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Sample records for generation antimicrobials worth

  1. Quorum sensing inhibitory drugs as next generation antimicrobials: worth the effort?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael Christian

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial resistance poses a major challenge to the development of new antimicrobial agents. Conventional antibiotics have an inherent obsolescence because they select for development of resistance. Bacterial infections have again become a serious threat in developed countries. Particularly...... as biofilms are more tolerant to antibiotics than their planktonic counterparts. Therefore, research should identify new antimicrobial agents and their corresponding targets to decrease the biofilm-forming capability or persistence of the infectious bacteria. Here, we review one such drug target: bacterial......, elderly, immunocompromised, and hospitalized patients are susceptible to infections caused by bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. These bacteria form chronic, biofilm-based infections, which are challenging because bacterial cells living...

  2. Quorum sensing inhibitory drugs as next generation antimicrobials: worth the effort?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, M.

    2008-01-01

    , elderly, immunocompromised, and hospitalized patients are susceptible to infections caused by bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. These bacteria form chronic, biofilm-based infections, which are challenging because bacterial cells living...... as biofilms are more tolerant to antibiotics than their planktonic counterparts. Therefore, research should identify new antimicrobial agents and their corresponding targets to decrease the biofilm-forming capability or persistence of the infectious bacteria. Here, we review one such drug target: bacterial...

  3. Iontophoresis generates an antimicrobial effect that remains after iontophoresis ceases.

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, C P; Wagle, N; M. D. Anderson(University of Glasgow); Warren, M M

    1992-01-01

    Iontophoresis required chlorine-containing compounds in the medium for effective microbial population reduction and killing. After iontophoresis ceased, the antimicrobial effect generated by iontophoresis remained but slowly decreased. Antimicrobial effects of iontophoresis may be related to the generation of short-lived chlorine-containing compounds.

  4. SecA inhibitors: next generation antimicrobials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weixuan Chen; Arpana Chaudhary; Jianmei Cui; Jinshan Jin; Yinghsin Hsieh; Hsiuchin Yang; Yingju Huang; Phang C. Tai; Binghe Wang

    2012-01-01

    Health problems caused by bacterial infection have become a major public health concern in recent years due to the widespread emergence of drug-resistant bacterial strains.Therefore,the need for the development of new types of antimicrobial agents,especially those with a novel mechanism of action,is urgent.SecA,one of the key components of the secretion (Sec) pathway,is a new promising target for antimicrobial agent design.In recent years,promising leads targeting SecA have been identified and the feasibility of developing antimicrobial agents through the inhibition of SecA has been demonstrated.We hope this review will help stimulate more research in this area so that new antimicrobials can be obtained by targeting SecA.

  5. Oxygen-Generating Nanofiber Cell Scaffolds with Antimicrobial Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Junping; Zhu, Yizhou; Bawa, Harinder K.; Ng, Geoffrey; Wu, Yong; Libera, Matthew; van der Mei, H. C.; Busscher, H. J.; Yu, Xiaojun

    2011-01-01

    Many next-generation biomaterials will need ability to not only promote healthy tissue integration but to simultaneously resist bacterial colonization resulting biomaterials associated infection. For this purpose, antimicrobial nanofibers of (polycapro-lactone(PCL) were fabricated by incorporating c

  6. Bacteriocins: New generation of antimicrobial peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Motahari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are used as a first-choice to inhibit microbial growth since the discovery in the first half of the 19th century. Nevertheless, the widespread use of antibiotics has resulted in the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains that is one of our century problems. Concerns about antibiotic resistant is so serious which huge budget is allocated for discovery of alternative drugs in many countries. Bacteriocin is one of these compounds which was first discovered in 1925, released into the medium by E. coli. Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides or proteins ribosomally synthesized by many bacterial species. The use of this antimicrobial molecules in food industry obviate consumers need to safe food with least interference of chemical substances. Nisin, the most well-known bacteriocin, is the first bacteriocin found its way to food industry. Despite the widespread application of bacteriocins, resistance is seen in some species. Although it’s exact mechanism is not clear. So according to the today’s world need to find effective methods to control pathogens, studies of bacteriocins as a substitute for antibiotics are so important. The present review has studied the structure and activity of five classes of bacteriocins from gene to function in gram positive bacteria.

  7. Developing a New Generation of Antimicrobial and Bioactive Dental Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Zhang, K; Zhang, N; Melo, M A S; Weir, M D; Zhou, X D; Bai, Y X; Reynolds, M A; Xu, H H K

    2017-07-01

    Dental caries is prevalent, and secondary caries causes restoration failures. This article reviews recent studies on developing a new generation of bioactive resins with anticaries properties. Extensive effects were made to develop new antimicrobial composites, bonding agents, and other resins containing quaternary ammonium methacrylates to suppress plaque buildup and bacterial acid production. The effects of alkyl chain length and charge density and the antimicrobial mechanisms for chlorhexidine, nano-silver, quaternary ammonium methacrylates, and protein-repellent agents were discussed. Synergistic effects of contact-killing and protein-repellent properties were shown to yield the greatest biofilm-inhibition effects. The combination of antimicrobial, protein-repellent, and calcium phosphate nanoparticle remineralization was suggested to provide maximal anticaries effects. In addition, for use orally, cytotoxicity and biocompatibility were important considerations for the new bioactive materials. Furthermore, rather than kill all bacteria, it would be more desirable to modulate the oral biofilm compositions via bioactive resins to suppress cariogenic/pathogenic species and promote benign species. For widespread clinical use of the new antimicrobial and therapeutic materials, whether they would induce bacterial drug resistance needs to be determined, which requires further study. Nonetheless, the new generation of bioactive anticaries resins with therapeutic and biofilm acid-inhibiting properties has the potential to substantially benefit oral health.

  8. Reliability and cost/worth evaluation of generating systems utilizing wind and solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagen

    The utilization of renewable energy resources such as wind and solar energy for electric power supply has received considerable attention in recent years due to adverse environmental impacts and fuel cost escalation associated with conventional generation. At the present time, wind and/or solar energy sources are utilized to generate electric power in many applications. Wind and solar energy will become important sources for power generation in the future because of their environmental, social and economic benefits, together with public support and government incentives. The wind and sunlight are, however, unstable and variable energy sources, and behave far differently than conventional sources. Energy storage systems are, therefore, often required to smooth the fluctuating nature of the energy conversion system especially in small isolated applications. The research work presented in this thesis is focused on the development and application of reliability and economic benefits assessment associated with incorporating wind energy, solar energy and energy storage in power generating systems. A probabilistic approach using sequential Monte Carlo simulation was employed in this research and a number of analyses were conducted with regards to the adequacy and economic assessment of generation systems containing wind energy, solar energy and energy storage. The evaluation models and techniques incorporate risk index distributions and different operating strategies associated with diesel generation in small isolated systems. Deterministic and probabilistic techniques are combined in this thesis using a system well-being approach to provide useful adequacy indices for small isolated systems that include renewable energy and energy storage. The concepts presented and examples illustrated in this thesis will help power system planners and utility managers to assess the reliability and economic benefits of utilizing wind energy conversion systems, solar energy conversion

  9. Women's worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, N

    1992-01-01

    Jill Conway is a feminist historian, writer, teacher, and now-emerita 1st woman president of Smith College. She claims that women today still suffer from a great deal of oppression. Women around the world are currently in a disadvantage position. In 7 countries women do not have the right to vote. In the US less that .5% of top executives are women. The wage gap in the US between 1939 and 1989 has only shrunk $.10, from $.58-$.68. Conway points out that we are all constrained by our social mores, generational attitudes, political events, and economic circumstances. Few people are able to overcome these things in the way that they live their lives. Conway questions the validity of history written from a male dominated point of view. Around the world the value of women's work is almost always lower than that of men. India is just 1 example, there 75% of women are illiterate and 1/2 the population lives in poverty based on a caste system. Female literacy tripled in the 1st 30 years of independence and by 1981 it had reached 25%. The literacy gap is actually growing in India Today with 44% of girls aged 6 to 11, who are eligible to attend school, not doing so. Rural poverty keeps them at home because their domestic work is more valuable than their education. Other cultural tradition compound the problem: arranged marriages often result in motherhood for 14 year old girls. This is done for many reasons, 1 of which is crop failure insurance. When 2 families are combined through marriage, their total land share grows and they are thus more likely to have enough to eat. Education is just 1 necessary step. Developed nations must realize the realities that exist in the countries they provide aid for. In Africa for example, 70% of continent's food is produced by women. Yet the aid programs of the past have only been designed to offer assistant to men and create jobs for men.

  10. Generation of novel cationic antimicrobial peptides from natural non-antimicrobial sequences by acid-amide substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamada Yasushi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs are well recognized to be promising as novel antimicrobial and antitumor agents. To obtain novel skeletons of CAMPs, we propose a simple strategy using acid-amide substitution (i.e. Glu→Gln, Asp→Asn to confer net positive charge to natural non-antimicrobial sequences that have structures distinct from known CAMPs. The potential of this strategy was verified by a trial study. Methods The pro-regions of nematode cecropin P1-P3 (P1P-P3P were selected as parent sequences. P1P-P3P and their acid-amide-substituted mutants (NP1P-NP3P were chemically synthesized. Bactericidal and membrane-disruptive activities of these peptides were evaluated. Conformational changes were estimated from far-ultraviolet circular dichroism (CD spectra. Results NP1P-NP3P acquired potent bactericidal activities via membrane-disruption although P1P-P3P were not antimicrobial. Far-ultraviolet CD spectra of NP1P-NP3P were similar to those of their parent peptides P1P-P3P, suggesting that NP1P-NP3P acquire microbicidal activity without remarkable conformational changes. NP1P-NP3P killed bacteria in almost parallel fashion with their membrane-disruptive activities, suggesting that the mode of action of those peptides was membrane-disruption. Interestingly, membrane-disruptive activity of NP1P-NP3P were highly diversified against acidic liposomes, indicating that the acid-amide-substituted nematode cecropin pro-region was expected to be a unique and promising skeleton for novel synthetic CAMPs with diversified membrane-discriminative properties. Conclusions The acid-amide substitution successfully generated some novel CAMPs in our trial study. These novel CAMPs were derived from natural non-antimicrobial sequences, and their sequences were completely distinct from any categories of known CAMPs, suggesting that such mutated natural sequences could be a promising source of novel skeletons of CAMPs.

  11. "Is College Worth It?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The Pew Research Center asked an important question earlier this year when it embarked on an ambitious project called Is College Worth It?: College Presidents, Public Assess Value, Quality and Mission of Higher Education. While most today believe that getting a good education is key to success in the society, this report revealed surprising issues…

  12. Metal complexes of the fourth generation quinolone antimicrobial drug gatifloxacin: Synthesis, structure and biological evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeek, Sadeek A.; El-Shwiniy, Walaa H.

    2010-08-01

    Three metal complexes of the fourth generation quinolone antimicrobial agent gatifloxacin (GFLX) with Y(ΙΙΙ), Zr(ΙV) and U(VΙ) have been prepared and characterized with physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. In these complexes, gatifloxacin acts as a bidentate deprotonated ligand bound to the metal through the ketone oxygen and a carboxylato oxygen. The complexes are six-coordinated with distorted octahedral geometry. The kinetic parameters for gatifloxacin and the three prepared complexes have been evaluated from TGA curves by using Coats-Redfern (CR) and Horowitz-Metzeger (HM) methods. The calculated bond length and force constant, F(U dbnd O), for the UO 2 bond in uranyl complex are 1.7522 Å and 639.46 N m -1. The antimicrobial activity of the complexes has been tested against microorganisms, three bacterial species, such as Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) and two fungi species, penicillium ( P. rotatum) and trichoderma ( T. sp.), showing that they exhibit higher activity than free ligand.

  13. Evaluation of antimicrobial prophylaxis against postoperative infection after spine surgery: Limit of the first generation cephem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Yasuaki; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Keiji; Tsuge, Shintaro; Yokoyama, Yuichirou; Nakamura, Kazumasa; Fukano, Ryoichi; Takamatsu, Ryo; Wada, Akihito; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    In our department, first-generation cephem (CEZ) are generally administered for 2 days as antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) for spinal surgery. However, the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) has recently increased, particularly cases involving coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) as an etiologic agent. The objective was to elucidate the problems with the current AMP and the risk factors of SSI through a retrospective investigation of affected cases. The subjects were patients who underwent spine surgery at our department between August 2007 and June 2013. The subjects were divided into those who developed SSI (S group) and who did not develop SSI (non-SSI (N) group), patients who developed CNS infection in the S group was subdivided as C group, and the risk factors were investigated. The significance of each factor was analyzed using cross tabulation, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed with 22 of the investigation factors as explanatory variables. The incidence of SSI was 2.55%, and the etiologic agent was CNS in 17 patients. Upon comparison between the S and N groups, the presence of 3 or more underlying diseases and blood loss were extracted as significant risk factors. Upon comparison between the C and N groups, emergency surgery and intra- and postoperative steroid administration were extracted as significant risk factors, in addition to the presence of 3 or more underlying diseases and blood loss. The effect of the current AMP using first generation cephem is limited, and reconsideration of the protocol may be necessary.

  14. Cryptococcus neoformans capsule protects cell from oxygen reactive species generated by antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Renato Araujo; Hamblin, Michael R.; Kato, Ilka T.; Fuchs, Beth; Mylonakis, Eleytherios; Simões Ribeiro, Martha; Tegos, George

    2011-03-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (APDI) is based on the utilization of substances that can photosensitize biological tissues and are capable of being activated in the presence of light. Cryptococcus neoformans is an yeast surrounded by a capsule composed primarily of glucoronoxylomannan that plays an important role in its virulence. This yeast causes infection on skin, lungs and brain that can be associated with neurological sequelae and neurosurgical interventions, and its conventional treatment requires prolonged antifungal therapy, which presents important adverse effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Cryptococcus neoformans capsule against reactive oxygen species generated by APDI. Cryptococcus neoformans KN99α, which is a strain able to produce capsule, and CAP59 that does not present capsule production were submitted to APDI using methylene blue (MB), rose bengal (RB), and pL-ce6 as photosensitizers (PS). Then microbial inactivation was evaluated by counting colony form units following APDI and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) illustrated localization as well as the preferential accumulation of PS into the fungal cells. C. neoformans KN99α was more resistant to APDI than CAP59 for all PSs tested. CLSM showed incorporation of MB and RB into the cytoplasm and a preferential uptake in mitochondria. A nuclear accumulation of MB was also observed. Contrarily, pL-ce6 appears accumulated in cell wall and cell membrane and minimal florescence was observed inside the fungal cells. In conclusion, the ability of C. neoformans to form capsule enhances survival following APDI.

  15. Miniaturized Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test by Combining Concentration Gradient Generation and Rapid Cell Culturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel C. Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective treatment of bacterial infection relies on timely diagnosis and proper prescription of antibiotic drugs. The antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST is one of the most crucial experimental procedures, providing the baseline information for choosing effective antibiotic agents and their dosages. Conventional methods, however, require long incubation times or significant instrumentation costs to obtain test results. We propose a lab-on-a-chip approach to perform AST in a simple, economic, and rapid manner. Our assay platform miniaturizes the standard broth microdilution method on a microfluidic device (20 × 20 mm that generates an antibiotic concentration gradient and delivers antibiotic-containing culture media to eight 30-nL chambers for cell culture. When tested with 20 μL samples of a model bacterial strain (E. coli ATCC 25922 treated with ampicillin or streptomycin, our method allows for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations consistent with the microdilution test in three hours, which is almost a factor of ten more rapid than the standard method.

  16. What Is Bioethics Worth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Mildred Z

    2016-09-01

    What is bioethics to do when it strives to assess the quality of its research and scholarship and when it needs to justify its work to prospective funders, especially a funder like the National Institutes of Health that privileges empirical discovery? In "A Conceptual Model for the Translation of Bioethics Research and Scholarship," Debra Mathews and colleagues take an important first step at advancing an answer. The authors describe what they call a translational process, whereby bioethics "outputs" are translated into changes of three types: in thinking, practice, and policy. It goes nearly without saying that bioethics research and scholarship must be held accountable for changes in thinking. What raison d'etre do we have if not to deepen thinking, question assumptions, and encourage ourselves and others to examine hard issues from novel approaches? Assuredly it is hard to assess quality, and even harder to assess specific changes in thinking for which high-quality scholarship may be responsible, but it is a necessary goal and one for which we should strive without reservation. Bioethics should also affect policy and practice. We should document how it does and the extent to which it does as often and as prominently as possible. However, let us be wary of pinning too much on practice and policy changes as the primary way of establishing bioethics' worth.

  17. Laser cladding of stainless steel with a copper-silver alloy to generate surfaces of high antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Michael; Támara, Juan Carlos; Mathews, Salima; Bax, Benjamin; Hegetschweiler, Andreas; Kautenburger, Ralf; Solioz, Marc; Mücklich, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Copper and silver are used as antimicrobial agents in the healthcare sector in an effort to curb infections caused by bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics. While the bactericidal potential of copper and silver alone are well documented, not much is known about the antimicrobial properties of copper-silver alloys. This study focuses on the antibacterial activity and material aspects of a copper-silver model alloy with 10 wt% Ag. The alloy was generated as a coating with controlled intermixing of copper and silver on stainless steel by a laser cladding process. The microstructure of the clad was found to be two-phased and in thermal equilibrium with minor Cu2O inclusions. Ion release and killing of Escherichia coli under wet conditions were assessed with the alloy, pure silver, pure copper and stainless steel. It was found that the copper-silver alloy, compared to the pure elements, exhibited enhanced killing of E. coli, which correlated with an up to 28-fold increased release of copper ions. The results show that laser cladding with copper and silver allows the generation of surfaces with enhanced antimicrobial properties. The process is particularly attractive since it can be applied to existing surfaces.

  18. Flu Shots Are Worth It

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_162776.html Flu Shots Are Worth It Vaccine most important for young kids, seniors, people ... may not keep you from getting the flu, it will limit the severity and duration of the ...

  19. Expanded therapeutic potential in activity space of next-generation 5-nitroimidazole antimicrobials with broad structural diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yukiko; Kalisiak, Jaroslaw; Korthals, Keith; Lauwaet, Tineke; Cheung, Dae Young; Lozano, Ricardo; Cobo, Eduardo R; Upcroft, Peter; Upcroft, Jacqueline A; Berg, Douglas E; Gillin, Frances D; Fokin, Valery V; Sharpless, K Barry; Eckmann, Lars

    2013-10-22

    Metronidazole and other 5-nitroimidazoles (5-NI) are among the most effective antimicrobials available against many important anaerobic pathogens, but evolving resistance is threatening their long-term clinical utility. The common 5-NIs were developed decades ago, yet little 5-NI drug development has since taken place, leaving the true potential of this important drug class unexplored. Here we report on a unique approach to the modular synthesis of diversified 5-NIs for broad exploration of their antimicrobial potential. Many of the more than 650 synthesized compounds, carrying structurally diverse functional groups, have vastly improved activity against a range of microbes, including the pathogenic protozoa Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis, and the bacterial pathogens Helicobacter pylori, Clostridium difficile, and Bacteroides fragilis. Furthermore, they can overcome different forms of drug resistance, and are active and nontoxic in animal infection models. These findings provide impetus to the development of structurally diverse, next-generation 5-NI drugs as agents in the antimicrobial armamentarium, thus ensuring their future viability as primary therapeutic agents against many clinically important infections.

  20. Characterization of proteinases from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus involved in the generation of antimicrobial peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craik Charles S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemoglobin is a rich source of biologically active peptides, some of which are potent antimicrobials (hemocidins. A few hemocidins have been purified from the midgut contents of ticks. Nonetheless, how antimicrobials are generated in the tick midgut and their role in immunity is still poorly understood. Here we report, for the first time, the contribution of two midgut proteinases to the generation of hemocidins. Results An aspartic proteinase, designated BmAP, was isolated from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus using three chromatographic steps. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that BmAP is restricted to the midgut. The other enzyme is a previously characterized midgut cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase designated BmCL1. Substrate specificities of native BmAP and recombinant BmCL1 were mapped using a synthetic combinatorial peptide library and bovine hemoglobin. BmCL1 preferred substrates containing non-polar residues at P2 subsite and polar residues at P1, whereas BmAP hydrolysed substrates containing non-polar amino acids at P1 and P1'. Conclusions BmAP and BmCL1 generate hemocidins from hemoglobin alpha and beta chains in vitro. We postulate that hemocidins may be important for the control of tick pathogens and midgut flora.

  1. Ultrashort peptide nanogels release in situ generated silver manoparticles to combat emerging antimicrobial resistance strains

    KAUST Repository

    Seferji, Kholoud

    2017-01-08

    Nanogels made from self-assembling ultrashort peptides (3-6 amino acids in size) are promising biomaterials for various biomedical applications such as tissue engineering, drug delivery, regenerative medicine, microbiology and biosensing.We have developed silver-releasing peptide nanogels with promising wound care applications. The peptide nanogels allow a precise control of in situ syntesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), using soley short UV radiation and no other chemical reducing agent. We propose these silver-releasing nanogels as excellent biomaterial to combat emerging antimicrobial resistant strains.

  2. Oxidative stress generation of silver nanoparticles in three bacterial genera and its relationship with the antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteros, M A; Cano Aristizábal, V; Dalmasso, P R; Paraje, M G; Páez, P L

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress is a condition caused by the high intracellular concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that includes superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide. Nanoparticles could cause rapid generation of free radicals by redox reactions. ROS can react directly with membrane lipids, proteins and DNA and are normally scavenged by antioxidants that are capable of neutralizing; however, elevated concentrations of ROS in bacterial cells can result in oxidative stress. The aim of this work was contribute to the knowledge of action mechanism of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and their relation to the generation of oxidative stress in bacteria. We demonstrated that Ag-NPs generated oxidative stress in Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated by the increment of ROS and this increase correlated with a better antimicrobial activity. On the other hand, we showed that the oxidative stress caused by the Ag-NPs biosynthesized was associated to a variation in the level of reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI). Oxidative stress in bacteria can result from disruption of the electronic transport chain due to the high affinity of Ag-NPs for the cell membrane. This imbalance in the oxidative stress was evidentiated by a macromolecular oxidation at level of DNA, lipids and proteins in E. coli exposed to Ag-NPs. The formation of ROS and RNI by Ag-NPs may also be considered to explain the bacterial death.

  3. Contingencies of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, J; Wolfe, C T

    2001-07-01

    Research on self-esteem has focused almost exclusively on level of trait self-esteem to the neglect of other potentially more important aspects such as the contingencies on which self-esteem is based. Over a century ago, W. James (1890) argued that self-esteem rises and falls around its typical level in response to successes and failures in domains on which one has staked self-worth. We present a model of global self-esteem that builds on James' insights and emphasizes contingencies of self-worth. This model can help to (a) point the way to understanding how self-esteem is implicated in affect, cognition, and self-regulation of behavior; (b) suggest how and when self-esteem is implicated in social problems; (c) resolve debates about the nature and functioning of self-esteem; (d) resolve paradoxes in related literatures, such as why people who are stigmatized do not necessarily have low self-esteem and why self-esteem does not decline with age; and (e) suggest how self-esteem is causally related to depression. In addition, this perspective raises questions about how contingencies of self-worth are acquired and how they change, whether they are primarily a resource or a vulnerability, and whether some people have noncontingent self-esteem.

  4. Neutrophils employ the myeloperoxidase system to generate antimicrobial brominating and chlorinating oxidants during sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Gaut, Joseph P.; Yeh, George C.; Tran, Hung Duy; Byun, Jaeman; Henderson, Jeffrey P.; Richter, Grace M.; Brennan, Marie-Luise; Lusis, Aldons J.; Belaaouaj, Abderrazzaq; Richard S Hotchkiss; Heinecke, Jay W.

    2001-01-01

    The myeloperoxidase system of neutrophils uses hydrogen peroxide and chloride to generate hypochlorous acid, a potent bactericidal oxidant in vitro. In a mouse model of polymicrobial sepsis, we observed that mice deficient in myeloperoxidase were more likely than wild-type mice to die from infection. Mass spectrometric analysis of peritoneal inflammatory fluid from septic wild-type mice detected elevated concentrations of 3-chlorotyrosine, a characteristic end product of the myeloperoxidase s...

  5. Net worth and housing equity in retirement

    OpenAIRE

    Sinai, Todd; Nicholas S. Souleles

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents the trends in the life-cycle profiles of net worth and housing equity between 1983 and 2004. The net worth of older households significantly increased during the housing boom of recent years. However, net worth grew by more than housing equity, in part because other assets also appreciated at the same time. Moreover, the younger elderly offset rising house prices by increasing their housing debt, and used some of the proceeds to invest in other assets. We also consider ho...

  6. What are the forests worth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, L

    1992-05-30

    The Earth is a finite environment, thus growth cannot occur indefinitely. Eventually we will run out of space, resources, or anything else that is also finite. Once this fact is recognized, it becomes clear that we must develop in a sustainable way so that we can endure into the future. Overpopulation, vegetation destruction, and pollution are all serious threats to our finite environment. Traditionally, change has been to expensive and politically destabilizing. However, extensive changes in our modes of living must be made so that they become sustainable. In both developed and developing countries, consumptive growth must be replaced with sustainable development. Many developing countries are currently selling their natural resources to the developed countries. When they run out of resources, they will be truly poor. All governments must recognize the value of forests. It is estimated that in terms of medical uses for forest products alone, they will be worth US$11-12 billion (1990 dollars) by 2050. This constitutes a large portion of developing countries economies. Also, 80% of the population of developing countries rely on natural, traditional medicines made from forest products. Even in the US 25% of prescription drugs are based on phytochemicals. Now the drug companies are actively pursuing these resources for their products. It is estimated that 95% of the world species have not been assayed for their chemical value. Technology and money are not the obstacles to sustainable development and forest conservation. It is will and attitude that must be radically changed in order to protect the forests for the ecological and economic value.

  7. Supporting Worth Mapping with Sentence Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockton, Gilbert; Kujala, Sari; Nurkka, Piia; Hölttä, Taneli

    Expectations for design and evaluation approaches are set by the development practices within which they are used. Worth-Centred Development (WCD) seeks to both shape and fit such practices. We report a study that combined two WCD approaches. Sentence completion gathered credible quantitative data on user values, which were used to identify relevant values and aversions of two player groups for an on-line gambling site. These values provided human value elements for a complementary WCD approach of worth mapping. Initial worth maps were extended in three workshops, which focused on outcomes and user experiences that could be better addressed in the current product and associated marketing materials. We describe how worth maps were prepared for, and presented in, workshops, and how product owners and associated business roles evaluated the combination of WCD approaches. Based on our experiences, we offer practical advice on this combinination.

  8. Assessment of Chicken Carcass Microbiome Responses During Processing in the Presence of Commercial Antimicrobials Using a Next Generation Sequencing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ae Kim, Sun; Hong Park, Si; In Lee, Sang; Owens, Casey M.; Ricke, Steven C.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to 1) identify microbial compositional changes on chicken carcasses during processing, 2) determine the antimicrobial efficacy of peracetic acid (PAA) and Amplon (blend of sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate) at a poultry processing pilot plant scale, and 3) compare microbial communities between chicken carcass rinsates and recovered bacteria from media. Birds were collected from each processing step and rinsates were applied to estimate aerobic plate count (APC) and Campylobacter as well as Salmonella prevalence. Microbiome sequencing was utilized to identify microbial population changes over processing and antimicrobial treatments. Only the PAA treatment exhibited significant reduction of APC at the post chilling step while both Amplon and PAA yielded detectable Campylobacter reductions at all steps. Based on microbiome sequencing, Firmicutes were the predominant bacterial group at the phyla level with over 50% frequency in all steps while the relative abundance of Proteobacteria decreased as processing progressed. Overall microbiota between rinsate and APC plate microbial populations revealed generally similar patterns at the phyla level but they were different at the genus level. Both antimicrobials appeared to be effective on reducing problematic bacteria and microbiome can be utilized to identify optimal indicator microorganisms for enhancing product quality. PMID:28230180

  9. 12 CFR 263.105 - Statement of net worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statement of net worth. 263.105 Section 263.105... Statement of net worth. (a) General rule. A statement of net worth shall be filed with the application for an award of fees. The statement shall reflect the net worth of the applicant and all affiliates...

  10. 75 FR 78799 - Noise Compatibility Program Notice, Fort Worth Alliance Airport, Fort Worth, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Compatibility Program Notice, Fort Worth Alliance Airport, Fort... Administration (FAA) announces its findings on the noise compatibility program submitted by the city of Fort Worth, Texas under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. (the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act,...

  11. 78 FR 11094 - Safety Zone; Lake Worth Dredge Operations, Lake Worth Inlet; West Palm Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Worth Inlet, West Palm Beach, Florida, to provide..., February 20, 2013, dredging operations will be conducted on Lake Worth Inlet in West Palm Beach, Florida... the southwestern corner of Singer Island and then due south across the inlet to Palm Beach...

  12. Targeting the S1 and S3 subsite of trypsin with unnatural cationic amino acids generates antimicrobial peptides with potential for oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstad, Rasmus; Isaksen, Geir; Wynendaele, Evelien; Guttormsen, Yngve; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Brandsdal, Bjørn-Olav; Svendsen, John Sigurd; Svenson, Johan

    2012-07-26

    This study investigates how the S1 and S3 site of trypsin can be challenged with cationic amino acid analogues to yield active antimicrobial peptides with stability toward tryptic degradation. It is shown that unnatural analogues can be incorporated to generate stable peptides with maintained bioactivity to allow for a potential oral uptake. Selected peptides were studied using isothermal calorimetry and computational methods. Both stable and unstable peptides were found to bind stoichiometrically to trypsin with dissociation constants ranging 2-60 μM, suggesting several different binding modes. The stability of selected peptides was analyzed in whole organ extracts and the incorporation of homoarginine and 2-amino-(3-guanidino)propanoic acid resulted in a 14- and 50-fold increase in duodenal stability. In addition, a 40- and 70-fold increase in stomach stability is also reported. Overall, these results illustrate how the incorporation of cationic side chains can be employed to generate bioactive peptides with significant systemic stability.

  13. Is My Effort Worth It?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fei; Xiao, Bo; Lim, Eric T. K.

    2016-01-01

    in which Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) participants were recruited and tasked to perform search tasks on custom-made online review websites. By analyzing the behavioral data generated in the experimental process, we discover that search cost reduces the expected search utility while improving the yield...

  14. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Pesticides Share Facebook Twitter Google+ ... of antimicrobial pesticides (Part 158W) Antimicrobials play an important role in public health and safety. While providing ...

  15. Is My Effort Worth It?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fei; Xiao, Bo; Lim, Eric T. K.

    2016-01-01

    by advancing a typology of information search tactics, each incurring distinctive search cost. Furthermore, two types of search tasks were adapted from prior research to explore how search tactics differ between goal-oriented and exploratory conditions. Our hypotheses were validated via an online experiment......Inefficiencies associated with online information search are becoming increasingly prevalent in digital environments due to a surge in Consumer Generated Content (CGC). Despite growing scholarly interest in investigating information search behavior and practical demands to optimize users’ search...... in which Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) participants were recruited and tasked to perform search tasks on custom-made online review websites. By analyzing the behavioral data generated in the experimental process, we discover that search cost reduces the expected search utility while improving the yield...

  16. Copper-binding tripeptide motif increases potency of the antimicrobial peptide Anoplin via Reactive Oxygen Species generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libardo, M Daben J; Nagella, Sai; Lugo, Andrea; Pierce, Scott; Angeles-Boza, Alfredo M

    2015-01-02

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are broad spectrum antimicrobial agents that act through diverse mechanisms, this characteristic makes them suitable starting points for development of novel classes of antibiotics. We have previously reported the increase in activity of AMPs upon addition of the Amino Terminal Copper and Nickel (ATCUN) Binding Unit. Herein we synthesized the membrane active peptide, Anoplin and two ATCUN-Anoplin derivatives and show that the increase in activity is indeed due to the ROS formation by the Cu(II)-ATCUN complex. We found that the ATCUN-Anoplin peptides were up to four times more potent compared to Anoplin alone against standard test bacteria. We studied membrane disruption, and cellular localization and found that addition of the ATCUN motif did not lead to a difference in these properties. When helical content was calculated, we observed that ATCUN-Anoplin had a lower helical composition. We found that ATCUN-Anoplin are able to oxidatively damage lipids in the bacterial membrane and that their activity trails the rate at which ROS is formed by the Cu(II)-ATCUN complexes alone. This study shows that addition of a metal binding tripeptide motif is a simple strategy to increase potency of AMPs by conferring a secondary action.

  17. Antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in south-west Germany, 2004 to 2015: increasing minimal inhibitory concentrations of tetracycline but no resistance to third-generation cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnath, Thomas; Mertes, Thomas; Ignatius, Ralf

    2016-09-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, particularly to third-generation cephalosporins, has been reported in many countries. We examined the susceptibility (determined by Etest and evaluated using the breakpoints of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) of 434 N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected from 107 female and 327 male patients in Stuttgart, south-west Germany, between 2004 and 2015. During the study period, high proportions of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (70.3%), tetracycline (48.4%; increasing from 27.5% in 2004/2005 to 57.7% in 2014/2015; p = 0.0002) and penicillin (25.6%). The proportion of isolates resistant to azithromycin was low (5.5%) but tended to increase (p = 0.08). No resistance and stable minimum inhibitory concentrations were found for cefixime, ceftriaxone, and spectinomycin. High-level resistance was found for ciprofloxacin (39.6%) and tetracycline (20.0%) but not for azithromycin; 16.3% of the isolates produced betalactamase. Thus, cephalosporins can still be used for the treatment of gonorrhoea in the study area. To avoid further increasing resistance to azithromycin, its usage should be limited to patients allergic to cephalosporins, or (in combination with cephalosporins) to patients for whom no susceptibility testing could be performed or those co-infected with chlamydiae.

  18. Antimicrobial stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerberger, F; Mittermayer, H

    2008-03-01

    The aim of antimicrobial management or stewardship programmes is to ensure proper use of antimicrobial agents in order to provide the best treatment outcomes, to lessen the risk of adverse effects (including antimicrobial resistance), and to promote cost-effectiveness. Increasingly, long-term sustainability is found to be the major focus of antimicrobial stewardship. Implementing structural measures in healthcare institutions is therefore a major, but not the sole, focus of attention in promoting prudent use of antibiotics. The problem of antimicrobial resistance requires common strategies at all levels--for the prescribers and at ward, departmental, hospital, national and international levels.

  19. School Trips: Are They Worth the Effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Even the most basic of school trips will require booking places, arranging transport, writing to parents, collecting payments, planning activities, producing worksheets and, of course, endless risk assessments. It always leaves teachers wondering: "is it really worth all this effort?" Robert Johnston believes that every teacher should…

  20. Quantifying data worth toward reducing predictive uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dausman, Alyssa M; Doherty, John; Langevin, Christian D; Sukop, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    The present study demonstrates a methodology for optimization of environmental data acquisition. Based on the premise that the worth of data increases in proportion to its ability to reduce the uncertainty of key model predictions, the methodology can be used to compare the worth of different data types, gathered at different locations within study areas of arbitrary complexity. The method is applied to a hypothetical nonlinear, variable density numerical model of salt and heat transport. The relative utilities of temperature and concentration measurements at different locations within the model domain are assessed in terms of their ability to reduce the uncertainty associated with predictions of movement of the salt water interface in response to a decrease in fresh water recharge. In order to test the sensitivity of the method to nonlinear model behavior, analyses were repeated for multiple realizations of system properties. Rankings of observation worth were similar for all realizations, indicating robust performance of the methodology when employed in conjunction with a highly nonlinear model. The analysis showed that while concentration and temperature measurements can both aid in the prediction of interface movement, concentration measurements, especially when taken in proximity to the interface at locations where the interface is expected to move, are of greater worth than temperature measurements. Nevertheless, it was also demonstrated that pairs of temperature measurements, taken in strategic locations with respect to the interface, can also lead to more precise predictions of interface movement.

  1. Quantifying data worth toward reducing predictive uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dausman, A.M.; Doherty, J.; Langevin, C.D.; Sukop, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    The present study demonstrates a methodology for optimization of environmental data acquisition. Based on the premise that the worth of data increases in proportion to its ability to reduce the uncertainty of key model predictions, the methodology can be used to compare the worth of different data types, gathered at different locations within study areas of arbitrary complexity. The method is applied to a hypothetical nonlinear, variable density numerical model of salt and heat transport. The relative utilities of temperature and concentration measurements at different locations within the model domain are assessed in terms of their ability to reduce the uncertainty associated with predictions of movement of the salt water interface in response to a decrease in fresh water recharge. In order to test the sensitivity of the method to nonlinear model behavior, analyses were repeated for multiple realizations of system properties. Rankings of observation worth were similar for all realizations, indicating robust performance of the methodology when employed in conjunction with a highly nonlinear model. The analysis showed that while concentration and temperature measurements can both aid in the prediction of interface movement, concentration measurements, especially when taken in proximity to the interface at locations where the interface is expected to move, are of greater worth than temperature measurements. Nevertheless, it was also demonstrated that pairs of temperature measurements, taken in strategic locations with respect to the interface, can also lead to more precise predictions of interface movement. Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  2. Estimation of irradiated control rod worth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varvayanni, M., E-mail: melina@ipta.demokritos.g [NCSR ' DEMOKRITOS' , PO Box 60228, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Catsaros, N. [NCSR ' DEMOKRITOS' , PO Box 60228, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Antonopoulos-Domis, M. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2009-11-15

    When depleted control rods are planned to be used in new core configurations, their worth has to be accurately predicted in order to deduce key design and safety parameters such as the available shutdown margin. In this work a methodology is suggested for the derivation of the distributed absorbing capacity of a depleted rod, useful in the case that the level of detail that is known about the irradiation history of the control rod does not allow an accurate calculation of the absorber's burnup. The suggested methodology is based on measurements of the rod's worth carried out in the former core configuration and on corresponding calculations based on the original (before first irradiation) absorber concentration. The methodology is formulated for the general case of the multi-group theory; it is successfully tested for the one-group approximation, for a depleted control rod of the Greek Research Reactor, containing five neutron absorbers. The computations reproduce satisfactorily the irradiated rod worth measurements, practically eliminating the discrepancy of the total rod worth, compared to the computations based on the nominal absorber densities.

  3. Novel antimicrobial textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Unchin

    2003-10-01

    Many microorganisms can survive, and perhaps proliferate on textiles, generating adverse effects such as: disease transmission, odor generation, pH changes, staining, discoloration and loss of performance. These adverse effects may threaten users' health, deteriorate textile properties and degrade service quality. It may, therefore, be desirable to incorporate antimicrobials on textiles for controlling the growth of microorganisms. This dissertation focuses on the development of antimicrobial fibers and fabrics by integration of antimicrobials with these textiles. The applications of hydantoin-based halamines were mainly investigated in the research. The typical process is that hydantoin containing compounds are grafted onto textiles and transformed to halamine by chlorination. Hydantoin-based halamines are usually chloramines that release chlorine (Cl+) via cleavage of the -NCl functional group which attacks and kills microbes. The antimicrobial behavior is rechargeable many times by rinsing the fiber or fabric with chlorine-containing solution. Some quaternary ammonium type antimicrobials were also investigated in this research. The choice of integrating techniques is dependant on both the textile and antimicrobial compounds. In this dissertation, the nine approaches were studied for incorporating antimicrobial with various textiles: (1) co-extrusion of fibers with halamine precursor additive; (2) grafting of the quaternary ammonium compounds onto ethylene-co-acrylic acid fiber for creating quaternary ammonium type antimicrobial fiber; (3) entrapment of the additives in thermally bonded bicomponent nonwoven fabrics; (4) attaching antimicrobial additives to surfaces with latex adhesive coating; (5) grafting of antimicrobial compounds onto rubber latex via UV exposure; (6) reaction of halamine with needle-punched melamine formaldehyde nonwoven fabric and laminates; (7) coating melamine resin onto tent fabrics and laminates; (8) synthesis of super absorbent polymer

  4. 12 CFR 747.607 - Statement of net worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statement of net worth. 747.607 Section 747.607... Justice Act in NCUA Board Adjudications § 747.607 Statement of net worth. (a) Each applicant (other than a... net worth of the applicant and any affiliates, as defined in § 747.602(a), when the proceeding...

  5. Antimicrobial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Natural products of higher plants may possess a new source of antimicrobial agents with possibly novel mechanisms of action. They are effective in the treatment of infectious diseases while simultaneously mitigating many of the side effects that are often associated with conventional antimicrobials. A method using scanning electron microscope (SEM) to study the morphology of the bacterial and fungal microbes and thus determining antimicrobial activity is presented in the chapter.

  6. Capitalizing Central Banks: A Net Worth Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Ize

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a simple, quantitative, net worth-based, approach to assessing the need for central bank capital. It derives a concept of "core capital" (a function of the central bank's operating expenditures and the carrying cost of its international reserves) as the minimum capital needed by a central bank to ensure the credibility of its inflation target. The approach is illustrated with the published accounts of three loss-making central banks and selected accounting entries for a br...

  7. Enhancing Moral Conformity and Enhancing Moral Worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    It is plausible that we have moral reasons to become better at conforming to our moral reasons. However, it is not always clear what means to greater moral conformity we should adopt. John Harris has recently argued that we have reason to adopt traditional, deliberative means in preference to means that alter our affective or conative states directly-that is, without engaging our deliberative faculties. One of Harris' concerns about direct means is that they would produce only a superficial kind of moral improvement. Though they might increase our moral conformity, there is some deeper kind of moral improvement that they would fail to produce, or would produce to a lesser degree than more traditional means. I consider whether this concern might be justified by appeal to the concept of moral worth. I assess three attempts to show that, even where they were equally effective at increasing one's moral conformity, direct interventions would be less conducive to moral worth than typical deliberative alternatives. Each of these attempts is inspired by Kant's views on moral worth. Each, I argue, fails.

  8. Combating antimicrobial resistance: antimicrobial stewardship program in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shu-Hui; Lee, Chun-Ming; Lin, Tzou-Yien; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Yen, Muh-Yong; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Leu, Hsieh-Shong; Yen, Che-Chieh; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2012-04-01

    Multi-drug-resistant organisms are increasingly recognized as a global public health issue. Healthcare-associated infection and antimicrobial resistance are also current challenges to the treatment of infectious diseases in Taiwan. Government health policies and the health care systems play a crucial role in determining the efficacy of interventions to contain antimicrobial resistance. National commitment to understand and address the problem is prerequisite. We analyzed and reviewed the antibiotic resistance related policies in Taiwan, USA, WHO and draft antimicrobial stewardship program to control effectively antibiotic resistance and spreading in Taiwan. Antimicrobial stewardship program in Taiwan includes establishment of national inter-sectoral antimicrobial stewardship task force, implementing antimicrobial-resistance management strategies, surveillance of HAI and antimicrobial resistance, conducting hospital infection control, enforcement of appropriate regulations and audit of antimicrobial use through hospital accreditation, inspection and national health insurance payment system. No action today, no cure tomorrow. Taiwan CDC would take a multifaceted, evidence-based approach and make every effort to combat antimicrobial resistance with stakeholders to limit the spread of multi-drug resistant strains and to reduce the generation of antibiotic resistant bacteria in Taiwan.

  9. 29 CFR 4062.4 - Determinations of net worth and collective net worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to sell, or offer to purchase or sell the business of the person made on or about the net worth record date. (2) A bona fide sale of, agreement to sell, or offer to purchase or sell stock or a...) The person's economic outlook, as reflected by its earnings and dividend projections,...

  10. 75 FR 48411 - Noise Compatibility Program Notice; Fort Worth Alliance Airport, Fort Worth, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Compatibility Program Notice; Fort Worth Alliance Airport, Fort... Administration (FAA) announces that it is reviewing a proposed noise compatibility program that was submitted for... Noise Abatement Act, hereinafter referred to as ``the Act'') and 14 CFR Part 150 by the city of...

  11. A Spectrum is Worth a Thousand Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderman, Richard F.

    2006-12-01

    A wise astronomer once pointed out that if a picture is worth a thousand words, then a spectrum is worth a thousand pictures. Unfortunately, spectra are rarely emphasized in the introductory astronomy courses and few students exit such a course with any meaningful understanding or appreciation of spectroscopy. Part of the problem is lack of background knowledge; the typical introductory astronomy student has little experience with spectroscopy or atomic physics. Another issue is that spectra are not pretty pictures and are not intuitively understandable. We present and discuss a series of “minds-on” exercises and activities built into a college-level “stars, galaxies, and cosmology” intro astronomy course. The lessons are structured to help students improve their ability to recognize patterns and improve their ability to really see the details in front of them. Another goal is for students to realize there is “more than meets the eye” to learn how to discover “hidden” diagnostics, such as different sources of light their eyes see as white light. A curriculum that emphasizes spectroscopy also provides the opportunity to stress the story of the “Harvard Women,” a tale that bridges gender gaps and often humanizes scientists in the eyes of non-science majors. Finally, with a solid foundation in spectroscopy, students are better prepared to understand exciting topics such as Hubble’s Law and the importance of primordial nucleosynthesis.

  12. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emergence and spread of antibacterial resistance, including optimal use of antibiotics in both humans and animals. A global action plan on antimicrobial resistance was adopted by Member States at the ...

  13. Dependence of control rod worth on fuel burnup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savva, P., E-mail: savvapan@ipta.demokritos.g [NCSR ' DEMOKRITOS' , PoB 60228, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Varvayanni, M., E-mail: melina@ipta.demokritos.g [NCSR ' DEMOKRITOS' , PoB 60228, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Catsaros, N., E-mail: nicos@ipta.demokritos.g [NCSR ' DEMOKRITOS' , PoB 60228, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: Diffusion and MC calculations for rod worth dependence on burnup and Xe in reactors. One-step rod withdrawal/insertion are used for rod worth estimation. The study showed that when Xe is present the rods worth is significantly reduced. Rod worth variation with burnup depends on rod position in core. Rod worth obtained with MC code is higher than that obtained from deterministic. - Abstract: One important parameter in the design and the analysis of a nuclear reactor core is the reactivity worth of the control rods, i.e. their efficiency to absorb excess reactivity. The control rod worth is affected by parameters such as the fuel burnup in the rod vicinity, the Xe concentration in the core, the operational time of the rod and its position in the core. In the present work, two different computational approaches, a deterministic and a stochastic one, were used for the determination of the rods worth dependence on the fuel burnup level and the Xe concentration level in a conceptual, symmetric reactor core, based on the MTR fuel assemblies used in the Greek Research Reactor (GRR-1). For the deterministic approach the neutronics code system composed by the SCALE modules NITAWL and XSDRN and the diffusion code CITATION was used, while for the stochastic one the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI was applied. The study showed that when Xe is present in the core, the rods worth is significantly reduced, while the rod worth variation with increasing burnup depends on the rods position in the core grid. The rod worth obtained with the use of the Monte Carlo code is higher than the one obtained from the deterministic code.

  14. 38 CFR 3.263 - Corpus of estate; net worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corpus of estate; net....263 Corpus of estate; net worth. (a) General. The following rules are for application in determining the corpus of estate of a parent where dependency is a factor under § 3.250, and the net worth of...

  15. The Distinction Between Merit and Worth in Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Guba, Egon G.

    Valuing in evaluation encompasses two distinct senses of the word, denoted by the terms merit and worth. Merit may be defined as an entity's inherent, intrinsic, context-free value, while an entity's worth is defined as its contextually determined, place-bound value. Determining an entity's merit may take place whenever a number of experts are…

  16. 7 CFR 1427.1083 - Bonding requirements for net worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bonding requirements for net worth. 1427.1083 Section 1427.1083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT... Warehouses for Cotton and Cotton Linters § 1427.1083 Bonding requirements for net worth. A bond furnished...

  17. 38 CFR 3.275 - Criteria for evaluating net worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... net worth. 3.275 Section 3.275 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Improved Pension Program Which Became Effective January 1, 1979 § 3.275 Criteria for evaluating net worth. (a) General. The following rules are for application in determining the corpus of estate or net...

  18. 62 original article in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Key words: Staphylococcus aureus, antimicrobial resistance, disc agar diffusion, antibiotic susceptibility. PROFIL DE SENSIBILITE ... parts of the world are generating serious public ... knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of this ...

  19. Antimicrobial polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anjali; Duvvuri, L Sailaja; Farah, Shady; Beyth, Nurit; Domb, Abraham J; Khan, Wahid

    2014-12-01

    Better health is basic requirement of human being, but the rapid growth of harmful pathogens and their serious health effects pose a significant challenge to modern science. Infections by pathogenic microorganisms are of great concern in many fields such as medical devices, drugs, hospital surfaces/furniture, dental restoration, surgery equipment, health care products, and hygienic applications (e.g., water purification systems, textiles, food packaging and storage, major or domestic appliances etc.) Antimicrobial polymers are the materials having the capability to kill/inhibit the growth of microbes on their surface or surrounding environment. Recently, they gained considerable interest for both academic research and industry and were found to be better than their small molecular counterparts in terms of enhanced efficacy, reduced toxicity, minimized environmental problems, resistance, and prolonged lifetime. Hence, efforts have focused on the development of antimicrobial polymers with all desired characters for optimum activity. In this Review, an overview of different antimicrobial polymers, their mechanism of action, factors affecting antimicrobial activity, and application in various fields are given. Recent advances and the current clinical status of these polymers are also discussed.

