reduction of the greenhouse effect gases (GEG) and its impact in the global climatic change. The gas emitted by the trash sanitary landfills, commonly known as biogas, is a gas mixture derived from the decomposition of the organic matter of the municipal trash by microorganisms in anaerobic conditions. Biogas generated in the sanitary landfills has a methane content of 55% and a 35% of carbon dioxide. The balance 10% is made up of water steam, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen sulfur and other gases in minimum amounts. [Spanish] La Central Electrica de Biogas de Bioenergia de Nuevo Leon representa, en todo el territorio nacional, la primera experiencia sobre el aprovechamiento del biogas emitido por los rellenos sanitarios para la generacion de energia electrica. Por esta razon, uno de los objetivos especificos de este trabajo es la de difusion y reproduccion del mismo en otras ciudades de Mexico y Latinoamerica. El proyecto esta enmarcado dentro de las politicas mundiales sobre el control de emisiones para la reduccion de los gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) y su impacto en el cambio climatico global. El gas emitido por la basura dispuesta en los rellenos sanitarios, comunmente conocido como biogas, es una mezcla de gases derivado de la descompensacion de la materia organica de la basura municipal por microorganismos en condiciones anaerobias. El biogas generado en los rellenos sanitarios tiene un contenido de metano del 55% y un 35% de bioxido de carbono. El 10% restante se compone de vapor

  12. Evaluation of nickel-rich alloys for the electrolytic generation of hydrogen in an alkaline medium; Evaluacion de aleaciones ricas en niquel para la generacion electrolitica de hidrogeno en medio alcalino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz Verdin, A.A.; Ortega Borges, R.; Trejo Cordova, G.; Meas Vong, Y. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S.C., Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: aortiz@cideteq.mx

    2009-09-15

    The simultaneous electrodeposition of Ni with metals such as Zn to form alloys enables obtaining surfaces with high electrocatalytic activity or particular characteristics that resist wear and abrasion. This work presents the results of the study of the electrochemical characterization of different types of nickel electrodeposition and compositions, used as cathodes, and measurements of the electrocatalytic activity in the release of hydrogen in an alkaline medium. Curves I through IV were generated, which were potentiostatically obtained in a nitrogen atmosphere in a NaOH alkaline solution. The morphology of the deposits was evaluated with sweep electron micrscopy(SEM). The results enabled evaluating its potential application as electrode materials for the generation of electrolytic hydrogen in alkaline medium, given the good electrocatalytic activity of nickel-rich materials. [Spanish] El electrodeposito simultaneo del Ni, con metales como el Zn para formar aleaciones, permite obtener superficies con elevada actividad electrocatalitica o con caracteristicas particulares de resistencia al desgaste y abrasion. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados del estudio de la caracterizacion electroquimica de los electrodepositos a base de niquel de diferente naturaleza y composicion utilizandolos como catodos midiendo la actividad electrocatalitica con respecto a la reaccion de desprendimiento de hidrogeno (RDH) en medio alcalino. Se realizaron curvas I vs V obtenidas potenciostaticamente bajo atmosfera de nitrogeno en una solucion alcalina de NaOH. La morfologia de los depositos se evaluo mediante SEM (microscopio electronico de barrido). Los resultados permiten evaluar su potencial aplicacion como materiales de electrodo para la generacion electrolitica de hidrogeno en medio alcalino, dada la buena actividad electrocatalitica de los materiales ricos en niquel.

  13. Guide for the development of power generation projects using renewable energy in and for municipalities; Guia para el desarrollo de proyectos de generacion de electricidad con energia renovable en y para los municipios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Buen Rodriguez, Odon [Energia, Tecnologia y Educacion, S.C., ENTE, S.C. (Mexico)

    2010-05-15

    The Mexico Competitiveness Project has come about as a result of a good understanding and broad cooperation between the United States and Mexican governments. Its primary objective is to strengthen governance so as to improve the economic competitiveness of Mexico as well as to improve environmental management for the preservation of biodiversity in the country. This program, financed by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), will be carried out for approximately 4 years, from October 2008 to November 2012. Its cooperative efforts are primarily focused on assisting local efforts to foster sustainable development. In this context, and as part of the specific activities on which the program is focused during the current year, the Guide for the Development of Power Generation Projects in Municipalities was designed, whose purpose is to integrate information to enable municipal officials to understand these types of projects and take actions to foster their development. The present guide consists of a set of modules that detail and explain the most important aspects involved in the development of these projects, ranging from legal considerations to costs associated with the projects themselves. This guide has two sections: a general portion with 8 chapters about topics directly related to the projects and a set of appendices that describe aspects relevant to moving forward with projects for power generation using renewable energy. [Spanish] El Programa de Competitividad Mexico se deriva del buen entendimiento y amplia cooperacion entre los gobiernos de Estados Unidos y Mexico, y tiene como principal objetivo fortalecer la gobernabilidad para mejorar la competitividad economica de Mexico, asi como robustecer la gestion ambiental para preservar la biodiversidad del pais. Este programa, que es financiado por la Agencia de los Estados Unidos para el Desarrollo Internacional (USAID), tiene una duracion aproximada de cuatro anos a partir de octubre

  14. Generation of cross-sections and reference solutions using the code Serpent; Generacion de secciones eficaces y soluciones de referencia usando el codigo SERPENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez T, A. M.; Delfin L, A. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Del Valle G, E., E-mail: armando.gomez@inin.gob.mx [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. IPN s/n, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    Serpent is a code that solves the neutron transport equations using the Monte Carlo method that besides generating reference solutions in stationary state for complex geometry problems, has been specially designed for physical applications of cells, what includes the generation of homogenized cross-sections for several energy groups. In this work a calculation methodology is described using the code Serpent to generate the necessary cross-sections to carry out calculations with the code TNXY, developed in 1993 in the Nuclear Engineering Department of the Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Mexico) by means of an interface programmed in Octave. The computation program TNXY solves the neutron transport equations for several energy groups in stationary state and geometry X Y using the Discreet Ordinates method (S{sub N}). To verify and to validate the methodology the results of TNXY were compared with those calculated by Serpent giving minor differences to 0.55% in the value of the multiplication factor. (Author)

  15. Cogeneration and production of 2nd generation bio fuels using biomass gasification; Cogeneracion y produccion de biocombustibles de 2 generacion mediante gasificacion de biomasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uruena Leal, A.; Diez Rodriguez, D.; Antolin Giraldo, G.

    2011-07-01

    Thermochemical decomposition process of gasification, in which a carbonaceous fuel, under certain conditions of temperature and oxygen deficiency, results in a series of reactions that will produce a series of gaseous products is now widely used for high performance energetic and versatility of these gaseous products for energy and 2nd generation bio fuels and reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. (Author)

  16. Procedure of generation of the ECP database for Laguna Verde; Procedimiento de generacion de base de datos ECP para Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perusquia C, R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1992-09-15

    This procedure will be used by the personnel of the Discipline of Nuclear Analysis of the Reactor of CFE to execute PRESTO with the purpose of generating the base for the Estimate of the Position of critical bars during the start up (ECP Database). (Author)

  17. Tres generaciones del procedimiento administrativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Barnes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende explicar las diversas generaciones del procedimiento administrativo para así esbozar, a partir de sus virtudes y déficits, algunos de los valores y principios en juego. Entendemos por administración «imperativa» aquella que opera haciendo uso de potestades públicas y resuelve con carácter unilateral en un proceso jerárquico o en cascada, de arriba hacia abajo, mientras que la «cooperativa» se da cuando la administración no es autosuficiente y requiere de la colaboración de otras administraciones y del sector privado. El proceso no es jerárquico, sino en red. Finalmente, por «gobernanza», sea administrativa o cooperativa, se hace referencia a un nuevo estilo de gobierno, en el cual la administración goza de un particular protagonismo en la realización y ejecución de las políticas públicas. En este orden de ideas, el concepto de «procedimiento administrativo» no se detiene ya en la exclusiva idea de procedimiento como proceso decisorio, sino que también implica la obtención y el intercambio de información —para elaborar un mapa medioambiental, realizar una inspección, recabar informes y estudios científicos, por ejemplo—.

  18. Data Series Generation for CPS Plants Simulation from Measurement Data; Generacion de Series de Datos para Simulacion de Centrales Termosolares Basadas en Datos Medidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, D. E.; Valenzuela, R. X.; Ramirez, L.; Polo, J.

    2014-02-01

    This project studies the impact of new regulations for solar thermal power plants purporting to be made in the future. In this document we analyze each of the points of the standard PROCEDURE FOR GENERATING A REPRESENTATIVE SOLAR YEAR is expected to be approved in a short period of time. The main purpose of this standard is to establish a series of solar radiation data called Representative Solar Year (RSY), which are hourly data for a full year that characterize the site where the plant will be installed. For this there is the possibility of generating the RSY by two methods, the first is to use estimates of solar radiation and the second use solar radiation data measured at the site. The second case is the one that will be addressed in the following pages. According to the methodology set out in the rule for generating RSY, through measured data, develops each of the points which can obtain the final result an estimate of the energy produced by the plant. First we calculate a Monthly Reference Values (MRV) of solar radiation as a basis for generating the RSY. The following is taken measured data sets must overcome quality and validation processes. The next step is to make an accommodation between the MRV and sets measured by a change of days, following the directions of the standard. The end result of this process we obtain the respective RSY that for purposes of this study will be entered into a simulation program that calculates the energy produced by a solar thermal plant. In this way we analyze and compare the energy produced by the plant with real data and RSY data obtained. (Author)

  19. Translation of the Hope Creek procedure of generation of the ECP database; Traduccion del procedimiento de Hope Creek de generacion de base de datos ECP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perusquia C, R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1992-10-15

    This procedure contains the methodology and the necessary data sheets for the execution of PRESTO runs to generate the data for the ECP program. The data consist of corrections of the Moderator Temperature like a function of the bar density, xenon value like a function of the numeric density, and k-effective like a function of the extracted notches. This procedure will only be used for a list of extraction of sequence bars A-2. (Author)

  20. Generation, transport and conduct of radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level; Generacion, transporte y gestion de desechos radiactivos de nivel bajo e intermedio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizcano, D.; Jimenez, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: dlc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The technological development of the last decades produced an increment in the application of the radiations in different human activities. The effect of it has been it the production of radioactive wastes of all the levels. In Mexico, some of the stages of the administration of the waste of low and intermediate level have not been completely resolved, as the case of the treatment and the final storage. In this work aspects of the generation, the transport and the administration of radioactive waste of low and intermediate level produced in the non energy applications from the radioactive materials to national level, indicating the generated average quantities, transported and tried annually by the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). The main generators of wastes in Mexico, classified according to the activity in which the radioactive materials are used its are listed. Some of the main processes of treatment of radioactive wastes broadly applied in the world and those that are used at the moment in our country are also presented. (Author)

  1. Meteosat Second Generation station: processing software and computing arquitecture; Estacion de Recepcion de Imagenes del Satelite Meteosat Segunda generacion: Arquitectura Informatica y Software de Proceso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, L.; Cony, M.; Navarro, A. A.; Zarzalejo, L. F.; Polo, J.

    2010-05-01

    The Renewable Energy Division of CIEMAT houses a specific station for receiving the Meteosat Second Generation images, which is of interest in the works being carried out concerning the solar radiation derived from satellite images. The complexity, the huge amount of information being received and the particular characteristics of the MSG images encouraged the design and development of a specific computer structure and the associated software as well, for a better and more suitable use of the images. This document describes the mentioned structure and software. (Author) 8 refs.

  2. Description of the ENDF-NJOY system for the generation of cross sections libraries; Descripcion del sistema ENDF-NJOY para la generacion de bibliotecas de secciones eficaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso V, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1991-01-15

    The physics of nuclear reactors requires of a great number of data to be able to evaluate the different phenomena that happen in a nuclear reactor; these data are mainly the microscopic neutron cross sections, but it is also required of data of radioactive decay and of nuclear structure for a great number of materials as well as of the cross sections of the photons and the production of these for the neutron interaction. These data group in nuclear databases, being the main ones: ENDF Nuclear Evaluated File, ENDL Dates Nuclear Evaluated Library it Dates (of the Laboratory Lawrence Livermore). JENDL Japanese Nuclear Evaluated Library Dates. Soviet SOKRATOR Nuclear Evaluated KEDAF Nuclear Karlsruhe File Dates. JEF Join Evaluated File (coordinated by NEA Data Bank). The existent codes that execute neutron and photon calculations require libraries of data that are very different some of other and of the databases. Of here that it is required of a series of processing codes that use the database like enter and its generate a secondary library of cross sections, which is read as enter for a code of spectra generation. Generally average cross sections by group are obtained; this library is that it is used in the codes that execute neutron calculations. (Author)

  3. The generation mix in the Spanish electric system: factors affecting its evolution; El mix de generacion en el sistema electrico espanol: factores que afectan en su evolucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarri, A.

    2009-07-01

    Currently while dealing with the electricity generation mix issue, the three pillars it is based on must be considered: sustain ability, security of supply and economic competitiveness. The two main sustain ability challenges that directly affect the future generation mix for the next decade is the development of the renewable sources and the reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions. This will cause an important increase of renewable and that the electricity system should be prepared for other low-carbon technologies such as nuclear and carbon capture and storage applied to fossil fuel plants. Regarding the security of supply, there is an increasing need to improve it. This can be achieved mainly through two actions: increase the self-sufficiency in primary energy and/or improve the diversification of the primary energy sources and of the origin such sources. finally it is also important to achieve and efficient investment system. In order to attain this goal, there is a need for a stable regulatory framework that should be the base for a real price for electricity. In order to fulfill all these requirements there is a need to keep all the options open, and also, to prepare the system to face the changes that are on sight. (Author) 8 refs.

  4. Generation projection of solid and liquid radioactive wastes and spent radioactive sources in Mexico; Proyeccion de generacion de desechos radiactivos solidos, liquidos y fuentes radiactivas gastadas en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia A, E.; Hernandez F, I. Y.; Fernandez R, E. [Universidad Politecnica del Valle de Toluca, Km 5.7 Carretera Almoloya de Juarez, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Monroy G, F.; Lizcano C, D., E-mail: fabiola.monroy@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    This work is focused to project the volumes of radioactive aqueous liquid wastes and spent radioactive sources that will be generated in our country in next 15 years, solids compaction and radioactive organic liquids in 10 years starting from the 2014; with the purpose of knowing the technological needs that will be required for their administration. The methodology involves six aspects to develop: the definition of general objectives, to specify the temporary horizon of projection, data collection, selection of the prospecting model and the model application. This approach was applied to the inventory of aqueous liquid wastes, as well as radioactive compaction organic and solids generated in Mexico by non energy applications from the 2001 to 2014, and of the year 1997 at 2014 for spent sources. The applied projection models were: Double exponential smoothing associating the tendency, Simple Smoothing and Lineal Regression. For this study was elected the first forecast model and its application suggests that: the volume of the compaction solid wastes, aqueous liquids and spent radioactive sources will increase respectively in 152%, 49.8% and 55.7%, while the radioactive organic liquid wastes will diminish in 13.15%. (Author)

  5. Virtual laboratory of electricity generation systems by photovoltaic solar energy; Laboratorio virtual de sistemas de generacion de electricidad mediante energia solar fotovoltaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posadillo, S. R.; Pedros, P. G.; Lopez, P. A.; Martinez, T. A.; Melero, G. R.

    2004-07-01

    This paper shows the design and implementation of a computer application which is useful to facilitate apprenticeship in the field of Photovoltaic Solar Energy (PV). The application consists of the simulation of the Physic System, an essential component by which the user will be able to introduce the variables of the system and conduct a study on the latter. These features will be possible in subjects related to PV Solar Energy, such as: Sun- Earth Geometry, Solar Radiation, PV Cell or Generator, and Dimensionless of Systems. This tool is completed with a tutorial which allows fixing and revising the concepts related to all these subjects, a self-evaluation option, and a helpful tool on how to use the program. This is all provided by an integrative and interactive software created under Visual Basic, which can be used with Windows 98 and the following versions of this operative system. (Author)

  6. This is a women's work: two generations in the domestic sector / Esto es trabajo de mujeres: dos generaciones en el sector doméstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Benlloch Doménech

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Women’s work in the domestic sector has been invisible and underestimated for centuries. This article is the result of an investigation realized with Spanish women of two different generations, who have worked in the domestic sector. The aim of the article is to understand and analyze differences in this kind of work within more than fifty years. It is a qualitative investigation, and it has made clear that instead of being a minority work, lots of women have carried it out, and still do. Contrary to what is thought, it means a basic mean of support for many families’ finances but it has been relegated to the irrelevant for being a “women’s” work in the “women’s” area.

  7. Contribution of the IV generation fast reactors to the sustainable development; Contribucion de los reactores rapidos de IV Generacion al desarrollo sustentable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza G, G.; Klapp E, J.L. [ININ, Centro Nuclear ' Dr. Nabor Carrillo Flores' Carretera Mexico Toluca, S/N. 52750 La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: gmg@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    During the XXI century all the energy forms are necessary for the sustainable development. A balanced energy politics has to use a mixture of energy sources that completes the objective of responding to the increase in the demand and that it uses non emitting gases sources of greenhouse effect like the nuclear one. It is evident the great existent difficulty to turn the objectives of emissions for the coming years without having the nuclear energy. Later on, the process continued outlining serious commitments among the development necessity, the improvement of the level of life and the competitiveness, and the execution from the established environmental requirements to world level. It is very foregone that the energy nuclear become the best energy source to improve the environmental conditions and that new initiatives are determined in those that this energy will have an important paper. The solution is to build a nuclear central of advanced design, using technologies that its help to brake the diffusion of the nuclear weapons. The nucleo electric energy at great scale should be developed on the base of designs of reactors and innovative processes of fuel that can lend technological support to the not nuclear proliferation regime, and that at the same time they contribute to satisfy the electricity demand in the world. In a scenario of increase of energy demand, mainly in the development countries, and of growing interest in the pollutants reduction originated by the use of fossil fuels, the nuclear reactors of IV Generation arise as proposal and challenge. Meanwhile the search of new technologies and innovations become imperative, translating an enormous evolution, not only in the conceptual projects, as well as in the fuel cycle so that, in a scenario of open economy, turn its more competitive. Inside the reactors of fourth generation, the quick reactors are configured as those that more assist to such demands and they will be, without a doubt, the reactors in

  8. Research and technological development in the subject of the wind power generation; Investigacion y desarrollo tecnologico en el tema de la generacion eoloelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja Diaz, Marco A.; Gonzalez Galarza, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The wind power technology has advanced in an important way during the last decade. In the industrialized countries the annual sales of aero generators reach surprising numbers and increase annually at a rate of 30%. But, is this the direct product of the maturity of this technology?, is at the moment the wind power technology economically competitive with the conventional options? Do necessities exist of Research and Technological Development in the subject? This article presents some facts and indicators that will help the reader to deduce his own conclusions. [Spanish] La tecnologia eoloelectrica ha avanzado de manera importante durante la ultima decada. En los paises industrializados las ventas anuales de aerogeneradores alcanzan cifras sorprendentes y se incrementan al 30% anual. Pero, es esto el producto directo de la madurez de esta tecnologia?, actualmente la tecnologia eoloelectrica es economicamente competitiva con las opciones convencionales?, existen necesidades de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en el tema? Este articulo presenta algunos hechos e indicadores que ayudaran al lector a deducir sus propias conclusiones.

  9. DISCURSOS Y POÉTICA MAPUCHE-HUILLICHE ACTUAL: CAMBIO GENERACIONAL Y DIFERENCIA TERRITORIAL Current Mapuche-Huilliche Discourse and Poetics: Generational Shift and Territorial Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Park

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El (renacimiento étnico-cultural en Chile está experimentando un proceso de expansión y de diversificación por líneas de culturas minoritarias y diferenciaciones de género. Desde la explosión en el ámbito literario chileno, en 1989, del poeta bilingüe Leonel Lienlaf Lienlaf, escritores de raíces mapuche-huilliche han sido objetos de estudio de la academia, el Estado y críticos de la cultura popular. Entre otras diferencias actuales, una joven generación de poetas huilliches se está distinguiendo por medio de una expresividad híbrida, reflexiva y explícitamente literaria. En oposición a la poesía arraigada en instituciones culturales indígenas, la oralidad y las formas tradicionales de existencia y sobrevivencia rural, estos poetas buscan y florecen en medio de una pluricultural y compleja manera de vivir y expresarse. Este trabajo explora una selección de poetas y sus circunstancias individuales en un intento de delinear las diferencias y perfilar el mayor giro cultural que se aproxima en el sur de ChileThe ethnic-cultural (renaissance in Chile is currently undergoing an expansion as well as a diversification along lines of minority cultures and gender differentiations. Since the explosion onto the Chilean literary landscape, in 1989, of the bilingual poet Leonel Lienlaf Lienlaf, Mapuche-Huilliche writers have come into the spotlight of academia, State and popular culture critics. Among other current distinctions, a younger generation of huilliche poets are distinguishing themselves through a hybrid, reflexive, and literary expressiveness. In opposition to the poetry that is tied to indigenous cultural institutions, orality, and traditional rural forms of existence, these poets thrive and strive for a pluricultural and complex way of living and expressing themselves. This work explores a selection of poets and their individual circumstances in an attempt to delineate the differences, and profile a greater cultural change that

  10. Improvement in using steam for electric generation at the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field; Mejora en el aprovechamiento del vapor para generar energia electrica en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Rodriguez, Marco A.; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Mendoza Covarrubias, Alfredo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2010-01-15

    Commercial exploitation in the Los Azufres geothermal field, Michoacan, Mexico, started in 1982 when the first five backpressure-power units of 5-MW each were commissioned. Nowadays the installed capacity is 188 MW from 14 units: five in the South Zone fed by steam produced from 18 production wells plus two binary-cycle power units fed by residual brines; and seven in the North Zone with steam supplied by 22 production wells. There are seven backpressure-power units with high specific consumption [between 14.5 and 13.6 tons per hour of steam (t/h) per MW]. Three operate in the South Zone and four in the North Zone. This paper shows a way to achieve more efficient use of the geothermal resource by replacing the seven backpressure units, which have completed their useful lifetime-or are close to do it-with two, new condensing power units with lower specific consumption: one unit of 50 MW to be located in the North Zone and the other of 25 MW to be placed in the South Zone. No new wells need be drilled. In this way, the average specific consumption would be reduced to 8.8-7.2 t/h per MW (saving 47% of the steam), the income for electric generation would be increased and the steam-extraction rate would remain the same. [Spanish] En 1982 empezo la explotacion comercial del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., Mexico, con la instalacion y puesta en servicio de las primeras cinco unidades turbogeneradoras a contrapresion de 5 MW cada una. Actualmente la capacidad instalada es de 188 MW, con catorce unidades: cinco en la zona sur, alimentadas por el vapor de 18 pozos productores, mas dos unidades de ciclo binario que utilizan salmuera residual, y siete unidades en la zona norte, alimentadas por 22 pozos. Hay siete unidades a contrapresion con un consumo especifico elevado [entre 14.5 y 13.6 toneladas por hora (t/h) de vapor por MW], tres de las cuales se localizan en la zona sur y cuatro en la zona norte. En este documento se presenta un proyecto para hacer mas

  11. Querubismo: un estudio de tres generaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero Herrera, Rafael; Viñals Iglesias, Helena

    1998-01-01

    Se presentan cinco casos de querubismo en tres generaciones sucesivas. Todos los casos fueron diagnosticados por sus manifestaciones clínico-radiológicas, realizándose un seguimiento de los pacientes a lo largo del tiempo. En las tres generaciones se hallaron imagenes radiológicas radiolúcidas en ambos maxilares. El lugar típico de las lesiones fue la región anterior y posterior de la mandíbula, así como las tuberosidades maxilares. En cuatro de los cinco casos observamos alteraciones dentale...

  12. Creímos en la lactancia materna: Una aproximación de la experiencia en tres generaciones We believed in breast feeding: An approach to the experience of three generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Llorens Mira

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Los cambios en la sociedad conducen a que los bebés no se alimenten con leche materna, por lo que se están llevando a cabo proyectos de concienciación e investigación sobre los beneficios de la leche materna y los factores que conducen a las madres a elegir una u otra opción. Objetivo: Analizar el significado, a través de tres generaciones, de ciertas prácticas y creencias mediante sus experiencias vividas. Metodología: Estudio cualitativo, entrevista semidirigida. Muestreo intencionado (círculo de familiares y amistades. En 12 mujeres con edades comprendidas entre 21 años y 81 años. Resultados: La media de crianza de la primera generación estuvo entre 18 y 24 meses. Actualmente la mantienen hasta los seis o siete meses. El rol de las nodrizas ha contribuido a idealizar la lactancia materna y a fomentar lazos afectivos. La decisión de amamantar está muy influida por las creencias sociales adquiridas y el apoyo del entorno. El trabajo de la mujer constituye una dificultad si se quiere prolongar la lactancia. Conclusión: Los cambios socio-culturales y sanitarios no han sido obstáculo para seguir manteniendo su práctica. El amamantamiento se considera un proceso natural y la relación emocional no puede ser reemplazada con la lactancia artificial.Our changing society is not encouraging breastfeeding, thus research and awareness projects are being carried out regarding the benefits of breastfeeding and the factors influencing mothers’ decision. Objective: To analyze the meaning, through three generations, of certain practices and beliefs by their living experiences. Methodology: Qualitative study, semi-supervised interviews. Deliberate sampling (family and friends of 12 women between 21 and 81 years old. Results: The average breastfeeding of first baby used to be 18-24 months. Presently it is maintained for 6- 7 months. The role of wet nurses has contributed to the idealisation of breastfeeding and the reinforcement of affective

  13. Qualitative aspects in the projects that are developed in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas; Aspectos cualitativos en los proyectos que se desarrollan en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Neblina, Joaquin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The globalization of markets has generated more options of purchase of all type of goods and services, these options have generated opportunities and threats for all the companies and have looked for the satisfaction of the client as a strategy to remain or incursion into the global market. The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) is not the exception and therefore it looks for the identification of the qualitative aspects and to systematize its application in the projects that executes by means of the implantation of a system of quality assurance based on the series of ISO 9000 Standards. Some examples are described to identify the qualitative aspects of the projects that are developed in the Institute. [Spanish] La globalizacion de los mercados ha generado mas opciones de compra de todo tipo de bienes y servicios, dichas opciones han generado oportunidades y amenazas para todas las empresas y se ha buscado satisfacer al cliente como estrategia para permanecer o incursionar en el mercado global. El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) no es la excepcion y por lo tanto busca identificar los aspectos cualitativos y sistematizar su aplicacion en los proyectos que realiza mediante la implantacion de un sistema de aseguramiento de la calidad basado en la serie de normas ISO 9000. Se describen algunos ejemplos para identificar los aspectos cualitativos de los proyectos que se desarrollan en el instituto.

  14. Fault diagnosis in the steam turbo-generator of a Combined Cycle Power Plant; Diagnostico de fallas en el turbogenerador a vapor de una central de generacion de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Abad, Angel

    2006-12-15

    Due to the physical nature of its components, technological processes are vulnerable to faults. These faults affect the accurate behavior of the system, causing a performance reduction, even great economical losses and in the worst case environmental and human disasters. The opportune detection of the presence of faults helps to take corrective actions and as a consequence to reduce the potential damage that faults cause. To achieve the fault detection task, technological processes have supervisory systems to monitor the process variables and provide an alarm when a variable reached a given threshold. This method has the drawback that a single fault could cause many system alarms, which difficult the fault isolation. In addition it is based on hardware redundancy; it means the use of repeated devices to do the same work. Combined cycle power plants (CCPP) are large scale systems with a high degree of fault susceptibility. Due to strict conditions in which they operate and the great number of elements they contain, including sensors and actuators. Nowadays this kind of power plants tends to dominate the electric generation market by means of fossil fuels, because they are the most efficient, profitable, with flexible operation and with less environmental impact. In the CCPP, the steam turbine (ST) is a fundamental component, since it represents the process gain, in the way that it allows the generation of additional electric energy by taking advantage of the exhaust gases of the gas turbines. In case of the ST fails, the global efficiency of the process is reduced even in a 40%. In this work a model based fault diagnosis system was developed, according to the FDI (Fault Detection and Isolation) methodology of the control theory, with the capability of detecting and isolating faults in the sensors and actuators of the ST of a CCPP. The developed system is based on the analytical redundancy which allows optimizing the hardware redundancy and getting a reduction of the

  15. DISEÑO DE UN SISTEMA DE GENERACION ELECTRICA CON PANELES FOTOVOLTAICOS BASADO EN UNA TOPOLOGIA MULTINIVEL PUENTE-H.

    OpenAIRE

    VILLANUEVA MENDEZ, ELENA ELIZABETH

    2008-01-01

    L A ENERGÍA solar fotovoltaica es una fuente de energía renovable donde, por medio de paneles fotovoltaicos, se convierte la luz solar en energía eléctrica. Actualmente es una energía costosa pero tiene un gran potencial debido al elevado precio de los co 91p.

  16. El modelo de generaciones traslapadas como modelo monetario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monsalve G. Sergio

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta el modelo básico de generaciones translapadas de intercambio puroy se introduce el modelo OLG monetario. Se examinan la condiciones que garantizan la existencia de equilibrios bajo expectativas racionales y sus características de optimalidad, y se describen las tendencias actuales en la literatura reciente sobre los desarrollos del modelo OLG cómo modelo monetario.This article introduces the basic overlapping generations model (OLG of pure exchange and the OLG model with fiat money. It examines conditions under what rational expectations equilibria do exist, and studies the properties of optimality of those equilibria. Furthermore, it describes the recent tendencies in the economic literature about the developments of the OLG model as a monetary modelo.

  17. Co-generation project for the Combined Cycle Power Plant President Juarez Rosarito and a reverse osmosis desalting plant; Proyecto de cogeneracion para la planta de ciclo combinado Presidente Juarez Rosarito y una planta desaladora de osmosis inversa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran Mora, Hector; Espindola Hernandez, Salvador [Universidad NAcional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    In this work a technical and economical analysis of the installation of a reverse osmosis desalting plant connected to a power station that uses the combined cycle technology under a co-generation scheme is presented: production of electricity and water. The operation program of the desalting power station will be determined by the demand of energy of the combined cycle power station; the proposal is that the desalting plant operates in the hours of low load of the power station and shuts down at the peak hours of electrical energy demand. So that this study is representative, the demand curves of electric energy of the units of combined cycle of Central President Juarez Rosarito of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) have been taken and updated the data of the reverse osmosis desalting plants that are available at the moment in the market. As basis of the study the level costs will be determined so much as the electrical energy generated by the power station of combined cycle, operating inside and outside of a co-generation scheme and the costs made level for the water produced by the reverse osmosis plant under two assumptions: the first one is buying the electrical energy from CFE and the second one considering that the CFE is the owner of the desalting plant and therefore the cost of electrical energy to desalting the plant is zero. This work shows the economic impacts on the costs of the generation of electrical energy and on those of the desalted water in a co-generation scheme. The results shown in this study can be considered for the future planning in the construction of desalting plants to supply of water in the Northwestern zones of the country where serious problems of water shortage exist. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un analisis tecnico y economico de la instalacion de una planta desaladora de osmosis inversa acoplada a una central de generacion de energia electrica que utiliza la tecnologia de ciclo combinado bajo un esquema de

  18. The rebranding of Electrica Soluziona SA - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica GOMOESCU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to present the design and implementation stages of a rebranding campaign that took place in the Electrica Soluziona SA company. The rebranding targets a company that provides consultancy services and software solutions and that underwent a change of its main shareholders structure, as it was taken over by Indra Group. After being taken over by Indra, Electrica Soluziona has considerably enlarged its product portfolio and the market segments targeted. Thus, it was mandatory to define a complex rebranding campaign. The rebranding process was not determined only by the broadening of activity, but also by the change of visual identity elements, along with the desire of repositioning.

  19. The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas fluidized bed combustor; El combustor de lecho fluidizado del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milan Foressi, Julio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    After synthesizing the most important aspects of the combustion technology in fluidized bed, the experimental combustor developed at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) is described, as well as the test results of the experiences carried out with coal from Rio Escondido, Coahuila. [Espanol] Tras sintetizar los aspectos mas importantes de la tecnologia de combustion en lecho fluidizado, se describe el combustor experimental desarrollado en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), asi como los resultados de las experiencias realizadas con carbon proveniente de Rio Escondido, Coahuila.

  20. The electric tariff in the residential sector; Tarificacion electrica en el sector residencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The main objective of this paper is to make an historical revision and analyze the current condition of the electric tariffs in the Mexican residential sector and ask ourselves if the equalization of tariffs generates the possibility that the entire population has access to the electricity service. The document is divided into three parts. The first one presents the history and the tendencies of the tariffs in the domestic sector in Mexico since 1973 until 1996 and the current tariff structure. The second one describes the characteristics of the residential users and mention is made of how the increment of the electric tariffs would affect the various population sectors. The last part of this paper presents some tariff criteria, that take into account energy conservation measures [Espanol] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es hacer una revision historica y analizar la situacion actual de las tarifas electricas en el sector residencial mexicano y preguntarnos si la igualdad de tarifas genera la posibilidad de que toda la poblacion tenga acceso al servicio electrico. El documento se divide en tres partes. La primera presenta la historia y tendencias de las tarifas del sector domestico en Mexico desde 1973 hasta 1996 y la estructura tarifaria actual. La segunda describe las caracteristicas de los usuarios residenciales y se menciona como afectaria el incremento de las tarifas electricas a los distintos sectores de la poblacion. La ultima parte de este trabajo presenta algunos criterios de tarificacion, que toman en cuenta medidas de ahorro de energia

  1. Annual statistical report UNESA 1994; Memoria Estadistica Electrica UNESA 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    UNESA (Unidad Electrica, S.A.) comprises 14 Spanish electric utilities. This review summarises activities and achievements during the year. It presents statistics for the years 1988 to 1994 on the national economy and the finances of the electricity sector; operating capacity and transmission and distribution lines; and electricity production and consumption. Financial statements of the electricity industry as of 31 December 1994 are presented. The report is also available in English.

  2. UNESA annual statistical report 1995; Memoria estadistica electrica UNESA 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    UNESA (Unidad Electrica, S.A.) comprises 14 Spanish electric utilities. This review summarises activities and achievements during the year. It presents statistics for the years 1988 to 1995 on the national economy and the finances of the electricity sector; operating capacity and transmission and distribution lines; and electricity production, demand and consumption. Financial statements of the electricity industry as of 31 December 1995 are presented.

  3. Effect of the temperature and the culture medium on the productivity of two generations of dihybrid crosses in Drosophila melanogaster Efecto de la temperatura y del medio de cultivo en la productividad de dos generaciones hijas de un cruce Dihibrido en Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Héctor Aníbal

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we analize the productivity of the dihybrid cross +//+ e//e x vg//vg +//+ and its reciprocal, carried on up to the second generation under different environmental conditions: two culture media (maize and banana and two temperatures (23 and 26ºC. The differences were shown to be statistically significantfor the temperature in the first generation, the culture medium and the parental line in the second generation. At a general level, the significant factors were the temperature and the culture medium. Perhaps the genotipic effects caused by the parental line are balanced and masked, when considered at this level. The temperature of 26ºC and the culture media of maize showed always the best productivity.En el presente estudio se analiza la productividad obtenida por un cruce dihíbrido +//+ e//e x vg//vg +//+ y su recíproco, llevados hasta la segunda generación, bajo dos condiciones ambientales: dos medios de cultivo (maíz y banano, y dos temperaturas de cultivo (23 y 26ºC. Las diferencias estadísticamente significativas corresponden a: la temperatura de cultivo en la primera generación filial, al medio de cultivo y a la línea parental en la segunda. Sin embargo a nivel global, es decir al ana-lizar de manera conjunta las dos generaciones hijas y cada uno de los tres factores evaluados: medio de cultivo, temperatura y línea parental, los únicos factores significativos son la temperatura y el medio de cultivo; aparentemente los efectos genotípicos introducidos por la línea parental se equilibran y se enmascaran al considerarlos resultados a este nivel. En todos los casos se registró la mayor productividad para la temperatura de 26ºC y el medio de cultivo de maíz.

  4. Program integration at JVC Industrial de Mexico, S.A. de C.V./Electric energy saving/Environmental management system /ISO 14001 standard; Integracion de programas en JVC Industrial de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. Ahorro de energia electrica/Sistema de administracion ambiental/Estandar ISO 14001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argote Molina, Martin [JVC Industrial de Mexico S. A. de C. V., Tijuana (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    It is possible, and besides logic, the integration of programs such as the electric energy saving and an environmental management system. In managing the consumption and the demand of the electric service, there is an effect on the pollutants emitted for the generation. It is clear that the user in not, and can not be, responsible for the type of fuel used but its importance in project planning is out of question. In its turn the central point of the environmental management system, consists in identifying the main effects on the environment caused by its activities, services and products, as well as the current or potential control level of the enterprise on them. Such identification and further evaluation took us at JVC Industrial de Mexico, to integrate conceptually and operationally such programs. The commitment with the Management was concentrated and strengthened resulting in a fuller consciousness of resource administration. [Espanol] Es posible, ademas de logica, la integracion de programas tales como el ahorro de energia electrica y un sistema de administracion ambiental. Al administrar el consumo y la demanda del servicio electrico tenemos un efecto en los contaminantes emitidos para la generacion. Es claro que el usuario no es, ni puede ser, responsable del tipo de combustible utilizado pero su importancia en la planeacion de proyectos es indiscutible. A su vez el punto central del sistema de administracion ambiental, consiste en identificar los principales efectos en el medio ambiente causados por sus actividades, servicios o productos, asi como el nivel de control actual o potencial de la empresa sobre ellos. Dicha identificacion y la posterior evaluacion nos llevo, en JVC Industrial de Mexico, a integrar tanto conceptual como operacionalmente dichos programas. El compromiso de la Gerencia se vio concentrado y fortalecido dando como resultado una conciencia mas plena de la administracion de recursos.

  5. Automatic control of plants of direct steam generation with cylinder-parabolic solar collectors; Control automatico de plantas de generacion directa de vapor con colectores solares cilindro-parabolicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela Gutierrez, L.

    2008-07-01

    The main objective of this dissertation has been the contributions to the operation in automatic mode of a new generation of direct steam generation solar plants with parabolic-trough collectors. The dissertation starts introducing the parabolic-trough collectors solar thermal technology for the generation of process steam or steam for a Rankine cycle in the case of power generation generation, which is currently the most developed and commercialized technology. Presently, the parabolic-trough collectors technology is based on the configuration known as heat-exchanger system, based in the use of a heat transfer fluid in the solar field which is heated during the recirculation through the absorber tubes of the solar collectors, transferring later on the that thermal energy to a heat-exchanger for steam generation. Direct steam generation in the absorber tubes has always been shown as an ideal pathway to reduce generation cost by 15% and increase conversion efficiency by 20% (DISS, 1999). (Author)

  6. Cambios y significados de la paternidad en tres generaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Cano Rodas, Andrés Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Este estudio pretende comprender los cambios y significados de la paternidad y su ejercicio en padres de tres generaciones de familias cundiboyacenses. A través de una investigación cualitativa, se obtuvieron 21 relatos de vida (19 de padres y 2 de madres), distribuidos en tres generaciones. De esta forma se contó en varias familias con las narrativas del abuelo, el hijo y el nieto, cada uno acerca de su concepción de la paternidad y su paternar. Esto permitió comprender mejor los factores qu...

  7. Validation of a methodology for the study of generation cost of electric power for nuclear power plants; Validacion de una metodologia para el estudio de costos de generacion de electricidad de plantas nucleares de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega C, R.F.; Martin del Campo M, C. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rfortega@mexis.com

    2004-07-01

    It was developed a model for the calculation of costs of electric generation of nuclear plants. The developed pattern was validated with the one used by the United States Council for Energy Awareness (USCEA) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in studies of comparison of alternatives for electric generation of nuclear plants and fossil plants with base of gas and of coal in the United States described in the guides calls Technical Assessment Guides of EPRI. They are mentioned in qualitative form some changes in the technology of nucleo electric generation that could be included in the annual publication of Costs and Parameters of Reference for the Formulation of Projects of Investment in the Electric Sector of the Federal Commission of Electricity. These changes are in relation to the advances in the technology, in the licensing, in the construction and in the operation of the reactors called advanced as the A BWR built recently in Japan. (Author)

  8. Eighteen years of electric power generation by using sugar cane biomass in Cuba: retrospective, costs and environmental considerations; Dieciocho anos de generacion de electricidad con biomasa canera en Cuba: retrospectiva, costos y consideraciones ambientales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Pippo, Walrido; Del Rey Ocampo, Joaquin [Universidad de La Habana (Cuba). Inst. de Materiales y Reactivos]. E-mail: pippo@imre.oc.uh.cu

    2002-07-01

    From the data of the electric power cogeneration of the sugar industry behaviour , the utilization of the energy bagasse potential as industrial residue from the sugar production and the associated costs. A preliminary comparison is established on the costs of conventional electric power generation and the costa resulting from generation using bagasse. The paper also considers the industry operation regime as one of the determinant aspects for obtaining significant quantities of wastes to be used in electric power generation and also in the production of other energy carriers from the using of new thermochemical and thermo energetic conversion technologies. The paper performs a retrospective analysis of the environmental costs biomass use, under the twenty century modern criteria.

  9. Generation of shock fronts in the interaction of short pulses of intense laser light in supercritical plasma; Generacion de frentes de choque en la interaccion de pulsos cortos de luz laser intensa en plasmas supercriticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez V, V.E. [ITESST, 52650 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ondarza R, R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The investigation of the laser interaction with plasma has been carried out mainly in laboratories of Europe, Japan and United States during the last decades. This studies concern the propagation of intense light laser in a non homogeneous plasma, the radiation absorption and the generation of suprathermal electrons, among others. Numerical simulations made by Denavit, for radiation pulses for up of 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2} on solid targets, have allowed to observe the generation of ionic crash fronts with high propagation speeds. In this work it is expanded the study of this effect through algorithms of particles simulation. (Author)

  10. Sargent-IV Project. Development of new methodologies for safety analysis of Generation IV reactors; Proyecto SARGEB-IV. Desarrollo de nuevas metodologias de analisis de seguridad para reactores de Generacion IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queral, C.; Gallego, E.; Jimenez, G.

    2013-07-01

    The main result of this paper is the proposal for the addition of new ingredients in the safety analysis methodologies for Generation-IV reactors that integrates the features of probabilistic safety analysis within deterministic. This ensures a higher degree of integration between the classical deterministic and probabilistic methodologies.

  11. Generation of neutron cross sections library for the Thermos code of the Fuel management System (FMS); Generacion de la biblioteca de secciones eficaces de neutrones para el codigo Thermos del sistema de administracion de combustible (FMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso V, G.; Viais J, J. [ININ, Gcia. Sistemas Nucleares, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1990-10-15

    There is developed a method to generate the library of neutron cross sections for the Thermos code by means of the database ENDF-B/IV and the NJOY code. The obtained results are compared with the version previous of the library of neutron cross sections which was processed using the version ENDF-B/III. (Author)

  12. Study of a system of wind power generation for remote locations in Southern Chile; Estudio de un sistema de generacion de energia eolica para lugares aislados en el Sur de Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olfos, R. [Academia Politecnica Naval, Vina del Mar (Chile)], E-mail: rob@olfos.cl; Fernandez, G.; Lopez, M. [Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso (Chile). Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica], E-mail: mlopez@ucv.cl

    2009-07-01

    A study is carried out as a first draft to evaluate the technical feasibility of wind energy as a supplement of the existing power supply system available in isolated locations in Southern Chile, such as, Sea Mayors and Lighthouses. At present, most of these places are accessible only by sea and are supplied by diesel generators. This project aims to reduce the oil consumption which is transported in these remote zones by Chilean Navy ships. The responsible department of the Chilean Navy purchased a small Savonius type vertical 1000 Watts wind turbine to assess the feasibility of this project. This aims to encourage the use of wind, which is strong and permanent in these extreme latitudes of the southern zone. Evaluations of main parameters are conducted to obtain the generator rate and maximum operating range, e.g. the main variables that determine a wind generation system to match electricity demand, the types of wind generators and its power. Wind potential in the region is determined and an autonomous hybrid wind-diesel.

  13. Generation of the library of neutron cross sections for the Record code of the Fuel Management System (FMS); Generacion de la biblioteca de secciones eficaces de neutrones para el codigo Record del Sistema de Administracion de Combustible (FMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso V, G.; Hernandez L, H. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1991-11-15

    On the basis of the library structure of the RECORD code a method to generate the neutron cross sections by means of the ENDF-B/IV database and the NJOY code has been developed. The obtained cross sections are compared with those of the current library which was processed using the ENDF-B/III version. (Author)

  14. Utilization of high CO2 content formation gas for steam and electricity generation; Aprovechamiento del gas de formacion con alto contenido de CO2 para generacion de vapor y electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villagomez, Paul; Lamino, Marcelo; Jacome, Jose; Pastor, Santiago [EcuadorTLC, Quito (Ecuador). Grupo PETROBRAS

    2008-07-01

    Ecuador TLC SA, as part of the PETROBRAS Group, respecting its mission to act safe, cost-effectiveness, social and environmental responsibility, currently operates an oil production project in the Ecuatorian Amazon, known as Block 18. In Block 18, the process of gas burning is response for launch approximately 10 MMSCF of the gas associated with 77% CO2 in the environment. For this reason it was built a centralized power generation plants (PGE), of 17.38 MW, taking advantage of the gas with 77% CO2 from boilers to burn it, using it as a source of heat in a combined cycle steam turbines, generating electricity. This project is environmentally efficient with reduced emissions of CO2 and as reducing fuel costs to zero. The results of CO2 reduction is a corporate goal of PETROBRAS and this project will contribute to reducing CO2 emissions by approximately 400,000 Ton over the life of the project.

  15. Generation of stationary for the APS in other operation modes of NPPs Asco and Vandellos; Generacion de estacionarios para los APS en otros modos de operacion de las CCNN Asco y Vandellos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, I. J.; Martin Garcia, M.; Sol Sevillano, I.; Gonzalez Pindado, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    As part of the process of maintenance and continuous improvement of the probabilistic safety analysis by ANAV, the AP are being used to simulate sequences from all modes of operation, from full load to stop charging and the rear boot. In order to provide different starting points to begin the analysis, stationary have been generated for each mode of operation and with different operational States of the plant, according to General operating procedures in the simulation. (Author)

  16. Integration of direct steam generation with parabolic trough collector for electricity production. Project INDITEP 310; Integracion de la tecnologia de generacion directa de vapor con colectores cilindro-parabolicos para produccion de electricidad. Proyecto INDITEP 310

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, J.; Zarza, E.; Valenzuela, L.

    2004-07-01

    The Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) held during the latest years the test campaign of a new concept of direct steam generation in a real size parabolic trough collector row using solar energy. It has been experimentally demonstrated the possibility of replacing thermal oil by water as heat transfer fluid and the process technical and technological viability. The INDITEP project applies the acquired acknowledge for improving the efficiency and to reduce costs, designing, developing, testing and assessing new components able of improving technologically the system, the operating procedures for solar power plants and, performing a social and economic study of the technology. (Author)

  17. Business and regulation of access networks of new generation. an approximation to the Spanish case using real options; Negocio y regulacion de las redes de acceso de nueva generacion. Aproximacion al caso espanol aplicando opciones reales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo Olmedo, F.; Perez Amaral, T.

    2010-07-01

    Telecommunications carriers are deploying the so called New Generation Access (NGA) networks. These networks consist in substituting the last part of the network (the one that ends in the premises of the client) with optical fiber. This part of the network used to be made of copper. The investments in NGA imply considerable risks but can also constitute an impulse for other sectors. This research proposes a method for the evaluation of these investments including the implied real options. We also consider the regulatory implications of the obligations of renting the network to competitors. (Author) 22 refs.

  18. Thrombosis of second-generation drug-eluting stents in real practice results from the multicenter Spanish registry ESTROFA-2 (Estudio Español Sobre Trombosis de Stents Farmacoactivos de Segunda Generacion-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre Hernández, José M; Alfonso, Fernando; Gimeno, Federico; Diarte, Jose A; Lopez-Palop, Ramón; Pérez de Prado, Armando; Rivero, Fernando; Sanchis, Juan; Larman, Mariano; Diaz, Jose F; Elizaga, Jaime; Moreiras, Javier Martín; Gomez Jaume, Alfredo; Hernández, José M; Mauri, Josepa; Recalde, Angel Sánchez; Bullones, Juan A; Rumoroso, Jose R; Del Blanco, Bruno García; Baz, Jose A; Bosa, Francisco; Botas, Javier; Hernández, Felipe

    2010-09-01

    This study sought to evaluate second-generation drug-eluting stent (DES) thrombosis in clinical practice. First-generation DES are associated with a significant incidence of late thrombosis. There is paucity of data regarding real practice late thrombosis incidence and predictors with second-generation DES, zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES), and everolimus-eluting stents (EES). A prospective, large-scale, non-industry-linked multicenter registry was designed. Complete clinical-procedural data and systematic follow-up of all patients treated with these stents was reported in a dedicated registry supported by the Spanish Working Group on Interventional Cardiology. From 2005 to 2008, 4,768 patients were included in 34 centers: 2,549 treated with ZES, and 2,219 with EES. The cumulative incidence of definite/probable thrombosis for ZES was 1.3% at 1 year and 1.7% at 2 years and for EES 1.4% at 1 year and 1.7% at 2 years (p = 0.8). The increment of definite thrombosis between the first and second year was 0.2% and 0.25%, respectively. In a propensity score analysis, the incidence remained very similar. Ejection fraction (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95 to -0.99; p = 0.008), stent diameter (adjusted HR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.17to 0.81; p = 0.01) and bifurcations (adjusted HR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.14 to 3.7; p = 0.02) emerged as independent predictors of thrombosis. In the subgroup of patients with bifurcations, the use of ZES was independently associated with a higher thrombosis rate (adjusted HR: 4; 95% CI: 1.1 to 13; p = 0.03). In a real practice setting, the incidence of thrombosis at 2 years with ZES and EES was low and quite similar. The incidence of very late thrombosis resulted lower than was reported in registries of first-generation DES. In the subset of bifurcations, the use of ZES significantly increased the risk of thrombosis. Copyright © 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of generation and optimization of libraries of effective sections in the analysis of transient in PWR reactors; Efectos de generacion y optimizacion de librerias de secciones eficaces en el analisis de transitorios en reactores PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Cervera, S.; Garcia Herranz, N.; Cuervo, D.; Ahnert, C.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper evaluates the impact that has a certain mesh on a transient in a PWR reactor in the expulsion of a control bar. Have been used for this purpose the coupled codes neutronic and Thermo-hydraulic COBAYA3/COBRA-TF. This objective has been chosen the OECD/NEA PWR MOX/UO{sub 2} rod ejection transient benchmark provides isotopic compositions and defined geometric configurations that allow the use of codes lattice to generate own bookstores. The code used for this transport has been the code APOLLO2.8. The results show large discrepancies when using the benchmark library or libraries own by comparing them to the other participants solutions. The source of these discrepancies is the nodal effective sections provided in the benchmark. (Author)

  20. Westinghouse experiences with HTR as the basis for design of the New Generation of Nuclear Power Plants (NGNP); Experiencias de Estinghouse con el HTR como Base para el diseno de la Nueva Generacion de Centrales Nucleares (BGNP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoning, J.; Esch, M.; Knoche, D.; Freis, D.; Finken, H.; Drifhout, F.

    2010-07-01

    For more than three decades Germany had a very ambitious High Temperature Reactor (HTR) program which included numerous research activities and the construction and operation of two HTRs. The whole program had a volume of more than 6 billion D-Marks and covered activities of industry, research centres and universities. Within this program the physical feasibility of a pebble bed HTR was power for the first time in the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) research reactor at Research Centre Julich (FZJ). Later it served as a test bed for new developed fuel as well as test reactor for numerous successful experiments on the inherent safety of this special type of nuclear reactor. The subsequent power plant THTR-300 with a rated electrical power of 300 MWel at Hamm-Uentrop was constructed as a demonstration plant. With THTR-300 the feasibility of a large commercial pebble bed reactor was demonstrated. Both reactors were built in the state of North-Rhine Westphalia with its traditional resources of coal and its heavy and chemical industry. HTRs were specifically meant to provide process heat to these industries and with the Project Nuclear Process Heat (PNP) a plant was developed to serve this means. Based on this HTR specific expertise and on actual experience from AP1000TM development and construction, Westinghouse has the overall expertise in house to design a generation IV reactor system in the near term future. On HTR specific systems and components the maturity of the technology was demonstrated with THTR-300. Potential design approaches for future HTR concepts for process heat generation are discussed. (Author) 1 refs.

  1. Instruction by virtual reality to operation and security of a nuclear power plant of IV generation; Instruccion por realidad virtual a la operacion y seguridad de una central nuclear de generacion IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri O, J. C.; Baltasar M, J.; Valle H, J. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Campus Morelos, UNAM, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Col. Progreso, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)], e-mail: neriunam@ieee.org

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of LaNuVi project which is developing in the Engineering Faculty of National Autonomous University of Mexico, to have a virtual laboratory of nuclear reactors as tool of multidisciplinary education at basic and advanced levels in nuclear engineering area, involves training resources in audio visual and interactive form that allow to form a comprehension more realistic of operation of different systems and components. In this work is proposed to use educational resources, as the employees in the U.S. Army and in some centers of advanced education of medicine, where have been come proving concepts like projected reality, increased reality, tele transparency and others that present big benefits to learning-education process. The proposal here is to include the resource knew as serious game based learning. The focal point of stage that is presented is of a nuclear reactor PBMR like desalination and generator of controlled alternating energy and efficient that should put on in operation to allow the subsistence of a community in a desolated region of beginning second quarter of X XI century. For this purpose the designs are initiated and programmed several subsystems that allow the three-dimensional modeling of main components of a PBMR as well as of surrounding facilities. The obtained results and reaches of this design are presented. The product is in tests for a first version and it is hope to achieve a free and integral resource of national distribution for different cultural groups, interested in this type of advanced technology. (Author)

  2. Generation of initial geometries for the simulation of the physical system in the DualPHYsics code; Generacion de geometrias iniciales para la simulacion del sistema fisico en el codigo DualSPHysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura Q, E.