  20. Current status and Future Works in Dynamic Control Rod Worth Measurement Method in KOREA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun-ki; Shin, Ho-chul [Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Co. Central Research Inst, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Actually all ex-core detector signal data processing and extracting the final conclusion about the single control bank was performed by the 3rd generation of Digital Reactivity Computer System (DRCS). From 2006 to 2016, about 250 control bank worths were measured and the difference between measured and calculated worth of individual bank were several % and total rod worth differences of each cycle were less than 3%. However there were a few odd cases showing the individual difference greater than 15% which is the criteria. And some OPR1000 nuclear power plants built recently use fission chambers instead of traditional uncompensated ion chambers. To consider those conditions, any modification of the DCRM method and DRCS were requested. In this paper, short description about DCRM method, current status of DCRM modification and future works are discussed. About 10 cases among about 250 control bank worth measurement with original DCRM method with UIC signals result in very heavy fluctuation on reactivity curve and the difference approaches 15%, the individual limit. The electrometer signals processing method were the main cause. To overcome this problem, a modified reactivity computer system using own current treatment logic was designed. It shows the reactivity fluctuation can be reduced dramatically in case of UIC signal. Recently the modified DRCS coupled INVESE code applied Westinghouse 2 Loop plant and gave very good results except a control bank whose measured rod worth was shown of 18% difference from the estimated value. The results were same for three repeat tests. All possible causes are examined from computer codes to detail data acquisition system.

  1. Something worth remembering: visual discrimination in sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Theodora; Schluessel, Vera

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated memory retention capabilities of juvenile gray bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium griseum) using two-alternative forced-choice experiments. The sharks had previously been trained in a range of visual discrimination tasks, such as distinguishing between squares, triangles and lines, and their corresponding optical illusions (i.e., the Kanizsa figures or Müller-Lyer illusions), and in the present study, we tested them for memory retention. Despite the absence of reinforcement, sharks remembered the learned information for a period of up to 50 weeks, after which testing was terminated. In fish, as in other vertebrates, memory windows vary in duration depending on species and task; while it may seem beneficial to retain some information for a long time or even indefinitely, other information may be forgotten more easily to retain flexibility and save energy. The results of this study indicate that sharks are capable of long-term memory within the framework of selected cognitive skills. These could aid sharks in activities such as food retrieval, predator avoidance, mate choice or habitat selection and therefore be worth being remembered for extended periods of time. As in other cognitive tasks, intraspecific differences reflected the behavioral breadth of the species.

  2. Antimicrobial peptides in innate immune responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, O.E.; Borregaard, N.; Cole, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are ancient effector molecules in the innate immune response of eukaryotes. These peptides are important for the antimicrobial efficacy of phagocytes and for the innate immune response mounted by epithelia of humans and other mammals. AMPs are generated either by de ...

  3. Study: Colonoscopy After 75 May Not Be Worth It

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Study: Colonoscopy After 75 May Not Be Worth It But, expert says age shouldn't be only ... and remove cancerous growths in the colon, but it may not provide much cancer prevention benefit after ...

  4. RadNet Air Data From Fort Worth, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Fort Worth, TX from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  5. 40 CFR 17.12 - Net worth exhibit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 17.12 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a qualified tax exempt organization or a qualified cooperative...

  6. 7 CFR 1.191 - Net worth exhibit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Equal Access to Justice Act in Proceedings Before the Department Information Required from Applicants § 1.191 Net worth exhibit. (a) An applicant, except a qualified tax-exempt organization or...

  7. 45 CFR 13.11 - Net worth exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TO JUSTICE ACT IN AGENCY PROCEEDINGS Information Required from Applicants § 13.11 Net worth exhibits... requirement does not apply to a qualified tax-exempt organization or cooperative association. Nor does...

  8. Health care, human worth and the limits of the particular.

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    An ethics concerned with health care developments and systems must be historically continuous, especially as it concerns the application to managed structures of key moral-epistemic concepts such as care, love and empathy. These concepts are traditionally most at home in the personal, individual domain. Human beings have non-instrumental worth just because they are human beings and not by virtue of their capacities. Managed health care systems tend to abstract from this worth in respect of bo...

  9. Superbugs: should antimicrobial resistance be included as a cost in economic evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast, J; Smith, R D; Millar, M R

    1996-01-01

    This paper argues that increasing resistance to antimicrobials is an important social externality that has not been captured at the level of economic appraisal. The paper explicitly considers reasons why the externality of antimicrobial resistance has not generally been included as a cost in economic evaluations comparing management strategies for infectious diseases. Four reasons are considered: first, that the absolute cost of antimicrobial resistance is too small to be worth including; second, that there is an implicit discounting of the costs of antimicrobial resistance on the basis of time preference which makes the cost too small to be worth including; third, that there is an implicit discounting of the costs of antimicrobial resistance on the basis of uncertainty which makes the cost too small to be worth including; and fourth, that the costs are too difficult to measure. Although there does not appear to be methodological justification for excluding the costs of antimicrobial resistance, it seems likely that, because of the practical difficulties associated with measuring these costs, they will continue to be ignored. The paper concludes with a discussion of the applicability of standard policy responses used to deal with externalities in other areas of welfare economics.

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate antimicrobial ...

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate antimicrobial ...

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  16. Antimicrobial peptide action on parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent, Marc; Pulido, David; Rivas, Luis; Andreu, David

    2012-08-01

    Diseases caused by protozoan parasites can pose a severe thread to human health and are behind some serious neglected tropical diseases like malaria and leishmaniasis. Though several different drugs have been developed in order to eradicate these diseases, a successful candidate has not yet been discovered. Among the most active compounds tested, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are particularly appealing because of their wide spectrum of action. AMPs have been described to perturb protozoan homeostasis by disrupting the cellular membranes but also by interfering with key processes in the parasite metabolism. In this review we describe the diverse mechanisms of action of AMPs on protozoan targets and how they can be exploited to treat diseases. Moreover, we describe with detail the antimicrobial action of AMPs on two major parasitical infections: leishmaniasis and malaria. All the features reviewed here show that AMPs are promising drugs to target protozoan parasites and that further understanding of the mechanism of action of these compounds will lead to improved drugs that could be worth to test in a clinical phase.

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring ... Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring ... Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  20. Characteristics of self-worth protection in achievement behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T

    1993-11-01

    Two experiments are reported comprising an investigation of individual difference variables associated with self-worth protection. This is a phenomenon whereby students in achievement situations adopt one of a number of strategies, including withdrawing effort, in order to avoid damage to self-esteem which results from attributing failure to inability. Experiment 1 confirmed the adequacy of an operational definition which identified self-worth students on the basis of two criteria. These were deteriorated performance following failure, together with subsequent enhanced performance following a face-saving excuse allowing students to explain failure without implicating low ability. The results of Experiment 2 established that the behaviour of self-worth protective students in achievement situations may be understood in terms of their low academic self-esteem coupled with uncertainty about their level of global self-esteem. Investigation of the manner in which self-worth students explain success and failure outcomes failed to demonstrate a tendency to internalise failure but revealed a propensity on the part of these students to reject due credit for their successes. The implications of these findings in terms of the prevention and modification of self-worth protective reactions in achievement situations are discussed.

  1. Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars

    2014-01-01

    -the-counter sale of antibiotics, the use of antimicrobial stewardship programmes, the active participation of clinicians in audits, the utilization of valid rapid point-of-care tests, the promotion of delayed antibiotic prescribing strategies, the enhancement of communication skills with patients with the aid...... is associated with an increased risk of adverse effects, more frequent re-attendance and increased medicalization of self-limiting conditions. Antibiotic overprescribing is a particular problem in primary care, where viruses cause most infections. About 90% of all antibiotic prescriptions are issued by general...... practitioners, and respiratory tract infections are the leading reason for prescribing. Multifaceted interventions to reduce overuse of antibiotics have been found to be effective and better than single initiatives. Interventions should encompass the enforcement of the policy of prohibiting the over...

  3. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K.

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore, used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery. PMID:23654251

  4. Pragmatic sociology and competing orders of worth in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2011-01-01

    sociologists Luc Boltanski and Laurent Thévenot have contributed to this line of research with a sophisticated theoretical framework of orders of worth, which has been applied in an increasing number of empirical studies. This article explores how the order of worth framework has been applied to empirical...... primarily has been related to three main themes in organizational research: non-profit and co-operative organizations, inter-organizational co-operation, and organizational change. Third, I discuss how the pragmatic, process-oriented aspect of the research program, focusing on the intertwining of values...

  5. Trust and Competing Orders of Worth in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    Trust is a multi-dimensional concept. This paper suggests that a fruitful framework for bringing order to this multi-dimensionality of the trust concept is the order of worth framework developed by Luc Boltanski and Laurent Thévenot (Boltanski and Thévenot, 2006). The paper explores how trust is ...... is conceptualized differently in the seven orders of worth highlighted by Boltanski and Thévenot. Last I discuss how this perspective of competing forms of trust may contribute to trust research in organizations....

  6. Presence of antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial use in sows are risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Bénédicte; Faes, Christel; Maes, Dominiek; Catry, Boudewijn; Boyen, Filip; Francoys, Delphine; de Jong, Ellen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Dewulf, Jeroen

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated whether antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in apparently healthy sows and antimicrobial administration to sows and piglets influenced antimicrobial resistance in fecal commensal E. coli from piglets. Sixty sows from three herds and three of their piglets were sampled at several time points. Antimicrobial usage data during parturition and farrowing were collected. Clinical resistance was determined for two isolates per sampling time point for sows and piglets using disk diffusion. Only 27.4% of E. coli isolates from newborn piglets showed no resistance. Resistance to one or two antimicrobial classes equaled 41.2% and 46.8% in isolates from sows and piglets, respectively, for the overall farrowing period. Multiresistance to at least four classes was found as frequently in sows (15.6%) as in piglets (15.2%). Antimicrobial resistance in piglets was influenced by antimicrobial use in sows and piglets and by the sow resistance level (p≤0.05). Using aminopenicillins and third-generation cephalosporins in piglets affected resistance levels in piglets (odds ratios [OR] >1; p≤0.05). Using enrofloxacin in piglets increased the odds for enrofloxacin resistance in piglets (OR=26.78; p≤0.0001) and sows at weaning (OR=4.04; p≤0.05). For sows, antimicrobial exposure to lincomycin-spectinomycin around parturition increased the resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfadiazine in sows (OR=21.33, OR=142.74, OR=18.03; p≤0.05) and additionally to enrofloxacin in piglets (OR=7.50; p≤0.05). This study demonstrates that antimicrobial use in sows and piglets is a risk factor for antimicrobial resistance in the respective animals. Moreover, resistance determinants in E. coli from piglets are selected by using antimicrobials in their dam around parturition.

  7. Communicating the financial worth of the CNS through the use of fiscal reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro-McDuffie, A; Chan, J S; Jerome, A M

    1993-03-01

    To maintain the clinical nurse specialist's (CNS's) leading role within hospital nursing services, routine communication to hospital administration of the impact of the CNS role on the hospital's budget is imperative. The CNS group at Children's Hospital of The King's Daughters implemented a quarterly Fiscal Report to clarify the financial worth of CNS practice. The Fiscal Report presents cost savings and revenue generating activities utilizing the role components of the CNS. During fiscal year 1991, the CNS group reported a total impact of $1,600,000. This article describes in detail the use of the Fiscal Report.

  8. Future contingencies and photovoltaic system worth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G. J.; Thomas, M. G.; Bonk, G. J.

    1982-01-01

    The value of dispersed photovoltaic systems connected to the utility grid has been calculated using the General Electric Optimized Generation Planning program. The 1986 to 2001 time period was used for this study. Photovoltaic systems were dynamically integrated, up to 5% total capacity, into 9 NERC based regions under a range of future fuel and economic contingencies. Value was determined by the change in revenue requirements due to the photovoltaic additions. Displacement of high cost fuel was paramount to value, while capacity displacement was highly variable and dependent upon regional fuel mix.

  9. 22 CFR 134.12 - Net worth exhibit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... adjudicative officer in a sealed envelope labeled “Confidential Financial Information”, accompanied by a motion... Information Required From Applicants § 134.12 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a qualifed tax... whether the applicant qualifies under the standards in his part. The adjudicative officer may require an...

  10. 15 CFR 18.12 - Net worth exhibit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sealed envelope labeled “Confidential Financial Information,” accompanied by a motion to withhold the... Information Required from Applicants § 18.12 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a qualified tax... qualifies under the standards in this part. The adjudicative officer may require an applicant to file...

  11. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or 40 percent of the minimum net worth amount in cash or cash equivalents. (2) Intangible assets. An organization may include intangible assets, the value of which is based on Generally Accepted Accounting... assets. Subject to the other provisions of this section, a PSO may apply 100 percent of the GAAP...

  12. Lives Worth Living: Religious Education and Social Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Jennifer R.

    2013-01-01

    When people of faith participate in movements for social change, how are their religious and moral identities formed, challenged, and transformed? Although they have explicit and tangible goals as they participate in advocacy, protest, and boycotts, religious social activists also, James Jasper argues, craft "lives worth living" (1997).…

  13. Control rod worth calculations using deterministic and stochastic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varvayanni, M. [NCSR ' DEMOKRITOS' , PO Box 60228, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Savva, P., E-mail: melina@ipta.demokritos.g [NCSR ' DEMOKRITOS' , PO Box 60228, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Catsaros, N. [NCSR ' DEMOKRITOS' , PO Box 60228, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece)

    2009-11-15

    Knowledge of the efficiency of a control rod to absorb excess reactivity in a nuclear reactor, i.e. knowledge of its reactivity worth, is very important from many points of view. These include the analysis and the assessment of the shutdown margin of new core configurations (upgrade, conversion, refuelling, etc.) as well as several operational needs, such as calibration of the control rods, e.g. in case that reactivity insertion experiments are planned. The control rod worth can be assessed either experimentally or theoretically, mainly through the utilization of neutronic codes. In the present work two different theoretical approaches, i.e. a deterministic and a stochastic one are used for the estimation of the integral and the differential worth of two control rods utilized in the Greek Research Reactor (GRR-1). For the deterministic approach the neutronics code system SCALE (modules NITAWL/XSDRNPM) and CITATION is used, while the stochastic one is made using the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI. Both approaches follow the procedure of reactivity insertion steps and their results are tested against measurements conducted in the reactor. The goal of this work is to examine the capability of a deterministic code system to reliably simulate the worth of a control rod, based also on comparisons with the detailed Monte Carlo simulation, while various options are tested with respect to the deterministic results' reliability.

  14. Social Construction of Skill: Gender, Power, and Comparable Worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Ronnie J.

    1990-01-01

    Pressures that contribute to conventional definitions of skill are uncovered through identification of sources of gender bias in job evaluation systems. Pay equity initiatives are examined to highlight process by which new definitions of skill are constructed or blocked. Demonstrates that comparable worth research can engender understanding of…

  15. 76 FR 60364 - Net Worth and Equity Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... acquired credit union's retained earnings when determining the amount of regulatory capital add-on to be... retained earnings before the latter amount is included in the net worth of the acquiring credit union. This proposed correction also limits the difference between the added retained earnings and bargain purchase...

  16. Novel histone-derived antimicrobial peptides use different antimicrobial mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavia, Kathryn E; Spinella, Sara A; Elmore, Donald E

    2012-03-01

    The increase in multidrug resistant bacteria has sparked an interest in the development of novel antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides that operate by crossing the cell membrane may also have the potential to deliver drugs to intracellular targets. Buforin 2 (BF2) is an antimicrobial peptide that shares sequence identity with a fragment of histone subunit H2A and whose bactericidal mechanism depends on membrane translocation and DNA binding. Previously, novel histone-derived antimicrobial peptides (HDAPs) were designed based on properties of BF2, and DesHDAP1 and DesHDAP3 showed significant antibacterial activity. In this study, their DNA binding, permeabilization, and translocation abilities were assessed independently and compared to antibacterial activity to determine whether they share a mechanism with BF2. To investigate the importance of proline in determining the peptides' mechanisms of action, proline to alanine mutants of the novel peptides were generated. DesHDAP1, which shows significant similarities to BF2 in terms of secondary structure, translocates effectively across lipid vesicle and bacterial membranes, while the DesHDAP1 proline mutant shows reduced translocation abilities and antimicrobial potency. In contrast, both DesHDAP3 and its proline mutant translocate poorly, though the DesHDAP3 proline mutant is more potent. Our findings suggest that a proline hinge can promote membrane translocation in some peptides, but that the extent of its effect on permeabilization depends on the peptide's amphipathic properties. Our results also highlight the different antimicrobial mechanisms exhibited by histone-derived peptides and suggest that histones may serve as a source of novel antimicrobial peptides with varied properties.

  17. Are Urban Stream Restoration Plans Worth Implementing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvilinna, Auri; Lehtoranta, Virpi; Hjerppe, Turo

    2017-01-01

    To manage and conserve ecosystems in a more sustainable way, it is important to identify the importance of the ecosystem services they provide and understand the connection between natural and socio-economic systems. Historically, streams have been an underrated part of the urban environment. Many of them have been straightened and often channelized under pressure of urbanization. However, little knowledge exists concerning the economic value of stream restoration or the value of the improved ecosystem services. We used the contingent valuation method to assess the social acceptability of a policy-level water management plan in the city of Helsinki, Finland, and the values placed on improvements in a set of ecosystem services, accounting for preference uncertainty. According to our study, the action plan would provide high returns on restoration investments, since the benefit-cost ratio was 15-37. Moreover, seventy-two percent of the respondents willing to pay for stream restoration chose "I want to conserve streams as a part of urban nature for future generations" as the most motivating reason. Our study indicates that the water management plan for urban streams in Helsinki has strong public support. If better marketed to the population within the watershed, the future projects could be partly funded by the local residents, making the projects easier to accomplish. The results of this study can be used in planning, management and decision making related to small urban watercourses.

  18. Are Urban Stream Restoration Plans Worth Implementing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvilinna, Auri; Lehtoranta, Virpi; Hjerppe, Turo

    2017-01-01

    To manage and conserve ecosystems in a more sustainable way, it is important to identify the importance of the ecosystem services they provide and understand the connection between natural and socio-economic systems. Historically, streams have been an underrated part of the urban environment. Many of them have been straightened and often channelized under pressure of urbanization. However, little knowledge exists concerning the economic value of stream restoration or the value of the improved ecosystem services. We used the contingent valuation method to assess the social acceptability of a policy-level water management plan in the city of Helsinki, Finland, and the values placed on improvements in a set of ecosystem services, accounting for preference uncertainty. According to our study, the action plan would provide high returns on restoration investments, since the benefit-cost ratio was 15-37. Moreover, seventy-two percent of the respondents willing to pay for stream restoration chose "I want to conserve streams as a part of urban nature for future generations" as the most motivating reason. Our study indicates that the water management plan for urban streams in Helsinki has strong public support. If better marketed to the population within the watershed, the future projects could be partly funded by the local residents, making the projects easier to accomplish. The results of this study can be used in planning, management and decision making related to small urban watercourses.

  19. Burden of antimicrobial resistance in European hospitals : excess mortality and length of hospital stay associated with bloodstream infections due to Escherichia coli resistant to third-generation cephalosporins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kraker, M. E. A.; Wolkewitz, M.; Davey, P. G.; Koller, W.; Berger, J.; Nagler, J.; Icket, C.; Kalenic, S.; Horvatic, J.; Seifert, H.; Kaasch, A.; Paniara, O.; Argyropoulou, A.; Bompola, M.; Smyth, E.; Skally, M.; Raglio, A.; Dumpis, U.; Kelmere, A. Melbarde; Borg, M.; Xuereb, D.; Ghita, M. C.; Noble, M.; Kolman, J.; Grabljevec, S.; Turner, D.; Lansbury, L.; Grundmann, H.

    2011-01-01

    This study determined excess mortality and length of hospital stay (LOS) attributable to bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by third-generation-cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in Europe. A prospective parallel matched cohort design was used. Cohort I consisted of patients with third-generat

  20. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the past 70 years, antimicrobial drugs, such as antibiotics, have been successfully used to treat patients with bacterial and infectious diseases. Why Is the Study of Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance a Priority for NIAID? Over time, many infectious ...

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  2. An efficient synthesis of 3′-quinolinyl substituted imidazole-5-one derivatives catalyzed by zeolite and their antimicrobial activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harshad G. Kathrotiya; Nilav A. Patel; Ranjan G. Patel; Manish P. Patel

    2012-01-01

    A series of some new quinoline based imidazole-5-one derivatives have been synthesized by the fusion of oxazol-5-ones,various p-substituted anilines and zeolite in pyridine.All the derivatives were subjected to an in vitro antimicrobial screening against a representative panel of bacteria and fungi and results worth further investigations.

  3. Dust That's Worth Keeping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-25

    Images taken of interstellar space often display a colorful canvas of portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Dispersed throughout the images are interstellar clouds of dust and gas--remnants ejected from stars and supernovae over billions and billions of years. For more than 40 years, astronomers have observed that interstellar dust exhibits a consistent effect at a spectral wavelength of 2,175 angstroms, the equivalent of 5.7 electronvolts in energy on the electromagnetic spectrum. At this wavelength, light from stars is absorbed by dust in the interstellar medium, blocking the stars light from reaching Earth. The 2,175-angstrom feature, which looks like a bump on spectra, is the strongest ultraviolet-visible light spectral signature of interstellar dust and is visible along nearly every observational line of sight. Scientists have sought to solve the mystery of what causes the 2,175-angstrom feature by reproducing the effect in the laboratory. They speculated a number of possibilities, including fullerenes (buckyballs), nanodiamonds, and even interstellar organisms. However, none of these materials fits the data for the unique spectral feature. Limitations in the energy and spatial resolution achievable with electron microscopes and ion microprobes--the two main instruments used to study samples of dust--have also prevented scientists from finding the answer. A collaborative effort led by Livermore physicist John Bradley and funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used a new-generation transmission electron microscope (TEM) and nanoscale ion microprobe to unlock the mystery. The Livermore group includes physicists Zu Rong Dai, Ian Hutcheon, Peter Weber, and Sasa Bajt and postdoctoral researchers Hope Ishii, Giles Graham, and Julie Smith. They collaborated with the University of California at Davis (UCD), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Washington University's Laboratory for Space Sciences in St. Louis, and NASA

  4. Antimicrobial resistance profiles in pathogens isolated from chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial resistance profiles are frequently studied from the perspective of epidemiology and not so often from the perspective of population genetics. The population geneticist assumes that gene flow, vertically (generation to generation), horizontally (individual to individual) or migratory (...

  5. Impact of revised CLSI breakpoints for susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems among Enterobacteriaceae isolates in the Asia-Pacific region: results from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART), 2002-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Yao-Shen; Toh, Han-Siong; Lee, Yu-Lin; Liu, Yuag-Meng; Ho, Cheng-Mao; Lu, Po-Liang; Liu, Chun-Eng; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Wang, Jen-Hsien; Tang, Hung-Jen; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Liu, Yung-Ching; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Xu, Yingchun; Ni, Yuxing; Ko, Wen-Chien; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the rates of susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems among Enterobacteriaceae isolates that had been obtained from patients with intraabdominal infections in the Asia-Pacific region as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART). Susceptibility profiles obtained using 2009 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints were compared with those obtained using the 2011 CLSI breakpoints. From 2002 to 2010, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae together accounted for more than 60% of the 13714 Enterobacteriaceae isolates analyzed during the study period. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers comprised 28.2% of E. coli isolates and 22.1% of K. pneumoniae isolates in the Asia-Pacific region, with China (55.6% and 33.7%, respectively) and Thailand (43.1% and 40.7%, respectively) having the highest proportions of ESBL producers. Based on the 2011 CLSI criteria, 77.2% of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 40.4% of ESBL-producing E. coli, and 25.2% of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime. Carbapenems showed in vitro activity against >90% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates in all participating countries, except for ertapenem in South Korea (susceptibility rate 82.2%). Marked differences (>5%) in susceptibility of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates to carbapenems were noted between the profiles obtained using the 2009 CLSI criteria and those using the 2011 CLSI criteria. Continuous monitoring of antimicrobial resistance is necessary in the Asia-Pacific region.

  6. Spermine oxidase is a regulator of macrophage host response to Helicobacter pylori: enhancement of antimicrobial nitric oxide generation by depletion of spermine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Asim, Mohammad; Barry, Daniel P; Frye, Jeanetta W; Casero, Robert A; Wilson, Keith T

    2014-03-01

    The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. We have reported that in H. pylori-activated macrophages, nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible NO synthase (iNOS) can kill the bacterium, iNOS protein expression is dependent on uptake of its substrate L-arginine (L-Arg), the polyamine spermine can inhibit iNOS translation by inhibiting L-Arg uptake, and inhibition of polyamine synthesis enhances NO-mediated bacterial killing. Because spermine oxidase (SMO), which back-converts spermine to spermidine, is induced in macrophages by H. pylori, we determined its role in iNOS-dependent host defense. SMO shRNA knockdown in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages resulted in a marked decrease in H. pylori-stimulated iNOS protein, but not mRNA expression, and a 90% reduction in NO levels; NO production was also inhibited in primary murine peritoneal macrophages with SMO knockdown. There was an increase in spermine levels after H. pylori stimulation that rapidly decreased, while SMO knockdown caused a greater increase in spermine that was sustained. With SMO knockdown, L-Arg uptake and killing of H. pylori by macrophages was prevented. The overexpression of SMO by transfection of an expression plasmid prevented the H. pylori-stimulated increase in spermine levels, and led to increased L-Arg uptake, iNOS protein expression and NO production, and H. pylori killing. In two human monocytic cell lines, U937 and THP-1, overexpression of SMO caused a significant enhancement of NO production with H. pylori stimulation. By depleting spermine, SMO can abrogate the inhibitory effect of polyamines on innate immune responses to H. pylori by enhancing antimicrobial NO production.

  7. 76 FR 1511 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Fort Worth NAS JRB (Carswell Field), TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Fort Worth NAS JRB (Carswell Field), TX AGENCY... coordinates within the Fort Worth Naval Air Station (NAS) JRB (Carswell Field), TX, area and renames the... Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 by adjusting the geographic coordinates of the Fort Worth NAS JRB (Carswell...

  8. Case Study: A Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Making a Case for Video Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi

    2014-01-01

    A picture, they say, is worth a thousand words. If a mere picture is worth a thousand words, how much more are "moving pictures" or videos worth? The author poses this not merely as a rhetorical question, but because she wishes to make a case for using videos in the traditional case study method. She recommends four main approaches of…

  9. Case Study: A Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Making a Case for Video Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi

    2014-01-01

    A picture, they say, is worth a thousand words. If a mere picture is worth a thousand words, how much more are "moving pictures" or videos worth? The author poses this not merely as a rhetorical question, but because she wishes to make a case for using videos in the traditional case study method. She recommends four main approaches of…

  10. The Relationship Between Bullying and Self-Worth in Children with Movement Coordination Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piek, J. P.; Barrett, N. C.; Allen, L. S. R.; Jones, A.; Louise, M.

    2005-01-01

    Past research has indicated that there is a negative relationship between victimization and self-worth. Furthermore, children with movement problems such as developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are considered at risk of both victimization and low self-worth. This study investigated the relationship between peer-victimization and self-worth in…

  11. Poor Performance in Mathematics: Is There a Basis for a Self-Worth Explanation for Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ted; Dinnel, Dale L.

    2007-01-01

    The self-worth theory of achievement motivation holds that in situations in which poor performance is likely to reveal low ability, certain students (known as self-worth protective students) intentionally withdraw effort in order to avoid the negative implications of poor performance in terms of damage to self-worth. In this study, evidence of…

  12. Antimicrobial properties of hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshadri, Preethi; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2012-12-01

    Hemoglobin consists of a heme containing component and a globin unit. It exists as a tetramer with 2 α subunits and 2 β subunits in adults and with 2 α subunits and 2 γ chains in infants. On proteolytic cleavage, hemoglobin breaks down to produce many biologically active compounds, among which are hemocidins, those which exhibit antimicrobial property. The generation of these peptides does not depend on the blood group, Rhesus factor, age and sex of the healthy donors. The microbicidal activity has been observed against a variety of gram positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and against filamentous fungi, yeast and even certain parasites. The discovery of hemocidins opens a new field for research into the details of the peptides acting as second line of defence in boosting the innate immune system of the organisms.

  13. Health care, human worth and the limits of the particular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, C

    1997-10-01

    An ethics concerned with health care developments and systems must be historically continuous, especially as it concerns the application to managed structures of key moral-epistemic concepts such as care, love and empathy. These concepts are traditionally most at home in the personal, individual domain. Human beings have non-instrumental worth just because they are human beings and not by virtue of their capacities. Managed health care systems tend to abstract from this worth in respect of both individuals' distinctness and individual identity. The first, a common feature of quantitative approaches to health care assessment and delivery, is avoidable. The second, by contrast, is necessarily sacrificed in impersonally managed structures. Failure to distinguish the two encourages confusion and distress, and the demand for impossible medico-moral relationships.

  14. Measurements of control rod worth by modified inverse kinetic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobrov, A. A.; Lebedev, G. V., E-mail: lgv2004@mail.ru; Nechaev, Yu. A. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    Results of control rod worth measurements on the Astra critical assembly at the Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute are presented. The measurements were carried out by the modified inverse kinetics method, which is based on the use of experimental information about the variation of neutron detector readings only after introducing a reactivity perturbation. Calculated corrections are not required. The results of measurements do not depend on the neutron detector position.

  15. Contingencies of self-worth, academic failure, and goal pursuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Crocker, Jennifer; Kiefer, Amy K

    2007-11-01

    Two studies examine the effects of failure on explicit and implicit self-esteem, affect, and self-presentation goals as a function of people's trait self-esteem and academic contingency of self-worth. Study 1 shows that participants with low self-esteem (LSE) who receive failure feedback experience lower state self-esteem, less positive affect, and less desire to be perceived as competent the more they base self-worth on academics. In contrast, participants with high self-esteem (HSE) who strongly base self-worth on academics show a slight boost in state self-esteem and desire to be perceived as competent following failure. Study 2 shows that following failure, academically contingent LSE participants downplay the importance of appearing competent to others and associate themselves with failure on an implicit level. Taken together, these findings suggest that academically contingent HSE people show resilience following failure, whereas academically contingent LSE people experience negative outcomes and disengage from the pursuit of competence self-presentation goals.

  16. Anti-antimicrobial Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Lloyd; Lamarre, Baptiste; Diu, Ting; Ravi, Jascindra; Judge, Peter J.; Temple, Adam; Carr, Matthew; Cerasoli, Eleonora; Su, Bo; Jenkinson, Howard F.; Martyna, Glenn; Crain, Jason; Watts, Anthony; Ryadnov, Maxim G.

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial or host defense peptides are innate immune regulators found in all multicellular organisms. Many of them fold into membrane-bound α-helices and function by causing cell wall disruption in microorganisms. Herein we probe the possibility and functional implications of antimicrobial antagonism mediated by complementary coiled-coil interactions between antimicrobial peptides and de novo designed antagonists: anti-antimicrobial peptides. Using sequences from native helical families such as cathelicidins, cecropins, and magainins we demonstrate that designed antagonists can co-fold with antimicrobial peptides into functionally inert helical oligomers. The properties and function of the resulting assemblies were studied in solution, membrane environments, and in bacterial culture by a combination of chiroptical and solid-state NMR spectroscopies, microscopy, bioassays, and molecular dynamics simulations. The findings offer a molecular rationale for anti-antimicrobial responses with potential implications for antimicrobial resistance. PMID:23737519

  17. [Antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, José Miguel; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Mensa, José; Trilla, Antoni; Cainzos, Miguel

    2002-01-01

    Antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery refers to a very brief course of an antimicrobial agent initiated just before the start of the procedure. The efficacy of antimicrobials to prevent postoperative infection at the site of surgery (incisional superficial, incisional deep, or organ/space infection) has been demonstrated for many surgical procedures. Nevertheless, the majority of studies centering on the quality of preoperative prophylaxis have found that a high percentage of the antimicrobials used are inappropriate for this purpose. This work discusses the scientific basis for antimicrobial prophylaxis, provides general recommendations for its correct use and specific recommendations for various types of surgery. The guidelines for surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis are based on results from well-designed studies, whenever possible. These guidelines are focussed on reducing the incidence of infection at the surgical site while minimizing the contribution of preoperative administration of antimicrobials to the development of bacterial resistance.

  18. Electric service reliability cost/worth assessment in a developing country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Mohan Kumar

    Considerable work has been done in developed countries to optimize the reliability of electric power systems on the basis of reliability cost versus reliability worth. This has yet to be considered in most developing countries, where development plans are still based on traditional deterministic measures. The difficulty with these criteria is that they cannot be used to evaluate the economic impacts of changing reliability levels on the utility and the customers, and therefore cannot lead to an optimum expansion plan for the system. The critical issue today faced by most developing countries is that the demand for electric power is high and growth in supply is constrained by technical, environmental, and most importantly by financial impediments. Many power projects are being canceled or postponed due to a lack of resources. The investment burden associated with the electric power sector has already led some developing countries into serious debt problems. This thesis focuses on power sector issues facing by developing countries and illustrates how a basic reliability cost/worth approach can be used in a developing country to determine appropriate planning criteria and justify future power projects by application to the Nepal Integrated Electric Power System (NPS). A reliability cost/worth based system evaluation framework is proposed in this thesis. Customer surveys conducted throughout Nepal using in-person interviews with approximately 2000 sample customers are presented. The survey results indicate that the interruption cost is dependent on both customer and interruption characteristics, and it varies from one location or region to another. Assessments at both the generation and composite system levels have been performed using the customer cost data and the developed NPS reliability database. The results clearly indicate the implications of service reliability to the electricity consumers of Nepal, and show that the reliability cost/worth evaluation is both

  19. IS IT WORTH GOING GREEN IN CROATIA? EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Pekanov Starčević

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Technological progress and innovations in production are the basis for increasing productivity and reducing operating costs. On the other hand, rapid development accompanied by neglected environmental issues has resulted in adverse effects on the environment, and thus on the entire society. The consequences on the environment occur in the form of natural disasters, climate change and global warming. In order to reduce the adverse effects on the environment, states have introduced legal provisions, such as pollution charges. Such charges represent the costs incurred by the company that consequently burden its financial result. On the other hand, those charges can be lower for companies that apply more efficient production methods. The question is whether it is worth for a company to be “green” and hence pay a lower charge, or not to take into account “green business” and pay a higher charge for using inefficient production methods. This paper will explore whether it is worth being green, i.e. whether improving production efficiency results in a reduction of production costs. The emphasis is thereby placed on small and medium-sized enterprises as generators of economic growth and green jobs. In order to give an adequate review of green business and green market in Croatia, authors will analyse the Eurobarometer survey Flash Eurobarometer 426, focusing on Croatian data (n=502. It is evident that “green business” is one of the main business areas in the context of sustainable and socially responsible business.

  20. Synthetic biology platform technologies for antimicrobial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braff, Dana; Shis, David; Collins, James J

    2016-10-01

    The growing prevalence of antibiotic resistance calls for new approaches in the development of antimicrobial therapeutics. Likewise, improved diagnostic measures are essential in guiding the application of targeted therapies and preventing the evolution of therapeutic resistance. Discovery platforms are also needed to form new treatment strategies and identify novel antimicrobial agents. By applying engineering principles to molecular biology, synthetic biologists have developed platforms that improve upon, supplement, and will perhaps supplant traditional broad-spectrum antibiotics. Efforts in engineering bacteriophages and synthetic probiotics demonstrate targeted antimicrobial approaches that can be fine-tuned using synthetic biology-derived principles. Further, the development of paper-based, cell-free expression systems holds promise in promoting the clinical translation of molecular biology tools for diagnostic purposes. In this review, we highlight emerging synthetic biology platform technologies that are geared toward the generation of new antimicrobial therapies, diagnostics, and discovery channels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Antimicrobial Peptides from Marine Proteobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Fleury

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available After years of inadequate use and the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR strains, the efficiency of “classical” antibiotics has decreased significantly. New drugs to fight MDR strains are urgently needed. Bacteria hold much promise as a source of unusual bioactive metabolites. However, the potential of marine bacteria, except for Actinomycetes and Cyanobacteria, has been largely underexplored. In the past two decades, the structures of several antimicrobial compounds have been elucidated in marine Proteobacteria. Of these compounds, polyketides (PKs, synthesised by condensation of malonyl-coenzyme A and/or acetyl-coenzyme A, and non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs, obtained through the linkage of (unusual amino acids, have recently generated particular interest. NRPs are good examples of naturally modified peptides. Here, we review and compile the data on the antimicrobial peptides isolated from marine Proteobacteria, especially NRPs.

  2. Antimicrobials in beekeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reybroeck, Wim; Daeseleire, Els; De Brabander, Hubert F; Herman, Lieve

    2012-07-06

    The bee diseases American and European foulbrood and nosemosis can be treated with anti-infectious agents. However, in the EU and the USA the use of these agents in beekeeping is strictly regulated due to the lack of tolerance (e.g. Maximum Residue Limit) for residues of antibiotics and chemotherapeutics in honey. This article reviews the literature dealing with antimicrobials of interest in apiculture, stability of these antimicrobials in honey, and disposition of the antimicrobials in honeybee hives.

  3. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more understandable to non-scientists by showing how bacterial antimicrobial resistance can develop and spread. All FDA CVM ... Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local ...

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System 2014 NARMS ... Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  5. Reactivity worth measurements with Caliban and Silene experimental reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casoli, P.; Authier, N. [CEA Valduc, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2008-07-01

    Reactivity worth measurements of material samples put in the central cavities of nuclear reactors allow to test cross section nuclear databases or to extract information about the critical masses of fissile elements. Such experiments have already been completed on the CALIBAN and SILENE experimental reactors operated by the Criticality and Neutronics Research Laboratory of Valduc (Cea, France), using the perturbation measurement technique. Feasibility studies have been performed to prepare future experiments on new materials (beryllium, copper, tantalum, {sup 237}Np) and results show that the obtained values for most materials are clearly above the measurement limits and then the perturbation technique can be used even with smaller size samples.

  6. Dynamic rod worth simulation study for a sodium-cooled TRU burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Ji; Ha, Pham Nhu Viet, E-mail: phamha@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, Min Jae; Kang, Chang Mu

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Dynamic rod worth calculation methodology for a sodium-cooled TRU burner was developed. • The spatial weighting functions were relatively insensitive to control rods position. • The simulated pseudo detector response agreed well with the calculated core power. • The simulated dynamic rod worths compared well against the simulated static values. • Impact of individual detector on the simulated dynamic worth was evaluated. - Abstract: This paper presents a preliminary dynamic rod worth simulation study for a TRU burner core mockup of the PGSFR (Korean Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) named BFS-76-1A so as to establish a calculation methodology for evaluating the rod worth of the PGSFR. The simulation method was mainly based on a three-dimensional multi-group nodal diffusion transient code for fast reactors in which the rod drop simulation for the BFS-76-1A was performed and all the fuel assemblies were taken into account for the detector response calculation. Then the dynamic rod worths were inferred from the simulated detector responses using an inverse point kinetics model and compared against the simulated static worths. The results show good agreement between the simulated pseudo detector response and the calculated core power as well as between the simulated dynamic and static rod worths, and thus indicate that the dynamic rod worth simulation method developed in this work can be applied to the rod worth estimation and validation for the PGSFR.

  7. Antimicrobial peptides in innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Ole E; Borregaard, Niels; Cole, Alexander M

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are ancient effector molecules in the innate immune response of eukaryotes. These peptides are important for the antimicrobial efficacy of phagocytes and for the innate immune response mounted by epithelia of humans and other mammals. AMPs are generated either by de novo synthesis or by proteolytic cleavage from antimicrobially inactive proproteins. Studies of human diseases and animal studies have given important clues to the in vivo role of AMPs. It is now evident that dysregulation of the generation of AMPs in innate immune responses plays a role in certain diseases like Crohn's disease and atopic dermatitis. AMPs are attractive candidates for development of novel antibiotics due to their in vivo activity profile and some peptides may serve as templates for further drug development.

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate antimicrobial for treatment. Accordingly, efforts are underway in both veterinary and human medicine to preserve the effectiveness of these drugs. ...

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CVM produced material may be copied, reproduced, and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring ... Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  11. Antimicrobial Peptides in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangshun Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights new members, novel mechanisms of action, new functions, and interesting applications of antimicrobial peptides reported in 2014. As of December 2014, over 100 new peptides were registered into the Antimicrobial Peptide Database, increasing the total number of entries to 2493. Unique antimicrobial peptides have been identified from marine bacteria, fungi, and plants. Environmental conditions clearly influence peptide activity or function. Human α-defensin HD-6 is only antimicrobial under reduced conditions. The pH-dependent oligomerization of human cathelicidin LL-37 is linked to double-stranded RNA delivery to endosomes, where the acidic pH triggers the dissociation of the peptide aggregate to release its cargo. Proline-rich peptides, previously known to bind to heat shock proteins, are shown to inhibit protein synthesis. A model antimicrobial peptide is demonstrated to have multiple hits on bacteria, including surface protein delocalization. While cell surface modification to decrease cationic peptide binding is a recognized resistance mechanism for pathogenic bacteria, it is also used as a survival strategy for commensal bacteria. The year 2014 also witnessed continued efforts in exploiting potential applications of antimicrobial peptides. We highlight 3D structure-based design of peptide antimicrobials and vaccines, surface coating, delivery systems, and microbial detection devices involving antimicrobial peptides. The 2014 results also support that combination therapy is preferred over monotherapy in treating biofilms.

  12. ANTIMICROBIAL HERBAL DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nishteswar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An anti-microbial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, or protozoans. Antimicrobial drugs either kill microbes (microbiocidal or prevent the growth of microbes (microbiostatic. Sulphonamide drugs were the first antimicrobial drugs, and paved the way for the antibiotic revolution in medicine. The first sulfonamide, trade named Prontosil, was actually a prodrug. However, with the development of antimicrobials, microorganisms have adapted and become resistant to previous antimicrobial agents. In view of certain side effects caused due to usage of modern antimicrobial drugs and antibiotics scientists have made some attempts to screen some of the Ayurvedic herbs, which possess broader spectrum of safety. Some selected herbs which are used by tribal and rural people for curing various infective diseases caused due to bacteria, virus and fungi have been reported to possess anti-microbial properties. In the present paper and attempt is made to review about the indigenous medicinal plant which exhibited antimicrobial properties.

  13. Alternative Antimicrobial Approach: Nano-Antimicrobial Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurit Beyth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite numerous existing potent antibiotics and other antimicrobial means, bacterial infections are still a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the need to develop additional bactericidal means has significantly increased due to the growing concern regarding multidrug-resistant bacterial strains and biofilm associated infections. Consequently, attention has been especially devoted to new and emerging nanoparticle-based materials in the field of antimicrobial chemotherapy. The present review discusses the activities of nanoparticles as an antimicrobial means, their mode of action, nanoparticle effect on drug-resistant bacteria, and the risks attendant on their use as antibacterial agents. Factors contributing to nanoparticle performance in the clinical setting, their unique properties, and mechanism of action as antibacterial agents are discussed in detail.

  14. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzler, Mark J; Berbari, Elie; Osmon, Douglas R

    2011-07-01

    Antimicrobial prophylaxis is commonly used by clinicians for the prevention of numerous infectious diseases, including herpes simplex infection, rheumatic fever, recurrent cellulitis, meningococcal disease, recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis, influenza, infective endocarditis, pertussis, and acute necrotizing pancreatitis, as well as infections associated with open fractures, recent prosthetic joint placement, and bite wounds. Perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis is recommended for various surgical procedures to prevent surgical site infections. Optimal antimicrobial agents for prophylaxis should be bactericidal, nontoxic, inexpensive, and active against the typical pathogens that can cause surgical site infection postoperatively. To maximize its effectiveness, intravenous perioperative prophylaxis should be administered within 30 to 60 minutes before the surgical incision. Antimicrobial prophylaxis should be of short duration to decrease toxicity and antimicrobial resistance and to reduce cost.

  15. Control rod reactivity worth determination of a typical MTR research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizwan, M.; Raza, S.S.; Khan, R. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2015-10-15

    The safe and reliable utilization of research reactor demands the possible accurate information of control rod (CR) worths. The criticality positions of the control rods changes with time due to build up fission products. It is therefore important to determine the reactivity worth of control rods. The aim of this article is to estimate the reactivity worth of controls rods in the equilibrium core of a Materials Testing Reactor (MTR). A deterministic model of the reactor core was developed and confirmed against the reference results of excess reactivity, shutdown margin and combined control rod reactivity worth using the combination of WIMS/D4 and CITATION computer codes.

  16. Importance of antimicrobial stewardship to the English National Health Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixon J

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jill Dixon, Christopher JA Duncan Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Queen Victoria Road, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK Abstract: Antimicrobials are an extremely valuable resource across the spectrum of modern medicine. Their development has been associated with dramatic reductions in communicable disease mortality and has facilitated technological advances in cancer therapy, transplantation, and surgery. However, this resource is threatened by the dwindling supply of new antimicrobials and the global increase in antimicrobial resistance. There is an urgent need for antimicrobial stewardship (AMS to protect our remaining antimicrobials for future generations. AMS emphasizes sensible, appropriate antimicrobial management for the benefit of the individual and society as a whole. Within the English National Health Service (NHS, a series of recent policy initiatives have focused on all aspects of AMS, including best practice guidelines for antimicrobial prescribing, enhanced surveillance mechanisms for monitoring antimicrobial use across primary and secondary care, and new prescribing competencies for doctors in training. Here we provide a concise summary to clarify the current position and importance of AMS within the NHS and review the evidence base for AMS recommendations. The evidence supports the impact of AMS strategies on modifying prescribing practice in hospitals, with beneficial effects on both antimicrobial resistance and the incidence of Clostridium difficile, and no evidence of increased sepsis-related mortality. There is also a promising role for novel diagnostic technologies in AMS, both in enhancing microbiological diagnosis and improving the specificity of sepsis diagnosis. More work is needed to establish an evidence base for interventions to improve public and patient education regarding the role of antibiotics in common clinical syndromes, such as respiratory tract infection. Future

  17. Reactivity-worth estimates of the OSMOSE samples in the MINERVE reactor R1-UO2 configuration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klann, R. T.; Perret, G.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-10-03

    An initial series of calculations of the reactivity-worth of the OSMOSE samples in the MINERVE reactor with the R1-UO2 core configuration were completed. The reactor model was generated using the REBUS code developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The calculations are based on the specifications for fabrication, so they are considered preliminary until sampling and analysis have been completed on the fabricated samples. The estimates indicate a range of reactivity effect from -22 pcm to +25 pcm compared to the natural U sample.

  18. Geologic framework of the Mississippian Barnett Shale, Barnett-Paleozoic total petroleum system, Bend arch-Fort Worth Basin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollastro, R.M.; Jarvie, D.M.; Hill, R.J.; Adams, C.W.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the primary geologic characteristics and criteria of the Barnett Shale and Barnett-Paleozoic total petroleum system (TPS) of the Fort Worth Basin used to define two geographic areas of the Barnett Shale for petroleum resource assessment. From these two areas, referred to as "assessment units," the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean volume of about 26 tcf of undiscovered, technically recoverable hydrocarbon gas in the Barnett Shale. The Mississippian Barnett Shale is the primary source rock for oil and gas produced from Paleozoic reservoir rocks in the Bend arch-Fort Worth Basin area and is also one of the most significant gas-producing formations in Texas. Subsurface mapping from well logs and commercial databases and petroleum geochemistry demonstrate that the Barnett Shale is organic rich and thermally mature for hydrocarbon generation over most of the Bend arch-Fort Worth Basin area. In the northeastern and structurally deepest part of the Fort Worth Basin adjacent to the Muenster arch, the formation is more than 1000 ft (305 m) thick and interbedded with thick limestone units; westward, it thins rapidly over the Mississippian Chappel shelf to only a few tens of feet. The Barnett-Paleozoic TPS is identified where thermally mature Barnett Shale has generated large volumes of hydrocarbons and is (1) contained within the Barnett Shale unconventional continuous accumulation and (2) expelled and distributed among numerous conventional clastic- and carbonate-rock reservoirs of Paleozoic age. Vitrinite reflectance (Ro) measurements show little correlation with present-day burial depth. Contours of equal Ro values measured from Barnett Shale and typing of produced hydrocarbons indicate significant uplift and erosion. Furthermore, the thermal history of the formation was enhanced by hydrothermal events along the Ouachita thrust front and Mineral Wells-Newark East fault system. Stratigraphy and thermal maturity define two gas

  19. Fast disinfecting antimicrobial surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Ahmad E; Dabkowski, Jeffery M; Nusslein, Klaus; Tew, Gregory N

    2009-01-20

    Silicon wafers and glass surfaces were functionalized with facially amphiphilic antimicrobial copolymers using the "grafting from" technique. Surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was used to grow poly(butylmethacrylate)-co-poly(Boc-aminoethyl methacrylate) from the surfaces. Upon Boc-deprotection, these surfaces became highly antimicrobial and killed S. aureus and E. coli 100% in less than 5 min. The molecular weight and grafting density of the polymer were controlled by varying the polymerization time and initiator surface density. Antimicrobial studies showed that the killing efficiency of these surfaces was independent of polymer layer thickness or grafting density within the range of surfaces studied.