    2013-07-01

    In the diverse research areas of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) are different activities related to science and technology, one of great interest is the study and treatment of the collection and storage of radioactive waste. Therefore at ININ the draft on the simulation of the pollutants diffusion in the soil through a porous medium (third stage) has this problem inherent aspects, hence a need for such a situation is to generate the initial geometry of the physical system For the realization of the simulation method is implemented smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). This method runs in DualSPHysics code, which has great versatility and ability to simulate phenomena of any physical system where hydrodynamic aspects combine. In order to simulate a physical system DualSPHysics code, you need to preset the initial geometry of the system of interest, then this is included in the input file of the code. The simulation sets the initial geometry through regular geometric bodies positioned at different points in space. This was done through a programming language (Fortran, C + +, Java, etc..). This methodology will provide the basis to simulate more complex geometries future positions and form. (Author)

  3. Generation of shock fronts in the interaction of the short pulses of intense laser light in supercritical plasma; Generacion de frentes de choque en la interaccion de pulsos cortos de luz laser intensa en plasmas supercriticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez V, V.E

    2004-07-01

    The plasma is the state of the matter but diffused in the nature. The sun and the stars big heaps of hot plasma can be considered. The external surface of the terrestrial atmosphere this recovered by a layer of plasma. All gassy discharge (lightning spark arch etc.) this related with the formation of plasma. This way, 99 percent of our environment this formed almost of plasma. It is denominated plasma to the ionized gas in the one which all or most of the atoms have lost one or several of the electrons that belonged him, becoming positive ions and free electrons. In the plasma certain physical characteristics exist as for their behavior like they are the collective movements the quasi neutrality, the Debye length, the uncertainty etc. All these behaviors make that the study of the plasma is complex. For this they exist technical of numeric simulation joined to the technological advance of big computers of more capacity and prosecution speed. The simulation techniques of particles are those where a numeric code is built based on a model or theory of a system that it is wanted to investigate. This way through the simulation the results are compared with those theoretical predictions based on an analytic model. The applications of the physics of the plasma are multiple however we focus ourselves in the interaction laser-plasma. Both finish decades of investigation in the interaction of lasers with plasma they have been carried out in laboratories of Europe, Japan, United States. This studies concern the propagation of intense light laser in dense plasma homogeneous, the radiation absorption in cold plasma and problems related with the generation of suprathermal electrons among others. Other areas of the physics of the plasma-laser interaction that it has been considerable attention is the broadly well-known field as parametric uncertainties induced instabilities by the light and that they include the dispersions for example stimulated Raman and Brillouin being able to

  4. Generaciones futuras y personalidad jurídica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander López Quiroz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Según el artículo 3 la ley 99 de 1993, en Colombia se trata a las generaciones futuras (GF como sujetos de derechos y obligaciones, porque según la ley colombiana y la mayoría de tratados internacionales de carácter ambiental ratificados por el país, las GF tienen el derecho de recibir de la generación presente “unos recursos naturales y un ambiente en tales condiciones que les permita satisfacer sus necesidades de vida”. desde esta óptica ¿son las generaciones futuras reconocidas por el derecho colombiano como sujetos de derechos y obligaciones? ¿Cuentan estas con personalidad jurídica? Este documento busca dar respuesta a estos interrogantes a partir de una revisión de los conceptos de persona y personalidad jurídica dentro del marco del Código Civil colombiano.

  5. ¿Que hay de nuevo en las nuevas generaciones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URIEL ESPITIA VASQUEZ

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pueden cifrarse expectativas de renovación instituyente en los niños y jóvenes, o son ellos un mero síntoma de la declinación del padre en la cultura? esta aparente dicotomía no solo habla de una diferencia entre épocas o entre generaciones, sino del comp

  6. CREENCIAS MARIANISTAS EN DIFERENTES GENERACIONES DE MUJERES GUATEMALTECAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C. Sierra de Gamalero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio investigó las creencias marianistas en diferentes generaciones de mujeres guatemaltecas con el objetivo de identificar si tales creencias se sostienen de generación en generación. Se evaluó un total de 50 mujeres guatemaltecas de 5 generaciones distintas con quienes se utilizó la Escala de Creencias Marianistas, elaborada por Castillo, Pérez, Castillo y Ghosheh (2010. En dicha escala se exploran cinco pilares básicos del marianismo: el pilar familiar, el modelo de virtuosidad y castidad, subordinación a otros, el silenciarse para mantener la armonía y el pilar espiritual. Se encontró que en Guatemala aún persisten creencias marianistas intergeneracionales sobre todo en aquellas relacionadas con la virtuosidad y castidad, que la educación influye directamente en las creencias marianistas y que el pilar espiritual es muy importante en mujeres de mayor edad. Lo que implica la necesidad de revisar el ideal femenino que se transmite a las nuevas generaciones y de incrementar el nivel educativo de la mujer guatemalteca.

  7. El salto generacional y el discurso social en El Graduado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Martín, Marcos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En español: El Graduado es una de las películas más representativas del movimiento cinematográfico denominado New Hollywood dado en Estados Unidos a finales de la década de los sesenta y principios de los setenta por varios motivos: la gran audiencia y repercusión mediática que cosechó durante su exposición cinematográfica, la diversidad que originó en el terreno de la crítica especializada y el estatus icónico que desde entonces mantiene. Basándonos en la teoría del cine de temática contemporánea como representante más o menos fiel de los acontecimientos históricos y sociales que le rodean, en este artículo analizamos la suficiencia del filme de Mike Nichols como evidencia del cambio cultural y el salto generacional dado en la época y analizamos su carácter de película revolucionaria -haciendo hincapié tanto en su relación con la contracultura como en su controvertido final- desde el punto de vista ideológico y de la caracterización de los personajes. In english: The Graduate is one of the most representative films of late sixties and early seventies cinema movement New Hollywood in the United States for several reasons: the large audience and media impact during its showing, the disagreements in the specialized criticism and the iconic status it has since then. Based on the theory of films as representations of their contemporary historical and social events, in this paper we analyze the value of Mike Nichols film as evidence of the cultural change and generation gap of the period. We analyze its revolutionary character -paying attention both to its relation with counterculture and to its controversial ending- from the ideological and character description points of view.

  8. Fuzzy-logic-based supervisory controller for the management of energy in a hybrid system; Control supervisorio difuso para sistemas hibridos de generacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagunas, J.; Caratozzolo, P.; Ortega, C.; Gonzalez, R.

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents and validates the use of a fuzzy-logic-based supervisory controller for the management of energy in a hybrid system. The general configuration of the hybrid system is presented as well as the operational objectives of the supervisory controller. The inputs and outputs of the controller are also presented along with the hierarchical structure employed in order to reduce the number of rules in the knowledge base. The results obtained are compared against those of a conventional controller. Simulations were carried out using Matlab. (Author)

  9. Las nuevas generaciones de motores de aviación

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    El estudio de las nuevas generaciones de motores de aviación se llevará a cabo considerando las dos posibles líneas de desarrollo: las mejoras en las características y performances de los motores actuales, y los nuevos tipos de motores que se encuentran actualmente en investigación o en fases iniciales de desarrollo. Entre los motores actuales en la aviación civil, el motor más representativo es el turborreactor de doble flujo o turbofán de elevada relación de flujos, optimizado para e...

  10. Energy saving based on the reduction of losses in the transmission and distribution of the power generated incrementing the transmission capacities by means of the use of direct current; Ahorro de energia basado en la reduccion de perdidas en la transmision y redistribucion de la generacion al ampliar las capacidades de transmision por medio del empleo de la transmision en corriente directa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meraz Ateca, E.; Alanis Rodriguez, J.P.; Salinas Barrera, H.; Arechiga Rodriguez, L.D.; Guerrero Garza, J.J. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This paper proposes the use of the technology for the transmission of direct current that provides a saving in losses in the order of 50% in transmitting the same power as the line energized with A.C., as well as having a larger transmission capacity, since the limiting factor in operating with D.C. is given by its thermal capacity. The cost of the terminal stations is high in comparison with that of A.C., therefore it should be compensated with the benefits of the D.C. transmission. The project proposal is as a first option, to utilize the 400 KV power lines of Carbon II-Lampazos-Escobedo as a single line in Direct Current, reducing by this means about 12% of the existing losses and increasing the existing transmission capacity from the coal power stations of Rio Escondido and Carbon II. For 1995 it will be Also available 2600 MW of generating capacity and practically four circuits of 400 KV to transmit power to the Monterrey Metropolitan Area, reaching this site approximately 1500 MW. It is proposed to transmit 750 MW through the D.C. line in bi-polar way. The investment will consist only in the two conversion stations, that for a power capacity of 750 MW will be in the order of 103 millions of dollars. This cost includes the switching equipment for A.C., filters for harmonics, banks of VARS to compensate for a unit power factor, transformers, converters, ground electrodes, communications, buildings, land site preparation, project management costs and the preliminary and engineering studies costs. These costs can be reduced in accordance with the detail studies, for instance: there is enough capacity in Vars in the generating units, the transmission is always one-way, the utilization of diodes instead of thyristors. For the established conditions, there is a reduction of 10 MW, a 23.82 million dollars saving, and besides a larger Also available transmission capacity in the order of 500 MW, additionally, when operating with direct current, equipment from the

  11. Failure analysis to the weights of balance of a 350 MW turbo-generator; Analisis de falla a los pesos de balanceo de un turbogenerador de 350 MW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vital Flores, Francisco; Gamero Arroyo, Jose Manuel [LAPEM, Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    The selection of materials and the quality control in the supply of the components, as well as the involved operative variables in the process of work to which an equipment, device or a system of a power station of electrical generation are subjected, impact in the same in their useful life in a decisive way. In this document it is presented an analysis of a failure occurred in a 350 MW turbo-generator by the loosening of the balance weights, in which it is mentioned the flaws occurred by this cause and a metallographic analysis that indicates the main fault for the happening. [Spanish] La seleccion de material y el control de calidad en los suministros de los componentes, asi como las variables operativas involucradas en el proceso de trabajo al cual es sometido un equipo, dispositivo o un sistema de una central de generacion electrica, impactan en los mismos de manera decisiva en su vida util. En este documento se presenta un analisis de falla ocurrido en un turbogenerador de 350 MW, por el desprendimiento de los pesos de balanceo, el cual se menciona de los desperfectos ocurridos por esta causa y un analisis metalografico que indica la falla principal por lo ocurrido.

  12. The Spanish energetic mix; prevision and historic evolution of the electric production structure; El mix energetico espanol; evolucion historica y prevista de la estructura de produccion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revuelta, J.; Lopez Sanz, R.

    2010-07-01

    This article describes the past and forecasted evolution of the electric production of the Spanish system (excluding the Spanish isolated systems), according to the records of the System Operator, Red Electrica de Espana, and the studies of its Network Planning department. The behaviour of the demand is analysed, as well as the evolution of the generation mix. The article expose the main recent changes the sector has undergone and points out the main future challenge it will face regarding the forecasted evolution of the demand, the integration of renewable energy sources, and the energy objectives established at European and national level. (Author)

  13. Evaluation of the bimetallic receiver Cu-Fe under the flexion phenomenon in parabolic concentrators in the direct steam generation; Evaluacion del receptor bimetalico Cu-Fe bajo el fenomeno de flexion, en concentradores parabolicos en la generacion directa de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Vicente; Lentz, Alvaro; Almanza, Rafael [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In this paper the results of experimental tests as a part of the study of the flexion phenomenon of the absorbent tube in concentrators of parabolic channel during the process of direct steam generation (GDV), are presented. The flexion phenomenon of the tube has already been studied, in which it has been established that occurs under conditions of change of temperature gradients in the tube surface, when a stratified flow pattern of appears, which leads to a local overheating of the internal wall of the receiver, when the two phase flow begins, with relatively low massic flows. In the normal configuration of the absorbent iron tube, this one is surrounded with a glass tube to avoid thermal losses to the environment: when the metallic tube bends due to thermal stresses, displacements of 6 cm are reached for wrought iron with a wall thickness of 1.9 mm with selective film: for wrought iron with a wall thickness of 3.8 mm without selective film nor transparent cover bendings of 3 cm have been attained. This way the glass tube is subjected to a cross sectional shearing stress when the absorber touches it during its bending, giving rise also to the rupture of the same. In order to give a solution to this problem, at the Instituto de Engineering, a bi-metallic copper- steel tube 3 m long and 32 mm of diameter was built and installed in the parabolic concentrator and the flexion phenomenon was experienced. Results of experimental tests for the steel and the bimetallic steel receiver, without the glass cover nor the selective film and for the bimetallic receiver with the glass cover, are presented. They are compared among them departing from the temperatures in the lower and the upper part of the cross-sectional section of the tube and of the flexion of each one, concluding that the compound receiver copper-steel, up to now, fulfills better the expectations of eliminating the flexion phenomenon under the operating conditions of the solar plant during the GDV. [Spanish] Se

  14. Movilidad profesional y generacional del comunicador de la Universidad del Altiplano

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanchez Olavarria, Cesar

    2012-01-01

    En el presente estudio se analiza la movilidad ocupacional y generacional del comunicador de la Universidad del Altiplano, ubicada en el estado de Tlaxcala, tomando en cuenta el periodo de egreso y el genero...

  15. AnGel System for the diagnosis of generators in operation; Sistema AnGeL para el diagnostico de generadores en operacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Torre V, H. Octavio; Ramirez N, J. Tomas; Pascacio de los S, Alberth; Reyes M, Oscar A; Carrillo C, Jaime; Iturbe F, Marlene [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Ponce de Leon V, Eugenio [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The continuous monitoring of the electrical variables of a generator allows the knowing of the operating status of the main components of the equipment, which is helpful at the time of emitting a diagnosis of the same one. System of diagnosis for generators of operation, denominated AnGel System (acronym of Analysis of Generators in Line). The system was developed by the Management of Electrical equipment of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and implemented in the six units of generation of the Manzanillo Thermoelectric Unit. The present article includes a description of the main components and functions. The world-wide tendency in monitoring systems of the fault statistics, were key elements in defining the variable to be monitored: Partial discharges (PD), Shaft current (SC), Neutral current (NC), Tangential Magnetic (TM) flux, Voltages and currents of line (as reference to the operation point). The main processes of deterioration that are intended to be observed with each one of these variables are described with greater thoroughness in the article Sistema AnGel: Aspectos teorico-practicos para el diagnostico de generadores en operacion (AnGel System: Theoretical-practical aspects for the diagnosis of generators in operation), contained in the section of Research Activities in this same issue of the IIE bulletin. [Spanish] La monitorizacion continua de las variables electricas de un generador permite conocer el estado operativo de los principales componentes del equipo, lo que es de ayuda a la hora de emitir un diagnostico del mismo. Sistema de diagnostico para generadores de operacion, denominado Sistema AnGeL (acronimo de Analisis de Generadores en Linea). El sistema fue desarrollado por la Gerencia de Equipos Electricos del IIE e implementado en las seis unidades de generacion del Complejo Termoelectrico Manzanillo. El presente articulo incluye una descripcion de los principales componentes y funciones. La tendencia mundial en sistemas de

  16. Incorporation of a wind generator model into a dynamic power flow analysis; Incorporacion de un modelo de generador eolico al analisis de flujos dinamicos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles Camacho, C.; Banuelos Ruedas, F. [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: cangelesc@iingen.unam.mx; fbanuelosr@iingen.unam.mx

    2011-07-15

    Wind energy is nowadays one of the most cost-effective and practical options for electric generation from renewable resources. However, increased penetration of wind generation causes the power networks to be more depend on, and vulnerable to, the varying wind speed. Modeling is a tool which can provide valuable information about the interaction between wind farms and the power network to which they are connected. This paper develops a realistic characterization of a wind generator. The wind generator model is incorporated into an algorithm to investigate its contribution to the stability of the power network in the time domain. The tool obtained is termed dynamic power flow. The wind generator model takes on account the wind speed and the reactive power consumption by induction generators. Dynamic power flow analysis is carried-out using real wind data at 10-minute time intervals collected for one meteorological station. The generation injected at one point into the network provides active power locally and is found to reduce global power losses. However, the power supplied is time-varying and causes fluctuations in voltage magnitude and power flows in transmission lines. [Spanish] La energia eolica es hoy en dia una de las opciones mas efectivas y practicas para la generacion de electricidad a partir de energias renovables. Sin embargo, el incremento de la penetracion de energia eolica provoca que los sistemas de potencia se vuelvan mas dependientes y vulnerables a las variaciones de la velocidad del viento. El modelado es una herramienta que provee informacion valiosa de la interaccion dinamica entre las turbinas eolicas y las redes de potencia a las que se conectan. El presente articulo desarrolla una caracterizacion realista de un modelo de la turbina eolica. El modelo de la turbina eolica se incorpora a un algoritmo para el analisis de su contribucion a la estabilidad de una red electrica en el dominio del tiempo. La herramienta obtenida se conoce como flujos

  17. Generating power stations and optimization energetic of processes; Centrales generadoras y optimacion energetica de procesos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Ramirez, Ranulfo; Fernandez Montiel, Manuel Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Some recent experiences of the Management of Thermal Processes of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) related to the works on generating power stations of electricity, plants of cogeneration and energy saving are presented. [Spanish] Se presentan algunas experiencias recientes de la Gerencia de Procesos Termicos del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) relacionadas con los trabajos sobre centrales generadoras de electricidad, plantas de cogeneracion y ahorro de energia.

  18. El salto generacional y el discurso social en El Graduado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos DÍAZ MARTÍN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El Graduado es una de las películas más representativas del movimiento cinematográfico denominado New Hollywood dado en Estados Unidos a finales de la década de los sesenta y principios de los setenta por varios motivos: la gran audiencia y repercusión mediática que cosechó durante su exposición cinematográfica, la diversidad que originó en el terreno de la crítica especializada y el estatus icónico que desde entonces mantiene. Basándonos en la teoría del cine de temática contemporánea como representante más o menos fiel de los acontecimientos históricos y sociales que le rodean, en este artículo analizamos la suficiencia del filme de Mike Nichols como evidencia del cambio cultural y el salto generacional dado en la época y analizamos su carácter de película revolucionaria -haciendo hincapié tanto en su relación con la contracultura como en su controvertido final- desde el punto de vista ideológico y de la caracterización de los personajes.

  19. El recambio generacional y la organización universitaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    magdalena fresán orozco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El futuro de la universidad es una preocupación presente; su análisis y consideración en el debate actual, incitan a imaginar cómo conservará en las próximas décadas su papel de institución trascendente para la sociedad, ante los retos y tendencias que hoy exigen su transformación. Por ello, en este trabajo los autores sugieren la coexistencia en el futuro de tres modelos de universidad, cuyo elemento estructurante más importante es la carrera académica. Esta carrera, asociada actualmente a la figura de la definitividad constituye uno de los principales obstáculos para el cambio organizacional; sin embargo, el inminente recambio generacional que viviránlas universidades en la próxima década podrá catalizar transformaciones sustantivas que impulsarán a las instituciones educativas a un proceso de renovación necesaria frente a un mundo cada vez más complejo.

  20. Electric grid in Spain: a private network of optical fiber with national coverage; Red electrica de Espana: una red privada de fibra optica con cobertura nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, A.

    1995-12-31

    Red Electrica constructed a grid with optical fiber in 1989 for the grids of 400-220 Kv. In 1995 the length of the grid will be of 6.600 Km. This grid supplies the telecommunication advanced services and contributes in the efficiency and quality of different tasks of Red Electrica.

  1. Steady state analysis and Eastern power system dynamic PDVSA EyP considering incorporating Furrial and PIGAP II generation plants; Analisis en regimen permanente y dinamico del sistema electrico de PDVSA EyP Oriente considerando la incorporacion de las plantas de generacion Furrial y PIGAP II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, S [Universidad Nacional Experimental Politecnica, Antonio Jose de Sucre, Guayana, Bolivar (Venezuela)]. E-mail: sergiodrg200@gmail.com; Vasquez, C [Petroleos de Venezuela S.A., Maturin, Monagas (Venezuela)]. E-mail: vasquezcp@pdvsa.com

    2013-03-15

    This paper is focused on steady state and dynamic analysis of Eastern Power System of Petroleum of Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA) Exploration and Production, considering new single cycle gas turbine power plants in Punta de Mata and El Furrial operational areas that will start up in 2015. Network operating conditions were determined, specifically the behavior of power flows and voltage profiles in normal condition of operation and under Contingencies N-1 in PDVSA Power System, as well as the short-circuit levels at all buses of the transmission network. Afterward, it was evaluated the impact on the network caused by the starting of the biggest motor in the system, considering island operation, verifying that it's necessary to maintain the interconnection with the National Electric System. For motor starting study, machine dynamic model was determined by mean of parameters estimation of its equivalent circuit, as well as the application of nonlinear regression methods in order to obtain load model using the information supplied by the manufacturer. [Spanish] El presente trabajo esta enfocado al analisis del comportamiento en regimen permanente y dinamico del sistema electrico de Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA) Exploracion y Produccion Oriente, considerando la incorporacion de nuevas Plantas de Generacion Termoelectricas de Ciclo Simple a Gas que entraran en operacion en las areas operacionales de Punta de Mata y El Furrial para el ano 2015. Se determinaron las condiciones de operacion de la red, especificamente el comportamiento de los flujos de potencia y perfiles de voltaje en Condicion Normal de operacion y bajo Contingencias N-1 dentro del Sistema de PDVSA, asi como el incremento en los niveles de cortocircuito en todas las barras de la red de transmision. Luego se evaluo el impacto en la red originado por el arranque del motor de mayor capacidad considerando la posible operacion en isla del sistema, determinandose que es necesario operar interconectado con el

  2. Standardization for electric energy saving; Normalizacion para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Diaz, Arturo [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This work describes shortly the current legislation on the standardization; as well as the participation of the entities Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) and Programa de Ahorro de Energia (PAESE) in the consulting committees, for the elaboration of the Mexican official standards focussed to electric power saving. [Espanol] El presente trabajo, describe brevemente la legislacion actual sobre la normalizacion; asi como la participacion de las entidades Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) y Programa de ahorro de Energia (PAESE) en los comites consultivos, para la elaboracion de normas oficiales mexicanas enfocadas al ahorro de energia electrica.

  3. Pandillas en el Atlántico Latino: Identidad, Transnacionalismo y generaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Queirolo Palmas

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo está guiado por la idea de que la multiplicación y el crecimiento de organizaciones callejeras en distintas partes del mundo están relacionados con la identidad, el surgimiento de vidas transnacionales y nuevas formas de entender las generaciones. En la primera parte del documento, se busca explicar la reproducción global de estas agrupaciones que surgen como experiencias locales. En la segunda parte, y a través de la experiencia de los Latin Kings, se intenta mostrar la lógica identitaria de estos grupos, respondiendo específicamente a la pregunta de qué significa ser “latino”. Finalmente, se examina cómo se expresa el transnacionalismo en la vida de los miembros de estos grupos y su construcción de la generación.This article is founded in the notion that the proliferation and growth of ‘street organizations´ around the world are connected to the construction of identities, the emergence of transnational lives and new forms of understanding generations. The first part of the article seeks to explain the global reproduction of these groups, which start as local organizations. The second part answers to the specific question: What does it mean to be “latino”?, in order to do that the experience of Latin Kings members is used. Finally, the author analyzes the way in which transnationalism is expressed in the day to day lives of those who belong to these groups.

  4. UNESA annual statistical report 2000; UNESA memoria-estadistica electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    UNESA is an organisation of Spanish electric utilities. This review summarises activities and achievements during the year. Financial statements of the electricity industry as of 31 December 1997 are presented. An overview is presented of Spain's new electricity system, installed transmissions and distribution lines, electricity generation, electricity demand, economic and financial aspects of the electricity industry, and prices, rates, billing and supply conditions. The report includes statistical tables on installed capacity, electricity generation, consumption and demand, international exchanges of electricity, circuit lengths of transmission and distribution lines, and electricity balances for Spain.

  5. Worker flag. Independent Electrical Policy; Bandera Obrera. Politica Electrica Independiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahen, D. [Sindicato Unico de Trabajadores de la Industria Nuclear, Salazar, Estado de Mexico C.P. 52045 (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This work analyses the initiative of privatization of the Mexican Electric Industry and also it is showed the incoherence of this mistaken proposal. Along the same line is analysed tthe situation of the National Electric Sector and the working process for the distinct types of electric generation just as the syndical and labor situations. In consequence it is proposed an Independent Electrical Policy, which includes the integration of the Nationalized Electric Industry, the syndical union and the Unique Collective Contract. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the success of the electrical and nuclear struggle always maintaining in rising position the red flag of the proletariat. The author considers that the privatization means mercantilization of the human necessities. The privatization is not inevitable at condition of to exercise consequently the political actions necessary through alternatives includes: the worker control of production, research, and the National Electric strike. (Author)

  6. Study on generation and granulometry of a standard aerosol of CINa for use in determinations of filtration efficiency of absolute filters; Estudio sobre la generacion y granulometria de un aerosol patron de CINa para la determinacion de eficacias filtrantes de filtros absolutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milla, E.

    1978-07-01

    This work has as objective the study of the conditions of generation and granulometry of an aerosol generated by atomizing with compressed a i r a solution of CINa in water in order to obtain particles, CINa cubes. The droplets of the spray formed are dried in a stream of air, acting as a carrier, inside the pipe of a bank of test filters. The granulometric analysis has been carried out by sampling in the gaseous phase. A dispersion photometer was used that yields the size spectrum of particles. The variables concerned in generation, whose influence on aerosol granulometry were analyzed are: characteristic diameter of atomizer unit, pressure of compressed air of generation, concentration of saline solution, temperature of air carrier, length of bank pipe, sampling position across a section, length of sampling duct and ratio between speeds in pipe and duct. (Author) 50 refs.

  7. Generation of sequences of daily radiation values using a library of Markov transition matrices. Application of weather station in tre University od Vigo; Generacion de secuencias de radiacion diaria utilizando librerias de matrices de Markov. Aplicacion a la estacion meteorologica de la Universidad de Vigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieres, J. A.; Vazquez, M.; Fernandez-Seara, J.

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, the generation of sequences of daily radiation values using a library of Markov transition matrices is analysed. The paper describes the fundamentals of the method employed and how sequences of daily radiation can be generated using as input monthly averaged values of the clearness index. The method is applied to the location where the Solar Energy Lab Weather Station of the University of Vigo (longitude 8 degree 41' 18'' O, latitude 42 degree 10' 9'' N) is placed. Radiation sequences are generated for the years 2002 and 2003 and the results are compared with measured radiation values. Results of statistical tests show a bad performance of the generation method for the location studied. (Author)

  8. New generation's work and life balance expectations and professional choices/ Las expectativas de equilibrio entre vida laboral y vida privada y las elecciones laborales de la nueva generacion/As expectativas de equilibrio entre vida laboral e vida privada e as escolhas laborais da nova geracao

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golik, Mariela

    2013-01-01

    .... This study explores the expectations of the present generation with regards to personal and work life balance, considering parents and gender influence, as well as their impact on professional choices...

  9. Generation of the ECP database (ECP02.DAT) at the beginning of the cycle 1 of the Unit 1 of Laguna Verde; Generacion de la base ECP (ECP02.DAT) al inicio del ciclo 1 de la Unidad 1 de Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perusquia C, R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1992-10-15

    In order to carrying out a comparison among the results provided for the Program of Estimate of the ECP Critical Position and the Shutdown/Startup produced in the Cycle 1 of the Unit 1 of Laguna Verde, it was generated the base of the ECP program, following the outlines settled down in the Procedure 'Generation of ECP Database for Laguna Verde' (IT.SN/DFR 074). Next the data sheets filled when being generated the ECP02.DAT database at the beginning of the cycle are provided. In the IT.SN/DFR 079 report 'Adjustment and Preliminary Evaluation of the Predictions of Criticity of the ECP Program with Reported Data of Cycle 1 of the Unit 1 of Laguna Verde, the results of the comparison among the estimates of the ECP program using the ECP02.DAT with the real data of the Cycle 1 of the Unit 1 of Laguna Verde are presented. (Author)

  10. X-ray generation by the interaction of laser pulses of GW and high repetition rate, with solid targets of Al, Cu, Cd and Au; Generacion de rayos X por interaccion de pulsos laser de GW y alta tasa de repeticion, con blancos solidos de Al, Cu, Cd, Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca Cuenca, C.; Rodriguez Entem, D.; Mendez Valverde, C.; Roso Franco, L.; Fernandez Gonzalez, F.

    2011-07-01

    In the present study we characterized the Bremsstrahlung radiation and X-ray emission associated with the radiation emitted during the interaction of laser pulses incident on solid targets of different material and discusses the radiation risk generated by the nature of this interaction.

  11. Gasification of heavy fuels to produce electrical energy and hydrogen; Gasificacion de combustibles pesados para producir energia electrica e hidrogeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera Garcia, Oscar Alberto [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico(UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    A description is presented of the different types of integrated gasifiers that at the moment are used in the synthesis gas production to be used, with different fuels in the generation of electricity in Combined Cycle. Three cases of application of integrated gasifiers are analyzed. The first it is the engine power upgrade of a Combined Cycle power plant to natural gas to burn fuel of bad quality in an integrated gasifier (CCGI). The second one examines the incorporation of a shift reactor in which the synthesis gas is transformed into CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} which are used to move the turbine to gas, adapted for pure hydrogen. Finally is studied the amount of other by-products that can be obtained from these co-generation cycles such as CO{sub 2} to be used in secondary recovery of oil wells, N{sub 2} to be used in the fertilizer industry or in the proper oil production and H{sub 2} to be used in the oil industry or the generation with fuel cells. All the cases are studied in quantitative form, making the balance of mass and energy of each one of them. In order to give more practical sense to the calculations, the engineering data of the Valladolid Power station of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) have been taken as base. This article provides a basic idea, but very practical, to estimate the fuel consumption of the different modes of arrangement of a CCGI power station, as well as the volumes of the different gases that can be produced and the modifications to the size of the equipment that is required. [Spanish] Se presenta una descripcion de los diferentes tipos de gasificadores integrados que actualmente se utilizan en la produccion de gas de sintesis para ser utilizados, con diferentes combustibles, en la generacion de electricidad con Ciclo Combinado. Se analizan tres casos de aplicacion de gasificadores integrados. El primero es la repotenciacion de una planta de Ciclo Combinado a gas natural para quemar combustible de mala calidad en un gasificador

  12. Considerations on the feasibility of using wind energy for electricity generation in the regional areas of the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina; Consideraciones sobre la viabilidad del uso de energia eolica para la generacion de electricidad en el ambito regional de la Provincia de Santa Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, Roberto E.; Nachez, Antonio E. [Universidad Nacional de Rosario (Argentina). Fac. de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura. Dept. de Electronica], Emails: rgibbons@eie.fceia.unr.edu.ar, anachez@eie.fceia.unr.edu.ar

    2009-07-01

    This article presents the current status of the use of wind power and evaluating the factors that affecting the implementation in the generation of electricity. From information available on the winds in four cities in the Santa Fe Province, calculate the potential of generation to determine the feasibility of using energy wind as an alternative source of energy in the province. The information was provided by the Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Planning, National Weather Service Meteorological Information Center and consists of a total of 8462 measurements of wind speed and direction in hourly intervals during each day of the year 2007, in weather stations located in the towns of Ceres, Rosario, Reconquista and Sauce Viejo. Using data collected by weather stations in the expressions for the calculation of available power in the wind, it is shown that the study areas are not suitable for utilization of wind energy.

  13. Generation of the ECP database (ECP01.DAT) of the cycle 1 of the Unit 1 of Laguna Verde with burnt of 1377 MWD/MT; Generacion de la base ECP (ECP01.DAT) del ciclo 1 de la Unidad 1 de Laguna Verde con quemado de 1377 MWD/MT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perusquia C, R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1992-10-15

    In order to carrying out a comparison among the results provided by the Program of Estimate of the ECP Critical Position and the Shutdown/Startup produced in the Cycle 1 of the Unit 1 of Laguna Verde, it was generated the base of the ECP program, following the outlines settled down in the Procedure 'Generation of ECP Database for Laguna Verde' (IT.SN/DFR-074). Next the data sheets filled when being generated the ECP01.DAT database with a burnt of 1377 MWD/MT are provided. In the report IT.SN/DFR-079 'Adjustment and Preliminary Evaluation of the Predictions of Criticity of the ECP Program with Reported Data of the Cycle 1 of the Unit 1 of Laguna Verde', the results of the comparison among those estimates of the ECP program using the ECP01.DAT database with the real data of the Cycle 1 of the Unit 1 of Laguna Verde are presented. (Author)

  14. Management and control of the electrical energy demand; Administracion y control de la demanda de la energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson Controls [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Administrative measures allow a reduction in the energy consumption, but not always in the electrical demand. Control measures allow a reduction in the billing of the electrical demand, but not always in the energy consumption. This is why it is explained in this document what management and control of the electrical demand is, as well as its control strategies, the control alternatives, the billing demand and at the same time graphical representations along with three practical cases on the management of demand in air compressors, air conditioning equipment and in corporative buildings are presented. [Spanish] La aplicacion de las medidas administrativas permite reducir el consumo de energia, pero no siempre la demanda electrica. La aplicacion de medidas de control permiten reducir la demanda electrica facturable, pero no siempre el consumo de energia. Es por eso que en este documento se explica que es la administracion y el control de la demanda electrica, sus estrategias de control, las alternativas de control, la demanda facturable, representaciones graficas y tres casos practicos sobre la administracion de demanda en compresores de aire, la administracion de demanda en aire acondicionado y la administracion de demanda en un edificio corporativo.

  15. Catalysts development to base of Cu and Ni supported in ZrO{sub 2} for the H{sub 2} generation by the methanol reformed in oxidizing atmosphere;Desarrollo de catalizadores a base de Cu y Ni soportados en ZrO{sub 2} para la generacion de H{sub 2} mediante el reformado de metanol en atmosfera oxidante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez C, P.; Gutierrez, A.; Gutierrez W, C.; Mendoza A, D.; Martinez, G.; Perez H, R., E-mail: raul.perez@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Tecnologia de Materiales, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The search of new alternating sources of energy is at the present time one of the primordial objectives to world level because of the global heating caused by the high emissions of CO{sub 2} at the atmosphere. In this sense the employment of H{sub 2} through the fuel cells offers a more viable alternative for the use of the energy coming from the connection H-H that can be appointed for use of mobile, industrial and homemade applications. However, to generate H{sub 2} in enough quantities is a great challenge at technological level for the necessity of to count with highly selective and efficient catalysts to low reaction temperatures as well as a source that comes from renewable resources. Under this context the methanol reformed in oxidizing atmosphere offers great ecological as energetics and industrial advantages; inside this investigation plane, the Cu seems to be one of the suitable candidates for this reaction due to its high capacity to generate H{sub 2}, besides the great potential of improvement in its physical-chemical properties when being worked in nano metric size and /or associated with other materials. On the other hand, it is known that the Ni addition improvement the catalytic properties because of a better material dispersion, what offers big possibilities of being applied in the H{sub 2} generation in situ by means of the methanol reformed reaction in oxidizing atmosphere; and that the conformation of bimetallic particles Cu/Ni presented high selectivity and catalytic activity for the reaction in question. (Author)

  16. Analysis of the Solar Resource Information Datasets for Thermal and/or electric Generation Using a Geographical Information System. Cases of Application: Central Cafeteria - University of the Valley, Cali Municipality and Farm {sup P}ozo Verde{sup ,} Jamundi Municipality , Cauca Valley, Colombia; Analisis de las Fuentes de Informacion sobre Recurso Solar para Generacion Termica y/o Electrica Empleando un Sistema de Informacion Geografica. Casos de Aplicacion: Cafeteria Central - Universidad del Valle, Municipio de Cali y Granja {sup P}ozo Verde{sup ,} Municipio de Jamundi, Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, J.; Manrique, P. A.; Pinedo, I.

    2009-10-12

    In this report, two examples of renewable energy assessments based on Geographical Information Systems are presented. Several case studies have been carried out in the Valley of Cauca (Colombia), and one on them has been used to size a hybrid system. The results of this particular case study are presented in a second report. The aim of this document is analysing the different sources of data that could be used in the characterization of solar energy for electricity and electricity-heat use. With this purpose, data of two areas in Valley of Cauca obtained from the Atlas of Solar Radiation of Colombia, SWERA project and SSE-NASA have been compared. The data coming from these sources has been analysed using a Geographical Information System, and the conclusions are described along with cartographic and numeric products. These reports are the result of a collaboration established between Universidad del Valle (Colombia) and CIEMAT (Spain), and have been done by the author while his staying at our center included on his PhD program.

  17. Report of generation of the nuclear bank Presto-Hot for the CAORSO 3.29 fuel with the FMS codes; Reporte de generacion del banco nuclear Presto-Hot para el combustible CAORSO 3.29 con los codigos del FMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso V, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1992-10-15

    Prior to the CAORSO 3.26 fuel data bank had been generated whose active longitude was of 144 inches, longitude that not this in agreement with the used assemblies in the unit 1 of Laguna Verde, of 150 inches of active longitude. When realizing this difference, it was speak with the personnel of the CAORSO plant to verify if there was some error in the sent information. The CAORSO personnel, when verifying it, point out that they sent us information of another fuel and that the appropriate one for our plant is that of the CAORSO 3.29 fuel, that which made necessary the generation of this bank. In this work in a general way the form in that was generated the data bank of the CAORSO 3.29 fuel to analyze their use in a future reload for Laguna Verde is described. The formation of the bank was carried out with the ECLIPSE 86-2D, RECORD 89-1A and POLGEN 88-1B of the FMS package installed in the VAX system of the offices of the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards in Mexico D.F and in the Electric Investigations Institute in Cuernavaca, Morelos. The formed bank is denominated 'L1PG9110' and was carried out following the '6F3/I/CN029/90/P1' procedure. The generated data bank contains the enough information in terms of constant in two groups of burnt dependent and instantaneous vacuums, for the different arrangements of fuel bars present in the assemble, as well as those coefficients that take into account the presence of the control bar, the variation in the fuel temperature and the effect of the 'historical' vacuums. All this is included in that is known as SUPER option of the bank for PRESTO with the options PRCOEF and POLRAM. Also, in the Annex G of this report, is provided by separate the M-FACTOR, the Xenon coefficients and the burnt parameters of the control bar for PRESTO. Its are also presented charts and comparative graphic of the obtained results in the BURNT series of the cell for three vacuum percentages in the

  18. Fuel management inside the reactor. Report of generation of the nuclear bank for the fuel of the initial load of the Laguna Verde U-1 reactor with the FMS codes; Administracion de combustible dentro del reactor. Reporte de generacion del banco nuclear para el combustible de la carga inicial del reactor de Laguna Verde U-1 con los codigos del FMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso V, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Torres A, C. [CFE, Veracruz (Mexico)

    1991-06-15

    In this work in a general way the form in that it was generated the database of the initial fuel load of the Laguna Verde Unit 1 reactor is described. The initial load is formed with fuel of the GE6 type. The obtained results during the formation of the database in as much as to the behavior of the different cell parameters regarding the one burnt of the fuel and the variation of vacuums in the coolant channel its are compared very favorably with those reported by the General Electric fuel supplier and reported in the design documents of the same one. (Author)

  19. Calculation of the linear heat generation rates which violate the thermomechanical limit of plastic deformation of the fuel cladding in function of the burn up of a BWR fuel rod type; Calculo de las razones de generacion de calor lineal que violen el limite termomecanico de deformacion plastica de la camisa en funcion del quemado de una barra combustible tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucatero, M.A.; Hernandez L, H. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: mal@nuclear.inin.mx

    2003-07-01

    The linear heat generation rates (LHGR) for a BWR type generic fuel rod, as function of the burnup that violate the thermomechanical limit of circumferential plastic deformation of the can (canning) in nominal operation in stationary state of the fuel rod are calculated. The evaluation of the LHGR in function of the burnt of the fuel, is carried out under the condition that the deformation values of the circumferential plastic deformation of the can exceeds in 0.1 the thermomechanical value operation limit of 1%. The results of the calculations are compared with the generation rates of linear operation heat in function of the burnt for this fuel rod type. The calculations are carried out with the FEMAXI-V and RODBURN codes. The results show that for exhibitions or burnt between 0 and 16,000 M Wd/tU a minimum margin of 160.8 W/cm exists among LHGR (439.6 W/cm) operation peak for the given fuel and maximum LHGR of the fuel (calculated) to reach 1.1% of circumferential plastic deformation of the can, for the peak factor of power of 1.40. For burnt of 20,000 MWd/tU and 60,000 MWd/tU exist a margin of 150.3 and 298.6 W/cm, respectively. (Author)

  20. Calculus of radiolytic products generation in water due to alpha radiation. Determination of the spent nuclear fuels matrix alteration rate Determination of velocity of spent fuel matrix; Calculo de la generacion de productos radioliticos en agua por radiacion {alpha}. Determinacion de la velocidad de alteracion de la matriz del combustible nuclear gastado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinones, J.; Serrano, J.; Diaz Arocas, P.; Rodriguez Almazan, J. L. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain); Bruno, J.; Cera, E.; Merino, J.; Esteban, J. A.; Martinez-Esparza, A. [Enresa. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The generation of radiolytic products as a result of alpha radiation in the surface of the spent fuel is a key process in order to understand how the it becomes degraded in repository conditions. The present work has established a radiolytic model based on a set of reactions involving fuel oxidation-dissolution and radiolytic products recombination. It also includes the decrease of the dose rates as the main alpha emitters decay away. Four cases, with varying parameters of the system, have been assessed. The results show a decrease in both the concentration of the radiolytic products in the gap water and the degradation of the fuel matrix. It has been estimated that in the period of the evaluation (10''6 years) up to 52% of the pellet is altered in the conservative cases, whereas only 11% is altered in the realistic cases. No significant differences were observed when the carbonates reactions were included in the system. (Author)

  1. Report of generation of the nuclear bank Presto-Hot for the CAORSO 3.26 fuel with the FMS codes; Reporte de generacion del banco nuclear Presto-Hot para el combustible CAORSO 3.26 con los codigos del FMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso V, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1991-03-15

    In this work it is described in a general way the form in that it was generated the database of the CAORSO 3.26 fuel for to analyze their use in a future reload for Laguna Verde. The formation of the bank was carries out with the ECLIPSE 86-2D, RECORD 89-1A and POLGEN 88-1B codes of the FMS package installed in the VAX system of the offices of the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards in Mexico City. The formed bank is denominated 'L1PG9105'. All this one carries out following the '6F3/I/CN029/90/P1' procedure. The generated database contains the enough information in terms of constant in two dependent groups of burnt and instantaneous holes, for the different arrangements of bars present in the one assemble as well as those coefficients that take into account the presence of the control bar, the variation in the fuel temperature and the effect of the 'historical' holes. All this is included in it that one knows as SUPER option of the bank for PRESTO with those options PRCOEF and POLRAM. Also, in the Annex G of this report, the M-FACTOR, the Xenon coefficients and the burnt parameters of the control bar for PRESTO its are by separate provided. They are also presented charts and comparative graphic of the obtained results in the BURNT cell series for three percentages of holes in the moderator, 0%, 40% and 70%, for each one of the five cells identified in the one assemble. (Author)

  2. Prospective of the Technology of Wind Power Generation (Annexe 5 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Prospectiva de la Tecnologia de Generacion Eoloelectrica (Anexo 5 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja Diaz, Marco A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    At present, it is recognized that the advantage of the energy of the wind to generate electricity is an innovating activity of high technology that is being integrated to the electrical sectors of several countries in the context of the energy diversification. The basic concept of the wind power generators suggests simplicity; nevertheless, the enormous machines that nowadays turn the wind energy to electricity, are complex systems since they are integrated by aerodynamic, mechanical, electrical, hydraulic and electronic subsystems, whose development and integration have presented important challenges in the matter of investigation and technological development. It is for this reason that in the last 10 years several governments of industrialized countries and of some developing ones, have remarkably progressed in the restoration of elements of legislation, regulation, and fiscal measures that have opened and impelled the wind power market, in such a way that in those countries the wind power industry has become a very productive activity. [Spanish] En la actualidad, se reconoce que el aprovechamiento de la energia del viento para generar electricidad es una actividad innovadora de alta tecnologia que se esta integrando a los sectores electricos de varios paises en el contexto de la diversificacion energetica. El concepto basico de los aerogeneradores sugiere sencillez; sin embargo, las enormes maquinas que hoy en dia convierten la energia del viento en electricidad, son sistemas complejos ya que estan integrados por subsistemas aerodinamicos, mecanicos, electricos, hidraulicos y electronicos, cuyo desarrollo e integracion ha presentado retos importantes en materia de investigacion y desarrollo tecnologico. Es por ello que en los ultimos 10 anos varios gobiernos de paises industrializados y de algunos en vias de desarrollo, han progresado notablemente en la instauracion de elementos de legislacion, regulacion, y medidas fiscales que han abierto e impulsado el

  3. CONFRONTACIÓN GENERACIONAL : Intervenciones terapéuticas en el marco de terapia grupal multifamiliar

    OpenAIRE

    Toporosi, Susana; Ragatke, Susana; Rabain, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    International audience; En el Servicio de Adolescencia del HNRG, Área de Salud Mental, desarrollamos desde 2001 una experiencia con grupos terapéuticos multifamiliares. En ellos se detecta la calidad de proceso de confrontación generacional que se despliega en cada familia. Desde un marco conceptual psicoanalítico se intenta posibilitar que los adolescentes desplieguen su confrontación y que los padres sean soporte de dicho proceso sin reprimirlo, negarlo, escindirlo o desmentirlo.Confrontaci...

  4. CONFRONTACIÓN GENERACIONAL : Intervenciones terapéuticas en el marco de terapia grupal multifamiliar

    OpenAIRE

    Toporosi, Susana; Ragatke, Susana; Rabain, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    International audience; En el Servicio de Adolescencia del HNRG, Área de Salud Mental, desarrollamos desde 2001 una experiencia con grupos terapéuticos multifamiliares. En ellos se detecta la calidad de proceso de confrontación generacional que se despliega en cada familia. Desde un marco conceptual psicoanalítico se intenta posibilitar que los adolescentes desplieguen su confrontación y que los padres sean soporte de dicho proceso sin reprimirlo, negarlo, escindirlo o desmentirlo.Confrontaci...

  5. Modelo monetario de generaciones superpuestas : Cátedra de Macroeconomía Avanzada

    OpenAIRE

    Ennis, Huberto María

    2003-01-01

    Empezamos estudiando una versión del modelo de generaciones superpuestas que es un caso particular de esta economía de intercambio. La versión completa del modelo, con por ejemplo una tecnología dada por una función neoclásica de producción es también muy útil para estudiar preguntas relacionadas al crecimiento económico. Aquí sólo nos concentraremos en cuestiones monetarias para lo cual es suficiente con una economía de intercambio.

  6. Seismic damage in the electrical substations of the Colima state; Dano sismico en las subestaciones electricas del estado de Colima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mena H, Ulises; Lopez L, Alberto; Guerrero F, Vicente A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    On the 21 of January of 2003, at 20:06:36 hrs (Mexico center time) an earthquake occurred at the Pacific coast with a magnitude of 7.6 degrees in the Richter scale, whose epicenter was located near the state of Colima and it was felt in a large extent of the Mexican Republic. The earthquake caused numerous material damages in the structures (houses, churches, offices, etc) and vital lines, mainly in the infrastructure of the electrical sector of the region, leaving without electrical energy a large part of the nearby populations and some colonies of distant zones such as in Mexico City. The cause of the interruption of the electrical energy was due to the collapse of some of the equipment of 400 and 230 KV of the electrical transmission substations, among which are Manzanillo II and Colima II. With the experience acquired in the earthquake of October 9, 1995 in Manzanillo, in which also the facilities and equipment of the electrical substations were affected considerably, and as a part of the infrastructure project on the analysis of seismic risk of vital lines that is being developed at this moment at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), it was decided to inspect the electrical substations of the zone, where the greater damages in the facilities and equipment were reported, to analyze and to determine the main causes of their failure. [Spanish] El 21 de enero de 2003, a las 20:06:36 hrs (hora del centro de Mexico) ocurrio un sismo en la costa del Pacifico con una magnitud de 7.6 grados en escala Richter, cuyo epicentro se localizo cerca del estado de Colima y se percibio en gran parte de la republica mexicana. El sismo causo cuantiosos danos materiales en las estructuras (viviendas, iglesias, oficinas, etc) y lineas vitales, principalmente en la infraestructura del sector electrico de la region, dejando sin energia electrica a gran parte de las poblaciones cercanas y algunas colonias de zonas lejanas como es la ciudad de Mexico. La causa del corte de

  7. Energy saving based on the reduction of losses in the transmission and distribution of the power generated incrementing the transmission capacities by means of the use of direct current; Ahorro de energia basado en la reduccion de perdidas en la transmision y redistribucion de la generacion al ampliar las capacidades de transmision por medio del empleo de la transmision en corriente directa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meraz Ateca, E.; Alanis Rodriguez, J.P.; Salinas Barrera, H.; Arechiga Rodriguez, L.D.; Guerrero Garza, J.J. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This paper proposes the use of the technology for the transmission of direct current that provides a saving in losses in the order of 50% in transmitting the same power as the line energized with A.C., as well as having a larger transmission capacity, since the limiting factor in operating with D.C. is given by its thermal capacity. The cost of the terminal stations is high in comparison with that of A.C., therefore it should be compensated with the benefits of the D.C. transmission. The project proposal is as a first option, to utilize the 400 KV power lines of Carbon II-Lampazos-Escobedo as a single line in Direct Current, reducing by this means about 12% of the existing losses and increasing the existing transmission capacity from the coal power stations of Rio Escondido and Carbon II. For 1995 it will be Also available 2600 MW of generating capacity and practically four circuits of 400 KV to transmit power to the Monterrey Metropolitan Area, reaching this site approximately 1500 MW. It is proposed to transmit 750 MW through the D.C. line in bi-polar way. The investment will consist only in the two conversion stations, that for a power capacity of 750 MW will be in the order of 103 millions of dollars. This cost includes the switching equipment for A.C., filters for harmonics, banks of VARS to compensate for a unit power factor, transformers, converters, ground electrodes, communications, buildings, land site preparation, project management costs and the preliminary and engineering studies costs. These costs can be reduced in accordance with the detail studies, for instance: there is enough capacity in Vars in the generating units, the transmission is always one-way, the utilization of diodes instead of thyristors. For the established conditions, there is a reduction of 10 MW, a 23.82 million dollars saving, and besides a larger Also available transmission capacity in the order of 500 MW, additionally, when operating with direct current, equipment from the

  8. Electric protections based in microprocessors in power plants; Protecciones electricas basadas en microprocesadores en centrales generadoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libreros, Domitilo; Castanon Jimenez, Jose Ismael [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    This article is centered around the substitution of the conventional electric protections of a power plant in connection type unit for protections based in microprocessors. A general model of conventional protection of a power plant is described and the number of analogic and digital signals that intervene in that model are quantified. A model is setup for power plant protection with microprocessors, analyzing each one of the modules that would form it. Finally, the algorithms to carry on such protection are presented. [Espanol] Este articulo se centra en torno a la sustitucion de las protecciones electricas convencionales de una central generadora en conexion tipo unidad por protecciones basadas en microprocesadores. Se describe el modelo general de proteccion convencional de una central generadora y se cuantifica el numero de senales analogicas y digitales que interviene en dicho modelo. Se propone un modelo para proteccion de centrales generadoras mediante microprocesadores, analizandose cada uno de los modulos que lo conformarian. Finalmente, se presentan los algoritmos para realizar dicha proteccion.

  9. Raoultella electrica sp. nov., isolated from anodic biofilms of a glucose-fed microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Zen-ichiro; Chung, Kyung Mi; Itoh, Hiroaki; Hiraishi, Akira; Okabe, Satoshi

    2014-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain 1GB(T), was isolated from anodic biofilms of a glucose-fed microbial fuel cell. Strain 1GB(T) was facultatively anaerobic and chemo-organotrophic, having both a respiratory and a fermentative type of metabolism, and utilized a wide variety of sugars as carbon and energy sources. Cells grown aerobically contained Q-8 as the major quinone, but excreted Q-9 and a small amount of Q-10 when cultured with an electrode serving as the sole electron acceptor. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of 1GB(T) was 54.5 mol%. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis showed that strain 1GB(T) represented a distinct lineage within the genus Raoultella (98.5-99.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and 94.0-96.5 % sequence similarity based on the three concatenated housekeeping genes gyrA, rpoB and parC. Strain 1GB(T) exhibited DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness of 7-43 % with type strains of all established species of the genus Raoultella. On the basis of these phenotypic, phylogenetic and genotypic data, the name Raoultella electrica sp. nov. is proposed for strain 1GB(T). The type strain is 1GB(T) ( = NBRC 109676(T) = KCTC 32430(T)).