  20. Real-Time Optical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, Marlene; Andersen, Klaus R; Jørgensen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in highly demand in health-care fields as antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope), which based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time, introdu......Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in highly demand in health-care fields as antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope), which based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time......, introduces real-time detection of bacterial growth and antimicrobial susceptibility, with imaging material to support the automatically generated graphs. Automated antibiotic susceptibility tests of a monoculture showed statistically significant antibiotic effect within 6 minutes and within 30 minutes...

  1. [Contingencies of self-worth in Japanese culture: validation of the Japanese contingencies of self-worth scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yukiko

    2008-08-01

    The author developed a Japanese version of the Contingencies of Self-Worth Scale (CSWS) that was originally developed in the United States (Crocker, Luhtanen, Cooper, & Bouvrette, 2003). The Japanese version of the scale measures seven contingencies of self-esteem: Defeating others in competition, appearance, relationship harmony, other's approval, academic competence, virtue, and support of family and friends. Scores on the scale had systematic relationships with related variables, and the scale therefore exhibited satisfactory levels of construct validity: Relationship harmony, other's approval, and support of family and friends were positively correlated with sympathy and interdependence, whereas competitiveness was negatively correlated with sympathy. Moreover, competitiveness and academic achievement contingencies predicted competitive motivation, whereas the support of family and friends contingency predicted self-sufficient motivation. The scale has adequate test-retest reliability and a seven-factor structural model was confirmed. The implications for self-esteem and interpersonal relationships in Japanese culture are discussed.

  2. 34 CFR 21.32 - Confidentiality of information about net worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... established procedures under the Freedom of Information Act (34 CFR part 5). (Authority: 5 U.S.C. 504(c)(1)) ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidentiality of information about net worth. 21.32... One Apply for an Award? § 21.32 Confidentiality of information about net worth. (a) In a proceeding...

  3. Is the Poor Performance of Self-Worth Protective Students Linked with Social Comparison Goals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ted; Perry, Zoe

    2005-01-01

    Students motivated to protect self-worth perform poorly in situations that threaten to reveal low ability while performing well in situations that involve little threat to self-worth. One factor contributing to their poor performance is thought to be their orientation towards social comparison goals (goals that have to do with vindicating their…

  4. 75 FR 73964 - Safety Zone; USS Fort Worth Launch, Marinette, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; USS Fort Worth Launch, Marinette, WI AGENCY... launching of the USS Fort Worth in Marinette, WI. The Captain of the Port, Sector Lake Michigan,...

  5. Identification of acquired antimicrobial resistance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zankari, Ea; Hasman, Henrik; Cosentino, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    ObjectivesIdentification of antimicrobial resistance genes is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms and the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. As the costs of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) continue to decline, it becomes increasingly available in routine diagnostic laborato......ObjectivesIdentification of antimicrobial resistance genes is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms and the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. As the costs of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) continue to decline, it becomes increasingly available in routine diagnostic...... laboratories and is anticipated to substitute traditional methods for resistance gene identification. Thus, the current challenge is to extract the relevant information from the large amount of generated data.MethodsWe developed a web-based method, ResFinder that uses BLAST for identification of acquired...... antimicrobial resistance genes in whole-genome data. As input, the method can use both pre-assembled, complete or partial genomes, and short sequence reads from four different sequencing platforms. The method was evaluated on 1862 GenBank files containing 1411 different resistance genes, as well as on 23 de...

  6. Pharmacogenomics of antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Ar Kar; Haas, David W; Hulgan, Todd; Phillips, Elizabeth J

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial efficacy and toxicity varies between individuals owing to multiple factors. Genetic variants that affect drug-metabolizing enzymes may influence antimicrobial pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, thereby determining efficacy and/or toxicity. In addition, many severe immune-mediated reactions have been associated with HLA class I and class II genes. In the last two decades, understanding of pharmacogenomic factors that influence antimicrobial efficacy and toxicity has rapidly evolved, leading to translational success such as the routine use of HLA-B*57:01 screening to prevent abacavir hypersensitivity reactions. This article examines recent advances in the field of antimicrobial pharmacogenomics that potentially affect treatment efficacy and toxicity, and challenges that exist between pharmacogenomic discovery and translation into clinical use.

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... showing how bacterial antimicrobial resistance can develop and spread. All FDA CVM produced material may be copied, ... Displays About NARMS Partners in Antibiotic Resistance and Food Safety Bacteria Tested NARMS at Work Meetings and ...

  8. Antimicrobial compounds in tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Alison M

    2013-12-01

    The tear film coats the cornea and conjunctiva and serves several important functions. It provides lubrication, prevents drying of the ocular surface epithelia, helps provide a smooth surface for refracting light, supplies oxygen and is an important component of the innate defense system of the eye providing protection against a range of potential pathogens. This review describes both classic antimicrobial compounds found in tears such as lysozyme and some more recently identified such as members of the cationic antimicrobial peptide family and surfactant protein-D as well as potential new candidate molecules that may contribute to antimicrobial protection. As is readily evident from the literature review herein, tears, like all mucosal fluids, contain a plethora of molecules with known antimicrobial effects. That all of these are active in vivo is debatable as many are present in low concentrations, may be influenced by other tear components such as the ionic environment, and antimicrobial action may be only one of several activities ascribed to the molecule. However, there are many studies showing synergistic/additive interactions between several of the tear antimicrobials and it is highly likely that cooperativity between molecules is the primary way tears are able to afford significant antimicrobial protection to the ocular surface in vivo. In addition to effects on pathogen growth and survival some tear components prevent epithelial cell invasion and promote the epithelial expression of innate defense molecules. Given the protective role of tears a number of scenarios can be envisaged that may affect the amount and/or activity of tear antimicrobials and hence compromise tear immunity. Two such situations, dry eye disease and contact lens wear, are discussed here.

  9. Seeing red: How perceptions of social status and worth influence hostile attributions and endorsement of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James R; Reyna, Christine

    2015-12-01

    Within social hierarchies, low social status is associated with increased vigilance, hostile expectations, and reactive aggression. We propose that societal devaluation is common across many low social status groups and produces a sense of threatened social worth. Threatened social worth may lead those of low status to be more vigilant towards social threats, thereby increasing the likelihood of hostile attributions and endorsement of aggression. Integrating theory on belongingness, social rejection, and stigma compensation, two studies test a sequential process model demonstrating that threatened social worth mediates the relationship between status, hostile attributions, and endorsement of aggression. Employing a relative status manipulation, Study 2 reveals a causal effect of status and highlights the importance of perceptions of low social status on threatened social worth. These data demonstrate the role of social worth in explaining the link between status and hostility and have implications for research in the social, health, and developmental domains.

  10. Machine learning: novel bioinformatics approaches for combating antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macesic, Nenad; Polubriaginof, Fernanda; Tatonetti, Nicholas P

    2017-09-12

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a threat to global health and new approaches to combating AMR are needed. Use of machine learning in addressing AMR is in its infancy but has made promising steps. We reviewed the current literature on the use of machine learning for studying bacterial AMR. The advent of large-scale data sets provided by next-generation sequencing and electronic health records make applying machine learning to the study and treatment of AMR possible. To date, it has been used for antimicrobial susceptibility genotype/phenotype prediction, development of AMR clinical decision rules, novel antimicrobial agent discovery and antimicrobial therapy optimization. Application of machine learning to studying AMR is feasible but remains limited. Implementation of machine learning in clinical settings faces barriers to uptake with concerns regarding model interpretability and data quality.Future applications of machine learning to AMR are likely to be laboratory-based, such as antimicrobial susceptibility phenotype prediction.

  11. Importance of antimicrobial stewardship to the English National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jill; Duncan, Christopher Ja

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobials are an extremely valuable resource across the spectrum of modern medicine. Their development has been associated with dramatic reductions in communicable disease mortality and has facilitated technological advances in cancer therapy, transplantation, and surgery. However, this resource is threatened by the dwindling supply of new antimicrobials and the global increase in antimicrobial resistance. There is an urgent need for antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) to protect our remaining antimicrobials for future generations. AMS emphasizes sensible, appropriate antimicrobial management for the benefit of the individual and society as a whole. Within the English National Health Service (NHS), a series of recent policy initiatives have focused on all aspects of AMS, including best practice guidelines for antimicrobial prescribing, enhanced surveillance mechanisms for monitoring antimicrobial use across primary and secondary care, and new prescribing competencies for doctors in training. Here we provide a concise summary to clarify the current position and importance of AMS within the NHS and review the evidence base for AMS recommendations. The evidence supports the impact of AMS strategies on modifying prescribing practice in hospitals, with beneficial effects on both antimicrobial resistance and the incidence of Clostridium difficile, and no evidence of increased sepsis-related mortality. There is also a promising role for novel diagnostic technologies in AMS, both in enhancing microbiological diagnosis and improving the specificity of sepsis diagnosis. More work is needed to establish an evidence base for interventions to improve public and patient education regarding the role of antibiotics in common clinical syndromes, such as respiratory tract infection. Future priorities include establishing novel approaches to antimicrobial management (eg, duration of therapy, combination regimens) to protect against resistance and working with the pharmaceutical

  12. Risk assessment of antimicrobial usage in Danish pig production on the human exposure to antimicrobial resistant bacteria from pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struve, Tina

    to antimicrobials are influenced by the use of antimicrobial agents, and the prudence of antimicrobial use have been emphasized since the Swann report in 1969 recommended that antibiotics used in human medicine should not be used as growth promoters in food-producing animals. In 2007, the World Health Organisation......During the last decades, bacteria with resistance to all commonly used antimicrobial agents have been detected, thereby posing a major threat to public health. In worst case, infections with resistant bacteria can lead to treatment failure and death of humans. The evolution of bacteria resistant...... (WHO) pronounced a list of the antimicrobial classes critically important for the treatment of infectious diseases in humans. On this list occurred among others the third and fourth generation cephalosporins. Cephalosporins have been used increasingly worldwide throughout the recent years to treat...

  13. Evaluating data worth for ground-water management under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models-a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programing sampling network design model-to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring network design model identifies, prior to data collection, the sampling strategy that will minimize model uncertainty; (3) the optimal ground-water management strategy is recalculated on the basis of the projected model uncertainty after sampling; and (4) the worth of the monitoring strategy is assessed by comparing the value of the sample information-i.e., the projected reduction in management costs-with the cost of data collection. Steps 2-4 are repeated for a series of data collection budgets, producing a suite of management/monitoring alternatives, from which the best alternative can be selected. A hypothetical example demonstrates the methodology's ability to identify the ground-water sampling strategy with greatest net economic benefit for ground-water management.A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models - a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programming sampling network design model - to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring

  14. [Global lessons of Minamata disease--a man's worth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Masazumi

    2009-02-01

    Minamata disease (MD) was first recognized in May 1956. Its first recognized victims were 3 and 5 years old children. Environmental contamination most rapidly and seriously affected the physiologically and socially weak among the residents. Methylmercury (MeHg) had accumulated in fishes and shellfishes and those who ate them had been poisoning with it. MD is an indirect poisoning by MeHg through the food chain as a result of environmental contamination, and is the first known disease to cause abnormalities in the fetus due to a toxic substances passing through the placenta. In 1962 MeHg poisoning through the placenta was found for the first time in the world. It used to be considered that poisoning was caused by direct exposure to a toxic substance, and that toxic substances did not pass the placenta. MD had implications in various fields. Namely it also stirred up legal, ethical, and eugenic arguments concerning fetal protection. Also man thought about a man's worth.

  15. Postoperative radiotherapy for lung cancer: Is it worth the controversy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billiet, Charlotte; Peeters, Stéphanie; Decaluwé, Herbert; Vansteenkiste, Johan; Mebis, Jeroen; Ruysscher, Dirk De

    2016-12-01

    The role of postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) in patients with completely resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with pathologically involved mediastinal lymph nodes (N2) remains unclear. Despite a reduction of local recurrence (LR), its effect on overall survival (OS) remains unproven. Therefore we conducted a review of the current literature. To investigate the benefit and safety of modern PORT, we identified published phase III trials for PORT. We investigated modern PORT in low-risk (ypN0/1 and R0) and high-risk (ypN2 and/or R1/2) patients with stage III-N2 NSCLC treated with induction chemotherapy and resection. Seventeen phase III trials using PORT were selected. Of all PORT N2 studies, 4 were eligible for evaluation of LR, all in high-risk patients only. In these high-risk patients receiving PORT, the mean LR rate at 5years was 20.9% (95% CI 16-24). Two trials were suitable to assess LR rates after chemotherapy and surgery without PORT. In these low-risk patients, the mean 5-year LR was 33.1% (95% CI 27-39). No significant difference in non-cancer deaths between PORT vs. non-PORT patients was observed in N2 NSCLC. PORT is worth the controversy because data illustrate that PORT may increase the OS. However, prospective randomized trials are needed to verify this. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antimicrobial polymers as synthetic mimics of host-defense peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kenichi; Caputo, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria 'superbugs' are an emerging threat to public health due to the decrease in effective antibiotics as well as the slowed pace of development of new antibiotics to replace those that become ineffective. The need for new antimicrobial agents is a well-documented issue relating to world health. Tremendous efforts have been given to developing compounds that not only show high efficacy, but also those that are less susceptible to resistance development in the bacteria. However, the development of newer, stronger antibiotics which can overcome these acquired resistances is still a scientific challenge because a new mode of antimicrobial action is likely required. To that end, amphiphilic, cationic polymers have emerged as a promising candidate for further development as an antimicrobial agent with decreased potential for resistance development. These polymers are designed to mimic naturally occurring host-defense antimicrobial peptides which act on bacterial cell walls or membranes. Antimicrobial-peptide mimetic polymers display antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria including drug-resistant strains and are less susceptible to resistance development in bacteria. These polymers also showed selective activity to bacteria over mammalian cells. Antimicrobial polymers provide a new molecular framework for chemical modification and adaptation to tune their biological functions. The peptide-mimetic design of antimicrobial polymers will be versatile, generating a new generation of antibiotics toward implementation of polymers in biomedical applications. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Calculation of RABBIT and Simulator Worth in the HFIR Hydraulic Tube and Comparison with Measured Values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, CO

    2005-09-08

    To aid in the determinations of reactivity worths for target materials in a proposed High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) target configuration containing two additional hydraulic tubes, the worths of cadmium rabbits within the current hydraulic tube were calculated using a reference model of the HFIR and the MCNP5 computer code. The worths were compared to measured worths for both static and ejection experiments. After accounting for uncertainties in the calculations and the measurements, excellent agreement between the two was obtained. Computational and measurement limitations indicate that accurate estimation of worth is only possible when the worth exceeds 10 cents. Results indicate that MCNP5 and the reactor model can be used to predict reactivity worths of various samples when the expected perturbations are greater than 10 cents. The level of agreement between calculation and experiment indicates that the accuracy of such predictions would be dependent solely on the quality of the nuclear data for the materials to be irradiated. Transients that are approximated by ''piecewise static'' computational models should likewise have an accuracy that is dependent solely on the quality of the nuclear data.

  18. Antimicrobial Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Khanal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pneumococcal infections are important cause of morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns plays important role in the selection of appropriate therapy. Present study was undertaken to analyze the susceptibility patterns of pneumococcal isolates against commonly used antimicrobials with special reference to determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of penicillin in a tertiary care hospital in eastern Nepal. Methods: Twenty-six strains of S. pneumoniae isolated from various clinical specimens submitted to microbiology laboratory were evaluated. All isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by disk diffusion method. MIC of penicillin was tested by broth dilution method. Results: Of the total isolates 19 (73% were from invasive infections. Seven isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole. No resistance to penicillin was seen in disk diffusion testing. Less susceptibility to penicillin (MIC 0.1-1.0 mg/L was observed in five (17% isolates. High level resistance to penicillin was not detected. One isolate was multidrug resistant. Conclusions: S. pneumoniaeisolates with intermediate resistance to penicillin prevail in Tertiary Care Hospital in eastern Nepal, causing invasive and noninvasive infections. As intermediate resistance is not detected in routine susceptibility testing, determination of MIC is important. It helps not only in the effective management of life threatening infections but is also essential in continuous monitoring and early detection of resistance. In addition, further study on pneumococcal infections, its antimicrobial resistance profile and correlation with clinical and epidemiological features including serotypes and group prevalence is recommended in future. Keywords: antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, penicillin, Streptococcus pneumoniae.

  19. Antimicrobials, stress and mutagenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Rodríguez-Rojas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cationic antimicrobial peptides are ancient and ubiquitous immune effectors that multicellular organisms use to kill and police microbes whereas antibiotics are mostly employed by microorganisms. As antimicrobial peptides (AMPs mostly target the cell wall, a microbial 'Achilles heel', it has been proposed that bacterial resistance evolution is very unlikely and hence AMPs are ancient 'weapons' of multicellular organisms. Here we provide a new hypothesis to explain the widespread distribution of AMPs amongst multicellular organism. Studying five antimicrobial peptides from vertebrates and insects, we show, using a classic Luria-Delbrück fluctuation assay, that cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs do not increase bacterial mutation rates. Moreover, using rtPCR and disc diffusion assays we find that AMPs do not elicit SOS or rpoS bacterial stress pathways. This is in contrast to the main classes of antibiotics that elevate mutagenesis via eliciting the SOS and rpoS pathways. The notion of the 'Achilles heel' has been challenged by experimental selection for AMP-resistance, but our findings offer a new perspective on the evolutionary success of AMPs. Employing AMPs seems advantageous for multicellular organisms, as it does not fuel the adaptation of bacteria to their immune defenses. This has important consequences for our understanding of host-microbe interactions, the evolution of innate immune defenses, and also sheds new light on antimicrobial resistance evolution and the use of AMPs as drugs.

  20. The direct and indirect role of self esteem and procrastination in the relation to fear of failure and self worth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Balkıs

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the direct and indirect role of self esteem and procrastination in the relation between fear of failure and self worth. The participants were 279 students who study different major fields at the Faculty of Education in Pamukkale University. Age range varied from 19 to 34. In this study, Tuckman Procrastination Inventory, Rosenberg Self Esteem Inventory, Activate and Success Based Self Worth Scale, Concern over Mistakes Scale and Personal Information Sheet were used to gather data. Results showed that procrastination had partial mediating effect in relation to fear of failure; performance based self worth, and self worth vulnerability. In other words, the effect of fear of failure on the performance based self worth and self worth vulnerability was decreased when procrastination was added the equation. The results also showed that self esteem had partial mediating role in relation to fear of failure-procrastination, fear of failure- performance based self worth, and self worth vulnerability. In other words, the effect of fear of failure on the procrastination, performance based self worth, and self worth vulnerability was reduced, when self esteem was added the equation. Finally, results showed that self esteem had full mediating role in the relation to procrastination; performance based self worth, and self worth vulnerability. Implications of these findings are discussed and suggestions are presented within the context of literature.

  1. The direct and indirect role of self esteem and procrastination in the relation to fear of failure and self worth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Balkıs

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the direct and indirect role of self esteem and procrastination in the relation between fear of failure and self worth.  The participants were 279 students who study different major fields at the Faculty of Education in Pamukkale University. Age range varied from 19 to 34. In this study, Tuckman Procrastination Inventory, Rosenberg Self Esteem Inventory, Activate and Success Based Self Worth Scale, Concern over Mistakes Scale and Personal Information Sheet were used to gather data. Results showed that procrastination had partial mediating effect in relation to fear of failure; performance based self worth, and self worth vulnerability. In other words, the effect of fear of failure on the performance based self worth and self worth vulnerability was decreased when procrastination was added the equation. The results also showed that self esteem had partial mediating role in relation to fear of failure-procrastination, fear of failure- performance based self worth, and self worth vulnerability. In other words, the effect of fear of failure on the procrastination, performance based self worth, and self worth vulnerability was reduced, when self esteem was added the equation. Finally, results showed that self esteem had full mediating role in the relation to procrastination; performance based self worth, and self worth vulnerability. Implications of these findings are discussed and suggestions are presented within the context of literature.

  2. Peptide consensus sequence determination for the enhancement of the antimicrobial activity and selectivity of antimicrobial peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaaytah, Ammar; Ajingi, Ya’u; Abualhaijaa, Ahmad; Tarazi, Shadi; Alshar’i, Nizar; Al-Balas, Qosay

    2017-01-01

    The rise of multidrug-resistant bacteria is causing a serious threat to the world’s human population. Recent reports have identified bacterial strains displaying pan drug resistance against antibiotics and generating fears among medical health specialists that humanity is on the dawn of entering a post-antibiotics era. Global research is currently focused on expanding the lifetime of current antibiotics and the development of new antimicrobial agents to tackle the problem of antimicrobial resistance. In the present study, we designed a novel consensus peptide named “Pepcon” through peptide consensus sequence determination among members of a highly homologous group of scorpion antimicrobial peptides. Members of this group were found to possess moderate antimicrobial activity with significant toxicity against mammalian cells. The aim of our design method was to generate a novel peptide with an enhanced antimicrobial potency and selectivity against microbial rather than mammalian cells. The results of our study revealed that the consensus peptide displayed potent antibacterial activities against a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Our membrane permeation studies displayed that the peptide efficiently induced membrane damage and consequently led to cell death through the process of cell lysis. The microbial DNA binding assay of the peptide was found to be very weak suggesting that the peptide is not targeting the microbial DNA. Pepcon induced minimal cytotoxicity at the antimicrobial concentrations as the hemolytic activity was found to be zero at the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The results of our study demonstrate that the consensus peptide design strategy is efficient in generating peptides. PMID:28096686

  3. Uncertainty of Doppler reactivity worth due to uncertainties of JENDL-3.2 resonance parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zukeran, Atsushi [Hitachi Ltd., Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan). Power and Industrial System R and D Div.; Hanaki, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Tuneo; Shibata, Keiichi; Ishikawa, Makoto

    1998-03-01

    Analytical formula of Resonance Self-shielding Factor (f-factor) is derived from the resonance integral (J-function) based on NR approximation and the analytical expression for Doppler reactivity worth ({rho}) is also obtained by using the result. Uncertainties of the f-factor and Doppler reactivity worth are evaluated on the basis of sensitivity coefficients to the resonance parameters. The uncertainty of the Doppler reactivity worth at 487{sup 0}K is about 4 % for the PNC Large Fast Breeder Reactor. (author)

  4. Antimicrobial outcomes in plasma medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas P.; Stalder, Kenneth R.; Woloszko, Jean

    2015-03-01

    Plasma is referred to as the fourth state of matter and is frequently generated in the environment of a strong electric field. The result consists of highly reactive species--ions, electrons, reactive atoms and molecules, and UV radiation. Plasma Medicine unites a number of fields, including Physics, Plasma Chemistry, Cell Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine. The treatment modality utilizes Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP), which is able to sterilize and treat microbes in a nonthermal manner. These gas-based plasma systems operate at close to room temperature and atmospheric pressure, making them very practical for a range of potential treatments and are highly portable for clinical use throughout the health care system. The hypothesis is that gas based plasma kills bacteria, fungus, and viruses but spares mammalian cells. This paper will review systematic work which shows examples of systems and performance in regards to antimicrobial effects and the sparing of mammalian cells. The mechanism of action will be discussed, as well as dosing for the treatment of microbial targets, including sterilization processes, another important healthcare need. In addition, commercial systems will be overviewed and compared, along with evidence-based, patient results. The range of treatments cover wound treatment and biofilms, as well as antimicrobial treatment, with little chance for resistance and tolerance, as in drug regimens. Current clinical studies include applications in dentistry, food treatment, cancer treatment, wound treatment for bacteria and biofilms, and systems to combat health care related infections.

  5. Antimicrobial stewardship: Limits for implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, Bhanu

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic stewardship programme (ASP) is a multifaceted approach to improve patients' clinical outcomes, prevent the emergence of antimicrobial resistance, and reduce hospital costs by prudent and focused antimicrobial use. Development of local treatment guidelines according to local ecology, rapid

  6. General principles of antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekha, Surbhi; Terrell, Christine L; Edson, Randall S

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often injudiciously, used therapeutic drugs worldwide. Important considerations when prescribing antimicrobial therapy include obtaining an accurate diagnosis of infection; understanding the difference between empiric and definitive therapy; identifying opportunities to switch to narrow-spectrum, cost-effective oral agents for the shortest duration necessary; understanding drug characteristics that are peculiar to antimicrobial agents (such as pharmacodynamics and efficacy at the site of infection); accounting for host characteristics that influence antimicrobial activity; and in turn, recognizing the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents on the host. It is also important to understand the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, to know when to consult infectious disease specialists for guidance, and to be able to identify situations when antimicrobial therapy is not needed. By following these general principles, all practicing physicians should be able to use antimicrobial agents in a responsible manner that benefits both the individual patient and the community.

  7. Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Sadredinamin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are extensive group of molecules that produced by variety tissues of invertebrate, plants, and animal species which play an important role in their immunity response. AMPs have different classifications such as; biosynthetic machines, biological sources, biological functions, molecular properties, covalent bonding patterns, three dimensional structures, and molecular targets.These molecules have multidimensional properties including antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, antifungal activity, anti-parasite activity, biofilm control, antitumor activity, mitogens activity and linking innate to adaptive immunity that making them promising agents for therapeutic drugs. In spite of this advantage of AMPs, their clinical developments have some limitation for commercial development. But some of AMPs are under clinical trials for the therapeutic purpose such as diabetic foot ulcers, different bacterial infections and tissue damage. In this review, we emphasized on the source, structure, multidimensional properties, limitation and therapeutic applications of various antimicrobial peptides.

  8. Data on occurrence of selected trace metals, organochlorines, and semivolatile organic compounds in edible fish tissues from Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moring, J. Bruce

    2002-01-01

    A public-health assessment conducted for the Texas Department of Health and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry concluded that exposure to contaminants through the aquatic food chain is an indeterminate human-health hazard in Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas. In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force and in collaboration with the Texas Department of Health, collected samples of edible fish tissues from Lake Worth for analysis of selected trace metals, organochlorines, and semivolatile organic compounds to support a human-health risk assessment. Left-side, skin-off fillet samples were collected from 10 individuals each of channel catfish, common carp, freshwater drum (gaspergou), largemouth bass, and white crappie but only from five smallmouth buffalo. The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory analyzed the samples for 22 trace metals, 40 organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls, and 75 semivolatile organic compounds.

  9. ISOS: A job evaluation system to implement comparable worth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Corominas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A fair pay structure is an essential element of the personnel policy of a firm. If the pay structure is perceived as arbitrary by the members of the staff, it becomes a cause of disturbance of the labor relations. Particularly, a pay structure is unfair if it discriminates against women. Job evaluation is a traditional tool used by companies to assist in the process of determining pay structures that can be also useful to detect and combat wage discrimination, since allow determining whether two jobs are of comparable worth or not. Although there are many kinds of systems, authors agree when defining point factor methods as the most appropriate and fair job evaluation systems. However, even being well defined from a technical point of view, most existing systems give discriminatory results regarding to gender. ISOS, a new job evaluation system which is described in this paper, has been designed, with the aim to define a neutral system with regard to gender, based on present jobs characteristics, existing job evaluation systems and job description questionnaires, international experts’ knowledge and a wide body of literature on gender discrimination and its relation with job evaluation. Using ISOS can contribute to detect, combat and eliminate part of the existing wage discrimination in general and, in particular, against women. ISOS includes all aspects of the work so no characteristics are omitted. The system can be applied in any company and to evaluate any job, and offers flexibility to be adapted to the specific characteristics of an organization. ISOS can also be used to detect and combat wage discrimination. Furthermore, characteristics of present jobs, such as cross-training or flexible working time, are also included so the system can be considered innovative in a very traditional field of industrial engineering.

  10. Descriptors for antimicrobial peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenssen, Håvard

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A frightening increase in the number of isolated multidrug resistant bacterial strains linked to the decline in novel antimicrobial drugs entering the market is a great cause for concern. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have lately been introduced as a potential new class...... examples of different peptide QSAR studies, this review highlights some of the missing links and illuminates some of the questions that would be interesting to challenge in a more systematic fashion. Expert opinion: Computer-aided peptide QSAR using molecular descriptors may provide the necessary edge...

  11. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance at a tertiary hospital in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashurano Marcellina

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance is particularly harmful to infectious disease management in low-income countries since expensive second-line drugs are not readily available. The objective of this study was to implement and evaluate a computerized system for surveillance of antimicrobial resistance at a tertiary hospital in Tanzania. Methods A computerized surveillance system for antimicrobial susceptibility (WHONET was implemented at the national referral hospital in Tanzania in 1998. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of all clinical bacterial isolates received during an 18 months' period were recorded and analyzed. Results The surveillance system was successfully implemented at the hospital. This activity increased the focus on antimicrobial resistance issues and on laboratory quality assurance issues. The study identified specific nosocomial problems in the hospital and led to the initiation of other prospective studies on prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial infections. Furthermore, the study provided useful data on antimicrobial patterns in bacterial isolates from the hospital. Gram-negative bacteria displayed high rates of resistance to common inexpensive antibiotics such as ampicillin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, leaving fluoroquinolones as the only reliable oral drugs against common Gram-negative bacilli. Gentamicin and third generation cephalosporins remain useful for parenteral therapy. Conclusion The surveillance system is a low-cost tool to generate valuable information on antimicrobial resistance, which can be used to prepare locally applicable recommendations on antimicrobial use. The system pinpoints relevant nosocomial problems and can be used to efficiently plan further research. The surveillance system also functions as a quality assurance tool, bringing attention to methodological issues in identification and susceptibility testing.

  12. The quantitative precipitation estimation system for Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) urban remote sensing network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haonan; Chandrasekar, V.

    2015-12-01

    The Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) urban radar network consists of a combination of high resolution X band radars and a standard National Weather Service (NWS) Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) system operating at S band frequency. High spatiotemporal-resolution quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) is one of the important applications of such a network. This paper presents a real-time QPE system developed by the Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) Engineering Research Center for the DFW urban region using both the high resolution X band radar network and the NWS S band radar observations. The specific dual-polarization radar rainfall algorithms at different frequencies (i.e., S- and X-band) and the fusion methodology combining observations at different temporal resolution are described. Radar and rain gauge observations from four rainfall events in 2013 that are characterized by different meteorological phenomena are used to compare the rainfall estimation products of the CASA DFW QPE system to conventional radar products from the national radar network provided by NWS. This high-resolution QPE system is used for urban flash flood mitigations when coupled with hydrological models.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance challenged with metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Aziz, Alaa S; Agatemor, Christian; Etkin, Nola

    2017-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance threatens the achievements of science and medicine, as it deactivates conventional antimicrobial therapeutics. Scientists respond to the threat by developing new antimicrobial platforms to prevent and treat infections from these resistant strains. Metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules are emerging as an alternative to conventional platforms because they combine multiple mechanisms of action into one platform due to the distinctive properties of metals. For example, metals interact with intracellular proteins and enzymes, and catalyse various intracellular processes. The macromolecular architecture offers a means to enhance antimicrobial activity since several antimicrobial moieties can be conjugated to the scaffold. Further, these macromolecules can be fabricated into antimicrobial materials for contact-killing medical implants, fabrics, and devices. As volatilization or leaching out of the antimicrobial moieties from the macromolecular scaffold is reduced, these medical implants, fabrics, and devices can retain their antimicrobial activity over an extended period. Recent advances demonstrate the potential of metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules as effective platforms that prevent and treat infections from resistant strains. In this review these advances are thoroughly discussed within the context of examples of metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules, their mechanisms of action and biocompatibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prometheus unbound: A study of the Dallas/Fort Worth Regional Airport. [Socio-economic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, J. D.; Brown, J.; Dominus, M. I.

    1975-01-01

    The history of the controversies in the development of the Dallas/Fort Worth Regional Airport is detailed. Present technological and organizational management problems are outlined. Maps and illustrations are included.

  15. 12 CFR 702.106 - Standard calculation of risk-based net worth requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Net Worth Classification § 702.106 Standard calculation of...) Allowance. Negative one hundred percent (−100%) of the balance of the Allowance for Loan and Lease...

  16. A survey of antimicrobial usage in animals in South Africa with specific reference to food animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz van Vuuren

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to set a benchmark for a monitoring and surveillance programme on the volumes of antimicrobials available and consumed by animals for the benefit of animal health in South Africa. This survey was collated from data available from 2002 to 2004. The authorised antimicrobials available in South Africa were firstly reviewed. The majority of available antimicrobials were registered under the Stock Remedies Act 36 1947. Secondly, volumes of antimicrobials consumed were then surveyed and it was found that the majority of consumed antimicrobials were from the macrolide and pleuromutilin classes, followed by the tetracycline class, the sulphonamide class and lastly the penicillin class.Results showed that 68.5% of the antimicrobials surveyed were administered as in-feed medications. 17.5% of the total volume of antimicrobials utilised were parenteral antimicrobials, whereas antimicrobials for water medication constituted 12% of the total and ’other‘ dosage forms, for example the topical and aural dosage forms, constituted 1.5% of the total. Intramammary antimicrobials represented 0.04% of the total. The surveillance systems for veterinary antimicrobials used by other countries were scrutinised and compared. It was concluded that a combination of the surveillance systems applied by Australia and the United Kingdom is the best model (with modifications to apply to the animal health industry in South Africa. Such a surveillance system, of the volumes of veterinary antimicrobials consumed, should ideally be implemented in conjunction with a veterinary antimicrobial resistance surveillance and monitoring programme. This will generate meaningful data that will contribute to the rational administration of antimicrobials in order to preserve the efficacy of the existing antimicrobials in South Africa.

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  18. Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Enzler, Mark J.; Berbari, Elie; Osmon, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial prophylaxis is commonly used by clinicians for the prevention of numerous infectious diseases, including herpes simplex infection, rheumatic fever, recurrent cellulitis, meningococcal disease, recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis, influenza, infective endocarditis, pertussis, and acute necrotizing pancreatitis, as well as infections associated with open fractures, recent prosthetic joint placement...

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts ... Português | Italiano | Deutsch | 日本語 | فارسی | English FDA Accessibility Careers FDA Basics FOIA No FEAR Act Site Map ...

  20. Is It Worth It? - the Economics of Reusable Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several decades billions of dollars have been invested by governments and private companies in the pursuit of lower cost access to space through earth-to-orbit (ETO) space transportation systems. Much of that investment has been focused on the development and operation of various forms of reusable transportation systems. From the Space Shuttle to current efforts by private commercial companies, the overarching belief of those making such investments has been that reusing system elements will be cheaper than utilizing expendable systems that involve throwing away costly engines, avionics, and other hardware with each flight. However, the view that reusable systems are ultimately a "better" approach to providing ETO transportation is not held universally by major stakeholders within the space transportation industry. While the technical feasibility of at least some degree of reusability has been demonstrated, there continues to be a sometimes lively debate over the merits and drawbacks of reusable versus expendable systems from an economic perspective. In summary, is it worth it? Based on our many years of direct involvement with the business aspects of several expendable and reusable transportation systems, it appears to us that much of the discussion surrounding reusability is hindered by a failure to clearly define and understand the financial and other metrics by which the financial "goodness" of a reusable or expandable approach is measured. As stakeholders, the different users and suppliers of space transportation have a varied set of criteria for determining the relative economic viability of alternative strategies, including reusability. Many different metrics have been used to measure the affordability of space transportation, such as dollars per payload pound (kilogram) to orbit, cost per flight, life cycle cost, net present value/internal rate of return, and many others. This paper will examine the key considerations that influence

  1. Triclosan antimicrobial polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Petersen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Triclosan antimicrobial molecular fluctuating energies of nonbonding electron pairs for the oxygen atom by ether bond rotations are reviewed with conformational computational chemistry analyses. Subsequent understanding of triclosan alternating ether bond rotations is able to help explain several material properties in Polymer Science. Unique bond rotation entanglements between triclosan and the polymer chains increase both the mechanical properties of polymer toughness and strength that are enhanced even better through secondary bonding relationships. Further, polymer blend compatibilization is considered due to similar molecular relationships and polarities. With compatibilization of triclosan in polymers a more uniform stability for nonpolar triclosan in the polymer solid state is retained by the antimicrobial for extremely low release with minimum solubility into aqueous solution. As a result, triclosan is projected for long extended lifetimes as an antimicrobial polymer additive. Further, triclosan rapid alternating ether bond rotations disrupt secondary bonding between chain monomers in the resin state to reduce viscosity and enhance polymer blending. Thus, triclosan is considered for a polymer additive with multiple properties to be an antimicrobial with additional benefits as a nonpolar toughening agent and a hydrophobic wetting agent. The triclosan material relationships with alternating ether bond rotations are described through a complete different form of medium by comparisons with known antimicrobial properties that upset bacterial cell membranes through rapid fluctuating mechanomolecular energies. Also, triclosan bond entanglements with secondary bonding can produce structural defects in weak bacterial lipid membranes requiring pliability that can then interfere with cell division. Regarding applications with polymers, triclosan can be incorporated by mixing into a resin system before cure, melt mixed with thermoplastic polymers

  2. Triclosan antimicrobial polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan antimicrobial molecular fluctuating energies of nonbonding electron pairs for the oxygen atom by ether bond rotations are reviewed with conformational computational chemistry analyses. Subsequent understanding of triclosan alternating ether bond rotations is able to help explain several material properties in Polymer Science. Unique bond rotation entanglements between triclosan and the polymer chains increase both the mechanical properties of polymer toughness and strength that are enhanced even better through secondary bonding relationships. Further, polymer blend compatibilization is considered due to similar molecular relationships and polarities. With compatibilization of triclosan in polymers a more uniform stability for nonpolar triclosan in the polymer solid state is retained by the antimicrobial for extremely low release with minimum solubility into aqueous solution. As a result, triclosan is projected for long extended lifetimes as an antimicrobial polymer additive. Further, triclosan rapid alternating ether bond rotations disrupt secondary bonding between chain monomers in the resin state to reduce viscosity and enhance polymer blending. Thus, triclosan is considered for a polymer additive with multiple properties to be an antimicrobial with additional benefits as a nonpolar toughening agent and a hydrophobic wetting agent. The triclosan material relationships with alternating ether bond rotations are described through a complete different form of medium by comparisons with known antimicrobial properties that upset bacterial cell membranes through rapid fluctuating mechanomolecular energies. Also, triclosan bond entanglements with secondary bonding can produce structural defects in weak bacterial lipid membranes requiring pliability that can then interfere with cell division. Regarding applications with polymers, triclosan can be incorporated by mixing into a resin system before cure, melt mixed with thermoplastic polymers that set on cooling

  3. Formation of nanoporous pyrobitumen residues during maturation processes within the Barnett Shale (Fort Worth Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, S.; Wirth, R.; Schreiber, A.; Schulz, H.-M.; Horsfield, B.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrocarbon generation processes occur within organic-rich shales as a response to increases in thermal maturation. Shale gas reservoir quality is thought to be largely dependent on the extent to which solid organic material has been converted to pore space during catagenesis. Although pores may drastically vary in variety and abundance within differing shales, the occurrence of nanopores within organic particles has recently been documented for an important number of gas shale systems (i.e., Barnett, Haynesville, Utica, Eagle Ford, Woodford, Horn River, Marcellus, Posidonia …). However, despite their ubiquitous nature, the formation and the geochemical nature of these nanoporous organic compounds remain unclear. Here, we present the characterization of samples from the organic-rich Mississippian Barnett shale gas system (Fort Worth Basin, Texas, USA) at varying stages of thermal maturation. Using a combination of compositional organic geochemistry and spectromicroscopy techniques, including synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM - data collected using the CLS 10ID-1 STXM beamline) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we document a net increase in sample geochemical heterogeneity with increasing maturity. In addition to the presence of bitumen in samples of oil window maturity, very likely genetically derived from thermally degraded kerogen, the formation of nanoporous pyrobitumen has been inferred for samples of gas window maturity, likely resulting from the formation of gaseous hydrocarbons by secondary cracking of bitumen compounds. By providing in-situ insights into the fate of bitumen and pyrobitumen as a response to the thermal evolution of the macromolecular structure of kerogen, the present contribution constitutes an important step towards better constraining hydrocarbon generation processes occurring within unconventional gas shale systems.

  4. Origins of Combination Therapy for Tuberculosis: Lessons for Future Antimicrobial Development and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Kerantzas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a global health problem that causes the death of approximately 1.5 million people worldwide each year (WHO, p. 1–126, Global Tuberculosis Report, 2015. Treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis requires combination antimicrobial therapy with a minimum of four antimicrobial agents applied over the course of 6 months. The first instance of combination antimicrobial therapy applied to tuberculosis was the joint use of streptomycin and para-aminosalicylic acid as documented by the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom in 1950. These antimicrobial drugs were the product of many decades of investigation into both organism-derived antibiotics and synthetic chemotherapy and were the first agents in those respective categories to show substantial clinical efficacy and widespread use for tuberculosis. The events leading to the discovery and application of these two agents demonstrate that investments in all aspects of research, from basic science to clinical application, are necessary for the continued success of science in finding treatments for human disease. This observation is especially worth considering given the expanded role that combination therapy may play in combating the current rise in resistance to antimicrobial drugs.

  5. Origins of Combination Therapy for Tuberculosis: Lessons for Future Antimicrobial Development and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerantzas, Christopher A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tuberculosis is a global health problem that causes the death of approximately 1.5 million people worldwide each year (WHO, p. 1–126, Global Tuberculosis Report, 2015). Treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis requires combination antimicrobial therapy with a minimum of four antimicrobial agents applied over the course of 6 months. The first instance of combination antimicrobial therapy applied to tuberculosis was the joint use of streptomycin and para-aminosalicylic acid as documented by the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom in 1950. These antimicrobial drugs were the product of many decades of investigation into both organism-derived antibiotics and synthetic chemotherapy and were the first agents in those respective categories to show substantial clinical efficacy and widespread use for tuberculosis. The events leading to the discovery and application of these two agents demonstrate that investments in all aspects of research, from basic science to clinical application, are necessary for the continued success of science in finding treatments for human disease. This observation is especially worth considering given the expanded role that combination therapy may play in combating the current rise in resistance to antimicrobial drugs. PMID:28292983

  6. Origins of Combination Therapy for Tuberculosis: Lessons for Future Antimicrobial Development and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerantzas, Christopher A; Jacobs, William R

    2017-03-14

    Tuberculosis is a global health problem that causes the death of approximately 1.5 million people worldwide each year (WHO, p. 1-126, Global Tuberculosis Report, 2015). Treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis requires combination antimicrobial therapy with a minimum of four antimicrobial agents applied over the course of 6 months. The first instance of combination antimicrobial therapy applied to tuberculosis was the joint use of streptomycin and para-aminosalicylic acid as documented by the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom in 1950. These antimicrobial drugs were the product of many decades of investigation into both organism-derived antibiotics and synthetic chemotherapy and were the first agents in those respective categories to show substantial clinical efficacy and widespread use for tuberculosis. The events leading to the discovery and application of these two agents demonstrate that investments in all aspects of research, from basic science to clinical application, are necessary for the continued success of science in finding treatments for human disease. This observation is especially worth considering given the expanded role that combination therapy may play in combating the current rise in resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Copyright © 2017 Kerantzas and Jacobs.

  7. Determination of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, Belgode N; Menezes, Godfred A

    2015-01-01

    Infections with Salmonella are an important public health problem worldwide. Salmonella are one of the most common causes of food-borne illness in humans. There are many types of Salmonella but they can be divided into two broad categories: those that cause typhoid and those that do not. The typhoidal Salmonella (TS), such as S. enterica subsp. enterica serovars Typhi and S. Paratyphi only colonize humans and are usually acquired by the consumption of food or water contaminated with human fecal material. The much broader group of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) usually results from improperly handled food that has been contaminated by animal or human fecal material. Antimicrobials are critical to the successful outcome of invasive Salmonella infections and enteric fever. Due to resistance to the older antimicrobials, ciprofloxacin [fluoroquinolone (FQ)] has become the first-line drug for treatment. Nevertheless, switch to FQ has led to a subsequent increase in the occurrence of salmonellae resistant to this antimicrobial agent. The exact mechanism of this FQ resistance is not fully understood. FQ resistance has driven the use of third-generation cephalosporins and azithromycin. However, there are sporadic worldwide reports of high level resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (such as ceftriaxone) in TS and in NTS it has been recognized since 1988 and are increasing in prevalence worldwide. Already there are rare reports of azithromycin resistance leading to treatment failure. Spread of such resistance would further greatly limit the available therapeutic options, and leave us with only the reserve antimicrobials such as carbapenem and tigecycline as possible treatment options. Here, we describe the methods involved in the genotypic characterization of antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of salmonellae.

  8. Bacterial antimicrobial metal ion resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobman, Jon L; Crossman, Lisa C

    2015-05-01

    Metals such as mercury, arsenic, copper and silver have been used in various forms as antimicrobials for thousands of years with until recently, little understanding of their mode of action. The discovery of antibiotics and new organic antimicrobial compounds during the twentieth century saw a general decline in the clinical use of antimicrobial metal compounds, with the exception of the rediscovery of the use of silver for burns treatments and niche uses for other metal compounds. Antibiotics and new antimicrobials were regarded as being safer for the patient and more effective than the metal-based compounds they supplanted. Bacterial metal ion resistances were first discovered in the second half of the twentieth century. The detailed mechanisms of resistance have now been characterized in a wide range of bacteria. As the use of antimicrobial metals is limited, it is legitimate to ask: are antimicrobial metal resistances in pathogenic and commensal bacteria important now? This review details the new, rediscovered and 'never went away' uses of antimicrobial metals; examines the prevalence and linkage of antimicrobial metal resistance genes to other antimicrobial resistance genes; and examines the evidence for horizontal transfer of these genes between bacteria. Finally, we discuss the possible implications of the widespread dissemination of these resistances on re-emergent uses of antimicrobial metals and how this could impact upon the antibiotic resistance problem. © 2014 The Authors.

  9. Human Antimicrobial Peptides and Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangshun Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As the key components of innate immunity, human host defense antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs play a critical role in warding off invading microbial pathogens. In addition, AMPs can possess other biological functions such as apoptosis, wound healing, and immune modulation. This article provides an overview on the identification, activity, 3D structure, and mechanism of action of human AMPs selected from the antimicrobial peptide database. Over 100 such peptides have been identified from a variety of tissues and epithelial surfaces, including skin, eyes, ears, mouths, gut, immune, nervous and urinary systems. These peptides vary from 10 to 150 amino acids with a net charge between −3 and +20 and a hydrophobic content below 60%. The sequence diversity enables human AMPs to adopt various 3D structures and to attack pathogens by different mechanisms. While α-defensin HD-6 can self-assemble on the bacterial surface into nanonets to entangle bacteria, both HNP-1 and β-defensin hBD-3 are able to block cell wall biosynthesis by binding to lipid II. Lysozyme is well-characterized to cleave bacterial cell wall polysaccharides but can also kill bacteria by a non-catalytic mechanism. The two hydrophobic domains in the long amphipathic α-helix of human cathelicidin LL-37 lays the basis for binding and disrupting the curved anionic bacterial membrane surfaces by forming pores or via the carpet model. Furthermore, dermcidin may serve as ion channel by forming a long helix-bundle structure. In addition, the C-type lectin RegIIIα can initially recognize bacterial peptidoglycans followed by pore formation in the membrane. Finally, histatin 5 and GAPDH(2-32 can enter microbial cells to exert their effects. It appears that granulysin enters cells and kills intracellular pathogens with the aid of pore-forming perforin. This arsenal of human defense proteins not only keeps us healthy but also inspires the development of a new generation of personalized

  10. Antimicrobial peptides in Echinoderms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Li

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are important immune effector molecules for invertebrates, including echinoderms, which lack a vertebrate-type adaptive immune system. Here we summarize the knowledge of such peptides in echinoderms. Strongylocins are a novel family of cysteine-rich AMPs, recently identified in the sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis and S. purpuratus. Although these molecules present diverse amino acid sequences, they share an identical cysteine arrangement pattern, dissimilar to other known AMPs. A family of heterodimeric AMPs, named centrocins, are also present in S. droebachiensis. Lysozymes and fragments of larger proteins, such as beta-thymocins, actin, histone 2A and filamin A have also been shown to display antimicrobial activities in echinoderms. Future studies on AMPs should be aimed in revealing how echinoderms use these AMPs in the immune response against microbial pathogens.

  11. Triclosan antimicrobial polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan antimicrobial molecular fluctuating energies of nonbonding electron pairs for the oxygen atom by ether bond rotations are reviewed with conformational computational chemistry analyses. Subsequent understanding of triclosan alternating ether bond rotations is able to help explain several material properties in Polymer Science. Unique bond rotation entanglements between triclosan and the polymer chains increase both the mechanical properties of polymer toughness and strength that are ...

  12. Antimicrobial Peptides in Echinoderms

    OpenAIRE

    Li, C; Haug, T; K Stensvåg

    2010-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important immune effector molecules for invertebrates, including echinoderms, which lack a vertebrate-type adaptive immune system. Here we summarize the knowledge of such peptides in echinoderms. Strongylocins are a novel family of cysteine-rich AMPs, recently identified in the sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis and S. purpuratus. Although these molecules present diverse amino acid sequences, they share an identical cysteine arrangement pattern, d...

  13. Antimicrobial Modifications of Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlarik, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is focused on antimicrobial modifications of polymer materials intended for medical devices production. Firstly, a brief introduction into the field of medical application of polymers is presented. Considering the fact that polymer medical devices are often connected with occurrence of nosocomial infections, the next part refers to this phenomenon and its causes. One of the possibilities of reducing of the infection occurrence is aimed at polymer modification. It is a key topic o...

  14. [Antimicrobial mechanisms of action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Jorge; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2009-01-01

    A large number of families and groups of antimicrobial agents are of clinical interest. The mechanisms by which compounds with antibacterial activity inhibit growth or cause bacterial death are varied and depend on the affected targets. The bacterial cell wall-a unique structure in most bacteria that is absent in eukaryotic cells-can be affected in several ways: at different stages of synthesis (fosfomycin, cycloserine) or transport (bacitracin, mureidomycins) of its metabolic precursors, or by a direct action on its structural organization (beta-lactams, glycopeptides). The main drugs affecting the cytoplasmic membrane are polymyxins and daptomycin. Protein synthesis can be blocked by a large variety of compounds that affect any of the phases of this process, including activation (mupirocin), initiation (oxazolidinones, aminoglycosides), binding of the tRNA amino acid complex to ribosomes (tetracyclines, glycylcyclines) and elongation (amphenicols, lincosamides, macrolides, ketolides, streptogramins, fusidic acid). The metabolism of nucleic acids can be altered at the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase or in the process of DNA coiling (quinolones); some compounds affect DNA directly (nitroimidazoles, nitrofurans). Trimethoprim and sulfamides (often used in combination) are examples of antimicrobial agents that block bacterial metabolic pathways. Some compounds are unable to inhibit or kill bacteria in themselves, but can block bacterial mechanisms of resistance, enhancing the activity of other antimicrobials administered in combination. Among this group of agents, only certain beta-lactamase inhibitors are currently in clinical use.

  15. [Neruda and antimicrobial resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotera, Alejandro

    2011-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance has been a problem in medicine, since their incorporation to clinical practice. Numerous papers have been written on the subject. The analysis of two poems by Pablo Neruda "How much does a man live" and "Larynx", included in the volume "Estravagario" and published for the first time in 1957 and 1958, give us an incredible revelation about the concept of resistance. In these poems aureomycin, the first antimicrobial of the family of tetracyclines, was included as a poetic figure and the therapeutic action of antimicrobials was described. "Never so much bugs died I tons of them fell I but the few that remained olive I manifested their perversity". These writings incorporated novel concepts, even for physicians of that time and described the closeness of death that a patient may perceive during the course of a given disease. The capacity of Pablo Neruda to extract the essence of situations and to anticipate to conditions that only years later became clinically relevant problems, is noteworthy.

  16. Human neutrophil antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E L; Lehrer, R I; Rest, R F

    1988-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) take up opsonized microorganisms into phagosomes that fuse with secretory granules in the PMN cytoplasm to form phagolysosomes. Killing and digestion of microorganisms take place within phagolysosomes. Antimicrobial activities in phagolysosomes are divided into two classes. Oxygen (O2)-dependent mechanisms are expressed when PMNs undergo the "respiratory burst." An NADPH oxidase in the phagolysosome membrane is activated and reduces O2 to superoxide (O2-). O2 reduction is the first step in a series of reactions that produce toxic oxidants. For example, .O2- dismutases to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the azurophil granule enzyme myeloperoxidase catalyzes the oxidation of Cl- by H2O2 to yield hypochlorous acid (HOCl). The reaction of HOCl with ammonia and amines modulates the toxicity of this oxidant. O2-independent antimicrobial mechanisms include the activities of lysosomal proteases, other hydrolytic enzymes, and proteins and peptides that bind to microorganisms and disrupt essential processes or structural components. For example, the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, cathepsin G, and the defensins are released into phagolysosomes from the azurophil granules. Proposed mechanisms of action of neutrophil antimicrobial agents, their range of microbial targets, and their possible interactions within phagolysosomes are discussed.

  17. No Occasion for Pleasure: The Self-Worth Contingency of a Setback and Coping With Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fay Caroline Mary Geisler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Whether or not one uses humor to cope with a setback may depend on the idiosyncratic relation of the setback to feeling of self-worth. All people pursue the higher order goal of self-validation, but people differ in what domains of life their self-worth is contingent upon and to what extent. In this article based on an incongruity theory of humor we argue that the use of humor in coping with a highly self-worth-contingent setback may be impeded by two cognitive-motivational processes: goal-driven activation and goal shielding. From the outlined theory we derived the hypothesis that the more a domain is contingent upon self-worth, the less likely a person will be to use humor to deal with a setback in that domain. We tested this hypothesis in two studies employing two forms of self-report, i.e., ratings of reaction likelihood to setbacks described at an abstract domain level (Study 1, and ranking of reaction likelihood to concrete setbacks from different domains (Study 2. The hypothesis was affirmed in different domains of self-worth contingency controlling for the influence of habitual coping with humor, coping by disengagement, and global self-esteem.

  18. COST-WORTH ASSESSMENT OF AUTOMATED RADIAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM BASED ON RELIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vidya Sagar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Power reliability and quality are gaining their greater grounds than ever in the power and industrial market of the times. It has become an essential means for the successful dispatch of quality product, operation, services of any industry. The reliability of power distribution network can be greatly enhanced by the automation of its feeder system and other associated parts. Remotely controlled and automated restoration services can avoid the necessity of executing manual switching schedules and are bound to bring about remarkable levels of system reliability and interruption costs. The reliability cost-worth analysis is the excellent tool for evaluation of interruption costs. Reliability cost-worth analysis is very significant in the power system planning, operation, maintenance andexpansion, for it takes into account the customer concerns in the analysis. This paper deals in due detail with the reliability based cost-worth analysis of automated radial distribution network. The direct method of assessing the worth of reliability is to calculate the user costs relevant to interruptions in the power supply. By the application of failure mode effect analysis and cost-worth analysis byusing direct costing method the reliability of radial distribution network can be evaluated. The customer interruption costs’ indices of a radial distribution network calculated using the analytical method applied to an Indian utility network system with 2000KVA& sixteen nodes and the related results of the study are duly discussed in this paper.

  19. Antimicrobial Drugs in the Home

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-10-19

    Survey participants in the United Kingdom admitted keeping leftover antimicrobial drugs for future use and taking them without medical advice. Dr. J. Todd Weber, director of CDC's Office of Antimicrobial Resistance, advises against the practice, which can be dangerous and can promote antimicrobial drug resistance.  Created: 10/19/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 10/26/2006.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Pasteurella multocida isolated from swine and poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellyei, Boglárka; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Szentesi-Samu, Katalin; Kaszanyitzky, Eva; Magyar, Tibor

    2009-09-01

    Pasteurella multocida causes infectious diseases in a wide range of animal species. Antimicrobial therapy is still an effective tool for treatment. Generally, P. multocida isolates are susceptible to most of the widely used commercial antimicrobial agents but their excessive and unjustified use accelerates the emergence of resistant strains. We defined the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of 56 P. multocida strains isolated from poultry (20) and swine [16 P. multocida toxin (PMT) positive and 20 PMT negative] to 16 widely applied antibiotics (apramycin, cefquinome, chloramphenicol, colistin, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, flumequine, neomycin, oxolinic acid, penicillin, trimethoprim potentiated sulphamethoxazole, sulphonamide compounds, tetracycline, tulathromycin) by the disk diffusion method. The majority of the strains was susceptible to most of the antimicrobial agents tested. However, the resistance to sulphonamides, tetracyclines, first-generation quinolones and aminoglycosides was remarkable, and thus the use of these compounds for the treatment of infection caused by P. multocida is not recommended. On the other hand, the antimicrobial activity of the classical penicillin, the newer macrolide (tulathromycin), the third-generation fluoroquinolone (enrofloxacin) and the fourth-generation cephalosporin (cefquinome) proved to be satisfactory against this bacterium.

  1. Molecular iodine catalyzed synthesis of tetrazolo[1,5-a]-quinoline based imidazoles as a new class of antimicrobial and antituberculosis agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Divyesh C. Mungra; Harshad G. Kathrotiya; Niraj K. Ladani; Manish P. Patel; Ranjan G. Patel

    2012-01-01

    A series of some new tetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoline based tetrasubstituted imidazole derivatives 6a-I have been synthesized by a reaction of tetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoline-4-carbaldehyde 3a-d,benzil 4,aromatic amine 5a-c and ammonium acetate in the presence of iodine through one-pot multi-component reaction (MCR) approach.All the derivatives were screened for antimicrobial and antituberculosis activities and results worth further investigations.

  2. Perfectionism and Contingent Self-Worth in Relation to Disordered Eating and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Lin, Stacy L; Butler, Rachel M

    2017-05-01

    Perfectionism has been proposed as a transdiagnostic risk factor linked to eating disorders and anxiety. In the current study, we examine domains of contingent self-worth as potential moderators of the relationships between maladaptive perfectionism and disordered eating and anxiety using two waves of data collection. Undergraduate females (N = 237) completed online surveys of the study's core constructs at two points separated by about 14 months. At a bivariate level, maladaptive perfectionism was positively associated with disordered eating and anxiety. Maladaptive perfectionism and both appearance and relationship contingent self-worth interacted to predict increases in disordered eating. Neither of the interactive models predicted change in anxiety. Findings highlight maladaptive perfectionism as a transdiagnostic construct related to both disordered eating and anxiety. Interactive findings suggest that targeting maladaptive perfectionism and contingent self-worth (appearance, relationship) in prevention and treatment efforts could mitigate risk for the development or increase of disordered eating. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Contingencies of self-worth and social-networking-site behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanone, Michael A; Lackaff, Derek; Rosen, Devan

    2011-01-01

    Social-networking sites like Facebook enable people to share a range of personal information with expansive groups of "friends." With the growing popularity of media sharing online, many questions remain regarding antecedent conditions for this behavior. Contingencies of self-worth afford a more nuanced approach to variable traits that affect self-esteem, and may help explain online behavior. A total of 311 participants completed an online survey measuring such contingencies and typical behaviors on Facebook. First, exploratory factor analyses revealed an underlying structure to the seven dimensions of self-worth. Public-based contingencies explained online photo sharing (β = 0.158, p self-worth had the strongest relationship with the intensity of online photo sharing (β = 0.242), although no relationship was evident for time spent managing profiles.

  4. Estimation of Control Rod Worth in a VVER-1000 Reactor using DRAGON4 and DONJON4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadatian-derakhshandeh Farahnaz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main issues in safety and control systems design of power and research reactors is to prevent accidents or reduce the imposed hazard. Control rod worth plays an important role in safety and control of reactors. In this paper, we developed a justifiable approach called D4D4 to estimate the control rod worth of a VVER-1000 reactor that enables to perform the best estimate analysis and reduce the conservatism that utilize DRAGON4 and DONJON4. The results are compared with WIMS-D4/CITATION to show the effectiveness and superiority of the developed package in predicting reactivity worth of the rod and also other reactor physics parameters of the VVER-1000 reactor. The results of this study are in good agreement with the plant's FSAR.

  5. Discovering new in silico tools for antimicrobial peptide prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent, Marc; Nogués, M Victòria; Boix, Ester

    2012-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important effectors of the innate immune system and play a vital role in the prevention of infections. Due to the increased emergence of new antibiotic-resistant bacteria, new drugs are constantly under investigation. AMPs in particular are recognized as promising candidates because of their modularity and wide antimicrobial spectrum. However, the mechanisms of action of AMPs, as well as their structure-activity relationships, are not completely understood. AMPs display no conserved three-dimensional structure and poor sequence conservation, which hinders rational design. Several bioinformatics tools have been developed to generate new templates with appealing antimicrobial properties with the aim of finding highly active peptide compounds with low cytotoxicity. The current tools reviewed here allow for the prediction and design of new active peptides with reasonable accuracy. However, a reliable method to assess the antimicrobial activity of AMPs has not yet been developed. The standardization of procedures to experimentally evaluate the antimicrobial activity of AMPs, together with the constant growth of current well-established databases, may allow for the future development of new bioinformatics tools to accurately predict antimicrobial activity.

  6. Physical Activity and Global Self-worth in a Longitudinal Study of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddon, Hudson; Meyre, David; Cairney, John

    2017-08-01

    Physical activity is associated with an array of physical and mental health benefits among children and adolescents. The development of self-worth/self-esteem has been proposed as a mechanism to explain the mental health benefits derived from physical activity. Despite several studies that have analyzed the association between physical activity and self-worth, the results have been inconsistent. It is also uncertain how related physical health measures, such as sedentary behavior, body composition, and fitness, influence the relationship between physical activity and self-worth over time. In the present study, we 1) analyzed if the association between physical activity and self-worth remained constant over time and whether this relationship varied by sex and 2) investigated if changes in body composition and fitness level mediated the relationship between physical activity and self-worth. Data from the Physical Health Activity Study Team were used for this analysis. The Physical Health Activity Study Team is a prospective cohort study that included 2278 children at baseline (ages 9-10 yr) and included eight follow-up contacts for a 4-yr study period. Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate global self-worth (GSW) over follow-up. Increased physical activity was associated with greater GSW across all waves of data collection, and this relationship did not vary significantly over time or between sexes. Aerobic fitness was positively associated with GSW, whereas body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to GSW. Both aerobic fitness and BMI appeared to mediate the association between physical activity and GSW. Sedentary behavior was not significantly associated with GSW. Physical activity is associated with greater GSW, and this relationship appears to be mediated by BMI and aerobic fitness. These findings reinforce the importance of physical behaviors and physical characteristics in shaping GSW in children.

  7. Evaluating the quality of antimicrobial prescribing: is standardisation possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamar, Pilar; Martín, M Luisa; Molina, José; del Arco, Alfonso

    2013-09-01

    The quality of antimicrobial prescribing refers to the optimal way to use antibiotics in regard to their benefits, safety (e.g., resistance generation and toxicity) and cost. Evaluating the quality of antimicrobial prescribing in a way that focuses not only on reducing antimicrobial consumption but also on using them in a more optimal way allows us to understand patterns of use and to identify targets for intervention. The lack of standardisation is the primary problem to be addressed when planning an evaluation of antimicrobial prescribing. There is little information specifically describing an evaluation methodology. Information related to prescription evaluation can be obtained from the guidelines of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs) and from local and international experience. The criteria used to evaluate the quality of prescription should include the indication for antimicrobial therapy, the timeliness of initiation, the correct antibiotic choice (according to local guidelines), the dosing, the duration, the route of administration and the time at which to switch to oral administration. A locally developed guideline on antimicrobial therapy should preferably be the gold standard by which to evaluate the appropriatenes of prescriptions. Various approaches used to carry out the evaluations have been described in the literature. Repeated point-prevalence surveys (PPS) have been proven to be effective in identifying targets for quality improvement. Continuous prospective monitoring allows the identification of more precise intervention points at different times during prescription. The design of the study chosen to perform the evaluation should be adapted according to the resources available in each centre. Evaluating the quality of antimicrobial prescribing should be the first step to designing ASPs, as well as to evaluating their impact and the changes in prescribing trends over time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. The Value of a Purposeful Life: Sense of Purpose Predicts Greater Income and Net Worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick L; Turiano, Nicholas A; Mroczek, Daniel K; Burrow, Anthony L

    2016-12-01

    Having a sense of purpose in life appears valuable across life domains, though it remains unclear whether purpose also provides financial value to individuals. The current study examined sense of purpose as a predictor of concurrent and longitudinal income and net worth levels, using two waves of the MIDUS sample of adults (N = 4660 across both assessments). Participants who reported a higher sense of purpose had higher levels of household income and net worth initially, and were more likely to increase on these financial outcomes over the nine years between assessments. Interaction tests suggested some evidence of age moderation, but gender did not appear to moderate the influence of purpose on economic outcomes.

  9. Cauchy-Matern Model of Sea Surface Wind Speed at the Lake Worth, Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the Cauchy-Matern (CM process with long-range dependence (LRD. The closed form of its power spectrum density (PSD function is given. We apply it to model the autocovariance function (ACF and the PSD of the sea surface wind speed (wind speed for short observed in the Lake Worth, Florida, over the 1984–2006 period. The present results exhibit that the wind speed at the Lake Worth over 1984–2006 is of LRD. The present results exhibit that the CM process may yet be a novel model to fit the wind speed there.

  10. Perspectives and Peptides of the Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, Kim A.

    Shortly after their discovery, antimicrobial peptides from prokaryotes and eukaryotes were recognized as the next potential generation of pharmaceuticals to treat antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections and septic shock, to preserve food, or to sanitize surfaces. Initial research focused on identifying the spectrum of antimicrobial agents, determining the range of antimicrobial activities against bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens, and assessing the antimicrobial activity of synthetic peptides versus their natural counterparts. Subsequent research then focused on the mechanisms of antimicrobial peptide activity in model membrane systems not only to identify the mechanisms of antimicrobial peptide activity in microorganisms but also to discern differences in cytotoxicity for prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Recent, contemporary work now focuses on current and future efforts to construct hybrid peptides, peptide congeners, stabilized peptides, peptide conjugates, and immobilized peptides for unique and specific applications to control the growth of microorganisms in vitro and in vivo.

  11. European recommendations for antimicrobial resistance surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaglia, G; Hryniewicz, W; Jarlier, V; Kahlmeter, G; Mittermayer, H; Stratchounski, L; Baquero, F

    2004-04-01

    The problem of antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Europe has been debated extensively in many excellent documents issued by national committees that often assume the value of national guidelines. However, a comprehensive document addressing the whole matter from a European perspective, as well as reviewing its present status and drafting future perspectives, has been lacking. The present recommendations have been produced by the ESCMID Study Group for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (ESGARS) through a consensus process involving all members of the Study Group. The recommendations focus on the detection of bacterial resistance and its reporting to clinicians, public health officers and a wider-and ever-increasing-audience. The leading concept is that the basis for resistance monitoring is microbiological diagnostics. The prerequisites for resistance monitoring are findings of adequate quality and quantity, which have been recorded properly and evaluated correctly. Different types of surveillance studies should fulfil different requirements with regard to data collection and reporting, the expected use of data, and the prerequisites for networking such activities. To generate relevant indicators, bacterial resistance data should be reported using adequate denominators and stratification. Reporting of antimicrobial resistance data is necessary for selection of empirical therapy at the local level, for assessing the scale of the resistance problem at the local, national or international levels, for monitoring changes in resistance rates, and for detecting the emergence and spread of new resistances types. Any type of surveillance study should conclude, where appropriate, with a proposal for intervention based on the data obtained.

  12. [The classification method of syndromes in the Bei ji qian jin yao fang (Essential Recipes for Emergent Use Worth A Thousand Gold)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaowei; Zheng, Wenjie; Ma, Mingyue; Zhang, Zhibin

    2014-03-01

    Bei ji qian jin yao fang (Essential Recipes for Emergent Use Worth A Thousand Gold) epitomizes the medical achievements of the Tang Dynasty with an extensive coverage. The classification method of syndromes in this book is derived from Nei jing (Inner Canon), Nan jing (Classic of Questioning), Shang han za bing lun (Treatise on Cold Pathogenic and Miscellaneous Diseases), Zhu bing yuan hou lun (General Treatise on Causes and Manifestations of All Diseases), and enlightens the later generation with many unique characteristics, reflecting the mature recognition of the diseases in the contemporary clinical medicine from one side. It is still of great significance for understanding the diseases and exploring its pathogenesis even today.

  13. Antimicrobial stewardship: philosophy versus practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds Ashley, Elizabeth S; Kaye, Keith S; DePestel, Daryl D; Hermsen, Elizabeth D

    2014-10-15

    To promote the judicious use of antimicrobials and preserve their usefulness in the setting of growing resistance, a number of policy-making bodies and professional societies have advocated the development of antimicrobial stewardship programs. Although these programs have been implemented at many institutions in the United States, their impact has been difficult to measure. Current recommendations advocate the use of both outcome and process measures as metrics for antimicrobial stewardship. Although patient outcome metrics have the greatest impact on the quality of care, the literature shows that antimicrobial use and costs are the indicators measured most frequently by institutions to justify the effectiveness of antimicrobial stewardship programs. The measurement of more meaningful outcomes has been constrained by difficulties inherent to these measures, lack of funding and resources, and inadequate study designs. Antimicrobial stewardship can be made more credible by refocusing the antimicrobial review process to target specific disease states, reassessing the usefulness of current metrics, and integrating antimicrobial stewardship program initiatives into institutional quality and safety efforts.

  14. Absorbent silver (I) antimicrobial fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, silver in form of silver ions, has been gaining importance in the wound management as an effective broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent. Silver has a long history as an antimicrobial agent, especially in the treatment of wounds. Alginates and carboxymethyl (CM) cotton contain carboxyl...

  15. Antimicrobial screening of Mnium stellare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Canli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many plants contain active substances that are known to be effective in both enhancing the wound healing process and lowering the incidence of wound infections. Previous studies have shown that bryophytes produce a variety of secondary metabolites that present pharmaceutical activities including antimicrobial activity against various pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Mnium stellare against 17 bacterial and 1 fungal strains. Our present study has shown that the ethanol extract of M. stellare has antimicrobial activity against several Gram positive and Gram negative microorganism tested, but its antimicrobial activity is notable especially against B. subtilis, S. typhimirium, S. aureus, S. carnosus, and S. epidermidis. These results are the very first report of the antimicrobial activity of M. stellare.

  16. How to fight antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Cédric; Brouqui, Philippe

    2007-03-01

    Antimicrobial misuse results in the development of resistance and superbugs. Over recent decades, resistance has been increasing despite continuing efforts to control it, resulting in increased mortality and cost. Many authorities have proposed local, regional and national guidelines to fight against this phenomenon, and the usefulness of these programmes has been evaluated. Multifaceted intervention seems to be the most efficient method to control antimicrobial resistance. Monitoring of bacterial resistance and antibiotic use is essential, and the methodology has now been homogenized. The implementation of guidelines and infection control measures does not control antimicrobial resistance and needs to be reinforced by associated measures. Educational programmes and rotation policies have not been evaluated sufficiently in the literature. Combination antimicrobial therapy is inefficient in controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  17. Partnership tools for health promotion: are they worth the effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joss, Nerida; Keleher, Helen

    2011-09-01

    In health promotion and community sector programs, working through partnerships has become a key strategy for capacity building and infrastructure development that is intended to achieve better health outcomes. Government and funding agencies are providing significant support for partnership work in the apparent belief that partnerships are more likely to improve sustainability of programs and their outcomes than single agencies working alone. Online partnership analysis tools are designed for organisations to measure the effectiveness of their collaborative endeavours, and to demonstrate to funding bodies that the partnership was worthwhile. The tools are predominantly self-assessment evaluation tools but there is a lack of clarity about what these tools actually set out to measure. Self-assessment tools assist partners to recognise strengths and weaknesses in their practice, but analysis of their intentions indicates that there are significant problems with the 'snapshot' data that is generated in terms of analysing effectiveness. Partnership work is complex, dynamic and context specific with varying synergistic rewards which cannot always be represented in survey tools. This article reports analysis of online self-assessment partnership tools which have data-generating capacity, to determine just what they measure and to understand how effective they can be in evaluating collaborative practice. Criteria for analysis were developed from a review of the existing literature. The review and analysis has highlighted that practitioners must consider what they are measuring and for what purpose they seek to evaluate before utilising and implementing a partnership analysis tool.

  18. Antimicrobial resistance in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conly, John

    2002-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has increased rapidly during the last decade, creating a serious threat to the treatment of infectious diseases. Canada is no exception to this worldwide phenomenon. Data from the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program have revealed that the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, as a proportion of S. aureus isolates, increased from 1% in 1995 to 8% by the end of 2000, and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus has been documented in all 10 provinces since the first reported outbreak in 1995. The prevalence of nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in Canada in 2000 was found to be 12%. Human antimicrobial prescriptions, adjusted for differences in the population, declined 11% based on the total number of prescriptions dispensed between 1995 and 2000. There was also a 21% decrease in β-lactam prescriptions during this same period. These data suggest that systematic efforts to reduce unnecessary prescribing of antimicrobials to outpatients in Canada, beginning after a national consensus conference in 1997, may be having an impact. There is, however, still a need for continued concerted efforts on a national, provincial and regional level to quell the rising tide of antibiotic resistance. PMID:12406948

  19. Silver(I) Antimicrobial Cotton Nonwovens and Printcloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper we discuss the preparation and comparative evaluation of silver (I) [Ag(I)] nonwoven and woven antimicrobial barrier fabrics generated from commercial calcium-sodium alginates and laboratory prepared sodium carboxymethyl (CM) cotton nonwovens and CM-cotton printcloth for potential use ...

  20. Self-Worth and Social Support of Children Exposed to Marital Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesen, Yuriko; Porath, Marion

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among global self-worth (GSW), competencies in various domains, discrepancy between these perceptions of competence and their ratings of importance, and perceived social support of children who were exposed to marital violence using Harter's (1985a, 1985b) theoretical model. Participants…

  1. WORTH property, Garc\\'{i}a-Falset coefficient and Opial property of infinite sums

    OpenAIRE

    Hardtke, Jan-David

    2014-01-01

    We prove some results concerning the WORTH property and the Garc\\'{i}a-Falset coefficient of absolute sums of infinitely many Banach spaces. The Opial property/uniform Opial property of infinite $\\ell^p$-sums is also studied and some properties analogous to the Opial property/uniform Opial property for Lebesgue-Bochner spaces $L^p(\\mu,X)$ are discussed.

  2. Long-term investment and net-worth building with limited contract enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uras, Burak

    This paper develops a firm dynamics model augmented with an endogenous net-worth-building feature at the firm level and investigates how opportunities for entrepreneurs to accumulate wealth can mitigate the implications of limited enforceability for resource allocation, productivity, and

  3. A World Worth Living in ICAE 8th World Assembly Declaration (June 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult Learning, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the International Council of Adult Education (ICAE) 8th World Assembly Declaration (June 2011). This declaration focuses on adult educators' conviction in the possibility of a "world worth living in," and their declaration of their collective determination to work towards making it a reality all around the planet.

  4. 75 FR 17691 - Foreign-Trade Zone 196 - Fort Worth, Texas, Application for Manufacturing Authority, ATC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Authority, ATC Logistics & Electronics (Cell Phone Kitting and Distribution), Fort Worth, Texas An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by ATC Logistics & Electronics... kitting and distribution of cell phones. Components and materials sourced from abroad (representing 96% of...

  5. Older Adults' Perceived Changes in Physical Self-Worth Associated with Resistance Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionigi, Rylee A.; Cannon, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Using Sonstroem, Harlow, and Josephs' (1994) expanded version of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM; Sonstroem & Morgan, 1989), we explored how 9 older adults (6 women and 3 men, aged 65-72 years) involved in a resistance training program experienced and perceived changes in physical self-worth (i.e., improved strength, functional…

  6. Blackness coefficients, effective diffusion parameters, and control rod worths for thermal reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretscher, M.M.

    1984-09-01

    Simple diffusion theory cannot be used to evaluate control rod worths in thermal reactors because of the strongly absorbing character of the control material. However, good results can be obtained from a diffusion calculation by representing the absorber slab by means of a suitable pair of internal boundary conditions, ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.., which are ratios of neutron flux to neutron current. Methods for calculating ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. in the P/sub 1/, P/sub 3/, and P/sub 5/ approximations, with and without scattering, are presented. By appropriately weighting the fine-group blackness coefficients, broad group values, <..cap alpha..> and <..beta..>, are obtained. The technique is applied to the calculation of control rod worths of Cd, Ag-In-Cd, and Hf control elements. Results are found to compare very favorably with detailed Monte Carlo calculations. For control elements whose geometry does not permit a thin slab treatment, other methods are needed for determining the effective diffusion parameters. One such method is briefly discussed and applied to the calculation of control rod worths in the Ford Nuclear Reactor at the University of Michigan. Calculated and measured worths are found to be in good agreement.

  7. Social Support and Neighborhood Stressors among African American Youth: Networks and Relations to Self-Worth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Susan D.; Felix, Erika D.; Nagarajan, Thara

    2011-01-01

    Although neighborhood stressors have a negative impact on youth, and social support can play a protective role, it is unclear what types and sources of social support may contribute to positive outcomes among at-risk youth. We examined the influences of neighborhood disadvantage and social support on global self-worth among low-income, urban…

  8. 38 CFR 3.274 - Relationship of net worth to pension entitlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship of net worth to pension entitlement. 3.274 Section 3.274 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Regulations...

  9. Value and Opportunity: Comparable Pay for Comparable Worth. Series on Public Issues No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Deborah

    In this booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues, an argument is presented against comparable pay for comparable worth policies for women. Separate subsections present opposing viewpoints on this controversial issue as well as an examination of whether legislation has been a…

  10. Experience and net worth affects optimality in a motor decision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyedli, Heather F; Welsh, Timothy N

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown in a motor decision task involving a target (yielding a reward) and overlapping penalty area (yielding a loss), people initially aim closer to the penalty area than optimal. This risky strategy may be adopted to increase target hits, thereby increasing net worth. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the starting net worth level (either 5,000 or 0 points) affected the influence of task experience on endpoint selection. It was hypothesized the 5,000-point group should adopt a less risky strategy and aim further from the penalty area than those with 0 points. Net worth affected participants' initial endpoint where the 5,000-point group aimed further from the penalty circle, and closer to the optimal endpoint, than the 0-point group. The 0-point group adapted their endpoint over the course session to aim closer to the optimal endpoint whereas no such change was seen in the 5,000-point group. The results show that changing the participants' reference point through initial net worth can affect the optimality of participants' endpoint and how endpoints change with experience.

  11. Troubled Diversities, Multiple Identities and the Relevance of Royce: What Makes a Community Worth Caring about?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article raises questions about what it means to be a diverse academic community and about why such diversity is worth struggling to achieve. The controversial arguments of Walter Benn Michaels are critically examined as a stimulus and prelude to considering the more constructive perspectives supplied by Amartya Sen and Josiah Royce. Royce's…

  12. Environmental Assessment for EOD Stand-Up at NAS Fort Worth JRB

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    herbaceous, frequently mowed, lawn areas (NAS Fort Worth JRB, 2004a). These areas provide minimal habitat value for native species of flora and fauna...Jacinto Austin, TX 78701 Mark Wolfe State Historic Preservation Officer Texas Historical Commission 1511 Colorado Austin, TX 78701 Local

  13. Self in Self-Worth Protection: The Relationship of Possible Selves and Self-Protective Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seli, Helena; Dembo, Myron H.; Crocker, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This study examined community college students' future-related self-concept, termed "possible selves," in relationship to their current academic behavior with a focus on self-worth protective strategies. As demonstrated via hierarchical regression, possible selves added to understanding the students' self-protective behavior above and beyond their…

  14. WORTH property, Garc\\'{i}a-Falset coefficient and Opial property of infinite sums

    OpenAIRE

    Hardtke, Jan-David

    2014-01-01

    We prove some results concerning the WORTH property and the Garc\\'{i}a-Falset coefficient of absolute sums of infinitely many Banach spaces. The Opial property/uniform Opial property of infinite $\\ell^p$-sums is also studied and some properties analogous to the Opial property/uniform Opial property for Lebesgue-Bochner spaces $L^p(\\mu,X)$ are discussed.

  15. The Relationship of Coping, Self-Worth, and Subjective Well-Being: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedema, Susan Miller; Catalano, Denise; Ebener, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between various coping-related variables and the evaluation of self-worth and subjective well-being among persons with spinal cord injury. Positive coping variables included hope, proactive coping style, and sense of humor, whereas negative coping variables included perceptions of stress,…

  16. Office-based vascular lab: is it worth the effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, M Ashraf; Zwolak, Robert M

    2009-03-01

    The vascular laboratory is an essential part of any contemporary clinical vascular practice. The prototype of the vascular laboratory consisted mainly of instruments designed to understand the hemodynamics of the vascular tree. Earlier versions also played important roles in clinical research. Currently, sophisticated imaging equipments enable clinicians to evaluate the whole range of arterial and venous diseases in the outpatient setting. Both patients and physicians have found this to be very practical and convenient. Furthermore, income generated from performing diagnostic tests in the vascular laboratory helps support a variety of clinical activities and research. However, recent cost-cutting measures by medical insurance carriers are threatening the viability of office-based vascular laboratories

  17. 75 FR 17691 - Foreign-Trade Zone 196 - Fort Worth, Texas, Application for Temporary/Interim Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Manufacturing Authority, ATC Logistics & Electronics (Cell Phone Kitting and Distribution), Fort Worth, Texas An... Logistics & Electronics, operator of Site 2, FTZ 196, Fort Worth, Texas, requesting temporary/ interim... the kitting and distribution of cell phones (HTSUS 8517.12, duty free) under T/IM procedures at its...

  18. Is Self-Worth Protection Best Regarded as Intentional Self-Handicapping Behaviour or an Outcome of Choking under Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ted; Dinnel, Dale L.

    2007-01-01

    Self-worth protective students characteristically perform poorly when they anticipate that poor performance is likely to reveal low ability, yet perform well in situations that involve little threat to self-worth. The present study sought a further understanding of this variable pattern of achievement, assessing two possibilities: (1) that the…

  19. Do We Need To Train Teachers How To Administer Praise? Self-Worth Theory Says We Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ted

    1997-01-01

    The term self-worth protection describes a tendency on the part of certain students to underachieve and at other times to perform well on academic tasks of similar difficulty. The development and maintenance of self-worth protection may be attributed to messages implicit in unproductive evaluative feedback used by teachers. (SLD)

  20. 75 FR 79302 - Determination of Nonattainment and Reclassification of the Dallas/Fort Worth 1997 8-Hour Ozone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 Determination of Nonattainment and Reclassification of the Dallas/Fort Worth 1997 8.... SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing its determination that the Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) moderate 8-hour ozone... review of complete, quality assured and certified ambient air quality monitoring data for the 2007-2009...

  1. 75 FR 47746 - Determination of Nonattainment and Reclassification of the Dallas/Fort Worth 1997 8-hour Ozone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 Determination of Nonattainment and Reclassification of the Dallas/Fort Worth 1997 8.... SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to determine that the Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) moderate 8-hour ozone... complete, quality assured and certified ambient air quality monitoring data for the 2007-2009 monitoring...

  2. 78 FR 41911 - Foreign-Trade Zone 39-Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; CSI Calendering, Inc. (Rubber Coated Textile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 39--Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; CSI Calendering, Inc. (Rubber Coated Textile Fabric); Arlington, Texas On March 4, 2013, the Dallas/Fort Worth International...

  3. Life worth living for caregiving and caregiver burden among Japanese caregivers of the disabled elderly in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kazushi; Momose, Yumiko; Fujino, Ayumi; Osawa, Yukari

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between life worth living and caregiver burden among caregivers in Japan. We used 111 caregivers of frail elders who completed a self-administered questionnaire including the 8 items developed by Arai et al. (J-ZBI) used as a scale to measure subjective burdens and psychological factors used as covariates other than life worth living. Total score (0-32) of the J-ZBI was dichotomized into "high burden" (> or =21 points) and "low burden" (worth living was significantly associated with caregiver burden. The direct effect of life worth living on caregiver burden (92.9%) was much greater than the indirect effect (7.1%). Our findings suggest that the increase of the sense of life worth living may play an important role in the prevention of the development of caregiver burden.

  4. Data-worth analysis through probabilistic collocation-based Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Cheng; Xue, Liang; Zhang, Dongxiao; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    We propose a new and computationally efficient data-worth analysis and quantification framework keyed to the characterization of target state variables in groundwater systems. We focus on dynamically evolving plumes of dissolved chemicals migrating in randomly heterogeneous aquifers. An accurate prediction of the detailed features of solute plumes requires collecting a substantial amount of data. Otherwise, constraints dictated by the availability of financial resources and ease of access to the aquifer system suggest the importance of assessing the expected value of data before these are actually collected. Data-worth analysis is targeted to the quantification of the impact of new potential measurements on the expected reduction of predictive uncertainty based on a given process model. Integration of the Ensemble Kalman Filter method within a data-worth analysis framework enables us to assess data worth sequentially, which is a key desirable feature for monitoring scheme design in a contaminant transport scenario. However, it is remarkably challenging because of the (typically) high computational cost involved, considering that repeated solutions of the inverse problem are required. As a computationally efficient scheme, we embed in the data-worth analysis framework a modified version of the Probabilistic Collocation Method-based Ensemble Kalman Filter proposed by Zeng et al. (2011) so that we take advantage of the ability to assimilate data sequentially in time through a surrogate model constructed via the polynomial chaos expansion. We illustrate our approach on a set of synthetic scenarios involving solute migrating in a two-dimensional random permeability field. Our results demonstrate the computational efficiency of our approach and its ability to quantify the impact of the design of the monitoring network on the reduction of uncertainty associated with the characterization of a migrating contaminant plume.

  5. Stories worth telling: moral experiences of suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Scott J

    2014-01-01

    Moral constructions of suicide are deliberately avoided in contemporary suicidology, yet morality persists, little or imperfectly acknowledged, in its practices and in the policies, discourses, and instruments that it underpins. This study used narrative methodologies to examine the normative force of suicidology and its implications for persons who had engaged in an act of nonfatal suicidal behavior. I interviewed a convenience sample of twelve persons from two inner-urban community mental health centers who were receiving crisis and case management services after a recent act of nonfatal suicidal behavior. Interviews focused on events leading up to and after participants' suicidal behavior; the responses their suicidal behavior generated in others, including family, friends, and the health professionals caring for them; and cultural views of suicide more broadly. Analysis of these interviews revealed that, although participants' narratives were broadly consistent with a number of recognizable, canonical story formats common to our cultural repertoire of stories of suicide, they also revealed important tensions, divisions, conflicts, and challenges to contemporary suicidological discourse and practice. Despite evidence to suggest that biomedical understandings of suicide provided some therapeutic benefit to participants, they did not address important social and moral dimensions of human life or explore their connection to suicidal behavior-aspects of the suicidal event that were critical to its causation and to its retelling and "resolution." The results of this study provide important insights into the moral features of suicidal behavior, the moral and ethical implications of suicide research, and the limitations of moral and ethical discourse in suicidology.

  6. Limiting climate change: what’s most worth doing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Paul C.; Wolske, Kimberly S.

    2017-09-01

    Wynes and Nicholas (2017 Environ. Res. Lett. 12 074024) claim that some of the most important actions individuals can take to mitigate climate change have been overlooked, particularly in educational messages for adolescents, and estimate the potential impact of some of these, including having fewer children and living car free. These estimates raise questions that deserve serious analysis, but they are based only on the technical potential of the actions and do not consider the plasticity of the behaviors and the feasibility of policies to support them. The actions identified as having the greatest potential are lifestyle changes that accrue benefits over a lifetime or longer, so are not realistic alternatives to actions that can be enacted immediately. But presenting lifestyle choices and the relative impacts of different actions as discussion starters for adolescents could be promising, especially if the discussions highlight issues of behavioral plasticity, policy plasticity, and time scale. Research has identified design principles for interventions to achieve the strongest emissions reductions at time scales up to the decadal. Design principles for achieving longer-lasting changes deserve careful analytic attention, as well as a stronger focus in adolescent textbooks and messages to the general population. Both adolescents and researchers would do well to think carefully about what could promote the generational changes needed to reach a climate change target such as ‘well below 2 °C’.

  7. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  8. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Carmona-Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Engberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter has become the leading cause of zoonotic enteric infections in developed and developing countries world-wide. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged among Campylobacter mainly as a consequence of the use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production. Resistance to drugs of choice...... for the treatment of infections, macrolides and fluoroquinolones has emerged as a clinical problem and interventions to reduce this are recommended. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides is mediated by chromosomal mutations. Resistance to other relevant antimicrobial agents, mediated by acquired resistance...

  10. Nanoemulsions: Preparation, Structure, Functional Properties and their Antimicrobial Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Shams

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Recently, due to the interest of healthy lifestyle demand for research on novel methods of increasing the shelf-life of food products without the necessity of using preservatives has extended rapidly in the world. Ability of nanoemulsions to improve global food quality has attracted great attention in food preservation. This is as a result of a number ofattributes peculiar to nanoemulsions such as optical clarity, ease ofpreparation, thermodynamic stability and increased surface area. This review discusses the potential food applications of nanoemulsions as vehicles for the delivery of antimicrobial compounds. Moreover, the preparation, structure, and functional properties of nanoemulsions and their antimicrobial effects on foodborne pathogens and biofilms will be reviewed in detail. Antimicrobial nanoemulsions are formulated from the antimicrobial compounds that are approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA for use in foods.Results and Conclusion: The antimicrobial activity of nanoemulsions is nonspecific, unlike that of antibiotics, thus they have a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activity against bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus, enveloped viruses (e.g., HIV, and herpes simplex, fungi (e.g., Candida, Dermatophytes, and spores (e.g., anthrax at concentrations that are nontoxic in animals (while limiting the capacity for the generation of resistance and kill pathogens by interacting with their membranes. This physical kill-on-contact mechanism significantly reduces the possibility of the emergence of resistant strains. In general, more research is needed to improve the application processes of antimicrobial nanoemulsion, especially sensory aspects, to be appropriate for each product.Conflict of interests: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  11. Characterization and performance of short cationic antimicrobial peptide isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juba, Melanie; Porter, Devin; Dean, Scott; Gillmor, Susan; Bishop, Barney

    2013-07-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) represent an ancient defense mechanism against invading bacteria, with peptides such as the cathelicidins being essential elements of vertebrate innate immunity. CAMPs are typically associated with broad-spectrum antimicrobial potency and limited bacterial resistance. The cathelicidin identified from the elapid snake Naja atra (NA-CATH) contains a semi-conserved repeated 11-residue motif (ATRA motif) with a sequence pattern consistent with formation of an amphipathic helical conformation. Short peptide amides (ATRA-1, -1A, -1P, and -2) generated based on the pair of ATRA motifs in NA-CATH exhibited varied antimicrobial potencies. The small size of the ATRA peptides, coupled with their varied antimicrobial performances, make them interesting models to study the impact various physico-chemical properties have on antimicrobial performance in helical CAMPs. Accordingly, the D- and L-enantiomers of the peptide ATRA-1A, which in earlier studies had shown both good antimicrobial performance and strong helical character, were investigated in order to assess the impact peptide stereochemistry has on antimicrobial performance and interaction with chiral membranes. The ATRA-1A isomers exhibit varied potencies against four bacterial strains, and their conformational properties in the presence of mixed zwitterionic/anionic liposomes are influenced by anionic lipid content. These studies reveal subtle differences in the properties of the peptide isomers. Differences are also seen in the abilities of the ATRA-1A isomers to induce liposome fusion/aggregation, bilayer rearrangement and lysing through turbidity studies and fluorescence microscopy. The similarities and differences in the properties of the ATRA-1A isomers could aid in efforts to develop D-peptide-based therapeutics using high-performing L-peptides as templates.

  12. Antimicrobial seafood packaging: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suman; Ho Lee, Myung; Park, Lnsik; Shin, Yangjai; Lee, Youn Suk

    2016-06-01

    Microorganisms are the major cause of spoilage in most seafood products; however, only few microbes, called the specific spoilage organisms (SSOs), contribute to the offensive off-flavors associated with seafood spoilage. In food, microbial degradation manifests itself as spoilage, or changes in the sensory properties of a food product, rendering it unsuitable for human consumption. The use of antimicrobial substances can control the general microflora as well as specific microorganisms related to spoilage to provide products with higher safety and better quality. Many antimicrobial compounds have been evaluated in film structures for use in seafood, especially organic acids and their salts, enzymes, bacteriocins; some studies have considered inorganic compounds such as AgSiO2, zinc oxide, silver zeolite, and titanium oxide. The characteristics of some organic antimicrobial packaging systems for seafood and their antimicrobial efficiency in film structures are reviewed in this article.

  13. Serological Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    300L Coordinator

    identified and antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using standard procedures. The total .... serotypes and their antimicrobial resistivity patterns from patients ..... the best of our knowledge). ... Testing of Bacterial Pathogens of Public.

  14. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of antimicrobials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouton, J.W.; Aarnoutse, R.E.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of dose adjustments of antimicrobials based on measured concentrations in an individual ('therapeutic drug monitoring', TDM) is increasingly recognized. There are several reasons for this. First, there is a better understanding of the relationships between doses administered,

  15. Glaciotectonic deformation and reinterpretation of the Worth Point stratigraphic sequence: Banks Island, NT, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jessica M.; England, John H.; Evans, David J. A.

    2014-05-01

    Hill-hole pairs, comprising an ice-pushed hill and associated source depression, cluster in a belt along the west coast of Banks Island, NT. Ongoing coastal erosion at Worth Point, southwest Banks Island, has exposed a section (6 km long and ˜30 m high) through an ice-pushed hill that was transported ˜ 2 km from a corresponding source depression to the southeast. The exposed stratigraphic sequence is polydeformed and comprises folded and faulted rafts of Early Cretaceous and Late Tertiary bedrock, a prominent organic raft, Quaternary glacial sediments, and buried glacial ice. Three distinct structural domains can be identified within the stratigraphic sequence that represent proximal to distal deformation in an ice-marginal setting. Complex thrust sequences, interfering fold-sets, brecciated bedrock and widespread shear structures superimposed on this ice-marginally deformed sequence record subsequent deformation in a subglacial shear zone. Analysis of cross-cutting relationships within the stratigraphic sequence combined with OSL dating indicate that the Worth Point hill-hole pair was deformed during two separate glaciotectonic events. Firstly, ice sheet advance constructed the hill-hole pair and glaciotectonized the strata ice-marginally, producing a proximal to distal deformation sequence. A glacioisostatically forced marine transgression resulted in extensive reworking of the strata and the deposition of a glaciomarine diamict. A readvance during this initial stage redeformed the strata in a subglacial shear zone, overprinting complex deformation structures and depositing a glaciotectonite ˜20 m thick. Outwash channels that incise the subglacially deformed strata record a deglacial marine regression, whereas aggradation of glaciofluvial sand and gravel infilling the channels record a subsequent marine transgression. Secondly, a later, largely non-erosive ice margin overrode Worth Point, deforming only the most surficial units in the section and depositing a

  16. The safety of antimicrobial drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Ćupić Vitomir; Jezdimirović Milanka; Dobrić Silva; Ivanović Saša; Ćupić-Miladinović Dejana

    2016-01-01

    The discovery and introduction of antimicrobial drugs in clinical practice has been recorded as one of the greatest achievements in the history of medicine. The application of these drugs, made a big, almost revolutionary upheaval in treatment of many infectious diseases. Its significance for the humanity lies in the fact that hundreds of thousands of people, until then condemned to a certain death, has been saved now. However, it was shown that antimicrobi...

  17. Antimicrobials for bacterial bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Atkins, Helen S

    2011-06-01

    The limitations of current antimicrobials for highly virulent pathogens considered as potential bioterrorism agents drives the requirement for new antimicrobials that are suitable for use in populations in the event of a deliberate release. Strategies targeting bacterial virulence offer the potential for new countermeasures to combat bacterial bioterrorism agents, including those active against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Although early in the development of antivirulence approaches, inhibitors of bacterial type III secretion systems and cell division mechanisms show promise for the future.

  18. Antimicrobial constituents of Foeniculum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Soo; Choi, Won Gyu; Kim, Won Jun; Kim, Woo Kyung; Kim, Myong Jo; Kang, Won Hee; Kim, Chang Min

    2002-04-01

    A phenyl propanoid derivative, dillapional(1) was found to be a antimicrobial principle of the stems of Foeniculum vulgare (Umbelliferae) with MIC values of 125, 250 and 125/ against Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger and Cladosporium cladosporioides, respectively. A coumarin derivative, scopoletin(2) was also isolated as marginally antimicrobial agent along with inactive compounds, dillapiol(3), bergapten(4), imperatorin(5) and psolaren(6) from this plant. The isolates 1-6 were not active against the Escherichia coli.