  10. Development of the process of generational in ANAV; Desarrollo del proceso de relevo generacional en ANAV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barasoin, F.; Rodriguez, R.

    2015-07-01

    The action plan has 3 stages: Identification, classification and planning of workplaces to relieve. Internal or external selection of substitute. Training and transfer of knowledge between relieved and reliever. (Author)

  11. Proyecto de intercambio generacional: Aprendamos juntos A generation exchange project: Aprendamos juntos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Fariña López

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Con el objetivo de promover la interrelación entre jóvenes y mayores institucionalizados se inició, en la isla de Lanzarote, el proyecto Aprendamos Juntos. Metodología: Participaron alumnos de primaria y mayores de una residencia con un nivel de deterioro moderado. Se realizaron dos sesiones de trabajo en el centro de enseñanza y otras dos en la residencia de ancianos. Resultados: El nivel de satisfacción de los participantes fue elevado. Se apreció en los niños un cambio de actitud respecto a la figura del mayor. Se constató en los ancianos un aumento de la motivación y de la actividad habitual. Se incrementó la satisfacción laboral de los profesionales. Conclusiones: Las acciones emprendidas no actúan como mera actividad lúdica, sino que tienen una función terapéutica. Son significativos los cambios de actitud que se producen en los niños con respecto al mayor. El abordaje interdisciplinar permite a los profesionales alcanzar más fácilmente los objetivos terapéuticos. Destacamos los beneficios obtenidos a pesar del reducido coste del proyecto.Introduction: In order to promote the interaction between children and elderly, the project Aprendamos Juntos (Let's Learn Together was carried out in Lanzarote (Canary Islands. Methodology: Students from a local school and the residents of a nursing home, with moderate physical impairment, participated in the project. Two sessions took place in the school and two in the nursing home. Results: There was a high level of satisfaction. It was noticed that the children had a change of attitude with regard to their respect of the elderly. We verified that there was an increase in the motivation and in the daily activity of the latter. The professionals also experienced increased work satisfaction. Conclusions: The activities that have been undertaken work not only as playful activity, but also have a therapeutic function. The changes in the attitude of the children with respect to the elderly are very significant. The interdisciplinary vision allowed the professionals involved to achieve their therapeutic objectives with ease. We point out the numerous benefits which have been attained in spite of the very low cost of the project.

  12. Importance of the harmonics in the lighting systems for the electric energy saving; Importancia de las armonicas en el sistema de iluminacion para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibay Mendoza, V. [Lumisistemas, departamento de aseguramineto de calidad, Naucalpan (Mexico); Hernandez Bernal, J. M. [UNICORP, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In a lighting system the discharge lamps (fluorescent and high intensity discharge (HID)), ballast and controls are generating elements of harmonics. As a consequence of the tendency of saving energy, the use of electronic ballasts and controls that integrate dimmers, daylight and present sensors has increased in order to optimize the energy use. This paper presents the harmonics generation resulting from the fluorescent lamps operating different electronic ballasts as well as their electronic controls. Likewise, are also shown the effects caused by generation of harmonics components by the lighting system in the electric system that go from the voltage and current distortion, the presence of currents in the neutral conductor in balanced systems to the repercussions in the metering equipment such as watthour meters and the effects the lighting equipment suffer due to the presence of harmonics, such as the power factor decrease in ballasts that are of high power factor and the temperature increment in the magnetic type ballasts. [Espanol] Dentro de un sistema de iluminacion, las lamparas de descarga (fluorescentes y alta intensidad de descarga {sup H}ID{sup )}, balastros y los controles son elementos generadores de armonicas. A consecuencia de la tendencia al ahorro de energia se ha incrementado el uso de balastros electronicos y controles que integran atenuadores de luz (dimmers), sensores de luz natural y de presencia con el fin de optimizar el uso de la energia. Este trabajo presenta los resultados de generacion de armonicas para lamparas fluorescentes, operando diferentes balastros electronicos asi como con controles electronicos. Asi mismo son presentados los efectos causados por la generacion de componentes armonicas por el sistema de iluminacion dentro del sistema electrico que van desde la distorsion en voltaje y corriente, la presencia de corrientes dentro del conductor neutro en sistemas balanceados, asi como la repercusion en los equipos de medicion tales

  13. Calculation of electromagnetic fields in electric machines by means of the finite element. Computational aspects; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito. Aspectos computacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mario; De la Torre, Octavio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    In this article are described the computational characteristics of the Package CALIIE 2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), for the calculation of bi-dimensional electromagnetic fields. The computational implementation of the package is based in the electromagnetic and numerical statements formerly published in this series. [Espanol] En este articulo se describen las caracteristicas computacionales del paquete CALIIE 2D del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), para calcular campos electromagneticos bidimensionales. La implantacion computacional del paquete se basa en los planteamientos electromagneticos y numericos antes publicados en esta serie.

  14. Fractal analysis of the electrical discharges' surface paths in polymeric insulation considering different pollution levels; Analisis fractal de las trayectorias de descargas electricas superficiales en aislamiento polimerico considerando diferentes niveles de contaminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios Lopez, Arturo

    2002-07-01

    In this thesis tree patterns of superficial breakdown in polymeric insulator of Silicon Rubber are generated. Experimental arrangement rod-rod was used on the basis of norm ASTM D 2303-85. Pollution levels on the basis of norm IEC 507 were also used. The experimental values of Fractal Dimension for each case of pollution were reported. A self similar method called Box Counting for the fractal dimension calculus and for the self affine methods an R/S and Variogram were used. According to the results, it was concluded that the tree patterns of superficial electric breakdown in Silicon Rubber is self similar and its value does not depend on the degree of pollution, that is equivalent to the concentration of salt for liter of water or to the Equivalent Salt Deposition (ESDD), in the surface of an insulator. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se inducen descargas electricas superficiales en un aislamiento polimerico de Hule Silicon, el arreglo experimental que se utilice es punta-punta con base en la norma ASTM D 2303-85 y los niveles de contaminacion con base en la norma IEC 507. Se reportan los valores experimentales de la Dimension Fractal para cada caso de contaminacion, se utilice el metodo auto similar de conteo de cuadros, para el calculo de la Dimension Fractal y para metodos auto afines se utilice analisis R/S y variograma. Con los resultados obtenidos se concluye que la trayectoria de la descarga electrica superficial en un polimero de Hule Silicon es auto similar y su valor no depende del grado de contaminacion, el cual es equivalente a la concentracion de gramos de sal por litro de agua o a la densidad de sal depositada (DESD), en la superficie de un aislador.

  15. Electric power conservation while using pumping systems; Conservacion de Energia Electrica en Sistemas de Bombeo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nambiar, P

    2007-01-15

    The pumping systems provide about 20 to 25 percent of energy which is necessary worldwide: it is fruitful to understand how to use electric power efficiently, to achieve the reduction regarding expenses a pumping system implies.It is essential to possess a better knowledge about the pumping system and its applications, in order to be able to use energy responsibly. If people do not how to operate this kind of systems properly, they will use inadequate equipment that will cause an energy waste. In addition it is important to know: alternative methods to meet variable demands, an adapted system to pump water requirements in order to ensure the pump work in its pumping point, and the life cycle system cost for the energy saving in the long term. [Spanish] En promedio del 20 al 25% de la energia necesaria en el mundo proviene de los sistemas de bombeo, por tal razon es importante saber como utilizar la energia electrica con eficiencia para asi lograr reducir los gastos que este tipo de sistemas implican. Para poder hacer un buen uso de la energia, es necesario que se tenga un conocimiento mayor del sistema de bombeo y aplicacion, ya que la ignorancia sobre esto exige el uso de aparatos que contribuyen al desperdicio de la energia; por otro lado tambien es esencial conocer metodos alternos para demandas variables, tener un sistema que se adapte a las necesidades de bombeo del agua para asegurarse de que cada bomba trabaje cerca de su punto de bombeo y finalmente conocer el costo del ciclo de vida del sistema para el ahorro de energia a largo plazo.

  16. Historiografía e invención: Wamba en el "Libro de las Generaciones"

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista Pérez, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudia la tradición y creación de un relato sin apenas trasfondo histórico sobre el rey visigodo Wamba, en el que se le presenta como labrador y que sitúa su elección como el producto de un designio divino. La obra en la que figura por vez primera esta narración es el Libro de las generaciones, redactada en Navarra hacia los años 1256-1270, que ofrece también, entre otras características, un relato bastante singular sobre la historia visigoda. Se intenta mostrar aquí cómo ...

  17. The presence of harmonics in electric installations and some of its consequences; La presencia de corrientes armonicas en instalaciones electricas y algunas de sus consecuencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratu Serban, Neagu; Campero Littlewood, Eduardo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper is a short introduction to how the sinusoidal voltage waves are generated. A revision is made on the way of representing a distorted wave and the way of quantifying its harmonics content (harmonics distortion). An overview is made of the non-lineal consuming elements that produce distortion of the current waves. A revision is made on the concept of a power factor in conditions of waves with harmonic distortion. The consequences of feeding with distorted waves the different devices such as motors (particularly for the distortion originated by the rectifiers and the velocity electronic controls), transformers and capacitors. Mention is made of some of the methods for not to produce or for reducing the harmonic effect in the electric networks. The purpose of this article is to review the consequences on energy consumption by the presence of harmonics. [Espanol] En este articulo se hace una breve introduccion de la forma en que se generan las ondas senoidales de voltaje. Se revisa la manera de representar una onda distorsionada y la manera de cuantificar su contenido de armonicas (distorsion armonica). Se repasan los elementos consumidores no lineales que producen la deformacion de las ondas de corriente. Se revisa el concepto de factor de potencia en condiciones de ondas con distorsion armonica. Se analizan las consecuencias de alimentar con ondas distorsionadas a diferentes equipos como motores (particularmente por la distorsion originada por los rectificadores y los controladores de velocidad electronicos), transformadores y capacitores. Se mencionan algunos metodos para no producir, o reducir el efecto armonico en las redes electricas. El proposito de este articulo es revisar las consecuencias sobre el consumo de energia por la presencia de armonicas.

  18. Computerized information system of support to the electric energy losses control; Sistema de informacion computarizado de apoyo al control de perdidas de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barba Mar, Alvaro R.; Perez Ortega, Joaquin; Rodriguez Ortiz, Guillermo; Rodriguez Cano, Rene; Zapata Garcia, Juan Antonio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The energy losses are due to several reasons, among others, to the same nature of the generation, transmission, and distribution processes. The purpose of this paper is to describe in a general manner a decentralized system that processes the information of the energy and demand meters, to obtain the energy balances and losses indexes at national level. Additionally, the main services offered by the functional model and of the data base, the adopted policies for the energy interchanges among responsibility areas and the concepts of use, are described; next, the data sources of the system are described, the fragmentation and corresponding replication to the database are described and its architecture of software and hardware is shown. [Espanol] Las perdidas de energia se deben a varias razones, entre otras, a la naturaleza misma de los procesos de generacion, transmision y distribucion de la electricidad. El proposito de este articulo es describir de manera general un sistema descentralizado que procesa la informacion de los medidores de energia y demanda, para la obtencion de balances de energia e indices de perdidas a nivel nacional. Ademas, se describen los principales servicios que ofrece, el modelo funcional y el de la base de datos, las politicas adoptadas para los intercambios de energia entre areas de responsabilidad y los conceptos de uso; despues se describen las fuentes de datos del sistema, la fragmentacion y replicacion correspondiente a la base de datos y se muestra su arquitectura de hardware y software.

  19. ASME power test code ptc 4.1 for steam generators; Codigo de pruebas de potencia ASME ptc 4.1 para generadores de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plauchu Alcantara, Jorge Alberto [Plauchu Consultores, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    This presentation is oriented towards those who in this subject have experience in the design and equipment specification, plant projects, factory and field testing, operation or result analyses. An important fraction of the national energy supply, approximately 13%, is applied to the steam generation in the different aspects of the industrial activity, in the electrical industry of public service and in the commercial and services sector. The development of the national programs of energy efficiency verifies this when dedicating to this use of the energy important projects, some of them with support of the USAID. The measurement of the energy utilization or the efficiency of steam generators (or boilers) is made applying some procedure agreed by the parts and the one of greater acceptance and best known in Mexico and internationally is the ASME Power Test Code PTC 4.1 for Steam Generators. The purpose and formality in the determination of efficiency and of steam generation capacity behavior, thermal basic regime or fulfillment of guarantees, radically changes the exigencies of strict attachment to the PTC 4.1 This definition will determine the importance of the test method selected, the deviations and convened exceptions, the influence of the precision and the measurement errors, the consideration of auxiliary equipment, etc. An interpretation or incorrect application of the Test Code has lead and will lead to results and nonreliable decisions. [Spanish] Esta exposicion se orienta a quienes en este tema cuenta con experiencia en diseno y especificacion de equipo, proyecto de planta, pruebas en fabrica y campo, operacion o analisis de resultados. Una fraccion importante de la oferta nacional de energia, 13% aproximadamente, se aplica a la generacion de vapor en diferentes giros de actividad industrial, en la industria electrica, de servicio publico y en el sector de servicios y comercial. El desarrollo de los programas nacionales de eficiencia energetica comprueba

  20. El tipo de unión y el aborto: una comparación generacional para México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Quilodrán Salgado

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el presente trabajo se pretende incorporar al estudio del aborto en México la perspectiva generacional y la distinción según el tipo de unión, dos dimensiones que no han sido consideradas en los estudios publicados hasta la fecha. Los datos utilizados corresponden a los de la Encuesta Nacional de la Dinámica Demográfica levantada en 1997. Entre los resultados obtenidos destaca el relativo a la reducción que experimentó el aborto entre las jóvenes (menores de 30 años de las generaciones nacidas a fines de los años cuarenta y aquellas que lo hicieron veinte años después, a fines de los sesenta. La distinción por tipo de unión nos permite atribuir esta disminución a las mujeres casadas, que casi exclusivamente eran quienes lo practicaban, y evaluar su impacto reductivo sobre la fecundidad en 1.2 nacimientos evitados en las generaciones mayores y 0.5 en las mas jóvenes. Las mujeres en uniones libres no superan los 0.6 nacimientos evitados en ninguna de las dos generaciones. Al aplicar el factor de separación propuesto, estas diferencias se traducen en relaciones de un aborto espontáneo por casi seis inducidos entre las casadas de más edad y solamente uno de cada dos entre las más jóvenes. Finalmente la distribución según el método anticonceptivo utilizado nos indica que las jóvenes en unión libre están más eficazmente protegidas que las casadas.

  1. DE LA PRIMERA A LA SEGUNDA GENERACION DE REFORMAS DEL ESTADO EN AMERICA LATINA: GIRO IDEOLOGICO Y CAMBIO CONCEPTUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Chourio José Guillermo

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available

    García Chourio, José Guillermo. "De la Primera a la Segunda Generacion de Reformas del Estado en America Latina: Giro Ideologico y Cambio Conceptual", Cuadernos de Economía, V. XXII, n. 38, Bogota, 2003, paginas 95-125.

    Este trabajo explora la orientacion ideologica y conceptual que ha guiado el proceso de reformas economicas en America Latina, diferenciando la puesta en marcha de las medidas en dos generaciones. Partimos de la idea de que la transicion entre  generaciones  obedece a las reformas iniciales, producto de las experiencias del fracaso y oposicion que han tenido los ajustes. Se concluye que existio un giro conceptual, expresado por el paso del enfoque de las expectativas racionales, el cual sustento una politica de choques externos mediante medidas de ajuste y de reduccion del estado para disciplinar a los agentes economicos, al enfoque neoinstitucional, que concibe las reformas como un proceso de creacion de instituciones acordes para el buen funcionamiento del mercado, reconociendose ahora al Estado como mecanismo basico para reducir los costos de transaccion de dichos agentes en el mercado.

  2. Efecto generacional de la desnutrición sobre el crecimiento de los componentes craneo-funcionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesani Rossi, María Florencia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar, desde un criterio funcional, el crecimiento craneano en dos generaciones de ratas subnutridas. Los animales de la generación parental (P fueron alimentados con dieta control ad libitum. Las generaciones filiales (F1 y F2 recibieron el 75% del alimento consumido por un animal P de su misma edad y sexo. Cada animal fue radiografiado periódicamente entre los 20 y 100 días de edad. Sobre cada radiografía se relevaron longitud, ancho y altura de los componentes funcionales mayores (neurocráneo y esplacnocráneo y menores (neural anterior, medio y posterior, ótico, masticatorio, respiratorio y alveolar. Los cambios de tamaño de cada componente fueron evaluados por medio de índices volumétricos. Los datos se procesaron mediante pruebas de Kruskal-Wallis y Kolmogorov-Smirnov para k muestras. La desnutrición provocó retardo significativo del crecimiento de los componentes craneanos mayores y menores. El tamaño neurocraneano y esplacnocraneano asi como el de algunos componentes menores fue mayor en F1 que en F2, evidenciando un retardo acumulativo del crecimiento. La variación morfológica (tamaño y forma entre generaciones refleja una tendencia secular negativa.

  3. Asociacion Espanola de la Industria Electrica (UNESA) annual report 2006. Information about electricity activities; Asociacion Espanola de la Industria Electrica UNESA 2006 memoria estadistica. Informe sobre las actividades electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The annual report of UNESA, the industrial grouping of major power companies in Spain, gives statistical data relating to power generation, transmission and distribution and a summary of achievements during 2006. Power is generated from fossil fuel, nuclear, and hydro power. Cooperation of UNESA with international organizations is reported. Detailed figures are given for electricity production during the year. A summary of the report is available in English and Spanish on the website www.unesa.es.

  4. Asociacion Espanola de la Industria Electrica UNESA annual report 2000. Information about electricity activities; Asociacion Espanola de la Industria Electrica UNESA 2000 memoria estadistica. Informe sobre las actividades electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The annual report of UNESA, the industrial grouping of major power companies in Spain, gives statistical data relating to power generation transmission and distribution and summary of achievements during 2001. Power is generated from fossil fuel, nuclear, and hydro power. Information is given on emissions of SO{sub 2}, NOX and particulates. Cooperation of UNESA with international organizations is reported. Detailed figures are given for electricity production during the year, together with annual figures from 1940 to date.

  5. Power quality. Analysis of the losses related to the tension and current distortion in the electric network; Calidad de la energia electrica. Analisis de las perdidas relacionadas con la distorsion de la tension y corriente de la red electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch Sitar, Vladimir [Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Facultad de Ingenieria, Queretaro (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    In recent times every day one speaks more about power quality and about the losses produced by the tension and current distortion. The distortion in the electric network and the consumption tend to keep on increasing, and each day there will be the need of applying more resources to handle it inside a reasonable range. In this article the situation of the power quality is analyzed in the most general case and also simplified for special cases. On base on the distortion coefficients of tension and current a matrix is created where the harmonics coefficients of tension as well as the current appear in an organized form an all of the elements of that matrix are analyzed. Some topological rules are created in order to give the simplest orientation in the complex situation. The article is useful to supervise the power quality in all of the typical cases and establish a base for a more detailed analysis. [Espanol] En los ultimos tiempos cada dia mas se esta hablando sobre la calidad de la energia electrica (Power Quality) y sobre las perdidas provocadas con este factor. La distorsion de la red electrica y del consumo tiene la tendencia de seguir aumentando y cada dia mas habra que dedicar mas recursos para manejarla dentro de un rango razonable. En el articulo presentado se analiza la situacion de la calidad de energia en caso mas general y tambien simplificada para los casos especiales. A base de coeficientes de distorsion, de tension y corriente se crea una Matriz donde figuran tanto los coeficientes de armonicas de tension como de corriente en una forma ordenada y se analizan todos los elementos de esta matriz. Se crean algunas reglas topologicas para dar la orientacion mas simple en la situacion compleja. El articulo sirve para dar supervision a la calidad de energia en todos los casos tipicos y establecer una base para el analisis mas detallado.

  6. San Juanico, BCS, Mexico, hybrid electric plant renewable energies in the rural communities development; Planta electrica hibrida San Juanico, B.C.S., Mexico, las energias renovables en el desarrollo de las comunidades rurales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Rios, Serafin [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    1999-08-01

    The hybrid electric plant of San Juanico, B.C.S., Mexico, is described in terms of its environmental goals, operating process and contribution to the development of that rural community of the Baja California Peninsula. San Juanico hybrid electric plant is organized in three electrical generation systems that work in parallel: one uses solar energy, another wind energy and a third one uses diesel fuel. [Spanish] Se describe la planta hibrida de San Juanico, BCS, Mexico, en terminos de los objetivos ambientales que condujeron a su realizacion, asi como de su proceso operativo y de la participacion que tiene en el desarrollo de esa comunidad rural de la peninsula de Baja California, Mexico. La planta hibrida de San Juanico esta constituida por tres sistemas de generacion de electrcicidad que operan en paralelo: uno utiliza energia radiante del sol, otro energia del viento y un tercero utiliza diesel.

  7. System for the design of electrical distribution substations; Sistema para el diseno de subestaciones electricas de distribucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayas Perez, Benjamin Eddie; Islas Perez, Eduardo; Bahena Rada, Jessica Liliana; Romero Lima, Jesus [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Sierra Rodriguez, Benjamin; Moreno Diaz, Humberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    The physical design of electric substations involves a variety of activities, such as developing, reviewing and performing modifications to different design proposals, estimating costs and producing documents to be integrated into an executive project. These activities are usually conducted at the Distribution Divisions of the Federal Electric Commission (CFE) through two separate processes: the development of engineering plans with computer-aided design software (CAD) and volumetric calculations for the initial budget using conventional spreadsheets. The documents are manually developed on an individual basis, without the existence of any functions to allow for automatically updating the design modifications of any of the plans. The corresponding initial budget becomes a lengthy and laborious process with the likelihood of inconsistencies among the documents. In order to optimize the design process for the public and electromechanical works of electric substations (ES) in a three-dimensional (3D) graphic environment, the IIE's Management of Process Supervision, in coordination with the CFE Distribution Subdivision, developed the System for the Design of Electric Substation Distribution (SDESD). This system makes use of the advantages of CAD3D technology to develop detail engineering, cost engineering to calculate initial budgets and virtual reality for three-dimensional interactive navigation. It is worth mentioning that this system is currently in the implementation phase at the CFE Distribution Subdivision. This article briefly describes the main stages in the development of the project, as well as the functioning and principal components of the system. [Spanish] El diseno fisico de subestaciones electricas implica una variedad de actividades, tales como elaborar, revisar y efectuar modificaciones de diferentes propuestas de diseno, estimar costos y producir documentos, para integrarlos como parte de un proyecto ejecutivo. Estas actividades usualmente se

  8. Electric energy saving in the cellulose and paper industry; Ahorro de energia electrica en la industria de celulosa y papel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This paper delineates the results of the demonstration project for electric energy saving, which is one of the twenty four projects in which the Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) sponsors the diagnosis as well as the applied measures and the measures currently in application. Also the potential opportunity areas and the measures applied and in course of application, as well as the required investments and their recuperation periods. [Espanol] En este trabajo se describen los resultados del proyecto de demostracion de ahorro de energia electrica que es uno de los veinticuatro proyectos, en los que el Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) financia tanto el diagnostico como la aplicacion de medidas. Se presentan tanto las areas de oportunidad, potenciales y medidas aplicadas y en aplicacion, asi como las inversiones requeridas y los periodos de recuperacion de las mismas.

  9. Price models of electrical energy, via stochastic processes; Modelos de precios de energia electrica, via procesos estocasticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Ramos, Hugo

    2008-12-15

    The electrical energy prices own very particular characteristics that make them different from the prices of any good which are immersed under the fluctuation of the laws of supply and demand. The present work proposes a revision and modification of the model for the prices of electrical energy based on stochastic processes, developed in 2002 by M.T. Barlow. Our model satisfactorily explains the dynamics of the prices, having as an example the case of the energy market of Alberta, CA. The proposed model is based on the power transformation of Yeo-Johnson in 2000, which does not have dominion restrictions. Also, it is assumed that the energy price depends on the demand, which is modeled as a process of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck. The proposed model was applied to real data, obtaining corresponding estimations of the interest parameters, as well as their validation. Also simulation results are shown to determine the empirical distribution of the estimators of maximum credibility of the parameters. [Spanish] Los precios de energia electrica poseen caracteristicas muy particulares que los hacen diferentes a los precios de cualquier bien que estan inmersos bajo la fluctuacion de las leyes de la oferta y la demanda. El presente trabajo propone una revision y modificacion del modelo para los precios de energia electrica basado en procesos estocasticos, desarrollado en 2002 por M. T. Barlow. Nuestro modelo explica satisfactoriamente la dinamica de los precios, teniendo como ejemplo el caso del mercado de energia de Alberta, Ca. El modelo propuesto esta basado en la transformacion potencia de Yeo-Johnson en 2000, la cual no tiene restricciones de dominio. Tambien, se asume que el precio de la energia depende de la demanda, la cual es modelada como un proceso de Ornstein-Uhlenbeck. El modelo propuesto se aplico a datos reales, obteniendo estimaciones correspondientes de los parametros de interes, asi como su validacion. Tambien se muestran resultados de simulacion para determinar la

  10. La vida universitaria y el Plan Bolonia: retrato de dos generaciones estudiantiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Feixa Pàmpols

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La pretensión de este artículo es captar las visiones que los y las estudiantes de la Universidad de Lleida (Cataluña, España tienen sobre la universidad y la ciudad donde pasan unos años primordiales en su vida. Tras un prólogo donde evocamos el recientemovimiento estudiantil contra el denominado Plan Bolonia, esbozamos un marco histórico y teórico sobre los estudios a la juventud universitaria, justificamos la metodología utilizada, y exponemos algunos datos sobre el contexto local.Acontinuación analizamos la condición estudiantil tal como es vivida por los jóvenes que inician una carrera (académica y vital en la Universidad de Lleida. La parte central del estudio se centra en un recorrido por los espacios y los tiempos de su vida cotidiana, escuchando lo que nos dicen de los espacios universitarios, residenciales y urbanos, y de los tiempos de estudio, sociabilidad y fiesta. Al final abordamos las visiones sobre la ciudad, tanto de los estudiantes locales como de los provenientes de otras localidades catalanas y de otros países, acabando con unas reflexiones conclusivas donde comparamos dos generaciones estudiantiles: la del 2000 y la de 2010.

  11. The technological course in the Mexican electric sector; La trayectoria tecnologica en el sector electrico mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Diaz, Ricardo [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the historical background of the electric power generation in Mexico and the different types of generation. The area of central control is described, its importance, function and availability. Statistical graphs are shown on the evolution of the electric generation in Mexico, as well as tables with data on the annual installed capacity since 1937 until 1995, and also the maximum demand. Mention is made of the increment needs in the electric power generation in the central control area and a preliminary assessment of the new generation projects in Hydro and fossil power stations is presented [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se presentan los antecedentes historicos de la generacion electrica en Mexico y los diferentes tipos de generacion. Se describe el area de control central, su importancia, funcion y su disponibilidad. Se muestran graficas estadisticas de la evolucion de la generacion electrica en Mexico, de igual manera se muestran tablas con datos de la capacidad instalada anual desde 1937 hasta 1995, asi como la demanda maxima. Se mencionan las necesidades de incremento de la generacion en el area de control central y se muestra una evaluacion preliminar de los proyectos de nueva generacion en centrales hidroelectricas y termoelectricas

  12. Photovoltaic systems interconnected to the electric network; Sistemas fotovoltaicos interconectados a la red electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agredano Diaz, Jaime [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-06-15

    . Enseguida, se muestra la solucion que le encontro el Gobierno del Estado a este problema para lo que fue necesaria la participacion del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). Esta participacion, se traduce en un proyecto que muestra la viabilidad de instalar sistemas fotovoltaicos interconectados a la red de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) en casas habitacion. Despues, se presenta una descripcion no solo de los elementos que conforman el sistema, sino tambien de la metodologia y el funcionamiento del mismo. Posteriormente, se presenta el efecto positivo, economicamente y ambientalmente hablando, que tuvo la instalacion del sistema en las 220 casas habitacion del fraccionamiento Valle de las Misiones, asi como las caracteristicas generales del mismo. Ademas, se presenta la manera de alcanzar un mayor impacto y cobertura del sistema. Finalmente, se presentan los auspiciadotes del proyecto: la Secretaria de Energia (SENER), la CFE, la Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE), la Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (UABC), el IIE, el Banco de Desarrollo de America del Norte (BDAN) y el Gobierno del Estado de Baja California.

  13. System for the measurement and detection of electric energy losses (SIM-IV); Sistema de medicion y deteccion de perdidas de energia electrica (SIM-IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidrio L, Gilberto; Gomez L, Martin J; Castan L, Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The electric utility companies worldwide suffer, in greater or lesser degree, electrical energy losses. A great percentage of these losses is mostly due to illegal appropriations of energy. The consumers, by means of illicit practices such as clandestine connections and alteration of the operation of electricity meters, carry out the energy robbery. In order to try to alleviate the problematic of electric energy losses, in their majority by illicit, the electric utility companies have implemented one or more actions. Among the most important are: Visual inspection of the metering facilities. Its purpose is to verify the condition of the traditional protections of the metering installations, such as the seals and safety rings. Detection Equipment: These are recorders of energy consumption and of faults in conductors and are used to detect illicit connections and deviations in the consumption patterns and to the electrical energy connection or to the secondary distribution network. Statistical analysis of consumption: Many electric facility companies have adapted their processing consumption reading systems to detect deviations in the of consumption patterns of their clients. This could correspond to abnormal situations. Since this country is not extraneous to the problematic of energy losses, in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas it was developed a System of Measurement and Detection of Losses of Electrical Energy (SIM-IV) as a result of the knowledge of the problematic obtained from the projects in the metering area and of the interaction through work meetings with personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad and of Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LyFC), in which concepts of advanced technology were applied for the measurement of electrical variables. The SIM-IV is a system oriented to the metering of consumption and the detection of robberies of electrical energy caused by clandestine connections and non-allowed interventions to the energy meters. Since

  14. Calculation of electromagnetic field in electric machines through the finite element: Electromagnetic modeling; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito: Modelacion electromagnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mario F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    In this article are presented the general characteristics of the electromagnetic phenomena that can be described by means of the software CALIIE-2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) derived from a modeling based in the magnetic and electric potentials, always using the MKS rationalized units system. Closed regions are considered with axial or moving symmetry to incorporate the bi-dimensional behavior of the electromagnetic fields. The possibility of means with movement is also included. [Espanol] En este articulo se presentan las caracteristicas generales de los fenomenos electromagneticos que pueden describirse mediante el programa de computo CALIIE-2D, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), que provienen de una modelacion basada en los potenciales magnetico y electrico, en esta se utiliza sistema MKS racionalizado de unidades. Se consideran regiones cerradas con simetria axial o traslacional para incorporar el comportamiento bidimensional de los campos electromagneticos, se incluye tambien la posibilidad de medios con movimiento.

  15. The new financing techniques and the reorganization of the Mexican electric industry; Las nuevas tecnicas de financiamiento y la reorganizacion de la industria electrica mexicana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islas Samperio, Jorge; Rodriguez Viqueira, Luis [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The exhaustion of the financing model of the Mexican Electric Industry based on foreign credits, the State contribution and in a small part from auto-financing, has determined the search for new financing sources for the investment in this capital intensive sector. The main characteristic of the State new strategy to increase the investment capacity is to incite the private capital to make massive investments in the electric production segment. Nevertheless, there are different modalities to make the private capital participate in this sector`s segment. In this paper we make an analysis of the new financing techniques and their relationship with the regulations and the electric industry structure. Finally, the role of the conservation and the appropriate use of the energy is discussed as a mechanism for the modulation of the pressures coming from the financial sphere over the reorganization process of the National electric industry. [Espanol] El agotamiento del modelo de financiamiento de la industria electrica mexicana que tiene como base los creditos extranjeros, los aportes del estado y una pequena parte de autofinanciamiento, ha determinado la busqueda de nuevas fuentes de financiamiento de las inversiones de este sector intensivo en capital. La caracteristica principal de la nueva estrategia del estado para aumentar la capacidad de inversion es la de incitar al capital privado a realizar inversiones masivas en el segmento de la produccion electrica. Existen sin embargo diferentes modalidades para hacer participar al capital privado en este segmento del sector. En el presente trabajo hacemos un analisis de las nuevas tecnicas de financiamiento y sus relaciones con la reglamentacion y la estructura de la industria electrica. Por ultimo, se discute el papel del ahorro y uso eficiente como mecanismo para modular las presiones provenientes de la esfera financiera sobre el proceso de reorganizacion de la industria electrica nacional.

  16. Usando la tecnología para conectar las generaciones: consideraciones sobre forma y función

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Sánchez Martínez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, conforme el envejecimiento en las sociedades occidentales aumenta, resulta más evidente que en cualquier momento histórico dado hay varias generaciones envejeciendo simultáneamente. Por tanto, el envejecimiento debe ser estudiado como fenómeno multi-generacional y no solo como un asunto de personas mayores. En este contexto, están suscitando más atención las situaciones que implican más interacciones intergeneracionales. Dentro del campo intergeneracional está aumentando el interés en torno a las posibilidades de expandir el papel de la tecnología en los programas intergeneracionales. En consecuencia, este artículo se centra en los procesos de educación y aprendizaje acaecidos dentro de programas intergeneracionales con un fuerte componente tecnológico. Mediante un sondeo se recogió información sobre un total de 46 de este tipo de programas de 11 países. Todos se han evaluado en la muestra según su nivel de impacto, el estatus de los grupos generacionales y la centralidad de la tecnología. La enseñanza-aprendizaje de la tecnología constituye la principal área de impacto buscada por estos programas, que, no obstante, también utilizan una amplia variedad de estrategias para facilitar la comunicación, la cooperación y la formación de relaciones intergeneracionales entre las generaciones implicadas. El interés de los programas analizados no solo consiste en enseñar a utilizar la tecnología sino en experimentar diferentes formas y funciones con ella, así como en explorar el potencial positivo de la tecnología para mejorar las relaciones intergeneracionales

  17. Generating units in operation. National electrical system (Public service) 2002; Unidades generadoras en operacion. Sistema electrico nacional (Servicio publico) 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-15

    The information regarding the generation effective capacity updated to December 31, 2002 is presented. A detailed description of the effective capacity by generation region, control area, generation type and federal entity is presented. Also graphs are shown with the energy balance of the National Electrical System of Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro. [Spanish] Se presenta la informacion relativa a la capacidad efectiva de generacion actualizada al 31 de diciembre de 2002. Se hace una descripcion detallada de la capacidad efectiva por region de generacion, por area de control, por tipo de generacion y por entidad federativa. Tambien se presentan unas graficas con el balance de energia del Sistema Electrico Nacional de la Comision Federal de Electricidad y de Luz y Fuerza del Centro.

  18. Las semánticas de la posteridad: el cine y la matriz de las generaciones futuras Las semánticas de la posteridad: el cine y la matriz de las generaciones futuras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Francescutti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the XXth century, the semantics of posterity underwent a dramatic transformation, expressed in the importance of the notion of future generations. Ushered in by environmental discourse, this construct has gained an outstanding presence in the public realm, as much as it conveys the idea of the moral responsibility for the long term consequences of our actions, a responsibility focused on the welfare of our descendants. This new understanding of the future has inspired a copious literature about its legal and politic implications (i.e. sustainable development and the precautionary principle; although little has been said of the social and cultural circumstances of its genesis. In this study we turn to science fiction cinema to highlight the making of that category. This film genre appears suitable for this research because one of its themes concerns the relationships between contemporary people and future Humanity. Our film analysis allow us to visualize the trajectory of this category since its appearance in the Fifties (with its actual meanings and to show how it was modulated by the social necessity of an external point of view upon which risk observations can be based.En la segunda mitad del siglo XX, las semánticas de la posteridad sufrieron una gran transformación, patente en la centralidad adquirida por la noción de generaciones futuras. Promovido por el discurso ambientalista, este constructo ha conquistado un lugar sobresaliente en el dominio público, en tanto introduce la idea de la responsabilidad moral por las consecuencias a largo plazo de nuestras acciones. La nueva comprensión del futuro ha inspirado una copiosa literatura sobre sus implicaciones legales y políticas (por ejemplo, el desarrollo sostenible y el principio de precaución, aunque poco se ha dicho de las circunstancias sociales y culturales de su génesis. En este trabajo estudiamos la eclosión de dicha categoría basándonos en el cine de

  19. El influjo de la Historia Roderici sobre el Libro de las generaciones y linajes de los reyes (olim Liber regum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Thieulin-Pardo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se propone confrontar detenidamente el contenido del Linage de Rodric Diaz, genealogía del Cid integrada en la parte final del Libro de las generaciones y linajes de los reyes (olim Liber regum, con su principal fuente, la Historia Roderici. Dicha comparación permite poner de realce los procedimientos de abreviación, de condensación y de reescritura que dan paso a la nueva semantización del texto y de su contenido ideológico en un contexto geopolítico y de redacción diferente.La confrontation minutieuse du contenu du Linage de Rodric Diaz, fragment intégré à la partie finale du Libro de las generaciones y linajes de  los reyes (olim Liber regum, et de celui de sa principale source, l’Historia Roderici, permet de mettre l’accent sur les procédés d’abréviation, de condensation et de réécriture conduisant à la nouvelle sémantisation du texte et de son contenu idéologique dans un contexte géopolitique et rédactionnel différent.

  20. The Mexican electric industry under an opening triangle; La industria electrica mexicana bajo un triangulo de apertura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Guevara, Sergio [Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document analyzes the electric industry in Mexico in its opening phase, which must be qualified as a strategic activity within the present and future becoming of the Mexican economy. The Mexican electric sector was framed within the National Project born out in the country`s Politic Constitution; where the State economic intervention is driven and induced, with its exclusive duty in strategic activities through public enterprises created for that purpose and as a support of Mexico`s economic and social welfare. Within the opening it should be pointed out the participation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Energy Program, the Development Program and Restructure of the Energy Sector 1995-2000 [Espanol] En el presente documento se analiza la industria electrica en Mexico en su fase de apertura, la cual debe calificarse como una actividad estrategica dentro del devenir presente y futuro de la economia mexicana. El sector electrico mexicano se enmarco dentro del Proyecto Nacional que nace en la Constitucion Politica del pais; donde se impulsa e induce la intervencion economica del Estado, con su quehacer exclusivo en actividades estrategicas, por medio de empresas publicas creadas para tal fin y en apoyo del bienestar economico y social de Mexico. Dentro de la apertura hay que senalar la participacion que tiene el Tratado de Libre Comercio, el Programa de Energia y el Programa de Desarrollo y Reestructuracion del Sector Energia 1995-2000

  1. Participación política de la juventud afrodescendiente en el Perú: recambio generacional y derechos humanos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jorge Rafael Ramirez

    2015-01-01

    ... de inclusión social y desarrollo con identidad. Se resaltarán para ese sentido, y a manera de recambio generacional al Movimiento Afroperuano, algunos mecanismos de organización y participación política de las y...

  2. Demand curves of electric energy in domestic sector in two regions of Mexico; Curvas de demanda de energia electrica en sector domestico de dos regiones de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maqueda Zamora, Martin Roberto; Sanchez Viveros, Luis Agustin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    In this work, is presented the analysis of residential consumption, regarding the temperature of two areas and types of electrical appliances. A shape characteristic of the load of the electrical energy is obtained for two geographical areas in Mexico. The consumption information was obtained from measurements in residential consumers and from the Mexican Utility. It is also shown the demand profile of the main residential appliances, obtained from smart metering equipment to separate the residential users' load profiles. It is shown the effect of the different variables analyzed on the electrical power consumption, mainly the type of equipment, the geographical localization, the weather (temperature, humidity and vegetation type). With the results attained, the definition of effective energy-saving programs and its effectiveness can be obtained. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el analisis del consumo residencial considerando la temperatura de las dos areas y tipos de aparatos electricos. Se obtiene una forma caracteristica de la carga de energia electrica de dos areas geograficas de Mexico. La informacion sobre el consumo se obtuvo de mediciones en consumidores residenciales y de una empresa electrica mexicana. Tambien se muestra el perfil de demanda de los principales aparatos residenciales, derivado de equipos de medicion inteligentes para separar los perfiles de carga de usuarios residenciales. Se muestra el efecto de diferentes variables analizadas en el consumo de energia electrica, principalmente el tipo de equipo, la localizacion geografica, el clima (temperatura, humedad y tipo de vegetacion). Con los resultados alcanzados pueden definirse programas de ahorro de energia efectivos y lograr implantarlos.

  3. Methodology for evaluating the grounding system in electrical substations; Metodologia para la evaluacion del sistema de puesta a tierra en subestaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrelles Rivas, L.F [Universidad Nacional Experimental Politecnica: Antonio Jose de Sucre (UNEXPO), Guayana, Bolivar (Venezuela)]. E-mail: torrellesluis@gmail.com; Alvarez, P. [Petroleos de Venezuela S.A (PDVSA), Maturin, Monagas (Venezuela)]. E-mail: alvarezph@pdvsa.com

    2013-03-15

    The present work proposes a methodology for evaluating grounding systems in electrical substations from medium and high voltage, in order to diagnose the state of the elements of the grounding system and the corresponding electrical variables. The assessment methodology developed includes a visual inspection phase to the elements of the substation. Then, by performing measurements and data analysis, the electrical continuity between the components of the substation and the mesh ground is verified, the soil resistivity and resistance of the mesh. Also included in the methodology the calculation of the step and touch voltage of the substation, based on the criteria of the International IEEE standards. We study the case of the 115 kV Pirital Substation belonging to PDVSA Oriente Transmission Network. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se plantea una metodologia para la evaluacion de sistemas de puesta a tierra en subestaciones electricas de media y alta tension, con la finalidad de diagnosticar el estado de los elementos que conforman dicho sistema y las variables electricas correspondientes. La metodologia de evaluacion desarrollada incluye una fase de inspeccion visual de los elementos que conforman la subestacion. Luego, mediante la ejecucion de mediciones y analisis de datos, se verifica la continuidad electrica entre los componentes de la subestacion y la malla de puesta a tierra, la resistividad del suelo y resistencia de la malla. Se incluye tambien en la metodologia el calculo de las tensiones de paso y de toque de la subestacion, segun lo fundamentado en los criterios de los estandares Internacionales IEEE. Se estudia el caso de la Subestacion Pirital 115 kV perteneciente a la Red de Transmision de PDVSA Oriente.

  4. Experimental evaluation of the consumption of electrical energy of domestic refrigerators in Mexico; Evaluacion experimental del consumo de energia electrica de refrigeradores domesticos en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo Cabanas, Fernando Gabriel [Programa de Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ambriz Garcia, Juan Jose; Paredes Rubio, Hernando Romero [Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    In this work the experimental methodology developed to carry out tests of the electrical energy of refrigerators consumption as norm NOM-015-ENER-2002 is described. The tests were made in the Laboratory of Controlled Environment of the Iztapalapa Unit of the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana to a sample of old domestic refrigerators in operation. The results found show that the consumption of electrical energy of refrigerators of more than 10 years of age can be higher than 60% of what a modern refrigerator of high efficiency would consume, or 30% higher if the refrigerator was made between 1997 and 2002. With these results it is sustained, in a more complete way, the evaluation of the saving potential of the national electrical energy by the substitution of old domestic refrigerators by modern, as reported in a previous work. [Spanish] En este trabajo se describe la metodologia experimental desarrollada para efectuar pruebas del consumo de energia electrica a refrigeradores conforme la norma NOM-015-ENER-2002. Las pruebas se realizaron en el Laboratorio de Ambiente Controlado de la Unidad Iztapalapa de la Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana a una muestra de refrigeradores domesticos antiguos en operacion. Los resultados encontrados muestran que el consumo de energia electrica de refrigeradores de mas de 10 anos de antig�edad puede superior al 60% de lo que consumiria un refrigerador moderno de alta eficiencia, o superior en un 30% si el refrigerador fue fabricado entre 1997 y 2002. Con estos resultados se sustenta de manera mas completa la evaluacion del potencial de ahorro de energia electrica nacional por substitucion de refrigeradores domesticos antiguos por modernos reportado en un trabajo anterior.

  5. Efficient use of electric power in corporative 3M Mexico; Uso eficiente de la energia electrica en el corporativo 3M Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Perez, Alfredo; Quinones Bonilla, Antonio S. [3M Mexico, S.A. de C.V. (Mexico); Bustos Antunez, Jorge I.; Reyes Arce, Manuel [Hines Interests, S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    It is not enough to count on with the state of the art technology for the daily operation of a building, the challenge is to be able to make a clear analysis and with attainable goals for the optimization of rational use of the electrical energy in the operation of intelligent buildings without affecting the comfort and productivity for users as well as the functionality and profitability for the owner. This went our base to carry out control strategies that helped the efficient use of the electrical energy, obtaining important savings without neglecting the operative part, of services and human within the property. It is thus, that 3M Mexico wanting to reach these purposes, conducted actions to improve the efficiency of the equipment in the following items: electric network, general lighting, air conditioning system, ventilation and extraction, hydropneumatic system, and sumps operation. [Spanish] No basta contar con la tecnologia de punta para la operacion diaria de un edificio, el reto es ser capaces de realizar un analisis claro y con metas alcanzables para la optimizacion de uso racional de la energia electrica en las operaciones de edificios inteligentes sin afectar el confort y productividad para usuarios asi como la funcionalidad y rentabilidad para el propietario. Esta fue nuestra base para llevar a cabo estrategias de control que ayudaron al uso eficiente de la energia electrica, obteniendo ahorros importantes sin descuidar la parte operativa, de servicios y humana dentro de la propiedad. Es asi, que 3M Mexico queriendo alcanzar dichos propositos, realizo acciones para mejorar la eficiencia de los equipos en los siguientes rubros: red electrica, iluminacion general, sistema de aire acondicionado, ventilacion y extraccion, sistema hidroneumatico, y operacion de carcamos.

  6. Tres generaciones de migrantes trasnacionales del Valle de Solís, Estado de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana SÁNCHEZ-PLATA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación cualitativa sobre los migrantes de Valle de Solís (Temascalcingo, México, una región de lejana tradición en la migración internacional. Se abordan diversas etapas de la migración masculina y la incorporación de las mujeres al flujo migratorio. Mediante la observación de tres generaciones de migrantes se analizan cambios sociales importantes en la vida cotidiana de tres comunidades pertenecientes al Valle de Solís para entender la lógica migratoria a partir de motivaciones locales que exigen un cambio social frente a procesos globales de movilidad.

  7. Pautas, creencias y prácticas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo y su transmisión generacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlyn Peña

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo describir las pautas, creencias y prácticas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo y su transmisión generacional en cuatro familias de nivel socioeconómico bajo de la ciudad de Bogotá. Utilizamos entrevistas semiestructuradas, historias de vida, observaciones de campo, y el Software Atlas.ti para analizar los resultados. Encontramos que las pautas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo están enmarcadas en el rol del abuelo o de la abuela como cuidador o cuidadora entre semana, en el del padre o madre como cuidador o cuidadora de fin de semana, y en el del niño o niña como el sujeto travieso. Las creencias se establecen en torno al niño o niña como fuerte y frágil, y al castigo como formador, ambivalente, maltratante y temido.

  8. PERTENENCIA Y COMPROMISO: FACTORES RELEVANTES EN LA TRANSICIÓN GENERACIONAL DE EMPRESAS FAMILIARES. CASO CONSTRUCTORAS CAMPECHE, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMÁN ALBERTO QUIJANO GARCÍA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tiene como objetivo describir la percepción del sentido de pertenencia y compromiso en los familiares accionistas de empresas familiares del sector de la construcción con especialidad en vías terrestres. El diseño de la investigación es no experimental descriptivo transeccional. Se realizó una entrevista con los propietarios para identificar las empresasfamiliares y posteriormente se aplicó un cuestionario a 64 gerentes integrantes de los respectivos consejos de administración. Los resultados evidencian un mayor sentido de pertenencia que de compromiso con la organización. Se concluye que estos factores influyen en la transición generacional debido a que los accionistas que forman parte de la familia participan en el consejo de administración de la empresa.

  9. Pautas, creencias y prácticas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo y su transmisión generacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pulido

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo describir las pautas, creencias y prácticas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo y su transmisión generacional en cuatro familias de nivel socioeconómico bajo de la ciudad de Bogotá. Utilizamos entrevistas semiestructuradas, historias de vida, observaciones de campo, y el Software Atlas.ti para analizar los resultados. Encontramos que las pautas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo están enmarcadas en el rol del abuelo o de la abuela como cuidador o cuidadora entre semana, en el del padre o madre como cuidador o cuidadora de fin de semana, y en el del niño o niña como el sujeto travieso. Las creencias se establecen en torno al niño o niña como fuerte y frágil, y al castigo como formador, ambivalente, maltratante y temido.

  10. Red Electrica de Espana S.A.. Instrument of regulation and liberalization of the Spanish electricity market (1944-2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrues-Irurzun, Josean [Department of Theory and Economic History, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Granada, Campus Cartuja s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Lopez-Garcia, Santiago [Department of Economics and Economic History, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Salamanca, Campus Miguel de Unamuno, 37007 Salamanca (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    To understand the regulation system of the Spanish electricity market it is first necessary to understand on the one hand the system of tariffs and prices, and on the other the organization of the market for high voltage distribution. This article is concerned with this second aspect and traces its history from 1944, this is because before that date it was not possible to speak of a truly national market, but rather only of regional monopolies. In the 1940s, with Franco's new political regime, and the development of the Spanish electricity sector, it became necessary to completely rethink business strategies in relation to competition and cooperation, as well as the regulatory function of the state. In the 1950s, the main feature of the sector was the system of business self-regulation permitted by the state. Throughout the remaining years of Franco's government state intervention was particularly focussed on the subject of tariffs, but with the onset of democracy the state was to involve itself in the transmission network as well. A debate began as to whether it should be run by a private or public operator. In this dispute were ranged, on the one hand, the economic policy concepts of the major parties (PSOE and PP), and against them the strategic interests of the companies. Although the high voltage transmission network was nationalized by the state in the mid-1980s, establishing a 'traditional' model of regulation, the 1990s saw the triumph of a market-based regulation, strongly influenced by the dominant ideas in the European Union, which has converted Red Electrica into a private company. Currently the TSO (Transmission System Operators) model has been extended to Portugal and has entered into competition-cooperation with the other models of the European electricity market. (author)

  11. Importance of the validation of saving technologies of electric power; Importancia de la validacion de tecnologias ahorradoras de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valer Negrete, Adrian [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (PAESE), Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Within the Programs of Energy Saving it is fundamental the search and application of new technologies, with which this saving can be obtained, selected with base in their technical characteristics that allow to reduce to the consumptions and demands of power, without damaging the electric networks nor the transformers of the Comision Federal de Electricidad. It is important that the investments which are made count on attractive periods of capital recovery, in comparison with the useful life of the product, reason why the knowledge and price of the new technologies will be parameters to consider in an important manner, creating the need of conducting tests that verify the veracity of the information of the supplier, resulting in certain cases, the change of design of these technologies, so that thus they fulfill the engaged characteristics. This paper indicates the characteristics that the new saving technologies of electrical energy must fulfill and the tests and parameters to consider their evaluation. [Spanish] Dentro de los Programas de Ahorro de Energia es fundamental la busqueda y aplicacion de nuevas tecnologias, con las que se pueda obtener dicho ahorro, seleccionadas con base en sus caracteristicas tecnicas que permitan reducir los consumos y demandas de potencia, sin danar las redes ni transformadores de la Comision Federal de Electricidad. Es importante que las inversiones que se realicen cuenten con periodos de recuperacion de capital atractivos, comparados con la vida util del producto, por lo que el conocimiento y precio de las nuevas tecnologias seran parametros a considerar de manera importante, creandose la necesidad de realizar pruebas que verifiquen la veracidad de la informacion del proveedor, resultando en determinados casos, el cambio de diseno de dichas tecnologias, para que asi cumplan las caracteristicas prometidas. Este trabajo indica las caracteristicas que deben cumplir las nuevas tecnologias ahorradoras de energia electrica y las

  12. Research activities in the use of energy; Actividades de investigacion en el uso de la energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covarrubias Ramos, Rogelio; Garcia Juarez, Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The use of energy is intimately related to the development and is found in the human activities of all types, consequently we could say that to a greater usage it must correspond a greater benefit. This paper carries on a comparative analysis of the Mexico`s energy efficiency versus industrialized countries; this analysis shows that while Mexico indicates a growing tendency, in the industrialized countries the tendency is to the drop, unmistakable sign of a better usage of the energy sources. It also makes evident that promoting the energy efficiency in Mexico will stimulate and regulate the energy conservation at National level, in the same way it is mentioned that an appropriate energy demand Management for the users as well as for the service providers, will diminish the peak demand, the adequate application of the electric rates at the actual conditions and the energy saving and the strategic load growth [Espanol] El uso de la energia esta intimamente relacionado con el desarrollo y se encuentra en las actividades humanas de todo tipo, de tal suerte que podriamos decir que a mayor uso debe corresponder un mayor beneficio. En este documento se realiza un analisis comparativo de la eficiencia energetica en Mexico contra paises industrializados; este analisis muestra que mientras Mexico indica una tendencia creciente, en los paises industrializados la tendencia es a la baja, signo inequivoco de un mejor uso de los energeticos, tambien hace ver que la promocion de la eficiencia energetica en Mexico estimulara y regulara el ahorro de energia a nivel nacional, de igual manera se menciona que una buena administracion de la demanda energetica tanto por los usuarios como los que prestan el servicio, reducira la demanda pico, la adecuacion de las tarifas electricas a las condiciones reales y el ahorro de los energeticos y el crecimiento estrategico de la carga

  13. Latest generation flotation in applications with industrial waste waters; Flotacion de ultima generacion en aplicaciones con aguas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galdi, M.; Azzollini, G.

    2004-07-01

    The article provides an introduction to the historical development of water flotation equipment. Its earliest application was in paper-making factories where it was used to recover cellulose fibres. As it was improved, it was employed to treat waste waters with hydraulic loads of 4,8 m''3/m''2+h. Further improvements gave it a circular shape with the flocculation in the middle and a highly controlled radial flow and the speed increased to 5.4 m''3/m''2*/h. Recently, Ecomac, a flotation system whose performance is close to the ideal. has been developed. In this system the fluid is immobile, as the advanced design of the internal conduits eliminates turbulence by distributing the liquid right across the annular section of the tank and feeds compartments of decreasing cross sections. This arrangement allows it to cope with hydraulic loads of 8.4 m''3/m''2*h. Practical performance results obtained in the mechanical,food (yoghurt, preserves, wine) and textile dyeing industries are given. (Author)

  14. Additional generation capacity or steam demand administration?; Capacidad adicional de generacion o administracion de demanda de vapor?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plauchu Lima, Alberto; Plauchu Alcantara, Jorge Alberto [Plauchu Consultores, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The authors have presented in seminars XVIII and XIX of ATPAE papers on subjects on Demand in Steam Systems and on the Supply of Consulting Services, respectively, and this paper is a contribution that retaking both subjects, tries to motivate the interest in generally underestimated areas of opportunity in energy programs. It is intention of this paper to invite the spokesmen to this Seminar and of the futures ones to deepen and to offer continuity and pursuit of an event to the nest one, on subjects of permanent interest and to incorporate contributions of new experiences, criteria and technologies. One exhorts to professionals and technicians interested in the rational and economic administration of the energy to deepen into the real conditions, abilities and capacities of the equipment in the steam power plants and to the study of better options of its use, adaptation and operation. In order to exemplify the previous matter two cases of industrial plants in which real and satisfactorily and economically solved problems, were very different from the ones that the proprietors of those facilities originally raised when soliciting the support of consulting services. Notice is made that in both cases capacity problems were contemplated, after the study and recommended actions it was demonstrated they handle their demands without augmenting the installed capacity, with avoided investments and increased efficiency. Finally the determinant is emphasized that can be the function of the consultant in the approach of his services and the direction towards orientation to right solutions. [Spanish] Los autores han expuesto en los seminarios XVIII y XIX de ATPAE trabajos sobre temas de Demanda en Sistemas de Vapor y Prestacion de Servicios de Consultoria, respectivamente y la presente es una contribucion que retomando ambos temas, pretende motivar el interes en areas de oportunidad generalmente subestimadas en programas de energia. Es intencion de este trabajo invitar a los ponentes de este seminario y los futuros a profundizar y ofrecer continuidad y seguimiento de un evento al siguiente sobre temas de interes permanente e incorporar aportaciones de nuevas experiencias, criterios y tecnologias. Se exhorta a profesionales y tecnicos interesados en la administracion racional y economica de la energia a profundizar en las condiciones, habilidades y capacidades reales del equipamiento en plantas de vapor y al estudio de mejores opciones de su utilizacion, adaptacion y operacion. Para ejemplificar lo anterior se exponen dos casos de plantas industriales en que los problemas reales y resueltos satisfactoria y economicamente, fueron muy diferentes de los que los propietarios de esas instalaciones originalmente plantearon al solicitar el apoyo de servicios de consultoria. Se hace notar que en ambos casos se contemplaban problemas de capacidad, despues del estudio y acciones recomendadas quedo demostrado poder manejar sus demandas sin incrementar la capacidad instalada, con inversiones evitadas e incremento en eficiencia. Por ultimo se enfatiza lo determinante que puede ser la funcion del consultor en el enfoque de sus servicios y la orientacion hacia soluciones acertadas.

  15. Strategies to optimize the electric energy use in non-residential buildings; Estrategias para eficientizar el uso de la energia electrica en edificios no residenciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro Flores, J.; Morillon Galvez, D. [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the problems identified in non-residential buildings, where the inadequate use of energy is mainly shown in three points: inadequate technology and maintenance, wrong use and wrong habits in the energy use. The consequences of this situation in the ecological, politic and social environment were analyzed. In base of the problems detected the following strategies are proposed: An adequate project and design, retrofit, maintenance and users awareness for the rational energy use. The economic evaluation performed for the implementation of these strategies shows a significant saving potential of the electric power, with measures of null and low investment. [Espanol] Se presenta la problematica identificada en edificios no residenciales; donde el uso inadecuado de la energia electrica se manifiesta principalmente en tres puntos: tecnologia y mantenimiento inadecuados, y mal uso y costumbres de la energia. Se analizo las consecuencias de esta situacion en el ambito ecologico, economico, politico y social. Con base a la problematica se proponen las siguientes estrategias: un adecuado proyecto y diseno, retrofit, mantenimiento y concientizacion del usuario para el uso racional de la energia. La evaluacion economica realizada para implantar estas estrategias muestra un significativo potencial de ahorro de energia electrica, con medidas de nula y baja inversion.

  16. Energy saving in buildings through the elimination of typical problems; Ahorro de energia electrica en edificios a traves de la eliminacion de problemas tipicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Rivero, Alex G. [Genertek, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    The enormous electric energy consumption in buildings represents an important area of saving opportunities. The design of installations without advanced technical illumination criteria, the absence of standardization over energy efficiency, the lack of observation of the existing standards and guides, the continuous load growth in existing installations and the lack of appropriate maintenance, are some of the causes of the inefficient use of electric energy in buildings. Although the problems, and consequently the solutions, are exclusive for each unit, some of the former are frequently repeated. In this paper the problems found along more than 40 audits conducted in large buildings of different types in Mexico city are commented. [Espanol] El enorme consumo de energia electrica en edificios representa una importante area de oportunidad para ahorro. El diseno de instalaciones sin criterios luminotecnicos avanzados, la ausencia de normalizacion sobre eficiencia energetica, la falta de observancia de las normas y recomendaciones vigentes, el continuo crecimiento de carga en instalaciones existentes y la falta de mantenimiento adecuado son algunas de las causas del uso ineficiente de la energia electrica en inmuebles. Aunque los problemas y por tanto las soluciones son particulares para cada unidad, algunos de los primeros se repiten frecuentemente. En este trabajo se comentan los problemas encontrados a lo largo de mas de 40 auditorias realizadas a inmuebles grandes de diversos tipos en la ciudad de Mexico.

  17. System for the measurement and detection of electric energy losses (SIM-IV); Sistema de medicion y deteccion de perdidas de energia electrica (SIM-IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidrio L, Gilberto; Gomez L, Martin J; Castan L, Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The electric utility companies worldwide suffer, in greater or lesser degree, electrical energy losses. A great percentage of these losses is mostly due to illegal appropriations of energy. The consumers, by means of illicit practices such as clandestine connections and alteration of the operation of electricity meters, carry out the energy robbery. In order to try to alleviate the problematic of electric energy losses, in their majority by illicit, the electric utility companies have implemented one or more actions. Among the most important are: Visual inspection of the metering facilities. Its purpose is to verify the condition of the traditional protections of the metering installations, such as the seals and safety rings. Detection Equipment: These are recorders of energy consumption and of faults in conductors and are used to detect illicit connections and deviations in the consumption patterns and to the electrical energy connection or to the secondary distribution network. Statistical analysis of consumption: Many electric facility companies have adapted their processing consumption reading systems to detect deviations in the of consumption patterns of their clients. This could correspond to abnormal situations. Since this country is not extraneous to the problematic of energy losses, in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas it was developed a System of Measurement and Detection of Losses of Electrical Energy (SIM-IV) as a result of the knowledge of the problematic obtained from the projects in the metering area and of the interaction through work meetings with personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad and of Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LyFC), in which concepts of advanced technology were applied for the measurement of electrical variables. The SIM-IV is a system oriented to the metering of consumption and the detection of robberies of electrical energy caused by clandestine connections and non-allowed interventions to the energy meters. Since

  18. Electric power saving potential due to domestic refrigerators replacement; Potencial de ahorro de energia electrica por el reemplazo de refrigeradores domesticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta Solorio, Jose Luis [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (Mexico)]. E-mail: jose.peralta@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-04-15

    In Mexico the second most used electrical appliance is: refrigerator. Owing to its use, it would be a promising option for electric power saving. In Guadalajara, Reynosa and Tampico it was performed a study with the aim of launching a project to replace the old refrigerators with new ones which are more effective and less expensive. Since the refrigerators cost and the electrical invoicing saving, the electric appliance change is profitable. To expect with this replacement more than eight million of refrigerators manufactured before 1997 will be changed. [Spanish] El refrigerador es el segundo electrodomestico mas utilizado a nivel nacional, esto permite que debido a su uso sea una opcion prometedora para el ahorro de energia electrica. Se hizo un estudio en Guadalajara, Reynosa y Tampico con el fin de lanzar un proyecto para sustituir los refrigeradores viejos por unos nuevos que sean mas eficaces y menos costosos. Por el costo de los refrigeradores y el ahorro en la facturacion electrica, el cambio de electrodomestico es rentable, de esta manera se espera que los mas de ocho millones de refrigeradores fabricados antes de 1997 que existen en el pais sean cambiados.

  19. Gas pipelines design for power plants supply; Diseno de gasoductos para abastecimiento de centrales electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Oscar G. [TGN Transportadora de Gas del Norte, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Carranza, Hugo A. [TOTAL Gas Transmission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Casanova, Jorge A. [CMS Energy, Jackson, Michigan (United States); Casares, Carlos A.M. [TECPETROL, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2004-07-01

    Natural gas demand continues to grow in the world and in Argentina. The thermoelectric generation increases each year its perceptual participation in a total gas demand. In Latin America, meanwhile,natural gas transport systems do not have availability of economic alternatives for storage, forced to endure severe dynamic requirements to cover peak demand time and day. Under these new conditions to study the characteristics of loads and design methods of new pipelines, and adequacy of existing, deserves revised. The old discussions about stationary design versus transitional design renew face of change in composition of demand. This work analyze the characteristics of demand, the redefinition of the status of load, the criteria for handling line pack, the differences in results by method analysis used (dynamic/stationary), analyzing conceptually and quantitatively the principle variables that affecting the design. Finally runs on a general recommendation to use design patterns when planning a network with increased integration of electricity generation.

  20. Methodology for the prediction and solution of the harmonic distortion in the distribution power lines; Metodologia para la prediccion y solucion de la distorsion armonica en las redes electricas de distribucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez Sanchez, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1994-03-01

    The harmonic distortion in the distribution electric systems, caused by the increment in the utilization of power electronics, presents a growing problem for the power supply enterprises, as well as for their users. The distortion of the voltage wave shape in the distribution electric systems can produce additional heating in transformers, damage in motors, faults in capacitor banks, frequent fuse capacitors banks operation and inadequate operation of controllers and protecting schemes. This paper presents a general overview on the harmonics problem in distribution systems. The sources of harmonic currents, their effects in the electric system and the methodology implemented in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) for their detection, measurement and control, are described. [Espanol] La distorsion armonica en los sistemas electricos de distribucion, ocasionada por el incremento en la utilizacion de la electronica de potencia, presenta un problema creciente tanto para las empresas suministradoras de energia electrica como para sus usuarios. La distorsion de la forma de onda del voltaje en los sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica puede producir calentamiento adicional en transformadores, dano en motores, fallas en bancos de capacitores, operacion frecuente de fusibles de bancos de capacitores y operacion inadecuada de controladores y esquemas de proteccion. En este trabajo se presenta un panorama general sobre el problema de armonicas en redes de distribucion. Se describen las fuentes de corrientes armonicas, sus efectos en el sistema electrico y la metodologia implantada en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) para detectarlas, medirlas y controlarlas.

  1. Electric power and environment in Mexico; Energia electrica y medio ambiente en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla, J. [ed.] [UNAM IIE-PUE, Ciudad Universitaria (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    This volume is one of the three resulting volumes about the project named Document analysis and prospective organized by the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) through it University Energy Program (PUE). It is a non-periodical publication collection of the variable content and extent that as a whole constitutes an information heritage and an original contribution about the energy problematic as International level as at the country context and the University activities. In this book the manners of producing electrical energy are discussed, so how satisfying the growing necessities of this energy in Mexico without contaminating environment and how doing rational and efficient use of energy. The content of each document of this book is however exclusive responsibility of authors, as in the information as in their told opinions. The following papers were presented: 1) Hydroelectricity, soils use and water management. 2) The electric generation in Mexico and its environmental impacts: Past, present and future. 3) The nucleo electricity and the radioactive materials management. 4) Exposure to electromagnetic fields and its association with leukemia in children. 5) The electric power in Mexico and the supportable development. 6) Potential of electric generation at great scale with eolic energy in Mexico. 7) Toward an electric generation scheme distributed with non-conventional energies. 8) Renewable sources of energy in Mexico at the Century 21. (Author)

  2. Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession.

  3. Impact of a PV system interconnected to the electric network of a High Consumption Domestic user's demand in BCS; Impacto de un sistema fotovoltaico interconectado a red en la demanda electrica de un usuario DAC en BCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Grajales, H. R.; Agredano Diaz, Jaime; Gonzalez Galarza, R.; Munguia del Rio, G. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    In Mexico, the incident solar radiation is high enough, that encourage its use both to produce process heat or electricity trough solar cells in autonomous configurations or grid. In European countries with substantially lower irradiation levels such as Germany or Spain. PV Grid Connected Systems (PVGCS) are a mature technology that is widely used in these countries, mainly due to tax incentives and preferential feed in tariffs schemes. Of the benefits that electricity production modality provides both the user and to the electricity grid and also the technical benefits for the utilities for incorporating distributed generation at its distribution system. In Mexico, more and more people are motivated to invest in this type of technology. This article analyzes the particular case of a user that is classified as High Consumption Domestic Customer (HCDC) in the city of La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico, who owns a single phase of 6 kWp PVGCS installed on the roof of her house. The reported results in this paper come from data analyzed by the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) for a three year monitoring period. The paper includes meteorological information, energy and power balances, maximum power, standard production, system losses, efficiency of the photovoltaic generator and inverters, among other performance information. The document highlights the impact that the PV system on electricity consumption user billing from the utility, and some recommendations are provided on what must be done in order get out from the HCDC classification and the economic benefits of it. [Spanish] En Mexico se tienen niveles de irradiacion solar suficientemente altos que desde un punto de vista puramente energetico alientan a su aprovechamiento en la produccion de electricidad, ello mediante sistemas fotovoltaicos directamente conectados a la red electrica convencional (SFVI). En paises europeos con niveles de irradiacion sustancialmente inferiores - i.e. Espana o Alemania- esta

  4. La Generacion Millennials en La Universidad: Nuevas Realidades Para El Consejero Profesional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Davila, Nelissa

    2013-01-01

    College life strategies must be reassessed in light of the new generational culture taking hold with the arrival in college campuses of "Millennials" Generation students (Strauss & Howe 2000). This study explored college professional counselors' "Millennials" Generation knowledge, their techniques and strategies in…

  5. La Generacion Millennials en La Universidad: Nuevas Realidades Para El Consejero Profesional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Davila, Nelissa

    2013-01-01

    College life strategies must be reassessed in light of the new generational culture taking hold with the arrival in college campuses of "Millennials" Generation students (Strauss & Howe 2000). This study explored college professional counselors' "Millennials" Generation knowledge, their techniques and strategies in…

  6. Protection of structures and buildings against the effect of electrical storms: basic concepts, evolution and application in Mexico; Proteccion contra el efecto de las tormentas electricas de estructuras y edificios: conceptos basicos, evolucion y aplicacion en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvan Diego, Arturo; Velazquez Sanchez, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The applied technology, supported by the analysis, the experimentation and the scientific observation, has demonstrated its effectiveness in the modernization of hundreds of industrial and commercial processes, of communication and services, as well as of the materials and methodologies used for the protection of diverse equipment and processes; from the protection in systems and equipment in high tension to systems that handle very low energy, among them are included electronic and digital devices. Nevertheless, fundamental laws like the Ohm's Law, the gravity law or the universal gas law exist that, although they were discovered many years ago, still are effective and their validity provides invaluable elements for the development of new methods, technological processes and developments. One of the most relevant cases than amalgamates the application of fundamental criteria and the development of new technologies and its application in the so-called no conventional protective devices, constitute the protection against the effect of electrical storms in buildings and structures. The worldwide application of these devices has generated skepticism of a great part of the scientific community, diverse reactions among the users and a firm position on the part of the manufacturers so that these technologies are included in international standards. The objective of this article is to offer the reader the basic information on the beginnings of the protection, the evolution that the protection methods against electrical storms have had since the XVIII century, the application of the fundamental criteria of protection in structures or modern buildings and their content, as well as the situation that prevails at the moment in the committees of the diverse national and international normative organizations with respect to the inclusion of the new technologies in the design guides. [Spanish] La tecnologia aplicada, apoyada en el analisis, la experimentacion y la

  7. Magnetic losses and reactance change by the use of metallic conduit in electrical installations; Perdidas magneticas y cambio de reactancia por la tuberia metalica en instalaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campero Littlewood, Eduardo; Castaneda D, Miguel; Castulo A, Roberto; Bratu Serban, Neagu [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper are presented the results obtained in the measurement of magnetic losses in metallic conduits in electric installations. The losses for parasitic currents and by hysteresis were obtained in different conditions of magnetic density, caused by the net current resulting from the sum of all the currents of all the conductors that travel along the conduit. These currents are named differential currents, and the conditions in which they appear in the electric installations are described. The magnetic induction phenomenon that occurs in metallic conduit is briefly described and the basic concepts that describe it. A theoretical-experimental methodology is offered to quantify the energy losses by parasitic currents and by the metal magnetization in these metallic conduits. At the same time, the impact of these differential currents impact in the reactance of the electric installation is quantified. The obtained results for twelve conduits of different diameters and different wall thickness are shown. A comparison analysis is made with the reported results in a previous article, where the losses were estimated by means of the temperature rise measurement of the metallic wall. [Espanol] En este articulo se presentan los resultados obtenidos en la medicion de perdidas magneticas en tuberias conduit (metalicas) en instalaciones electricas. Las perdidas por corrientes parasitas y por histeresis se obtuvieron para diferentes condiciones de densidad magnetica, provocada por la corriente neta resultante de la suma de las corrientes de todos los conductores que viajan por la tuberia. A estas corrientes se les designa corrientes diferenciales y se describen las condiciones en las que estas aparecen en las instalaciones electricas. Se explica brevemente el fenomeno de induccion magnetica que se presenta en las tuberias metalicas y los conceptos basicos que la describen. Se plantea una metodologia teorico-experiemental para cuantificar las perdidas de energia, por

  8. Planning the expansion of electrical transmission networks with evolutionary programming; Planeacion de la expansion de redes de transmision electrica con programacion evolucionaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceciliano Meza, Jose Luis

    1997-12-31

    In this work it is presented for the first time in the literature the solution of the problem of the planning the expansion of an electrical transmission network (PERTE) with the use of the Evolutionary Programming. The evolutionary programming is a stochastic method of optimization with similar characteristics to the generic algorithms, but different. During the development of this work it is shown what each one of these two heuristic methods of optimization consist of. Additionally, the main characteristics of other two heuristic methods known in the literature are described (Tabu Searching and Simulated Annealing). These two methods together with the genetic algorithms and decomposition of Benders have also been used to solve the problem of planning PERTE. The operation of the proposed algorithm of evolutionary programming was tested in two networks of electrical transmission. The first case of test is a system which is known in the literature. The second case is a representative system of the electrical transmission network of Central America. The results obtained improve all the results shown when applying different heuristic methods of optimization (genetic algorithms, simulated annealing and Tabu searching) to solve the same problem. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta por primera vez en la literatura, la solucion del problema de la planeacion de expansion de una red de transmision electrica (PERTE) con el uso de la Programacion Evolucionaria. La programacion evolucionaria es un metodo estocastico de optimizacion con caracteristicas similares a los algoritmos geneticos, pero diferente. Durante el desarrollo de este trabajo se muestra en que consiste cada uno de estos dos metodos heuristicos de optimizacion. Ademas, se describen las caracteristicas principales de otros dos metodos heuristicos conocidos en la literatura (busqueda Tabu y Recorrido Simulado). Estos dos metodos juntos con los algoritmos geneticos y descomposicion de Benders tambien han sido

  9. Entre Sofie y Tovelille. Las escuelas de la comunidad danesa frente al problema de la identidad nacional de las generaciones nacidas en la Argentina (1886-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjerg, María M.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines certain aspects of the process of adaptation to a new society faced by a north European ethnic group: Danish settlers in rural districts of the central-southern province of Buenos Aires, The author attempts to analizae the influence among Danes in Argentina of a religious movement, widely extended in Denmark in the last three decades of the nineteenth century, which aimed to revive Danish nationalism after the defeat during the war against Pussia in 1864. The Danish Lutheran Evangelical Church in Argentina tried to maintain the religious and national identity of these inmigrats, and encouraged community schools to create a double national identity, by the preservation and propagation of the social and cultural values of Danish national iconography among successive generations born in Argentina.

    Este trabajo examina algunos aspectos del proceso de adaptación a la nueva sociedad de un grupo étnico noreuropeo: los daneses asentados en el mundo rural de los partidos del centro-sur de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina. El análisis intenta comprender cuál fue la influencia que, entre los daneses de la Argentina, tuvo un movimiento de base religiosa, de gran difusión en Dinamarca durante las tres últimas décadas del siglo XIX, que intentaba reavivar el sentimiento nacional danés tras la derrota en la guerra contra Prusia en 1864. El trabajo centrará su atención en el rol de la iglesia evangélica luterana danesa de la Argentina en la retención de la identificación religiosa y nacional de este grupo inmigratorio; y en las funciones atribuidas por la propia iglesia, a las escuelas de la comunidad en la creación de una doble identidad nacional, a través de la difusión y de la preservación de los valores socio-culturales y de la iconografía nacional danesa entre las generaciones nacidas en la Argentina.

  10. Estimation of fouling factors in the design of steam generators; Estimacion de factores de ensuciamiento en el diseno de generadores de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Archila, David Ivanhoe

    1997-12-31

    This thesis proposes an alternative to correct design problems the evaluation of fouling factors of thermal energy transfer components of a power station generator. That alternative involves the development of a subroutine to apply fundamental empirical thermal transfer correlations, written in FORTRAN language and extends a principal program for steam generator thermal analysis, developed by Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas. [Espanol] Esta tesis propone una alternativa, basada en el calculo de factores de ensuciamiento de elementos de transferencia de energia termica de un generador de vapor, como mecanismo para corregir el diseno deficiente de areas de calefaccion. Esta alternativa involucra el desarrollo de una subrutina, escrita en FORTRAN, la cual realiza el calculo de los factores de ensuciamiento empleando correlaciones fundamentadas en la teoria de los procesos de transferencia de calor y forma parte de un programa principal para el analisis termico de generadores de vapor desarrollado en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas.

  11. Humanistas y Reformistas: legados entre generaciones. La Universidad de Tucumán en 1930 y 1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana María Vanella

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1930 y 1950 muchos intelectuales europeos llegaron a América huyendo de las persecuciones raciales y políticas del período de entreguerras. Para las universidades americanas, este exilio forzoso significó una oportunidad de fecundo intercambio intelectual. La Universidad Nacional de Tucumán fue una de las instituciones que experimentó un significativo florecimiento académico en las áreas de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades como producto de ese proceso. Promovido por sus autoridades pertenecientes a la generación de la Reforma Universitaria de 1918, se alentó la convocatoria a catedráticos de origen diverso que suscitó un ferviente clima de formación, aprendizajes e intercambio cultural. Entre ellos, se cuentan el filósofo Manuel García Morente y el pedagogo Lorenzo Luzuriaga, ambos españoles; el sociólogo italiano Renato Treves, los hermanos Terracini y el filósofo Rodolfo Mondolfo igualmente venidos de Italia, y de Francia el politólogo e historiador Roger Labrousse. Nóveles docentes del resto del país, arribaron igualmente a Tucumán contribuyendo a la construcción de aquel proceso modernizador, cuyo legado difundieron a las siguientes generaciones argentinas y de la región. En el presente artículo interesa dar cuenta de los significados de aquella experiencia.

  12. Modelos Y Prácticas de Maternidad: Continuidades y Cambios en dos Generaciones de Madres Platenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Castilla

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de investigación que guió este trabajo consiste en analizar las continuidades y cambios en las prácticas de maternidad en dos generaciones de madres de nivel socioeconómico medio y los modelos de maternidad que están por detrás de las mismas; tomando como caso de estudio la ciudad de La Plata. Para ello, se analizaron 30 entrevistas en profundidad: 15 a mujeres que fueron madres en el 2000 y 15 que lo fueron en 1970. Del análisis surge la presencia de un entramado de elementos de continuidad y de cambio en las prácticas y sentidos de la maternidad. Esto es, a partir del resquebrajamiento de las prácticas "tradicionales" de cuidado de los hijos -a partir de un proceso de individualización creciente-, las madres comienzan a tener que decidirlas asumiendo los aciertos y los errores. Todo ello, junto con la continuidad del modelo que da ubica a la madre como la máxima responsable del cuidado y crianza de los hijos.

  13. Electric energy saving and its impact in the mining industry; El ahorro de energia electrica y su impacto en la industria minera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urteaga Dufour, Jose Antonio [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    In this paper are shown the most important results of the energy diagnosis performed in some representative industries of the mining industry, where opportunity areas were detected in electric energy saving, starting from those measures that do not require investment up to the ones that require medium investment, recoverable in less than two years terms as a maximum and with electric energy saving ranging from 10% to 25%. [Espanol] En este trabajo, se presentan los resultados mas importantes, obtenidos en el diagnostico energetico realizado en algunas empresas representativas de la rama de la mineria, en donde se detectaron areas de oportunidad de ahorro de energia electrica que van desde aquellas medidas que no requieren inversiones hasta las que requieren medianas inversiones, recuperables en menos de dos anos como maximo y con ahorros de energia que van desde un 10% hasta un 25%.

  14. Actions in the electrical sector to propitiate the environmental protection; Acciones en el sector electrico para propiciar la proteccion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevino Gaspari, Mateo [Fideicomiso de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The saving of electrical energy is one of the most efficient means to propitiate the environmental protection in the surroundings of the facilities used in the production of electrical energy. The emission of polluting agents associated with the electric power generation is analyzed, among them, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, along with the particulate emission of ash or soot. In addition, an analysis is made of the contribution of the electrical energy saving to the environmental protection and the actions that the Comision Federal de Electricidad of Mexico will undertake on the electric energy saving for the 1995 to the 2000 period. [Spanish] El ahorro de energia electrica es uno de los medios mas eficientes para propiciar la proteccion ambiental en el entorno de las instalaciones usadas en la produccion de energia electrica. Se analiza la emision de contaminantes asociados con la generacion electrica, entre ellos, el CO{sub 2}, el SO{sub 2} y NO{sub 2}, junto con la emision de particulas de ceniza o de hollin. Ademas se analiza la contribucion del ahorro de energia electrica a la proteccion ambiental y las acciones que emprendera la Comision Federal de Electricidad de Mexico sobre ahorro de energia electrica para el periodo 1995 al 2000.

  15. A microwave technique for electrical conductivity measurements in semiconductors; Un procedimiento en frecuencia de microondas para la medicion de la conductividad electrica en semiconductores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A; Zehe, A [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Starostenko, O [Universidad de las Americas, Puebla, (Mexico); Perez, L [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2003-01-15

    In the present paper a theoretical approach is given together with the description of the experimental technique for electrical conductivity measurements of semiconductors in frequency range of 10 GHz, corresponding to a wavelength of {lambda}= 3 cm. It is shown, that the sample conductivity, measured without the need of electrical contacts, Is practically identical with results obtained by direct current methods. The potential use of the method for dielectric measurements in samples of general shape is included in the discussion. Given that the local electrical field is known only in bodies of ellipsoidal shape, one has to apply approximation methods for sample shapes of practical relevance (cylinders, cubes, disks). Finally, the measuring range and corresponding errors are explained on the base of measurements realized with silicon samples. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se desarrolla la teoria junto con la descripcion del arreglo experimental para la medicion de la conductividad electrica en muestras semiconductoras, utilizando un campo de microondas de {lambda}= 3 cm, correspondiente a una frecuencia n de 10 GHz. Se demuestra que la conductividad electrica medida sin la necesidad de contactos electricos es practicamente identica con resultados obtenidos por el metodo comun utilizando corriente directa (d.c.). Se incorpora en la discusion ademas el potencial del metodo para el estudio de propiedades dielectricas en muestras de geometria general. Dado que solamente en cuerpos con geometria elipsoidal se conoce bien el campo electrico local, y con esto el momento bipolar inducido, para muestras de geometrias mas practicas (cilindros, cubos, discos) se acude a metodos de aproximacion. Finalmente, se discute el rango de mediciones y errores, y se presentan mediciones concretas, utilizando muestras de silicio.

  16. A simple and efficient formula for saving electric energy in lighting systems; Una formula sencilla y eficaz para ahorrar energia electrica en sistemas de iluminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa Noriega, L. R. [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City, as well as in other regions with a similar climate, there are an important number of users of the electric energy service, whose main load consists of lighting, since systems such as environmental conditioning, refrigeration, pumping and others are either not necessary or lack of importance as electric energy consumers. These are classified in the range of small users that altogether represent a significant saving, but the precarious diffusion of the technological advances have not contemplated the need of carrying on corrective actions. Among these users are the offices, sites of entertainment and a range of commerces and services such as clothing stores, pharmacies, shoe stores, printing shops, dry cleaner`s, restaurants, barber shops, etc. The present paper pretends to provide a simple methodology easy to carry on, derived form a demonstrative project that FIDE (Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico) successfully carried out for the Club Deportivo Berinbau. [Espanol] En el area Metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico, asi como en otras regiones con clima similar, existe un numero importante de usuarios del servicio de energia electrica cuya carga principal consiste en iluminacion, ya que sistemas como acondicionamiento ambiental, refrigeracion, bombeo y otros, o bien no son necesarios o carecen de la importancia en cuanto a consumo de energia electrica. Estos se catalogan dentro del rango de pequenos usuarios que en conjunto representan un potencial de ahorro significativo pero que, debido a la precaria difusion de los adelantos tecnologicos, no han contemplado la posibilidad de llevar a cabo acciones correctivas. Entre estos usuarios se encuentran oficinas, lugares de esparcimiento, planteles educativos y una gama de comercios y servicios como tiendas de ropa, farmacias, zapaterias, imprentas, tintorerias, restaurantes, peluquerias, etc. El presente trabajo pretende proporcionarles una

  17. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment for the waste water from the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas installations; Tratamiento anaerobio-aerobio de las aguas residuales de las instalaciones del IIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu Fernandez, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The waste water treatment plant of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) is analyzed. This plant originally was a plant of the activated sludge type (aerobic development), process that consumes large amounts of energy and that produces residual sludge 5 or 6 times greater than the anaerobic processes. The methodology and the techniques utilized were base in the analysis of the existing plant introducing an anaerobic treatment and performing laboratory experimentation. The plant design parameters considered are described. The results show the benefits of treating by anaerobic means the waste waters since depuration are obtained on the order of 75%, as well as the reduction of resulting residual sludge and in energy consumption. A reduction of 60% to 70% can be attained if a combination of anaerobic and aerobic processes is utilized [Espanol] Se analiza la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). Esta planta era originalmente una planta de lodos activados (desarrollo aerobio), proceso que consume mucha energia y genera lodos residuales de 5 a 6 veces mas que los procesos anaerobios. La metodologia y las tecnicas utilizadas se basaron en el analisis de la planta de tratamiento existente en el IIE; en la caracterizacion residual del IIE; en la modificacion de la planta de tratamiento introduciendo un tratamiento anaerobio y efectuando experimentacion en laboratorio. Se describen los parametros de diseno de la planta considerados. Los resultados muestran los beneficios de tratar por medios anaerobios las aguas residuales ya que se obtienen depuraciones del orden del 75%, asi como la reduccion de lodos residuales resultantes y el consumo de energia, pueden reducirse de un 60% a un 70% si se utiliza la combinacion de los procesos anaerobios y aerobios

  18. The distribution of the electric energy consumed in the World Trade Center building; La distribucion de la energia electrica consumida en el edificio World Trade Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaona de la Fuente, Alvaro; Carrillo Borja, Angel [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document describes the distribution of the electric energy in the World Trade Center building. Also called the Business International Capital, it is a modern international concept that integrates under the same roof services and supports required by the foreign commerce, with a great 50 stories high building, information network, a business center, a commercial center, an international center for exhibits and conventions and a luxury hotel. It is a modern building equipped with a numberless technological advancements an a total installed electrical load of 35000 kVA. The distribution structures utilized for high buildings are described, the structure that was decided to adopt in the World Trade Center, the requirement for the execution of the distribution electric work, the Luz y Fuerza installations in the buildings conglomerate, the operation and maintenance of the distribution network of this building and the basic needs for new installations of this type of buildings [Espanol] En el presente documento se describe la distribucion de la energia electrica del edificio World Trade Center de la ciudad de Mexico. Llamado tambien la capital internacional de los negocios es un moderno concepto internacional que integra bajo un mismo techo servicios y apoyos que se requieren para el comercio exterior contando con una gran torre de 50 pisos, red de informacion, un centro de negocios, un centro comercial, un centro internacional de exposiciones y convenciones y un hotel de lujo. Es un edificio moderno equipado con un sinnumero de adelantos tecnologicos y con una carga total instalada de 35000 kVA. Se describen las estructuras de distribucion utilizadas en edificios altos, la estructura que se decidio implantar en el World Trade Center, los requerimientos para la ejecucion de la obra electrica de distribucion, las instalaciones de Luz y Fuerza en el conjunto de dicho edificio, la operacion y mantenimiento de la red de distribucion de este edificio, y las necesidades

  19. Generacion de conocimiento en las organizaciones apoyada por la Teoria General de Sistemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article pretends to make a linkage between the General Systems Theory and organizational knowledge generation, exposing the advantages of the use of this theory. Researches were used in order to let the reader to form his/her own criteria according the environment that is involved. Isolating the facts, not considering the organization to the decision making process will limit the development of the organizational knowledge, because al last, this knowledge will be losing when the individual are retiring from the organization. What is proposing is that the knowledge remains through a proper application of generation and retaining with constant renovation methods.

  20. Systems for the calculation of electrical parameters and energy efficiency for high-capacity hydroelectric generators; Sistemas para el calculo de parametros electricos y eficiencia energetica para generadores hidroelectricos de gran capacidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Martinez, Oscar Alfonso; Pascacio de los Santos, Alberth; Perez Abad, Carlos Alberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Leon Rivera, Nicolas [CFE-LAPEM, Irapuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    construccion es la Central Hidroelectrica La Yesca, el cual concluira a finales de 2012 y consiste en dos generadores electricos de 375 MW, 17 kV. Sera el segundo en potencia y el tercero en generacion electrica en el sistema. De acuerdo con las normas nacionales e internacionales, debe efectuarse un conjunto de pruebas estaticas y dinamicas en estos generadores antes de la puesta en servicio, para asegurar su operacion apropiada. La prueba de resistencia de alto voltaje del devanado del estator, la prueba de corto circuito subito trifasico y el calculo de eficiencia energetica son algunas de las pruebas mas importantes por realizar en un nuevo generador electrico. Estas pruebas son dificiles de efectuar en sitio debido a la capacidad del equipo requerido, por lo que muy pocas companias en el mundo pueden conducirlas.

  1. EVALUACION DEL COMPORTAMIENTO BIOLOGICO, CLINICO Y MICROBIOLOGICO DE RESINAS DE ULTIMA GENERACION

    OpenAIRE

    Velermoro, Victor; Profesores de la Facultad de Odontología. UNMSM.; Moromi, Hilda; Profesores de la Facultad de Odontología. UNMSM.; Gálvez, Luis; Profesores de la Facultad de Odontología. UNMSM.; Salcedo, Doris; Profesores de la Facultad de Odontología. UNMSM.; Paz F., Juan José; Profesores de la Facultad de Odontología. UNMSM.; Quintana, Carmen; Profesores de la Facultad de Odontología. UNMSM.; Ayala, Gerardo; Profesores de la Facultad de Odontología. UNMSM.

    2014-01-01

    An study of three clases of resins of last generation was done evaluating the clinical conduct histological, microbiological and microfiltración through electronical microscopic concluting that the clinical answer in the three tippies of resins in casties of 3 mm of intensity were not present, in histologic grade you cannot see qualitive changes, in the microbiological aspect it was verified y kal the efect antimi crobianie is only produced with direct contact with the resens through the shap...

  2. Introduction criteria and concepts on energy saving in the technical standards for electric installations; Introduccion de criterios y conceptos de ahorro de energia en las normas tecnicas para instalaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon Nader, Jorge A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    The project Introduction Criteria and Concepts on Energy Saving in the Technical Standards for electric installations, is described, whose immediate objective is to recommend and in some cases regulate the use of energy saving equipment and devices and the adoption of attitudes and procedures that convey into saving, and the rational and efficient use of the electric energy. [Espanol] Se describe el proyecto Introduccion de Criterios y Conceptos de Ahorro de Energia en las Normas Tecnicas para instalaciones electricas, que tiene como objetivo inmediato recomendar, y en algunos casos reglamentar el uso de equipos y dispositivos ahorradores y la adopcion de actitudes y procedimientos que conduzcan a un ahorro y uso racional y eficiente de la energia electrica.

  3. Conectando generaciones: investigación y aprendizaje en educación en medios y estudios de audiencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ponte

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir de orientaciones teóricas y metodológicas previas sobre medios de comunicación y generaciones, este artículo presenta un proceso de investigación y aprendizaje a partir de la supervisión del trabajo de campo desempeñado por estudiantes licenciados en el Seminario del Máster en Medios de Comunicación en la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Nueva de Lisboa. Los estudiantes implicados lograron construir conocimiento contextual sobre el uso de los medios en la generación de sus abuelos y en la de sus padres en Portugal, actuando como facilitadores en los grupos de discusión, formados siempre por participantes de mayor edad, explorando las diferencias y similitudes intrageneracionales que emergen en grupos de diferente edad y llevando a cabo una reflexión crítica sobre la experiencia en sus informes individuales. La elección de los grupos de discusión como herramienta para la investigación y la elección del tema en el marco del Estudio de los Medios de Comunicación resultó muy eficaz. Este artículo pretende defender la potencialidad de esta relación intergeneracional entre los facilitadores y los miembros de los grupos de discusión como forma de activar la interacción entre grupos, permitiendo, por ejemplo, que los participantes asuman una actitud explicativa para consigo mismos. Las notas finales que se presentan contemplan las ventajas de esta metodología para la Educación en Medios y para diferentes ramas del Estudio de los Medios, como la historia de los medios de comunicación e historia social, el periodismo o la participación política.

  4. ESTRATEGIAS PARA LA MODELACION Y CONTROL DE LA CONTAMINACION AMBIENTAL PRODUCIDA POR LA GENERACION DEL SEN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam López Pérez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza el comportamiento de la generación, el uso de combustibles y la magnitud anual de los contaminantes debido a la generación térmica en Cuba.Son valoradas diferentes estrategias de Despacho Económico, con criterios ambientales de reducción y control de lasemisiones de Dióxido de azufre al medio ambiente; dado el empleo actual e incremento esperado del consumo decombustibles con altos contenidos de azufre. Entre las estrategias consideradas , resulta atractiva aquella que conlleva a la menor desviación del costo mínimo total de generación; posibilitando asimismo un cierto beneficio ambiental; lo cual es válido para economías tercermundistas como la nuestra. Se analizan y recomiendan medidas preliminares que permitan el cumplimiento de la Norma Cubana de Calidad del Aire. La mayor contribución de este trabajo radica en la proposición de tales estrategias nacionales. This paper analyzes the generation behavior, fuel uses and pollution year cap due to thermal generation in Cuba.It considers several Economic Dispatch Strategies taking into account some grades the SO2 emissions reduction andcontrol due to expected increases of the amount of sulfur present in the fuel .It attractive some one that involves theminimum generation cost least deviation considering besides certain clean or benefices environmental .The improvement present in this paper results adequate for third world economies such as our. It analyzes and recommended preliminaries actions in order to will be possible the compliment of the Air Clean Cuban Standard.

  5. García Morente y el entusiasmo generacional por Henri Bergson

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El catedrático español Manuel García Morente tuvo, como otros en su generación, una notable influencia de Henri Bergson. En trabajos más o menos espaciados, a lo largo de su vida, se advierte la impronta del pensador francés en su obra a todos los niveles. Si bien, se aprecia en sus últimos años un cierto distanciamiento y decepción. The Spanish professor Manuel García Morente had, as others in his generation, Henri Bergson's notable influence. In more or less spread works, along his life,...

  6. The present and the future of wind power; Presente y futuro de la generacion eolica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report makes a revision of the actual wind energy situation in Spain. Areas with wind energy potential and the situation of various manufacturers have been considered. Afterwards we shall comment on the highest powered wind turbine generator (WTG) produced in Spain; Gamesa Eolica`s 600 kW-G42, describing the main parts it consists on. We explain as well Gamesa Eolic`s industrial plan. Finally some of the advantage of wind energy, including a comment on its environmental impacts is made. (Author)

  7. La herencia: los/as hijas y el tránsito entre generaciones en la agricultura familiar de la región pampeana argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Neiman, Melina

    2015-01-01

    Las distintas formas hereditarias o de transición generacional han sido motivo de intensos debates en las ciencias sociales en general y en la sociología rural en particular, tanto para la agricultura de los países avanzados como de las regiones en desarrollo. En la región pampeana argentina, estos procesos sufrieron importantes transformaciones. Por un lado, se pasó de heredar un oficio a heredar un bien inmueble de alto valor. Por el otro, hubieron modificaciones en las dinámicas familiares...

  8. Factores que influyen en la generacion de productos obsoletos en los inventarios de las empresas mexicanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Treviño

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The obsolescence of inventories is an actual issue, therefore we propose according to scientific objectives prediction and control (Abramson 1983, an inventory obsolescence construct OI (Chaneski 2000, Aichmayr 2002, Masters 1991 to define the factors that make a product obsolete in the inventories of the companies. The model we propose consist of three factors; first, the obsolescence in the market due to the consumers preferences measure thru the product life cycle (PLC (Solomon 1999, Birou 1998, Ryan 1985, Levitt 1965; Second, the service inventory that has to do with the logistic and competence necessities of the market of each particular company. (Muller 2004 Aichmayr 2002; and Third, that generated by the administrative practices used by the company as an internal factor (IMR 2002, Masters 1991.

  9. Procedure to determine the convenience of installing a co-generation system; Procedimiento para determinar la conveniencia de instalar un sistema de cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin Castellanos, Carlos; Acosta Torres, Aracely [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    In this article a methodology for the selection of the co-generation system better adapted to the energy needs of an industry is presented, covering the following schemes: a) Satisfy the thermal demand and deliver to the net the excess electricity generated. b) Reduce the functioning level of the machine and produce electricity in accordance with the internal demand. The thermal demand will be satisfied, for instance, integrating a boiler in the cycle. c) Satisfy the electric demand and utilize only in part the available heat. d) Or else, reduce the operation level of the machine and produce only the necessary thermal energy, taking from the net the electric energy needed to cover the total demand. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta una metodologia para la seleccion del sistema de cogeneracion que mejor se adapte a las necesidades energeticas de una industria, cubriendo los siguientes esquemas: a) Satisfacer la demanda termica y ceder a la red el exceso de energia electrica generada. b) Reducir el nivel de funcionamiento de la maquina y producir electricidad de acuerdo a la demanda interna. La demanda termica se cubrira, por ejemplo, integrando una caldera al ciclo. c) Satisfacer la demanda electrica y, utilizar solo en parte el calor disponible. d) O bien, reducir el nivel de operacion de la maquina y solo producir la energia termica necesaria, tomando de la red la energia electrica para cubrir la demanda total.

  10. Evaluation of the reliability of electric power transmission systems; Evaluacion de confiabilidad de sistemas de transmision de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Ortiz, Miguel

    1989-07-01

    algorithm in a digital program, this was proved in a personal computer applying it to IEEE transmission systems evaluated with other methods, among them one of 140 buses and 199 transmission lines. The results as far as reliability indexes compared with the other methods were very satisfactory and promising as far as required CPU time and memory for larger systems. [Spanish] En esta tesis se ataca el problema de la Evaluacion de la Confiabilidad de los Sistemas de Transmision de Energia Electrica para fines de su planeacion integral. Una vez descrito el problema se presentan los indices que miden la confiabilidad de los sistemas electricos de potencia. Despues se describen los metodos para evaluar las redes de transmision, como el de Enumeracion de Contingencias, el Monte Carlo, el de Markov y los metodos para sistemas complejos como el de Cortes Minimos. Este ultimo se desarrolla ampliamente por las ventajas que presenta su aplicacion en la planeacion de redes grandes y complejas. El metodo de cortes minimos consta de dos grandes pasos: Determinar los cortes minimos para los puntos de carga y calcular los indices de confiabilidad en base a los cortes minimos. Los algoritmos convencionales para la determinacion de cortes minimos consideran un problema por cada punto de carga en forma independiente pasando por una determinacion de caminos minimos. En este tipo de algoritmos el tiempo de CPU y el espacio en memoria requeridos crecen exponencialmente para el caso de sistemas de transmision grandes, lo que representa una fuerte restriccion para su aplicacion. Para resolver este problema se establecio una metodologia en la que se modela el sistema por medio de un grafo y se determinan los cortes minimos con un algoritmo basado en la construccion de ciclos en el grafo dual. Con estos cortes se evalua la conexidad y capacidad de la red, obteniendose los indices de confiabilidad para cada bus y para el sistema. Estos indices se calculan con la representacion equivalente para

  11. Code for the steam tables for pure water in visual basic 6.0.; Un codigo para las tablas de vapor para agua pura en visual basic 6.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Mahendra P. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The thermodynamic data of the water are of extreme importance in all of the branches of science and technology; the facilitate the understanding of the natural Earth processes. Nevertheless, for the electrical industry the water plays a very important role during the generation of electrical energy process. Different heat sources such as coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear fuel or the geothermal heat boil the water that forms the steam used to move the turbines. Consequently, the steam tables (the thermodynamic water data) are vital to model thermal and mass transference and physical-chemical processes during the generation of electrical energy. [Spanish] Los datos termodinamicos del agua son de suma importancia en todas las ramas de la ciencia y tecnologia, ellos facilitan el entendimiento de los procesos naturales de la Tierra. Sin embargo, para la industria electrica el agua juega un papel muy importante durante el proceso de generacion de energia electrica. Diferentes fuentes de calor tales como carbon, aceite, gas natural, combustible nuclear o el calor geotermico calientan el agua que forma el vapor utilizado para mover las turbinas. Luego entonces, las tablas de vapor (los datos termodinamicos de agua) son vitales para modelar transferencia termica y de masa y procesos fisico-quimico durante la generacion energia electrica.

  12. Weather impact on the electric energy consumption of domestic users; Impacto del clima en el consumo de energia electrica en los usuarios domesticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Niembro, Gaudencio; Fiscal Escalante, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    It is said that when an energy saving and efficient use of energy program is implemented it must be a business for three: the user, the society and the electric utility. In respect to the user, his decision making is quite simple: is it cheaper or more expensive for me?. Unfortunately in many cases we want a very short return time or the money needed for the initial investment is not available. For instance, and incandescent bulb is several times less expensive than a compact fluorescent lamp, but if we make the calculation on the life-time and on the power consumption reduction of the compact fluorescent lamp, we can conclude that this one is more economic. The benefit for the society can be seen under many different aspects, being the most important the natural resources conservation and the environment. From the stand point of the utility the heavier possible factors are the postponement of the investments and the system reliability. When some of the programs of the Demand Side Management (DSM) are applied, the utilities support or promote non financially profitable but improve their image before the user, on creating a consciousness in the saving and in the efficient use of energy: a short term investment is made and a long term revenue is obtained. For this reason for an optimum selection and implementation the saving and the efficient use of electric energy measures a detailed knowledge of the consumption way is required. In this paper the importance of monitoring the way the different type of users employ the energy in order to make up decisions on DSM programs in many different scenarios: cities, type of users, income level, etc. is shown. [Espanol] Se dice que cuando se implementa un programa de ahorro y uso eficiente de la energia electrica, debe ser negocio para tres: el usuario, la sociedad y la empresa electrica. En lo que respecta al usuario, su toma de decision es muy simple: me resulta mas barato o mas caro. Desafortunadamente en muchos de los casos

  13. Development and implementation of a pilot network for continuous monitoring of electric energy; Desarrollo e implantacion de una red piloto de monitoreo continuo de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Cifuentes, A.; Cortes Eslava, A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The ``Programa Universitario de Energia (PUE)`` (University Energy Program) of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) through the project ``Ecologic Control of The University Campus`` has the objective of instrumenting policies for the rational use of the electric energy in the UNAM installations. The PUE has performed a series of activities aimed at the establishment of an integral program for the electric energy management in the UNAM. This program has to consider the measures for energy saving (MES) of general kind and to promote a series of specific measures to be adequated and implemented for each one of the departments. The success in establishing a series of MES compels to quantify its effects, to register and to analyze them to be in position of enhancing them, since it must be kept in mind that something that can not be measured can not be improved. For this purpose the PUE is developing a continuous monitoring pilot network of electric energy with local and remote access and an automated metering system. Two monitoring schemes are experimented, one commercial metering equipment and another one with own metering technology. In this paper the characteristics of the proposed monitoring schemes are described. [Espanol] El Programa Universitario de Energia (PUE) de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), a traves del proyecto {sup C}ontrol Ecologico del Campus Universitario{sup ,} tiene como objetivo instrumentar politicas de uso racional de la energia en las instalaciones universitarias. El PUE ha realizado una serie de actividades encaminadas a establecer un programa integral de administracion de la energia electrica en la UNAM. El programa mencionado debe considerar medidas de ahorro de energia (MAE) de tipo general y promover una serie de medidas particulares, para ser adecuadas e implantadas por cada una de las dependencias. El exito en el establecimiento de una serie de MAE, obliga a cuantificar sus efectos, registrarse y

  14. La Virgen de La Dolorosa y la lucha por el control de la socialización de las nuevas generaciones en el Ecuador del 1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available LA “VIRGEN DE LA DOLOROSA” ET LA LUTTE POUR LE CONTROLE DE LA SOCIALISATION DES NOUVELLES GÉNÉRATIONS. Cet article décrit l'apparition de la dévotion à la Dolorosa (la Vierge des Douleurs en 1906 en Équateur, la même année que celle de la séparation entre l'Église et l'État et de l’instauration de l'école laïque. L'argument essentiel de cette analyse est que cet événement ne doit pas être compris comme une réaction spontanée d’une église en crise, mais plutôt comme le résultat d’un processus graduel de transformation institutionnelle qui commença bien avant la période libérale et qui avait comme objectif de maintenir le contrôle de la socialisation des futures générations et des normes sociales après l’établissement de l’État libéral. Este trabajo analiza el surgimiento de la devoción a la Virgen de la Dolorosa en 1906 en el contexto de la disputa por la Ley de educación laica y la nueva Constitución que proclama la separación de la Iglesia del Estado en el Ecuador. El argumento que trata de sostener es que más que una reacción espontánea de una Iglesia en crisis frente al Estado liberal, esta devoción y su relación con la propuesta educativa de la Iglesia en el debate sobre la educación laica, son producto de un proceso de transformación institucional de la iglesia, iniciado antes de la revolución liberal, por medio de la cual ésta trata de mantener el control sobre los procesos de socialización de las futuras generaciones para garantizar cierta influencia en la construcción de las normas sociales de la sociedad inaugurada por el régimen liberal. THE VIRGIN OF SORROWS AND BATTLE OVER THE CONTROL OF SOCIALIZATION AND EDUCATION IN ECUADOR. This is a study on the emergence of the devotion to the Virgin of Sorrows in 1906 in Ecuador in the midst of the battle between liberals and conservative over laic education and the disestablishment of the Church. The main argument conveyed is that the

  15. The satisfaction of developing a project of electrical energy saving; La satisfaccion de desarrollar un proyecto de ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arreola Suarez, Alejandro [Hotel Club Marival, Nuevo Vallarta, Nayarit (Mexico)

    2002-09-01

    The projects for the energy saving in hotels represent a great opportunity to reduce the operation costs in the demand and consumption of electrical energy, since the existing facilities can take advantage of new technologies in illumination, air conditioning, refrigeration and heating. By their constitution, the hotels work the year around uninterruptedly and must provide all type of services to the guests and working personnel, which originates that they consume great amounts of energy in air conditioning, lightning, laundry, etc., since the prestige of the installation depends on it. [Spanish] Los proyectos para el ahorro de energia en hoteles representan una gran oportunidad para reducir costos de operacion en la demanda y consumo de energia electrica, ya que las instalaciones existentes pueden aprovechar nuevas tecnologias en iluminacion, aire acondicionado, refrigeracion y calefaccion. Por su constitucion, los hoteles trabajan ininterrumpidamente todo el ano y deben proporcionar toda clase de servicios a los huespedes y personal que labora, lo cual origina que consuman grandes cantidades de energia en aire acondicionado, iluminacion, lavanderia, etc., pues de ello depende el prestigio de la instalacion.