  19. Total petroleum system assessment of undiscovered resources in the giant Barnett Shale continuous (unconventional) gas accumulation, Fort Worth Basin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollastro, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Undiscovered natural gas having potential for additions to reserves in the Mississippian Barnett Shale of the Fort Worth Basin, north-central Texas, was assessed using the total petroleum system assessment unit concept and a cell-based methodology for continuous-type (Unconventional) resources. The Barnett-Paleozoic total petroleum system is defined in the Bend arch-Fort Worth Basin as encompassing the area in which the organic-rich Barnett is the primary source rock for oil and gas produced from Paleozoic carbonate and clastic reservoirs. Exploration, technology, and drilling in the Barnett Shale play have rapidly evolved in recent years, with about 3500 vertical and 1000 horizontal wells completed in the Barnett through 2005 and more than 85% of the them completed since 1999. Using framework geology and historical production data, assessment of the Barnett Shale was performed by the U.S. Geological Survey using vertical wells at the peak of vertical well completions and before a transition to completions with horizontal wells. The assessment was performed after (1) mapping critical geological and geochemical parameters to define assessment unit areas with future potential, (2) defining distributions of drainage area (cell size) and estimating ultimate recovery per cell, and (3) estimating future success rates. Two assessment units are defined and assessed for the Barnett Shale continuous gas accumulation, resulting in a total mean undiscovered volume having potential for additions to reserves of 26.2 TCFG. The greater Newark East fracture-barrier continuous Barnett Shale gas assessment unit represents a core-producing area where thick, organic-rich, siliceous Barnett Shale is within the thermal window for gas generation (Ro ??? 1.1%) and is overlain and underlain by impermeable limestone barriers (Pennsylvanian Marble Falls Limestone and Ordovician Viola Limestone, respectively) that serve to confine induced fractures during well completion to maximize gas

  20. An assessment of antimicrobial consumption in food producing animals in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitema, E.S.; Kikuvi, G.M.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2001-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are useful for control of bacterial infections in food animals and man. Their prudent use in these animals is important to control any possible development and transfer of resistance between animals and man. The objective of this study was to generate quantitative information...... to evaluate antimicrobial usage patterns by animal species, route of administration, antimicrobial class and type of use from 1995 to 1999 in Kenya. Theses data are essential for risk analysis and planning and can be helpful in interpreting resistance surveillance data, and evaluating the effectiveness...... of prudent use efforts and antimicrobial resistance mitigation strategies. Data on quantities of active substance classes were collected from the official records of the Pharmacy and Poisons Board of the Ministry of Health and analysed in MS Excel 2000 program. The mean antimicrobial consumption for the 5...

  1. Updating Animal Welfare Thinking: Moving beyond the "Five Freedoms" towards "A Life Worth Living".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, David J

    2016-03-14

    behaviours they find rewarding. These behaviours may include environment-focused exploration and food acquisition activities as well as animal-to-animal interactive activities, all of which can generate various forms of comfort, pleasure, interest, confidence and a sense of control. Animal welfare management should aim to reduce the intensity of survival-critical negative affects to tolerable levels that nevertheless still elicit the required behaviours, and should also provide opportunities for animals to behave in ways they find rewarding, noting that poor management of survival-critical affects reduces animals' motivation to utilize such rewarding opportunities. This biologically more accurate understanding provides support for reviewing the adequacy of provisions in current codes of welfare or practice in order to ensure that animals are given greater opportunities to experience positive welfare states. The purpose is to help animals to have lives worth living, which is not possible when the predominant focus of such codes is on survival-critical measures. Finally, an updated characterisation of animal welfare that incorporates this more accurate understanding is presented.

  2. Antimicrobial selection and dosing in the treatment of wounds in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S E; Duz, M; Rendle, D I

    2016-11-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship within the veterinary profession is recognised by governing and professional bodies as being important; the attitudes and behaviour of veterinary surgeons merit investigation. To investigate levels of protected antimicrobial use and accuracy of antimicrobial dosing in a common clinical scenario in equine practice. Retrospective cohort study. Antimicrobial use was evaluated retrospectively in 113 cases subsequently referred to a single referral hospital for the treatment of limb wounds over a 20-month period. Antimicrobial classification (first-line, alternative or protected) was made according to guidelines produced by the British Equine Veterinary Association. These guidelines also served as the reference for recommended dose rates. Systemic antimicrobials were administered prior to referral in 94/113 (83.2%) horses, of which 8 (8.5%) received the protected third or fourth generation cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones. Forty-eight of 87 (55.2%) horses for which complete dosing data were available received antimicrobials at ≤90% of the recommended dose. Practitioners who held a postgraduate clinical qualification or worked in purely equine practice were no more or less likely to use protected antimicrobials (P = 0.06 and P = 0.64, respectively) or administer inadequate doses (P = 0.75 and P = 0.85, respectively). Veterinary surgeons with more experience were less likely to use protected antimicrobials (P<0.001); however, with the small case numbers, this finding should be interpreted with caution. Heavier horses were more likely to be under-dosed (P<0.002). This study highlights the administration of certain classes of antimicrobials in situations where their use is unlikely to be justified. If these findings reflect more general attitudes and behaviour then greater awareness of, and compliance with, recommendations for responsible antimicrobial use are required among equine practitioners. Bodyweight ought to be measured or estimated

  3. Reliability worth applied to transmission expansion planning based on ant colony system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite da Silva, Armando M.; Rezende, Leandro S. [Institute of Electric Systems and Energy, Federal University of Itajuba, UNIFEI (Brazil); da Fonseca Manso, Luiz A.; de Resende, Leonidas C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Sao Joao del Rei, UFSJ (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    This paper proposes a new methodology to solve transmission expansion planning (TEP) problems in power system, based on the metaheuristic ant colony optimisation (ACO). The TEP problem includes the search for the least cost solution, bearing in mind investment cost and reliability worth. Reliability worth is considered through the assessment of the interruption costs represented by the index LOLC - loss of load cost. The focus of this work is the development of a tool for the multi-stage planning of transmission systems and how reliability aspects can influence on the decision-making process. The applications of the proposed methodology are illustrated through case studies carried out using a test system and a real sub-transmission network. (author)

  4. Blackness coefficients, effective diffusion parameters, and control rod worths for thermal reactors - methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretscher, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Simple diffusion theory cannot be used to evaluate control rod worths in thermal neutron reactors because of the strongly absorbing character of the control material. However, reliable control rod worths can be obtained within the framework of diffusion theory if the control material is characterized by a set of mesh-dependent effective diffusion parameters. For thin slab absorbers the effective diffusion parameters can be expressed as functions of a suitably-defined pair of blackness coefficients. Methods for calculating these blackness coefficients in the P/sub 1/, P/sub 3/, and P/sub 5/ approximations, with and without scattering, are presented. For control elements whose geometry does not permit a thin slab treatment, other methods are needed for determining the effective diffusion parameters. One such method, based on reaction rate ratios, is discussed.

  5. "I'm worth more than that": trait positivity predicts increased rejection of unfair financial offers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnaby D Dunn

    Full Text Available Humans react strongly to unfairness, sometimes rejecting inequitable proposals even if this sacrifices personal financial gain. Here we explored whether emotional dispositions--trait tendencies to experience positive or negative feelings--shape the rejection of unfair financial offers. Participants played an Ultimatum Game, where the division of a sum of money is proposed and the player can accept or reject this offer. Individuals high in trait positivity and low in trait negativity rejected more unfair offers. These relationships could not be explained by existing accounts which argue that rejection behaviour results from a failure to regulate negative emotions, or serves to arbitrate social relationships and identity. Instead, the relationship between dispositional affect and rejection behaviour may be underpinned by perceived self worth, with those of a positive disposition believing that they are "worth more than that" and those of a negative disposition resigning themselves to "taking the crumbs from under the table".

  6. "I'm worth more than that": trait positivity predicts increased rejection of unfair financial offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Barnaby D; Makarova, Dasha; Evans, David; Clark, Luke

    2010-12-08

    Humans react strongly to unfairness, sometimes rejecting inequitable proposals even if this sacrifices personal financial gain. Here we explored whether emotional dispositions--trait tendencies to experience positive or negative feelings--shape the rejection of unfair financial offers. Participants played an Ultimatum Game, where the division of a sum of money is proposed and the player can accept or reject this offer. Individuals high in trait positivity and low in trait negativity rejected more unfair offers. These relationships could not be explained by existing accounts which argue that rejection behaviour results from a failure to regulate negative emotions, or serves to arbitrate social relationships and identity. Instead, the relationship between dispositional affect and rejection behaviour may be underpinned by perceived self worth, with those of a positive disposition believing that they are "worth more than that" and those of a negative disposition resigning themselves to "taking the crumbs from under the table".

  7. Connecting the horizontal dimension of social comparison with self-worth and self-confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Kenneth D

    2005-06-01

    Multilevel modeling of undergraduates (N = 229) event-contingent records of naturalistic social comparison experiences revealed distinct correlates of the horizontal (similar-different) dimension and vertical (better-worse) dimension of comparisons. Complementing past studies showing associations between the horizontal dimension and communal dispositions and experiences, the current study showed that the horizontal dimension also is associated with agentic dispositions and experiences such as self-worth and self-confidence. For example, participants perceived more similarity when comparing with targets' desirable attributes than with targets' undesirable attributes and perceiving similarities with desirable target attributes (and dissimilarities with undesirable target attributes) enhanced their self-confidence. Participants higher in self-worth (high in self-esteem and low in depression) were more discriminating in their experiences of similarity and connection; specifically, they reported more similarity and connection when targets' attributes were desirable but less connection the more targets' attributes were inferior to their own.

  8. Dual worth trade-off method and its application for solving multiple criteria decision making problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Junwen

    2006-01-01

    To overcome the limitations of the traditional surrogate worth trade-off (SWT) method and solve the multiple criteria decision making problem more efficiently and interactively, a new method labeled dual worth trade-off (DWT) method is proposed. The DWT method dynamically uses the duality theory related to the multiple criteria decision making problem and analytic hierarchy process technique to obtain the decision maker's solution preference information and finally find the satisfactory compromise solution of the decision maker. Through the interactive process between the analyst and the decision maker, trade-off information is solicited and treated properly, the representative subset of efficient solutions and the satisfactory solution to the problem are found. The implementation procedure for the DWT method is presented. The effectiveness and applicability of the DWT method are shown by a practical case study in the field of production scheduling.

  9. Peter Singer and 'lives not worth living'--comments on a flawed argument from analogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, P

    1995-02-01

    The Australian bioethicist Peter Singer has presented an intriguing argument for the opinion that it is quite proper (morally) to deem the lives of certain individuals not worth living and so to kill them. The argument is based on the alleged analogy between the ordinary clinical judgement that a life with a broken leg is worse than a life with an intact leg (other things being equal), and that the broken leg therefore ought to be mended, on the one hand, and the judgement that the lives of some individuals, for example, severely disabled infants, are not worth living and therefore ought to be terminated, on the other. In the present article it is argued that Singer's argument is flawed, intellectually and/or ethically.

  10. The pursuit of self-esteem: contingencies of self-worth and self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jennifer; Brook, Amara T; Niiya, Yu; Villacorta, Mark

    2006-12-01

    Successful self-regulation is defined as the willingness to exert effort toward one's most important goals, while taking setbacks and failures as opportunities to learn, identify weaknesses and address them, and develop new strategies toward achieving those goals. Contingencies of self-worth can facilitate self-regulation because people are highly motivated to succeed and avoid failure in domains of contingency. However, because boosts in self-esteem are pleasurable and drops in self-esteem are painful, protection, maintenance, and enhancement of self-esteem can become the overriding goal. Several pitfalls for self-regulation can result, especially when tasks are difficult and failure is likely. In this article, we describe a program of research examining these self-regulation pitfalls associated with contingent self-worth and suggest that learning orientations, particularly the willingness to embrace failure for the learning it affords, foster successful self-regulation even in people with highly contingent self-esteem.

  11. Antimicrobial stewardship in a Gastroenterology Department: Impact on antimicrobial consumption, antimicrobial resistance and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedini, Andrea; De Maria, Nicola; Del Buono, Mariagrazia; Bianchini, Marcello; Mancini, Mauro; Binda, Cecilia; Brasacchio, Andrea; Orlando, Gabriella; Franceschini, Erica; Meschiari, Marianna; Sartini, Alessandro; Zona, Stefano; Paioli, Serena; Villa, Erica; Gyssens, Inge C; Mussini, Cristina

    2016-10-01

    A major cause of the increase in antimicrobial resistance is the inappropriate use of antimicrobials. To evaluate the impact on antimicrobial consumption and clinical outcome of an antimicrobial stewardship program in an Italian Gastroenterology Department. Between October 2014 and September 2015 (period B), a specialist in infectious diseases (ID) controlled all antimicrobial prescriptions and decided about the therapy in agreement with gastroenterologists. The defined daily doses of antimicrobials (DDDs), incidence of MDR-infections, mean length of stay and overall in-hospital mortality rate were compared with those of the same period in the previous 12-months (period A). During period B, the ID specialist performed 304 consultations: antimicrobials were continued in 44.4% of the cases, discontinued in 13.8%, not recommended in 12.1%, de-escalated 9.9%, escalated in 7.9%, and started in 4.0%. Comparing the 2 periods, we observed a decreased of antibiotics consumption (from 109.81 to 78.45 DDDs/100 patient-days, p=0.0005), antifungals (from 41.28 to 24.75 DDDs/100pd, p=0.0004), carbapenems (from 15.99 to 6.80 DDDsx100pd, p=0.0032), quinolones (from 35.79 to 17.82 DDDsx100pd, p=0.0079). No differences were observed in incidence of MDR-infections, length of hospital stay (LOS), and mortality rate. ASP program had a positive impact on reducing the consumption of antimicrobials, without an increase in LOS and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The changing influences of self-worth and peer deviance on drinking problems in urban American Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Sandra M; Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Patricia Silk; Walker, R Dale; Marlatt, G Alan; Larimer, Mary

    2006-06-01

    This study explored the changing relations among self-worth, peer deviance, and alcohol-related problems in a sample of 224 urban-dwelling, American Indian adolescents. Data were collected annually at 7 time points to test a proposed mediational model. As expected, peer deviance mediated the relation between low self-worth and alcohol-related problems in younger adolescents; however, this relation did not hold as participants became older. In older adolescents, low self-worth and peer deviance directly and independently contributed to alcohol problems. Possible explanations for and implications of these findings are discussed in terms of developmental changes during adolescence.

  13. Prospective Relations among Low-Income African American Adolescents’ Maternal Attachment Security, Self-Worth, and Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Ginger; Phillips, Samantha; Bolland, Anneliese; Delgado, Melissa; Tietjen, Juliet; Bolland, John

    2017-01-01

    This study examined prospective mediating relations among mother-adolescent attachment security, self-worth, and risk behaviors, including substance use and violence, across ages 13–17 in a sample of 901 low-income African American adolescents. Path analyses revealed that self-worth was a significant mediator between attachment security and risk behaviors, such that earlier attachment security predicted self-worth 1 year later, which in turn, predicted substance use, weapon carrying, and fighting in the 3rd year. Implications for the role of the secure base concept within the context of urban poverty are discussed. PMID:28174548

  14. Antimicrobial peptide-modified liposomes for bacteria targeted delivery of temoporfin in photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kewei; Gitter, Burkhard; Rüger, Ronny; Wieland, Gerhard D; Chen, Ming; Liu, Xiangli; Albrecht, Volker; Fahr, Alfred

    2011-10-01

    Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are two promising strategies to combat the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. To take advantage of these two strategies, we integrated a novel antimicrobial peptide (WLBU2) and a potent generation II photosensitizer (temoporfin) into liposomes by preparing WLBU2-modified liposomes, aiming at bacteria targeted delivery of temoporfin for PACT. WLBU2 was successfully coupled to temoporfin-loaded liposomes using a functional phospholipid. The delivery of temoporfin to bacteria was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, thus demonstrating that more temoporfin was delivered to bacteria by WLBU2-modified liposomes than by unmodified liposomes. Consequently, the WLBU2-modified liposomes eradicated all methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and induced a 3.3 log(10) reduction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the in vitro photodynamic inactivation test. These findings demonstrate that the use of AMP-modified liposomes is promising for bacteria-targeted delivery of photosensitizers and for improving the PACT efficiency against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in the local infections.

  15. World Health Organization ranking of antimicrobials according to their importance in human medicine: A critical step for developing risk management strategies for the use of antimicrobials in food production animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, Peter; Powers, John H; Chiller, Tom M; Aidara-Kane, Awa; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2009-07-01

    The use of antimicrobials in food animals creates an important source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria that can spread to humans through the food supply. Improved management of the use of antimicrobials in food animals, particularly reducing the usage of those that are "critically important" for human medicine, is an important step toward preserving the benefits of antimicrobials for people. The World Health Organization has developed and applied criteria to rank antimicrobials according to their relative importance in human medicine. Clinicians, regulatory agencies, policy makers, and other stakeholders can use this ranking when developing risk management strategies for the use of antimicrobials in food production animals. The ranking allows stakeholders to focus risk management efforts on drugs used in food animals that are the most important to human medicine and, thus, need to be addressed most urgently, such as fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins.

  16. The Democratic Worth of Celebrity Politics in an Era of Late Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Keywords:\\ud \\ud celebrity politicians;\\ud late modernity;\\ud Barack Obama;\\ud political aesthetics\\ud \\ud In a seminal article published in 2004, John Street argued that celebrity politics has provided a greater expression for the enhancement of democratic behaviour. Consequently, this analysis builds on Street's thesis to consider the worth of celebrity politics in an era of late modernity. To this end, it employs Henrik Bang's and John Keane's constructs of Everyday Makers and Monitory Dem...

  17. Social Support and Neighborhood Stressors Among African American Youth: Networks and Relations to Self-Worth

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Susan D.; Felix, Erika D.; Nagarajan, Thara

    2010-01-01

    Although neighborhood stressors have a negative impact on youth, and social support can play a protective role, it is unclear what types and sources of social support may contribute to positive outcomes among at-risk youth. We examined the influences of neighborhood disadvantage and social support on global self-worth among low-income, urban African American youth, both concurrently and longitudinally. We examined social support from both a structural and functional perspective, and tested th...

  18. Antimicrobial peptides in crustaceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RD Rosa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Crustaceans are a large and diverse invertebrate animal group that mounts a complex and efficient innate immune response against a variety of microorganisms. The crustacean immune system is primarily related to cellular responses and the production and release of important immune effectors into the hemolymph. Antimicrobial proteins and/or peptides (AMPs are key components of innate immunity and are widespread in nature, from bacteria to vertebrate animals. In crustaceans, 15 distinct AMP families are currently recognized, although the great majority (14 families comes from members of the order Decapoda. Crustacean AMPs are generally cationic, gene-encoded molecules that are mainly produced by circulating immune-competent cells (hemocytes or are derived from unrelated proteins primarily involved in other biological functions. In this review, we tentatively classified the crustacean AMPs into four main groups based on their amino acid composition, structural features and multi-functionality. We also attempted to summarize the current knowledge on their implication both in an efficient response to microbial infections and in crustacean survival.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushnie, T P Tim; Lamb, Andrew J

    2005-11-01

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous in photosynthesising cells and are commonly found in fruit, vegetables, nuts, seeds, stems, flowers, tea, wine, propolis and honey. For centuries, preparations containing these compounds as the principal physiologically active constituents have been used to treat human diseases. Increasingly, this class of natural products is becoming the subject of anti-infective research, and many groups have isolated and identified the structures of flavonoids possessing antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial activity. Moreover, several groups have demonstrated synergy between active flavonoids as well as between flavonoids and existing chemotherapeutics. Reports of activity in the field of antibacterial flavonoid research are widely conflicting, probably owing to inter- and intra-assay variation in susceptibility testing. However, several high-quality investigations have examined the relationship between flavonoid structure and antibacterial activity and these are in close agreement. In addition, numerous research groups have sought to elucidate the antibacterial mechanisms of action of selected flavonoids. The activity of quercetin, for example, has been at least partially attributed to inhibition of DNA gyrase. It has also been proposed that sophoraflavone G and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate inhibit cytoplasmic membrane function, and that licochalcones A and C inhibit energy metabolism. Other flavonoids whose mechanisms of action have been investigated include robinetin, myricetin, apigenin, rutin, galangin, 2,4,2'-trihydroxy-5'-methylchalcone and lonchocarpol A. These compounds represent novel leads, and future studies may allow the development of a pharmacologically acceptable antimicrobial agent or class of agents.

  20. Antimicrobial peptides in annelids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Tasiemski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Gene encoded antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are widely distributed among living organisms including plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. They constitute important effectors of the innate immune response by exerting multiple roles as mediators of inflammation with impact on epithelial and inflammatory cells influencing diverse processes such as cytokine release, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, wound healing, chemotaxis and immune induction. In invertebrates, most of the data describe the characterization and/or the function of AMPs in the numerically and economically most representative group which are arthropods. Annelids are among the first coelomates and are therefore of special phylogenetic interest. Compared to other invertebrate groups, data on annelid’s immunity reveal heavier emphasis on the cellular than on the humoral response suggesting that immune defense of annelids seems to be principally developed as cellular immunity.This paper gives an overview of the variety of AMPs identified in the three classes of annelids, i.e. polychaetes, oligochaetes and achaetes. Their functions, when they have been studied, in the humoral or cellular response of annelids are also mentioned.

  1. Editorial of the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Francolini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The special issue “Antimicrobial Polymers” includes research and review papers concerning the recent advances on preparation of antimicrobial polymers and their relevance to industrial settings and biomedical field. Antimicrobial polymers have recently emerged as promising candidates to fight microbial contamination onto surfaces thanks to their interesting properties. In this special issue, the main strategies pursued for developing antimicrobial polymers, including polymer impregnation with antimicrobial agents or synthesis of polymers bearing antimicrobial moieties, were discussed. The future application of these polymers either in industrial or healthcare settings could result in an extremely positive impact not only at the economic level but also for the improvement of quality of life.

  2. An Efficient Data-worth Analysis Framework via Probabilistic Collocation Method Based Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, L.; Dai, C.; Zhang, D.; Guadagnini, A.

    2015-12-01

    It is critical to predict contaminant plume in an aquifer under uncertainty, which can help assess environmental risk and design rational management strategies. An accurate prediction of contaminant plume requires the collection of data to help characterize the system. Due to the limitation of financial resources, ones should estimate the expectative value of data collected from each optional monitoring scheme before carried out. Data-worth analysis is believed to be an effective approach to identify the value of the data in some problems, which quantifies the uncertainty reduction assuming that the plausible data has been collected. However, it is difficult to apply the data-worth analysis to a dynamic simulation of contaminant transportation model owning to its requirement of large number of inverse-modeling. In this study, a novel efficient data-worth analysis framework is proposed by developing the Probabilistic Collocation Method based Ensemble Kalman Filter (PCKF). The PCKF constructs polynomial chaos expansion surrogate model to replace the original complex numerical model. Consequently, the inverse modeling can perform on the proxy rather than the original model. An illustrative example, considering the dynamic change of the contaminant concentration, is employed to demonstrate the proposed approach. The Results reveal that schemes with different sampling frequencies, monitoring networks location, prior data content will have significant impact on the uncertainty reduction of the estimation of contaminant plume. Our proposition is validated to provide the reasonable value of data from various schemes.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from horses: Epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, T W; Clegg, P D; Williams, N J; Pinchbeck, G L

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance poses a significant threat to the continued successful use of antimicrobial agents for the treatment of bacterial infections. While the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from man has been studied extensively, less work has been undertaken in companion animals, particularly horses. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been identified as a cause of infections, with a low prevalence of nasal carriage by horses in the community but higher for hospitalised horses. Molecular characterisation has shown methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains either to be predominantly of types associated with horses or of sequence type ST398. Antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli (including multidrug-resistant and extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing isolates) have caused infections and been documented in faecal carriage by horses, with many significant resistance mechanisms identified. More sporadic reports and molecular characterisation exist for resistance in other bacteria such as enterococci, Salmonella, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas species. Limited work has been undertaken evaluating risk factors and much of the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from horses remains to be determined.

  4. How to educate prescribers in antimicrobial stewardship practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulcini, C.; Gyssens, I.C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Widespread antimicrobial use has compromised its value, leading to a crisis of antimicrobial resistance. A major cause of misuse is insufficient knowledge of prescribing of antimicrobials in many categories of professionals. An important principle of antimicrobial stewardship is avoiding selection

  5. Use of radar rainfall data for high-resolution flash flood forecasting in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, D. J.; Habibi, H.; Rafieei Nasab, A.; Norouzi, A.; Nazari, B.; Lee, H. S.; Cosgrove, B.; Cui, Z.

    2015-12-01

    For monitoring and prediction of water-related hazards such as flash flooding in urban areas, high-resolution hydrologic and hydraulic modeling is necessary. Because of large sensitivity and scale dependence of rainfall-runoff models to errors in quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE), it is important that the accuracy of QPE be improved to the greatest extent possible. In this presentation, we describe the ongoing efforts in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex area to provide location- and time-specific flash flooding warnings in real-time. The hydrologic modeling system used is the National Weather Service (NWS) Hydrology Laboratory's Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (HLRDHM) applied at spatiotemporal resolutions ranging from 250 m to 2 km and from 1 min to 1 hour. The high-resolution precipitation input is from the DFW Demonstration Network of the Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) radars, the Next Generation QPE (Q2), and the NWS Multisensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE). Also described are the assessment of sensitivity of streamflow simulation to the spatiotemporal resolution of precipitation input and hydrologic modeling, the needs for high-quality high-resolution precipitation data sets for hydro-meteorological and -climatological applications particularly in large urban areas, and possible approaches to realize them.

  6. Public health consequences of use of antimicrobial agents in food animals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alicia D; Nelson, Jennifer M; Rossiter, Shannon; Angulo, Frederick J

    2003-01-01

    The use of antimicrobial agents in food animals has caused concern regarding the impact these uses have on human health. Use of antimicrobial agents in animals and humans results in the emergence and dissemination of resistant bacteria. Resistant bacteria from food animals may be passed through the food chain to humans resulting in resistant infections. Increasing resistance to antimicrobial agents that are important in the treatment of human diseases, such as fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins for the treatment of Salmonella and Campylobacter infections, has significant public health implications. Efforts to mitigate the effects of increasing resistance require collaboration by several partners, including the farming, veterinary, medical, and public health communities.

  7. Does self-threat promote social connection? The role of self-esteem and contingencies of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Maner, Jon K

    2009-01-01

    Six studies examined the social motivations of people with high self-esteem (HSE) and low self-esteem (LSE) following a threat to a domain of contingent self-worth. Whether people desired social contact following self-threat depended on an interaction between an individual's trait self-esteem and contingencies of self-worth. HSE participants who strongly based self-worth on appearance sought to connect with close others following a threat to their physical attractiveness. LSE participants who staked self-worth on appearance wanted to avoid social contact and, instead, preferred a less interpersonally risky way of coping with self-threat (wanting to enhance their physical attractiveness). Implications for theories of self-esteem, motivation, and interpersonal processes are discussed.

  8. Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms among Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed. PMID:23865047

  9. Antimicrobial activities of squalamine mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, K; Bernard, E M; Sadownik, A; Regen, S L; Armstrong, D

    1997-07-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial properties of compounds with structural features that were designed to mimic those of squalamine, an antibiotic isolated from the stomach of the dogfish shark. The mimics, like squalamine, are sterol-polyamine conjugates. Unlike squalamine, the mimics were simple to prepare, at high yield, from readily available starting materials. Several squalamine mimics showed activity against gram-negative rods, gram-positive cocci including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, and fungi. Some had little or no hemolytic activity. The hydrophobicity of the sterol backbone and the length and the cationic charge of the side chains appeared to be critical determinants of activity. One of the squalamine mimics, SM-7, was bactericidal against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and S. aureus; its activity was decreased by divalent or monovalent cations and by bovine serum albumin. Subinhibitory concentrations of SM-7 markedly enhanced the antimicrobial activity of rifampin against gram-negative rods. These results suggest that the compounds may disrupt an outer membrane of gram-negative rods. Squalamine mimics are a new class of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. The antagonism of their activity by serum and albumin and their hemolytic properties may limit their use as systemic agents. The squalamine mimics, because of their potencies, broad spectra of antimicrobial activity, and potential for systemic toxicity, appear to be good candidates for development as topical antimicrobial agents.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms among Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Kinga; Osek, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed.

  11. Degree of Contamination and Sources of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet of Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas, 2004 and 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    Lake Worth is a reservoir on the West Fork Trinity River on the western edge of Fort Worth, Texas. Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) is on the eastern shore of Woods Inlet, an arm of Lake Worth that extends south from the main body of the lake. Two previous reports documented ele-vated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in surficial sediment in Woods Inlet relative to those in surficial sediment in other parts of Lake Worth. This report presents the results of another USGS study, done in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, to indicate the degree of PCB contamination of Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet and to identify possible sources of PCBs in Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet on the basis of suspended, streambed, and lake-bottom sediment samples collected there in 2004 and 2006-07. About 40 to 80 percent of total PCB concentrations (depending on how total PCB concentration is computed) in suspended sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration, a concentration below which adverse effects to benthic biota rarely occur. About 20 percent of total PCB concentrations (computed as sum of three Aroclors) in suspended sediment exceed the probable effect concentration, a concentration above which adverse effects to benthic biota are expected to occur frequently. About 20 to 30 percent of total PCB concentrations in streambed sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration; and about 6 to 20 percent of total PCB concentrations in lake-bottom (Woods Inlet) sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration. No streambed or lake-bottom sediment concentrations exceed the probable effect concentration. The sources of PCBs to Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet were investigated by comparing the relative distributions of PCB congeners of suspended sediment to those of streambed and lake-bottom sediment. The sources of PCBs were identified using graphical analysis of normalized concentrations (congener ratios) of 11 congeners. For graphical analysis, the

  12. The direct and indirect role of self esteem and procrastination in the relation to fear of failure and self worth

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Balkıs; Erdinç Duru

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the direct and indirect role of self esteem and procrastination in the relation between fear of failure and self worth.  The participants were 279 students who study different major fields at the Faculty of Education in Pamukkale University. Age range varied from 19 to 34. In this study, Tuckman Procrastination Inventory, Rosenberg Self Esteem Inventory, Activate and Success Based Self Worth Scale, Concern over Mistakes Scale and Personal Information S...

  13. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of phenotype Extended Spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to have adequate information for treatment of bacterial infections ... Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out using various antimicrobial discs as per ... They consisted of 46 urine, 264 pus (from wound) and 20 blood samples.

  14. Antimicrobial stewardship in small animal veterinary practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Prescott, John F

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing recognition of the critical role for antimicrobial stewardship in preventing the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria, examples of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs are rare in small animal veterinary practice. This article highlights the basic requirements...

  15. molecular characterisation and antimicrobial resistance patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-03

    Mar 3, 2013 ... Conclusion: This study demonstrated that there is a significant level of antimicrobial ..... prevalence in their report. In this ... use of antimicrobial therapy of infections in man and ... by bacteriophage 933J from Escherichia coli.

  16. Antimicrobial Properties of Titanium Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdural, B. K.; Yurum, A.; Bakir, U.; Karakas, G.

    In the present study, nanostructured titania particles were synthesized using hydrothermal processing and their photocatalytic antimicrobial activities were characterized. Sol-gel synthesized TiO2 samples were treated with a two step hydrothermal treatment. The first stage treatment was the alkaline treatment with 10 M of NaOH for 48 h at 130°C, followed with the second step which applied with distilled water for 48 h at 200°C. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images showed that alkaline treatment yields lamellar structure particles from the sol-gel synthesized anatase. Further treatment of nanoplates with distilled water results in crystal growth and the formation of nano structured thorn like particles. The photocatalytic antimicrobial activities of samples were determined against Escherichia coli under solar irradiation for 4 h. It was observed that the samples treated under alkaline conditions have higher antimicrobial activity than the untreated samples.

  17. Antimicrobial resistance in India: A review

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is an important concern for the public health authorities at global level. However, in developing countries like India, recent hospital and some community based data showed increase in burden of antimicrobial resistance. Research related to antimicrobial use, determinants and development of antimicrobial resistance, regional variation and interventional strategies according to the existing health care situation in each country is a big challenge. This paper discusses ...

  18. Uses of antimicrobial genes from microbial genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorek, Rotem; Rubin, Edward M.

    2013-08-20

    We describe a method for mining microbial genomes to discover antimicrobial genes and proteins having broad spectrum of activity. Also described are antimicrobial genes and their expression products from various microbial genomes that were found using this method. The products of such genes can be used as antimicrobial agents or as tools for molecular biology.

  19. Sixty years of antimicrobial use in animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    This, the last in our series of feature articles celebrating 125 years of Veterinary Record, aims to provide an overview of antimicrobial use in animals. Starting with a journey through the history of antimicrobial use in animals, Luca Guardabassi gives his opinion on the current zoonotic risks...... associated with antimicrobial resistance and on how these risks might be tackled in the years to come....

  20. A Tubular Electrochemical Reactor for Continuous Generation of Sodium Hypochlorite for Anti-Microbial Applications%一种连续产生次氯酸钠的管状电化学反应杀菌器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾新安; 秦贯丰; 李忠彦

    2005-01-01

    介绍了一种中试规模的用于原位清洗(CIP)或原位灭菌(SIP)的次氯酸钠连续发生器.其电解槽采用带尼龙隔膜的管式电化学反应器结构,并在钛阳极管的表面采用稀土金属氧化物二氧化钌(RuO2)作为电化学反应的活性催化涂层.文中从反应工程的角度分析了该发生器的性能.试验结果表明,该反应器的电流效率在82%以上.微生物学研究表明,有效氯含量范围内的消毒水可有效杀灭大部分食品工业设备表面所发现的微生物.%A pilot-scale reactor for continuously generating sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), which is applied to the cleaning-in-place (CIP) and the sterilizing-in-place (SIP), is introduced in this paper. The electrolytic cell of the reactor is constructed as a tubular electrochemical reactor with a nylon net membrane between the electrodes and with a layer of rare-earth metallic oxide, RuO2, as the active catalytic coating on the titanium anode surface. The performance of this generator is then analyzed from the point of view of reaction engineering.Experimental results indicate that the electric current efficiency of the reactor is above 82%. Biological study shows that the sterilizing water with the available chlorine content can effectively kill most microorganisms on the walls of food equipment.

  1. Effect of Surface Traffic Count on Taxi Time at Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Matthew Stephen; Gupta, Gautam

    2008-01-01

    As the amount of air traffic increases over the years, most airports simply do not have the means of expanding to handle the intensified traffic on the surface that will ensue. Precise surveillance equipment and automation concepts, as well as advanced surface traffic algorithms are being developed to improve airport efficiency. These surface algorithms require inputs unique to each airport to ensure maximum efficiency, and minimal taxi delay. This study analyzes surface traffic at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) to determine the effect of the number of aircraft on the surface and the amount of stop and go situations they experience to the amount of additional taxi time encountered. If the surface capacity of an airport is known, minimal delay can be accomplished by limiting the number of taxiing aircraft to that capacity. This concept is related to highways, where traffic flow drastically decreases as more cars occupy the road. An attempt to minimize this effect on highways is seen with the use of metering lights at freeway on-ramps. Since the surface traffic at airports is highly regulated, and aircraft are less mobile on the ground, limiting the surface count to a certain number can greatly reduce the amount of additional taxi time encountered, as well as reduce hazardous emissions. This study will also find the regions of an airport that encounter the most additional taxi time when the number of aircraft in that area is increased. This could help surface traffic algorithms avoid congesting that area, or re-route aircraft to different runways when that area reaches its capacity. The relationship between the amount of stop and go situations an aircraft encounters and their effect on the taxi time of that aircraft will also be investigated. This will help to determine the effect of holding an aircraft on the taxiway as opposed to re-routing it. The lesser of the two should be used when developing surface traffic algorithms to further minimize the

  2. Benchmark Evaluation of Fuel Effect and Material Worth Measurements for a Beryllium-Reflected Space Reactor Mockup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Margaret A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Center for Space Nuclear Research; Bess, John D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The critical configuration of the small, compact critical assembly (SCCA) experiments performed at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) in 1962-1965 have been evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments for inclusion in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. The initial intent of these experiments was to support the design of the Medium Power Reactor Experiment (MPRE) program, whose purpose was to study “power plants for the production of electrical power in space vehicles.” The third configuration in this series of experiments was a beryllium-reflected assembly of stainless-steel-clad, highly enriched uranium (HEU)-O2 fuel mockup of a potassium-cooled space power reactor. Reactivity measurements cadmium ratio spectral measurements and fission rate measurements were measured through the core and top reflector. Fuel effect worth measurements and neutron moderating and absorbing material worths were also measured in the assembly fuel region. The cadmium ratios, fission rate, and worth measurements were evaluated for inclusion in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. The fuel tube effect and neutron moderating and absorbing material worth measurements are the focus of this paper. Additionally, a measurement of the worth of potassium filling the core region was performed but has not yet been evaluated Pellets of 93.15 wt.% enriched uranium dioxide (UO2) were stacked in 30.48 cm tall stainless steel fuel tubes (0.3 cm tall end caps). Each fuel tube had 26 pellets with a total mass of 295.8 g UO2 per tube. 253 tubes were arranged in 1.506-cm triangular lattice. An additional 7-tube cluster critical configuration was also measured but not used for any physics measurements. The core was surrounded on all side by a beryllium reflector. The fuel effect worths were measured by removing fuel tubes at various radius. An accident scenario

  3. Integrated geophysical studies of the Fort Worth Basin (Texas), Harney Basin (Oregon), and Snake River Plain (Idaho)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Murari

    geospatial data to understand the basement and sub-basement structures in the study area. Major tectonic features including the Ouachita thrust-fold belt, Lampasas arch, Llano uplift, and Bend arch surround the southeast Fort Worth Basin. The effects of these tectonic units in the basement were imaged in form of faulted and folded basement and sub-basement layers. Euler deconvolution and integrated forward gravity modeling were employed to extend the interpretations beyond the 3D seismic survey into a regional context. The Harney Basin is a relatively flat lying depression in the northeast portion of the enigmatic High Lava Plains volcanic province in eastern Oregon. In addition to the High Lava Plains active source seismic data, I also employed gravity, magnetic, digital elevation, geologic maps, and other geospatial data in this integrated study. I generated an upper crustal 3D seismic tomographic model of the Harney Basin and surrounding area using the active source seismic data. I then integrated it with gravity, magnetic, and geologic data to produce a geophysical model of the upper crustal structure, which reveals that the basin reaches as deep as 6 km in the central areas. I observed two major caldera shaped features within the basin. These calderas reveal seismic low velocity areas along with low gravity and magnetic anomalies. I interpreted the extent of these calderas with the help of integrated geophysical results. I propose a nested caldera complex in the northern Harney Basin and another caldera in the southern part. The Snake River Plain is an arcuate-shaped topographic low that lies in southern Idaho. This rifted valley is filled by large volume of mafic magma with numerous exposures of silicic volcanic centers. The scientific discussion on the structural complexities and evolution of the Snake River Plain and the role of extension in its formation has been going on for decades. Similarly, high gravity and magnetic anomalies are associated with the Snake River

  4. ECDC/EFSA/EMA first joint report on the integrated analysis of the consumption of antimicrobial agents and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from humans and food-producing animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ECDC, the EFSA and the EMA have for the first time jointly explored associations between consumption of antimicrobials in humans and food-producing animals, and antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from humans and food-producing animals, using 2011 and 2012 data currently available from their relevant five EU monitoring networks. Combined data on antimicrobial consumption and corresponding resistance in animals and humans for EU MSs and reporting countries were analysed using logistic regression models for selected combinations of bacteria and antimicrobials. A summary indicator of the proportion of resistant bacteria in the main food-producing animal species was calculated for the analysis, as consumption data in food-producing animals were not available at the species level. Comparison of antimicrobial consumption data in animals and humans in 2012, both expressed in milligrams per kilogram of estimated biomass, revealed that overall antimicrobial consumption was higher in animals than in humans, although contrasting situations were observed between countries. The consumption of several antimicrobials extensively used in animal husbandry was higher in animals than in humans, while consumption of antimicrobials critically important for human medicine (such as fluoroquinolones and 3rd- and 4th-generation cephalosporins was higher in humans. In both humans and animals, positive associations between consumption of antimicrobials and the corresponding resistance in bacteria were observed for most of the combinations investigated. In some cases, a positive association was also found between antimicrobial consumption in animals and resistance in bacteria from humans. While highlighting findings of concern, these results should be interpreted with caution owing to current data limitations and the complexity of the AMR phenomenon, which is influenced by several factors besides antimicrobial consumption. Recommendations to address current data

  5. Antimicrobial Impacts of Essential Oils on Food Borne-Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozogul, Yesim; Kuley, Esmeray; Ucar, Yilmaz; Ozogul, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of twelve essential oil (pine oil, eucalyptus, thyme, sage tea, lavender, orange, laurel, lemon, myrtle, lemon, rosemary and juniper) was tested by a disc diffusion method against food borne pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi A, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas hydrophila, Campylobacter jejuni, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus). The major components in essential oils were monoterpenes hydrocarbons, α-pinene, limonene; monoterpene phenol, carvacrol and oxygenated monoterpenes, camphor, 1,8-cineole, eucalyptol, linalool and linalyl acetate. Although the antimicrobial effect of essential oils varied depending on the chemical composition of the essential oils and specific microorganism tested, majority of the oils exhibited antibacterial activity against one or more strains. The essential oil with the lowest inhibition zones was juniper with the values varied from 1.5 to 6 mm. However, the components of essential oil of thyme and pine oil are highly active against food borne pathogen, generating the largest inhibition zones for both gram negative and positive bacteria (5.25-28.25 mm vs. 12.5-30 mm inhibition zones). These results indicate the possible use of the essential oils on food system as antimicrobial agents against food-borne pathogen. The article also offers some promising patents on applications of essential oils on food industry as antimicrobial agent.

  6. Identification and Antimicrobial Properties of Malaysian Mangrove Actinomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaidi Ariffin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The mangrove area is one of the more unique and less studied habitats for the discovery of biologically active secondary metabolites from potential actinomycetes. For this reason, isolation, characterization and screening of antimicrobial properties of actinomycetes from mangrove soils collected at the selected mangrove areas in Malaysia were conducted. A total of 73 actinomycetes were isolated. Of these, 9.6% (direct broth culture and 8.2% (ethyl acetate extract of these isolates demonstrated antimicrobial activities active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans as well as Saccharomyces cerevisiae by disc diffusion assay. Hexane extracts, however, exhibited no activity. A modified microdilution plate assay showed that 16.4% (ethyl acetate extract of these strains were able to generate antimicrobial compounds active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans. In addition, morphological observations and 16S rRNA sequence analysis indicate the presence of representative species from at least 3 genera Streptomyces, Pseudonocardia and Saccharomonospora. Thus, Malaysian mangrove soils could be an interesting source to explore for antimicrobial secondary metabolites and considered to have a diversity of marine actinomycetes.

  7. Nontyphoid salmonella infection: microbiology, clinical features, and antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Ming; Wang, Yue; Su, Lin-Hui; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2013-06-01

    Nontyphoid Salmonella is the most common bacterial pathogen causing gastrointestinal infection worldwide. Most nontyphoid Salmonella infection is limited to uncomplicated gastroenteritis that seldom requires antimicrobial treatment. Nevertheless, invasive infections, such as bacteremia, osteomyelitis, and meningitis, may occur and require antimicrobial therapy. Continuous genetic and genomic evolution in Salmonella leading to increased virulence and resistance to multiple drugs are of significant public health concern. Two major changes in the epidemiology of nontyphoid salmonellosis in Europe and in the USA occurred in the second half of the 20(th) century: the emergence of foodborne human infections caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Enteriditis and by multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. In the 21(st) century, a worsening situation is the increasing resistance to fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins in nontyphoid Salmonella. Clinical isolates showing carbapenem resistance also have been identified. Although antimicrobial therapy is usually not indicated for uncomplicated Salmonella gastroenteritis, recent studies indicated that a short-course ceftriaxone therapy (3-5 days) for patients with severe gastroenteritis would lead to a faster clinical recovery. Continuous surveillance of Salmonella in both humans and animals is mandatory. A better understanding of the mechanisms that lead to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella may help in the devising of better interventional strategies to reduce the spread of resistant Salmonella between humans and reservoirs along the food chain.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of submerged cultures of Chilean basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqueveque, Pedro; Anke, Timm; Saéz, Katia; Silva, Mario; Becerra, José

    2010-10-01

    This study is part of a screening program aimed at searching for bioactive metabolites from Chilean basidiomycetes. Submerged cultivation of fungal mycelia in liquid media was evaluated for antimicrobial activity. A total of 148 strains were obtained in vitro. The extracts produced from submerged cultures were evaluated against bacteria and fungi. In the primary antimicrobial assay, approximately 60% of the extracts presented positive biological activity. The highest frequencies of active strains were from the orders Agaricales (31.0%), Polyporales (20.6%), Sterales (18.3%), Boletales (11.4%), and Cortinariales (9.1%). Antifungal activity was more pronounced than antibacterial activity. Twelve extracts that exhibited strong antimicrobial activity showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 50 µL/mL against Bacillus brevis and 25∼50 µL/mL against Penicillium notatum and Paecilomyces variotii. The biological activity of some strains did not vary considerably, regardless of the substrate or collection site whereas, for others, it showed marked variations. Differences in antimicrobial activities observed in the different fungal genera suggested that the ability to produce bioactive compounds is not homogenously distributed among basidiomycetes. The information obtained from this study reveals that Chilean basidiomycetes are able to generate small and/or large variations in the normal pathway of compounds production. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate this biological and chemical wealth, which could be an unsuspected reservoir of new and potentially useful molecules.

  9. Increasing antimicrobial resistance and narrowing therapeutics in typhoidal salmonellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaurthe, Jaspal

    2013-03-01

    Multidrug-resistant typhoid fever (MDRTF) is a major public health problem in developing countries and is an emerging problem in the developed world. Because of the difficulties in preventing typhoid by public health measures or immunization in developing countries, great reliance is placed on antimicrobial chemotherapy. The treatment should commence as soon as the clinical diagnosis is made rather than after the results of antimicrobial susceptibility tests but the existence of MDRTF poses a serious clinical dilemma in the selection of empiric antimicrobial therapy. With the widespread emergence and spread of strains resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin and trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin became the drug of choice for the treatment of typhoid fever. However, of late the efficacy of fluoroquinolones too has been questioned, mainly due to increasing reports of increasing defervescence time and poor patient response. This indicates that the organism has begun to develop resistance to fluoroquinolones, and is corroborated by a steady increase in Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin. The therapeutics of ciprofloxacin-resistant enteric fever narrows down to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and azithromycin. However, the emergence of extended-spectrum b-lactamases (ESBLs) in typhoidal Salmonellae poses a new challenge and would greatly limit the therapeutic options leaving only tigecycline and carbepenems as secondary antimicrobial drugs. This increasing resistance is alarming and emphasizes the need of effective preventive measures to control typhoid and to limit the unnecessary use of antibiotics.

  10. Feasibility of reactivity worth measurements by perturbation method with Caliban and Silene experimental reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casoli, Pierre; Authier, Nicolas [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes de Valduc, 21120 Is-Sur-Tille (France)

    2008-07-01

    Reactivity worth measurements of material samples put in the central cavities of nuclear reactors allow to test cross section nuclear databases or to extract information about the critical masses of fissile elements. Such experiments have already been completed on the Caliban and Silene experimental reactors operated by the Criticality and Neutronics Research Laboratory of Valduc (CEA, France) using the perturbation measurement technique. Calculations have been performed to prepare future experiments on new materials, such as light elements, structure materials, fission products or actinides. (authors)

  11. Exercise Effects on Depressive Symptoms and Self-Worth in Overweight Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial*

    OpenAIRE

    Petty, Karen H.; Davis, Catherine L.; Tkacz, Joseph; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Waller, Jennifer L

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test the dose–response effects of an exercise program on depressive symptoms and self-worth in children. Method Overweight, sedentary children (N = 207, 7–11 years, 58% male, 59% Black) were randomly assigned to low or high dose (20 or 40 min/day) aerobic exercise programs (13 ± 1.6 weeks), or control group. Children completed the Reynolds Child Depression Scale and Self-Perception Profile for Children at baseline and posttest. Results A dose–response benefit of exercise was dete...

  12. Detailed analysis for a control rod worth of the gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, Tetsuo; Katanishi, Shoji; Takada, Shoji; Yan, Xing; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    GTHTR300 is composed of a simplified and economical power plant based on an inherent safe 600 MWt reactor and a nearly 50% high efficiency gas turbine power conversion cycle. GTHTR300 core consist of annular fuel region, center and outer side reflectors because of cooling it effectively in depressurized accident conditions, and all control rods are located in both side reflectors of annular core. As a thermal neutron spectrum is strongly distorted in reflector regions, an accurate calculation is especially required for the control rod worth evaluation. In this study, we applied the detailed Monte Carlo calculations of a full core model, and confirmed that our design method has enough accuracy. (author)

  13. Analyses of eigenvalue bias and control rod worths in FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, J.V.; Dobbin, K.D.; Wootan, D.W.; Campbell, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) core loading during its ninth operating cycle was significantly different from that of previous cycles because of the presence of the Core Demonstration Experiment (CDE). The CDE consists of a number of axially blanketed fuel assemblies and internal blankets prototypic of advanced oxide cores in Liquid Metal Reactors (LMR). In preparation for the Cycle 9 reload design effort, a careful assessment of control rod worth and reactivity calculations for Cycles 1 through 8 was made. The goal of this study was to establish calculational biases and reduce uncertainties factored into the reload design calculations. These analyses helped assure that the operational objectives for Cycle 9 were met.

  14. Are Libraries Worth Investing in?: Finnish University Libraries and their Effect on the National Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Kiviniemi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the correlation between the growth of the gross national product (GNP of Finland and the library materials costs of the academic libraries during thirty years (1977–2006. Statistical data were used in the analysis and it was found that there is some correlation between the trends of these two. The paper discusses different possibilities for interpretation of this outcome, but the authors draw the conclusion that it is clearly worth investing in libraries as one tool to improve the knowledge economy.