  16. Educational software tool for protection system engineers: distance relay; Herramienta educativa para la formacion de ingenieros en protecciones electricas: relevador de distancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo-Guajardo, L.A.; Conde-Enriquez, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)]. E-mail: luistrujillo84@gmail.com; con_de@yahoo.com

    2012-04-15

    In this article, a graphical software tool is presented; this tool is based on the education of protection system engineers. The theoretical fundaments used for the design of operation characteristics of distance relays and their algorithms are presented. The software allows the evaluation and analysis of real time events or simulated ones of every stage of design of the distance relay. Some example cases are presented to illustrate the activities that could be done with the graphical software tool developed. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta una herramienta computacional grafica para apoyar la formacion de ingenieros en protecciones electricas. Los fundamentos teoricos para el diseno de caracteristicas de operacion de relevadores de distancia, asi como las rutinas de programacion de un relevador de distancia son presentados. La herramienta desarrollada permite la evaluacion de las etapas de diseno de relevadores y el analisis de la operacion ante eventos reales o simulados. Se presentan algunos casos de ejemplo para ilustrar las actividades didacticas que son posibles de realizar con la herramienta presentada.

  17. Energy losses produced by differential currents in the metallic ducts of electric installations; Perdidas de energia producidas por corrientes diferenciales en la tuberia metalica de instalaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campero L, Eduardo; Bratu S, Neagu; Marquez M, Luis; Caballero R, Rafael [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    In this article it is explained what is known as differential currents and the conditions in which they appear in the electrical installations. A short outline is made on the magnetic induction phenomenon that appears in metallic conduits, due to the circulation of differential currents along the inside of the tube and that in turn produces energy losses in the form of heat, that is dissipated in the tube surrounding environment. The results of the measurements performed in the laboratory are shown in order to quantify the energy losses in the metallic conduit. It was found that for certain conditions these losses are significant. [Espanol] En este articulo se explica lo que se entiende por corrientes diferenciales y se describen las condiciones en las que estas aparecen en las instalaciones electricas. Se plantea brevemente el fenomeno de induccion magnetica que aparece en las tuberias metalicas, debido a la circulacion de corrientes diferenciales por el interior del tubo y que a su vez produce perdidas de energia en forma de calor, que se disipa en el ambiente que rodea al tubo. Se muestran los resultados de las mediciones que se llevaron a cabo en laboratorio para poder cuantificar las perdidas en tuberia metalica conduit. Se encontro que para ciertas condiciones estas perdidas son significativas.

  18. Fuel management inside the reactor. Project AZ-101 (ININ). Report of the generation of the nuclear bank 'L1PG3826' of the assemblies GE5 and GE9B 'collapsed' of the CNLV for the FCS-II program of the FMS system; Administracion de combustible dentro del reactor. Proyecto AZ-101 (ININ). Reporte de generacion del banco nuclear 'L1PG3826' de los ensambles GE5 y GE9B 'colapsados' de la CNLV para el programa FCS-II del FMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso V, G.; Torres A, C

    1991-06-15

    In order to be able to carry out studies but next to the operation of the reactor of the CNLV with the program FCS-II of the package of codes for the fuel management FMS, it was generated a 'collapsed' nuclear bank integrating the generated information with RECORD of each one of those assemblies of the initial load and of the first recharge. To generate the bank, the different ones RECORD 'cells' that compose each assemble were 'collapsed' to an alone one, representing this, to the one complete assemble in what refers to the fuel bars distribution and enrichments. The one collapsed of each assemble it is made averaging the content of UO{sub 2} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} in each fuel bar by the volumetric fraction occupied by each axial section of the fuel bar where the content of UO{sub 2} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} were constant, by this way the x-y fuel bars arrangement is conserved but a representative fuel cell of all the assemble is obtained. Of the five different assemblies that will be load in the reactor of the CNLV (3 of the initial load and 2 of the first recharge), only 4 were collapsed; the remaining one to be totally formed by natural uranium it was not necessary to collapse. From the collapsing process new enrichment values in U-235 and in content of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} for each fuel bar, for what according to the generation procedure of nuclear information it was generated the required information by RECORD for each fuel bar with Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} with the ECLIPSE code. Once generated this information it was proceeded to generate the homogenized nuclear information, with RECORD, for the whole cell. According to the requirements of nuclear information of FCS-II, the nuclear Information generated with RECORD only was of the defined type as series 1 in the procedure of generation of nuclear banks '6F3/1/CN029/90/P1'; that which means that only it was generated nuclear information as function of the burnup of the fuel and of

  19. Energy saving by means of air conditioning equipment replacement and the household application of thermal insulation; Ahorro de energia electrica por reemplazo de equipos de aire acondicionado y aplicacion de aislamiento termico en viviendas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta Solorio, Jose Luis [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de la Energia (Mexico)

    2005-07-15

    An extension study of the Financing Program for Energy Saving looked for the evaluation of the electric energy saving potential obtained by the replacement of air conditioning equipment and the application of thermal insulation in 30 houses of two Mexican cities with warmth climate. In a joint effort with Comision Federal de Electricidad the consumption files of the users were analyzed and field measurements of electric demand and of refrigeration were made. As a following step the change of the refrigeration necessities derived from the application of thermal insulation were evaluated as well as the energy efficiency improvement obtained by the substitution of the air conditioning equipment and the favorable results obtained by the implementation of both measures - thermal insulation and change of air conditioning equipment in a joint form. This way, as a conclusion, the optimum sequence of application of these measures is revealed. [Spanish] Un estudio extension del Programa de Financiamiento para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica busco evaluar el potencial de ahorro de energia electrica alcanzado por el reemplazo de equipos de aire acondicionado y la aplicacion de aislamiento termico en 30 viviendas de dos ciudades mexicanas con clima calido. En un esfuerzo conjunto con la Comision Federal de Electricidad se analizaron los historiales de consumo de los usuarios y se efectuaron las mediciones de campo de demanda electrica y de refrigeracion. Como paso siguiente se valoro el cambio en las necesidades de refrigeracion derivado de la aplicacion de aislamiento termico al igual que la mejora en eficiencia energetica obtenida por la sustitucion de aire acondicionado y se identificaron los resultados favorecedores arrojados por la implementacion de ambas medidas -aislamiento termico y cambio de equipo de aire acondicionado- en forma conjunta. De esta manera, como conclusion, se devela la mas optima secuencia de aplicacion de estas medidas.

  20. The use of reflecting paints on building`s roofs for energy saving; Uso de pinturas reflejantes en los techos de las edificaciones para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valera Negrete, Jose Adrian [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (PAESE), Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Sanchez Soto, Ramon [Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Termoenergia de la UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper shows the effects of the use of reflecting paints in different colors on the buildings roofs and the results in energy saving obtained in a field test carried on in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon State of Mexico using aluminum paint. [Espanol] El presente trabajo muestra los efectos del uso de pinturas reflejantes de diferentes colores en los techos de edificaciones, y los resultados de ahorro de energia electrica obtenidos en una prueba de campo efectuada en Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, utilizando pintura de aluminio.

  1. Participación política de la juventud afrodescendiente en el Perú: recambio generacional y derechos humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rafael Ramirez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo discutir la situación de pobreza y exclusión social que atraviesan la población afrodescendiente en el Perú, analizando el rol y las acciones del Estado peruano en la implementación de políticas públicas y el respeto a los derechos humanos de la población afroperuana a medida de generar procesos de inclusión social y desarrollo con identidad. Se resaltarán para ese sentido, y a manera de recambio generacional al Movimiento Afroperuano, algunos mecanismos de organización y participación política de las y los jóvenes afrodescendientes en el Perú para la incidencia de políticas públicas de inclusión social a fin de contribuir al respeto de los derechos humanos, políticos y al desarrollo étnico-racial. Como metodología se realizaron estudios bibliográficos documentales y entrevistas a las y los dirigentes de Ashanti Perú la Red Peruana de Jóvenes Afrodescendientes colocando la experiencia exitosa de incidencia de la Agenda de la Juventud Afroperuana y la Escuela de Formación de Jóvenes Lideres Afrodescendientes presentando demandas y concepciones que permiten alimentar el debate sobre la necesidad de un recambio generacional al Movimiento Afrodescendiente y la generación de políticas de acciones afirmativas.

  2. Caracterización del contrato psicológico de empleados de dos generaciones en una organización del sector bancario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Torres Oviedo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El contrato psicológico, que hace parte de los estudios del comportamiento organizacional, concierne a los vínculos que se construyen entre personas y organizaciones más allá de los compromisos explícitos (objetivos pactados oficialmente. Cobra vigencia en tanto se reconoce que el desempeño depende de aspectos ligados con la subjetividad. Este artículo presenta, desde una perspectiva psicosocial, los resultados de un estudio que propuso caracterizar el contrato psicológico de empleados de dos generaciones en una misma organización del sector bancario. Partiendo de un abordaje cualitativo, el método se fundamentó en entrevistas semiestructuradas, procesadas con análisis de contenido. Los resultados muestran que los empleados antiguos han configurado contratos psicológicos de tipo equilibrado (basados en la reciprocidad, mientras que para los empleados recientes son transaccionales (tipificados como de bajo compromiso, aunque en ambos casos las labores, los términos jurídicos, la compensación y la oportunidad de carrera son los mismos. Estos hallazgos sugieren que (en concordancia con recientes aproximaciones desde la psicología social y la sociología del trabajo las nuevas generaciones de trabajadores, que han ido ingresando al mercado laboral a partir de la implementación de políticas de trabajo flexible, están afrontando las nuevas realidades con responsabilidad, preparación y bajo involucramiento, al tiempo que procuran alcanzar mejores condiciones de estabilidad para sí mismos en una o varias organizaciones

  3. Algorithms for the evaluation of the reliability of networks and substations; Algoritmos para evaluar la confiabilidad de redes y subestaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Ortiz, Miguel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    Two algorithms are presented, one for analyzing the reliability of networks and another one to analyzing the reliability of electrical substations. The algorithms model a network or a substation by means of a graph and determine all the exits, of up to third degree, which isolates the load points. The algorithm that is used for the network analysis, is the one of p-cuts and in the case of the substations it is the one of minimum ways, for later, from these minimum p-cuts and of the minimum ways, obtains the minimum cuts. These minimum cuts are evaluated with the approximate method and give as a result the system reliability and of each one of the components that have been modeled. At the end some examples and results obtained are shown. As case of study, the algorithm is applied to two substations arrangements and to a network of industrial distribution, but it is possible to be applied to transmission and distribution networks. [Spanish] Se presentan dos algoritmos, uno para analizar la confiabilidad de redes y otro para analizar la confiabilidad de subestaciones electricas. Los algoritmos modelan una red o una subestacion por medio de un grafo y determinan todas las salidas, de hasta tercer grado, que aislan los puntos de carga. El algoritmo que se utiliza para el analisis de redes, es el de p-cortes y en el caso de las subestaciones es el de caminos minimos, para despues, a partir de estos p-cortes minimos y de los caminos minimos, obtener los cortes minimos. Estos cortes minimos se evaluan con el metodo aproximado y dan como resultado la confiabilidad del sistema y de cada una de las componentes que se hayan modelado. Al final se muestran algunos ejemplos y resultados obtenidos. Como caso de estudio, el algoritmo se aplica a dos arreglos de subestaciones y a una red de distribucion industrial, pero se puede aplicar a redes de transmision y de distribucion.

  4. Online monitoring of accessories for underground electrical installations through acoustics emissions; Monitoreo en linea de accesorios de instalaciones electricas subterraneas mediante emisiones acusticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casals-Torrens, P. [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Espana)]. E-mail: p.casals@upc.edu; Gonzalez-Parada, A. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)]. E-mail: gonzaleza@salamanca.ugto.mx; Bosch-Tous, R. [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Espana)

    2012-04-15

    The acoustic waves caused by Partial Discharges inside the dielectric materials, can be detected by acoustic emission (AE) sensors and analyzed in the time domain. The experimental results presented, show the online detection capability of these sensors in the environment near a cable accessory, such as a splice or terminal. The AE sensors are immune to electromagnetic interference and constitute a detection method non-intrusive and non-destructive, which ensures a galvanic decoupling with respect to electric networks, this technique of partial discharge detection can be applied as a test method for preventive or predictive maintenance (condition-based maintenance) to equipment or facilities of medium and high voltage in service and represents an alternative method to electrical detection systems, conventional or not, that continue to rely on the detection of current pulses. This paper presents characterization tests of the sensors AE through comparative tests of partial discharge on accessories for underground power cables. [Spanish] Las ondas acusticas provocadas por las descargas parciales en el interior de un dielectrico pueden ser detectadas por sensores de Emisiones Acusticas (EA) y analizadas en el dominio del tiempo. Los resultados experimentales que se presentan, evidencian la capacidad de deteccion en linea de estos sensores, en el entorno proximo a un accesorio de cable, empalme o terminal. Los sensores EA son inmunes a las interferencias electromagneticas, son un metodo de deteccion no destructivo y garantizan desacople galvanico respecto a la red electrica; esta tecnica de deteccion de descargas parciales puede ser aplicada como metodo de prueba para mantenimiento preventivo o predictivo (mantenimiento basado en la condicion), en equipos o instalaciones de media y alta tension en servicio, y representa una alternativa a los sistemas electricos de deteccion, convencionales o no, que continuan basandose en la deteccion del impulsos de corriente. En el

  5. Integral system for computer aided design of power line transmission towers; Sistema integral para el diseno asistido por computadora de torres de transmision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagore, Gabriel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    The profitable use of the advantages offered by the computer aided design, through the integral system for the structural design of power transmission towers (SIDETT) will contribute to facilitate and improve the design of the structures that link the electric power generation centers with the consumers. [Espanol] El aprovechamiento de las ventajas que ofrece el diseno asistido por computadora, a traves del sistema integral para el diseno estructural de torres de transmision (SIDETT), contribuira a agilizar y mejorar el diseno de las estructuras que enlazan los centros de generacion de energia electrica con los consumidores.

  6. Renewable energies in the national power supply; Energias renovables en la oferta energetica nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Mexico is a country endowed with abundant power resources. By the magnitude of its reserves and the installed production capacity. This article presents the different nonconventional energy resources which Mexico has, with the purpose of using them for the generation of electric energy. [Spanish] Mexico es un pais dotado de abundantes recursos energeticos. Por la magnitud de sus reservas y por la capacidad instalada de produccion. Este articulo presenta los diferentes recursos energeticos no convencionales con los que cuenta Mexico, con el fin de utilizarlos para la generacion de energia electrica.

  7. Measuring the electric energy services for the World Trade Center in Mexico city; Medicion de los servicios de energia electrica del World Trade Center de la ciudad de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Nunez, Humberto; Robledo Vera, Humberto [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In conforming the project of measuring the electric power for the World Trade Center of Mexico City, the use of top technology has been considered that in its field represents the application for the first time in our country the automatic reading of the electric energy meters. In this paper the network for the supply of electric power to the World Trade Center is described as well as the measuring systems of this building and mention is made of the characteristics of the system components and the advantages of remote reading. General data is provided on this collection of buildings, the connections in its tower and a feeding one line diagram of the tower itself [Espanol] En la conformacion del proyecto de medicion de la energia electrica para el edificio World Trade Center de la Ciudad de Mexico, se ha considerado el uso de tecnologia de punta que en su campo representa la aplicacion por primera vez en nuestro pais de la lectura automatica de medidores de energia electrica. En esta ponencia se describen la red de suministro al World Trade Center, los sistemas de medicion de este edificio y se mencionan las caracteristicas de los componentes del sistema y las ventajas de las lecturas remotas. Se proporciona datos generales sobre el conjunto de este edificio, las derivaciones en su torre y un diagrama unifilar de alimentacion de la torre del mismo

  8. The optimization of electric motors repair techniques as a mean for electric energy saving; La optimizacion de las tecnicas de reparacion de motores electricos como un medio para ahorrar energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagal Leon, Juan Ruben [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents, in a very concise, which are the techniques to optimize the electric motors repair made by the Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), the loss of efficiency that might exist after repairing an electric motor, as well as the procedures to perform an optimum reparation of the electric motors. Furthermore, some recommendations are given for the selection of an adequate rewinding shop to guarantee that the motor does not suffer efficiency losses after its repair. [Espanol] Este trabajo presenta, de manera muy concreta, cuales son las tecnicas para optimizar las tecnicas de reparacion de motores electricos realizado por el Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), el nivel de perdida de eficiencia que puede existir despues de reparar un motor electrico, asi como los procedimientos para realizar una optima reparacion en motores electricos. Asimismo, se proporcionan algunas recomendaciones para seleccionar un taller de reembobinado adecuado para garantizar que el motor no sufra perdidas de eficiencia despues de su reparacion.

  9. Evaluación de generaciones segregantes de fríjol Phaseolus vulgaris L. en campos de agricultores en contraste a la realizada en estación experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán Jorge Alonso

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available

    This study was conducted at CIAT, in both the research station and fanners' plots, in the Darién area, of the Cauca Valley Department, between 1989 and 1991. The main objectives were to determine the efficiency of evaluation for segregant generations of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L with farmers , in contrast to the evaluation that took place in the Research Station and to establish the selection criteria used by farmers in their evaluation of lines. The variation analysis for bean yield in generations F2 and F6 presented a wide interaction between genotype x environment. In general, there was a gain in yield of populations over the parentals, in the diferentes places where selection took place. The Calima variety (check was significantly inferior in yielding with respect to the other genotypes. Data for 18 populations in F2 in 18 lines in F6, showed a low correlation between the CIAT Experimental Station and the research station and farms of Darien. The analysis for all the localities using both methods, the rnasal improvement and pedigree, was not significant. The selection criteria used by the farmers for the selection of lines were color (98%, measure of grain (96 %, yield (95 %.

    La investigación se realizó en el CIAT, en la Granja de CIAT en Darién y fincas de agricultores del mismo municipio departamento del Valle, entre 1989 y 1991. El análisis de varianza para rendimiento de grano en las generaciones 2 y F6, mostró amplia interacción genotipo x ambiente. En general hubo ganancia en rendimiento de las poblaciones segregantes sobre los parentales, para los sitios de selección (CIAT, Granja y fincas de Darién. La variedad Calima (testigo fue inferior significativamente en rendimiento con respecto a los demás genotipos. En 18 poblaciones F2 y 18 líneas F6 hubo baja correlación entre Estación Experimental CIA T vs Granja y fincas de Darién. Las diferencias en ganancia genética entre los métodos de mejoramiento masal

  10. Environmental management in Chile: The power plants case; Gestion ambiental en Chile: Caso de las centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadrijevic, Maritza [Comision Nacional del Medio Ambiente, (Chile)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper are presented the general aspects of the historic evolution o the legal norms on environmental matters in Chile; general aspects of the electric generation system and the instruments of environmental management currently applied in the fossil fueled power plants, such as: the assessment system of the environmental impact; compliance of the air quality and emissions Standards and plans for decontamination [Espanol] En este trabajo se dan a conocer aspectos generales de la evolucion historica de las normas juridicas en materia ambiental en Chile; aspectos generales del sistema de generacion electrica y los instrumentos de gestion ambiental que actualmente se aplican a las plantas de generacion termoelectricas, tales como: el sistema de evaluacion de impacto ambiental; cumplimiento de normas de la calidad de aire y de emision y, planes de descontaminacion

  11. Kant resucitado: Junto a un renacimiento de Hegel en las últimas generaciones de la Teoría Crítica. Por la necesidad de apostar a la idea de un progreso moral y a la utopía de una sociedad cosmopolita pluralista de derecho Kant resurrected: Together with Hegel’s rebirth during the last generations of the Critical Theory. To the necessity of committing to the idea of moral progress and the utopia of a plural cosmopolitan society of rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Sauerwald

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto de la pregunta por el destino de la Teoría Crítica, la discusión entre Axel Honneth y Jürgen Habermas sobre el cambio en el paradigma de la Filosofía Política y Social con la tesis "de la comunicación al reconocimiento" gira aquí en torno a una reconstrucción crítica de la filosofía de Immanuel Kant, un Kant ´moderado´ en un modelo ´explicativo´ o ´hermenéutico´, y así ´irrebasable´ del progreso moral, rompiendo su sistema, y un Kant ´destrascendentalizado´, apto para fundamentar la necesidad de un diálogo entre la razón y la fe. ¿Por qué Kant y no Georg Hegel, central este último para los dos filósofos alemanes en su superación de las aporías de la primera generación de la Teoría Crítica? Pero ¿dónde queda Karl Marx, tan importante para los fundadores de la Escuela de Frankfurt? Y ¿no había exigido Habermas en 2009 con motivo del aniversario de su discípulo, que Honneth, después de su viaje de Marx a Hegel, hiciera el necesario regreso? De tal manera que en esta vuelta, Honneth trajera en su equipaje lo rescatado del Idealismo Alemán. Así la historia de la Teoría Crítica queda inconclusa.In the context of the question for the fate of the Critical Theory, the debate between Axel Honneth and Jürgen Habermas on the change in the paradigm of Social and Political Philosophy with the thesis "from communication to recognition" here revolves around a critical reconstruction of Immanuel Kant’s philosophy, a ‘moderated’ Kant in an ‘explanatory’ or ‘hermeneutic’ model, and so ‘unsurpassable’ moral progress, breaking his system, and a ‘distranscended’ Kant, suitable to substantiate the need for a dialogue between reason and faith. Why Kant and not Georg Hegel, the latter being central for the two German philosophers in their overcoming of the aporias of the first generation of the Critical Theory? But where it remains Karl Marx, so important to the founders of the Frankfurt

  12. Specification for the interconnection to a electric network of low tension of photovoltaic systems with 30 kW of capacity; Especificacion para la interconexion a la red electrica de baja tension de sistemas fotovoltaicos con capacidad hasta 30kW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Gutierrez, Jose [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-06-15

    In this presentation, there are shown the details of the photovoltaic systems interconnected with the electric network (SFVI), carried out by the Mexico's Federal Electricity Commission (CFE) with the support of the Mexican Electric Research Institute (IIE). First of all, there are found the objectives of the photovoltaic system interconnected to the electric network (SFVI). Then, there are mentioned the places where such sort of systems could be installed; besides, it is shown a diagram explaining the process of such systems. At the same time, there are briefly explained the components that are necessaries for their properly operation. Some of the elements previously mentioned are: photovoltaic generator (GFV), inverter, interface, and logic circuits and the control. It is shown a diagram with the location of the electrical disconnect switches. Then, it is shortly explained the place where the SFVI should be connected and there are given some requisites that are important to fulfill in order to have everything updated. Finally, it is mentioned the methodology that should be followed in order to supervise that everything works in a properly way, this last issue is carried out by CFE. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se presentan los pormenores del sistema fotovoltaico interconectado a la red (SFVI), realizado por la Comision federal de Electricidad (CFE) con apoyo del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). En primer lugar, se encuentran los objetivos que tiene el uso de SFVI. Enseguida, se muestra un diagrama que explica el proceso que dichos sistemas realizan. Asimismo, se explican brevemente los elementos que, de uno u otro modo, son necesarios para el adecuado funcionamiento del SFV. Ademas, se muestra un diagrama con la ubicacion de los interruptores de desconexion. Luego, se explica escuetamente el lugar donde se debe de conectar el SFVI, ademas de algunas condiciones que se deben de cumplir para que no haya mayores contratiempos. Finalmente, se

  13. Computer electric design of synchronous generators; Diseno electrico de generadores sincronos por computadora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patlan Frausto, Jose O.; Acosta Aradillas, Juan [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    In this article are presented, in a conceptual manner the main elements that participate in the electric design of synchronous generators. Also, other options are presented for computers utilization as a design support. Afterwards, a computer program developed by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) for the electric design of projecting poles generators is presented, oriented towards obtaining their electro-magnetic dimensioning. Finally, with the purpose of validating this program, the results obtained in a specific case, are presented. [Espanol] En este articulo se presentan, de manera conceptual, los principales elementos que participan en el proceso de diseno electrico de generadores sincronos. Tambien se plantean otras opciones para utilizar las computadoras como apoyo de diseno. Posteriormente, se describe un programa de computo desarrollado en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) para el diseno electrico de generadores de polos salientes, orientado a obtener su dimensionamiento electromagnetico. Por ultimo, con el proposito de validar este programa, se presentan los resultados obtenidos en un caso particular.

  14. LA UNIÓN EN EMPRESAS FAMILIARES RESTAURANTERAS: UNA APROXIMACIÓN A LA SUCESIÓN GENERACIONAL EN EMPRESAS CON ACTIVIDAD TURÍSTICA DE SAN CRISTÓBAL DE LAS CASAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Jesús González-Macías

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La sucesión generacional en una empresa es un proceso dinámico en que los papeles y tareas del predecesor y del sucesor evolucionan de manera independiente y en paralelo, hasta que se cruzan y se superponen, encaminando la empresa a la sustentabilidad. El presente documento reflexiona sobre la relación entre sucesión generacional y sustentabilidad en dichas empresas, analizando una muestra de conveniencia de nueve empresas familiares restauranteras en San Cristóbal de las Casas (Chiapas, México, y realizando un comparativo cualitativo a partir de los indicadores de las variables de estudio. Adicionalmente, se examina la situación de las empresas familiares en México y su relevancia e importancia para la economía. Se encontró que la importancia de la empresa familiar, tanto a nivel nacional como local, y el amplio desarrollo de la actividad restaurantera en San Cristóbal de las Casas, motivan a las familias dedicadas a esta actividad a continuar sus negocios y a transmitirlos a las futuras generaciones para ser sustentables, ya que, de acuerdo con lo que reporta el Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI, nueve de diez empresas familiares que se crean no llegan a los dos años de vida, lo cual constituye un índice de mortalidad extremo.         La unión familiar al interior de la empresa es el vínculo ideal para la sustentabilidad de la misma, ya que de ella depende una exitosa sucesión generacional que propicie que la empresa familiar perdure en sus actividades.

  15. End uses of electric energy in homes of a group of dwellings; Usos finales de la energia electrica en hogares de un conjunto habitacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campero Littlewood, E.; Romero Cortes, J.; Alarcon Maldonado, E.; Silva Oliver, J.; Ortiz Segura, J.; Vargas Rubio, J. [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    ). El analisis de la informacion permite conocer la capacidad de consumo de energia electrica que tienen las viviendas de la muestra y a hacer inferencias de la capacidad de consumo de la unidad habitacional.

  16. Reflexiones en torno a una edición digital del Liber regum (o Libro de las generaciones y linajes de los reyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Thieulin-Pardo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se exponen en este artículo unas cuantas reflexiones suscitadas por la preparación de una edición digital del Liber regum (o Libro de las generaciones y linajes de los reyes. Gracias a las posibilidades que ofrece la informática, esta nueva edición podrá proponer varios niveles de acercamiento al texto. Dos transcripciones completarán la entrega de la reproducción fotográfica del manuscrito: la primera, destinada a los investigadores, a los lingüistas y filólogos, respetará la lengua y las formas con vistas a un estudio en el marco de la filología histórica; la segunda, “normalizada” y más accesible, se concibe como instrumento de trabajo para lectores e investigadores deseosos de acceder directamente al texto y de poder “interrogar” su contenido mediante una búsqueda lexicográfica.La edición se publicará en 2011 en la colección en línea Les Livres d’e-Spania.Dans cet article, l’auteur présente quelques réflexions suscitées par la préparation d’une édition numérique du Liber regum (ou Libro de las generaciones y linajes de los reyes. Grâce aux possibilités offertes par l’outil informatique, cette nouvelle édition proposera plusieurs approches du texte. Deux transcriptions seront mises en regard de la reproduction photographique du manuscrit : la première, destinée aux chercheurs, aux linguistes et aux philologues, s’attachera à respecter la langue et les formes pour permettre une étude de philologie historique ; la seconde, « normalisée » et plus accessible, est conçue comme un outil de travail pour les chercheurs désirant accéder directement au texte et souhaitant « interroger » son contenu par une recherche lexicographique. L’édition sera publiée en 2011 dans la collection en ligne  Les Livres d’e-Spania.

  17. Internal Arc: People safety in the electrical wiring; Arco interno: Seguridad de las personas ante instalaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inchausti, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the internal arc phenomenon, an extremely fast, almost explosive and unattended process of transformation form an initial electric power to the generation of a pressure and heat wave inside the medium its produced its consequences for safety, current methods of limiting them and current regulations in general for equipment used in medium-voltage electrical distribution networks. Taking into account that this type of equipment is found thought the distribution network in both public buildings and unrestricted access areas, safety (of operators and the general public) must be taken into account in the design of equipment and installations to minimize the risk of internal arcs occurring. This is the gist of, for example, ITC 16 of the Spanish Regulation on Power Plants and transformer substations. In addition to the construction aspects specific to each device in which the manufacturer has to takes steps to minimize the risks of an internal arcs occurring. This is the gist of, for example, ITC 16 of the Spanish Regulation on Power Plants and transformer substations. In addition to the construction aspects specific to each device in which an internal arc occurring, it is understood to be vitally important that users, installers and designers of Medium Voltage installations are familiar with the installation conditions stated by the manufacturer and thus avoid risks. (Author) 14 refs.

  18. Copolymers of new generation for the dehydrated crude oil (petroleum); Copolimeros de nueva generacion para el deshidratado de aceite crudo (petroleo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro Sotelo, Laura Veronica [Instituto Politecnico Nacional ESIQIE, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: lcastros@ipn.mx; Flores Oropeza, Eugenio Alejandro; Hernandez Cortez, Jose Gonzalo; Lopez Ortega, Alfonso; Arreguin Valencia, Felipe [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: eaflores@imp.mx; jhcortez@imp.mx; alopezo@imp.mx; flos2099@yahoo.com.mx; Hernandez Garcia, Arnulfo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: arte8080@hotmail.com; Hernandez Xilohua, Arturo Eutiquio [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: art_eut@hotmail.com; Ramirez Gutierrez, David; Hernandez Carbajal, Edgar Ivan [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, ESIQIE, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. Email: theprettiestthingever@hotmail.com; hcei11@hotmail.com; Vazquez Moreno, Flavio Salvador [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: flaviusmx@yahoo.com.mx

    2010-11-15

    Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons, salts and water as impurities. When crude oil has high water content, their commercial value is reduced in the market, so the separation of these impurities is important for a better quality product. The content of these impurities in the crude oil reduction is a concern across the world. There are several methods for crude oil dehydration and breaking emulsions; this work presents the results of tests demulsifiers, agents which are different molecular mass polyethers. Using several test bottles compared performance agents demulsifiers which were assessed at different concentrations in a heavy crude oil from wells in the southeast of Mexico. The evaluation results showed the range of molecular mass of polymers that provide better performance for the abatement of the water content in the crude oil. [Spanish] El aceite crudo es una mezcla de hidrocarburos, sales y agua como impurezas. Cuando el aceite crudo presenta alto contenido de agua, su valor a nivel comercial se reduce en el mercado, por lo que es importante la separacion de estas impurezas para obtener un producto de mejor calidad. La reduccion del contenido de estas impurezas en el aceite crudo es una preocupacion a nivel mundial. Existen varios metodos para la deshidratacion del aceite crudo y romper las emulsiones; en este trabajo se presentan los resultados de pruebas con agentes desemulsificantes, los cuales son polieteres de diferente masa molecular. Mediante varias pruebas de botellas se comparo el desempeno de los agentes desemulsificantes los cuales fueron evaluados a diferentes concentraciones en un aceite crudo pesado procedente de pozos del Sureste de Mexico. Los resultados de la evaluacion mostraron el intervalo de masa molecular de los polimeros que proporcionan un mejor desempeno en el abatimiento del contenido de agua en el aceite crudo.

  19. Generation of nuclear constants of the TRIGA reactor with the Leopard code; Generacion de constantes nucleares del reactor TRIGA con el codigo Leopard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar H, F.; Perusquia del C, R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1983-09-15

    The reactor core was divided in 12 regions, this was made in function of the composition and temperature and its are: 1) central thimble, 2) B ring, 3) C ring, 4) D ring, 5) E ring, 6) F ring, 7) G ring, 8) superior caps of fuel elements (E.C. s) standard, 9) inferior caps of E.C.'s standard, 10) superior and inferior reflector of the core, 11) lateral reflector and 12) superior and inferior caps of the E.C.'s graphite. Likewise the constants of the followers' of fuel cell, of the empty follower and of the conduits of the gamma camera were obtained. For the obtaining of the enter data of the LEOPARD the dimensions and the composition of the different regions are required, this is consigned in the IT/E21-83 report. (Author)

  20. The Panama fossil power plants generation system: Atmospheric pollution, general and legal aspects; El sistema de generacion termoelectrico en Panama: Contaminacion atmosferica, aspectos generales y legales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milciades, Concepcion [Instituto de Recursos Hidraulicos y Electrificacion, (Panama)

    1996-12-31

    The Thermal electric energy resource of Panama is administered by four Regional Managements and a group of Regional Systems comprising the fossil power plants supplying electric energy to the country`s marginal areas. The characteristics of the different fuels used in these fossil power plants, the results of the assessment of the polluting particles and sulfur and nitrogen oxides are presented. Finally, the alleviation measures and the environmental legislation implanted in these power plants are also presented [Espanol] El parque termico de Panama es administrado por cuatro Gerencias Regionales y un conjunto de Sistemas Regionales que comprenden las plantas termicas de menor capacidad destinadas a suplir de energia a las areas marginadas del pais. Se presentan las caracteristicas de los diferentes combustibles utilizados en estas unidades termicas; los resultados de las mediciones de particulas contaminantes y de oxidos de azufre y oxidos de nitrogeno. Por ultimo se presentan las medidas de mitigacion y legislacion ambiental implantadas en estas centrales termoelectricas

  1. Bienestar Social, Económico y Ambiental para las Presentes y Futuras Generaciones Social, Economic and Environmental Welfare for Present and Future Generations

    OpenAIRE

    Lilia Fernández; Mirella Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo abordar la diferencia entre desarrollo sostenible y sustentable, aclarando cual describe el desarrollo humano social, económico y ambiental, respetando al ambiente. Es un trabajo de reflexión documentada que arroja en sus hallazgos el uso del término "sustainable" en la literatura Inglesa conforme al informe Brundtland. Su traducción al castellano como sostenible, la incorrecta traducción al castellano por sustentable y el concepto Latinoamericano de los térmi...

  2. Bienestar Social, Económico y Ambiental para las Presentes y Futuras Generaciones Social, Economic and Environmental Welfare for Present and Future Generations

    OpenAIRE

    Lilia Fernández; Mirella Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo abordar la diferencia entre desarrollo sostenible y sustentable, aclarando cual describe el desarrollo humano social, económico y ambiental, respetando al ambiente. Es un trabajo de reflexión documentada que arroja en sus hallazgos el uso del término "sustainable" en la literatura Inglesa conforme al informe Brundtland. Su traducción al castellano como sostenible, la incorrecta traducción al castellano por sustentable y el concepto Latinoamericano de los térmi...

  3. Modeling and identification for the adjustable control of generation processes; Modelado e identificacion para el control autoajustable de procesos de generacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricano Castillo, Juan Manuel; Palomares Gonzalez, Daniel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    The recursive technique of the method of minimum squares is employed to obtain a multivariable model of the self regressive mobile mean type, needed for the design of a multivariable, self-adjustable controller self adjustable multivariable. In this article the employed technique and the results obtained are described with the characterization of the model structure and the parametric estimation. The convergency velocity curves are observed towards the parameters` numerical values. [Espanol] La tecnica recursiva del metodo de los minimos cuadrados se emplea para obtener un modelo multivariable de tipo autorregresivo de promedio movil, necesario para el diseno de un controlador autoajustable muitivariable. En el articulo, se describe la tecnica empleada y los resultados obtenidos con la caracterizacion de la estructura del modelo y la estimacion parametrica. Se observan las curvas de la velocidad de convergencia hacia los valores numericos de los parametros.

  4. E-government and sustainable development an achievable goal in our generation; Administracion electronica y desarrollo sostenible una meta alcanzable en nuestra generacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pablo, F. de; Merchan, M.; Barallat, J.

    2010-07-01

    This article addresses the complex issue of how the State Administration in Spain is doing e-government actions that directly or indirectly assist or contribute to improve a sustainable development. e-Government is especially useful as a laboratory of ideas and experiences, and also to design and implement strategies in this new field: sustain ability. Approach to sustain ability that makes this article is multidimensional. Then we consider that sustainable development implies not only a change of methods and systems, but a culture change in organizations. (Author) 5 refs.

  5. Analysis and solution of algebraic-differential equations of the steam generation processes; Analisis y resolucion de ecuaciones algebraico-diferenciales de los procesos de generacion de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Herrera, Juan Anibal

    1996-10-01

    This work presents the construction, analysis and solution of an equipment`s network in steady and dynamic state from: a) The mathematical models of individual equipment and of their geometry. b) The topology let interconnections between equipment. c) The selection of a numerical method to solve simultaneously the mathematical models. The selected mathematical models represent the cycle boiler-superheater. These models were taken from the MICROTERM-300 modular simulator, which contains the simplified models of the process (feedwater, boiler, turbines, etc.) of the thermoelectric plant Francisco Perez Rios from Tula Hidalgo, Mexico. This work was developed in the following stages: 1.- The selection of an appropiate numerical integration method to solve simultaneously the algebraic and differential equations of the equipment conforming the cycle boiler-superheater. 2.- The adaptation of individual mathematical models to allow changes in their geometry, operating conditions and different forms of connection. Also, this models were modified to have a representation of the equations to allow their analysis and an efficient organization to get their solution. 3.- The application of two computer-aided tools to trace possible coding errors in the mathematical models: a) A syntax analyzer which detect assignation and reference errors of variables. b) A structural analyzer to obtain the structural matrix, which relate the variables and the equations in a model. During this stage some improvements to these computer-aided tools were suggested. 4.- The individual testing of each mathematical model in steady and dynamic state in order to: a) Validate the mathematical models. b) Analyze the behavior of the variables of the mathematical models with different parameters, different operating conditions and different initial conditions. 5.- Lastly, the coupling between equipment analyzed to form an equipment`s network what represent the cycle boiler-superheater and the testing in steady and dynamic state in orden to: a) Observe the behavior of the variables during the coupling of two or more equipment. b) Observe the characteristics what present the numerical integration method to solve the equipment`s network and analyze the obtained numerical results. In this work the individual mathematical models were analyzed and adapted to operate the equipment with different operating conditions, changes in their geometry and different connections with others equipment. Later an equipment`s network was built to represent the cycle boiler-superheater and a numerical method was chosen to solve the equipment`s network in steady and dynamic state. [Espanol] Este trabajo presenta la construccion, analisis y solucion de una red de equipos en regimen estable y dinamico, a partir de: a) Los modelos matematicos de equipos individuales y de sus especificaciones geometricas. b) Las interconexiones topologicas entre los equipos. c) La seleccion de un metodo numerico para resolver simultaneamente los modelos matematicos. Los modelos matematicos seleccionados representan el ciclo caldera-sobrecalentador. Estos modelos fueron tomados del simulador modular MICROTERM-300, el cual contiene los modelos simplificados de los procesos (agua de alimentacion, caldera, turbinas, etc.) de la planta termoelectrica Francisco Perez Rios de Tula Hidalgo, Mexico. Este trabajo fue desarrollado conforme a las siguientes etapas: 1.- Se selecciono un metodo de integracion numerico para resolver simultaneamente las ecuaciones algebraicas y diferenciales de los equipos que conforman el ciclo caldera-sobrecalentador. 2.- Se adaptaron los modelos matematicos en su forma individual para permitir que los equipos puedan ser dimensionables (que permitan cambios en sus geometrias), flexibles (que puedan operar a diferentes condiciones de operacion) y configurables (que permitan diferentes formas de conexion). Ademas, que tengan una representacion de las ecuaciones que permitan analizarlas y una organizacion eficiente para obtener su solucion. 3.- Se aplicaron dos herramientas computacionales que ayudan a rastrear los posibles errores en los codigos de los modelos matematicos. Estas herramientas fueron: a) Analizador sintactico para modelos de simulacion (ASMOS).- Esta herramienta detecta los errores en la asignacion y referencia de variables. b) Analizador estructural para modelos de simulacion (AEMOS).- Esta herramienta tiene como funcion principal obtener la matriz de dependencias, la cual relaciona las ecuaciones y las variables de un modelo. Durante esta etapa se sugirieron mejoras a estas herramientas. 4.- Se realizaron pruebas a los modelos matematicos en forma individual, primero en estado estable y despues en estado dinamico. Estas pruebas sirvieron para: a) Validar los modelos matematicos. b) Analizar el comportamiento de las variables de los modelos matematicos con diferentes parametros, condiciones de operacion y condiciones de inicio y arranque. 5.- Por ultimo, se realizo el acoplamiento entre los equipos analizados hasta formar una red de equipos que represente el ciclo caldera-sobrecalentador y se realizaron pruebas en estado estable y en estado dinamico. Estas pruebas sirvieron para: a) Observar el comportamiento de las variables cuando son acoplados dos o mas equipos. b) Observar las caracteristicas que puede presentar el metodo de integracion numerico al resolver la red de equipos y analizar los resultados numericos obtenidos. En este trabajo se logro analizar y adaptar los modelos matematicos en su forma individual para permitir que los equipos puedan operar a diferentes condiciones de operacion, cambiar sus geometrias y obtener diferentes conexiones con otros equipos, y a partir de esto, se construyo una red de equipos que represente el ciclo caldera-sobrecalentador y se selecciono un metodo numerico para resolver la red de equipos en estado estable y dinamico.

  6. Homogeneous grouping of residential users of electric power in accordance with the variables that affect the consumption; Agrupamientos homogeneos de usuarios residenciales de energia electrica en funcion de las variables que impactan el consumo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campero Littlewood, E.; Romero Cortes, J. [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results of the correlation analysis of the monthly consumption of electric power and the capacities in watts of the electric household appliances and domestic lighting performed in a sample of users of the residential tariff. To carry out this task, the information obtained in the answers to the inquiry applied to a group of dwellings, was used (the results of the inquiry are presented in another paper of this Seminar). The correlation variables were obtained from the nominal capacities or through the actual measurements of the energy consumption of the electric household appliances similar to the ones found in the visited homes. At the end of this paper the result of the application of the cluster analysis technic to obtain homogeneous groups of users, is presented, so as to be in position of estimating the shape of the hourly demand curve by means of the recording of the demand (watts) of a small sample of users. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta el resultado de correlacion del consumo mensual de energia electrica y las capacidades en watts de los electrodomesticos e iluminacion realizado a una muestra de usuarios de tarifa residencial. Para este trabajo se utilizo la informacion obtenida en las respuestas de una encuesta aplicada en un conjunto habitacional (los resultados de la encuesta se presentan en otro articulo en este Seminario). Las variables de la correlacion se obtuvieron a partir de las especificaciones de capacidades o a traves de mediciones en electrodomesticos similares a los encontrados en los hogares. Al final se presenta el resultado de la aplicacion de la tecnica de formacion de agrupamientos `Cluster Analysis` para obtener grupos homogeneos de usuarios, de forma que se pueda estimar el perfil de demanda electrica mediante el registro de la demanda (watts) de una pequena muestra de usuarios.

  7. Comparative analysis of the indexes of electric power density in buildings lighting systems; Analisis comparativo de los indices de densidad de potencia electrica de los sistemas de alumbrado en edificios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Hernandez, J.I.; Morillon Galvez, D. [CONAE, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The national situation of the lighting systems in buildings is presented in order to know its consumption and make comparisons in accordance with the terms of the Electric Power Density that the lighting systems must satisfy, recently published in the norm, NOM 007 ENER-1995 (Energy Efficiency for non Residential Buildings` Lighting Systems). The form of application of the norm to determine the Electric Power Density Indexes in Lighting Buildings (EPDIL) is described, which permitted to know the current situation of the lighting systems, to compare the results internationally and with the ones specified in the proper norm. As a conclusion, there is the need of enhancing the efficiency of the lightning systems, with savings technologies, improve the lightning levels and equalize the energy indexes of the EPDIL with the ones recommended. [Espanol] Se presenta un estudio sobre la situacion nacional de los sistemas de alumbrado en edificios, con el objeto de conocer su consumo y compararlos, de acuerdo a los terminos de densidad de potencia electrica que deben cumplir los sistemas de alumbrado, publicados recientemente en la norma, NOM 007 ENER-1995 (Eficiencia Energetica para los Sistemas de Alumbrado en Edificios no Residenciales). Se describe la forma de aplicar la norma para determinar los indices de densidad de potencia electrica en alumbrado (DPEA) en edificios, lo cual permitio conocer la situacion actual de los sistemas de alumbrado, comparar con los reportados internacionalmente y con los especificados en la propia norma. Como conclusion se tiene la necesidad de eficientizar los sistemas de alumbrado, con tecnologia ahorradora, mejorar los niveles de iluminacion e igualar los indices energeticos de DPEA con los recomendados.

  8. Desulfuration technologies: past, present and future; Tecnologias de desulfuracion: pasado, presente y futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodas G, Arturo; Blass A, Georgina; Panama T, Luz A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The interest for obtaining harmony between the electric power generation and the environment has derived into the design of numerous technologies for the control of the main emissions of atmospheric polluting agents, being some of them the sulfur oxides (SOx) that, at certain levels of concentration in the atmosphere, cause health damages and to the surrounding ecosystem. The present article shows an overview of the technologies for the disposal of sulfurated compounds in thermoelectric power stations and their application trends in the future systems of electric power generation. [Spanish] El interes por lograr una armonia entre la generacion de energia electrica y el medio ambiente, ha derivado en el diseno de numerosas tecnologias para el control de las principales emisiones de contaminantes atmosfericos, siendo algunos de ellos los oxidos de azufre (SOx) que, a ciertos niveles de concentracion en la atmosfera, ocasionan danos a la salud y al ecosistema circundante. El presente articulo muestra un panorama general de las tecnologias de eliminacion de compuestos sulfurados en centrales termoelectricas y sus tendencias de aplicacion en los futuros sistemas de generacion de energia electrica.

  9. Estimation of the resource and technological prospective of geothermal energy in Mexico (Annexe 3 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Estimacion del recurso y prospectiva tecnologica de la geotermia en Mexico (Anexo 3 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias R, Eduardo; Arellano G, Victor; Torres R, Rodolfo Joaquin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    Due to its individual geologic-structural characteristics, Mexico counts on abundant geothermal resources. At the moment we count on a database that includes 2,332 geothermal manifestations distributed in 27 of the 32 Mexican states, the geothermal resources are classified as high temperature and intermediate or low temperature resources. Those of high temperature can be used for the generation of electrical energy. Those of intermediate to low temperature are more appropriate for direct applications of the geothermal heat. As of today, in Mexico exist four geothermal fields of high temperature that are being exploded for the electrical generation. [Spanish] Debido a sus particulares caracteristicas geologico-estructurales, Mexico cuenta con abundantes recursos geotermicos. Actualmente contamos con una base de datos que incluye 2,332 manifestaciones geotermicas distribuidas en 27 de los 32 estados mexicanos, los recursos geotermicos se clasifican en de alta temperatura y recursos de temperatura intermedia a baja. Los de alta temperatura pueden utilizarse para la generacion de energia electrica. Los de temperatura intermedia a baja son mas apropiados para aplicaciones directas del calor geotermico. Actualmente en Mexico existen cuatro campos geotermicos de alta temperatura que estan siendo explotados para la generacion electrica.

  10. IMPACTO DE LAS BRECHAS DE GÉNERO Y GENERACIONAL EN LA CONSTRUCCIÓN DE ACTITUDES EN PADRES Y MADRES FRENTE A LAS INNOVACIONES COEDUCATIVAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Pacheco González Piñal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene por finalidad reconocer indicadores de la predisposición actitudinal con la que familiares y alumnado cooperan, mantienen, o se oponen a la construcción de una nueva cultura de género en el ámbito escolar, como garante de una igualdad educativa real para hijos e hijas. Por tanto, analizamos actitudes de género en el seno de la familia a nivel intra e intergrupal (padres/madres e hijos/hijas en su vínculo con la escuela coeducativa, considerando tanto la brecha de género como la intergeneracional, todo ello vinculado a la doble presencia y rol de estos agentes en las dos instituciones implicadas por antonomasia en la educación: familia y escuela. Con un diseño de tipo survey, aplicando escalas likert a una muestra de 1350 personas (627 padres y madres; 723 hijos e hijas, se describen posiciones (BLOQUEADORAS / ADAPTATIVAS / COEDUCATIVAS y se comparan grados de actitud ante la construcción de género, confrontando grupos madres/hijas, padres/hijos, madres/hijos, padres/hijas…, en base a una lógica comparativo-causal ex post facto que considera tanto el contraste de género como el contraste inter-generacional para dimensionar ambas "brechas". Los resultados maximizan la importancia de la brecha de género en la familia; especialmente, destacan las bajas actitudes de los varones (padres e hijos en el plano relacional, en el cual los hijos varones llegan a ostentar posicionamientos bloqueadores.

  11. Control integral systems; Sistemas integrales de control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Estrella [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Almost two third of the electric power generation in Mexico are obtained from hydrocarbons, for that reasons Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) dedicated special commitment in modernizing the operation of fossil fuel central stations. In attaining this objective the control systems play a fundamental roll, from them depend a good share of the reliability and the efficiency of the electric power generation process, as well as the extension of the equipment useful life. Since 1984 the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has been working, upon the request of CFE, on the development of digital control systems. To date it has designed and implemented a logic control system for gas burners, which controls 32 burners of the Unit 4 boiler of the Generation Central of Valle de Mexico and two systems for distributed control for two combined cycle central stations, which are: Dos Bocas, Veracruz Combined cycle central, and Gomez Palacio, Durango combined cycle central. With these two developments the IIE enters the World tendency of implementing distributed control systems for the fossil fuel power central update [Espanol] Casi las dos terceras partes de la generacion electrica en Mexico se obtienen a partir de hidrocarburos, es por eso que la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) puso especial empeno en modernizar la operacion de las centrales termoelectricas de combustibles fosiles. En el logro de este objetivo los sistemas de control desempenan un papel fundamental, de ellos depende una buena parte la confiabilidad y la eficiencia en el proceso de generacion de energia electrica, asi como la prolongacion de la vida util de los equipos. Desde 1984 el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha trabajado, a solicitud de la CFE, en el desarrollo de sistemas digitales de control. A la fecha se han disenado e implantado un sistema de control logico de quemadores de gas, el cual controla 32 quemadores de la caldera de la unidad 4 de la central de generacion

  12. Reseña del libro de Vicent A. Querol Vicente, Las generaciones que llegaron tarde. Análisis de las prácticas sociales de los mayores en el ciberespacio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Muñoz Rodríguez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal.dotm 0 0 1 113 647 Universitat de València 5 1 794 12.0 0 false 21 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} El libro Las generaciones que llegaron tarde presenta los resultados de un trabajo sobre los usos, las estrategias y las percepciones de las generaciones mayores en relación a las tecnologías de la información y de la comunicación. Las apropiaciones de los y las mayores en los ámbitos laboral, relacional y familiar, así como en el ocio, son objeto de análisis a partir de entrevistas en profundidad. Entre los principales resultados destaca el que, a pesar de la gran capacidad de adaptación de las personas mayores a los nuevos entornos digitales, la sociedad informacional sigue avanzando a ritmos desiguales: mientras penetra y media en buena parte de las dinámicas sociales, sigue dejando en los márgenes a una parte de la población perteneciente a las generaciones de más edad.

  13. Research, development and technological innovation of wind turbine control systems; Investigacion, desarrollo e innovacion tecnologica de sistemas de control de aerogeneradores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garduno Ramirez, Raul; Rodriguez Martinez, Arnulfo Antelmo; Sanchez Parra, Marino; Martinez Morales, Miguel Angel; Hernandez Cuellar, Maria Aurora; Alcaide Godinez, Indira Xochiquetzal; Re Lopez, Victor Genaro; Hernandez Gonzalez, Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Control systems constitute the brain and the nervous system of modern machines, such as wind turbine generators (TGE by its acronym in Spanish). TGEs can work efficiently, safely and almost autonomously, thanks to the control systems with which they are equipped. Conversely, any malfunctioning of the control system may cause failure or damage of a component, a subsystem or even destruction of the TGE itself. This paper introduces some basic facts about generation of electric power from wind energy in the world and Mexico, wind turbogenerators and their most relevant technologies, TGE control systems, and R and TD+I about TGE control systems performed at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas. [Spanish] Los sistemas de control constituyen el cerebro y el sistema nervioso de las maquinas modernas, como aerogeneradores (AG). Los AG pueden trabajar eficiente, segura y casi autonomamente, gracias a los sistemas de control con los que estan equipados. De manera inversa, cualquier mal funcionamiento del sistema de control puede provocar falla o dano de un componente, subsistema o incluso la destruccion del propio AG. Este documento introduce algunos hechos basicos en torno a la generacion de energia electrica a partir de energia eolica en el mundo y Mexico, los aerogeneradores y sus tecnologias mas importantes, sistemas de control de AG e I+DT alrededor de los sistemas de control de AG realizados en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas.

  14. Evaluation of a process for the removal of gases contained in geothermal steam through condensation and re-evaporation; Evaluacion de un proceso de remocion de gases contenidos en el vapor geotermico, por medio de la condensacion y de revaporacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angulo C, Raul; Lam Rea, Luis; Garmino, Hector; Jimenez, Humberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1985-12-31

    The Cerro Prieto I Geothermal Field, developed and operated by the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), has currently an installed electric power generation capacity of 180 MW and is at a very advanced stage in the development of Cerro Prieto II and III, which will allow to raise the generation capacity to 620 MW. During the exploitation of a geothermal field, in producing steam with the purpose of generating electricity, brines and waste gases are obtained. The hydrogen sulfide exhaust to the environment implies pollution problems, for this reason processes have been developed for the oxidation of these gases downstream the turbogenerator either in the flow of separated gases in the steam condensation or in the condensate produced. The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has collaborated with CFE in the evaluation of the environmental impact of this gas and in the development of the processes for its abatement. [Espanol] El campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto I, desarrollado y operado por la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), actualmente tiene una capacidad instalada de generacion de energia electrica de 180 MW, y se encuentra en etapa muy avanzada, el desarrollo de Cerro Prieto II y III, lo que permitira incrementar la capacidad de generacion a 620 MW. Durante la explotacion de un campo geotermico, al producir vapor con el proposito de generar electricidad, se obtienen salmueras y gases de desecho. La descarga de acido sulfhidrico a la atmosfera implica problemas de contaminacion, por esta razon se han desarrollado procesos para la oxidacion de este gas aguas abajo de la turbina generadora, ya sea en la corriente de gases que se separan en la condensacion del vapor o en el condensado producido. El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha colaborado con la CFE en la evaluacion del impacto ambiental de este gas y en el desarrollo de sus procesos de abatimiento.

  15. Procedimientos clínicos realizados por tres generaciones de estudiantes en la Clínica de Odontopediatría de la Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Marín, Natalia; López Soto, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación es describir la variedad y cantidad de procedimientos clínicos que realizaron los estudiantes de odontología en la Clínica de Odontopediatría de tres generaciones de estudiantes durante los años 2008 al 2011 en la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Se analizaron 146 registros de notas, de los que se obtuvo una población de 1646 pacientes; cada alumno en promedio, realizó 131.75 procedimientos. Todos los sujetos del estudio, realizaron al...

  16. Calculation of electromagnetic fields in electric machines by means of the finite element. Algorithms for the solution of problems with known total densities. Pt. 2; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito. Algoritmos para la solucion de problemas con densidades totales conocidas. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mauricio F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    This article is based in the electromagnetic modeling presented in the first part. Here are only considered the magnetic systems or electric systems in closed regions with moving or axial symmetry, whose total current density or total electric load density is known. The algorithms that have been implanted in the software CLIIE-2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) are developed in order to obtain numerical solutions for these problems. The basic systems of algebraic equations are obtained by means of the application of the Galerkin method in the discreteness of the finite element with first order triangular elements. [Espanol] Este articulo se basa en la modelacion electromagnetica presentada en la primera parte. Aqui solo se consideran sistemas magneticos o sistemas electricos en regiones cerradas con simetria translacional o axial, cuya densidad de corriente total o densidad de carga electrica total es conocida. Se desarrollan los algoritmos que se han implantado en el programa de computo CLIIE-2D, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) con el fin de obtener soluciones numericas para estos problemas. Los sistemas basicos de ecuaciones algebraicas se obtienen mediante la aplicacion del metodo de Galerkin en la discretizacion de elemento finito con elementos triangulares de primer orden.

  17. Diffuse control of gas turbines in power stations of combined cycle; Contral difuso de turbinas de gas en centrales de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez P, Marino; Garduno R, Raul; De Lara J, Salvadror; Castelo C, Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In this article the application of the technology of the fuzzy logic to the control of gas turbines is presented in order to evaluate it in one of the most difficult processes and with stricter control requirements that exist in the electrical generation industry. For being important for the generation electrical sector, given their use in Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), the first selected prototype was the gas turbines model W501 of Westinghouse, installed in the of combined cycle power stations of Dos Bocas, Veracruz, Gomez Palacio, Durango and Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico. The second selected prototype was the one of the turbo gas units type 5001 (that applies to the GE 5001 models and Westinghouse of series 191 and 251). Based on the analysis of the performance of the system of conventional control previously made, the controllers of speed and generation of electrical power were selected to be replaced by diffuse controllers. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta la aplicacion de la tecnologia de la logica difusa al control de turbinas de gas con el proposito de evaluarla en uno de los procesos mas dificiles y con requerimientos mas estrictos de control que existen en la industria de generacion electrica. Por ser importantes para el sector electrico de generacion, dada su utilizacion en Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), el primer prototipo seleccionado fueron las turbinas de gas modelo W501 de Westinghouse, instaladas en la central de ciclo combinado de Dos Bocas, Veracruz, Gomez Palacio, Durango y Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico. El segundo prototipo seleccionado fue el de unidades turbogas tipo 5001 (que aplica a los modelos GE 5001 y Westinghouse de la serie 191 y 251). Basados en el analisis del desempeno del sistema de control convencional realizado previamente, los controladores de velocidad y de generacion de potencia electrica fueron seleccionados para ser sustituidos por controladores difusos.

  18. Technological tendencies for the improvement of the performance of combined cycle power stations; Tendencias tecnologicas para el mejoramiento del desempeno de centrales de cilco combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez P, Marino; Garduno R, Raul; Chavez T, Rafael [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In this article are dealt some the aspects that have turned the combined cycle generating power stations (CCGPS) into the dominant way for the electrical generation in the world. In the first part it is presented the plan of expansion of the national electrical generation and similar information that the U.S.A. has for the CCGPS, which will give an idea of the importance and the impact that has this technology at the moment. The basic characteristics that are necessary to specify in order to satisfy the environmental and operation requirements, and the available technologies to increase the global efficiency of the CCGPS are also exposed. Finally it describes the evolution of the technology of control for CCGPS developed in the Gerencia de Control e Instrumentacion (GCI), as well as the capacities available to support the electrical sector in this technological discipline. [Spanish] En este articulo se tratan algunos de los aspectos que han convertido a las centrales de generacion de ciclo combinado (CGCC) en el modo dominante para la generacion electrica en el mundo. En la primera parte se presenta el plan de expansion de la generacion electrica nacional e informacion similar que los EE.UU. tienen para las CGCC, lo que dara una idea de la importancia y del impacto que tiene actualmente esta tecnologia. Se exponen tambien las caracteristicas principales que es necesario especificar a fin de satisfacer los requerimientos ambientales y de operacion, y las tecnologias disponibles para incrementar la eficiencia global de las CGCC. Finalmente se describe la evolucion de la tecnologia de control para CGCC desarrollada en la Gerencia de Control e Instrumentacion (GCI), asi como las capacidades disponibles para apoyar al sector electrico en esta disciplina tecnologica.

  19. Gas turbine application in power plants of Mexican refineries; Aplicacion de turbinas de gas en plantas de fuerza de refinerias mexicanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz Calderon, A. M.; Rodriguez Martinez, H.; Garcia Paredes, Job; Morales Guillen, Magdalena; Manzanares Papayanapolous, Emilio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: malcaraz@iie.org.mx; jhrm@iie.org.mx; jgarcia@iie.org.mx; mmmg@iie.org.mx; emp@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    This article presents an overview of the application to have the gas turbine power generation systems, electric and steam for Mexican refineries. First there is a general description of the gas turbines and heat recovery (system components CHP) and CHP schemes are based on gas turbines capable of use in Mexican refineries. Subsequently referred to the characteristics of energy consumption (steam and electricity) from Mexican refineries and performs a technical analysis of CHP schemes based on gas turbines from the point of view of rates Q/W, power efficiencies and combined concluded that by their nature are very useful for refinery and gives some recommendations for improved implementation. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta una vision general de la aplicacion que tienen las turbinas de gas en sistemas de generacion de energia electrica y vapor para refinerias mexicanas. Primeramente se da una descripcion general de las turbinas de gas y recuperadores de calor (componentes principales del sistema de cogeneracion) y se muestran los esquemas de cogeneracion basados en turbinas de gas susceptibles de utilizar en refinerias mexicanas. Posteriormente se mencionan las caracteristicas de consumos energeticos (vapor y energia electrica) de las refinerias mexicanas y se realiza un analisis tecnico de los esquemas de cogeneracion basado en turbinas de gas desde el punto de vista de tasas Q/W, eficiencias electricas y combinadas, concluyendose que por sus caracteristicas son muy utiles para refinerias y se dan algunas recomendaciones para su mejor aplicacion.

  20. Design and construction of the prototype of a digital meter of single phase electric energy based in a microcontroller; Diseno y construccion del prototipo de un medidor digital de energia electrica monofasico basado en un microcontrolador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Alonso, Ruben

    2003-10-15

    This research work presents the design and construction of a single-phase microcontroller-based digital electric energy meter. The digital instrument displays the energy demand (kw-h) based on up-to-date tariff provided by the Mexican national utility Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). The meter digitally processes voltage and current line waveform samples taken at its input, displaying, in real time, the number of electrical parameters calculated. For a better instrument performance a PIC16F874 microcontroller from microchip has been used as computational core. The parameters of interest are visualized in a liquid crystal display of 2 X 16 characters. The user interface includes a menu where some of the parameters can be selected by the operator. In the event of an electric power supply disruption the meter keeps to the energy consumption in memory. The voltage and current measured levels ranges from 1 to 255 Vrms and 0.1 to 25.5 Arms, respectively. The power is displayed in 5 digits ranging from 0 to 6502.5 watts and the energy is displayed with 5 whole digits and 5 decimals ranging, from 0 kWh up to 99999.99999 kWh. These values are refreshed every one second together with the actual electrical consumption cost which ranges from 0 up to 9999.9 pesos. The digital measuring instrument has been built based on four main inter-connected modules named, data acquisition; signal conditioning; signal processing; and display. A set of efficient assembly code routines has been developed in order to calculate the number of electrical parameter previously described. After a debugging process, the optimised code has been assembled for the PIC16F874. [Spanish] El trabajo presenta el diseno y construccion de un medidor digital de energia electrica basado en un microcontrolador, el cual visualiza la demanda por el consumo de kWh, basandose en una tarifa escalonada de tipo domestico de CFE. Tambien el aparato visualiza voltaje, corriente, potencia y el tiempo de medicion

  1. Predictive analysis on the electric energy distribution systems reliability: applying the synerGEE system; Analisis predictivo de la confiabilidad en los sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica: aplicando el sistema synerGEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Andrade, Carlos

    2008-12-15

    Electrical distribution systems ought to deliver electric power as economical as possible with an acceptable degree of service quality and continuity. Nevertheless, their faults represent one of the main causes of customer's unavailability. At the moment, a wide range of determinist criteria in the improvement of systems reliability based on past behavior are used, but they do not respond to the stochastic nature of system behavior, and are applied without an adequate balance between reliability and economy. In order to obtain this balance a minimum cost planning methodology that considers the predictive analysis of different investment alternatives in addition to the past behavior of the system is required, which guarantees that the economic resource available and limited will be used to gather the greater possible reliability degree. In this work this problem is approached with the fundamentals and methodologies needed to assess the design effects and operative criteria over the main reliability indexes used by the main utilities around the world, with emphasis on the need to optimize economical resources. The use of the system SynerGEETM, is investigated, probing it as a useful tool for the predictive reliability analysis. Due to the lack of experience that exists in Mexico with this type of analysis, distribution engineers has to become familiar with the concepts of the reliability engineering, their application to establish distribution systems models, and acquiring the ability to use the modern simulation tools, allowing them to evaluate the behavior of these systems with enough analytical rigor. In this sense a serial of well known study cases are presented to help them in this labor. [Spanish] Los sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica deben satisfacer la demanda de energia electrica de la forma mas economica posible, con un grado de calidad y continuidad aceptable. Sin embargo, sus fallas son una de las principales causas de indisponibilidad en

  2. Políticas publicas de juventud en America Latina: de la construcción de espacios especificos, al desarrollo de una perspectiva generacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Rodríguez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo revisa esquemáticamente las principales nociones teóricas utilizadas en la investigación comparada sobre el tema y analiza las experiencias desplegadas durante los años noventa en América Latina en el terreno de las políticas públicas de juventud, distinguiendo las explícitas (implementadas por instituciones especializadas en el tema y las implícitas (implementadas por instituciones no especializadas en el tema. En términos metodológicos, la evaluación distingue tres planos diferentes: la evaluación programática, la evaluación institucional y el uso de recursos (análisis del gasto público en juventud. Sustantivamente, el autor concluye que los impactos logrados hasta el momento han sido marginales (no se ha logrado mejorar las condiciones de vida de los jóvenes ni su participación en la sociedad y ello ha ocurrido por las limitaciones de las propias estrategias vigentes (sectoriales, universales, centralizadas, burocráticas, paternalistas, etc. Seguidamente, propone un enfoque alternativo al vigente, construido sobre la base de un análisis comparado sobre los enfoques promocionales vigentes en el trabajo con jóvenes, con mujeres y con niños. El eje de las propuestas está centrado en la necesidad de superar los clásicos esfuerzos por construir espacios específicos para la juventud (enfoque que ha contribuido a reforzar el aislamiento social de los jóvenes y de trabajar en la incorporación de un enfoque generacional al conjunto de las políticas públicas (emulando el trabajo de las mujeres centrado en la incorporación de la perspectiva de género. Sustantivamente, el autor propone invertir más y mejor en educación y salud (como claves para el desarrollo de capital humano y capital social, en la inserción laboral (como clave de la integración social de los jóvenes, en la prevención de la violencia (como clave de la convivencia pacífica y en la participación ciudadana (como clave del fortalecimiento

  3. Los temas de La memoria colectiva del golpe de estado de 1976 en argentina en función de la ideología y Las generaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Juan Muller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El recuerdo del Golpe de Estado de 1976 en Argentina ofrece una oportunidad para estudiar los procesos de formación y composición de la memoria colectiva. En el trabajo que se informa se estudió cómo los contenidos del recuerdo del golpe son afectados por dos factores: las generaciones que lo recuerdan y la ideología política de los participantes. Con este objetivo, se solicitó a 52 participantes argentinos y de ambos sexos que completaran una tarea de Recuerdo Libre en torno a los hechos del Golpe de Estado de 1976. Se dividió la muestra en dos grupos de 26 sujetos, uno estuvo compuesto por personas que vivieron durante esos años (mayores de 48 años y el otro, por personas de una generación que no vivió aquella época (menores de 30. Se consideró también la ideología política de los participantes (Izquierda o Derecha. Se utilizó un enfoque de análisis descriptivo, centrado en analizar el contenido del recuerdo, considerando qué temas / ideas principales lo conformaban. Los resultados muestran una mayoría de temas comunes al recuerdo de los distintos grupos. Estos elementos comunes conformarían una memoria nacional del golpe. También muestran que la generación y la ide ología política promueven temas / ideas principales propios de cada grupo. Aquellos de la gene ración mayor recordaron más temas / ideas prin cipales de tipo contextual y emocional / afectivo. Los de la generación menor recordaron en mayor medida los hechos acontecidos durante la dictadura. Los sujetos del grupo de Izquierda recordaron temas / ideas principales vinculados a la violencia de Derecha y más aspectos contextuales que los del grupo de Derecha. Se propone que hay un sistema de memoria nacional que operaría en los sujetos y que es afectado por las metas y objetivos de cada grupo.

  4. Use of the operation planning network at Centro Nacional de Control de Energia (CENACE); Uso de la red de planeacion de la operacion en el Centro Nacional de Control de Energia (CENACE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Roberto; Alatorre, Pedro; Gonzalez, Nemorio; Nieva, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A description is made of the ways Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) utilizes the system called Short Term Operation Planning Network (Red de Planeacion de la Operacion a Corto Plazo) (REDPLA) in the elaboration of the generation daily pre-dispatch (PD) of the National Electric System (SEN). The PD defines the hourly generation with which each central must contribute, to cover the predicted demand during the following 24 hours, so that the total production cost be the lowest. Respecting at every moment the transmission limitations, the characteristics of the generation system and the operational restrictions. [Espanol] Se describe la manera en que la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) utiliza el sistema denominado Red de Planeacion de la Operacion a Corto Plazo (Redpla) en la elaboracion del predespacho diario (PD) de generacion del sistema electrico nacional (SEN). El PD define la generacion horaria que debera aportar cada central electrica para cubrir la demanda pronosticada durante las proximas 24 horas, de tal manera que el costo de produccion total sea el mas bajo, respetando en todo momento las limitaciones de transmision, las caracteristicas del sistema de generacion y las restricciones operativas del sistema.

  5. Scenery of CO{sub 2} emissions for Mexico to the 2050; Escenarios de emisiones de CO{sub 2} para Mexico al 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Santalo, Jose Miguel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2008-07-15

    In this presentation the evolution of the fuel consumption in the Mexican electrical sector of 1970 to date is shown; a projection of the generation to year 2050; the participation of fossil fuels in power generation and the gas discharges of greenhouse effect. It is concluded that the electrical sector will have to get adapted to a different supply of primary sources, although will keep on being dominated by fossil fuels; to the year the 2050 the installed capacity and the electrical generation will multiply by five and the fuel diversification will have to include the coal and it will have to give a strong impulse to renewable energies. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se muestra la evolucion del consumo de combustibles en el sector electrico mexicano de 1970 a la fecha; una proyeccion de la generacion al ano 2050; la participacion de los combustibles fosiles en la generacion y las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero. Se concluye que el sector electrico tendra que adaptarse a una oferta diferente de fuentes primarias, aunque seguira dominado por los combustibles fosiles; al ano 2050 la capacidad instalada y la generacion electrica se multiplicaran por cinco y la diversificacion de combustibles tendra que incluir el carbon y se tendra que dar un fuerte impulso a las energias renovables.

  6. Alternative analysis to increase the power in combined-cycle power plants; Analisis de alternativas para el incremento de potencia en plantas termoelectricas de Ciclo Combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco Cruz, Hector; Arriola Medellin, Alejandro M. [Gerencia de Procesos Termicos, Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: hpacheco@iie.org.mx; aarriola@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    The electricity industry traditionally had two thermodynamic cycles for power generation: conventional steam turbine (Rankine cycle) used to supply a base load during the day, and gas turbines (Brayton cycle), for its speed response, normally used to cover peak loads. However, to provide variable peak loads, the gas turbine, as a volumetric machine is affected by the change in air density by changing the combustion temperature. This paper shows the scheme of integration of both systems, that it's known as combined cycle and the different options that would have these power plants, to maintain or increase their power in variable ambient conditions. It analyzes different options, such as: 1. Supplementary fire in the stove. 2. Air cooling intake in the gas turbine (evaporation system or mechanical system). 3. Steam injection in the combustion chamber. [Spanish] La industria electrica tradicionalmente a contado con dos ciclos termodinamicos para generacion electrica: las turbinas convencionales de vapor (ciclo de Rankine) se utilizan para suministrar una carga base durante el dia, y las turbinas de gas (ciclo de Brayton), por su rapidez de respuesta, se utilizan normalmente para cubrir las cargas pico. Sin embargo, para suministrar las cargas variables pico, la turbina a gas, por ser una maquina volumetrica, se ve afectada por el cambio de la densidad del aire de combustion al cambiar la temperatura ambiente. En este trabajo se muestra el esquema de integracion de ambos sistemas, en lo que se conoce como ciclo combinado y las diferentes opciones que tendrian estas plantas de generacion electrica para mantener o incrementar su potencia en condiciones ambiente variable. Para ello se analizan diferentes opciones, tales como: 1.- Combustion suplementaria en el recuperador de calor. 2.- Enfriamiento del aire de admision a la turbina de gas (mediante un sistema de evaporacion o mediante un sistema mecanico). 3.- Inyeccion de vapor a la camara de combustion. Palabras

  7. A new aeolian generator for Mexico; Un nuevo generador eolico para Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voronin, Boris; Gomez Reyna, Jose Antonio; Zerquera Izquierdo, Mariano David; Cardenas Grajales, Juan Jose; Zamora Quintana, Laura Angelica [Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The use of wind kinetic energy to produce electrical energy is one of the most powerful alternatives for the human being, to avoid the risk of being in the threshold of the age of stone. In the present work, different types from aero generators are analyzed and a new generator developed by one of the authors of this article is presented. Its high efficiency is presented in comparison with the helical generators that at the moment are dominant in the construction of Aeolian mills. Perspectives of exploitation of the kinetic energy of the wind in Mexico are analyzed. A resolution model of the problem of obtaining constant parameters of electrical output, to conditions of variable mechanical parameters of entrance is shown. An example is shown of the construction of Aeolian parks that can cover all the needs of electrical energy in Mexico. [Spanish] El uso de la energia cinetica del viento para la obtencion de la energia electrica, es una de las alternativas mas poderosas para el ser humano, para evitar el riesgo de estar al umbral de la edad de piedra. En el trabajo presente, se analizan diferentes tipos de aerogeneradores y se presenta un nuevo generador desarrollado por uno de los autores de este articulo. Se muestra su alta eficiencia en comparacion con los generadores helicoidales que actualmente son dominantes en la construccion de molinos eolicos. Se analizan perspectivas de aprovechamiento de la energia cinetica del viento en Mexico. Se muestra un modelo de resolucion del problema de la obtencion de parametros de salida electricos constantes, a condiciones de los parametros mecanicos de entrada variables. Se muestra un ejemplo de la construccion de parques eolicos que pueden cubrir todas las necesidades de energia electrica en Mexico.

  8. Module generator of plans for dynamic processes; Modulo generdor de planes para procesos dinamicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes B, Alberto; Fernandez J, Jose L [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    This work describes the generating module of plans (Geplan) as a part of the project: Development of Techniques of Intelligent Planning for Dynamic Processes, based on techniques of artificial intelligence, and that is being developed in the Gerencia de Control e Instrumentacion the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). The study case corresponds to the elaboration of a plan to help the plant operators in the task of taking a combined cycle central (CCC) to a stable state of operation given a specific load level. The architecture of the module generator of plans is presented and the codification of the actions allowed (ACT) is illustrated by means of rules, in addition the challenges that are due to face so that the system operates in line with the process. Also the technical aspects of the generator of plans, as well as the benefits and expectations of their use in any CCC are mentioned. [Spanish] En este trabajo se describe el modulo generador de planes (Geplan) como parte del proyecto Desarrollo de Tecnicas de Planificacion Inteligente para Procesos Dinamicos, basado en tecnicas de inteligencia Artificial, y que estan desarrollandose en la Gerencia de Control e Instrumentacion del Instituto de Investigaciones Electrica (IIE). El caso de estudio corresponde a la elaboracion de un plan para asistir a los operadores de planta en la tarea de llevar una central de ciclo combinado (CCC) a un estado estable de operacion dedo un nivel de carga especifico. Se presenta la arquitectura del modulo generador de planes y se ilustra la codificacion de las acciones permitidas (ACT) mediante reglas, ademas los retos que se deben enfrentar para que el sistema opere en linea con el proceso. Tambien se mencionan los aspectos tecnicos del generador de planes, asi como los beneficios y expectativas de su uso en cualquier CCC.

  9. Electric power saving in the drinkable water, sewage and sanitation system, La Piedad; Ahorro de energia electrica en el sistema de agua potable, alcantarillado y saneamiento de La Piedad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sistema de Agua Potable, Alcantarillado y Saneamiento de la Piedad (Mexico). E-mail: sapaslapiedad@prodigy.net.mx

    2006-04-15

    In Michoacan, Mexico, a project who seeks to benefice the Municipal public resources was crated in 1994. It would be achieved trough the electric power saving in the public lighting system, and drinkable water pumping and black water, since those activities required the budget biggest part. The program could be developed recently and the saving was significant. In addition the electromechanical efficiency increased in the equipment installation. This work is an example for other States to do something similar that can improve their conditions. [Spanish] En el estado de Michoacan, Mexico se creo un proyecto en el ano de 1994, el cual buscaba beneficiar los recursos publicos municipales, a traves del ahorro de la energia electrica en los sistemas de alumbrado publico y bombeo de agua potable y aguas negras, ya que estas actividades son las que requieren la mayor parte del presupuesto. El programa pudo llevarse a cabo en anos recientes y el ahorro fue significativo, ademas de que aumento la eficiencia electromecanica en los equipos que se instalaron, y esta obra ha servido de ejemplo a otros estados para que realicen algo similar que pueda mejorar su situacion.

  10. Co-generation system with integrated functions of active filter; Sistema de cogeneracion con funciones de filtro activo integradas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Grajales, Humberto Raul

    2002-07-15

    adaptive interference. This technique maintains the system in the best functional state, by means of continuous self adjustment facing changes in the operation parameters, generating important and satisfactory results. In addition, simultaneously the PVS uses, in the pursuit of the point of maximum power, the technique of {sup d}isturb and observe{sup ,} which offers a high performance in the injection of active power. [Spanish] Sin duda, la energia electrica es la forma de energia mas ampliamente usada en las actividades economicas y sociales de nuestro mundo moderno. Por ello, se puede decir que las companias generadoras y distribuidoras de electricidad asumen dos retos de relevante preocupacion actual. Uno es generar con mayor eficiencia, menor costo y con un minimo impacto sobre el medio ambiente. El segundo es cumplir con la calidad del suministro, que ha llegado a ser un punto importante tanto para los usuarios como para las companias que distribuyen la energia electrica, y que se refleja en una distribucion y un consumo de energia mas eficiente. El trabajo de tesis que se presenta, describe un sistema fotovoltaico (SFV) interconectado a la red electrica que ayuda a superar los retos citados. Este SFV tiene la funcion de recibir la energia solar entregada por un arreglo de celdas FV; operar en el punto maximo de potencia de las celdas (para mayor aprovechamiento de la energia captada); acondicionarla a una senal alterna, dentro de los parametros tecnicos normativos para la interconexion electrica (establecidos por la compania; Comision Federal de Electricidad en Mexico); e inyectarla a la red electrica con el proposito de compensar potencia reactiva (filtrado activo) demandada por cargas lineales y no lineales, reduciendo la contaminacion de la red electrica; ademas de compensar potencia activa en los picos de demanda de energia electrica maxima. El sistema funciona como filtro activo durante todo el dia, lo que permite que la capacidad de potencia instalada por el

  11. Liderazgo y compromiso político desde una mirada diacrónica: una aproximación a tres generaciones de jóvenes militantes en movimientos de desocupados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda las formas de activismo y compromiso político entre los jóvenes referentes de un Movimiento de Trabajadores Desocupados (MTD del Gran Buenos Aires. Se analizan las propiedades del activismo, las formas de legitimación en su roles como líderes, la elaboración de causas militantes y los modelos de compromiso político a lo largo del tiempo. Más precisamente a través tres generaciones de referentes jóvenes: la fundadora, a fines de la década del 90; la que nace luego de la crisis de 2001 y de la Masacre del Puente Pueyrredón y, finalmente, la que se conforma durante el kirchnerismo

  12. Análisis de los componentes de la respuesta a la selección en un núcleo con generaciones superpuestas seleccionado mediante BLUP bajo un modelo animal

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler de Avila, Valeria

    1996-01-01

    p.39-48 Con el objetivo de analizar la importancia relativa de los componentes de la respuesta a la selección, se simuló un núcleo con generaciones superpuestas durante 20 años. Se estudió un carácter medible en ambos sexos y una única vez durante la vida del animal. Se estudiaron d o sh² del carácter: 0,4 y 0,1. Los animales se seleccionaron mediante BLUP-modelo animal, incluyendo los efectos fijos del sexo y la edad del individuo a la medición. La respuesta a la selección fue siempre may...

  13. La antigüedad como modelo: tradición clásica en generaciones y semblanzas del humanista Fernán Pérez de Guzmán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Caballero López

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Greco-Roman historiography converts biography into a genre whose subject: the life and deeds of an exemplary personage, was inseparable from the form and the requirements of rhetoric. Biography, while being backed by the prestige of classical antiquity and its tradition, experienced in Renaissance a major boost due to its double moralizing and propagandistic character in a historical context in which aristocrats and monarchs fought for preeminence with weapons and letters. In this paper we study the influences of ancient biography as well as the use and function of the motifs from the classical world in Fernán Pérez de Guzman’s Generaciones y semblanzas, one of the most important writers in the first Spanish humanism, author who has been considered a model of spontaneity and originality

  14. Assessment and planning of the electrical systems in Mexican refineries by 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Flores, Luis Ivan; Rodriguez Martinez, Jose Hugo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Dario Taboada; Guillermo; Pano Jimenez, Javier [PEMEX, (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    ser suministrados por las fuentes de generacion instaladas en cada una de las refinerias y a traves de una expansion de su capacidad de generacion. Estas centrales electricas necesitan aumentar su produccion de electricidad y vapor de agua a niveles por encima de su capacidad instalada, lo que significa integrar nuevos equipos de generacion de energia (gas o vapor turbogeneradores), asi como el aumento de las cargas electricas. En la actualidad, Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) tiene la intencion de reestructurar sus sistemas electricos y de vapor, a fin de suministrar de forma optima los servicios requeridos para la produccion de combustibles de alta calidad. En este articulo se presenta la situacion actual de los sistemas de energia electricas originales de las refinerias y se evalúa la integracion electrica de las plantas de proceso en los nuevos esquemas tipicos. Tambien se presentan los esquemas conceptuales propuestos para reestructurar el sistema de energia electrica para dos refinerias, cuya planificacion estrategica se centro en la aplicacion de las modificaciones necesarias para la integracion de nuevas plantas de proceso que demandaran alrededor de 20 MW para cada refineria en el ano 2014. Los resultados del analisis permitieron identificar las condiciones actuales de los sistemas de energia electrica en la industria de refinacion de petroleo o de la Industria Nacional de Refinacion (INR), y por lo tanto ofrecer soluciones tecnicas que podrian ser utiles para los ingenieros que desarrollan proyectos similares.

  15. Energy saving in the pumping of drinking water, Municipality of San Felipe, Guanajuato; Ahorro de energia electrica en bombeo de agua potable, en el municipio de San Felipe, Gto.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamiz Sanchez, Lorenzo [Applied Technology Center de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    2006-01-15

    This paper shows the results attained in energy saving through a project of potable water pumping, which took an investment of $433,043.00 and an internal rate of return of 126%. This project puts into evidence that it is possible to reduce between 15 and 30% of the total invoicing for energy consumption in potable water pumping if an equipment of poor efficiency is replaced by another of high efficiency. The project was requested by the Guanajuato's State Water Comision and the Municipal Bureau of Sewage and Potable Water, with the double intention of reducing the energy consumption along with the corresponding invoicing and incrementing the output of the wells in order to improve the potable water supply. In the site two high efficiency submersible motor-pumps were installed previously to the energy diagnosis that triggered profitable operation results and a convenient invoicing. [Spanish] Se documentan los resultados obtenidos en un proyecto de ahorro de energia en el bombeo de agua potable realizado con una inversion de $433,043.00 y con una tasa interna de retorno de 126%. Este proyecto pone en evidencia que es posible reducir entre el 15 y 30% de la facturacion total por consumo de energia electrica en el bombeo de agua potable si se sustituye un equipo poco eficiente por otro de alta eficiencia. El proyecto fue solicitado por la Comision Estatal del Agua de Guanajuato y la Junta Municipal de Agua Potable y Alcantarillado del municipio, con un doble proposito, reducir el consumo de energia junto con la facturacion correspondiente e incrementar la capacidad de produccion de los pozos con la intencion de mejorar el abasto de agua potable. En el lugar se instalaron dos motobombas sumergibles de alta eficiencia previo diagnostico energetico que desencadenaron rentables resultados operativos y de facturacion.

  16. Residual magnetic field in rotary machines; Campo magnetico residual en maquinas rotatorias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez V, Esteban A; Apanco R, Marcelino [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The residual magnetism is a phenomenon in which the magnetic dipoles of a substance are oriented in a certain degree. On the other hand, when internal forces exist capable of aligning elementary magnetic dipoles of a material, a permanent magnet is obtained. Just as in a conductor or in a material, in the elements of a rotary electrical machine magnetic fields can be induced that produce a residual magnetism or magnetization. In the rotary electrical machines, the magnetization phenomenon causes serious problems, such as the generation of induced currents that propitiate the mechanical wear in bearings, collars, trunnions and inclusive in the shaft, by effects known as pitting, frosting and spark tracks, as well as erroneous readings in vibration and temperature sensors, that in some cases can cause the shut down of the machine. In this article are presented the general concepts on the residual magnetism in rotary electrical machines, the causes that originate it and the problems that arises, as well as the demagnetization of the components that have residual magnetic field. The results obtained by the area of Electrical Equipment of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas are revised, during the execution of activities related to the measurement and elimination of the residual magnetic field in rotary electrical machines. [Spanish] El magnetismo residual es un fenomeno en el que los dipolos magneticos de una sustancia se encuentran orientados en un grado determinado. Por otro lado, cuando existen fuerzas internas capaces de alinear los dipolos magneticos elementales de un material, se tiene un iman permanente. Al igual que en un conductor o un material, en los elementos de una maquina electrica rotatoria se pueden inducir campos magneticos que producen un magnetismo residual o magnetizacion. En las maquinas electricas rotatorias, el fenomeno de magnetizacion causa graves problemas, como la generacion de corrientes inducidas que propician el desgaste mecanico

  17. State of the art of technologies thermosolar to concentration; Estado del arte de las tecnologias termosolares a concentracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Berume, Carlos; Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M; Medrano Vaca, M. Consolacion [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Nowadays Research and Development activities on Solar Thermal Power Generating Systems are supported by some countries around the world. Because of their thermal nature each of these plants can be operated only with solar energy or can be hybridized (solar/fossil fuel) and also with thermal storage systems. These types of solar thermal power plants are: Central Receiver, a circular field of tracking mirrors called helisotats reflects the solar energy onto receiver mounted on top of a central tower. Parabolic Trough, use linear parabolic concentrators to reflect sunlight to a receiver along the focal line (metallic pipe). Inside the pipe solar energy is absorbed in a working fluid with temperatures up to 390 Celsius degrees, which is then piped to a central location to power a conventional steam turbine and Parabolic Dish uses a parabolic dish concentrator to focus solar energy to a receiver and a heat engine/generator, located at the focus of the dish, to generate electrical power. In this document, we present the current status of technologies. A description of market opportunities, cost and technological perspectives are also included. [Spanish] Actualmente la Investigacion and Desarrollo para la generacion de potencia electrica mediante el aprovechamiento de la energia solar por la ruta termodinamica esta siendo apoyada por varios paises. Debido a su naturaleza termica estas pueden operar bajo esquemas de operacion solo con energia solar o en forma de plantas hibridas (solar-combustible fosil) y en algunos casos adaptadas con sistemas de almacenamiento termico. Los tipos de plantas solares de generacion electrica son: Receptor Central (RC), utilizan un campo colector con dispositivos llamados heliostatos arreglados en un campo circular y reflejando la radiacion solar sobre un receptor montado en la parte mas alta de una torre. Canal Parabolica (CP), estas plantas utilizan espejos curvados en forma de una parabola que redirigen los rayos del sol sobre su linea

  18. Thermoionic generator of alternating current; Generador termoionico de corriente alterna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Guillermo [Centro de Investigacionees en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Estrada, Claudio A; Jimenez, Antonio E [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Cervantes de Gortari, Jaime [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The thermionic converter (TC) is a device that generates electrical power in the DC regime. Studies to improve its efficiency have been focused to increase the output potential and decrease is internal impedance. These two conditions have been obtained introducing cesium in its internal structure. However, it has been observed that internal impedance of the cesium TC can be reduced more, if electrical pulses are introduced to its internal structure. With this purpose, develop of a passive electric circuit that is capable to generate autopulsation to the TC, is presented. The developed circuit is itself a resonance interface, which is connected between the TC and the load; its principal function is to transform the DC power of the TC to AC power. The operation of the TC power in AC regime presents several advantages; the operational voltage at the load can be increased and simultaneously, the power transfer can be improved. The properties of this interface help directly and indirectly to improve the TC efficiency. This paper presents the theoretical model of the resonant interface that can be coupled directly to a low power vacuum TC. [Spanish] La celda termoionica (CT) es un dispositivo que genera potencia electrica en el regimen de CD. Los estudios que se han hecho para mejorar su eficiencia se han enfocado a aumentar el potencial de salida y a disminuir su impedancia interna. Estas dos condiciones se han conseguido introduciendo cesio en su estructura interna. Sin embargo, se ha observado que la impedancia interna de la celda termoionica de cesio, se puede reducir aun mas si se inyectan pulsos electricos a su estructura interna. Con este fin se presenta el desarrollo de un circuito electrico pasivo, que es capaz de generar autopulsamiento hacia la CT. El circuito desarrollado es propiamente una interfaz resonante que se conecta entre la CT y la carga, cuya funcion principal es convertir la potencia de CD de la CT en potencia de CA. El manejo de la potencia

  19. Development of a prototype of a Master Central Unit (MCU) for the automation of Distribution Control Centers; Desarrollo de un prototipo de Unidad Central Maestra (UCM) para la automatizacion de Centros de Control de Distribucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe Blanco, Carlos Eduardo; Mata Almanza, Rafael; Picasso Blanquel, Cuitlahuac [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    For the purpose of contributing to the strategic plan and to the improvement of productivity and competitiveness levels, the Federal Electric Commission (CFE, Spanish acronym) is making a significant investment in human resources and materials to modernize electric energy supply systems, including monitoring, protection and automatic control for operating all the elements of the electrical process, from generating plants to transmission lines, distribution systems and commercial applications. With this modernization, the CFE is also creating the infrastructure for the interoperability and interconnectivity of the above systems, in such a way to enable it to broaden, continue and complement the functional integration of the linked institutional systems of the latest generation. The total integration of the systems will allow the CFE to move toward Intelligent Electric Networks. Therefore, the CFE requested help from the Electric Research Institute (IIE, Spanish acronym) to develop part of the infrastructure to modernize the automation of distribution. This consists of the development of a prototype of the supervision and control system, using interoperable open technology owned by the CFE which enables using the functions of a SCADA system (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) to supervise and control electric distribution networks. [Spanish] Con el proposito de contribuir al plan estrategico y mejoramiento de los niveles de productividad y competitividad, la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) esta invirtiendo fuertemente en recursos humanos y materiales para la modernizacion de los sistemas de suministro de energia electrica, incluyendo el monitoreo, proteccion y control automatico para la operacion de todos los elementos del proceso electrico, desde los centros de generacion hasta las lineas de transmision, los sistemas de distribucion y las aplicaciones de comercializacion. Con dicha modernizacion, la CFE tambien esta generando la infraestructura para la

  20. Starting of the steam generator of a fossil fuel power plant, using predictive control based in a neuronal model; Arranque del generador de vapor de una central termoelectrica, usando control predictivo basado en un modelo neuronal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo Dominguez, Tonatiuh

    2004-09-15

    In this thesis work it is presented the design and implementation of a simulator of total scope of a predictive controller based in the neuronal model of the temperature in two stages of the heating of the steam generator of a fossil fuel power plant. An implemented control scheme is detailed, as well as the methodology for the identification of a neuronal model utilized for the control. Finally the results of the implementation in the simulator located at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) are shown to be satisfactory. This control structure is not applied directly in closed circuit, but provides the value of the control actions to a human operator. [Spanish] En este trabajo de tesis se presenta el diseno e implementacion, en un simulador de alcance total, de un controlador predictivo basado en un modelo neuronal para el control de la temperatura en dos etapas del calentamiento del generador de vapor de una central termoelectrica. Se detalla el esquema de control implementado, asi como la metodologia de identificacion de un modelo neuronal utilizado para la sintesis del control. Finalmente se muestran los resultados de la implementacion en el simulador que se encuentra en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE); dichos resultados fueron satisfactorios. Esta estructura de control no se aplica directamente en lazo cerrado, sino que provee el valor de las acciones de control a un operador humano.

  1. Voltage controller design for air conditioning; Diseno de controlador de voltaje para aire acondicionado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Andrade, R; Lopez Villalobos, J.J; Valderrama Chairez, J; Ramirez, R.L. [Instituto Tecnologico de Nuevo Leon, Guadalupe, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)]. E-mails: roxana_garciaandrade@yahoo.com; xe2n@yahoo.com.mx; jose.valderrama@ieee.org

    2013-03-15

    This paper discusses the design of a voltage controller for an air conditioning system in order to generate additional power in activation or startup of the system, for which as a first stage is presented the modeling power generation of electric current through alternative means, such as solar energy. The results of this study will be the basis for development of the physical prototype of this system controller. [Spanish] El presente trabajo trata sobre el diseno de un controlador de voltaje para un sistema de aire acondicionado con el fin de generar energia adicional en la activacion o arranque de dicho sistema, para lo cual como primer fase se presenta el modelado de la generacion de corriente electrica mediante medios alternos, como lo es la energia solar. Los resultados de este trabajo seran la base para desarrollo del prototipo fisico de este sistema controlador.

  2. Calculation of the electromagnetic fields in electric machines through the use of the finite element. Algorithms for the solution of induction problems. Pt. 3; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito. Algoritmos para la solucion de problemas de induccion. Pt. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mario F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    This article is based in the electromagnetic modeling presented in the first part of the series for the indirect solution of partial differential equations. Magnetic systems in closed regions with moving or axial symmetry, whose total current density is partially known (induction problems) are considered. Includes the ability to deal with means in movement and a sinusoidal behavior for the source density current is assumed. Some algorithms are developed that are implanted in the software CALIIE-2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) to obtain the numerical solutions of these problems. The basic systems of algebraic equations are obtained through the application of the Galerkin method in the discreteness of the finite element with first order triangular elements. [Espanol] Este articulo se basa en la modelacion electromagnetica presentada en la primera parte de la serie y en el planteamiento proporcionado en la segunda parte para la solucion indirecta de ecuaciones diferenciales parciales. Se consideran sistemas magneticos en regiones cerradas con simetria traslacional o axial, cuya densidad de corriente total es parcialmente conocida (problemas de induccion). Incluye la capacidad para tratar medios con movimiento y se supone un comportamiento senoidal para la densidad de corriente fuente. Se desarrollan los algoritmos que se implantan en el programa de computo CALIIE-2D del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) para obtener las soluciones numericas de estos problemas. Los sistemas basicos de ecuaciones algebraicas se obtienen mediante la aplicacion del metodo de Galerkin en la discretizacion de elemento finito con elementos triangulares de primer orden.

  3. EL PROCESO DE ENDOCULTURACIÓN DE LA ETNIA TICUNA:ESTRATEGIA DE TRASMISIÓN VÍA GENERACIONAL ACERCA DE LA NOCIÓN DE AMBIENTE NATURALISTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Marcela Trujillo Castro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de endoculturación ha permitido que las costumbres y conductas de una cultura estén presentes desde las generaciones antiguas hasta las actuales. Por consiguiente, el presente artículo se centra en exponer la indagación de hábitos, conductas, rutinas y celebraciones, para dar cuenta de dicho proceso en la etnia ticuna. El ejercicio investigativo de corte etnográfico realizado en dicha comunidad de Puerto Nariño y Leticia (Amazonas, Colombia, permitió caracterizar la relación entre endoculturación y la noción de ambiente naturalista de la etnia por medio de la indagación, análisis y reflexión de las dinámicas de trasmisión generacional. En consecuencia,se exponen los resultados y discusiones de las manifestaciones de dicho proceso. Los instrumentos de recolección de la información corresponden a la realización de entrevistas semiestructuradas con preguntas abiertas, destacando aspectos de la vida, sobre la noción y apropiación del ambiente, para identificar la diferencia con el término naturaleza. Finalmente, durante la salida de campo al Trapecio amazónico, realizada en noviembre de 2012, se interactúo con diferentes personas pertenecientes a dicha comunidad, con lo cual se identificó que el proceso de endoculturación está presente en la etnia, teniendo en cuenta que las prácticas de dicho grupo se enmarcan en el cuidado, aprendizaje, interacción y relaciones cotidianas con la naturaleza, desde las personas mayores hasta los integrantes más jóvenes. También, se evidenció que la concepción de ambiente naturalista se relaciona con el valorintrínseco del ambiente, es decir, más allá de los recursosque la naturaleza entrega.

  4. Application of an evolutionary algorithm in the reactive compensation of transmission networks of electrical energy planning; Aplicacion de un algoritmo evolutivo en la planificacion de la compensacion reactiva de redes de transmision de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Galicia, Julio A.; Nieva Gomez, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In the present work it is considered the mathematical formulation of the problem of the reactive compensation planning, The solution technique based on evolutionary programming is described and the results of compensation in the Northwest subsystem of the Mexican electrical system are shown. A technique of optimization based on the Evolutionary Programming is proposed to solve the problem of the Planning of the Reactive Compensation in transmission of electrical energy networks. The problem consists in determining how much compensation to add and where to locate it in such a way that the investment cost of the compensation equipment is diminished, plus the operation costs associated to the transmission losses, plus a penalty function associated to the violations of the operative limits of voltage. The compensation that is determined must allow that the network operates in normal conditions before any contingency of a pre-established assembly. The problem considered is non-linear and whole compound. Tests made to a representative system of the Northwest area of the Mexican electrical system of 171 nodes and 284 branches are reported. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se plantea la formulacion matematica del problema de planificacion de la compensacion reactiva, se describe la tecnica de solucion basada en programacion evolutiva y se muestra resultados de compensacion en el subsistema Noroeste del sistema electrico mexicano. Se propone una tecnica de optimizacion basada en la Programacion Evolutiva para resolver el problema de la Planificacion de la Compensacion Reactiva en redes de transmision de energia electrica. El problema consiste en determinar cuanta compensacion agregar y donde ubicarla de tal manera que se minimice el costo de inversion del equipo de compensacion, mas los costos de operacion asociados a las perdidas de transmision, mas una funcion de penalizacion asociada a la violaciones de los limites operativos de voltaje. La compensacion que se determine

  5. ¿Qué les queda a los jóvenes? una mirada desde el concierto encuentro al rol de las nuevas generaciones en las cuerdas tradicionales andinas colombianas en Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Vidal Rendón Marín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El Concierto Encuentro de Cuerdas Tradicionales Colombianas, evento anual que se realiza en la ciudad de Medellín y en varios municipios de Antioquia, es tomado aquí como una ventana para el análisis de la dinámica de esta práctica musical en el contexto regional. Se discute la participación de las nuevas generaciones, la disminución notoria de su público desde la óptica de una posible resistencia a cambios que no están a la altura de las exploraciones de las músicas populares en la actualidad; se establece una comparación entre las características de la práctica en la década previa a los inicios del evento y el período de su realización, y se examinan los mecanismos de apropiación, transmisión y circulación con que cuenta en la actualidad.

  6. Adolescentes y adultos ¿Es posible una interacción sin juzgar ni castigar? ¿Qué hay detrás del llamado conflicto generacional?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kattya Grosser Guillén

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Me propongo con este ensayo describir a grandes rasgos las características del proceso adolescente, señalando cómo durante este momento que hemos dado en llamar adolescencia, se debe enfrentar el sujeto a una serie de transformaciones, una verdadera metamorfosis, que implica un posicionamiento distinto en la sociedad, la familia y la cultura en general. Es mi interés enfatizar en las implicaciones que tiene este proceso en las relaciones entre los y las adolescentes y los adultos, principalmente los padres y todo aquel adulto que ostente una posición de autoridad frente a ellos y ellas. Es mi interés ofrecer al lector una interpretación alternativa de lo que comúnmente se denomina el Conflicto Generacional, partiendo de la premisa de que si logramos como adultos comprender y respetar lo adolescente, será posible una interacción, si bien no exenta de conflicto, porque el mismo es inherente a lo humano y los vínculos que establecemos, menos violenta, más gratificante y provechosa para todos y todas.

  7. Adolescentes y adultos ¿Es posible una interacción sin juzgar ni castigar? ¿Qué hay detrás del llamado conflicto generacional?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosser Guillén, Kattya

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Me propongo con este Ensayo describir a grandes rasgos las características del proceso adolescente, señalando cómo durante este momento que hemos dado en llamar adolescencia, se debe enfrentar el sujeto a una serie de transformaciones, una verdadera metamorfosis, que implica un posicionamiento distinto en la sociedad, la familia y la cultura en general. Es mi interés enfatizar en las implicaciones que tiene este proceso en las relaciones entre los y las adolescentes y los adultos, principalmente los padres y todo aquel adulto que ostente una posición de autoridad frente a ellos y ellas. Es mi interés ofrecer al lector una interpretación alternativa de lo que comúnmente se denomina el Conflicto Generacional, partiendo de la premisa de que si logramos como adultos comprender y respetar lo adolescente, será posible una interacción, si bien no exenta de conflicto, porque el mismo es inherente a lo humano y los vínculos que establecemos, menos violenta, más gratificante y provechosa para todos y todas.

  8. "¿Dónde Quedó el Árbol de las Placentas?" Transformaciones en el Saber acerca del Embarazo/Parto/Puerperio de dos Generaciones de Triquis Migrantes a la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuanilda Mendoza González

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La movilización constante y progresiva de numerosos grupos sociales del campo a la ciudad ha sido una de las variables demográficas más importantes en las últimas décadas. Sin embargo, al interior de este proceso de cambio no han sido considerados los aspectos de salud/enfermedad/atención, a los que nosotros reconocemos como centrales para ejemplificar y analizar el intenso proceso de transformación sociocultural que sufren estos grupos. Para el caso de este artículo nos interesa resaltar los cambios que se presentan en los saberes acerca de su proceso reproductivo, ejemplificado a través del embarazo/parto/puerperio en dos generaciones diferentes de hombres y mujeres indígenas triquis migrantes del estado de Oaxaca a la ciudad de México. Nos acercaremos a su proceso reproductivo a partir de sus saberes, las redes de apoyo que les permiten solucionar o no un problema, los recursos procedentes de su medicina tradicional o de la biomedicina y la eficacia de los mismos.

  9. Information system for data management of civil buildings instrumentation in generating power stations; Sistema de informacion para el manejo de datos de la instrumentacion de las obras civiles de las centrales generadoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, Alonso; Escamilla, Juan Carlos; Alaniz, Felipe de Jesus [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Gonzalez, Francisco; Mena, Enrique [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A relevant task performed by Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) is the analysis of the structural behavior and safety assessment of the country`s large electric energy generating stations. This task is performed capturing, revising an analyzing the information generated by measuring instruments installed in the power station civil structures. Such activity generates a large amount of data and the collection, analysis and assessment is a long and tiresome process; additionally, the generated information is kept in plain isolated files, that causes sluggishness in the process and delays in the access to the information. This article describes the characteristics of the Information System for Structure Measurements (Sistema de Informacion de Medicion de Estructuras) (SIME), developed by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) for CFE in order to enhance the opportunity for the information management. SIME captures, arranges, stores and reports the data obtained from the measurements at the works with great efficiency and flexibility. This system is part of another of greater scope with which CFE will ensure an optimum operation condition of its civil buildings. [Espanol] Una tarea relevante que realiza la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) es analizar el comportamiento estructural y evaluar la seguridad de las grandes obras generadoras de energia electrica del pais. Esta tarea la realiza capturando, revisando y analizando la informacion que generan instrumentos de medicion instalados en las estructuras civiles de las centrales. Tal actividad genera gran cantidad de datos y el proceso de recopilacion, analisis y evaluacion es tardado y tedioso; ademas, la informacion que se genera se guarda en archivos planos aislados, lo que ocasiona lentitud en el proceso y retraso en el acceso a la informacion. Este articulo describe las caracteristicas del Sistema de Informacion de Medicion de Estructuras (SIME) desarrollado por el Instituto de Investigaciones

  10. Energy saving plan: use of solar energy in the university of Valencia (Spain); Uso de la energia solar en la universidad de Valencia (Espana) para ahorrar energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Gomez Amo, J.L.; Tena, F.; Martinez Lozano, J.A.; Utrillas, M.P. [Grupo de Radiacion Solar, Universidad de Valencia (Spain)

    2005-07-15

    The University of Valencia financed a pilot project that would study the installation's feasibility of a generating station with photovoltaic energy, solar type, in order to replace or complement conventional sources of energy. This paper presents some of the preliminary results of the study's application in an University building, along with the analysis of the initial situation and the proposals for the handling of reactive energy and the outer and inner lighting as solutions for energy saving. This experimental project entitled Study of the Energy Saving Strategies and the Viability of Installing Solar Energy equipment in the Buildings of the University of Valencia throws preliminary data specifying the amount of investment necessary to obtain real annual benefits, as well as the recovery time of the investment and the beneficial ecological impact in quantitative terms of a measurable CO{sub 2} reduction. [Spanish] La Universidad de Valencia financio un proyecto piloto que estudiaria la factibilidad de instalacion de una estacion generadora de energia fotovoltaica de tipo solar para sustituir o complementar fuentes convencionales de energia. Este trabajo presenta algunos de los resultados preliminares de la aplicacion del estudio en un edificio de la Universidad junto con el analisis de la situacion inicial y las propuestas del manejo de energia reactiva, de iluminacion exterior e interior como soluciones para el ahorro de energia. Este proyecto experimental titulado Estudio de las estrategias del ahorro de la energia y de la viabilidad de instalar energia solar en los edificios de la Universidad de Valencia arroja datos preliminares que especifican el monto de la inversion necesaria para obtener beneficios anuales reales, asi como el tiempo de recuperacion de la inversion y el impacto ecologico benefico en terminos cuantitativos de una reduccion cuantificable de CO{sub 2}.