  15. What Are You Worth? The Value of a Human Life and Its Impact on Personnel Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    reptiles , who typically have many young and take less care of them afterwards, most mammals only reproduce a small number of live young that must be...nurtured and protected.29 Because the number of offspring is small, each life is valuable and worth protecting.30 If one reptile offspring is lost...concludes with the assertion, “I will trust in my God and in the United States of America .” What does trust in the United States look like— is it trust

  16. Resistance of Antimicrobial Peptide Gene Transgenic Rice to Bacterial Blight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; WU Chao; LIU Mei; LIU Xu-ri; Hu Guo-cheng; SI Hua-min; SUN Zong-xiu; LIU Wen-zhen; Fu Ya-ping

    2011-01-01

    Antimierobial peptide is a polypeptide with antimicrobial activity.Antimicrobial peptide genes Np3 and Np5 from Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus Chinensis) were integrated into Oryza sativa L.subsp.japonica cv.Aichi ashahi by Agrobacterium mediated transformation system.PCR analysis showed that the positive ratios of Np3 and Np5 were 36% and 45% in T0 generation,respectively.RT-PCR analysis showed that the antimicrobial peptide genes were expressed in T1 generation,and there was no obvious difference in agronomic traits between transgenic plants and non-transgenic plants.Four Np3 and Np5 transgenic lines in T1 generation were inoculated with ×anthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae strain CR4,and all the four transgenic lines had significantly enhanced resistance to bacterial blight caused by the strain CR4.The Np5 transgenic lines also showed higher resistance to bacterial blight caused by strains JS97-2,Zhe 173 and OS-225.It is suggested that transgenic lines with Np5 gene might possess broad spectrum resistance to rice bacterial blight.

  17. Antimicrobial Polymers with Metal Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Palza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metals, such as copper and silver, can be extremely toxic to bacteria at exceptionally low concentrations. Because of this biocidal activity, metals have been widely used as antimicrobial agents in a multitude of applications related with agriculture, healthcare, and the industry in general. Unlike other antimicrobial agents, metals are stable under conditions currently found in the industry allowing their use as additives. Today these metal based additives are found as: particles, ions absorbed/exchanged in different carriers, salts, hybrid structures, etc. One recent route to further extend the antimicrobial applications of these metals is by their incorporation as nanoparticles into polymer matrices. These polymer/metal nanocomposites can be prepared by several routes such as in situ synthesis of the nanoparticle within a hydrogel or direct addition of the metal nanofiller into a thermoplastic matrix. The objective of the present review is to show examples of polymer/metal composites designed to have antimicrobial activities, with a special focus on copper and silver metal nanoparticles and their mechanisms.

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korhonen, J.M.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Saarela, M.; Huys, G.; Tosi, L.; Mayrhofer, S.; Wright, A.

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (n=75) strains, to study their antibiotic resistance genes with microarray, and to assess the microbiological cut-off values of tested antimicrobial agents. L. rhamnosus strains were tested with agar

  19. Helical Antimicrobial Sulfono- {gamma} -AApeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yaqiong; Wu, Haifan; Teng, Peng; Bai, Ge; Lin, Xiaoyang; Zuo, Xiaobing; Cao, Chuanhai; Cai, Jianfeng

    2015-06-11

    Host-defense peptides (HDPs) such as magainin 2 have emerged as potential therapeutic agents combating antibiotic resistance. Inspired by their structures and mechanism of action, herein we report the fi rst example of antimicrobial helical sulfono- γ - AApeptide foldamers. The lead molecule displays broad-spectrum and potent antimicrobial activity against multi-drug-resistant Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Time-kill studies and fl uorescence microscopy suggest that sulfono- γ -AApeptides eradicate bacteria by taking a mode of action analogous to that of HDPs. Clear structure - function relationships exist in the studied sequences. Longer sequences, presumably adopting more-de fi ned helical structures, are more potent than shorter ones. Interestingly, the sequence with less helical propensity in solution could be more selective than the stronger helix-forming sequences. Moreover, this class of antimicrobial agents are resistant to proteolytic degradation. These results may lead to the development of a new class of antimicrobial foldamers combating emerging antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of Securidaca longipedunculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajali, U; Chukwurah, B K C

    2004-11-01

    The folk herbal uses of Securidaca longipedunculata in the treatment of diarrhea, boils, gonorrhea, and cough prompted phytochemical analyses and antimicrobial activity screening of extracts of the root. Some flavonoids isolated showed activity against many micro-organisms. These flavonoids were isolated using chromatographic methods.

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Resveratrol Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Chalal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Stilbenes, especially resveratrol and its derivatives, have become famous for their positive effects on a wide range of medical disorders, as indicated by a huge number of published studies. A less investigated area of research is their antimicrobial properties. A series of 13 trans-resveratrol analogues was synthesized via Wittig or Heck reactions, and their antimicrobial activity assessed on two different grapevine pathogens responsible for severe diseases in the vineyard. The entire series, together with resveratrol, was first evaluated on the zoospore mobility and sporulation level of Plasmopara viticola (the oomycete responsible for downy mildew. Stilbenes displayed a spectrum of activity ranging from low to high. Six of them, including the most active ones, were subsequently tested on the development of Botrytis cinerea (fungus responsible for grey mold. The results obtained allowed us to identify the most active stilbenes against both grapevine pathogens, to compare the antimicrobial activity of the evaluated series of stilbenes, and to discuss the relationship between their chemical structure (number and position of methoxy and hydroxy groups and antimicrobial activity.

  2. FRONTOTEMPORAL AND DOPAMINERGIC CONTROL OF IDEA GENERATION AND CREATIVE DRIVE

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a three-factor anatomical model of human idea generation and creative drive, focusing on interactions between the temporal lobes, frontal lobes, and limbic system. Evidence is drawn from functional imaging, drug studies, and lesion analysis. Temporal lobe changes, as in hypergraphia, often increase idea generation, sometimes at the expense of quality. Frontal lobe deficits may decrease idea generation, in part because of rigid judgments about an idea's worth. These phenome...

  3. Combating Antimicrobial Resistance in Foodborne Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Edward P C; Iqbal, Zafar; Avis, Tyler J

    2016-02-01

    This review addresses an important public health hazard affecting food safety. Antimicrobial agents are used in foods to reduce or eliminate microorganisms that cause disease. Many traditional organic compounds, novel synthetic organic agents, natural products, peptides, and proteins have been extensively studied for their effectiveness as antimicrobial agents against foodborne Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Listeria spp. and Salmonella. However, antimicrobial resistance can develop in microorganisms, enhancing their ability to withstand the inhibiting or killing action of antimicrobial agents. Knowledge gaps still exist with regard to the actual chemical and microbiological mechanisms that must be identified to facilitate the search for new antimicrobial agents. Technical implementation of antimicrobial active packing films and coatings against target microorganisms must also be improved for extended product shelf life. Recent advances in antimicrobial susceptibility testing can provide researchers with new momentum to pursue their quest for a resistance panacea.

  4. New Generation Of Paper For Calligraphy And Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Among the calligraphic and painting collections, the new generation of paper which was developed by Yu Chunrong is the best and has enjoyed flavour of the collectors. The paper traced in gold has become an artistic work with inscriptions of famous calligraphers and painters.It is worth collecting.

  5. Antimicrobial efficacy of soap and water hand washing versus an alcohol-based hand cleanser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Ronald H; Huber, Michaell A; Terezhalmy, Geza T

    2009-12-01

    The emergence of alcohol-based hand cleansers may represent an alternative to soap and water in the clinical dental setting. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of traditional hand washing vs. a unique alcohol-based hand cleanser with persistence was evaluated. Two experienced dentists participated over a 10-day period. On days 1-5, each clinician used an antibacterial liquid soap (Dial, Dial Corporation, Scottsdale, AZ). Days 6-10, an alcohol-based hand cleanser (Triseptin Water Optional, Healthpoint Surgical, Fort Worth, TX) was used. Sampling was by modified glove juice technique. The results indicate that the alcohol-based hand cleanser dramatically outperforms the traditional hand washing agent in the general dental setting.

  6. Self-compassion moderates body comparison and appearance self-worth's inverse relationships with body appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Kristin J; Tylka, Tracy L

    2015-09-01

    Although research on positive body image has increased, little research has explored which variables protect body appreciation during body-related threats. Self-compassion may be one such variable. Individuals high in self-compassion are mindful, kind, and nurturing toward themselves during situations that threaten their adequacy, while recognizing that being imperfect is part of "being human." In this study, we investigated whether two body-related threats (i.e., body comparison and appearance contingent self-worth) were more weakly related to body appreciation when self-compassion was high among an online sample of 263 women (Mage=35.26, SD=12.42). Results indicated that self-compassion moderated the inverse relationships between body related threats and body appreciation. Specifically, when self-compassion was very high, body comparison and appearance contingent self-worth were unrelated to body appreciation. However, when self-compassion was low, these relationships were strong. Self-compassion, then, may help preserve women's body appreciation during body-related threats.

  7. Is It Worth Saving?: The Condition of Archaeological Documentary Record and Strategies for Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R. Givens

    1992-11-01

    Full Text Available "[Historical] objects are events which have finished happening, and conditions [are] no longer in existence. Only when they are no longer perceptible do they become objects of historical thought" (Collingwood 1946:233. Scholars engaged in research in the history of anthropology and archaeology have long been aware of the deplorable conditions in which records as to anthropology's development in time are found and stored. All too often the researcher finds records in individual and institutional hands that are physically degrading because of the lack of proper storage facilities, the fiscal inability to hire professional archivists, the usage of improper methods of acquisition and curation, and dwindling financial resources to properly care for materials. It is now the time to ask if anthropological records are worth saving, and if they are, what are the best strategies to be employed to ensure their survival and protection now and into the future. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that the records of the subdiscipline of archaeology are worth saving and that there is a great sense of urgency to get about the business of identification and preservation before archaeological documentary records are further destroyed due to neglect and the lack of means to ensure their future existence.  This paper will define the problems of identification and preservation of archaeological records as they exist now and suggest strategies to rectify those problems.

  8. Benchmark Evaluation of the HTR-PROTEUS Absorber Rod Worths (Core 4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess; Leland M. Montierth

    2014-06-01

    PROTEUS was a zero-power research reactor at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland. The critical assembly was constructed from a large graphite annulus surrounding a central cylindrical cavity. Various experimental programs were investigated in PROTEUS; during the years 1992 through 1996, it was configured as a pebble-bed reactor and designated HTR-PROTEUS. Various critical configurations were assembled with each accompanied by an assortment of reactor physics experiments including differential and integral absorber rod measurements, kinetics, reaction rate distributions, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects [1]. Four benchmark reports were previously prepared and included in the March 2013 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments (IRPhEP Handbook) [2] evaluating eleven critical configurations. A summary of that effort was previously provided [3] and an analysis of absorber rod worth measurements for Cores 9 and 10 have been performed prior to this analysis and included in PROTEUS-GCR-EXP-004 [4]. In the current benchmark effort, absorber rod worths measured for Core Configuration 4, which was the only core with a randomly-packed pebble loading, have been evaluated for inclusion as a revision to the HTR-PROTEUS benchmark report PROTEUS-GCR-EXP-002.

  9. The Consequences of State-Level Intrusions: A Risk Worth Taking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdoch Watney

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the years states have intruded the cyberspace of other states. Does the offending state consider the consequences it may face for the intrusion under international law and/or at international level? Is the position at present so uncertain that a state may decide that the risk is worth taking in view of the problems experienced with establishing attribution or is the injured state being second guessed on its reaction? This discussion explores, with reference to examples of state-level intrusions, whether the intrusion is prohibited under the international law or not and the possible consequences the offending state may face. The danger exists that as countries develop and/or improve their cyber capabilities, they may follow the example of countries who had intruded the cyberspace of other countries. It will be difficult for the latter to preach restraint from the moral high ground. Past state behaviour illustrates that states will put national interests and aspirations above trust, openness and transparency in cyberspace. Cyberspace is becoming a crowded place where state behaviour necessitates governance otherwise cyberspace will become lawless to the detriment of all states including those states who in the past may have decided state-intrusion is a risk worth taking.

  10. Efficacy of a group-based multimedia HIV prevention intervention for drug-involved women under community supervision: project WORTH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila El-Bassel

    Full Text Available IMPORTANCE: This study is designed to address the need for evidence-based HIV/STI prevention approaches for drug-involved women under criminal justice community supervision. OBJECTIVE: We tested the efficacy of a group-based traditional and multimedia HIV/STI prevention intervention (Project WORTH: Women on the Road to Health among drug-involved women under community supervision. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTION: We randomized 306 women recruited from community supervision settings to receive either: (1 a four-session traditional group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention (traditional WORTH; (2 a four-session multimedia group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention that covered the same content as traditional WORTH but was delivered in a computerized format; or (3 a four-session group-based Wellness Promotion intervention that served as an attention control condition. The study examined whether the traditional or multimedia WORTH intervention was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to Wellness Promotion; and whether multimedia WORTH was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to traditional WORTH. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Primary outcomes were assessed over the 12-month post-intervention period and included the number of unprotected sex acts, the proportion of protected sex acts, and consistent condom use. At baseline, 77% of participants reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex (n = 237 and 63% (n = 194 had multiple sex partners. RESULTS: Women assigned to traditional or multimedia WORTH were significantly more likely than women assigned to the control condition to report an increase in the proportion of protected sex acts (β = 0.10; 95% CI = 0.02-0.18 and a decrease in the number of unprotected sex acts (IRR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.57-0.90. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: The promising effects of traditional and multimedia WORTH on increasing condom use and high participation rates suggest

  11. Efficacy of a group-based multimedia HIV prevention intervention for drug-involved women under community supervision: project WORTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Hunt, Tim; Epperson, Matt; Shaw, Stacey A; Rowe, Jessica; Almonte, Maria; Witte, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study is designed to address the need for evidence-based HIV/STI prevention approaches for drug-involved women under criminal justice community supervision. We tested the efficacy of a group-based traditional and multimedia HIV/STI prevention intervention (Project WORTH: Women on the Road to Health) among drug-involved women under community supervision. We randomized 306 women recruited from community supervision settings to receive either: (1) a four-session traditional group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention (traditional WORTH); (2) a four-session multimedia group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention that covered the same content as traditional WORTH but was delivered in a computerized format; or (3) a four-session group-based Wellness Promotion intervention that served as an attention control condition. The study examined whether the traditional or multimedia WORTH intervention was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to Wellness Promotion; and whether multimedia WORTH was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to traditional WORTH. Primary outcomes were assessed over the 12-month post-intervention period and included the number of unprotected sex acts, the proportion of protected sex acts, and consistent condom use. At baseline, 77% of participants reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex (n = 237) and 63% (n = 194) had multiple sex partners. Women assigned to traditional or multimedia WORTH were significantly more likely than women assigned to the control condition to report an increase in the proportion of protected sex acts (β = 0.10; 95% CI = 0.02-0.18) and a decrease in the number of unprotected sex acts (IRR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.57-0.90). The promising effects of traditional and multimedia WORTH on increasing condom use and high participation rates suggest that WORTH may be scaled up to redress the concentrated epidemics of HIV/STIs among drug-involved women in the criminal justice system. Clinical

  12. Assessing the Effect of Fuel Burnup on Control Rod Worth for HEU and LEU Cores of Gharr-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.K. Boafo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An important parameter in the design and analysis of a nuclear reactor is the reactivity worth of the control rod which is a measure of the efficiency of the control rod to absorb excess reactivity. During reactor operation, the control rod worth is affected by factors such as the fuel burnup, Xenon concentration, Samarium concentration and the position of the control rod in the core. This study investigates the effect of fuel burnup on the control rod worth by comparing results of a fresh and an irradiated core of Ghana's Miniature Neutron Source Reactor for both HEU and LEU cores. In this study, two codes have been utilized namely BURNPRO for fuel burnup calculation and MCNP5 which uses densities of actinides of the irradiated fuel obtained from BURNPRO. Results showed a decrease of the control rod worth with burnup for the LEU while rod worth increased with burnup for the HEU core. The average thermal flux in both inner and outer irradiation sites also decreased significantly with burnup for both cores.

  13. Developing an open-access antimicrobial resistance learning site for veterinary medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordoncillo, Mary Joy N; Bender, Jeff; Noffsinger, Jason; Bartlett, Paul C

    2011-01-01

    Recognizing the crucial role of veterinarians in mitigating antimicrobial resistance (AMR), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has funded the development of a suite of educational materials to promote the responsible veterinary medical use of antimicrobials. An open-access, Web-based multimedia curriculum regarding antimicrobial resistance in veterinary practice was thus created. The antimicrobial-resistance learning site (AMRLS) for veterinary medical students was completed and made available for use in January 2011 (http://amrls.cvm.msu.edu/). Designed for integration into existing veterinary medical courses, the AMRLS is also a resource for continuing education for practicing veterinarians, animal scientists, and food-animal industry specialists. This Web site emphasizes the mechanisms by which AMR emerges and spreads, the significant role of veterinarians in mitigating AMR, and the need to preserve the efficacy of antibiotics for future generations.

  14. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model To Evaluate Intramuscular Tetracycline Treatment Protocols To Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais; Græsbøll, Kaare; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo;

    2015-01-01

    to which resistant strains outcompete susceptible strains under antimicrobial pressure may depend not only on the antimicrobial treatment strategies but also on the epidemiological parameters, such as the composition of the bacterial strains in a pig. This study evaluated how variation in the dosing...... protocol for intramuscular administration of tetracycline and the composition of bacterial strains in a pig affect the level of resistance in the intestine of a pig. Predictions were generated by a mathematical model of competitive growth of Escherichia coli strains in pigs under specified plasma......High instances of antimicrobial resistance are linked to both routine and excessive antimicrobial use, but excessive or inappropriate use represents an unnecessary risk. The competitive growth advantages of resistant bacteria may be amplified by the strain dynamics; in particular, the extent...

  15. What is a free customer worth? Armchair calculations of nonpaying customers' value can lead to flawed strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sunil; Mela, Carl F

    2008-11-01

    Free customers who are subsidized by paying customers are essential to a vast array of businesses, such as media companies, employment services, and even IT providers. But because they generate revenue only indirectly, figuring out the true value of those customers--and how much attention to devote them--has always been a challenge. Traditional customer-valuation models don't help; they focus exclusively on paying customers and largely ignore network effects, or how customers help draw other customers to a business. Now a new model, devised by professors Gupta, of Harvard Business School, and Mela, of Fuqua School of Business, takes into account not only direct network effects (where buyers attract more buyers or sellers more sellers) but also indirect network effects (where buyers attract more sellers or vice versa) . The model calculates the precise long-term impact of each additional free customer on a company's profits, factoring in the degree to which he or she brings in other customers--whether free or paying--and the ripple effect of those customers. The model helped an online auction house make several critical decisions. The business made its money on fees charged to sellers but recognized that its free customers--its buyers--were valuable, too. As competition heated up, the company worried that it wasn't wooing enough buyers. Using the model, the business discovered that the network effects of buyers were indeed large and that those customers were worth over $1,000 each--much more than had been assumed. Armed with that information, the firm increased its research on buyers, invested more in targeting them with ads, and improved their experience. The model also helped the company identify the effects of various pricing strategies on sellers, showing that they became less price-sensitive over time. As a result, the company raised the fees it charged them as well.

  16. Is it real? Can we win? Is it worth doing? Managing risk and reward in an innovation portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, George S

    2007-12-01

    Minor innovations make up most of a company's development portfolio, on average, but they never generate the growth companies seek. The solution, says Day--the Geoffrey T. Boisi Professor of Marketing and a codirector of the Mack Center for Technological Innovation at Wharton--is for companies to undertake a systematic, disciplined review of their innovation portfolios and increase the number of major innovations at an acceptable level of risk. Two tools can help them do this. The first, called the risk matrix, graphically reveals the distribution of risk across a company's entire innovation portfolio. The matrix allows companies to estimate each project's probability of success or failure, based on how big a stretch it is for the firm to undertake. The less familiar the product or technology and the intended market, the higher the risk. The second tool, dubbed the R-W-W (real-win-worth it) screen, allows companies to evaluate the risks and potential of individual projects by answering six fundamental questions about each one: Is the market real? Explores customers' needs, their willingness to buy, and the size of the potential market. Is the product real? Looks at the feasibility of producing the innovation. Can the product be competitive? and Can our company be competitive? Investigate how well suited the company's resources and management are to compete in the marketplace with the product. Will the product be profitable at an acceptable risk? Explores the financial analysis needed to assess an innovation's commercial viability. Last, Does launching the product make strategic sense? examines the project's fit with company strategy and whether management supports it.

  17. Maillard reaction products as antimicrobial components for packaging films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Carolin; Müller, Ulla; Sauer, Tanja; Augner, Kerstin; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2014-02-15

    Active packaging foils with incorporated antimicrobial agents release the active ingredient during food storage. Maillard reaction products (MRPs) show antimicrobial activity that is at least partially mediated by H2O2. De novo generation of H2O2 by an MRP fraction, extracted from a ribose/lysine Maillard reaction mixture by 85% ethanol, was monitored at three concentrations (1.6, 16.1, and 32.3g/L) and three temperatures (4, 25, and 37 °C) between 0 and 96 h, reaching a maximum of 335 μM H2O2 (32.3g/L, 37 °C, 96 h). The active MRP fraction (16.1g/L) completely inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli for 24h and was therefore incorporated in a polyvinyl acetate-based lacquer and dispersed onto a low-density polyethylene film. The coated film generated about 100 μM H2O2 and resulted in a log-reduction of >5 log-cycles against E. coli. Thus, MRPs can be considered as active ingredients for antimicrobial packaging materials.

  18. Hydrologic data for urban stormwater studies in the Dallas-Fort Worth area, Texas, 1992-94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldys, Stanley; Raines, T.H.; Mansfield, B.L.; Sandlin, J.T.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents precipitation and waterquality data from analyses of 210 samples collected at 30 storm-sewer outfall stations in the Dallas-Fort Worth area, Texas, during February 1992-November 1994. The data were collected to fulfill requirements mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to the cities of Arlington, Dallas, Fort Worth, Garland, Irving, Mesquite, and Piano and to the Dallas and Fort Worth Districts of the Texas Department of Transportation to obtain a National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit. Data were collected at storm-sewer outfall stations in drainage basins classified as singular land use, either residential, commercial, industrial, or highway. Also included are qualityassurance/quality-control data for samples collected in conjunction with the stormwater samples.

  19. APD: the Antimicrobial Peptide Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Wang, Guangshun

    2004-01-01

    An antimicrobial peptide database (APD) has been established based on an extensive literature search. It contains detailed information for 525 peptides (498 antibacterial, 155 antifungal, 28 antiviral and 18 antitumor). APD provides interactive interfaces for peptide query, prediction and design. It also provides statistical data for a select group of or all the peptides in the database. Peptide information can be searched using keywords such as peptide name, ID, length, net charge, hydrophobic percentage, key residue, unique sequence motif, structure and activity. APD is a useful tool for studying the structure-function relationship of antimicrobial peptides. The database can be accessed via a web-based browser at the URL: http://aps.unmc.edu/AP/main.html.

  20. Antimicrobial resistance in Rhodococcus equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisek, Agata A; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Witkowski, Lucjan; Binek, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an important etiologic agent of respiratory- and non-respiratory tract infections, diseases of animals and humans. Therapy includes the use of various group of chemotherapeutic agents, however resistance acquirement is quite common. To date there is no preferred treatment protocol for infections caused by isolates resistant to macrolides and rifampicin. The resistance acquirement is a result of many molecular mechanisms, some of which include alterations in the cell envelope composition and structure, activity of the efflux pumps, enzymatic destruction or inactivation of antibiotics, and changes in the target site. This paper contains an overview of antimicrobial susceptibility of R. equi, and explains the possible molecular mechanisms responsible for antimicrobial resistance in this particular microorganism.

  1. Cholic acid derivatives: novel antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, P B; Li, C

    2000-02-01

    Mimics of squalamine and polymyxin B (PMB) have been prepared from cholic acid in hope of finding new antimicrobial agents. The squalamine mimics include the polyamine and sulphate functionalities found in the parent antibiotic, however, the positions relative to the steroid nucleus have been exchanged. The PMB mimics include the conservation of functionality among the polymyxin family of antibiotics, the primary amine groups and a hydrophobic chain. Although the squalamine and PMB mimics are morphologically dissimilar, they display similar activities. Both are simple to prepare and demonstrate broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms. Specific examples may be inactive alone, yet effectively permeabilise the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria rendering them sensitive to hydrophobic antibiotics. Problems associated with some of the squalamine and PMB mimics stem from their haemolytic activity and interactions with serum proteins, however, examples exist without these side effects which can sensitise Gram-negative bacteria to hydrophobic antibiotics.

  2. Antimicrobial Activity of Commercial Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjar, Priyanka; Pettee, Brian; Britt, David W.; Huang, Wenjie; Johnson, William P.; Anderson, Anne J.

    2009-07-01

    Engineered nanoparticles are finding increased use in applications ranging from biosensors to prophylactic antimicrobials embedded in socks. The release of heavy metal-containing nanoparticles (NP) into the environment may be harmful to the efficacy of beneficial microbes that function in element cycling, pollutant degradation, and plant growth. Antimicrobial activity of commercial NP of Ag, CuO, and ZnO is demonstrated here against the beneficial soil microbe, Pseudomonas putida KT2440, which was modified to serve as a bioluminescent sentinel organism. "As manufactured" preparations of nano- Ag, -CuO, and -ZnO caused rapid, dose dependent loss of light output in the biosensor. Bulk equivalents of these products showed no inhibitory activity, indicating that particle size was determinant in activity.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance of mastitis pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stephen P; Murinda, Shelton E

    2012-07-01

    Antibiotics are used extensively in the dairy industry to combat disease and to improve animal performance. Antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporin, streptomycin, and tetracycline are used for the treatment and prevention of diseases affecting dairy cows caused by a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotics are often administrated routinely to entire herds to prevent mastitis during the dry period. An increase in the incidence of disease in a herd generally results in increased use of antimicrobials, which in turn increases the potential for antibiotic residues in milk and the potential for increased bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. Continued use of antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of diseases of dairy cows will continue to be scrutinized. It is clear that strategies employing the prudent use of antimicrobials are needed. This clearly illustrates the importance of effective herd disease prevention and control programs. Based on studies published to date, scientific evidence does not support widespread, emerging resistance among mastitis pathogens to antibacterial drugs even though many of these antibiotics have been used in the dairy industry for treatment and prevention of disease for several decades. However, it is clear that use of antibiotics in dairy cows can contribute to increased antimicrobial resistance. While antimicrobial resistance does occur, we are of the opinion that the advantages of using antibiotics for the treatment of mastitis far outweigh the disadvantages. The clinical consequences of antimicrobial resistance of dairy pathogens affecting humans appear small. Antimicrobial resistance among dairy pathogens, particularly those found in milk, is likely not a human health concern as long as the milk is pasteurized. However, there are an increasing number of people who choose to consume raw milk. Transmission of an antimicrobial-resistant mastitis pathogen and/or foodborne pathogen to humans could occur

  4. Antimicrobial peptides in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yanhua; Zhang, Kai; Schluesener, Hermann J

    2010-10-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an evolutionarily conserved component of the innate immune system of many species. The brain is an immunologically privileged organ but can produce a robust immune response against pathogens and cell debris, promoting rapid and efficient clearance. AMPs may be critically involved in the innate immune system of the brain. Though the mechanisms of AMPs' action in the brain still need further elucidation, many studies have shown that AMPs are multifunctional molecules in the brain. In addition to antimicrobial action, they take part in congenital and adaptive immune reactions (immunoregulation), function as signaling molecules in tissue repair, inflammation and other important processes through different mechanisms, and they might, in addition, become diagnostic markers of brain disease.

  5. Antimicrobial stewardship in wound care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipsky, Benjamin A; Dryden, Matthew; Gottrup, Finn

    2016-01-01

    of experts in infectious diseases/clinical microbiology (from the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy) and wound management (from the European Wound Management Association) who, after thoroughly reviewing the available literature and holding teleconferences, jointly produced this guidance document...... be as narrowly focused, and administered for the shortest duration, as possible. AMS teams should be interdisciplinary, especially including specialists in infection and pharmacy, with input from administrative personnel, the treating clinicians and their patients. CONCLUSIONS: Available evidence is limited...

  6. Antimicrobial resistance: a global response.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, R.; Coast, J.

    2002-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial therapies reduces the effectiveness of these drugs, leading to increased morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure. Because globalization increases the vulnerability of any country to diseases occurring in other countries, resistance presents a major threat to global public health, and no country acting on its own can adequately protect the health of its population against it. International collective action is therefore essential. Nevertheless, responsibil...

  7. APD: the Antimicrobial Peptide Database

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhe; Wang, Guangshun

    2004-01-01

    An antimicrobial peptide database (APD) has been established based on an extensive literature search. It contains detailed information for 525 peptides (498 antibacterial, 155 antifungal, 28 antiviral and 18 antitumor). APD provides interactive interfaces for peptide query, prediction and design. It also provides statistical data for a select group of or all the peptides in the database. Peptide information can be searched using keywords such as peptide name, ID, length, net charge, hydrophob...

  8. Durable and Rechargeable Antimicrobial Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    artificial weathering exposure apparatus employing fluorescent UV lamps as a light source and using water spray for wetting will be used to simulate real in...ammonium and N-halamines. His major research interest is the application of N-halamine technology in textiles, paint, coatings, and water disinfection ...surface coatings, including antimicrobial textile finishing and water disinfection .[10-17] 4. RELATIONSHIP WITH FUTURE RESEARCH OR RESEARCH AND

  9. Antimicrobial activities of squalamine mimics.

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial properties of compounds with structural features that were designed to mimic those of squalamine, an antibiotic isolated from the stomach of the dogfish shark. The mimics, like squalamine, are sterol-polyamine conjugates. Unlike squalamine, the mimics were simple to prepare, at high yield, from readily available starting materials. Several squalamine mimics showed activity against gram-negative rods, gram-positive cocci including methicillin-resistant Staphyl...

  10. Antimicrobial terpenoids from Pterocarpus indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragasa, Consolacion Y; De Luna, Roderick D; Hofilena, Joy G

    2005-06-01

    A mixture of loliolide 1 (> 85%) and paniculatadiol 2 (Pterocarpus indicus by silica gel chromatography, while the air-dried flowers afforded lupeol 3 and phytol esters 4. The structures of 1-4 were determined by NMR spectroscopy. Antimicrobial tests on a mixture of 1 and 2 indicated that it has moderate activity against Candida albicans and low activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Aspergillus niger. It was found inactive against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

  11. A European study on the relationship between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronzwaer, SLAM; Cars, O; Buchholz, U; Molstad, S; Goettsch, W; Veldhuijzen, IK; Kool, JL; Sprenger, MJW; Degener, JE

    2002-01-01

    In Europe, antimicrobial resistance has been monitored since 1998 by the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS). We examined the relationship between penicillin nonsusceptibility of invasive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and antibiotic sales. Information was collected o

  12. The validity and reliability of contingencies of self-worth scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Çetin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to adapt Contingencies of Self-Worth Scale (CSWS, Crocker, Luhtanen, Cooper, & Bouvrette, 2003 which assess to seven domains on which people are likely to state their self-worth according to contingencies of self-worth model to Turkish and examine its psychometric properties. CSWS consists of 35 items constructed in a form of 7 sub-scale. The subscales are called: Other’s approval, Family Support, Appearance, Competition, Academic Competence, God’s Love, and Virtue. The sample consists of 211 (49% were male and 224 (51% were female. Before the validity and reliability studies, to examine the language equivalency of the scale the correlations between Turkish and English forms which were administered to 107 English teachers one-week interval were calculated. Results of language equivalency showed that the correlations between Turkish and English forms for each item ranged from .69 to .97. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to examine the factor structure of the scale according to data obtained Turkish students. EFA revealed a seven-factor solution which accounted for 63% of the variance and eigenvalue over 1.00. Fit index values of the model were RMSEA=.04, NFI=.97, CFI=.98, IFI=.99, RFI= .96, GFI=.96 and AGFI= .94. Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale and Autonomy Subscale of Psychological Well-Being Scale was used for criterion-related validity. Correlations between subscales of CSWS and DASS were ranged from -.38 to 46. On the other hand, correlations between CSWS and Autonomous Subscale of PSWB were ranged from .-70 to .52. Cronbach Alpha for the subscales were found between .82 and .91 and the test-retest reliability coefficients were ranged from .76 to .89. Item-total correlations ranged from .30 to .46 for appearance, ranged from .32 to .44 for God’s love, ranged from .30 to .61 for competition, ranged from .30 to .43 for virtue, ranged from .31 to .36 for other’s approval, .38 to .72 for family

  13. The validity and reliability of contingencies of self-worth scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Çetin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to adapt Contingencies of Self-Worth Scale (CSWS, Crocker, Luhtanen, Cooper, & Bouvrette, 2003 which assess to seven domains on which people are likely to state their self-worth according to contingencies of self-worth model to Turkish and examine its psychometric properties. CSWS consists of 35 items constructed in a form of 7 sub-scale. The subscales are called: Other’s approval, Family Support, Appearance, Competition, Academic Competence, God’s Love, and Virtue. The sample consists of 211 (49% were male and 224 (51% were female. Before the validity and reliability studies, to examine the language equivalency of the scale the correlations between Turkish and English forms which were administered to 107 English teachers one-week interval were calculated. Results of language equivalency showed that the correlations between Turkish and English forms for each item ranged from .69 to .97. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to examine the factor structure of the scale according to data obtained Turkish students. EFA revealed a seven-factor solution which accounted for 63% of the variance and eigenvalue over 1.00. Fit index values of the model were RMSEA=.04, NFI=.97, CFI=.98, IFI=.99, RFI= .96, GFI=.96 and AGFI= .94. Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale and Autonomy Subscale of Psychological Well-Being Scale was used for criterion-related validity. Correlations between subscales of CSWS and DASS were ranged from -.38 to 46. On the other hand, correlations between CSWS and Autonomous Subscale of PSWB were ranged from .-70 to .52. Cronbach Alpha for the subscales were found between .82 and .91 and the test-retest reliability coefficients were ranged from .76 to .89. Item-total correlations ranged from .30 to .46 for appearance, ranged from .32 to .44 for God’s love, ranged from .30 to .61 for competition, ranged from .30 to .43 for virtue, ranged from .31 to .36 for other’s approval, .38 to .72 for family

  14. Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, Kristina; Schwarz, Stefan

    2012-08-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Staphylococcus intermedius and Staphylococcus delphini together comprise the S. intermedius group (SIG). Within the SIG, S. pseudintermedius represents the major pathogenic species and is involved in a wide variety of infections, mainly in dogs, but to a lesser degree also in other animal species and humans. Antimicrobial agents are commonly applied to control S. pseudintermedius infections; however, during recent years S. pseudintermedius isolates have been identified that are meticillin-resistant and have also proved to be resistant to most of the antimicrobial agents approved for veterinary applications. This review deals with the genetic basis of antimicrobial resistance properties in S. pseudintermedius and other SIG members. A summary of the known resistance genes and their association with mobile genetic elements is given, as well as an update of the known resistance-mediating mutations. These data show that, in contrast to other staphylococcal species, S. pseudintermedius seems to prefer transposon-borne resistance genes, which are then incorporated into the chromosomal DNA, over plasmid-located resistance genes.

  15. Antimicrobial hydrogels for the treatment of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Ana Salomé; Schneider, Joel P

    2013-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of microbial infections, especially those associated with impaired wound healing and biomedical implant failure has spurred the development of new materials having antimicrobial activity. Hydrogels are a class of highly hydrated material finding use in diverse medical applications such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, as wound fillers, and as implant coatings, to name a few. The biocompatible nature of many gels make them a convenient starting platform to develop selectively active antimicrobial materials. Hydrogels with antimicrobial properties can be obtained through the encapsulation or covalent immobilization of known antimicrobial agents, or the material itself can be designed to possess inherent antimicrobial activity. In this review we present an overview of antimicrobial hydrogels that have recently been developed and when possible provide a discussion relevant to their mechanism of action.

  16. Alcohol use in college students: effects of level of self-esteem, narcissism, and contingencies of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhtanen, Riia K; Crocker, Jennifer

    2005-03-01

    The unique effects of level of self-esteem, narcissism, and contingencies of self-worth assessed prior to college on alcohol use during the freshman year were examined in a longitudinal study of 620 college students. Narcissism predicted alcohol use, but level of self-esteem did not. Basing self-worth on appearance predicted more alcohol use, whereas the virtue, God's love, and academic competence contingencies predicted less alcohol use, independent of other personality measures and joining a sorority or a fraternity. Further, the virtue and academic competence contingencies were associated with decreases in alcohol use from the 1st to the 2nd semester.

  17. Antimicrobial technology in orthopedic and spinal implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam EM; Haglin, Jack; Perera, Sudheesha; Brea, Bielinsky A; Ruttiman, Roy; Garcia, Dioscaris R; Born, Christopher T; Daniels, Alan H

    2016-01-01

    Infections can hinder orthopedic implant function and retention. Current implant-based antimicrobial strategies largely utilize coating-based approaches in order to reduce biofilm formation and bacterial adhesion. Several emerging antimicrobial technologies that integrate a multidisciplinary combination of drug delivery systems, material science, immunology, and polymer chemistry are in development and early clinical use. This review outlines orthopedic implant antimicrobial technology, its current applications and supporting evidence, and clinically promising future directions. PMID:27335811

  18. Antimicrobial polymer films for food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concilio, S.; Piotto, S.; Sessa, L.; Iannelli, P.; Porta, A.; Calabrese, E. C.; Galdi, M. R.; Incarnato, L.

    2012-07-01

    New antimicrobial polymeric systems were realized introducing new antimicrobial azo compounds in PP and LDPE matrices. The polymeric materials containing different percentage of azo compounds were mold-casted and the obtained film were tested in vitro against Gram+ and Gram- bacteria and fungi. These results hold promise for the fabrication of bacteria-resistant polymer films by means of simple melt processing with antimicrobial azo-dyes.

  19. Insect inducible antimicrobial peptides and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzati-Tabrizi, Reyhaneh; Farrokhi, Naser; Talaei-Hassanloui, Reza; Alavi, Seyed Mehdi; Hosseininaveh, Vahid

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found as important components of the innate immune system (host defense) of all invertebrates. These peptides can be constitutively expressed or induced in response to microbial infections. Indeed, they vary in their amino acid sequences, potency and antimicrobial activity spectra. The smaller AMPs act greatly by disrupting the structure or function of microbial cell membranes. Here, the insect innate immune system with emphasis on inducible antimicrobial peptide properties against microbial invaders has been discussed.

  20. A bioinspired approach to the generation of novel antimicrobial materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowlin, Kyle S.

    Advancements in particle beam microscopy have allowed scientists to discover a wealth of surface architectures with nanoscale dimensions, many of which endow the surfaces with fascinating properties. Investigations of such surfaces have revealed some exciting physical phenomena, ranging from complex interactions with light such as brilliant iridescent colors resulting from diffraction and interference to water repelling self-cleaning superhydrophobic surfaces. Interestingly, the biological world, especially that of insects, has perhaps contributed the greatest number of these discoveries and will likely continue to do so as long as scientists entertain the idea that nature still has a vast collection of lessons to teach us. Examples of such phenomena include the structurally derived colors displayed by Chrysiridia rhipheus (Madagascan sunset moth), the anti-reflective and self-cleaning wings of Psaltoda claripennis (Clanger cicada), along with its more recent discovery of mechanically induced bactericidal activity. The implications of such a discovery are truly revolutionary as it is the first time that surface topography has been linked to microbial death. With this discovery a new defensive strategy against biofilm derived pathogenesis and related problems has arrived and must be further investigated for a more thorough understanding. It's a generally accepted notion that fungi much like bacteria can form complex protective biofilms and are undoubtedly a source of pathogenesis. For example C. albicans is the fourth most frequent organism found in the blood of hospitalized patients. While bacterial infections have been given much attention, less has been given to fungal biofilms though they are a major source of nosocomial infections attributed in part to adhesion to invasive devices such as catheters, cardiac pacemakers, prosthetic heart valves etc. S. cerevisiae, a generally non-pathogenic yeast, has been proposed as a model for fungal biofilm formation with similar behaviors but far more genetic tools available. In the present work I investigate the effects that the nano-structured wings of our local Dog Day cicada Tibicen tibicen have on adhered S. cerevisiae to assess for antifungal activity. Resembling that of the bactericidal activity, my study concludes antifungal activity of a cell rupturing mechanical nature attributed to the nano-topography of the Dog Day cicada wing. Following this discovery I utilize nano-sphere lithography (NSL) to fabricate analogous nanostructures as well as proportionally smaller and larger nanostructures in common synthetic polymers to be tested for translation of function. Studies with E. coli and S. cerevisiae reveal the overlooked but fundamentally important mechanical properties of nano-structures as they apply to mechanical microbicidal functionality. In addition to biocidal activity studies, I also demonstrate the remarkable anti-adhesive nature of a particular scale nano-patterned surface relative to flat surfaces of analogous chemistry.

  1. Because You're Worth It: Women's daily hair care routines in contemporary Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hielscher

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hair care is a significant international industry – estimated to be worth over £1.44 billion in contemporary Britain (Mintel 2015. Given this, it is perhaps not so surprising to learn that British women spend on average £40,000 on their hair over a lifetime (Sharkey 2014. However, despite women's preoccupation with hair, social science research has paid little attention to this area (McCracken 1997; Cox 1999. Most previous studies have examined the changing nature of styles and fashion, offering valuable insights into its symbolic, ritualistic and religious nature and in turn demonstrating the conspicuous aspects of hair (Cox 1999; Biddle-Perry and Cheang 2008. While the public nature of hair has been documented, what is rarely explored is the private world of hair care, often part of a wider network of day-to-day domestic routines (Shove 2003.

  2. A glimpse behind the mask: facets of narcissism and feelings of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Besser, Avi

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the connections that the facets of narcissism captured by the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Hall, 1979) and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI; Pincus et al., 2009) have with self-esteem. This was accomplished by asking 372 participants to complete measures of narcissism and self-esteem level as well as daily diary measures concerning their state self-esteem and daily experiences. Our analyses found that the facets of narcissism differed in their associations with average level of self-esteem, fluctuations in state self-esteem over time, and self-esteem reactions following daily events. These results suggest that it is important to consider specific facets of narcissism when examining feelings of self-worth rather than relying on broader composite measures of narcissistic personality features. Implications of these results for our understanding of the dynamics of the narcissistic personality are discussed.

  3. Water quality and streamflow data for the West Fork Trinity River in Forth Worth, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    Water-quality data were collected on a 13.6-mile reach of the West Fork Trinity River in Fort Worth, Texas to test a dynamic Lagrangian model. Flow was steady. Loads of dissolved constituents varied with time at the beginning of the study reach and in the reach, primarily because of photosynthesis. River quality was fairly good despite low dissolved oxygen measured in the headwaters and the significant sewage load from the tributaries. Diel and longitudinal trends were defined by sampling at fixed sites and by following dyed parcels of water. Nitrification, deoxygenation, reaeration, and photosynthesis affected the dissolved oxygen balance. Independent estimates of some of the rate coefficients were 0.1 to 0.2, 0.8, and 0 to 3.6 , all per day, for deoxygenation, nitrification, and reaeration, respectively. (USGS)

  4. Antimicrobial activity of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satdive, R K; Abhilash, P; Fulzele, Devanand P

    2003-12-01

    The ethanolic extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaves demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Bacillus pumilis, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and inactivity against Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli.

  5. Synthesis of Aminolaurylpyridinium Chloride as Antimicrobial Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Tao; SONG Xin-yuan; SUN Gang

    2008-01-01

    4-amino-laurylpyridinium chloride (ALPC) was synthesized and employed in antimicrobial finishing of wool fabrics. The structures of the salt was fully characterized by using FTIR, 1 H-NMR and 13 C-NMR analysis. The effects of pH conditions of finishing baths, finishing time and temperature, and salt concentrations were investigated. ALPC could form ionic interactions with anionic groups on wool, which contribute to durable antimicrobial functions. The finished wool fabrics exhibited antimicrobial efficacy against Escherichia coli. The washing durability of antimicrobial functions on the finished wool fabrics was also studied.

  6. Antimicrobial use in food and companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, John F

    2008-12-01

    The vast literature on antimicrobial drug use in animals has expanded considerably recently as the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) crisis in human medicine leads to questions about all usage of antimicrobial drugs, including long-term usage in intensively managed food animals for growth promotion and disease prevention. Attention is also increasingly focusing on antimicrobial use and on bacterial resistance in companion animals, which are in intimate contact with the human population. They may share resistant bacteria with their owners, amplify resistant bacteria acquired from their owners, and act as a reservoir for human infection. Considerable effort is being made to describe the basis of AMR in bacterial pathogens of animals. Documentation of many aspects of use of antimicrobials in animals is, however, generally less developed and only a few countries can describe quantities of drugs used in animals to kg levels annually. In recent years, many national veterinary associations have produced 'prudent use guidelines' to try to improve antimicrobial drug use and decrease resistance, but the impact of guidelines is unknown. Within the evolving global movement for 'antimicrobial stewardship', there is considerable scope to improve many aspects of antimicrobial use in animals, including infection control and reduction of use, with a view to reducing resistance and its spread, and to preserving antimicrobial drugs for the future.

  7. Antimicrobial drugs for treating cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovici-Weissman, Ya'ara; Neuberger, Ami; Bitterman, Roni; Sinclair, David; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Paul, Mical

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholera is an acute watery diarrhoea caused by infection with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which if severe can cause rapid dehydration and death. Effective management requires early diagnosis and rehydration using oral rehydration salts or intravenous fluids. In this review, we evaluate the additional benefits of treating cholera with antimicrobial drugs. Objectives To quantify the benefit of antimicrobial treatment for patients with cholera, and determine whether there are differences between classes of antimicrobials or dosing schedules. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); PubMed; EMBASE; African Index Medicus; LILACS; Science Citation Index; metaRegister of Controlled Trials; WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform; conference proceedings; and reference lists to March 2014. Selection criteria Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled clinical trials in adults and children with cholera that compared: 1) any antimicrobial treatment with placebo or no treatment; 2) different antimicrobials head-to-head; or 3) different dosing schedules or different durations of treatment with the same antimicrobial. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers independently applied inclusion and exclusion criteria, and extracted data from included trials. Diarrhoea duration and stool volume were defined as primary outcomes. We calculated mean difference (MD) or ratio of means (ROM) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI), and pooled data using a random-effects meta-analysis. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Main results Thirty-nine trials were included in this review with 4623 participants. Antimicrobials versus placebo or no treatment Overall, antimicrobial therapy shortened the mean duration of diarrhoea by about a day and a half compared to placebo or no treatment (MD -36.77 hours, 95% CI -43

  8. World Health Organization Ranking of Antimicrobials According to Their Importance in Human Medicine: A Critical Step for Developing Risk Management Strategies to Control Antimicrobial Resistance From Food Animal Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, Peter C; Conly, John M; Andremont, Antoine; McEwen, Scott A; Aidara-Kane, Awa; Agerso, Yvonne; Andremont, Antoine; Collignon, Peter; Conly, John; Dang Ninh, Tran; Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Fedorka-Cray, Paula; Fernandez, Heriberto; Galas, Marcelo; Irwin, Rebecca; Karp, Beth; Matar, Gassan; McDermott, Patrick; McEwen, Scott; Mitema, Eric; Reid-Smith, Richard; Scott, H Morgan; Singh, Ruby; DeWaal, Caroline Smith; Stelling, John; Toleman, Mark; Watanabe, Haruo; Woo, Gun-Jo

    2016-10-15

    Antimicrobial use in food animals selects for antimicrobial resistance in bacteria, which can spread to people. Reducing use of antimicrobials-particularly those deemed to be critically important for human medicine-in food production animals continues to be an important step for preserving the benefits of these antimicrobials for people. The World Health Organization ranking of antimicrobials according to their relative importance in human medicine was recently updated. Antimicrobials considered the highest priority among the critically important antimicrobials were quinolones, third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, macrolides and ketolides, and glycopeptides. The updated ranking allows stakeholders in the agriculture sector and regulatory agencies to focus risk management efforts on drugs used in food animals that are the most important to human medicine. In particular, the current large-scale use of fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and third-generation cephalosporins and any potential use of glycopeptides and carbapenems need to be addressed urgently. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Evaluation of fission product worth margins in PWR spent nuclear fuel burnup credit calculations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomquist, R.N.; Finck, P.J.; Jammes, C.; Stenberg, C.G.