  11. Technological Prospective (Chapter 3 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Prospectiva tecnologica (Capitulo 3 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas del Pozo, Pablo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    In this chapter it is described how the prospective analysis is carried on in: the trash and its transformation into energy that is made through thermal or biological processes; geothermal, where the relation with low and intermediate temperature resources will be differentiated from those of high temperature for electrical power generation; thermo-solar, that is a high temperature system for electrical power generation and low temperature systems for space heating or process heat; photovoltaic, that is the direct conversion of solar radiation into electricity; the wind energy is the advantage of the kinetic energy of the wind; the use of the biomass or its derivatives requires of transformations on the basis of processes of direct combustion; the gasification or pyrolysis to produce, either in direct form or through the production of a synthetic gas, process heat or electricity in facilities and, mini-hydro energy. [Spanish] En este capitulo se describe como es llevado el analisis prospectivo en: la basura y su transformacion en energia que se realiza a traves de procesos termicos o de procesos biologicos; la geotermia donde se distinguira la relacion con los recursos de temperatura baja e intermedia y los de alta temperatura para generacion electrica; la termosolar que es un sistema de alta temperatura para generacion electrica y sistema de baja temperatura para acondicionamiento de espacios o calor de proceso; fotovoltaico que es la conversion directa de la radiacion solar a electricidad; la energia eolica es el aprovechamiento de la energia cinetica del viento; la utilizacion de la biomasa o sus derivados requiere de transformaciones en base a procesos de combustion directa; la gasificacion o pirolisis para producir, o bien en forma directa o a traves de la produccion de un gas sintetico, calor de proceso o electricidad en instalaciones y, la minihidroenergia.

  12. Operation planning of electrical power systems; Planeacion de operacion de sistemas electricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, Elena [ed.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The development of a software that has facilitated and improved considerably the planning tasks, besides diminishing the production costs is presented. The software denominated Hydrothermal Coordination (HTC)(Coordinacion Hidrotermica (CHT)), was developed in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), with this software the plan of short term operation of the generating units is determined. The software analyzes mathematically a great number of options regarding to the allocation of generation units and selects very close solutions, in cost, to the optimal one. It constitutes in addition an information system that stores the relevant data of each unit, useful for decision making. [Spanish] Se presenta el desarrollo de un software que ha facilitado y mejorado considerablemente las tareas de planeacion, ademas de disminuir los costos de produccion. El paquete denominado Coordinacion Hidrotermica (CHT), fue desarrollado en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE); con el se determina el plan de operacion a corto plazo de las unidades generadoras. El paquete analiza matematicamente un gran numero de opciones en lo que se refiere a la asignacion de unidades de generacion y selecciona soluciones muy cercanas, en costo, a la optima. Constituye ademas un sistema de informacion que almacena los datos relevantes de cada unidad, utiles para la toma de decisiones.

  13. Methodology for the electric energy distribution systems planning of small and rural zones of Comision Federal de Electricidad; Metodologia para la planeacion de sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica de zonas pequenas y rurales de Comision Federal de Electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa Gomez, Miguel Armando

    2008-12-15

    institutional procedures, the standards, the commercial programs and the programs developed by the Management of Planning, used in the CFE to make the electric distribution systems planning. In the same way, in Chapter 4 a methodology for the optimization of the electrical grids in low tension is proposed, standing out some errors that are commonly committed in the design of these types of networks, doing recommendations to correct them with low cost investments. Because of the importance in the design of medium tension lines, in Chapter 3 the set of economic conductors for 23 kV was determined for urban and rural areas, system type A (3F-4H, 2F-3H, 1F-2H), by means of the Modified Method. With this information we will be able to select the conductor that offers the best economy in the time, in each extension of the network. In Chapter 5 the proposed methodology in the planning of the electrical system of distribution of the Zapotlan Zone was applied, as much in substations as in the high and medium tension network. In this chapter analyses of optimization of the network were performed, capacitor banks application, attention to the incremental demand, power losses, contingencies by fault and reliability of the provision. Finally the obtained conclusions of the investigation and the work carried out are presented; as well as the recommendations for future facilities. [Spanish] Las 13 Divisiones de Distribucion en las cuales la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) tiene estructurada, administrativa y tecnicamente, la distribucion de la energia electrica en su territorio atendido, estan constituida a su vez por un total de 120 Zonas de Distribucion, clasificadas conforme al producto de su numero de clientes, por su volumen de ventas anuales, en media y baja tension, como zonas tipo I, II y III. Ejemplos de zonas tipo III son las Zona Guadalajara y la Zona Metropolitana Monterrey Norte, Oriente y Poniente (metropolis), la tipo II son zonas predominantemente urbanas como Queretaro

  14. THERMO-ELECTRIC GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, K.C.

    1958-07-22

    The conversion of heat energy into electrical energy by a small compact device is descrtbed. Where the heat energy is supplied by a radioactive material and thermopIIes convert the heat to electrical energy. The particular battery construction includes two insulating discs with conductive rods disposed between them to form a circular cage. In the center of the cage is disposed a cup in which the sealed radioactive source is located. Each thermopile is formed by connecting wires from two adjacent rods to a potnt on an annular ring fastened to the outside of the cup, the ring having insulation on its surface to prevent electrica1 contact with the thermopiles. One advantage of this battery construction is that the radioactive source may be inserted after the device is fabricated, reducing the radiation hazard to personnel assembling the battery.

  15. Co-generation and reality Potential in Mexico; Potencial de cogeneracion y realidad en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    This document deals with the Mexican use of co-generation -the efficient use of the energy- through the support offered by the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE), since this is the agency in charge of fomenting the efficient use of energy by means of actions coordinated with diverse dependencies and organizations of the Administracion Publica Federal and with the governments of the federal entities as well as municipalities, social and private sectors. Among the subjects to be dealt are quality of the electrical and thermal energy, types of fuels that can be used in the co-generation project, the present situation of the co-generation in Mexico and the conditions for their development. [Spanish] Este documento analiza el uso de la cogeneracion en Mexico es decir, el uso eficiente de la energia a traves del apoyo que brinda la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) ya que es el organo encargado de fomentar la eficiencia en el uso de la energia mediante acciones coordinadas con las diversas dependencias y entidades de la Administracion Publica Federal y con los gobiernos de las entidades federativas y los municipios y, a traves de acciones concertadas, con los sectores social y privado. Se trataran temas como calidad de la energia electrica y termica, los tipos de combustibles que pueden utilizarse en el proyecto de cogeneracion, la situacion actual de la cogeneracion en Mexico y las ccondiciones para su desarrollo.

  16. Expansion plan of the electrical sector; Plan de expansion del sector electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristerna Ocampo, Rafael [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    An analysis of the Mexican electrical market in the year 1994 as far as sales of electrical energy and types of users who utilized that energy, is presented. In addition, an analysis is made of the options for the future supply, where the installed electrical capacity in Mexico in 1994 is described. Also the requirements of additional capacity of power generation, from year 1995 to year 2004 are analyzed. In the internal supply of primary energy in Mexico, the hydrocarbons represent 83%, the diversified sources (nuclear, geothermal, hydro and coal) represent 7% and the biomass as well as complementary coal, the 10% balance of the primary energy. Finally an expansion plan of the transmission network of the Mexican electrical system is described. [Spanish] Se presenta un analisis del mercado electrico mexicano en el ano de 1994 en cuanto a ventas de energia electrica y los tipos de usuarios que utilizaron esa energia. Se hace un analisis ademas, de las opciones para la oferta futura, donde se describe la capacidad electrica instalada de Mexico en 1994. Tambien se analizan los requerimientos de capacidad adicional de generacion de 1995 al 2004. En la oferta interna de energia primaria en Mexico, los hidrocarburos representan el 83%, las fuentes diversificadas (nuclear, geotermia, hidro y carboelectrica) representan el 7% y la biomasa asi como el carbon complementario, el 10% restante de la energia primaria. Finalmente se describe un plan de expansion de la red de transmision del sistema electrico mexicano.

  17. Estimated losses of energy in a power system using a semi-statistical methodology; Estimacion de perdidas de energia en un sistema electrico de potencia mediante una metodologia semi-estadistica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Martinez, D [Centro Universitario UAEM, Valle de Teotihuacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: david_2mtz@hotmail.com; Martinez Lendech, J.F [Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores del Oriente del Estado de Hidalgo (Mexico)]. E-mail: mrtzlendech@hotmail.com; Garcia Herrera, C; Olvera Ricano, J.G. [Centro Universitario UAEM, Valle de Teotihuacan (Mexico)]. E-mails: cozobi_garcia@yahoo.com.mx; jgolverar@uaemex.mx

    2013-03-15

    Determination of electrical losses is one of the most important tasks for any enterprise dedicated to generation, transmission, transformation and/or distribution of electric energy. Any enterprise dedicated to these activities does continuously energy balances in order to estimate whole electrical losses of specific processes. However, it is necessary to classify the whole electrical losses into technical and non-technical losses. This paper presents a proposal for estimating technical and non-technical losses in an electrical power system. [Spanish] La determinacion de las perdidas de energia electrica es una de las labores mas importantes en cualquier empresa dedicada a la generacion, transmision, transformacion y/o distribucion de energia electrica. Es indudable que toda empresa dedicada a cualquiera de las actividades mencionadas anteriormente realiza periodicamente balances de energia que permiten estimar el valor de las perdidas totales de energia del proceso considerado. No obstante, para poder realizar un mejor analisis de la problematica de las perdidas de energia, es necesario separar el valor total de perdidas obtenido mediante un balance de energia, en perdidas tecnicas y perdidas no tecnicas. El presente trabajo presenta una propuesta para la estimacion de perdidas tecnicas y no tecnicas en un sistema electrico de potencia.

  18. Long term vision on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico: Solar energy. Second Part: Technologies for the advantage of the solar energy (Annexe 6-II in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Vision a largo plazo sobre la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico: Energia solar. Segunda Parte: Tecnologias para el aprovechamiento de la energia solar (Anexo 6-II en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Gasca, Claudio A; Arancibia Bulnes, Camilo A; Dorantes Rodriguez, Ruben; Islas Samperio, Jorge; Muhlia Velasquez, Agustin [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    Usually one distinguishes two main types of systems of advantage of the solar energy: the photovoltaic and the photo thermal ones. The first ones are those based on the photovoltaic effect, which allows the direct conversion of the energy of the solar radiation in electrical energy. The second ones transform the solar energy into heat, which can be used in a large variety of processes. By the degree of development of both technologies it is advisable to present them in different sections. Also, there is a great variety of technologies of photo thermal systems that we have classified as technologies for the termosolar generation of electrical power, whose temperatures of operation are high, technologies the solar heating at low temperatures and technologies for industrial heat process. [Spanish] Se suele distinguir dos tipos principales de sistemas de aprovechamiento de la energia solar: los fotovoltaicos y los fototermicos. Los primeros son aquellos basados en el efecto fotovoltaico, que permite la conversion directa de la energia de la radiacion solar en energia electrica. Los segundos transforman la energia solar en calor, el cual puede ser utilizado en una gran variedad de procesos. Por el grado de desarrollo de ambas tecnologias es conveniente presentarlas en secciones diferentes. Asi mismo, existe una gran variedad de tecnologias de sistemas fototermicos que hemos clasificado en tecnologias para la generacion termosolar de potencia electrica, cuyas temperaturas de operacion son altas, tecnologias para el calentamiento solar a bajas temperaturas y tecnologias para calor de proceso industrial.

  19. INFRAESTRUCTURA DE COMUNICACIONES EN MICRORREDES ELECTRICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Eduardo Gaona García

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo muestra un estudio de la actualidad técnica y tecnológica de la infraestructura de comunicaciones utilizadas en  microrredes eléctricas, en este sentido ha surgido la necesidad de investigar, analizar, mejorar y desarrollar métodos de comunicación tanto alámbricos como inalámbricos que permitan crear una infraestructura de comunicaciones que soporte las características de control, supervisión y trasmisión de información entre dispositivos de control en una microrred de forma eficiente, segura y confiable.Dadas estas características en el artículo se analizan  las diferentes arquitecturas y topologías propuestas entorno a comunicaciones en el ambiente Smart Grid que se puedan adaptar a la forma en que opera una microrred. Se muestran las propuestas  y desarrollos realizados en el  área de telecomunicaciones concerniente a protocolos de comunicaciones utilizados en microrredes eléctricas, con el fin de conocer las tecnologías, protocolos y algoritmos utilizados en la transmisión de datos.

  20. The use of absorption refrigeration systems in combined cycle power plants; Empleo de sistemas de refrigeracion por absorcion en plantas de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes, H.; Ambriz, J.J.; Vargas, M.; Godinez, M.; Gomez, F.; Valdez, L.; Pantoja, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    Day after day the electric power generation tends to be done in the most efficient way in order to diminish the generation costs and the rate of environmental pollution per KWh generated. This paper discusses the application of absorption refrigeration systems for the cooling of the air entering the compressor of a gas turbine in a combined cycle, in order to increase the mass air flow and with it the turbine output. The flows with remanent energy content that are not used in a combined cycle can be used for the operation of the absorption refrigeration system. This way, the required thermal energy for the cooling system is free. With this system it is possible to raise the gas turbine generation output from 5% to 25%. [Espanol] La generacion electrica dia con dia pretende realizarse de la manera mas eficiente posible con el objeto de disminuir los costos de generacion y la tasa de contaminacion ambiental por Kwh generado. En el presente trabajo se introduce la aplicacion de sistemas de refrigeracion por absorcion para el enfriamiento del aire de entrada al compresor de la turbina de gas de un ciclo combinado, con el objeto de aumentar el flujo masico del aire y con ello la potencia de salida de la turbina. Las corrientes con contenido remanente de energia termica que no se usan en una planta de ciclo combinado pueden servir para operar el sistema de refrigeracion por absorcion. De esta manera, la energia termica requerida para el sistema de enfriamiento es gratuita. Con este sistema es posible incrementar la potencia de generacion de la turbina de gas de 5 a 25%.

  1. Capillary systems integrated in solar collectors : an alternative in the direct steam generation with parabolic trough receivers; Sistemas capilares inegrados en receptores solares: una alternativa en la generacion directa de vapor con colectores clindro parabolicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, M. E.; Andres, M. C. de

    2004-07-01

    It is presented the experimental study with parabolic trough receiver samples with capillary systems integrated on their inner surfaces. These capillary systems intend to avoid that, under stratified two-phase flow and with an external applied heat flux, thermal gradients appear by increasing the wetted internal surface. The working fluid is water, operation temperatures go from 100 degree Celsius up to 250 degree Celsius and the external heat fluxes up to 12000W/m. Results show that the adequate election of the capillary system can increase the liquid-pipe wall contact area, wetting even completely the internal surface of the pipe. As degradation of capillary systems can be produced, they will have to be carefully chosen to guarantee their durability with time under real conditions. (Author)

  2. Efficiency of the generation of impulsion by cyclotron waves currents of the electrons in an Axisymmetric Tokamak; Eficiencia de la generacion de corrientes de impulsion por ondas ciclotronicas de los electrones en un Tokamak axisimetrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Beltran P, M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The neoclassical theory of transport is used to calculate the current efficiency of electronic cyclotron impulsion (ECCD) in an axisymmetric tokamak in the few collisions regime. The standard parameter of the tokamak is used to obtain a system of equations that describe the hydrodynamic of the plasma, where the ponderomotive force (PM) due to high power radio frequency waves is taken in account. The PM force is produced in the proximity of electron cyclotron resonance surface in a specific poloidal localization. The efficiency ECCD is analyzed in the cases of first and second harmonic (for different angles of injection of radio frequency waves) and it is validated using the experimental values of the TCV and T-10 tokamaks. The results are according to those obtained by means of the techniques of the Green functions. (Author)

  3. Leveled cost of the generation in a power station of combined cycle with integrated gas producer (CCGI); Costo nivelado de la generacion en una central de ciclo combinado con gasificador integrado (CCGI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiriart Le Bert, Gerardo [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), (Mexico); Beltran Mora, Hector [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    A brief description of a combined cycle power station that uses synthesis gas, better known as CCGI, is presented. The costs of the initial investment of several plants of this type, that have been described in literature, are analyzed and the predictions that different experts do on the costs that are expected in the near future are reviewed. Also the maintenance expenses that would be expected during the normal operation and the main maintenance are examined. The availability factors that reasonably must be considered based on the recent experiences are analyzed. Afterwards the sense which that the plant factor has in one of natural gas and one of synthesis, where generally are used as base plant. The costs of the different fuels that can be used in a CCGI are examined. Finally the leveled cost of the energy for both cases is calculated and the sensitivity of both to the cost of the respective fuels is examined. The result is presented in graphical form to show in a first attempt, the circumstances under which one or another technology could be preferable. It is made clear that the data used in this brief study are the best reasoned estimation and in no way they must be considered as definitive, in special in those of investment and maintenance of the CCGI where the operation history is still short. [Spanish] Se presenta una breve descripcion de una Central de Ciclo Combinado que utiliza Gas de Sintesis o mejor conocidas como CCGI. Se analizan los costos de la inversion inicial de varias plantas de este tipo que han sido descritas en la literatura y se resenan las predicciones que hacen diferentes expertos sobre los costos que se esperan para el futuro cercano. Tambien se examinan los gastos de mantenimiento que se esperarian durante la operacion normal y durante los mantenimientos mayores. Se analizan los factores de disponibilidad que razonablemente deben considerarse, basados en las experiencias recientes. Luego se discute el sentido que tiene el factor de planta en una de gas natural y una de sintesis, donde por lo general son usadas como planta de base. Se examinan los costos de los diferentes combustibles que se pueden usar en una CCGI. Finalmente se calcula el costo nivelado de la energia para ambos casos y se examina la sensibilidad de ambos al precio de los respectivos combustibles. El resultado se presenta en forma grafica para mostrar en un primer intento, las circunstancias bajo las cuales podria ser preferible una u otra tecnologia. Se deja claro que los datos utilizados en este breve estudio son la mejor estimacion razonada y de ninguna manera deben considerarse como definitivos, en especial los de inversion y mantenimiento de las CCGI donde la historia de operacion es todavia corta.

  4. Tradición religiosa y juventud evangélica chilena – 1990-2008: ¿"Choque de generaciones"? = Religious tradition and Chilean Evangelical youth – 1990-2008: "conflict of generations"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fediakova, Evguenia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As igrejas evangélicas no Chile pertenciam historicamente a uma categoria religiosa marginal e discriminada pela cultura católica dominante. Sentindo-se repudiados pela sociedade, os evangélicos chilenos acabaram por elaborar “a identidade de resistência”, ou seja, o repúdio às normas existentes e “exclusão dos discriminadores pelos discriminados”. No entanto, durante os últimos 20 anos, novas gerações de evangélicos estão desafiando as autoridades e as tradicionais relações de poder de suas igrejas, elaborando novas formas de participação civil mudando a “identidade de resistência” de seus pais para a “identidade de projeto”

  5. Application of an air quality model of second-generation to the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, Mexico; Aplicacion de un modelo de calidad del aire de segunda generacion a la zona metropolitana de Guadalajara, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, Alberto [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Campus Monterrey, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)]. E-mail: mendoza.alberto@itesm.mx; Garcia, Marisa R. [Centro de Calidad Ambiental, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Campus Monterrey, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2009-05-15

    The Guadalajara Metropolitan Area (GMA) continuously registers periods of unhealthy levels of air quality. One of the most powerful tools available to describe the dynamics of air pollutants in urban areas are three-dimensional mathematical models that describe the transportation and chemical transformation of these. In this work, we present a first application of one of such models, the California/ Carneige Institute of Technology (CIT), to the GMA. The modeling period selected goes from the 16th to the 18th of May, 2001; the modeling domain covers an area of 25,600 km{sup 2} and is centered in the GMA. The statistical model performance evaluation indicates that the CIT behaved better during the last two days of the simulation. In this period, regarding O{sub 3}, the normalized bias was less than 23.5 %, the normalized error less than 36.5 %, and the daily index of agreement was above 0.8. Further more, the model was capable of reproducing the O{sub 3} peak with an error of less than 18 %. These values, compared to established guidelines on model evaluation, indicate an acceptable performance of the model for the simulated period. However, the performance of CO was not as good, and poor with respect to SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, indicating that additional work is needed to improve the overall performance of the model. Spatially, the model tended to represent better the dynamics of pollutants in the west region of the GMA, and temporally areas of improvement were detected in the simulation of nighttime periods. [Spanish] La Zona Metropolitana de Guadalajara (ZMG) registra continuamente periodos con niveles insalubres de calidad del aire. Una de las herramientas mas poderosas para describir la dinamica de contaminantes atmosfericos en zonas urbanas son los modelos matematicos tridimensionales que describen el transporte y transformacion quimica de los mismos. En este trabajo se presenta una primera aplicacion de uno de dichos modelos, del California/Carneige Institute of Technology (CIT), a la ZMG. El periodo de modelacion seleccionado abarca del 16 al 18 de mayo de 2001, y el dominio de modelacion cubre una region de 25,600 km{sup 2} centrado en la ZMG. La evaluacion estadistica del desempeno del modelo indica que el CIT tuvo un mejor comportamiento durante los dos ultimos dias de modelacion. En este periodo, respecto al O{sub 3}, el sesgo normalizado fue menor a 23.5 %, el error normalizado menor a 36.5 % y el indice diario de ajuste superior a 0.8. Asimismo, el modelo fue capaz de reproducir el pico de O{sub 3} con un error inferior al 18 %. Estos valores, comparados con guias establecidas de evaluacion de modelos de calidad del aire, indican un desempeno aceptable del modelo para el periodo simulado. No obstante, el desempeno respecto al CO fue regular, mientras que respecto al SO{sub 2} y NO{sub x} fue pobre, indicando que se requiere trabajo adicional para mejorar el desempeno general del modelo. Espacialmente, el modelo tiende a representar mejor la dinamica de contaminantes en la zona occidente de la ZMG, y temporalmente se apreciaron areas de mejora en la modelacion durante los periodos nocturnos.

  6. Temperature of optimum generation in facilities of solar cold making use of the equation characteristic; Temperatura de generacion optima en instalaciones de frio solar haciendo uso de la ecuacion caracteristica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leucona, A.; Ventas, R.; Venegas, M. del C.; Zacarias, A.; Salgado, R.

    2008-07-01

    Absorption machines show a similar response as a function of the external temperatures, which can be approximated by a single functional dependence of the named characteristic temperature. This equation and the normalization curve of the solar thermal collector field driving the chiller and some more approximations allow determining the driving temperature that maximizes the cooling power at any time. This results in a simple equation. It is offered for the design of solar cooling facilities and their control algorithms. Some results are offered and discussed. (Author)

  7. Study of a fuel assembly for the nuclear reactor of IV generation cooled with supercritical water; Estudio de un ensamble de combustible para el reactor nuclear de generacion IV enfriado con agua supercritica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan M, A.; Martin del Campo M, C.; Francois L, J. L. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Espinosa P, G., E-mail: albrm29@yahoo.com [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (MX)

    2011-11-15

    In this work a neutron study is presented about a square assembly design of double line of fuel rods, with moderator box to the center of the arrangement, for a nuclear reactor cooled with supercritical water (SCWR). The SCWR reactor was chosen by the characteristics of its design, mainly because is based in light water reactors (PWR and BWR), and the operational experience that has of them allow to use models and similar programs to simulate the fuel and the nucleus of this type of reactors. To develop the necessary models and to carry out the design and analysis of the SCWR reactor, the neutron codes MCNPX and Helios were used. The reason of using both codes, is because the code MCNPX used thoroughly in the neutron simulation of these reactors, it has been our reference code to analyze the results obtained with the Helios code which results are more efficient because its calculation times are minors. In the nucleus design the same parameters for both codes were considered. The results show that the design with Helios is a viable option to simulate these reactors since their values of the neutrons multiplication factor are very similar to those obtained with MCNPX. On the other hand, it could be corroborated that the CASMO-4 code is inadequate to simulate the fuel to the temperature conditions and water pressure in the SCWR. (Author)

  8. Generacion de Nuevas Capacidades en el Ejercito de Guatemala para el Combate al Trafico de Drogas y Delitos Conexos (Generating New Capacities within the Guatemalan Army in Order to Combat Drug Trafficking and Related Crimes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    Secretaría de la Defensa Nacional de México SEMAR Secretaría de Marina de México SENAFRONT Servicio Nacional de Fronteras de Panamá SICA Sistema de...motivos que lo originaron, (pobreza, falta de acceso a la educación, a servicios de salud , desempleo) continuaron en el país. Finalizada la amenaza...realidad nos indica que estamos ante una batalla por los canales de trasiego y el mercado local de las drogas y el narcotráfico en la cual el “efecto

  9. Asymptotic energies and sustainable electrical development; Energias asintoticas y desarrollo electrico sustentable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez O, Carlos [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    A review is made of the energy resources in use existing at the moment for the electricity production (hydraulic, coal, oil, gas and uranium). The asymptotic energies (solar, geothermal and nuclear fission and fusion) are described and the state of development in which they are up to the moment. One concludes that in the case of Mexico it would be convenient to make flexible and to reinforce the electrical systems in forecast of a greater participation of the distributed generation and to orient the extensions of the electrical generation to make a greater use of the three asymptotic energies already used: the solar (in its forms hydraulic and wind power), geothermal and the nuclear fission. [Spanish] Se pasa revista a los recursos existentes en las energias actualmente en uso para la produccion de electricidad (hidraulica, carbon, petroleo, gas y uranio). Se describen las energias asintoticas (solar, geotermia y fision y fusion nucleares) y el estado de desarrollo en que se encuentran hasta el momento. Se concluye que en el caso de Mexico convendria flexibilizar y reforzar el sistema electrico en prevision de una mayor participacion de la generacion distribuida y orientar las ampliaciones de la generacion electrica para hacer un mayor uso de tres de las energias asintoticas ya utilizadas: la solar (en sus formas hidraulica y eolica), la geotermia y la fision nuclear.

  10. Cambios con relación a las prácticas de crianza en tres generaciones de un grupo familiar en el barrio Alcalá de Envigado, durante los años 1981-2011: estudio de un caso intergeneracional

    OpenAIRE

    Henao Pérez, Yolima

    2012-01-01

    Ubicación en Biblioteca USB Medellín (San Benito): CD-2034t .-- Grupo de Investigación Interdisciplinario de Estudios Pedagógicos GIDEP - Línea de Investigación: Infancia En este trabajo investigativo se realiza un análisis de las pautas y prácticas de crianza realizadas en un tronco familiar compuesto por tres generaciones de una misma descendencia, que habitan el contexto del municipio de Envigado, departamento de Antioquia (Colombia), en el período 1981 a 2011.es una investigación cuali...

  11. Methodology for the location of PMU for the monitoring of critical oscillations in power systems; Metodologia para la ubicacion de PMU para el monitoreo de oscilaciones criticas en sistemas electricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon Guizar, Jorge Guillermo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The deregulation and restructuring undergone by the electrical industry, as well as the tendency at world-wide level of reorganization in generation, transmission and distribution units has brought about, as a consequence, drastic changes in the operation of the electric power systems. The difficulties to construct new transmission power lines and the continuous increase in the electricity consumption are forcing more and more to operate the electric power systems every time nearer their safety limits. Nevertheless, to assure the system reliability without mattering what so plaintiff is the operating condition is a requirement that the electrical companies must satisfy. This panorama has motivated and impelled the use of new technologies for the critical indicators the monitoring that allow the electrical companies to guarantee the system safe operation. In this paper a methodology for the location of Fasorial Measurement Units, better known as FMU for the monitoring of the critical oscillation modes in the electric power systems is presented. [Spanish] La desregulacion y reestructuracion experimentada por la industria electrica, asi como la tendencia a nivel mundial de reorganizacion en unidades de generacion, transmision y distribucion ha traido como consecuencia cambios drasticos en la operacion de los sistemas electricos de potencia. Las dificultades para construir nuevas lineas de transmision y el incremento continuo en el consumo de electricidad estan forzando a operar el sistema electrico de potencia cada vez mas cerca de sus limites de seguridad. Sin embargo, asegurar la confiabilidad del sistema sin importar que tan demandante sea la condicion de operacion es un requisito que las companias electricas deben satisfacer. Este panorama ha motivado e impulsado el uso de nuevas tecnologias para el monitoreo de indicadores criticos que permitan a las companias electricas garantizar una operacion segura del sistema. En este trabajo se presenta una metodologia para

  12. Advantages and disadvantages in the use of a variable system velocity-motor; Ventajas y desventajas en el uso de un sistema variador de velocidad-motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez Perez, J. [Baldor de Mexico (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    At present every time is more costly to generate the electric power utilized in all of the aspects of our society. The energy savings by means of a variable velocity device is focussed to the industrial sector, where the electric motor consumes a significant part of the total electricity utilized. The electric power suffers losses right from its generation stage, then through the transmission stage by means of the distribution networks and its conversion into mechanical energy. From these losses the more important ones are the first and the last stage, therefore the end users have a great savings potential by optimizing their electric power consumption. Evidently, the use of variable velocity devices in A.C. (also known as inverters o frequency variators) as well as in D.C. or rectifiers, have disadvantages, such as the generation of harmonics and noise on the power transmission lines inside the factory as well as in the city power lines. This paper discusses the savings that can be obtained by he use of these devices and how to counteract their disadvantages. [Espanol] En la actualidad es cada vez mas costoso producir la energia electrica que se utiliza en todos los aspectos de nuestra sociedad. El enfoque de ahorro de energia usando un variador de velocidad para motores, sera el sector industrial, donde los motores electricos constituyen una parte importante del consumo de electricidad. La energia electrica sufre perdidas desde su etapa de generacion, en su etapa de transmision por medio de redes de distribucion y en su transformacion a energia mecanica. De estas perdidas, las mas cuantiosas son la primera y la ultima etapa, por lo que los usuarios finales tienen un gran potencial de ahorro si optimizan su consumo de energia electrica. Por supuesto que el uso de variadores de velocidad tanto de C.A. (tambien conocidos como inversores o variadores de frecuencia), como de C.D. o rectificadores, tiene algunas desventajas, tal es el caso de la generacion de armonicas

  13. Comision Federal de Electricdad (CFE)`s corporate pilot data store; Desarrollo piloto del almacen de datos corporativos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Sustaeta, Jorge; Rodriguez Ortiz, Guillermo; Jacome Grajales, Norma Elena; Perez Ramirez, Miguel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The objective of a data store is to permit the access to organizational or corporate data, to offer congruent data, to permit the separation or combination of data from the enterprise`s different points of view, to supply tools for interrogating, to analyze and present information quickly and to feed the re-engineering criteria of the enterprise. In this paper a project is described with two main objectives: first, to develop a pilot version of the corporate data store, considering data coming from diverse operational systems in the electric generation process, such as: SISTERMO (managing indexes of thermoelectric power generation), SISHIDRO (managing indexes for hydroelectric generation) and CB (fuel costs); and second, train its personnel in the development of methodologies and techniques of data storing, in order to prepare them to achieve the project with their own resources [Espanol] Los objetivos de un almacen de datos son permitir el acceso a datos organizacionales o corporativos, brindar datos congruentes, permitir separar o combinar datos desde los diversos puntos de vista de la empresa, proporcionar herramientas para interrogar, analizar y presentar informacion agilmente y alimentar los criterios de reingenieria de la empresa. En este articulo se describe un proyecto con dos objetivos principales: primero, desarrollar una version piloto del almacen de datos corporativos, considerando datos provenientes de diversos sistemas operacionales en el proceso de generacion de energia electrica, tales como: SISTERMO (indices de gestion de generacion termoelectrica), SISHIDRO (indices de gestion de generacion hidroelectrica) y CB (costos de combustible); y segundo, capacitar a su personal en las metodologias y tecnicas de desarrollo de almacenes de datos, con el fin de prepararlos para la consecucion del proyecto con sus propios recursos

  14. Construction and evaluation of a fuel cell prototype (proton exchange fuel cell); Construccion y evaluacion de un prototipo de celda a combustible (proton exchange fuel cell)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, L. [Laboratorio de Pesquisa em Energia - LAPEN, Universidade do Vale do Itajai, São Jose, SC (Brasil)] e-mail: luciano.silva@univali.br; Paula, M.M.S.; Fiori, M [Lasicom, Universidade do Extremos Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, S.C. (Brasil); Benavides, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada (CIQA), Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico); Santos, V. [Laboratorio de Pesquisa em Energia - LAPEN, Universidade do Vale do Itajai, São Jose, SC (Brasil)

    2009-09-15

    Because electric energy is a vitally important material for the development of the country, this work is aimed at offering an alternative methodology for the construction and operational demonstration of a PEMFC fuel cell. Recently discovered natural gas reserves can be exploited using modern methods and its use fulfills generation, distribution and low environmental impact priorities. All these factors can be observed with the use of fuel cells, especially when working with reformed natural gas. In addition to its low environmental impact during the generation of this energy, the use of fuel cells reflects a generator source that can be located with the consumer, further reducing problems created by transmission lines, fuel transport, etc. Fuel cells are receiving a great deal of attention from the international community and some models are already commercially available. They are showing excellent possibilities for becoming one of the future technologies to generate electric energy with low environmental impact. [Spanish] En funcion de la necesidad de energia electrica como insumo de vital importancia para el desarrollo del pais, este trabajo pretende ofrecer una metodologia alternativa para la construccion y demostracion operacional de una celda a combustible del tipo PEMFC. La explotacion de las reservas de gas natural descubiertas recientemente puede realizarse a traves de metodos modernos y su uso tiene las prioridades de generacion, distribucion y bajo impacto ambiental. Todos estos aspectos se pueden observar dentro del uso de celdas a combustible, especialmente cuando se trabaja con gas natural reformado. Ademas del factor de bajo impacto ambiental durante la misma generacion de energia, el uso de las celdas a combustible involucra una fuente generadora, que puede colocarse junto al consumidor, reduciendo aun mas los problemas generados por las lineas de transmision, el transporte del combustible, etc. Las celdas a combustible estan recibiendo una gran

  15. Transient and steady state analysis in the frequency domain for time-invariant and time variant electrical networks using the algebraic operational matrices approach; Analisis transitorio y de estado estable en el dominio de la frecuencia de redes electricas invariantes y variantes en el tiempo utilizando el enfoque algebraico de las matrices operacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro Castillo, Isidro Ignacio

    1999-02-01

    In this work, the problem of predicting waveform distortion is addressed in a more general form. The problem is presented in such a way that the solution process is not restricted to be held in the Fourier's domain but it can be worked out in any domain generated by any basis given by all the know orthogonal series expansions, Fourier series included. In this work, it is shown that orthogonal series such as Hartley series or Walsh series can be more efficiently used for solving harmonic distortion problems than the conventional form considered in the harmonic domain. It is clear from this work that the harmonic domain is indeed a particular case of the formulation presented here. The theory used for presenting and solving the harmonic distortion problem is based mainly on the concept of the operational matrices developed in the areas of Control and Systems. The approach has the advantage of providing a general framework for solving steady state and dynamic problems in electric networks and systems in general. An important fact presented in this thesis is that for both cases, steady state and dynamic analysis, an analytical solution can be provide. Power systems are operated to have periodic operating points with the quality required by the demand. In general, electrical networks include some on-linear devices. However, the analysis of non-linear networks as such is difficult specially when the analysis is required in the frequency domain. To make the problem tractable, it is generally accepted that it can be linearized about an operating point. It is shown that linearizing networks excited by periodic sources produce linear time varying systems. Unfortunately, the analysis of networks with time varying components is more complicated than the analysis of networks with constant elements. The solution of differential equations in the time domain leads to a considerable numerical effort. Usually, the practical network engineer is interested in getting qualitative

  16. Políticas públicas de juventud en América Latina: de la construcción de espacios específicos, al desarrollo de una perspectiva generacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Rodríguez

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available El artículo revisa esquemáticamente las principales nociones teóricas utilizadas en la investigación comparada sobre el tema y analiza las experiencias desplegadas durante los años noventa en América Latina en el terreno de las políticas públicas de juventud, distinguiendo las explícitas (implementadas por instituciones especializadas en el tema y las implícitas (implementadas por instituciones no especializadas en el tema. En términos metodológicos, la evaluación distingue tres planos diferentes: la evaluación programática, la evaluación institucional y el uso de recursos (análisis del gasto público en juventud. Sustantivamente, el autor concluye que los impactos logrados hasta el momento han sido marginales (no se ha logrado mejorar las condiciones de vida de los jóvenes ni su participación en la sociedad y ello ha ocurrido por las limitaciones de las propias estrategias vigentes (sectoriales, universales, centralizadas, burocráticas, paternalistas, etc. Seguidamente, propone un enfoque alternativo al vigente, construido sobre la base de un análisis comparado sobre los enfoques promocionales vigentes en el trabajo con jóvenes, con mujeres y con niños. El eje de las propuestas está centrado en la necesidad de superar los clásicos esfuerzos por construir espacios específicos para la juventud (enfoque que ha contribuido a reforzar el aislamiento social de los jóvenes y de trabajar en la incorporación de un enfoque generacional al conjunto de las políticas públicas (emulando el trabajo de las mujeres centrado en la incorporación de la perspectiva de género. Sustantivamente, el autor propone invertir más y mejor en educación y salud (como claves para el desarrollo de capital humano y capital social, en la inserción laboral (como clave de la integración social de los jóvenes, en la prevención de la violencia (como clave de la convivencia pacífica y en la participación ciudadana (como clave del fortalecimiento

  17. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  18. Images generated by ultra-sound; Imagenes generadas por ultrasonido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godinez, Valery Francisco; Marcial, Miguel Angel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-01-01

    In this paper are presented the results of a study carried out in order to establish a non-destructive ultrasonic technique for the evaluation of the adherence condition of solid-to-solid interfaces. An important application of this technique is the non-destructive inspection of welds of copper canes of the windings of a generator stator of a hydroelectric power station. The development of the inspection technique required the analysis of ultrasonic images of welds in two cane samples; these images were generated through an ultrasonic scanner type C (C-scan) using a system integrated in the Non-Destructive Testing Laboratory of the Combustion Systems Unit of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). The analysis allowed the establishment of the adequate configuration of the equipment to be used in the on site inspection, its calibration procedures and the acceptance/rejection criteria of the welds to be examined. Likewise, the correlation among the values of the ultrasonic reflection coefficients measured in the welds and the theoretical values predicted for the adherence in the solid-to-solid interface for a simple model of imperfect interface, is presented. These results are a first step in the quantitative characterization of solid-to-solid joints, that together with future developments might have a technological impact in the determination of the condition of welds by friction, welds with the contribution of melted metal and the adherence degree of coatings on structures exposed to conditions leading to corrosion. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de un estudio realizado con la finalidad de establecer una tecnica ultrasonica no destructiva para evaluar el estado de adherencia de interfaces solido-solido. Una aplicacion importante de dicha tecnica es la inspeccion no destructiva de las soldaduras de bastones de cobre de los embobinados del estator de un generador de una central hidroelectrica. El desarrollo de la tecnica de

  19. Computational package for the dynamic analysis of synchronous generators and their controls; Paquete computacional para el analisis de generadores sincronos y sus controles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Guillen, Jesus Artemio

    1997-12-31

    This thesis presents a computational package for the dynamic analysis of synchronous generators and their controls in a machine - infinite bus system. The package is integrated by a graphic interface for Windows environment and several models for the different components of the generation system. The development of the graphic interface was carried out with object oriented programming under Windows environment, available from Borland C++, which generates a group of menus that integrates an environment of interactive and versatile simulation. The package contains mathematical models of third, fourth, fifth and sixth order for synchronous generators of round and salient poles. Several mathematical models for the excitation systems DC1A, AC1A and ST1A, according to the IEEE classification, are included. Models for thermal and hydraulic turbines with governor of speed are also included, as well as a mathematical model for the power system stabilizer and magnetic saturation on synchronous generators. Numerical methods like Euler, Modified Euler and Runge Kutta of second and fourth order are used to solve the characteristics differential equations of the system under study. Algorithms for graphic generation includes phasor diagram, capability and saturation curves for synchronous machine. Computer models are validated and sensitivity analysis is carried out in order to assess the ef ect of type of model for synchronous machine, excitation systems, power system stabilizer, magnetic saturation in the synchronous generator and different numerical methods of integration. The computational package is useful in teaching and research on the dynamic response of synchronous machines and their controls. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de un paquete computacional para el analisis dinamico de generadores sincronos y sus controles en el esquema de una unidad de generacion - bus infinito. El paquete esta integrado por una interfaz grafica para ambiente Windows y un

  20. Generational diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions.

  1. GENERACION Y MODIFICACION DE CORRELACIONES CUANTICAS

    OpenAIRE

    JARA FIGUEROA, CRISTIAN IGNACIO

    2013-01-01

    El concepto de información parece trivial, pero los recientes avances nos indican que tiene mucha más relevancia física de la que pensamos en primera aproximación. La información es física ya que no existe información sin representación y dependiendo de la naturaleza del sistema físico que usemos para codificarla, podemos manipularla y procesarla de manera distinta. Son de particular interés los fenómenos que aparecen cuando el sistema en que se almacena la información es un sistema de ...

  2. Cogeneration in a plywood factory; Sistema de cogeneracion en una planta maderera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelazo Hernandez, Arturo; Mendoza Arcaraz, Alfonso [Ultra Energia, S. A. de C. V. Naucalpan (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    back-pressure steam turbine. The back-pressure steam turbine exhaust will be used to heat up the thermal oil through a steam-thermal oil heat exchanger. [Espanol] La Cogeneracion, que es la produccion conjunta de dos manifestaciones de energia a partir de una misma fuente energetica, se presenta como una de las alternativas mas viables para lograr el aprovechamiento optimo de los recursos energeticos finitos. En las ultimas decadas en que el crecimiento economico de Mexico ha estado ligado a la generacion y suministro de energia electrica, el Estado ha fungido como organizador y director del sistema nacional de generacion electrica, sin embargo la intervencion de los particulares ha sido determinante. Debemos tomar en cuenta que para cubrir las necesidades futuras de electricidad del desarrollo nacional, se requeriran aproximadamente 17 mil MW adicionales, para lo cual la iniciativa privada, entre las que podemos destacar a la pequena y mediana industria, tendra despejado el camino para producirlos, aprovechando los cambios en la Ley y el Reglamento del Servicio Publico de Energia Electrica, publicados en el Diario Oficial de la Federacion los dias 23 de diciembre de 1992 y 31 de mayo de 1993 respectivamente. Al contar con un sistema de cogeneracion optimizado, el importe economico anual de la empresa maderera por concepto de energia (electricidad y combustible) se reducira sustancialmente. La empresa maderera requiere la instalacion de un sistema de cogeneracion que suministre 4.75 MWe y 1,861 KWt (1.6 Gcal/hr). La energia electrica se utilizara en la fabricacion de TABLONES DE NOVOPAN y la energia termica para calentar aceite que se utiliza en la presa de madera y en la preparacion de la emulsion utilizada en el proceso. Para satisfacer los requerimientos energeticos se han analizado 2 alternativas: 1. Generacion de energia electrica con un motor de combustion interna que utilice combustoleo como combustible, aprovechandose los gases de escape del motor para pre

  3. Instant Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Elaina

    2017-01-01

    Generation Z students (born between 1995-2010) have replaced millennials on college campuses. Generation Z students are entrepreneurial, desire practical skills with their education, and are concerned about the cost of college. This article presents what need to be known about this new generation of students.

  4. Control system modernization of a turbo-gas unit of CFE in the Comarca Lagunera; Modernizacion del sistema de control de una unidad turbogas de la CFE en la Comarca Lagunera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez P, Marino; De Lara J, Salvador; Hernandez Muniz, Alfredo [Industria SIGRAMA, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Garcia Cabello, Raymundo [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    At the present time, the turbo-gas units (TGU) make an important contribution in the development and growth of the national power sector, since this type of units pertaining to the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) contributes with the 6.23% of the national production, that is to say, 2600 MW approx. The turbo-gas units are aero-derivative gas turbines used for power generation, pumping and compression. Generally, they are used to support urgent requests in the demand of electricity or, for the permanent supply of electrical energy in isolated zones. In addition, they are used to quickly get into and get out of operation, which requires high availability, trustworthiness and flexibility. In this sense, and with the intention of improving the operation of the TGUs, the Gerencia de Control e Instrumentation (GCI) (Management of Control and Instrumentation) of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), has developed a control technology for this type of units, able to replace the original control systems of units with even 30 years of continuous operation or to be installed in new units. [Spanish] En la actualidad, las unidades de turbogas (UTG) tienen una importante contribucion en el desarrollo y crecimiento del sector energetico nacional, pues este tipo de unidades pertenecientes a la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) aportan el 6.23% de la produccion nacional, es decir, 2600 MW aproximadamente. Las unidades turbogas son turbinas de gas aeroderivativas empleadas para la generacion electrica, bombeo y compresion. Por lo general, son utilizadas para apoyar solicitudes urgentes en la demanda de electricidad o bien, para el suministro permanente de energia electrica en zonas aisladas. Ademas, se usan para entrar y salir rapidamente en operacion, lo que requiere alta disponibilidad, confiabilidad y flexibilidad. En este sentido, y con la intencion de mejorar las UTG, la Gerencia de Control e Instrumentacion (GCI) del Instituto de Investigaciones

  5. Educación, heterogeneidad cultural e integración de las nuevas generaciones en un contexto global. El aporte de las tecnologías de la información y comunicación (TIC) para la transformación educativa en América Latina

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Aparicio, Pablo; Silva Menoni, María del Carmen

    2008-01-01

    El movimiento de reformas educativas en América Latina derivó en nuevosdesafíos sociales. Frente a la escasa capacidad de resolución de los problemas de inclusión e integración de las nuevas generaciones a la vida ciudadana, se plantea aquí la necesidad de espacios alternativos de expresión y participación juvenil. En este sentido, las nuevas tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC) abren nuevas posibilidades para la formación democrática de los más jóvenes.Estas tecnologías, más...

  6. Wind Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  7. Rainfall generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashish; Mehrotra, Raj

    This chapter presents an overview of methods for stochastic generation of rainfall at annual to subdaily time scales, at single- to multiple-point locations, and in a changing climatic regime. Stochastic rainfall generators are used to provide inputs for risk assessment of natural or engineering systems that can undergo failure under sustained (high or low) extremes. As a result, generation of rainfall has evolved to provide options that adequately represent such conditions, leading to sequences that exhibit low-frequency variability of a nature similar to the observed rainfall. The chapter consists of three key sections: the first two outlining approaches for rainfall generation using endogenous predictor variables and the third highlighting approaches for generation using exogenous predictors often simulated to represent future climatic conditions. The first section presents approaches for generation of annual and seasonal rainfall and daily rainfall, both at single-point locations and multiple sites, with an emphasis on alternatives that ensure appropriate representation of low-frequency variability in the generated rainfall sequences. The second section highlights advancements in the subdaily rainfall generation procedures including commonly used approaches for daily to subdaily rainfall generation. The final section (generation using exogenous predictors) presents a range of alternatives for stochastic downscaling of rainfall for climate change impact assessments of natural and engineering systems. We conclude the chapter by outlining some of the key challenges that remain to be addressed, especially in generation under climate change conditions, with an emphasis on the importance of incorporating uncertainty present in both measurements and models, in the rainfall sequences that are generated.

  8. Generative Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagha, Karim Nazari

    2011-01-01

    Generative semantics is (or perhaps was) a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of…

  9. Report Generator

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Download data from HP Quality Center using of OTA Client. Implementation must be scalable to all projects under test. That is, it will be possible to generate automatically test reports at least for 2010, Modulaser and Gen2 (FW or SW). Report Generator is a software implemented in VBA that allows get data from HP Quality Center for export it (either tables, charts or text) to a document in Word format. Report Generator es un Software implementado en VBA que permite extraer datos de HP Q...

  10. Formation of sulphation deposits in cables in the electricity generation plant of Los Humeros geothermal field, Mexico; Sulfatacion de cables en la central geotermoelectrica Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergara Rangel, Agustin [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Perote, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    In the construction of a central electrical generation plant using geothermal fluids, high quality standards are applied in all aspects of engineering. Los Humeros generation units were installed through trenches, ducts and trays according to norms for cables of control, force and power, specifically in point to point cables and connections. Performance of the power plant has been affected by electric momentary and sequence flaws due to problems of cable sulfating, which were solved by tinning the conductors. [Spanish] En la construccion de centrales generadoras de electricidad con fluidos geotermicos se aplican criterios de calidad de diseno en todos los aspectos de la ingenieria. En Los Humeros Puebla, se realizo la instalacion conforme a normas de cables de control, fuerza y potencia a traves de trincheras, ductos y charolas y especificamente en el cableado asi como en las conexiones de punta a punta. Todos estos aspectos son referidos a planos de los componentes y equipos electricos existentes en una central. Al paso del tiempo existieron fallas electricas momentaneas y secuenciales por el problema de sulfatacion en cables, los cuales fueron resueltos con el estanado de conductores.

  11. Diagnosis of the local thermal equilibrium by optical emission spectroscopy in the evolution of electric discharge; Diagnostico del equilibrio termico local por espectroscopia optica de emision en la evolucion de una descarga electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdivia B, R.; Pacheco S, J.; Pacheco P, M.; Ramos F, F.; Cruz A, A. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Velazquez P, S. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Instituto Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho la Virgen, Metepec 52140, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    In this work applies the technique of optical emission spectroscopy to diagnose the temperature of the species generated in plasma in the transition to glow discharge arc. Whit this diagnosis is possible to determine the local thermal equilibrium conditions of the discharge. (Author)

  12. Microwave generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Snell, C.M.

    1987-03-31

    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit there through effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators. 6 figs.

  13. Solar Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The Vanguard I dish-Stirling module program, initiated in 1982, produced the Vanguard I module, a commercial prototype erected by the Advanco Corporation. The module, which automatically tracks the sun, combines JPL mirrored concentrator technology, an advanced Stirling Solar II engine/generator, a low cost microprocessor-controlled parabolic dish. Vanguard I has a 28% sunlight to electricity conversion efficiency. If tests continue to prove the system effective, Advanco will construct a generating plant to sell electricity to local utilities. An agreement has also been signed with McDonnell Douglas to manufacture a similar module.

  14. Martian Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Independent, Internet savvy and with their own Martian language, China’s post-90s generation is rewriting the rules of behavior september 14 was the 18th birth-day of Zhang Zhaoyu from Sichuan Province. He is a new student at Peking University,

  15. Generative Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Dan Allen

    Educational research has identified how science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) practice and education have underperforming metrics in racial and gender diversity, despite decades of intervention. These disparities are part of the construction of a culture of science that is alienating to these populations. Recent studies in a social science framework described as "Generative Justice" have suggested that the context of social and scientific practice might be modified to bring about more just and equitable relations among the disenfranchised by circulating the value they and their non-human allies create back to them in unalienated forms. What is not known are the underlying principles of social and material space that makes a system more or less generative. I employ an autoethnographic method at four sites: a high school science class; a farm committed to "Black and Brown liberation"; a summer program geared towards youth environmental mapping; and a summer workshop for Harlem middle school students. My findings suggest that by identifying instances where material affinity, participatory voice, and creative solidarity are mutually reinforcing, it is possible to create educational contexts that generate unalienated value, and circulate it back to the producers themselves. This cycle of generation may help explain how to create systems of justice that strengthen and grow themselves through successive iterations. The problem of lack of diversity in STEM may be addressed not merely by recruiting the best and the brightest from underrepresented populations, but by changing the context of STEM education to provide tools for its own systematic restructuring.

  16. Synchronous generators

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    This work begins with an introduction to energy resources and the main electric energy conversion solutions, along with efficiency and environmental merits and demerits. The classification and principles of various electric generator topologies are covered alongside their power ratings and main applications including constant-speed synchronous gene

  17. Radiatively Generated $\

    CERN Document Server

    Joshipura, A S; Joshipura, Anjan S.; Rindani, Saurabh D.

    2003-01-01

    We study the consequences of assuming that the mass scale $\\Delta_{odot}$ corresponding to the solar neutrino oscillations and mixing angle $U_{e3}$ corresponding to the electron neutrino oscillation at CHOOZ are radiatively generated through the standard electroweak gauge interactions. All the leptonic mass matrices having zero $\\Delta_{odot}$ and $U_{e3}$ at a high scale lead to a unique low energy value for the $\\Delta_{odot}$ which is determined by the (known) size of the radiative corrections, solar and the atmospheric mixing angle and the Majorana mass of the neutrino observed in neutrinoless double beta decay. This prediction leads to the following consequences: ($i$) The MSSM radiative corrections generate only the dark side of the solar neutrino solutions. ($ii$) The inverted mass hierarchy ($m,-m,0$) at the high scale fails in generating the LMA solution but it can lead to the LOW or vacuum solutions. ($iii$) The $\\Delta_{odot}$ generated in models with maximal solar mixing at a high scale is zero t...

  18. Results of Geothermal Exploitation in Mexico During 1996; Resultados de la explotacion geotermica en Mexico en 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Negrin, Luis C. A. [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1997-01-01

    During 1996, 56.2 million tons of steam were produced, at an average annual rate of 6,416 tons per hour (t/h), to supply enough steam to operate of 26 geothermal-electric plants in three geothermal fields, which represent an installed capacity of 743 MW. To accomplish that production, 177 geothermal wells were operated at an average annual production of 36 t/h of steam. Electricity generation was 5,737 gigawatts-hour, which represent 3.8% of the whole electrical energy generated in Mexico in 1996. Production of steam and generation of electricity were increased in 1996, comparing with 1994 and 1995. However, unitary costs were practically the same between 1995 and 1996. The Comision Federal de Electricidad (Federal Commission for Electricity, or CFE) has programmed several geothermal- electric projects to increase the installed capacity in the fields under exploitation in new fields. Also, the CFE has some non electrical projects to reach an integral use of geothermics in Mexico. [Espanol] A fin de suministrar el vapor necesario para la generacion de 26 plantas geotermoelectricas instaladas en tres campos geotermicos, con una capacidad total de 743 megawatts (MW) durante 1996 se produjeron 56.2 millones de toneladas de vapor, a una tasa media anual de 6,416 toneladas por hora (t/h). Ello implico la operacion de 177 pozos productores, con una produccion de la energia electrica generada en Mexico en 1996. Tanto la produccion de vapor como la generacion de electricidad en 1996 se incrementaron con respecto a los anos precedentes de 1994 y 1995, pese a que los costos unitarios se mantuvieron practicamente constantes entre 1995 y 1996. La Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) tiene en programa varios proyectos geotermoelectricos para incrementar la capacidad instalada en los campos en explotacion y para iniciar el aprovechamiento en campos nuevos, asi como proyectos no electricos para conseguir un aprovechamiento integral de la geotermia en Mexico.

  19. Construction of an electrolytic photocell fuel cell system used to energize a cellular telephone; Construccion de un sistema fotocelda-electrolizador-celda de combustible, utilizado para energizar un telefono celular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes Quezada, Eduardo; Rodriguez-Castellanos, A.; Solorza Feria, O. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: edfq_1986@hotmail.com

    2009-09-15

    An increase in the worldwide population (roughly 6.3 billion people) has brought about a considerable increase in the demand for energy in order to meet national energy and development needs. Oil and carbon are currently the fuels that are most widely used to generate energy. Nevertheless, their extraction and transport, in addition to their combustion, produce residual pollutants, such as carbon bioxide which is released into the atmosphere and contributes to a large amount of the planet's global warming. An alternative to electric energy generation is the use of polymeric membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), which enable the use of alternative fuels such as hydrogen. This work presents the start-up of a system consisting of a photovoltage cell, an electrolyzer and a PEMFC. The photovoltage cell transforms the solar energy into electric energy which electrolyzes the water to provide hydrogen (fuel) and oxygen (combustion). An electrolyzer was designed and built and was characterized with polarization tests. The gases obtained from the electrolyzer are fed to the fuel cell designed and built in the laboratory. To apply this work, the energy produced in the fuel cell is fed to a low-power device such as the electrical charge of a mobile phone. The integration of electrochemical devices will completely revolutionize today's energy sources, which are based on oil derivatives. These integrated systems are efficient for producing electric energy without emitting gas pollutants. [Spanish] Con el crecimiento de la poblacion mundial, (cercana a 6.3 miles de millones de habitantes en el mundo), se incrementa considerablemente la demanda de energia para cubrir las necesidades energeticas propias y del desarrollo de un pais. El petroleo y el carbon son los combustibles mas empleados en la actualidad para la generacion de energia. Sin embargo, su extraccion y transporte ademas de su combustion traen como consecuencia la produccion de residuos contaminantes, como el bioxido

  20. Analysis of Methodologies for Identifying Exclusion Zones for Concentrating Solar Power (CSP); Analisis de Metodologias de Identificacion de Zonas de Exclusion para Estudios de Potencial de Energia Electrica Termosolar (CSP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, P.; Ramirez, L.; Navarro, A. A.; Polo, J.; Zarza, E.

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is the proposal of a valid and unique methodology to any territory of the potential for solar power generation, reducing subjectivity and enabling comparison of results from the examination of several existing methodologies for CSP, particularly those developed by the Institute for diversification and saving of Energy (IDAE), Greenpeace, National renewable energy laboratory (NREL) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR). Subsequently, we apply and compare the results obtained with those already installed CSP plants, giving an idea of the suitability of each methodology to locate plants in areas considered suitable. (Author)

  1. Magnetocumulative generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettibone, J.S.; Wheeler, P.C.

    1981-06-08

    An improved magnetocumulative generator is described that is useful for producing magnetic fields of very high energy content over large spatial volumes. The polar directed pleated magnetocumulative generator has a housing providing a housing chamber with an electrically conducting surface. The chamber forms a coaxial system having a small radius portion and a large radius portion. When a magnetic field is injected into the chamber, from an external source, most of the magnetic flux associated therewith positions itself in the small radius portion. The propagation of an explosive detonation through high-explosive layers disposed adjacent to the housing causes a phased closure of the chamber which sweeps most of the magnetic flux into the large radius portion of the coaxial system. The energy content of the magnetic field is greatly increased by flux stretching as well as by flux compression. The energy enhanced magnetic field is utilized within the housing chamber itself.

  2. Idea generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollestrup, Christian H. T.; Laursen, Linda Nhu

    2015-01-01

    of an idea generation whether the outset is ill defined and questioned as opposed to straightforward ideation on a proposal for a solution? The hypothesis is that an approach to ideation where ambiguity and discrepancy deliberately is sought creates more radical innovation that an approach without this...... as having new sociocultural meaning in line with Vergantis definition of radical innovation. This paper discusses the results of an experiment with 32 students on idea generation and product concept development. The experiment was setup as and A-B comparison between two set of students with the same...... different solutions when seeking ambiguity and discrepancy. Within the very limited experiment the conclusion seems to be very clear, it leads to more innovation if the designer seeks to question the framing and scope of the task. So seeking ambiguity and discrepancy in the ideation phase aligns...

  3. Photon generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni

    2002-01-01

    A photon generator includes an electron gun for emitting an electron beam, a laser for emitting a laser beam, and an interaction ring wherein the laser beam repetitively collides with the electron beam for emitting a high energy photon beam therefrom in the exemplary form of x-rays. The interaction ring is a closed loop, sized and configured for circulating the electron beam with a period substantially equal to the period of the laser beam pulses for effecting repetitive collisions.

  4. Conceptual design of a nucleo electric simulator with PBMR reactor based in Reduced order models; Diseno conceptual de un simulador de nucleo electrica con reactor PBMR basado en modelos de orden reducido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle H, J.; Morales S, J.B. [UNAM, DEPFI, Campus Morelos, en IMTA Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: jms0620@yahoo.com

    2005-07-01

    This project has as purpose to know to depth the operation of a PBMR nucleo electric type (Pebble Bed Modular Reactor), which has a reactor of moderate graphite spheres and fuel of uranium dioxide cooled with Helium and Brayton thermodynamic cycle. The simulator seeks to describe the dynamics of the one process of energy generation in the nuclear fuel, the process of transport toward the coolant one and the conversion to mechanical energy in the turbo-generators as well as in the heat exchangers indispensable for the process. The dynamics of reload of the fuel elements it is not modeled in detail but their effects are represented in the parameters of the pattern. They are modeled also the turbo-compressors of the primary circuit of the work fluid. The control of the power of the nuclear reactor is modeled by means of reactivity functions specified in the simulation platform. The proposed mathematical models will be settled in the platform of simulation of Simulink-Mat Lab. The proposed control panels for this simulator can be designed and to implement using the box of tools of Simulink that facilitates this process. The work presents the mathematical models more important used for their future implementation in Simulink. (Author)

  5. Stanwell power station project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, David R; J Dey, Christopher [University of Sidney, Sidney (Australia); Morrison, Graham L [University of New South Wales, Sidney (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector (CLFR) being developed for installation at the Stanwell power station in Queensland Australia. Stanwell Corporation Limited (SCL). Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd. And the universities of Sidney and New South Wales are cooperating in the project, and this first plant being partly funded by the Australian Greenhouse Office. The solar plant will be attached to a 1440 MW(e) coal fired plant. The 17000 m{sup 2} array will be the largest array in Australia, producing a peak of 13 MW of thermal energy which will offset the use of coal in the generation of electricity. It will use direct steam generation and will feed either steam or hot water at 265 Celsius degrees directly into the power station preheating cycle. The CLFR system, first developed by the University of Sidney and Solsearch Pty. Ltd., is simple and offers small reflector size, low structural cost, fixed receiver geometry. Initial installed plant costs are approximately US$1000 per kWe, but this includes the effect of high up-front design costs and the cost should drop substantially in the second and subsequent plants. [Spanish] Proyecto de la Planta Electrica Stanwell este articulo describe el Reflector Lineal Compacto Fresnel (CLFR, siglas en ingles) que se esta desarrollando para la instalacion de la planta electrica Stanwell en Queensland, Australia. La Corporacion Stanwell Limited (SCL), Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd., las universidades de Sidney y de New South Wales estan cooperando en este proyecto, y esta primera planta esta parcialmente auspiciada por la Australian Greenhouse Office. La planta solar sera anexa a una planta de carbon de 1440 MW(e). Este arreglo de 17000 m{sup 2} sera el mayor en Australia y producira un maximo de 13 MW en energia termica la cual contrarrestara el uso del carbon en la generacion de electricidad. Utilizara generacion con vapor directo y alimentara ya sea vapor o agua caliente a 265 grados

  6. Prototype of a control board solar tracking mechanism on a shaft; Prototipo de una tarjeta de control del mecanismo de seguimiento solar en un eje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Berumen, Carlos; Ramirez Benitez, Juan Rafael; Lopez Perez, Manuel de Jesus; Beltran Adan, Jose; Lagunas Mendoza, Javier [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    A solar concentrator prototype of Parabolic Trough (PT) for solar process heat generation has been designed, manufactured and put into operation by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas. By means of a sun tracking mechanism controlled by an automatic device, the PT is moving from East to West during the day then this way the solar energy is focused continually over the lineal receiver. Such movement is reached thanks to the electronic module fitted with special software. In this paper, the design of an electronic module based on calculation algorithm of the sun position along the day and over the year which controls the PT sun tracking is presented. The main purpose of the development is to integrate a control system which is using the algorithm of low cost (it was tested in a commercial system with success). [Spanish] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha disenado, fabricado y puesto en operacion un prototipo de concentrador solar de canal parabolico para la generacion de calor de proceso. La tecnologia termosolar a concentracion de canal parabolica mantiene el concentrador moviendose de este a oeste durante el dia, enfocando continuamente el sol en el receptor lineal, mediante un mecanismo y un control automatico que permite el seguimiento aparente del sol. Se ha desarrollado el software para el control del mecanismo de seguimiento solar. En este articulo se presenta el diseno de un modulo electronico que controla el mecanismo de seguimiento solar de un canal parabolico, el cual tiene sus bases en un algoritmo que calcula la posicion del sol durante todo el dia y a lo largo del ano. El proposito principal es integrar un sistema de control de bajo costo, que utilice el algoritmo desarrollado por el IIE, el cual fue probado con exito en un sistema comercial para el seguimiento solar de un canal parabolico.

  7. Allocation of the transmission service cost with base in marginal costs of the transmission network expansion; Asignacion del costo del servicio de transmision con base en costos marginales de expansion de la red de transmision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Casillas, Manuel E.; Nieva Gomez, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The transmission charges to the users must be completely defined in those systems where the restructuring has broken up the traditional functions of the companies; in order to introduce competition in the generation and commercialization segments of the electrical energy. The fundamentals of a method used are explained to assure the transmission service cases between their users. The method is based on the marginal expansion costs of the transmission network. Their more known applications have been in competitive markets of energy, in particular, where the energy price is the same one in all the localities. Nevertheless, it can be used under other forms of organization of the electrical industry. In order to illustrate results, the obtained ones from their application to the most important part of the transmission network of the Mexican system that operates interconnected, are presented. [Spanish] Los cargos de transmision a los usuarios deben estar completamente definidos en aquellos sistemas donde la reestructuracion ha desagregado las funciones tradicionales de las empresas; para introducir competencia en los segmentos de generacion y comercializacion de la energia electrica. Se explican los fundamentos de un metodo utilizado para asegurar los casos del servicio de transmision entre sus usuarios. El metodo se basa en los costos marginales de expansion de la red de transmision. Sus aplicaciones mas conocidas han sido en mercados competitivos de energia, en particular, donde el precio de la energia es el mismo en todas las localidades. Sin embargo, puede utilizarse bajo otras formas de organizacion de la industria electrica. Con el proposito de ilustrar resultados, se muestran los obtenidos de su aplicacion a la parte mas importante de la red de transmision del sistema mexicano que opera interconectada.

  8. Technical-economical diagnosis to schedule the maintenance shut downs of thermal power stations departing from behavior, economic engineering and thermo-economic tests; Diagnostico tecnico economico para programar las salidas a mantenimiento de centrales termicas a partir de pruebas de comportamiento, ingenieria economica y termo economia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arreguin Arredondo, Antonio

    2002-08-01

    The thesis work develops a methodology to determine when it is convenient, technically and economically to provide maintenance to a thermal electric unit and the type of maintenance to be performed, all this sustained in an economic analysis taking into account the variation of the production costs, of the interest rates, of the fuel prices and of the electric energy prices, the maintenance costs and the degradation of the unit in the time. Once analyzed the previous matters a thermo-economic test model and reference (values provided by the manufacturer) is performed and they are compared to determine in what equipment or system of the process of electric energy generation is required to focus on the material resources as well as on the human resources, in order to obtain the best results from the maintenance and recover the greatest possible efficiency of the unit. [Spanish] El trabajo de tesis desarrolla una metodologia para determinar cuando conviene, tecnica y economicamente proporcionar mantenimiento a una unidad termica y el tiempo de mantenimiento a realizar, todo esto sustentado en un analisis economico tomando en cuenta la variacion de los costos de produccion de las tasas de interes, de los precios del combustible y de la energia electrica, el costo de mantenimiento y la degradacion de la unidad en el tiempo. Una vez analizado lo anterior se realiza un modelo termoeconomico de prueba y referencia (valores proporcionados por el fabricante) y se comparan para determinar en que equipos o sistema del proceso de generacion de energia electrica se requiere enfocar tanto los recursos materiales como humanos, con el fin de obtener mejores resultados del mantenimiento y recuperar lo mayor posible la eficiencia de la unidad.

  9. Renewable energies for reduction of greenhouse gases in the Mexican electricity generation in 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islas, J; Manzini, F; Martinez, M [Centre for Energy Research, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This study presents three scenarios relating to the environmental futures of electricity generation in Mexico up to the year 2025. The first scenario emphasizes the use of oil products, particularly fuel oil, and represents the energy policy path that was in effect until 1990. The second scenario prioritizes the use of natural gas, reflecting the energy consumption pattern that arose in the mid-90's as a result of reforms in the energy sector. In the third scenario, the high participation of renewable sources of energy is considered feasible from a technical and economic point of view. The three scenarios are evaluated up to the year 2025 in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG) and acid rain precursor gases (ARPG). [Spanish] Este estudio presenta tres escenarios relacionados de los futuros ambientales de generacion de electricidad en Mexico hasta el ano 2025. El primer escenario enfatiza la utilizacion de productos del petroleo, particularmente el combustoleo, y representa el curso de la politica de energia vigente hasta 1990. El segundo escenario da prioridad al uso de gas natural, reflejando el patron de consumo de energia que surgio a mediados de los 90's como resultado de reformas en el sector energetico. En el tercer escenario, la alta participacion de las fuentes renovables de energia es considerada factible desde los puntos de vista tecnico y economico. Los tres escenarios son evaluados hasta el ano 2025 en terminos de los gases de efecto invernadero (GHG) y de gases precursores de lluvia acida (ARPG).

  10. Electrical Discharge Machining. A responsive process for component repair and replacement; Descripcion del mecanismo de generacion de oscilaciones de presion en las SRVs de un reactor BWR y analysis de alternativas de mitigacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbally Herrero, D.; Hernando Perez, J.; Garcia Santi, G.; Barral Taboas, M.

    2014-07-01

    The mechanism of generation of pressure waves in the branch of connection from a SRV to its corresponding main steam line is associated with the link between acoustic modes of the cavity and the natural modes of oscillation of the layer boundary that circulates through the mouth of the SRV.

  11. The repair of an electric generator at the Patla hydro central; Reparacion de un generador de la central hidroelectrica de Patla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Hernandez, Roman [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document describes the repair of the Generator Number 1 of the system of the Unit No. 1 of the Patla Hydro Power Central in Mexico. The tests that were conducted to determine the fault and the location of the same are shown. Mention is made of the fault repair options and the stages in one of the options are described, since it is the one that better covers the expectations for the satisfactory repair of the generator. Finally the commissioning test is described and it is concluded that an increment of 92% (14 MW) in the generation capacity of the unit was achieved, being this the first time a repair of this type is made of generating units [Espanol] Este documento describe la reparacion del generador numero 1 del sistema de la unidad numero 1 de la central hidroelectrica de Patla en Mexico. Se muestran las pruebas que se hicieron para determinar la falla y localizacion de la misma. Se mencionan las alternativas de reparacion de la falla y se describen las etapas de una de las alternativas, ya que es la que cubre mejor las expectativas para la reparacion satisfactoria del generador. Por ultimo se describe la prueba de puesta en servicio y se concluye en que se logro un aumento de la capacidad de generacion de la unidad en un 92% (14 MW), siendo la primera vez que se hace una reparacion de este tipo de unidades generadoras

  12. Steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, G.; Gilli, P.V.; Fritz, K.; Lippitsch, J.

    1975-12-02

    A steam generator is disclosed which is particularly adapted to be used in nuclear power plants. A casing is provided with an inlet and outlet to receive and discharge a primary heating fluid from which heat is to be extracted. A pair of tube plates extend across the interior of the casing at the region of the inlet and outlet thereof, and a plurality of tubes extend along the interior of the casing and are connected in parallel between the tube plates with all of the tubes having open ends communicating with the inlet and outlet of the casing so that the primary heating fluid will flow through the interior of the tubes while a fluid in the casing at the exterior of the tubes will extract heat from the primary fluid. The casing has between the tubes at the region of the inlet a superheating chamber and at the region of the outlet a preheating chamber and between the latter chambers an evaporating chamber, the casing receiving water through an inlet at the preheating chamber and discharging superheated steam through an outlet at the superheating chamber. A separator communicates with the evaporating chamber to receive a mixture of steam and water therefrom for separating the steam from the water and for delivering the separated steam to the superheating chamber.

  13. Study of tellurium determination through volatile hydride and direct introduction to a plasma spectrometer of low power. Estudio de la determinacion de Teluro mediante la generacion e introduccion de su hidruro en plasmas de acoplamiento inductivo (ICP) de baja potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Molinero, A.; Barriovero, O.; Lechon, J.M.; Castillo, J.R. (Universidad de Zaragoza. Facultad de Ciencias. Departamento de Quimica Analitica. Zaragoza (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    Tellurium has been determined by AES-ICP at 214,282 nm with a detection limit of 4 ng/ml and a relative standard deviation (r.s.d.) of 3.0/. These performances have been attained via generation of the volatile hydride and direct introduction to a plasma spectrometer of low power. This analytical method has been applied to Te determination in plastic additives. (Author) 17 refs.

  14. Exploitation of biogas in municipal in slaughterhouses: Technical-economical evaluation; Aprovechamiento de biogas en rastros y mataderos municipales: Evaluacion tecnica-economica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Hernandez, Donaji A.; Castaneda Sanchez, Arlem M.; Garcia Galeana, Erika [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Facultad de Ingenieria (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    ahorro en el consumo de energia electrica. El analisis de este estudio demuestra que el uso de biogas a traves de biodigestores para la generacion de energia electrica, es una opcion rentable para el tratamiento de los residuos, pues el ingreso por la venta de composta, harina de sangre, asi como la disminucion de la tarifa electrica, justifica la inversion inicial. Estos proyectos, seran mas atractivos, si utilizan financiamientos y se inscriben como proyectos MDL.

  15. The opening of the Mexican electric sector to foreign investment. Volume 1; La apertura externa en el sector electrico Mexicano. Volumen 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla Martinez, Juan [eds.] [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document is the first one of three volumes of the 1. Seminar on the Current Conditions and Perspectives of the Electric Sector in Mexico, organized by the Programa Universitario de Energia and the Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas (University Program of Energy and the Institute of Economic Research, both of them agencies of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM)). The titles of the three volumes are the following: Volume 1.- The opening of the Mexican Electric Sector to foreign investment. Volume 2.- Concrete innovation and technological learning experiences at the Luz y Fuerza del Centro enterprise. Volume 3.- The Electric Energy and the Environment in Mexico. This first volume deals on the World tendencies towards the privatization; the new financing techniques and the reorganization of the Mexican electric industry; the electric rates in the residential sector; the distribution of the income and the electricity expense in Mexican homes, the privatization of the energy in Mexico and the production costs in generation projects planning. These documents were formulated by specialists of the Electric Sector, from the Electric Sector itself as well as from academic entities, public and private [Espanol] Este documento constituye el primero de tres volumenes del Primer Seminario sobre Situacion y Perspectivas del Sector Electrico en Mexico, organizado por el Programa Universitario de Energia y el Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, ambas dependencias de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). Los titulos de los tres volumenes son los siguientes: volumen 1: La apertura externa del sector electrico mexicano, volumen 2: Experiencias concretas de innovacion y aprendizaje tecnologico en la empresa Luz y Fuerza del Centro, volumen 3: Energia electrica y medio ambiente en Mexico. Este primer volumen trata sobre las tendencias mundiales hacia la privatizacion; las nuevas tecnicas de financiamiento y reorganizacion de la industria

  16. Cogeneration in a plywood factory; Sistema de cogeneracion en una planta maderera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelazo Hernandez, Arturo; Mendoza Arcaraz, Alfonso [Ultra Energia, S. A. de C. V. Naucalpan (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    back-pressure steam turbine. The back-pressure steam turbine exhaust will be used to heat up the thermal oil through a steam-thermal oil heat exchanger. [Espanol] La Cogeneracion, que es la produccion conjunta de dos manifestaciones de energia a partir de una misma fuente energetica, se presenta como una de las alternativas mas viables para lograr el aprovechamiento optimo de los recursos energeticos finitos. En las ultimas decadas en que el crecimiento economico de Mexico ha estado ligado a la generacion y suministro de energia electrica, el Estado ha fungido como organizador y director del sistema nacional de generacion electrica, sin embargo la intervencion de los particulares ha sido determinante. Debemos tomar en cuenta que para cubrir las necesidades futuras de electricidad del desarrollo nacional, se requeriran aproximadamente 17 mil MW adicionales, para lo cual la iniciativa privada, entre las que podemos destacar a la pequena y mediana industria, tendra despejado el camino para producirlos, aprovechando los cambios en la Ley y el Reglamento del Servicio Publico de Energia Electrica, publicados en el Diario Oficial de la Federacion los dias 23 de diciembre de 1992 y 31 de mayo de 1993 respectivamente. Al contar con un sistema de cogeneracion optimizado, el importe economico anual de la empresa maderera por concepto de energia (electricidad y combustible) se reducira sustancialmente. La empresa maderera requiere la instalacion de un sistema de cogeneracion que suministre 4.75 MWe y 1,861 KWt (1.6 Gcal/hr). La energia electrica se utilizara en la fabricacion de TABLONES DE NOVOPAN y la energia termica para calentar aceite que se utiliza en la presa de madera y en la preparacion de la emulsion utilizada en el proceso. Para satisfacer los requerimientos energeticos se han analizado 2 alternativas: 1. Generacion de energia electrica con un motor de combustion interna que utilice combustoleo como combustible, aprovechandose los gases de escape del motor para pre

  17. Neuralfussy multivariable control applied to the control of velocity, power, and exhaust gas temperature of a turbo gas unit; Control neurodifuso multivariable aplicado al control de velocidad, potencia y temperatura de gases de escape de una unidad turbogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura Ozuna, Victor Octavio

    2004-11-15

    formulation of a controller feedback multivariable is presented, designed with the combination of the technologies of fuzzy logic and neural networks with the purpose of improving the control of speed, power and temperature of the UTG. This proposed control is used in conjunction with the scheme of conventional control of the existent UTG, to integrate a strategy of control hybrid feedback. The control feedback is compound for a fuzzy inference system of multiple entrances and a left exit designed with entrance data and exit of the plant. The controller feed forward is compound for conventional controllers type PI in this type of units. With this strategy, the controller feedback provides a bigger contribution in the control sign the effort of the conventional controllers' PI control and the strong interaction that it exists among them diminishing. The controllers PI feed forward contribute a smaller control sign used for fine adjustments in the control sign. [Spanish] La demanda de energia electrica en Mexico ha obligado al sector electrico a estar en una busqueda constante de metodos y sistemas que, entre otros objetivos, mejoren continuamente la operacion de las centrales generadoras de energia electrica. Como parte de su mision, el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha promovido y apoyado la investigacion aplicada y el desarrollo tecnologico para mejorar los indices de seguridad, disponibilidad, confiabilidad, eficiencia y durabilidad de centrales generadoras mediante el desarrollo y la implantacion de grandes sistemas digitales de informacion y control. En la actualidad, dentro del esquema de generacion de energia electrica, las unidades turbogas (UTG) representan 7% de la generacion del sector electrico nacional [1]. Estas unidades se han convertido en el modo dominante de la nueva generacion electrica en los EE.UU, ya sea en ciclo simple o combinado. Lo anterior, es atribuible al menor costo de instalacion por kilowatt generado, a los programas de

  18. Analysis and evaluation of the main factors that influence the growing of the electrical power consumption in the national electrical sector, period 2000-2005; Analisis y evaluacion de los principales factores que influyen en el crecimiento del consumo de energia electrica en el sector electrico nacional, periodo 2000-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Luna, Luis Miguel

    2008-06-15

    de potencia (CUFP). Ademas, se desarrolla en esta tesis las ecuaciones utilizadas en el Jacobiano del metodo Newton-Raphson, para resolver flujos de potencia incluyendo los dispositivos SIFLETCA. Se muestra diferentes aplicaciones que se tienen al instalar un dispositivo, tales como prevencion de flujos en anillo, barrera electronica, incremento en la capacidad de transmision y especificacion del flujo de potencia en lineas de transmision. Por otra parte, se desarrolla en la tesis un analisis de sensibilidades de un sistema de potencia en estado estacionario. Tambien se proponen en la tesis los parametros de control para los cuales se calcula las sensibilidades. Asimismo, se utiliza un indice de desempeno para medir el grado de congestion de un sistema electrico. Al calcular las sensibilidades se utiliza los resultados obtenidos de los flujos de potencia. Se usa 4 redes electricas para encontrar donde se debe situar cada dispositivo SIFLETCA para reducir la congestion en el sistema. Tambien, se compara el metodo desarrollado en la tesis con un metodo de sensibilidades que emplea flujos de CD para validacion y mostrar las ventajas de usar el metodo Newton en flujos de potencia.

  19. Using Technology to Connect Generations: Some Considerations of Form and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Mariano Sánchez Martínez; Matthew Kaplan; Leah Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Actualmente, conforme el envejecimiento en las sociedades occidentales aumenta, resulta más evidente que en cualquier momento histórico dado hay varias generaciones envejeciendo simultáneamente. Por tanto, el envejecimiento debe ser estudiado como fenómeno multi-generacional y no solo como un asunto de personas mayores. En este contexto, están suscitando más atención las situaciones que implican más interacciones intergeneracionales. Dentro del campo intergeneracional está aumentando...

  20. La generación app (The App Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luque, Mónica

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La reciente publicación de Gardner, en colaboración con Katie Davis, propone una interesante línea de indagación y reflexión en torno a las jóvenes generaciones. En primer término, lo particular de este grupo etario consiste en que son los únicos que no han conocido un mundo sin la ubicuidad que ofrecen los medio digitales. Por tanto, Gardner indica que las apps están modificando el desarrollo psicológico de los jóvenes, quienes tienden actualmente a ser más renuentes al riesgo que las generaciones anteriores. En segundo lugar, pareciera que dicho riesgo afecta el comportamiento social.

  1. Preferred external power supplies; Fuentes electricas preferentes exteriores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Anton, L.

    2010-07-01

    In June 2008 ANAV and ENDESA DISTRIBUCION (EDE) undertook a joint study of Asco NPP Preferred External Power Supplies (PEPSs) to check the number of lines or power supplies to the 110 kV substation at Asco that met the criteria defined in the power supply regulations applicable to Asco NPP and primarily to confirm compliance with IEEE 765-2006 standard. (Author).

  2. UNESA annual report 1982. UNESA memoria estadistica electrica 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Activities of UNESA the union of electric power companies in Spain, are given for 1982. Details are given on electricity production and consumption, research programs within the power industry, financial data and international trade. (In Spanish)

  3. La obra de Aníbal Núñez en el contexto de la poética posmoderna española (Notas para una restitución generacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vives Pérez, Vicente

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available After decades of seclusion in the shadow of its promotion, Aníbal Núñez’s poetry is starting a recovery process in recent critical studies. After overcoming the restrictive premises used by poetry criticism to reduce the authors´ list and poetical tendencies of 68, the isolation of those poets —whose works did not fit in the dominant canon— is object of review in current historiography of Spanish contemporary poetry. This return to the once-excluded poets is essential to understand the plurality of discourses which make up the generation of 68: it is necessary to revive their voices of discord in order to outline their whole aesthetic scene. In the light of the innovative theoretic-critical paradigm of Spanish postmodern poetry, the works by Aníbal Núñez may be fully part of the creative scene of his generation, without forgetting the peculiarities which distinguish his poetic writing.Tras décadas de reclusión en la zona umbrosa de su promoción, la poesía de Aníbal Núñez está iniciando un proceso de recuperación en los estudios críticos recientes. Superadas ya las restrictivas premisas con que la crítica redujo la nómina de autores y tendencias poéticas del 68, el aislamiento de los poetas cuya obra no encajaba en el canon hegemónico es objeto de revisión en la actual historiografía de la poesía española contemporánea. Esta restitución de los excluidos es esencial para entender la pluralidad de los discursos que componen la generación del 68: recuperar sus voces discordantes es necesario para trazar su escenario estético completo. A la luz del innovador paradigma teórico-crítico de la poética posmoderna española, los libros de Aníbal Núñez pueden insertarse plenamente en el panorama creador de su generación, sin menoscabo de las peculiaridades que singularizan su escritura poética.

  4. The incandescent lamps in Mexico; are they really a beneficial technology?; Las lamparas incandescentes en Mexico: son realmente una tecnologia benefica?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Rivero, A. G. [Genertek, S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The versatility of the incandescent lamps has originated a sustained increment of its population all over the world. Because of its characteristics they continue being irreplaceable in numberless applications, that go from the movies up to the medicine. Nevertheless the greatest population are represented by the incandescent lamps A-19 with the well-known negative effects to the environment and the economy caused by the electric power generation by conventional methods. No doubt about it, the best option to substitute them are the compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), but the economical barriers, the market and the performance do not permit its massive application in Mexico. In this paper a proposal is set forth that might bring high benefits with a minimum investment and rapid implementation. [Espanol] La versatilidad de las lamparas incandescentes ha causado un incremento sostenido de su poblacion en todo el mundo. Dadas sus caracteristicas continua siendo insustituible en un sinnumero de aplicaciones, que van desde el cine hasta la medicina. Sin embargo, la mayor poblacion la representan las ineficientes lamparas incandescentes A19 con los consabidos efectos negativos en el medio ambiente y la economia, causados por la generacion de energia electrica por medios convencionales. Sin duda, la mejor opcion para sustituirlas son las lamparas compacto fluorescentes (LCF), pero las barreras economicas, de mercado y de desempeno no permiten su aplicacion masiva en Mexico. En este trabajo se hace una propuesta que puede permitir grandes beneficios con minima inversion y rapida implementacion.

  5. Energy. Chapter 4; Energia. Capitulo 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    This chapter stands out that the infrastructure for the electric energy generation, as well as the one departing from fossil fuels has been the responsibility of two institutions with great solvency in the scope of engineering: the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). It is presented here the energy future in a sustainable context; a prospective study to year 2050; a strategic proposal of Petroleos Mexicanos; the forecast of the oil industry in Mexico and a technological prospective of the energy. [Spanish] En este capitulo se destaca que la infraestructura para la generacion de energia, tanto electrica como a partir de combustibles fisiles ha corrido a cargo de dos instituciones con gran solvencia en el ambito de la ingenieria: la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex). Se presenta el futuro de la energia en un contexto sustentable; un estudio prospectivo al ano 2050; una propuesta estrategica de Petroleos Mexicanos; la prospectiva de la industria petrolera en Mexico y; una prospectiva tecnologica de la energia.

  6. Proceedings of the 7 Annual conference of the Mexican association for the energy economy. The energy sector in Mexico: challenges and solutions. [Selected papers]; 7. Conferencia anual de la asociacion mexicana para la economia energetica. El sector energia en Mexico: retos y soluciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The Mexican Association for the Energy Economy (AMEE) had its VII annual conference, The energy sector in Mexico: challenges and solutions, in October, 2004. Some of the expounded topics are: technical and environmental aspects of the combined cycle power stations; analysis of the generation of electric power across biogas from sanitary landfills in Mexico; cogeneration in large power plants; methodologies for the calculation of relative efficiency: description and application of natural gas distributors in Latin American and others. [Spanish] La Asociacion Mexicana para la Economia Energetica A. C. (AMEE), llevo acabo su VII conferencia anual El sector energia en Mexico: retos y soluciones, en octubre del 2004. Algunos de los temas tratados son: Aspectos tecnicos y medioambientales de las centrales de ciclo combinado con gasificacion integrada; Analisis de la generacion de energia electrica a traves de biogas procedente de rellenos sanitarios en Mexico; Cogeneracion en grandes centrales de proceso; Metodologias para el calculo de eficiencia relativa: descripcion y aplicacion para distribuidores de gas natural en Latinoamerica y otros.

  7. World tendencies in the disintegration of the electric systems; Las tendencias mundiales a la desintegracion de los sistemas electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viqueira Landa, Jacinto [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the organizational changes of the electric industry, accomplished or in the process of being implemented in various countries encompassing from the modality of the independent power producers with which the competitiveness at production level is pretended to be introduced, until the total disintegration of the electric systems by means of the separation of the generation, transmission and distribution functions and the intent of implementing the access of third parties to the transmission network. Finally, the risks that these reforms imply from the stand point of service quality and the environmental protection are pointed out [Espanol] En esta ponencia se describen los cambios de organizacion de la industria electrica, realizados o en vias de implantarse en varios paises, abarcando desde la modalidad de las empresas generadoras independientes con la que se pretende introducir la competencia al nivel de la produccion, hasta la desintegracion total de los sistemas electricos mediante la separacion de las funciones de generacion, transmision y distribucion, y la pretension de implantar el acceso de terceros a la red de transmision. Finalmente se senalan los riesgos que implican estas reformas desde el punto de vista de la calidad del servicio y de la preservacion del medio ambiente

  8. Stack gas desulfurization using adsorbent materials based on copper oxide; Desulfuracion de gases de combustion usando materiales adsorbentes basados en oxido de cobre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Velazquez, Roberto; Rodas Grapain, Arturo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    One of main fossil fuels used to date in Mexico for power generation is the fuel oil, with a total participation of 32%. The Mexican fuel oil is constituted in average by 84% in weight of carbon, 11% hydrogen, 0.4% nitrogen, 0.2% oxygen, 4% sulfur and the remaining is assumed to be metals such as vanadium, nickel, calcium, magnesium among others. The purpose of the present paper is to show a new route of preparation of materials impregnated through the application of ultrasonic energy and to evaluate its performance in the stack gas desulfurization. [Spanish] Uno de los principales combustibles fosiles empleados actualmente en Mexico para la generacion de energia electrica es el combustoleo, con una participacion total del 32%. El combustoleo mexicano esta constituido en promedio por 84% en peso de carbono, 11% de hidrogeno, 0.4% de nitrogeno, 0.2% de oxigeno, 4% de azufre y el resto se asume a metales como vanadio, niquel, calcio, magnesio entre otros. El proposito del presente trabajo es mostrar una nueva ruta de preparacion de materiales impregnados a traves de la aplicacion de energia ultrasonica y evaluar su desempeno en la desulfuracion de gases de combustion.

  9. Generational Dynamics and Librarianship: Managing Generation X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Julie F.; Cooper, Eric A.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the abilities of Generation X (individuals born 1961 to 1981) librarians to respond to the evolving needs of society. Highlights include age demographics, generational attributes, technology, and the seniority system. (PEN)

  10. Three Generations of Industrial districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bellandi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta un marco teórico para entender la evolución de los distritos industriales desde la conceptualización de Marshall hasta las actua - les realidades y teorizaciones del distrito industrial como modelo de organización industrial y desarrollo. Discutimos tres generaciones de distritos industriales: la primera generación de distritos fueron las semillas para la primera revolución in - dustrial. La segunda generación correspondió a la reemergencia de los distritos industriales en países avanzados e industrializados durante la segunda mitad del siglo xx , después de la edad de oro de la producción en masa. La tercera y actual generación no es una cuestión de evidencia histórica, sino que está siendo revela - da recurriendo a la observación científica. Sostendremos que cada generación de distritos industriales ha emergido y crecido en correspondencia con específicas condiciones tecnológicas, institucionales y de mercado. Se presenta evidencia so-bre el caso italiano.

  11. Performance study of a combined cycle power plant with integral gasification; Estudio del desempeno de una planta de potencia de ciclo combinado con gasificacion integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Rocha, Jose Clemente

    2007-04-15

    integration to an existing combined cycle power plant. The strategic location of the Tula combined cycle, which is adjacent to Miguel Hidalgo refinery, presents the opportunity of applying the gasification technology as a viable alternative: firstly, for the use of petroleum coke that at this moment is been produced in the Mexican refineries or using the petroleum coke that could be produced in the adjacent refinery; and secondly, by the possibility of applying the concept of reconfiguration of the Tula combined cycle to operate as CCGI, with the objective of improving its thermal regime, its generation capacity and its global thermal efficiency. This way, every study realized to predict the performance of an existing combined cycle power plant using a gasification process and operating under the concept of combined cycle with integrated gasification (CCGI) is of utility for later studies, that consider the concept of reconfiguration of existing conventional power plants in Mexico, for example, the coal-electric or fossil fuel, which use polluting fuels such as coal or fuel oil, so that a reconfiguration using the gasification technology could replace these fuels reducing the emission of polluting agents to the atmosphere. Also, this study would be useful for studies that contemplate the installation of a gasification system in an adjacent refinery to a combined cycle in order to take advantage of the coke produced in this one and to improve the thermal regime, the global thermal efficiency, and the electric generation capacity of the combined cycle. [Spanish] A nivel mundial, en la ultima decada se ha incrementado el interes por usar el coque del petroleo como combustible en la generacion limpia de energia aplicando la tecnologia de gasificacion. Este interes se debe principalmente el incremento en la produccion del coque de petroleo como consecuencia del procesamiento de mayores volumenes de crudo pasado en las refinerias y al incremento en el rendimiento de los productos

  12. Distributed generation induction and permanent magnet generators

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, L

    2007-01-01

    Distributed power generation is a technology that could help to enable efficient, renewable energy production both in the developed and developing world. It includes all use of small electric power generators, whether located on the utility system, at the site of a utility customer, or at an isolated site not connected to the power grid. Induction generators (IGs) are the cheapest and most commonly used technology, compatible with renewable energy resources. Permanent magnet (PM) generators have traditionally been avoided due to high fabrication costs; however, compared with IGs they are more reliable and productive. Distributed Generation thoroughly examines the principles, possibilities and limitations of creating energy with both IGs and PM generators. It takes an electrical engineering approach in the analysis and testing of these generators, and includes diagrams and extensive case study examples o better demonstrate how the integration of energy sources can be accomplished. The book also provides the ...

  13. Talkin' 'bout My Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickes, Persis C.

    2010-01-01

    The monikers are many: (1) "Generation Y"; (2) "Echo Boomers"; (3) "GenMe"; (4) the "Net Generation"; (5) "RenGen"; and (6) "Generation Next". One name that appears to be gaining currency is "Millennials," perhaps as a way to better differentiate the current generation from its predecessor, Generation X. Millennials are those individuals born…

  14. Economic and environmental impact of the utilization of the industrial potential of viable cogeneration for period 1998 - 2007; Impacto economico y ambiental de aprovechamiento del potencial industrial de cogeneracion viable para el periodo 1998 - 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon de los Santos, Gabriel; Mendoza Gonzslez, Lourdes [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The utilization of the industrial potential of cogeneration offers a significant contribution to the construction of the electrical infrastructure that the growth of the country will require for the period 1998 - 2007. The conditions of growth of the co-generation potential and their levels of utilization are related to a on isolated growth of the other inter actors of the processes of power supply; As levels of economic viability, economic savings to industry, requirements of additional electrical capacity, growth of the industrial activity, costs, use of fuels, environmental impact. Rates of average growth for period 1998 - 2007 are considered and what levels of economic and environmental benefit offers this development to the industry, to the electrical company and to the country. And to what proportion can contribute the utilization of the industrial potential of electrical cogeneration to the requirements of additional electrical capacity that will require the development of the country during this period. With the rates of viable growth of the co-generation the equivalent reduction of fuel consumption is estimated for the industrial sector, given by the improvement in the generation efficiency and with the change in the proportion of fuels used in Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) for this period. Evaluating the emissions of the main fuels avoided with this growth and its repercussion at national level via the CFE, and showing the possible international implications of this reduction. [Spanish] El aprovechamiento del potencial industrial de cogeneracion ofrece una significativa aportacion a la construccion de la infraestructura electrica que el crecimiento del pais requerira para el periodo 1998 -2007. Las condiciones de crecimiento del potencial de cogeneracion y sus niveles de aprovechamiento estan relacionados con un crecimiento o aislado de los demas inter actores de los procesos de abasto energetico; Como niveles de viabilidad economica, ahorros

  15. Hazardous Waste Generators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The HazWaste database contains generator (companies and/or individuals) site and mailing address information, waste generation, the amount of waste generated etc. of...

  16. Power Generation for River and Tidal Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wright, Alan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Donegan, James [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States); Marnagh, Cian [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States); McEntee, Jarlath [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Renewable energy sources are the second largest contributor to global electricity production, after fossil fuels. The integration of renewable energy continued to grow in 2014 against a backdrop of increasing global energy consumption and a dramatic decline in oil prices during the second half of the year. As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded from primarily wind and solar to include new types with promising future applications, such as hydropower generation, including river and tidal generation. Today, hydropower is considered one of the most important renewable energy sources. In river and tidal generation, the input resource flow is slower but also steadier than it is in wind or solar generation, yet the level of water turbulent flow may vary from one place to another. This report focuses on hydrokinetic power conversion.

  17. Analysis of the processes of R and D in generating innovation of new technology-based firms in science and technology parks; Analisis de los procesos de I+D en la generacion de innovacion de las nuevas empresas de base tecnologica en parques cientificos y tecnologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno Campos, E.; Acosta Prado, J. C.; Longo Somoza, M.

    2010-07-01

    This paper identifies the R and D processes and technological capabilities of the New Technology-Based Firms (NTBFs) created at Madrid Science Park and Leganes Technologic Science Park located in Madrid (Spain). The empirical study is carried out through an inductive deductive methodology. The results have allowed us to describe the processes and capabilities and also the relationships between them. A relevant set of managerial implications are finally derived from the research. (Author) 64 refs.

  18. The TJ-II Stellarator. Impact of vacuum and first wall conditioning techniques in the generation of fusion plasmas; El Stellarator TJ-II. Impacto del vacio y tecnicas de acondicionamiento de primera pared en la generacion de plasmas de fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares, F. L.

    2010-07-01

    The great scientific facility, the Stellarator TJ-II, has been operated by the National Laboratory CIEMAT Fusion since early 1998. During this time, there have been over 21 000 downloads of hot plasma, the duration between 100 and 300 ms. The heating power coupled plasma varied from 300 kW to 1600 kW early today. For that purpose, techniques used microwave heating Electronics resonant frequency (ECRH) and Warming Neutral Beam Injection (NBI). The first wall conditions have evolved from pure stainless steel to the combination of graphite and lithium limiters full the remaining components of the vacuum chamber. This process has been driven by the need increasing control over the particle and energy loads associated with greater warming. In the This work provides a review of the vacuum techniques and first wall conditioning used in the past 12 years. The role of these techniques has played in obtaining plasmas clean, reproducible and controlled will be emphasized. Finally, we describe future plans progress on these issues. (Author) 25 refs.

  19. Development of Cu and Ni catalysts supported on ZrO{sub 2} for the generation of H{sub 2} by means of the reaction of reformed methanol in atmosphere oxidizer; Desarrollo de catalizadores de Cu y Ni soportados en ZrO{sub 2} para la generacion de H{sub 2} mediante la reaccion de reformado de metanol en atmosfera oxidante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez C, P.

    2012-07-01

    ZrO{sub 2} was prepared by the sol-gel method and calcined at 450 C. The prepared zirconia was impregnated with an aqueous solution of Cu(CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}){sub 2}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O or NiNO{sub 3}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O at an appropriate concentration to yield 3 wt % of copper or nickel, respectively, in the mono metallic catalysts. Three bimetallic samples were prepared at 80% Cu and 20% Ni respectively to obtain 3 wt % of total metallic phase. Surface area of the Cu-Ni base catalysts supported on ZrO{sub 2} oxide showed differences as a function of the metal addition. Between them, the Cu/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst had the lowest surface area than other catalysts. X-ray diffraction patterns of the bimetallic catalysts did not show diffraction peaks of the Cu, Ni or bimetallic Cu-Ni alloys. In addition, TPR profiles of the bimetallic catalysts had the lowest reduction temperature compared with the mono metallic samples. The reactivity of the catalysts in the range of 250-350 C showed that the samples prepared by successive impregnation had the highest catalytic activity than the other catalysts studied. Also the selectivity for H{sub 2} production was higher for these catalysts. This finding was associated to the presence of the bimetallic Cu-Ni nanoparticles, as was evidenced by Tem-EDX analysis. (Author)

  20. Prospective of the photovoltaic solar technology for electricity generation (Annexe 7 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Prospectiva de la tecnologia solar fotovoltaica para la generacion de electricidad (Anexo 7 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agredano Diaz, Jaime [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    The first experience where it was found the relationship between the light of the sun and its conversion to electricity was reported by the French physicist Edmund Bequerel in 1839, nevertheless the development of the modern photovoltaic cell, as it is known now, occurred until the middle of the last century in the Bell labs of the United States, that in year 1955 presented the first patent of photovoltaic silicon cells. The main elements of a photovoltaic system are: the photovoltaic cells, (some times referred to as solar cells), interconnected and encapsulated to form one photovoltaic module, the structure of assembly for the module or modules, the inversor (essential for systems connected to the network and for systems outside the network that require provision of alternating current), storage battery and a load controller (required solely for systems outside the network). [Spanish] La primera experiencia donde se encontro la relacion entre la luz del sol y su conversion a electricidad la reporto el fisico Frances Edmund Bequerel en 1839, sin embargo el desarrollo de la celda fotovoltaica moderna tal y como se conoce ahora, se dio hasta mediados del siglo pasado en los laboratorios Bell en los Estados Unidos, quienes en 1955 presentaron la primera patente de celdas fotovoltaicas de silicio. Los elementos principales de un sistema fotovoltaico son: las celdas fotovoltaicas, (algunas veces referidas como celdas solares), interconectadas y encapsuladas para formar un modulo fotovoltaico, la estructura de montaje para el modulo o modulos, el inversor (esencial para sistemas conectados a red y necesario para sistemas fuera de red que requieren suministro de corriente alterna), bateria de almacenamiento y un controlador de carga (requerido unicamente para sistemas fuera de red).

  1. Sensitivity analysis and uncertainties in the generation of the parameters neutronic used in simulation of transients in reactors BWR and PWR reactors with coupled codes; Analisis de sensibilidad e incertidumbres en la generacion de los parametros neutronicos utilizados en la simulacion de transitorios en reactores BWR y PWR con codigos acoplados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesado, C.; Barrachina, T.; Miro, R.; Macian, R.; Verdu, G.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a study on the influence of information on neutron macroscopic uncertainty that describes a three-dimensional core model the most important results of the simulation of a reactivity insertion accident. Also performed a sensitivity analysis in order to establish which the input parameter, in this case, is the kinetic parameters that most influence the results.

  2. "Ese monstruito": Mafalda, generaciones y género en una construcción mítica/"That Little Monster": Mafalda, generations and gender in a mythical construction/"O pequeno monstro": Mafalda, gerações e gênero em uma construção mítica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isabella Cosse

    2016-01-01

      "De chica me llamaban 'Mafalda' porque era muy preguntona". Recuerdos semejantes pueden leerse en muchos blogs dedicados a la historieta creada por Quino en 1964, y muestran su significación social...

  3. Burner redesign for the reduction of the unburned particulate emission in thermal power stations of Comision Federal de Electricidad; Rediseno de quemadores para la reduccion de la emision de particulas inquemadas en centrales termicas de la Comisionon Federal de Electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta Espino, Mario; Espipnoza Garza, Jesus; Mani Gonzalez, Alejandro; Giles Alarcon, Armando; Pena Garcia, Adriana; Albarran Sanchez, Irma L.; Mendez Aranda, Angel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In the presence of the increasing demand for reaching higher efficiencies and a smaller production of polluting emissions in combustion systems, studies focused to the optimization of the present designs of burners are required. The Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) have established a project that contemplates the redesign of burners in ten of its units of thermoelectric generation. In this work the redesign of the flame stabilizer or diffuser for the reduction of the unburned particulate emission is explained. The results of the modeling of a burner of rotational flow of steam generators of the CFE are shown, as well as the graphs of the contours of the recirculation zone generated by each diffuser without combustion and a figure of the velocity profile that is generated in front of the diffuser. In agreement with the results obtained in the aerodynamic evaluation of frontal burners of rotational flow, it is possible to established that the characteristics of the recirculation zone, generated by this type of burners, are related to geometric parameters of the diffuser that identify with the number of turns and the pressure drop, where it is necessary to look for designs that improve the conditions of the mixing process and combustion in the burner. [Spanish] Ante la creciente demanda por alcanzar mayores eficiencias y una menor produccion de emisiones contaminantes en sistemas de combustion, se requieren estudios enfocados a la optimizacion de los disenos actuales de quemadores. La Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) han establecido un proyecto que contempla el rediseno de quemadores en diez de sus unidades de generacion termoelectrica. En este trabajo se explica el rediseno del estabilizador de flama o difusor para la reduccion de la emision de particulas inquemadas. Se muestran los resultados de la modelacion de un quemador de flujo rotacional de

  4. PRINCIPIOS CIBERNETICOS APLICABLES EN LA GENERACION DE CONOCIMIENTO ORGANIZACIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Mercedes Viloria

    2010-04-01

    aprendizaje para la generación continua de conocimiento organizacional. Se empleó para ello el procedimiento técnico-metodológico de arqueo heurístico bibliográfico de teóricos como Morgan (1998 y Maturana (2004. Concluyendo que el auto-referencia es el principio que hace posible la auto-organización de los equipos de trabajo, para hacer frente a las demandas cambiantes del entorno.

  5. La movida: pilar contracultural de un cambio generacional

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez Roquero, Leonardo; Benedetti Rivas, Delfina

    2016-01-01

    A partir de nuestro trabajo de documentación, buscamos determinar la forma en que las manifestaciones culturales de la Movida modificaron los valores, los estilos y el modo de vida durante el periodo de tiempo comprendido entre 1975-1985. Durante los años de la Nueva Ola, las vertientes artísticas que tuvieron mayor relevancia fueron: la música, la prensa, los fanzines, la fotografía, la pintura, el cómic, la moda, la radio, la televisión, el teatro y los lugares. Por su parte, la músic...

  6. Ciberespacio y ocio en las generaciones que llegaron tarde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent A. Querol

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende comprender las prácticas y usos sociales del ocio en los mayores de 44 años, con base en formas de uso sustentadas por las TIC y basadas en un trabajo de campo cualitativo con 11 entrevistas abiertas semiestructuradas, las cuales cubren un espectro laboral diverso. Se parte de la generación como productora de un conjunto de esquemas generativos a partir de los cuales se percibe el mundo y se actúa en él; junto a las distintas posiciones sociales que serán determinantes en estas prácticas de ocio por su introducción en las TIC desde la esfera del trabajo. Encontramos que: la emoción como nodo central de las actividades agradables se vincularía más con actividades relacionales que propiamente ociosas; cuanto más tardía su socialización en el ciberespacio, más diversidad de adaptaciones; y sus usos rompen el prejuicio pasivo y demandan funciones concretas a la tecnología y al software.

  7. A new model for commercially sustainable renewable energy-based rural electrification in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walt, Robb [Integrated Power Corporation-Indonesia, (United states)

    1995-12-31

    ] Las rapidas crecientes demandas y los requerimientos de acceso a la electricidad por todas las areas remotas de Indonesia juntamente con los subsidios de mas de $500 millones de dolares para la electrificacion rural han forzado al gobierno de Indonesia a buscar alternativas al modelo convencional de empresa de servicios electricos para la electrificacion rural. En 1992-1993 se llevo a cabo un estudio en colaboracion con la Agencia para la Aplicacion y la Evaluacion de Tecnologia (BPPT)del Gobierno de Indonesia y la Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica (PLN) para apoyar la busqueda de soluciones sustentables para la electrificacion de comunidades remotas. Este estudio produjo un Nuevo Modelo comercial para la electrificacion de comunidades rurales fuera de la red en Indonesia con servicios de la calidad de empresa electrica. Este nuevo modelo esta caracterizado por el uso de nuevas tecnologias para la generacion, distribucion y ventas de electricidad. La clave del exito del nuevo modelo son las plantas electricas hibridas basadas en energia renovable y en el uso de medidores flexibles suministradores de energia bajo demanda. Las tarifas estimadas para el servicio de electricidad estan basadas en las cantidades que actualmente se pagan por los propietarios de casas rurales por keroseno, velas y servicios de baterias a diferentes niveles de ingreso. El estudio mostro que la mayor parte de los propietarios de casa estan deseosos y tienen la capacidad para pagar cantidades adicionales por valiosos servicios confiables de electricidad del grado de empresa de servicios electricos, tales como mejor alumbrado, entretenimiento de television y para usos productivos (economicos) durante las horas diurnas. Se llevo a cabo una evaluacion financiera en sistemas hibridos de energia electrica en comunidades fuera de la red con ganancias generadas en base a las tarifas del mercado y cobradas mediante nueva tecnologia para la compra de electricidad y pago anticipado en base a un