    1999-02-17

    Current criticality safety calculations for the transportation of irradiated LWR fuel make the very conservative assumption that the fuel is fresh. This results in a very substantial overprediction of the actual k{sub eff} of the transportation casks; in certain cases, this decreases the amount of spent fuel which can be loaded in a cask, and increases the cost of transporting the spent fuel to the repository. Accounting for the change of reactivity due to fuel depletion is usually referred to as ''burnup credit.'' The US DOE is currently funding a program aimed at establishing an actinide only burnup credit methodology (in this case, the calculated reactivity takes into account the buildup or depletion of a limited number of actinides). This work is undergoing NRC review. While this methodology is being validated on a significant experimental basis, it implicitly relies on additional margins: in particular, the absorption of neutrons by certain actinides and by all fission products is not taken into account. This provides an important additional margin and helps guarantee that the methodology is conservative provided these neglected absorption are known with reasonable accuracy. This report establishes the accuracy of fission product absorption rate calculations: (1) the analysis of European fission product worth experiments demonstrates that fission product cross-sections available in the US provide very good predictions of fission product worth; (2) this is confirmed by a direct comparison of European and US cross section evaluations; (3) accuracy of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) fission product content predictions is established in a recent ORNL report where several SNF isotopic assays are analyzed; and (4) these data are then combined to establish in a conservative manner the fraction of the predicted total fission product absorption which can be guaranteed based on available experimental data.

  10. Identification of H₂O₂ as a major antimicrobial component in coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ulla; Sauer, Tanja; Weigel, Ingrid; Pichner, Rohtraud; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2011-05-01

    Coffee shows distinct antimicrobial activity against several bacterial genera. The present study investigated molecular mechanisms and active ingredients mediating the antimicrobial effect of coffee. Depending on concentration, roasted, but not raw coffee brew inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua. Several coffee ingredients with known antibacterial properties were tested for their contribution to the observed effect. In natural concentration, caffeine, ferulic acid and a mixture of all test compounds showed very weak, but significant activity, whereas trigonelline, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, chlorogenic acid, nicotinic acid, caffeic acid, and methylglyoxal were not active. Antimicrobial activity, however, was completely abolished by addition of catalase indicating that H(2)O(2) is a major antimicrobial coffee component. In accordance with this assumption, bacterial counts during 16 h of incubation were inversely related to the H(2)O(2) concentration in the incubation solution. Pure H(2)O(2) showed slightly weaker activity. The H(2)O(2) dependent antimicrobial activity of coffee could be mimicked by a reaction mixture of d-ribose and l-lysine (30 min 120 °C) indicating that H(2)O(2) is generated in the coffee brew by Maillard reaction products. Identification of H(2)O(2) as major antimicrobial coffee component is important to evaluate the application of coffee or coffee extracts as natural preservatives.

  11. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis and Detection of Antimicrobial Peptides of the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Woo Kim

    Full Text Available Cockroaches are surrogate hosts for microbes that cause many human diseases. In spite of their generally destructive nature, cockroaches have recently been found to harbor potentially beneficial and medically useful substances such as drugs and allergens. However, genomic information for the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana is currently unavailable; therefore, transcriptome and gene expression profiling is needed as an important resource to better understand the fundamental biological mechanisms of this species, which would be particularly useful for the selection of novel antimicrobial peptides. Thus, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis of P. americana that were or were not immunized with Escherichia coli. Using an Illumina HiSeq sequencer, we generated a total of 9.5 Gb of sequences, which were assembled into 85,984 contigs and functionally annotated using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST, Gene Ontology (GO, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database terms. Finally, using an in silico antimicrobial peptide prediction method, 86 antimicrobial peptide candidates were predicted from the transcriptome, and 21 of these peptides were experimentally validated for their antimicrobial activity against yeast and gram positive and -negative bacteria by a radial diffusion assay. Notably, 11 peptides showed strong antimicrobial activities against these organisms and displayed little or no cytotoxic effects in the hemolysis and cell viability assay. This work provides prerequisite baseline data for the identification and development of novel antimicrobial peptides, which is expected to provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of innate immunity in similar species.

  12. A review on plants extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications: A green expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shakeel; Ahmad, Mudasir; Swami, Babu Lal; Ikram, Saiqa

    2015-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles are being utilized in every phase of science along with engineering including medical fields and are still charming the scientists to explore new dimensions for their respective worth which is generally attributed to their corresponding small sizes. The up-and-coming researches have proven their antimicrobial significance. Among several noble metal nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles have attained a special focus. Conventionally silver nanoparticles are synthesized by chemical method using chemicals as reducing agents which later on become accountable for various biological risks due to their general toxicity; engendering the serious concern to develop environment friendly processes. Thus, to solve the objective; biological approaches are coming up to fill the void; for instance green syntheses using biological molecules derived from plant sources in the form of extracts exhibiting superiority over chemical and/or biological methods. These plant based biological molecules undergo highly controlled assembly for making them suitable for the metal nanoparticle syntheses. The present review explores the huge plant diversity to be utilized towards rapid and single step protocol preparatory method with green principles over the conventional ones and describes the antimicrobial activities of silver nanoparticles. PMID:26843966

  13. A review on plants extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications: A green expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallic nanoparticles are being utilized in every phase of science along with engineering including medical fields and are still charming the scientists to explore new dimensions for their respective worth which is generally attributed to their corresponding small sizes. The up-and-coming researches have proven their antimicrobial significance. Among several noble metal nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles have attained a special focus. Conventionally silver nanoparticles are synthesized by chemical method using chemicals as reducing agents which later on become accountable for various biological risks due to their general toxicity; engendering the serious concern to develop environment friendly processes. Thus, to solve the objective; biological approaches are coming up to fill the void; for instance green syntheses using biological molecules derived from plant sources in the form of extracts exhibiting superiority over chemical and/or biological methods. These plant based biological molecules undergo highly controlled assembly for making them suitable for the metal nanoparticle syntheses. The present review explores the huge plant diversity to be utilized towards rapid and single step protocol preparatory method with green principles over the conventional ones and describes the antimicrobial activities of silver nanoparticles.

  14. Participatory eHealth development to support nurses in antimicrobial stewardship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wentzel, Jobke; van Velsen, Lex; van Limburg, Maarten; de Jong, Nienke; Karreman, Joyce; Hendrix, Ron; van Gemert-Pi, Julia Elisabeth Wilhelmina Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antimicrobial resistance poses a threat to patient safety worldwide. To stop antimicrobial resistance, Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs; programs for optimizing antimicrobial use), need to be implemented. Within these programs, nurses are important actors, as they put antimicrobi

  15. Transport of three veterinary antimicrobials from feedlot pens via simulated rainfall runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sura, Srinivas; Degenhardt, Dani; Cessna, Allan J; Larney, Francis J; Olson, Andrew F; McAllister, Tim A

    2015-07-15

    Veterinary antimicrobials are introduced to wider environments by manure application to agricultural fields or through leaching or runoff from manure storage areas (feedlots, stockpiles, windrows, lagoons). Detected in manure, manure-treated soils, and surface and ground water near intensive cattle feeding operations, there is a concern that environmental contamination by these chemicals may promote the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Surface runoff and leaching appear to be major transport pathways by which veterinary antimicrobials eventually contaminate surface and ground water, respectively. A study was conducted to investigate the transport of three veterinary antimicrobials (chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, tylosin), commonly used in beef cattle production, in simulated rainfall runoff from feedlot pens. Mean concentrations of veterinary antimicrobials were 1.4 to 3.5 times higher in surface material from bedding vs. non-bedding pen areas. Runoff rates and volumetric runoff coefficients were similar across all treatments but both were significantly higher from non-bedding (0.53Lmin(-1); 0.27) than bedding areas (0.40Lmin(-1); 0.19). In keeping with concentrations in pen surface material, mean concentrations of veterinary antimicrobials were 1.4 to 2.5 times higher in runoff generated from bedding vs. non-bedding pen areas. Water solubility and sorption coefficient of antimicrobials played a role in their transport in runoff. Estimated amounts of chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and tylosin that could potentially be transported to the feedlot catch basin during a one in 100-year precipitation event were 1.3 to 3.6ghead(-1), 1.9ghead(-1), and 0.2ghead(-1), respectively. This study demonstrates the magnitude of veterinary antimicrobial transport in feedlot pen runoff and supports the necessity of catch basins for runoff containment within feedlots.

  16. Configurations of actual and perceived motor competence among children: Associations with motivation for sports and global self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardid, Farid; De Meester, An; Tallir, Isabel; Cardon, Greet; Lenoir, Matthieu; Haerens, Leen

    2016-12-01

    The present study used a person-centred approach to examine whether different profiles based on actual and perceived motor competence exist in elementary school children. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to explore how children with different motor competence-based profiles might differ in their autonomous motivation for sports and global self-worth. Validated questionnaires were administered to 161 children (40% boys; age=8.82±0.66years) to assess their perceived motor competence, global self-worth, and motivation for sports. Actual motor competence was measured with the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. Cluster analyses identified four motor competence-based profiles: two groups were characterized by corresponding levels of actual and perceived motor competence (i.e., low-low and high-high) and two groups were characterized by divergent levels of actual and perceived motor competence (i.e., high-low and low-high). Children in the low-low and high-low group displayed significantly lower levels of autonomous motivation for sports and lower levels of global self-worth than children in the low-high and high-high group. These findings emphasize that fostering children's perceived motor competence might be crucial to improve their motivation for sports and their global self-worth. Teachers and instructors involved in physical education and youth sports should thus focus on both actual and perceived motor competence.

  17. 78 FR 37785 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 196-Fort Worth, Texas; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Production Activity; Flextronics International USA, Inc. (Mobile Phone Assembly and Kitting); Fort Worth..., testing, packaging, warehousing and distribution of mobile phones. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b), FTZ... FTZ Board. Production under FTZ procedures could exempt Flextronics from customs duty payments on...

  18. Global Sensitivity and Data-Worth Analyses in iTOUGH2: User's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainwright, Haruko Murakami [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Finsterle, Stefan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-07-15

    This manual explains the use of local sensitivity analysis, the global Morris OAT and Sobol’ methods, and a related data-worth analysis as implemented in iTOUGH2. In addition to input specification and output formats, it includes some examples to show how to interpret results.

  19. Externally Contingent and Unstable Self-Worth as Predictors of Depression in College Women: A 3-Month Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Thorne, Brittany; Schoenecker, Sydney; Siffert, Kevin; Chaliman, Rebecca; Castleberry, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate women completed measures of externally contingent self-worth, self-esteem instability, and depression at the beginning (Time 1) and again 3 months later near the end (Time 2) of an academic semester. Findings indicated that when Time 1 depression scores were controlled for, each Time 1 facet of self-esteem made significant…

  20. When a Picture Isn't Worth 1000 Words: Learners Struggle to Find Meaning in Data Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stofer, Kathryn A.

    2016-01-01

    The oft-repeated phrase "a picture is worth a thousand words" supposes that an image can replace a profusion of words to more easily express complex ideas. For scientific visualizations that represent profusions of numerical data, however, an untranslated academic visualization suffers the same pitfalls untranslated jargon does. Previous…

  1. Household net worth, racial disparities, and hormonal therapy adherence among women with early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershman, Dawn L; Tsui, Jennifer; Wright, Jason D; Coromilas, Ellie J; Tsai, Wei Yann; Neugut, Alfred I

    2015-03-20

    Nonadherence to adjuvant hormonal therapy is common and is associated with increased prescription copayment amount and black race. Studies suggest that household wealth may partly explain racial disparities. We investigated the impact of net worth on disparities in adherence and discontinuation. We used the OptumInsight insurance claims database to identify women older than age 50 years diagnosed with early breast cancer, from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2011, who were using hormonal therapy. Nonadherence was defined as a medication possession ratio of ≤ 80% of eligible days over a 2-year period. We evaluated the association of demographic and clinical characteristics, annual household income, household net worth ( $750,000), insurance type, and copayments ( $20) with adherence to hormonal therapy. Logistic regression analyses were conducted by sequentially adding sociodemographic and financial variables to race. We identified 10,302 patients; 2,473 (24%) were nonadherent. In the unadjusted analyses, adherence was negatively associated with black race (odds ratio [OR], 0.76; P Adherence was positively associated with medium (OR, 1.33; P adherence (OR, 0.76) was reduced by adding net worth to the model (OR, 0.84; P adherence (OR, 0.87; P = .08). The interaction between net worth and race was significant (P adherence. These results suggest that economic factors may contribute to disparities in the quality of care. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  2. 77 FR 39343 - Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... any correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Denise McLamb, Enterprise Records Service (005R1B... current employment, dependency, and family income and net worth information to determine a claimant's... Secretary. Denise McLamb, Program Analyst, Enterprise Records Service. BILLING CODE 8320-01-P...

  3. Characterization of control rod worths and fuel rod power peaking factors in the university of Utah TRIGA Mark I reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alroumi Fawaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Control rod reactivity (worths for the three control rods and fuel rod power peaking factors in the University of Utah research reactor (100 kW TRIGA Mark I are characterized using the AGENT code system and the results described in this paper. These values are compared to the MCNP6 and existing experimental measurements. In addition, the eigenvalue, neutron spatial flux distributions and reaction rates are analyzed and discussed. The AGENT code system is widely benchmarked for various reactor types and complexities in their geometric arrangements of the assemblies and reactor core material distributions. Thus, it is used as a base methodology to evaluate neutronics variables of the research reactor at the University of Utah. With its much shorter computation time than MCNP6, AGENT provides agreement with the MCNP6 within a 0.5 % difference for the eigenvalue and a maximum difference of 10% in the power peaking factor values. Differential and integral control rod worths obtained by AGENT show well agreement with MCNP6 and the theoretical model. However, regulating the control rod worth is somewhat overestimated by both MCNP6 and AGENT models when compared to the experimental/theoretical values. In comparison to MCNP6, the total control rod worths and shutdown margin obtained with AGENT show better agreement to the experimental values.

  4. Externally Contingent and Unstable Self-Worth as Predictors of Depression in College Women: A 3-Month Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Thorne, Brittany; Schoenecker, Sydney; Siffert, Kevin; Chaliman, Rebecca; Castleberry, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate women completed measures of externally contingent self-worth, self-esteem instability, and depression at the beginning (Time 1) and again 3 months later near the end (Time 2) of an academic semester. Findings indicated that when Time 1 depression scores were controlled for, each Time 1 facet of self-esteem made significant…

  5. Friendship Predictors of Global Self-Worth and Domain-Specific Self-Concepts in University Students with and without Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shany, Michal; Wiener, Judith; Assido, Michal

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the association among friendship, global self-worth, and domain-specific self-concepts in 102 university students with and without learning disabilities (LD). Students with LD reported lower global self-worth and academic self-concept than students without LD, and this difference was greater for women. Students with LD also…

  6. Implementation of a worth-oriented monitoring system by means of a medium-sized power supply company; Implementierung eines wertorientierten Steuerungssystems inklusive Beispiel anhand eines mittelgrossen Energieversorgungsunternehmens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mierzwa, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    The book under consideration reports on a systematization as well as on a theoretical presentation of existing worth-oriented control concepts. The author points out the computation as well as the possibility of an implementation of worth-orientated sizes on the basis of an exemplary power supply company.

  7. Identified versus Introjected Approach and Introjected Avoidance Motivations in School and in Sports: The Limited Benefits of Self-Worth Strivings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assor, Avi; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Kaplan, Avi

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000), the authors examined whether 2 different types of introjected motivation--an avoidant type aimed at avoiding low self-worth and an approach type aimed at attaining high self-worth--are both associated with a less positive pattern of correlates relative to identified…

  8. Associations between the parent-child relationship and adolescent self-worth: a genetically informed study of twin parents and their adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Tom A; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V; Narusyte, Jurgita; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David; Spotts, Erica; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Eley, Thalia C

    2017-01-01

    Low self-worth during adolescence predicts a range of emotional and behavioural problems. As such, identifying potential sources of influence on self-worth is important. Aspects of the parent-child relationship are often associated with adolescent self-worth but to date it is unclear whether such associations may be attributable to familial confounding (e.g. genetic relatedness). We set out to clarify the nature of relationships between parental expressed affection and adolescent self-worth, and parent-child closeness and adolescent self-worth. We used data from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden, a children-of-twins sample comprising 909 adult twin pairs with adolescent children. Using these data we were able to apply structural equation models with which we could examine whether associations remained after accounting for genetic transmission. Results demonstrated that parent-child closeness and parental-expressed affection were both phenotypically associated with adolescent self-worth. Associations could not be attributed to genetic relatedness between parent and child. Parent-child closeness and parental affection are associated with adolescent self-worth above and beyond effects attributable to genetic relatedness. Data were cross-sectional, so the direction of effects cannot be confirmed but findings support the notion that positive parent-child relationships increase adolescent self-worth. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  9. Friendship Predictors of Global Self-Worth and Domain-Specific Self-Concepts in University Students with and without Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shany, Michal; Wiener, Judith; Assido, Michal

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the association among friendship, global self-worth, and domain-specific self-concepts in 102 university students with and without learning disabilities (LD). Students with LD reported lower global self-worth and academic self-concept than students without LD, and this difference was greater for women. Students with LD also…

  10. Antimicrobial use in swine production and its effect on the swine gut microbiota and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobials have been used in swine production at subtherapeutic levels since the early 1950s to increase feed efficiency and promote growth. In North America, a number of antimicrobials are available for use in swine. However, the continuous administration of subtherapeutic, low concentrations of antimicrobials to pigs also provides selective pressure for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants. For this reason, subtherapeutic antimicrobial use in livestock remains a source of controversy and concern. The swine gut microbiota demonstrates a number of changes in response to antimicrobial administration depending on the dosage, duration of treatment, age of the pigs, and gut location that is sampled. Both culture-independent and -dependent studies have also shown that the swine gut microbiota contains a large number of antimicrobial resistance determinants even in the absence of antimicrobial exposure. Heavy metals, such as zinc and copper, which are often added at relatively high doses to swine feed, may also play a role in maintaining antimicrobial resistance and in the stability of the swine gut microbiota. This review focuses on the use of antimicrobials in swine production, with an emphasis on the North American regulatory context, and their effect on the swine gut microbiota and on antimicrobial resistance determinants in the gut microbiota.

  11. Antimicrobial resistance in Dschang, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusi-Ngwa Catherine Kesah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health-care-associated and community infections remain problematic in most of Africa where the increasing incidences of diseases, wars, poverty, malnutrition, and general environmental deterioration have led to the gradual collapse of the health-care system. Detection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR remains imperative for the surveillance purposes and optimal management of infectious diseases. This study reports the status of AMR in pathogens in Dschang. Materials and Methods: From May 2009 to March 2010, the clinical specimens collected at two hospitals were processed accorded to the standard procedures. Antibiotic testing was performed by E test, and antimycotics by disc-agar diffusion, as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute on pathogens comprising Staphylococcus aureus (100 strains, Enterococcus faecalis (35, Klebsiella pneumoniae (75, Escherichia coli (50, Proteus mirabilis (30, Pseudomonas aruginosa (50, Acinetobacter species (20, and Candida albicans (150 against common antimicrobials. Results: There was no vancomycin resistance in the cocci, the minimum inhibitory concentration for 90% of these strains MIC 90 was 3 μg/ml, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA was 43%, benzyl penicillin 89% resistance in S. aureus as opposed to 5.7% in E. faecalis. Low resistance (<10% was recorded to cefoxitin, cefotaxime, and nalidixic acid (MIC 90 3-8 μg/ml against the coliforms, and to ticarcillin, aztreonam, imipenem, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin among the non-enterobacteria; tetracycline, amoxicillin, piperacillin, and chloramphenicol were generally ineffective. Resistance rates to fluconazole, clotrimazole, econazole, and miconazole were <55% against C. albicans. The pathogens tested exhibited multidrug-resistance. Conclusion: The present findings were intended to support antimicrobial stewardship endeavors and empiric therapy. The past, present, and the future investigations in drug efficacy will continue

  12. Antimicrobial edible films and coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagri, Arzu; Ustunol, Zeynep; Ryser, Elliot T

    2004-04-01

    Increasing consumer demand for microbiologically safer foods, greater convenience, smaller packages, and longer product shelf life is forcing the industry to develop new food-processing, cooking, handling, and packaging strategies. Nonfluid ready-to-eat foods are frequently exposed to postprocess surface contamination, leading to a reduction in shelf life. The food industry has at its disposal a wide range of nonedible polypropylene- and polyethylene-based packaging materials and various biodegradable protein- and polysaccharide-based edible films that can potentially serve as packaging materials. Research on the use of edible films as packaging materials continues because of the potential for these films to enhance food quality, food safety, and product shelf life. Besides acting as a barrier against mass diffusion (moisture, gases, and volatiles), edible films can serve as carriers for a wide range of food additives, including flavoring agents, antioxidants, vitamins, and colorants. When antimicrobial agents such as benzoic acid, sorbic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, nisin, and lysozyme have been incorporated into edible films, such films retarded surface growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds on a wide range of products, including meats and cheeses. Various antimicrobial edible films have been developed to minimize growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, including Listeria monocytogenes, which may contaminate the surface of cooked ready-to-eat foods after processing. Here, we review the various types of protein-based (wheat gluten, collagen, corn zein, soy, casein, and whey protein), polysaccharide-based (cellulose, chitosan, alginate, starch, pectin, and dextrin), and lipid-based (waxes, acylglycerols, and fatty acids) edible films and a wide range of antimicrobial agents that have been or could potentially be incorporated into such films during manufacture to enhance the safety and shelf life of ready-to-eat foods.

  13. Antimicrobial and biofilm inhibiting diketopiperazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, M P; Abraham, W-R

    2012-01-01

    Diketopiperazines are the smallest cyclic peptides known. 90% of Gram-negative bacteria produce diketopiperazines and they have also been isolated from Gram-positive bacteria, fungi and higher organisms. Biosynthesis of cyclodipeptides can be achieved by dedicated nonribosomal peptide synthetases or by a novel type of synthetases named cyclopeptide synthases. Since the first report in 1924 a large number of bioactive diketopiperazines was discovered spanning activities as antitumor, antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, antiprion, antihyperglycemic or glycosidase inhibitor agents. As infections are of increasing concern for human health and resistances against existing antibiotics are growing this review focuses on the antimicrobial activities of diketopiperazines. The antibiotic bicyclomycin is a diketopiperazine and structure activity studies revealed the unique nature of this compound which was finally developed for clinical applications. The antimicrobial activities of a number of other diketopiperazines along with structure activity relationships are discussed. Here a special focus is on the activity-toxicity problem of many compounds setting tight limitations to their application as drugs. Not only these classical antimicrobial activities but also proposed action in modulating bacterial communication as a new target to control biofilms will be evaluated. Pathogens organized in biofilms are difficult to eradicate because of the increase of their tolerance for antibiotics for several orders. Diketopiperazines were reported to modulate LuxR-mediated quorum-sensing systems of bacteria, and they are considered to influence cell-cell signaling offering alternative ways of biofilm control by interfering with microbial communication. Concluding the review we will finally discuss the potential of diketopiperazines in the clinic to erase biofilm infections.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of beta-lactams against multiresistant micro-organisms from the family Enterobacteriaceae, and genus Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebla, A; González, I; Vallín, C

    1994-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of twenty beta-lactams was determined against multiresistant micro-organisms from the Enterobacteriaceae family (450) and the genus Pseudomonas (90). The antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed by the disk diffusion method. The most effective antibiotics were cephalosporins of the second and third generation, and non-classical beta-lactams (imipenem and moxalactam). A pronounced resistance was found to carbenicillin, ampicillin, cephalotin and cefazolin. These resistance patterns corresponded to a high consumption of these antibiotics.

  15. Antimicrobial Activities of Dorema Auchri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sharifi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Due to emerging of resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics, investigations for novel antimicrobial agents have always been one of the major preoccupations of the medical society. Traditional medicine systems have played an important role during human evolution and development. Today, a number of medical herbs around the world have been studied for their medicinal activities. Amongst the several herbal medicine used as a medicine, Dorema auchri is yet another potent herbal medicine which has not been extensively studied for the medicinal uses in comparison with other herbal medicine. Dorema auchri has a long history of use as a sore and food additive in Yasuj, Iran. However, not much scientific work has been conducted on Dorema auchri antimicrobial activities. The present study aimed to study the antimicrobial properties of Dorema auchri on some pathogen microorganisms. Materials & Methods: In the present study was conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009. After collection and preparation of hydro alcoholic extract of Dorena auchri, the extract was used to study its activities against human pathogen microorganisms (overall 10 microorganisms. The determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum lethal concentration were evaluated for this extract. The antimicrobial potent of Dorema auchri extract was compared with commercial antibiotics. Each experiment was done three times and collected data were analyzed by SPSS using ANOVA and Chi-Square tests. Results: Findings of this study showed that in 10 mg/ml concentration, all bacteria were resistant to Dorema auchri extract. In 20 mg/ml concentration, only Staphylococcus areus and Staphylococcus epidermis showed zone of inhibition (ZOI 10 mm and 13 mm respectively. In 40 mg/ml concentration, the maximum ZOI was 15 mm in Staphylococcus areus and 80 mg/ml concentration, the maximum ZOI was 20 mm in Staphylococcus areus. The acceptable MIC

  16. Antimicrobial evaluation of mangiferin analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The naturally occurring xanthone glycoside mangiferin has been isolated by column chromatography from the ethanol extract of stem bark of Mangifera indica. Mangiferin was further converted to 5-(N-phenylaminomethylenomangiferin, 5-(N-p-chlorophenylaminomethyleno mangiferin, 5-(N-2-methylphenylaminomethyleno mangiferin, 5-(N-p-methoxyphenylaminomethyleno mangiferin, 5-(N,N-diphenylaminomethyleno mangiferin, 5-(N--napthylaminomethyleno mangiferin and 5-(N-4-methylphenylaminomethyleno mangiferin. Mangiferin and its analogues were characterized by melting point and R f value determination and through spectral technique like UV, IR, and NMR spectral analysis. The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity.

  17. Antimicrobial Evaluation of Mangiferin Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. K.; Kumar, Y.; Kumar, S. Sadish; Sharma, V. K.; Dua, K.; Samad, A.

    2009-01-01

    The naturally occurring xanthone glycoside mangiferin has been isolated by column chromatography from the ethanol extract of stem bark of Mangifera indica. Mangiferin was further converted to 5-(N-phenylaminomethyleno)mangiferin, 5-(N-p-chlorophenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin, 5-(N-2-methylphenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin, 5-(N-p-methoxyphenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin, 5-(N, N-diphenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin, 5-(N--napthylaminomethyleno) mangiferin and 5-(N-4-methylphenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin. Mangiferin and its analogues were characterized by melting point and Rf value determination and through spectral technique like UV, IR, and NMR spectral analysis. The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity. PMID:20490307

  18. [Antimicrobial sensitive of Morganella morganii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalas-Wiecek, Patrycja; Michalska, Anna; Sielska, Barbara; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of the antimicrobial sensitive of Morganella morganii rods isolated from clinical samples. This study included 50 of M. morganii strains isolated in the Clinical Microbiology Department of dr. A. Jurasz University Hospital in 2008-2009. All of strains were sensitive to carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem, doripenem) and piperacillin/tazobactam and most of them to beta-lactam antibiotics, aminoglycosides and fluorochinolons. Resistance to tetracyclines demonstrated 38,0% strains and to doxycycline - 40,0%. One out of 6 strains isolated from urine samples were sensitive to nitrofurantoin. Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases were produced by 5 (10,0%) strains.

  19. Application of whonet for the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma A

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available World over antimicrobial resistance is a major public health problem. The WHONET software program puts each laboratory data into a common code and file format, which can be merged for national or global collaboration of antimicrobial resistance surveillance. In this study, antimicrobial sensitivity of 4,289 bacterial isolates was studied by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. -lactamase production was assessed by iodometric test method. Extended spectrum -lactamase (ESBLs were screened by ceftazidime disk sensitivity. Drug resistance was high in most of the isolates. It was maximum (80-94% for ampicillin, nalidixic acid and cotrimoxazole. It varied between 40-60% for gentamicin, clindamycin, fluoroquinolones and coamoxyclav. It ranged from 21 to 38% for amikacin and third generation cephalosporins. Constitutive -lactamase production was highest in S.aureus (28.9% and ESBL production was maximum in Klebsiella spp. (53.6%. WHONET software has in-built analysis program which helps in forming hospital drug policy, identification of hospital outbreaks and recognition of quality control problems in the laboratory.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of some Alnus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altınyay, Ç; Eryılmaz, M; Yazgan, A N; Sever Yılmaz, B; Altun, M L

    2015-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of resistant microorganisms forced scientists to find new antimicrobial substances from different sources like medicinal plants. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activities of leaf extracts of some Alnus sp. against some bacteria and a yeast. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of A. glutinosa subsp. glutinosa, A. orientalis var. orientalis, A. orientalis var. pubescens were screened for their antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 43300 (MRSA), Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Broth dilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial activities of plant extracts. Ethanolic extracts of tested species exhibited better antimicrobial activity than aqueous extracts. Ethanolic extracts of tested species possessed activity having MIC values of 0.125-0.250 mg/ml against the tested microorganisms. No antibacterial activity was observed against B. subtilis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa for all the aqueous extracts. Except these aqueous extracts, the others possessed activity having MIC value of 1.000 mg/ml against the tested microorganisms. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation on the evaluation of antimicrobial activities on aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of these species. This study provides significant information about antimicrobial activities of leaf extracts of A. glutinosa subsp. glutinosa, A. orientalis var. orientalis, A. orientalis var. pubescens. It is conceivable that one of the reason for the usage of Alnus glutinosa, in treatment of wound healing in folk medicine, is because of its antimicrobial activity.

  1. [Antimicrobial activity of Calendula L. plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radioza, S A; Iurchak, L D

    2007-01-01

    The sap of different organs of genus Calendula plant species has been studied for antimicrobial activity. The sap of racemes demonstrated the most expressed antimicrobial effect while that of the roots - the least one. Calendula species inhibited all tested pathogenic microorganisms, especially Pseudomonas syringae, P. fluorescens, Xanthomonas campestris, Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Calendula suffruticosa was the most active to all investigated microorganisms.

  2. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of squalamine analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H S; Choi, B S; Kwon, K C; Lee, S O; Kwak, H J; Lee, C H

    2000-08-01

    Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of squalamine analogue 2 are reported. The synthesis of 2 was accomplished from bisnoralcohol 3. The spermidine moiety was introduced via reductive amination of an appropriately functionalized 3beta-aminosterol with spermidinyl aldehyde 17 utilizing sodium triacetoxyborohydride as the reducing agent. Compound 2 shows weaker antimicrobial activity than squalamine.

  3. Antimicrobial food packaging: potential and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Bhanu; Keshwani, Anu; Kharkwal, Harsha

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays food preservation, quality maintenance, and safety are major growing concerns of the food industry. It is evident that over time consumers’ demand for natural and safe food products with stringent regulations to prevent food-borne infectious diseases. Antimicrobial packaging which is thought to be a subset of active packaging and controlled release packaging is one such promising technology which effectively impregnates the antimicrobial into the food packaging film material and subsequently delivers it over the stipulated period of time to kill the pathogenic microorganisms affecting food products thereby increasing the shelf life to severe folds. This paper presents a picture of the recent research on antimicrobial agents that are aimed at enhancing and improving food quality and safety by reduction of pathogen growth and extension of shelf life, in a form of a comprehensive review. Examination of the available antimicrobial packaging technologies is also presented along with their significant impact on food safety. This article entails various antimicrobial agents for commercial applications, as well as the difference between the use of antimicrobials under laboratory scale and real time applications. Development of resistance amongst microorganisms is considered as a future implication of antimicrobials with an aim to come up with actual efficacies in extension of shelf life as well as reduction in bacterial growth through the upcoming and promising use of antimicrobials in food packaging for the forthcoming research down the line. PMID:26136740

  4. Antimicrobial resistance issues in beef production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial resistance threats to human health as identified have been recognized as a critical global public health concern. Linkage of some threats to beef production is discussed. The relevance to beef production of recent government actions will be examined. Prominent antimicrobial resistance ...

  5. Cationic Antimicrobial Polymers and Their Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Carmona-Ribeiro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cationic compounds are promising candidates for development of antimicrobial agents. Positive charges attached to surfaces, particles, polymers, peptides or bilayers have been used as antimicrobial agents by themselves or in sophisticated formulations. The main positively charged moieties in these natural or synthetic structures are quaternary ammonium groups, resulting in quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs. The advantage of amphiphilic cationic polymers when compared to small amphiphilic molecules is their enhanced microbicidal activity. Besides, many of these polymeric structures also show low toxicity to human cells; a major requirement for biomedical applications. Determination of the specific elements in polymers, which affect their antimicrobial activity, has been previously difficult due to broad molecular weight distributions and random sequences characteristic of radical polymerization. With the advances in polymerization control, selection of well defined polymers and structures are allowing greater insight into their structure-antimicrobial activity relationship. On the other hand, antimicrobial polymers grafted or self-assembled to inert or non inert vehicles can yield hybrid antimicrobial nanostructures or films, which can act as antimicrobials by themselves or deliver bioactive molecules for a variety of applications, such as wound dressing, photodynamic antimicrobial therapy, food packing and preservation and antifouling applications.

  6. Application of natural antimicrobials for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Brijesh K; Valdramidis, Vasilis P; O'Donnell, Colm P; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Bourke, Paula; Cullen, P J

    2009-07-22

    In this review, antimicrobials from a range of plant, animal, and microbial sources are reviewed along with their potential applications in food systems. Chemical and biochemical antimicrobial compounds derived from these natural sources and their activity against a range of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms pertinent to food, together with their effects on food organoleptic properties, are outlined. Factors influencing the antimicrobial activity of such agents are discussed including extraction methods, molecular weight, and agent origin. These issues are considered in conjunction with the latest developments in the quantification of the minimum inhibitory (and noninhibitory) concentration of antimicrobials and/or their components. Natural antimicrobials can be used alone or in combination with other novel preservation technologies to facilitate the replacement of traditional approaches. Research priorities and future trends focusing on the impact of product formulation, intrinsic product parameters, and extrinsic storage parameters on the design of efficient food preservation systems are also presented.

  7. Methods of Antimicrobial Coating of Diverse Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.; Kliestik, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Methods of coating diverse substrate materials with antimicrobial agents have been developed. Originally intended to reduce health risks to astronauts posed by pathogenic microorganisms that can grow on surfaces in spacecraft, these methods could also be used on Earth for example, to ensure sterility of surgical inserts and other medical equipment. The methods involve, generally, chemical preparation of substrate surfaces to enable attachment of antimicrobial molecules to the substrate surfaces via covalent bonds. Substrate materials that have been treated successfully include aluminum, glass, a corrosion-resistant nickel alloy, stainless steel, titanium, and poly(tetrafluoroethylene). Antimicrobial agents that have been successfully immobilized include antibiotics, enzymes, bacteriocins, bactericides, and fungicides. A variety of linkage chem istries were employed. Activity of antimicrobial coatings against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and fungi was demonstrated. Results of investigations indicate that the most suitable combination of antimicrobial agent, substrate, and coating method depends upon the intended application.

  8. Antimicrobial Peptides: Multifunctional Drugs for Different Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea-Jessica Albrecht

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (APs are an important part of the innate immune system in epithelial and non-epithelial surfaces. So far, many different antimicrobial peptides from various families have been discovered in non-vertebrates and vertebrates. They are characterized by antibiotic, antifungal and antiviral activities against a variety of microorganisms. In addition to their role as endogenous antimicrobials, APs participate in multiple aspects of immunity. They are involved in septic and non-septic inflammation, wound repair, angiogenesis, regulation of the adaptive immune system and in maintaining homeostasis. Due to those characteristics AP could play an important role in many practical applications. Limited therapeutic efficiency of current antimicrobial agents and the emerging resistance of pathogens require alternate antimicrobial drugs. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent literature on functions and mechanisms of APs. It also shows their current practical applications as peptide therapeutics and bioactive polymers and discusses the possibilities of future clinical developments.

  9. Antimicrobial resistant bacteria in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2003-01-01

    Antimicrobials are used for treatment and prevention of disease in food animals and as feed additives for growth promotion. All uses lead to the development of resistant bacteria, some of which are pathogenic to humans. Current main concerns are with resistance in Salmonella and Campylobacter...... to fluoroquinolones, which are used for empirical treatment of diarrhea in humans. Resistance to vancomycin and Synercid((R)) in enterococci is associated with use of similar drugs as growth promoters in food animals. Danish food animal producers have terminated the use of antimicrobial growth promoters. This has...... reduced the total use of antimicrobials by more than 50% and markedly reduced levels of resistance. There is an urgent need to implement globally, WHO principles for prudent use of antimicrobials in food animals. Use of antimicrobials as growth promoters could and should be terminated completely....

  10. Antimicrobial peptides important in innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederlund, Andreas; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur H; Agerberth, Birgitta

    2011-10-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are present in all walks of life, from plants to animals, and they are considered to be endogenous antibiotics. In general, antimicrobial peptides are determinants of the composition of the microbiota and they function to fend off microbes and prevent infections. Antimicrobial peptides eliminate micro-organisms through disruption of their cell membranes. Their importance in human immunity, and in health as well as disease, has only recently been appreciated. The present review provides an introduction to the field of antimicrobial peptides in general and discusses two of the major classes of mammalian antimicrobial peptides: the defensins and the cathelicidins. The review focuses on their structures, their main modes of action and their regulation.

  11. Mechanistic Basis of Antimicrobial Action of Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tikam Chand Dakal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance of the pathogenic microorganisms to the antimicrobial drugs has become a major impediment toward successful diagnosis and management of infectious diseases. Recent advancements in nanotechnology-based medicines have opened new horizons for combating multidrug resistance in microorganisms. In particular, the use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs as a potent antibacterial agent has received much attention. The most critical physico-chemical parameters that affect the antimicrobial potential of AgNPs include size, shape, surface charge, concentration and colloidal state. AgNPs exhibits their antimicrobial potential through multifaceted mechanisms. AgNPs adhesion to microbial cells, penetration inside the cells, ROS and free radical generation, and modulation of microbial signal transduction pathways have been recognized as the most prominent modes of antimicrobial action. On the other side, AgNPs exposure to human cells induces cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and inflammatory response in human cells in a cell-type dependent manner. This has raised concerns regarding use of AgNPs in therapeutics and drug delivery. We have summarized the emerging endeavors that address current challenges in relation to safe use of AgNPs in therapeutics and drug delivery platforms. Based on research done so far, we believe that AgNPs can be engineered so as to increase their efficacy, stability, specificity, biosafety and biocompatibility. In this regard, three perspectives research directions have been suggested that include 1 synthesizing AgNPs with controlled physico-chemical properties, 2 examining microbial development of resistance towards AgNPs, and 3 ascertaining the susceptibility of cytoxicity, genotoxicity, and inflammatory response to human cells upon AgNPs exposure.

  12. Optimizing antimicrobial therapy in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitrat V

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Virginie Vitrat,1 Serge Hautefeuille,2 Cécile Janssen,1 David Bougon,2 Michel Sirodot,2 Leonardo Pagani1,3 1Antimicrobial Stewardship Program, Infectious Diseases Unit, 2Intensive Care Unit, Annecy-Genevois Hospital Center (CHANGE, Annecy, France; 3Infectious Diseases Unit, Bolzano Central Hospital, Bolzano, Italy Abstract: Critically ill patients with infection in the intensive care unit (ICU would certainly benefit from timely bacterial identification and effective antimicrobial treatment. Diagnostic techniques have clearly improved in the last years and allow earlier identification of bacterial strains in some cases, but these techniques are still quite expensive and not readily available in all institutions. Moreover, the ever increasing rates of resistance to antimicrobials, especially in Gram-negative pathogens, are threatening the outcome for such patients because of the lack of effective medical treatment; ICU physicians are therefore resorting to combination therapies to overcome resistance, with the direct consequence of promoting further resistance. A more appropriate use of available antimicrobials in the ICU should be pursued, and adjustments in doses and dosing through pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have recently shown promising results in improving outcomes and reducing antimicrobial resistance. The aim of multidisciplinary antimicrobial stewardship programs is to improve antimicrobial prescription, and in this review we analyze the available experiences of such programs carried out in ICUs, with emphasis on results, challenges, and pitfalls. Any effective intervention aimed at improving antibiotic usage in ICUs must be brought about at the present time; otherwise, we will face the challenge of intractable infections in critically ill patients in the near future. Keywords: ICU, antimicrobial therapies, antimicrobial stewardship, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, antimicrobial resistance, early diagnosis

  13. The safety of antimicrobial drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćupić Vitomir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery and introduction of antimicrobial drugs in clinical practice has been recorded as one of the greatest achievements in the history of medicine. The application of these drugs, made a big, almost revolutionary upheaval in treatment of many infectious diseases. Its significance for the humanity lies in the fact that hundreds of thousands of people, until then condemned to a certain death, has been saved now. However, it was shown that antimicrobial therapy carries some risk of possible occurrence of undesirable and toxic effects, such as direct toxic effects, development of resistance, the impact on the normal microflora or disorder of micropopulation metabolic functions in digestive tract of ruminants, unwanted interactions with other drugs, damage or necrosis of the tissue at the injection site, residues in foodstuff intended for human consumption, suppression of immune system or defense mechanisms of the body, and damage of fetal or neonatal tissue. All mentioned, directly or indirectly, to a greater or lesser degree can reduce the safety of these drugs.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance: cost and containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast, Joanna; Smith, Richard D

    2003-08-01

    There is growing evidence that antimicrobial resistance causes serious consequences for individuals as well as leading to increased healthcare costs. The containment of resistance is therefore a policy problem which will impact on all health systems in the next few years. Unfortunately, there is, as yet, no definitive evidence suggesting that particular control measures are successful in containing either the emergence or transmission of antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, few studies contain information about costs and even where there is such information it is generally inadequate because of the narrow perspectives from which analyses are conducted. In part, this is due to methodological problems associated with the inclusion of cost data: measuring and valuing what are often intangible costs; identifying costs associated with organizational change; and accounting for interaction between costs at levels from the individual to the international. Good quality research, including both economic evaluation and comprehensive economic modelling, is required to determine the most cost-effective combination of strategies to pursue in combating resistance, and to find ways around these methodological difficulties.

  15. Animal venoms as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Stiles, Bradley G; Franco, Octavio L; Sethi, Gautam; Lim, Lina H K

    2017-06-15

    Hospitals are breeding grounds for many life-threatening bacteria worldwide. Clinically associated gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus/methicillin-resistant S. aureus and many others increase the risk of severe mortality and morbidity. The failure of antibiotics to kill various pathogens due to bacterial resistance highlights the urgent need to develop novel, potent, and less toxic agents from natural sources against various infectious agents. Currently, several promising classes of natural molecules from snake (terrestrial and sea), scorpion, spider, honey bee and wasp venoms hold promise as rich sources of chemotherapeutics against infectious pathogens. Interestingly, snake venom-derived synthetic peptide/snake cathelicidin not only has potent antimicrobial and wound-repair activity but is highly stable and safe. Such molecules are promising candidates for novel venom-based drugs against S. aureus infections. The structure of animal venom proteins/peptides (cysteine rich) consists of hydrophobic α-helices or β-sheets that produce lethal pores and membrane-damaging effects on bacteria. All these antimicrobial peptides are under early experimental or pre-clinical stages of development. It is therefore important to employ novel tools for the design and the development of new antibiotics from the untapped animal venoms of snake, scorpion, and spider for treating resistant pathogens. To date, snail venom toxins have shown little antibiotic potency against human pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Antimicrobial peptides in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bogaerts

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the most successful model species for experimental research because of its sequenced genome, the versatile genetic toolkit and the straightforward breeding among others. In natural conditions however, this tiny worm is constantly surrounded by micro-organisms, simultaneously a source of indispensable nutrition and inevitable pathogens. Lacking an adaptive immune system, the worm solely relies on its innate immune defence to cope with its challenging life style. Hence C. elegans is an excellent model to gain more insight in innate immunity, which is remarkably preserved between invertebrate and vertebrate animals. The innate defence consists of receptors to detect potential pathogens, a complex network of signalling pathways and last but not least, effector molecules to abolish harmful microbes. In this review, we focus on the antimicrobial peptides, a vital subgroup of effector molecules. We summarise the current knowledge of the different families of C. elegans antimicrobial peptides, comprising NLPs, caenacins, ABFs, caenopores, and a recently discovered group with antifungal activity among which thaumatin-like proteins.

  17. High-resolution Rainfall Mapping in Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Urban Network of Radars at Multiple Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Chandrasekar V.; Chen*, Haonan

    2015-04-01

    Urban flash flood is one of the most commonly encountered hazardous weather phenomena. Unfortunately, the rapid urbanization has made the densely populated areas even more vulnerable to flood risks. Hence, accurate and timely monitoring of rainfall at high spatiotemporal resolution is critical to severe weather warning and civil defense, especially in urban areas. However, it is still challenging to produce high-resolution products based on the large S-band National Weather Service (NWS) Next-Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD), due to the sampling limitations and Earth curvature effect. Since 2012, the U.S. National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center (NSF-ERC) for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) has initiated the development of Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) radar remote sensing network for urban weather hazards mitigation. The DFW urban radar network consists of a combination of high-resolution X-band radars and a standard NWS NEXRAD radar operating at S-band frequency. High-resolution quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) is one of the major research goals in the deployment of this urban radar network. It has been shown in the literature that the dual-polarization radar techniques can improve the QPE accuracy over traditional single-polarization radars by rendering more measurements to enhance the data quality, providing more information about rain drop size distribution (DSD), and implying more characteristics of different hydrometeor types. This paper will present the real-time dual-polarization CASA DFW QPE system, which is developed via fusion of observations from both the high-resolution X band radar network and the S-band NWS radar. The specific dual-polarization rainfall algorithms at different frequencies (i.e., S- and X-band) will be described in details. In addition, the fusion methodology combining observations at different temporal resolution will be presented. In order to demonstrate the capability of rainfall

  18. Phylogenetic analysis reveals common antimicrobial resistant Campylobacter coli population in antimicrobial-free (ABF and commercial swine systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena P Quintana-Hayashi

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the population biology of antimicrobial resistant (AR Campylobacter coli isolated from swine reared in the conventional and antimicrobial-free (ABF swine production systems at farm, slaughter and environment. A total of 200 C. coli isolates selected from fecal, environmental, and carcass samples of ABF (n = 100 and conventional (n = 100 swine production systems were typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Sequence data from seven housekeeping genes was analyzed for the identification of allelic profiles, sequence types (STs and clonal complex determination. Phylogenetic trees were generated to establish the relationships between the genotyped isolates. A total of 51 STs were detected including two novel alleles (glnA 424 and glyA 464 and 14 novel STs reported for the first time. The majority of the C. coli isolates belonged to ST-854 (ABF: 31, conventional: 17, and were grouped in clonal complex ST-828 (ABF: 68%, conventional: 66%. The mean genetic diversity (H for the ABF (0.3963+/-0.0806 and conventional (0.4655+/-0.0714 systems were similar. The index of association (I(A(S for the ABF (I(A(S= 0.1513 and conventional (I(A(S = 0.0991 C. coli populations were close to linkage equilibrium, indicative of a freely recombining population. Identical STs were detected between the pigs and their environment both at farm and slaughter. A minimum spanning tree revealed the close clustering of C. coli STs that originated from swine and carcass with those from the environment. In conclusion, our study reveals a genotypic diverse C. coli population that shares a common ancestry in the conventional and ABF swine production systems. This could potentially explain the high prevalence of antimicrobial resistant C. coli in the ABF system in the absence of antimicrobial selection pressure.

  19. Activity of Antimicrobial Silver Polystyrene Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Palomba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple technique based on doping polymers with in situ generated silver nanoparticles (Ag/PS films has been developed. In particular, an antiseptic material has been prepared by dissolving silver 1,5-cyclooctadiene-hexafluoroacetylacetonate in amorphous polystyrene, and the obtained solid solution has been heated for ca. 10 s at a convenient temperature (180°C. Under such conditions the metal precursor decomposes producing silver atoms that diffuse into the polymer and clusterize. The antimicrobial characteristics of the resulting polystyrene-based material have been accurately evaluated toward Escherichia coli (E. coli comparing the cytotoxicity effect of 10 wt.% and 30 wt.% (drastic and mild annealing silver-doped polystyrene to the corresponding pure micrometric silver powder. Two different bacterial viability assays were performed in order to demonstrate the cytotoxic effect of Ag/PS films on cultured E. coli: (1 turbidimetric determination of optical density; (2 BacLight fluorescence-based test. Both methods have shown that silver-doped polystyrene (30 wt.% provides higher antibacterial activity than pure Ag powder, under similar concentration and incubation conditions.

  20. Colloidal silver solutions with antimicrobial properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petica, A. [INCDIE ICPE-Advanced Research, Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail: petica@icpe-ca.ro; Gavriliu, S.; Lungu, M.; Buruntea, N. [INCDIE ICPE-Advanced Research, Bucharest (Romania); Panzaru, C. [Institute of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iassy (Romania)

    2008-08-25

    Some colloidal silver solutions involving the electrochemical technique with 'sacrificial anode method and different stabilizers and co-stabilizers' have been prepared. A constant current pulse generator with stirrer at different working times has been used. To achieve stable colloidal silver solutions, a mix of different tensioactive agents namely [poly (N-vinylpyrrolidone)], Na-naphthalene sulphonate, Na-lauryl sulfate and Na-dodecyl sulphonate were tested. The effects of these various mixes of polymer and ionic surfactants upon the Ag concentration and UV-vis spectra of silver nanoparticles were determined by spectrophotometer techniques. The nanoparticles sizes have been analyzed through dynamic light scattering technique and the silver nanoparticle morphology has been evidenced by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Micobiological analysis has been made by determining minimal inhibitorial concentration upon the following germs: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC) (Gram-positive cocci), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATTC), Escherichia coli (ATCC) and Acinetobacter spp. (Gram-negative coccobacillus). To evaluate the antifungal effect, the antibiogram method involving various tests using a fungi mix of Aspergillus, Penicillium and Trichoderma species has been used. The presented method allows obtaining of some stable colloidal solutions containing up to 35 ppm of Ag with very good antimicrobial and antifungal properties.

  1. Peptide design for antimicrobial and immunomodulatory applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Evan F; Hancock, Robert E W

    2013-11-01

    The increasing threat of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria and the dwindling supply of antibiotics available to combat these infections poses a significant threat to human health throughout the world. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have long been touted as the next generation of antibiotics capable of filling the anti-infective void. Unfortunately, peptide-based antibiotics have yet to realize their potential as novel pharmaceuticals, in spite of the immense number of known AMP sequences and our improved understanding of their antibacterial mechanism of action. Recently, the immunomodulatory properties of certain AMPs have become appreciated. The ability of small synthetic peptides to protect against infection in vivo has demonstrated that modulation of the innate immune response is an effective strategy to further develop peptides as novel anti-infectives. This review focuses on the screening methods that have been used to assess novel peptide sequences for their antibacterial and immunomodulatory properties. It will also examine how we have progressed in our ability to identify and optimize peptides with desired biological characteristics and enhanced therapeutic potential. In addition, the current challenges to the development of peptides as anti-infectives are examined and the strategies being used to overcome these issues are discussed.

  2. Antimicrobial use in long-term-care facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolle, LE; Bentley, DW; Garibaldi, R; Neuhaus, EG; Smith, PW

    2000-01-01

    There is intense antimicrobial use in long-term-care facilities (LTCFs), and studies repeatedly document that much of this use is inappropriate. The current crisis in antimicrobial resistance, which encompasses the LTCF, heightens concerns of antimicrobial use. Attempts to improve antimicrobial use

  3. "Not worth doing prenatal care": an ethnographic study of a low-income community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia L. F Santa Rosa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to explore the reasons why pregnant women do not seek prenatal care (PNC. Methodology. The ethnographic method was used in a low-income Brazilian community. Ethnographic interviews were performed with 11 postpartum women who did not seek PNC in their last pregnancy. Results. The cultural sub-themes used to express reasons for not seeking PNC included: "I found out I was pregnant too late and did not have enough time to receive PNC," "I did not receive PNC because I had to hide the pregnancy to avoid problems," "I had to address urgent issues and could not seek PNC," "The services are not good and going to the doctor when not ill is only for rich people," and cultural theme: "PNC is not worth pursuing: it is unnecessary and there are too many obstacles to receiving it." Conclusion. The main strategies that should be considered to increase adherence to PNC are better access and integrality through the use of adequate management criteria.

  4. Human dignity in the prophetic traditions: Upholding human worth in a context of dehumanisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Claassens

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes that the theme of human dignity offers a fruitful avenue to
    explore the interrelated themes of justice, vocation and human responsibility in the
    biblical traditions. Human dignity is most evident in the notion of the Imago Dei,
    i.e., the claim in Genesis 1:26-27 that humans, both male and female, are created in
    the image of God. This powerful theological claim has led to some rich theological
    reflection by Christian and Jewish interpreters who have argued for the inherent
    worth of every human being whose dignity is a gracious gift bestowed by the Creator
    God. Nevertheless, in the Hebrew Bible there are numerous instances where this
    dignity of individuals and groups are threatened, obscured and violated. And yet, it
    is exactly in the midst of these situations of dehumanisation that the conversation
    on what it means to be human becomes most urgent. For instance, in prophets like
    Isaiah, it is within the depths of the social justice violations that threaten the well
    being of the society’s most vulnerable members that one encounters the prophet’s
    persistent critique that upholds the dignity of each member of the society.

  5. What's Worth Talking About? Information Theory Reveals How Children Balance Informativeness and Ease of Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannard, Colin; Rosner, Marla; Matthews, Danielle

    2017-07-01

    Of all the things a person could say in a given situation, what determines what is worth saying? Greenfield's principle of informativeness states that right from the onset of language, humans selectively comment on whatever they find unexpected. In this article, we quantify this tendency using information-theoretic measures and report on a study in which we tested the counterintuitive prediction that children will produce words that have a low frequency given the context, because these will be most informative. Using corpora of child-directed speech, we identified adjectives that varied in how informative (i.e., unexpected) they were given the noun they modified. In an initial experiment ( N = 31) and in a replication ( N = 13), 3-year-olds heard an experimenter use these adjectives to describe pictures. The children's task was then to describe the pictures to another person. As the information content of the experimenter's adjective increased, so did children's tendency to comment on the feature that adjective had encoded. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that children balance informativeness with a competing drive to ease production.

  6. Sense of life worth living (ikigai) and incident functional disability in elderly Japanese: The Tsurugaya Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kentaro; Kaiho, Yu; Tomata, Yasutake; Narita, Mamoru; Tanji, Fumiya; Sugiyama, Kemmyo; Sugawara, Yumi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2017-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that elderly persons who feel ikigai (a sense of life worth living) have a lower risk of incident functional disability than those who do not. Recent studies have suggested that ikigai impacts on mortality. However, its impact upon disability is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between ikigai and incident functional disability among elderly persons. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 830 Japanese elderly persons aged ≥70years as a comprehensive geriatric assessment in 2003. Information on ikigai was collected by self-reported questionnaire. Data on functional disability were retrieved from the public Long-term Care Insurance database in which participants were followed up for 12years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incidence of functional disability were calculated for three groups delineated according to the presence of ikigai ("no", "uncertain" or "yes") using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. The 12-year incidence of functional disability was 53.3% (442 cases). As compared with the "no" group, the multiple-adjusted HR (95% CI) of incident functional disability was 0.61 (0.36-1.02) for the "uncertain" group and 0.50 (0.30-0.84) for the "yes" group. A stronger degree of ikigai is significantly associated with a lower risk of incident functional disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Extending Data Worth Analyses to Select Multiple Observations Targeting Multiple Forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhelmsen, Troels N; Ferré, Ty P A

    2017-09-15

    Hydrological models are often set up to provide specific forecasts of interest. Owing to the inherent uncertainty in data used to derive model structure and used to constrain parameter variations, the model forecasts will be uncertain. Additional data collection is often performed to minimize this forecast uncertainty. Given our common financial restrictions, it is critical that we identify data with maximal information content with respect to forecast of interest. In practice, this often devolves to qualitative decisions based on expert opinion. However, there is no assurance that this will lead to optimal design, especially for complex hydrogeological problems. Specifically, these complexities include considerations of multiple forecasts, shared information among potential observations, information content of existing data, and the assumptions and simplifications underlying model construction. In the present study, we extend previous data worth analyses to include: simultaneous selection of multiple new measurements and consideration of multiple forecasts of interest. We show how the suggested approach can be used to optimize data collection. This can be used in a manner that suggests specific measurement sets or that produces probability maps indicating areas likely to be informative for specific forecasts. Moreover, we provide examples documenting that sequential measurement election approaches often lead to suboptimal designs and that estimates of data covariance should be included when selecting future measurement sets. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  8. Analysis of High Temperature Reactor Control Rod Worth for the Initial and Full Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktajianto, Hammam; Setiawati, Evi; Anam, Khoirul; Sugito, Heri

    2017-01-01

    Control rod is one important component in a nuclear reactor. In nuclear reactor operations the control rod functions to shut down the reactor. This research analyses ten control rods worth of HTR (High Temperature Reactor) at initial and full core. The HTR in this research adopts HTR-10 China and HTR- of pebble bed. Core calculations are performed by using MCNPX code after modelling the entire parts of core in condition of ten control rods fully withdrawn, all control rods in with 20 cm ranges of depth and the use of one control rod. Pebble bed and moderator balls are distributed in the core zone using a Body Centred Cubic (BCC) lattice by ratio of 57:43. The research results are obtained that the use of one control rod will decrease the reactor criticality of 2.04±0.12 %Δk/k at initial core and 1.57±0.10 %Δk/k at full core. The deeper control rods are in, the lesser criticality of reactor is with reactivity of ten control rods of 16.41±0.11 %Δk/k at initial core and 15.43±0.11 %Δk/k at full core. The results show that the use of ten control rods at full core will keep achieving subcritical condition even though the reactivity is smaller than reactivity at initial core.

  9. Investigation of control rod worth and nuclear end of life of BWR control rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Per

    2008-01-15

    This work has investigated the Control Rod Worth (CRW) and Nuclear End of Life (NEOL) values for BWR control rods. A study of how different parameters affect NEOL was performed with the transport code PHOENIX4. It was found that NEOL, expressed in terms of {sup 10}B depletion, can be generalized beyond the conditions for which the rod is depleted, such as different power densities and void fractions, the corresponding variation in the NEOL will be about 0.2-0.4% {sup 10}B. It was also found that NEOL results for different fuel types and different fuel enrichments have a variation of about 2-3% in {sup 10}B depletion. A comparative study on NHOL and CRW was made between PHOENIX4 and the stochastic Monte Carlo code MCNP. It was found that there is a significant difference, both due to differences in the codes and to limitations in the geometrical modeling in PHOENIX4. Since MCNP is considered more physically correct, a methodology was developed to calculate the nuclear end of life of BWR control rods with MCNP. The advantages of the methodology are that it does not require other codes to perform the depletion of the absorber material, it can describe control rods of any design and it can deplete the control rod absorber material without burning the fuel. The disadvantage of the method is that is it time-consuming.

  10. Worth it? Findings from a study of how academics assess students’ Web 2.0 activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Gray

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Educational commentators have offered many pedagogical rationales for using Web 2.0 to support learning in higher education, and academics are being encouraged to find ways for their students to use social web technologies. Questions arise as to the value of these activities compared to more conventional assignments, and whether implementing such changes to student assessment is worth the effort. We conducted a survey of academics’ assessment of students’ Web 2.0 activities in Australian universities and found that this form of assessment is being conducted by a small number of academics, in a range of fields of study, but mainly in Humanities and Social Sciences, with varying kinds of intended and actual learning outcomes. Blogging and wiki-writing predominate, low and medium-stakes assessment are most common, and different methods of marking and feedback are in use. Qualitative feedback from the survey and follow-up interviews gave further insights into benefits and challenges of Web 2.0 assessment in relation to pedagogy, policy and practice. It appears that academics’ conservative approaches to conducting assessment and their novice approaches to utilising social web technologies are factors which seriously limit realising the potential of Web 2.0 for medium or high-stakes assessment.

  11. Antimicrobial resistance in India: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Ganesh; Adithan, C; Harish, B N; Sujatha, S; Roy, Gautam; Malini, A

    2013-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is an important concern for the public health authorities at global level. However, in developing countries like India, recent hospital and some community based data showed increase in burden of antimicrobial resistance. Research related to antimicrobial use, determinants and development of antimicrobial resistance, regional variation and interventional strategies according to the existing health care situation in each country is a big challenge. This paper discusses the situational analysis of antimicrobial resistance with respect to its problem, determinants and challenges ahead with strategies required in future to reduce the burden in India. Recent data from Google search, Medline and other sources were collected which was reviewed and analyzed by the authors. Hospital based studies showed higher and varied spectrum of resistance in different regions while there are limited number of community based studies at country level. There exists lacunae in the structure and functioning of public health care delivery system with regard to quantification of the problem and various determining factors related to antimicrobial resistance. There is an urgent need to develop and strengthen antimicrobial policy, standard treatment guidelines, national plan for containment of AMR and research related to public health aspects of AMR at community and hospital level in India.

  12. The role of poverty in antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planta, Margaret B

    2007-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide problem that has deleterious long-term effects as the development of drug resistance outpaces the development of new drugs. Poverty has been cited by the World Health Organization as a major force driving the development of antimicrobial resistance. In developing countries, factors such as inadequate access to effective drugs, unregulated dispensing and manufacture of antimicrobials, and truncated antimicrobial therapy because of cost are contributing to the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. Within the United States, poverty-driven practices such as medication-sharing, use of "leftover" antibiotics, and the purchase and use of foreign-made drugs of questionable quality are likely contributing to antimicrobial resistance. However, there is currently a dearth of studies in the United States analyzing the socioeconomic and behavioral factors behind antimicrobial resistance in United States communities. Further studies of these factors, with an emphasis on poverty-driven practices, need to be undertaken in order to fully understand the problem of antimicrobial resistance in the United States and to develop effective intervention to combat this problem.

  13. Uses of antimicrobials in plant agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaver, Anne K

    2002-06-01

    Bacterial diseases of plants are less prevalent than diseases caused by fungi and viruses. Antimicrobials for prophylactic treatment of bacterial diseases of plants are limited in availability, use, and efficacy, and therapeutic use is largely ineffective. Most applications are by spray treatments in orchards. Monitoring and surveillance for drug resistance are not routinely done. In the United States, data on use of antimicrobials for treatment of bacterial diseases of plants are limited to streptomycin and oxytetracycline. Resistance to streptomycin has become widespread among bacterial phytopathogens; no resistance among these bacteria has yet been reported for oxytetracycline. No human health effects have been documented since inception of use of antimicrobials in plants in the 1950s. Transfer of antimicrobial resistance from marker genes in transgenic plants to bacteria has not been documented under natural conditions in field-grown plants. However, antimicrobial-resistance genes are being eliminated from use as marker genes because of concerns about possible transfer from plant genomes back to bacteria, with further horizontal transfer to the bacteria in the environment, or from plant genomes to animals by plant consumption. No new antimicrobials are expected to be used in plant agriculture because of high costs of development, regulatory constraints, and environmental and human health concerns. Alternatives to antimicrobials, such as biocontrol agents, transgenic plants, and novel chemicals, are being developed and marketed, although their efficacy remains to be determined.

  14. Recent Advances in Antimicrobial Polymers: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keng-Shiang Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human safety and well-being is threatened by microbes causing numerous infectious diseases resulting in a large number of deaths every year. Despite substantial progress in antimicrobial drugs, many infectious diseases remain difficult to treat. Antimicrobial polymers offer a promising antimicrobial strategy for fighting pathogens and have received considerable attention in both academic and industrial research. This mini-review presents the advances made in antimicrobial polymers since 2013. Antimicrobial mechanisms exhibiting either passive or active action and polymer material types containing bound or leaching antimicrobials are introduced. This article also addresses the applications of these antimicrobial polymers in the medical, food, and textile industries.

  15. Recent Advances in Antimicrobial Polymers: A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keng-Shiang; Yang, Chih-Hui; Huang, Shu-Ling; Chen, Cheng-You; Lu, Yuan-Yi; Lin, Yung-Sheng

    2016-09-20

    Human safety and well-being is threatened by microbes causing numerous infectious diseases resulting in a large number of deaths every year. Despite substantial progress in antimicrobial drugs, many infectious diseases remain difficult to treat. Antimicrobial polymers offer a promising antimicrobial strategy for fighting pathogens and have received considerable attention in both academic and industrial research. This mini-review presents the advances made in antimicrobial polymers since 2013. Antimicrobial mechanisms exhibiting either passive or active action and polymer material types containing bound or leaching antimicrobials are introduced. This article also addresses the applications of these antimicrobial polymers in the medical, food, and textile industries.

  16. Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Ole E.; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Bagger-Skjøt, Line; Jensen, Vibeke F.; Rogues, Anne-Marie; Skov, Robert L.; Agersø, Yvonne; Brandt, Christian T.; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Muller, Arno; Hovgaard, Karin; Ajufo, Justin; Bager, Flemming; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Wegener, Henrik C.; Monnet, Dominique L.

    2007-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is an emerging problem worldwide. Awareness of the undesirable consequences of its widespread occurrence has led to the initiation of antimicrobial agent resistance monitoring programs in several countries. In 1995, Denmark was the first country to establish a systematic and continuous monitoring program of antimicrobial drug consumption and antimicrobial agent resistance in animals, food, and humans, the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program (DANMAP). Monitoring of antimicrobial drug resistance and a range of research activities related to DANMAP have contributed to restrictions or bans of use of several antimicrobial agents in food animals in Denmark and other European Union countries. PMID:18217544

  17. Patterns of infections, aetiological agents, and antimicrobial resistance at a tertiary care hospital in northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumburu, Happiness Houka; Sonda, Tolbert; Mmbaga, Blandina Theophil

    2017-01-01

    to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. Furthermore, the bacterial spectrum differs from those often observed in high-income countries. This highlights the imperative of regular generation of data on aetiological agents and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns especially in infectious disease endemic...... settings. The key steps would be to ensure the diagnostic capacity at a sufficient number of sites and implement structures to routinely exchange, compare, analyse and report data. Sentinel sites (hospitals) across the country (and region) should report on a representative subset of bacterial species...

  18. Updating Animal Welfare Thinking: Moving beyond the “Five Freedoms” towards “A Life Worth Living”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Mellor

    2016-03-01

    opportunities for them to engage in behaviours they find rewarding. These behaviours may include environment-focused exploration and food acquisition activities as well as animal-to-animal interactive activities, all of which can generate various forms of comfort, pleasure, interest, confidence and a sense of control. Animal welfare management should aim to reduce the intensity of survival-critical negative affects to tolerable levels that nevertheless still elicit the required behaviours, and should also provide opportunities for animals to behave in ways they find rewarding, noting that poor management of survival-critical affects reduces animals’ motivation to utilize such rewarding opportunities. This biologically more accurate understanding provides support for reviewing the adequacy of provisions in current codes of welfare or practice in order to ensure that animals are given greater opportunities to experience positive welfare states. The purpose is to help animals to have lives worth living, which is not possible when the predominant focus of such codes is on survival-critical measures. Finally, an updated characterisation of animal welfare that incorporates this more accurate understanding is presented.

  19. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobials for textile applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windler, Lena; Height, Murray; Nowack, Bernd

    2013-03-01

    Many antimicrobial technologies are available for textiles. They may be used in many different textile applications to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Due to the biological activity of the antimicrobial compounds, the assessment of the safety of these substances is an ongoing subject of research and regulatory scrutiny. This review aims to give an overview on the main compounds used today for antimicrobial textile functionalization. Based on an evaluation of scientific publications, market data as well as regulatory documents, the potential effects of antimicrobials on the environment and on human health were considered and also life cycle perspectives were taken into account. The characteristics of each compound were summarized according to technical, environmental and human health criteria. Triclosan, silane quaternary ammonium compounds, zinc pyrithione and silver-based compounds are the main antimicrobials used in textiles. The synthetic organic compounds dominate the antimicrobials market on a weight basis. On the technical side the application rates of the antimicrobials used to functionalize a textile product are an important parameter with treatments requiring lower dosage rates offering clear benefits in terms of less active substance required to achieve the functionality. The durability of the antimicrobial treatment has a strong influence on the potential for release and subsequent environmental effects. In terms of environmental criteria, all compounds were rated similarly in effective removal in wastewater treatment processes. The extent of published information about environmental behavior for each compound varies, limiting the possibility for an in-depth comparison of all textile-relevant parameters across the antimicrobials. Nevertheless the comparative evaluation showed that each antimicrobial technology has specific risks and benefits that should be taken into account in evaluating the suitability of different antimicrobial products. The

  20. Antimicrobial resistance of enteric bacteria among ceftiofur treated and non-antimicrobial treated co-mingled pasture beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns have been raised that antimicrobial use in food animal production considerably increases antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Due to their longevity, pasture beef cows are likely to be exposed to different antimicrobials that may create favorable conditions for antimicrobial resistant bact...

  1. Antimicrobial peptides of multicellular organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasloff, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Multicellular organisms live, by and large, harmoniously with microbes. The cornea of the eye of an animal is almost always free of signs of infection. The insect flourishes without lymphocytes or antibodies. A plant seed germinates successfully in the midst of soil microbes. How is this accomplished? Both animals and plants possess potent, broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides, which they use to fend off a wide range of microbes, including bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoa. What sorts of molecules are they? How are they employed by animals in their defence? As our need for new antibiotics becomes more pressing, could we design anti-infective drugs based on the design principles these molecules teach us?

  2. [Heterogenous expression of antimicrobial peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shanshan; Hu, Guobin; Dong, Xianzhi

    2009-12-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), a class of short proteins with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activities, are isolated from a wide variety of animals, both vertebrates and invertebrates, and plants as well as from bacteria and fungi. They are a key component of the innate immune response in most multicellular organisms. Owing to their potent, broad-spectrum antibacterial activities and uneasy developing of drug resistance, these peptides are of great clinical significance. However, preparation of AMPs at a large scale is a severe challenge to the development of the commercial products. Undoubtedly, construction of high-level biological expression systems for the production of AMPs is the key in its clinical application process. Herein, we summarize the progress in researches on heterogenous expression of AMPs in prokaryotic expression systems and eukaryotic expression systems.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance in typhoidal salmonellae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B N Harish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections with Salmonella are an important public health problem worldwide. On a global scale, it has been appraised that Salmonella is responsible for an estimated 3 billion human infections each year. The World Health Organization (WHO has estimated that annually typhoid fever accounts for 21.7 million illnesses (217,000 deaths and paratyphoid fever accounts for 5.4 million of these cases. Infants, children, and adolescents in south-central and South-eastern Asia experience the greatest burden of illness. In cases of enteric fever, including infections with S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A and B, it is often necessary to commence treatment before the results of laboratory sensitivity tests are available. Hence, it is important to be aware of options and possible problems before beginning treatment. Ciprofloxacin has become the first-line drug of choice since the widespread emergence and spread of strains resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim. There is increase in the occurrence of strains resistant to ciprofloxacin. Reports of typhoidal salmonellae with increasing minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and resistance to newer quinolones raise the fear of potential treatment failures and necessitate the need for new, alternative antimicrobials. Extended-spectrum cephalosporins and azithromycin are the options available for the treatment of enteric fever. The emergence of broad spectrum β-lactamases in typhoidal salmonellae constitutes a new challenge. Already there are rare reports of azithromycin resistance in typhoidal salmonellae leading to treatment failure. This review is based on published research from our centre and literature from elsewhere in the world. This brief review tries to summarize the history and recent trends in antimicrobial resistance in typhoidal salmonellae.

  4. Antimicrobial peptides in human sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas eMartin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 100 years ago, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs were identified as an important part of innate immunity. They exist in species from bacteria to mammals and can be isolated in body fluids and on surfaces constitutively or induced by inflammation. Defensins have anti-bacterial effects against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as anti-viral and anti-yeast effects. Human neutrophil peptides (HNP 1-3 and human beta-defensins (HBDs 1-3 are some of the most important defensins in humans. Recent studies have demonstrated higher levels of HNP -1-3 and HBD-2 in sepsis. The bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI attenuates local inflammatory response and decreases systemic toxicity of endotoxins. Moreover, BPI might reflect the severity of organ dysfunction in sepsis. Elevated plasma lactoferrin is detected in patients with organ failure. HNP-1-3, lactoferrin, BPI and heparin-binding protein (HBP are increased in sepsis. Human lactoferrin peptide 1-11 (hLF 1-11 possesses antimicrobial activity and modulates inflammation. The recombinant form of lactoferrin (talactoferrin alpha, TLF has been shown to decrease mortality in critically ill patients. A phase II/III study with TLF in sepsis did not confirm this result. The growing number of multiresistant bacteria is an ongoing problem in sepsis therapy. Furthermore, antibiotics are known to promote the liberation of pro-inflammatory cell components and thus augment the severity of sepsis. Compared to antibiotics, AMPs kill bacteria but also neutralize pathogenic factors such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS. The obstacle to applying naturally occurring AMPs is their high nephro- and neurotoxicity. Therefore, the challenge is to develop peptides to treat septic patients effectively without causing harm. This overview focuses on natural and synthetic AMPs in human and experimental sepsis and their potential to provide significant improvements in the treatment of critically ill with severe

  5. Antimicrobial activity of transition metal acid MoO{sub 3} prevents microbial growth on material surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zollfrank, Cordt, E-mail: cordt.zollfrank@ww.uni-erlangen.de [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Materials Science and Engineering 3-Glass and Ceramics, Martensstr. 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Gutbrod, Kai [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Materials Science and Engineering 3-Glass and Ceramics, Martensstr. 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Wechsler, Peter [LEONI Kabel GmbH, Stieberstrasse 5, D-91154 Roth (Germany); Guggenbichler, Josef Peter [Laboratory for the Development of Healthcare Products, Leitweg 23, A-6345 Koessen (Austria)

    2012-01-01

    Serious infectious complications of patients in healthcare settings are often transmitted by materials and devices colonised by microorganisms (nosocomial infections). Current strategies to generate material surfaces with an antimicrobial activity suffer from the consumption of the antimicrobial agent and emerging multidrug-resistant pathogens amongst others. Consequently, materials surfaces exhibiting a permanent antimicrobial activity without the risk of generating resistant microorganisms are desirable. This publication reports on the extraordinary efficient antimicrobial properties of transition metal acids such as molybdic acid (H{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}), which is based on molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}). The modification of various materials (e.g. polymers, metals) with MoO{sub 3} particles or sol-gel derived coatings showed that the modified materials surfaces were practically free of microorganisms six hours after contamination with infectious agents. The antimicrobial activity is based on the formation of an acidic surface deteriorating cell growth and proliferation. The application of transition metal acids as antimicrobial surface agents is an innovative approach to prevent the dissemination of microorganisms in healthcare units and public environments. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presented modifications of materials surfaces with MoO{sub 3} are non-cytotoxic and decrease biofilm growth and bacteria transmission. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material is insensitive towards emerging resistances of bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong potential to reduce spreading of infectious agents on inanimate surfaces.

  6. Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria from livestock animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmann, Jürgen

    2006-06-01

    Facing the problem of development and spreading of bacterial resistance, preventive strategies are considered the most appropriate means to counteract. The establishment of corresponding management options relies on scientifically defensible efforts to obtain objective data on the prevalence of bacterial resistance in healthy and diseased livestock. Additionally, detailed statistics are needed on the overall amount of antimicrobial agents dispensed in Germany. The collection of valid data on the prevalence of resistance requires representative and cross-sectional studies. The German national antimicrobial resistance monitoring of the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL) determines the current quantitative resistance level of life-stock pathogens, in order to permit the evaluation and surveillance of the distribution of resistances on a valid basis. Essential key features determining the design of these studies comprise (1) a statistically valid sampling program. This incorporates regional differences in animal population density, (2) the avoidance of "copy strains", (3) testing of no more than two bacterial strains belonging to one species per herd, (4) testing only if no antimicrobial therapy preceded sample collection, and (5) the use of standardized methods [e.g. microdilution broth method to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)]. The analysis and interpretation of this data permits reliable identification and definition of epidemiological characteristics of resistance and its development in animal associated bacteria, such as geographically and time wise differentiated profiles on its prevalence, the emergence of unknown phenotypes of resistance and an assessment of the threat resistant bacteria from animals pose for humans. In applied antimicrobial therapy, the data can serve as a decision guidance in choosing the antimicrobial agent most adapted to the prevailing epidemiological situation. The susceptibility testing

  7. Flagellin stimulates protective lung mucosal immunity: role of cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fu-shin; Cornicelli, Matthew D; Kovach, Melissa A; Newstead, Michael W; Zeng, Xianying; Kumar, Ashok; Gao, Nan; Yoon, Sang Gi; Gallo, Richard L; Standiford, Theodore J

    2010-07-15

    TLRs are required for generation of protective lung mucosal immune responses against microbial pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the TLR5 ligand flagellin on stimulation of antibacterial mucosal immunity in a lethal murine Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia model. The intranasal pretreatment of mice with purified P. aeruginosa flagellin induced strong protection against intratracheal P. aeruginosa-induced lethality, which was attributable to markedly improved bacterial clearance, reduced dissemination, and decreased alveolar permeability. The protective effects of flagellin on survival required TLR5 and were observed even in the absence of neutrophils. Flagellin induced strong induction of innate genes, most notably the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide. Finally, flagellin-induced protection was partially abrogated in cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide-deficient mice. Our findings illustrate the profound stimulatory effect of flagellin on lung mucosal innate immunity, a response that might be exploited therapeutically to prevent the development of gram-negative bacterial infection of the respiratory tract.

  8. Multistrain models predict sequential multidrug treatment strategies to result in less antimicrobial resistance than combination treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais; Zachariasen, Camilla; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Combination treatment is increasingly used to fight infections caused by bacteria resistant to two or more antimicrobials. While multiple studies have evaluated treatment strategies to minimize the emergence of resistant strains for single antimicrobial treatment, fewer studies have...... generated by a mathematical model of the competitive growth of multiple strains of Escherichia coli.Results: Simulation studies showed that sequential use of tetracycline and ampicillin reduced the level of double resistance, when compared to the combination treatment. The effect of the cycling frequency...... frequency did not play a role in suppressing the growth of resistant strains, but the specific order of the two antimicrobials did. Predictions made from the study could be used to redesign multidrug treatment strategies not only for intramuscular treatment in pigs, but also for other dosing routes....

  9. N-Halamine-modified antimicrobial polypropylene nonwoven fabrics for use against airborne bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Buket; Cerkez, Idris; Worley, S D; Broughton, R M; Huang, Tung-Shi

    2015-01-28

    Disinfecting, nonbleaching compound 1-chloro-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-4-imidazolidinone (MC) was uniformly coated onto polypropylene melt-blown nonwoven fabrics having basis-weights of 22 and 50 g/m(2) in order to impart antimicrobial properties via a pad-dry technique. The antimicrobial efficacies of the tested fabrics loaded with MC compound were evaluated against bioaerosols of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli O157:H7 utilizing a colony counting method. It was determined that both types of coated fabrics exhibited superior antimicrobial efficacy upon exposure to aerosol generation for 3 h. The effect of the coating on air permeability was found to be minimal. Samples were stable for a 6 month time period when they were stored in darkness. However, when the fabrics were exposed to fluorescent light, partial chlorine loss was observed. The MC-coated fabrics exhibited great potential for use in protective face masks and air filters to combat airborne pathogens.

  10. Environmental Assessment Addressing the 301st Fighter Wing Managed Airspace, Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base, Fort Worth, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Bosque County 317 6 36 22 174 6 7 199 236 22 337 303 254 16 144 108 16 171 6 36 174 171 16 67 190 183 190 281...A-15 Brownwood MOA Brady North MOA Brady High MOA & Brady Low MOA 281 B1 VR1 01 Mason County Bell County Bosque County Brown County Burnet... Bosque County Brown County Comanche County Mineral Wells Weatherford Stephenville Wichita Falls Texas Oklahoma Dallas- Ft. Worth San Antonio Austin

  11. Contingencies of Self-Worth and Psychological Distress in Iranian Patients Seeking Cosmetic Surgery: Integrative Self-Knowledge as Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valikhani, Ahmad; Goodarzi, Mohammad Ali

    2017-08-01

    Although previous studies have shown that people applying for cosmetic surgery experience high-intensity psychological distress, important variables that function as protective factors have rarely been the subject of study in this population. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the role of low and high self-knowledge in experiencing psychological distress and contingencies of self-worth to appearance and approval from others and to identify the mediatory role of the integrative self-knowledge in patients seeking cosmetic surgery. Eighty-eight patients seeking cosmetic surgery were selected and completed the contingencies of self-worth and integrative self-knowledge scales, as well as the depression, anxiety and stress scale. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and path analysis using 5000 bootstrap resampling. The results of MANOVA showed that patients seeking cosmetic surgery with high self-knowledge had lower levels of depression, anxiety and stress compared to patients with low self-knowledge. They also gained lower scores in contingencies of self-worth to appearance and approval from others. The results of path analysis indicated that self-knowledge is a complete mediator in the relationship between contingencies of self-worth to appearance and approval from others and psychological distress. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that self-knowledge as a protective factor plays a major role in relation to the psychological distress experienced by the patients seeking cosmetic surgery. In fact, by increasing self-knowledge among this group of patients, their psychological distress can be decreased. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  12. QR Codes in the Library: Are They Worth the Effort? Analysis of a QR Code Pilot Project

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    The literature is filled with potential uses for Quick Response (QR) codes in the library. Setting, but few library QR code projects have publicized usage statistics. A pilot project carried out in the Eda Kuhn Loeb Music Library of the Harvard College Library sought to determine whether library patrons actually understand and use QR codes. Results and analysis of the pilot project are provided, attempting to answer the question as to whether QR codes are worth the effort for libraries.

  13. Characterization of control rod worths and fuel rod power peaking factors in the university of Utah TRIGA Mark I reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Alroumi Fawaz; Kim Donghoon; Schow Ryan; Jevremovic Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Control rod reactivity (worths) for the three control rods and fuel rod power peaking factors in the University of Utah research reactor (100 kW TRIGA Mark I) are characterized using the AGENT code system and the results described in this paper. These values are compared to the MCNP6 and existing experimental measurements. In addition, the eigenvalue, neutron spatial flux distributions and reaction rates are analyzed and discussed. The AGENT code system is ...

  14. Quantitative and qualitative antimicrobial usage patterns in farrow-to-finish pig herds in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjölund, M; Postma, M; Collineau, L; Lösken, S; Backhans, A; Belloc, C; Emanuelson, U; Beilage, E Groβe; Stärk, K; Dewulf, J

    2016-08-01

    Data on sales of antimicrobials using a standardised methodology have shown that there are vast differences between countries in amounts of antimicrobials sold for food-producing animals, but these data do not provide insight on how sales are distributed by species and age groups. The aim of this study was to compare herd level antimicrobial usage for pigs by age category, antimicrobial class and administration route for farrow-to-finish herds in four EU countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 227 farrow-to-finish pig herds with at least 100 sows and 500 finishing pigs in Belgium (n=47), France (n=60), Germany (n=60) and Sweden (n=60). Detailed information about the antimicrobial consumption for breeding and growing pigs was collected. Antimicrobial usage was quantified as active substance expressed as mg and then converted to treatment incidence (TI) based on Defined Daily Doses Animal per 1000 pig-days at risk. TIs varied between and within countries, herds and age groups. The Swedish herds had the lowest and the German herds the highest overall use. Most treatments were applied to weaned piglets except in the Swedish herds where treatments of suckling piglets were most frequent. Antimicrobials were most often applied through feed or water except in the Swedish herds where parenteral treatments were most frequent. Aminopenicillins was the antimicrobial class most commonly used. Use of third and fourth generation cephalosporins constituted 11% of use for the Belgian herds, which was higher compared to the other countries. There was a significant (pfinish herds of similar size when actual consumption data were compared. Collecting detailed usage data can be used to efficiently target high users in order to reduce antimicrobial consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sex work and three dimensions of self-esteem: self-worth, authenticity and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Cecilia; Smith, Michaela; Jansson, Mikael; Magnus, Samantha; Flagg, Jackson; Maurice, Renay

    2017-05-26

    Sex work is assumed to have a negative effect on self-esteem, nearly exclusively expressed as low self-worth, due to its social unacceptability and despite the diversity of persons, positions and roles within the sex industry. In this study, we asked a heterogeneous sample of 218 Canadian sex workers delivering services in various venues about how their work affected their sense of self. Using thematic analysis based on a three-dimensional conception of self-esteem - self-worth (viewing oneself in a favourable light), authenticity (being one's true self) and self-efficacy (competency) - we shed light on the relationship between involvement in sex work and self-esteem. Findings demonstrate that the relationship between sex work and self-esteem is complex: the majority of participants discussed multiple dimensions of self-esteem and often spoke of how sex work had both positive and negative effects on their sense of self. Social background factors, work location and life events and experiences also had an effect on self-esteem. Future research should take a more complex approach to understanding these issues by considering elements beyond self-worth, such as authenticity and self-efficacy, and examining how sex workers' backgrounds and individual motivations intersect with these three dimensions.

  16. Effect of antimicrobial compounds tylosin and chlortetracycline during batch anaerobic swine manure digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James J; Clay, Sharon A; Zhu, Zhenwei; Wong, Kwok L; Porath, Laura R; Spellman, Garth M

    2009-10-01

    Tylosin and chlortetracycline (CTC) are antimicrobial chemicals that are fed to >45% of the US swine herds at therapeutic and sub-therapeutic dosages to enhance growth rates and treat swine health problems. These compounds are poorly absorbed during digestion so that the bioactive compound or metabolites are excreted. This study investigated the degradation and stabilization of swine manure that contained no additives and compared the observed processes with those of manure containing either tylosin or CTC. The batch anaerobic incubation lasted 216 days. The breakdown of insoluble organic matter through anaerobic hydrolysis reactions was faster for manure containing CTC compared with tylosin or no-antimicrobial treatments. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation, including acetate, butyrate, and propionate, was greater for CTC-containing manure compared to tylosin and no-antimicrobial treatments. The relative abundance of two aceticlastic methanogens, Methanosaetaceae and Methanosarcinaceae spp., were less for CTC manure than manure with no-antimicrobial treatment. In addition, generation of methane and carbon dioxide was inhibited by 27.8% and 28.4%, respectively, due to the presence of CTC. Tylosin effects on manure degradation were limited, however the relative abundance of Methanosarcinaceae spp. was greater than found in the CTC or no-antimicrobial manures. These data suggest that acetate and other C-1 VFA compounds would be effectively utilized during methanogenesis in the presence of tylosin.

  17. Antimicrobial brass coatings prepared on poly(ethylene terephthalate) textile by high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying-Hung, E-mail: tieamo2002@gmail.com; Wu, Guo-Wei; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this work is to prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), which is known to provide high-density plasma, so as to generate a strongly adherent film at a reduced substrate temperature. The results reveal that the brass film grows in a layer-plus-island mode. Independent of their deposition time, the obtained films retain a Cu/Zn elemental composition ratio of 1.86 and exhibit primarily an α copper phase structure. Oxygen plasma pre-treatment for 1 min before coating can significantly increase film adhesion such that the brass-coated fabric of Grade 5 or Grade 4–5 can ultimately be obtained under dry and wet rubbing tests, respectively. However, a deposition time of 1 min suffices to provide effective antimicrobial properties for both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. As a whole, the feasibility of using such advanced HIPIMS coating technique to develop durable antimicrobial textile was demonstrated. - Highlights: • Prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on PET fabric by HIPIMS • Brass-coated fabric with excellent durability, even undergone rubbing and washing tests • Brass-coated fabric provides effective antimicrobial properties for E. coli and S. aureus. • After brass coating, PET fabric still retained its mechanical property.

  18. Polydimethylsiloxane-polymethacrylate block copolymers tethering quaternary ammonium salt groups for antimicrobial coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Xiaoshuai; Li, Yancai; Zhou, Fang; Ren, Lixia; Zhao, Yunhui, E-mail: zhaoyunhui@tju.edu.cn; Yuan, Xiaoyan

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • A series of PDMS-b-QPDMAEMA block copolymers were synthesized via RAFT polymerization. • The composition and morphology of the copolymer films strongly depended on the content of QPDMAEMA. • Migration of QPDMAEMA blocks toward surface was promoted when contacting with water. • Heterogeneous film surfaces with higher N{sup +} content exhibited more obvious antimicrobial activity. - Abstract: Block copolymers PDMS-b-PDMAEMA were synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization involving N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) by using poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) macro-chain transfer agent. And, the tertiary amino groups in PDMAEMA were quaternized with n-octyliodide to provide quaternary ammonium salts (QPDMAEMA). The well-defined copolymers generated composition variation and morphology evolvement on film surfaces, which were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and contact angle measurements. The results indicated that the enrichment of QPDMAEMA brought about lower elemental ratios of Si/N on the film surfaces. The surface morphologies evolved with the variations of QPDMAEMA content, and the variation trend of film roughness was exactly opposite to that of water contact angle hysteresis. With regard to structure-antimicrobial relationships, the copolymer films had more evident antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive, Bacillus subtilis, and the surfaces with heterogeneous morphology and higher N{sup +} content presented better antimicrobial activity. The functionalized copolymers based PDMS and quaternary ammonium salts materials have the potential applications as antimicrobial coatings.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic nontyphoidal Salmonella: an alarming trend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, G B; Schwarz, S

    2016-12-01

    Zoonotic bacteria of the genus Salmonella have acquired various antimicrobial resistance properties over the years. The corresponding resistance genes are commonly located on plasmids, transposons, gene cassettes, or variants of the Salmonella Genomic Islands SGI1 and SGI2. Human infections by nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates mainly result from ingestion of contaminated food. The two predominantly found Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars in the USA and in Europe are S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. Many other nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars have been implicated in foodborne Salmonella outbreaks. Summary reports of the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates over time suggest a moderate to low level of antimicrobial resistance and multidrug-resistance. However, serovar-specific analyses showed in part a steady state, a continuous decline, or a recent increase in resistance to certain antimicrobial agents. Resistance to critically important antimicrobial agents, e.g. third-generation cephalosporins and (fluoro)quinolones is part of many monitoring programmes and the corresponding results confirm that extended-spectrum β-lactamases are still rarely found in nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars, whereas resistance to (fluoro)quinolones is prevalent at variable frequencies among different serovars from humans and animals in different countries. Although it is likely that nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates from animals represent a reservoir for resistance determinants, it is mostly unknown where and when Salmonella isolates acquired resistance properties and which exchange processes have happened since then. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIAL ISOLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkarsha S. Shivsharan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Micro-organisms have tendency to produce antimicrobial substances which show biological activity against other kind of micro-organisms. This phenomenon of bacterial antagonism is observed in lactic acid bacteria with competitive advantages. The lactic acid bacteria are commonly present in many fermented products, fruits and milk products. The variety of antimicrobial substances produced by lactic acid bacteria showing good inhibition capacity include production of lactic acid, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, carbon dioxide, diacetyl and bacteriocin. Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria are the subject of intense research because of their antimicrobial activity against food born bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium botulinum and several others .Bacteriocins may be bacteriostatic or bactericidal with narrow or broad range of activity. The main of the study was to study the antimicrobial activity of such lactic acid bacterial isolates.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of Gymnema sylvestre (Asclepiadaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly C. David

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The dried scale leaves of G. sylvestre might represent a new antimicrobial source with stable, biologically active components that can establish a scientific base for the use in modern medicine.

  2. Effect of Pithecellobium jiringa as antimicrobial agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzilawati Abu Bakar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pithecellobium jiringa is Malay traditional local delicacy. There is no local data on antimicrobial nature of P. jiringa is available. The objective of our study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of P. jiringa. Leaves, pods and seeds of P. jiringa were extracted using methanol. Ten test microorganisms were used in the study. The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the sensitivity of the samples, while the liquid dilution method was used for the determination of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC. Chloramphenicol was used as a reference standard. The results revealed that all extracts of P. jiringa showed the antimicrobial and antifungal activities against the test organisms. Amongst the active extracts, the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC determination showed that the extract of P. jiringa leaf was the most active against S. aureus, S. epidermidis and M. gypsum (100 mg/mL. The results provided evidence that the studied plants extract might be potential sources of new antimicrobial drug.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of some Iranian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of eight plant species which are endemic in Iran. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts of eight Iranian traditional plants, including Hypericum scabrum, Myrtus communis, Pistachia atlantica, Arnebia euchroma, Salvia hydrangea, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis and Kelussia odoratissima, were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans by agar disc diffusion and serial dilution assays. Most of the extracts showed a relatively high antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria and fungi. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those obtained from the essential oils of M. communis and T. daenensis. The MIC values for active extract and essential oil ranged between 0.039 and 10 mg/ml. It can be said that the extract and essential oil of some medicinal plants could be used as natural antimicrobial agents in food preservation. .

  4. Antimicrobial screening of Cichorium intybus seed extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauseef shaikh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants play an important role in the field of natural products and human health care system. Chemical constituents present in the various parts of the plants can resist to parasitic attack by using several defense mechanisms. One such mechanism is the synthesis of antimicrobial compound. Cichorium intybus is one of the important medicinal plants which belong to Asteraceae family. In the present work, antimicrobial screening of C. intybus seed extract was studied by agar well diffusion assay by using aqueous and organic extracts. The pathogenic microorganisms tested include Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. All the seed extracts showed antimicrobial activity against tested microorganisms whereas S. aureus was found to be most sensitive against aqueous extract and had the widest zone of inhibition. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extract were found to be significant against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. The results obtained from antimicrobial screening scientifically support the effectiveness of the medicinal plant.

  5. Identification of antimicrobial properties of cashew, Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: The antimicrobial capabilities of plant extract derived from the leaves of the cashew plant, ... Medicinal plants are of great importance to the health ... Harcourt, Rivers State. .... occidentale should involve refining or purifying and.

  6. The first salamander defensin antimicrobial peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Meng

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides have been widely identified from amphibian skins except salamanders. A novel antimicrobial peptide (CFBD was isolated and characterized from skin secretions of the salamander, Cynops fudingensis. The cDNA encoding CFBD precursor was cloned from the skin cDNA library of C. fudingensis. The precursor was composed of three domains: signal peptide of 17 residues, mature peptide of 41 residues and intervening propeptide of 3 residues. There are six cysteines in the sequence of mature CFBD peptide, which possibly form three disulfide-bridges. CFBD showed antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. This peptide could be classified into family of β-defensin based on its sequence similarity with β-defensins from other vertebrates. Evolution analysis indicated that CFBD was close to fish β-defensin. As far as we know, CFBD is the first β-defensin antimicrobial peptide from salamanders.

  7. Antimicrobial-Coated Granules for Disinfecting Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.; Kliestik, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Methods of preparing antimicrobialcoated granules for disinfecting flowing potable water have been developed. Like the methods reported in the immediately preceding article, these methods involve chemical preparation of substrate surfaces (in this case, the surfaces of granules) to enable attachment of antimicrobial molecules to the surfaces via covalent bonds. A variety of granular materials have been coated with a variety of antimicrobial agents that include antibiotics, bacteriocins, enzymes, bactericides, and fungicides. When employed in packed beds in flowing water, these antimicrobial-coated granules have been proven effective against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Composite beds, consisting of multiple layers containing different granular antimicrobial media, have proven particularly effective against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. These media have also proven effective in enhancing or potentiating the biocidal effects of in-line iodinated resins and of very low levels of dissolved elemental iodine.

  8. Polymyxins resistance: old antimicrobials, last therapeutic options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Girardello

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Polymyxins are polypeptide antimicrobials that act in the cell membranes and promote decrease of the cell wall integrity. These antimicrobials are used in the clinical practice for treatment of the multi-drug resistant Gram negative bacilli infections as the last therapeutic option. The polymyxin resistance involves lipopolysaccharide modifi cations that decrease the affi nity of the antimicrobial with the cell surface. These modifi cations are regulated by two component systems that are active by environmental infl uences as cation presence, pH or polymyxin exposure. The environmental infl uences initiate the action of the genes that develop the polymyxins resistant phenotype. The polymyxins viability maintenance is essential for the treatment for multi-drug resistant bacilli infections, while new therapeutic options are not available.KEYWORDS polimixins antimicrobial resistance

  9. Incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of extended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RACHEL

    2015-06-08

    Jun 8, 2015 ... products is an important public health concern throughout the world (FAO ... and to provide current baseline information on the antimicrobial resistance ..... best of our knowledge, reported from China by Jiang et al. (2012) that ...

  10. postoperative nosocomial infections and antimicrobial resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    CONCLUSIONS: Multiple drug resistance of isolates to antimicrobials was alarmingly high so that any empirical prophylaxis and treatment needs careful selection of effective drugs. To minimize .... Gynaecology and Obstetrics and Internal.

  11. Preliminary Phytochemical, Antimicrobial and Acute Toxicity Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-11

    Oct 11, 2010 ... the use of herbal medicinal products and therapy for the treatment of most .... The freeze dried 70% methanol extract was screened for antimicrobial .... leaves suggests it can be used in natural body cosmetic and scents.

  12. Antimicrobial activities, toxinogenic potential and sensitivity to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-08-27

    Aug 27, 2014 ... spoilage bacteria, yeasts and molds, toxinogenic potential and sensitivity to ... Key words: Bacillus, antimicrobial activities, toxins, antibiotic resistance. .... PCR detection of genes encoding a larvicidal protein (Cry1) in. Bacillus ...

  13. Part 1. Antimicrobial and Immunomodulatory Peptides

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, some peptides have been shown to have mineral ... immunopotentiating and antimicrobial properties including .... that this will give a clarion call to focus on the benefits ..... peptide could also be used in cosmetic, eye-care, oral.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of propolis against Streptococcus mutans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... Key words: Dental caries, antimicrobial activity, Apis mellifera, Streptococcus mutans, ethanol extract of propolis. ... of oral micro- organisms and inhibits cell adhesion as well as water .... A review: J. Peadiatric. Dent. 6: 79-. 83.

  15. Chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of Goniothalamus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AG Siti Humeirah, MA Nor Azah, M Mastura, J Mailina, JA Saiful, H Muhajir, AM Puad ... Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) using CBP-5 capillary column ... antimicrobial properties against gram positive and gram negative bacteria, ...

  16. Facing Antimicrobial Resistance in Gastrointestinal Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Hassing (Robert)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe overall aim of this thesis was to study risk factors and treatment options in gastrointestinal infections, especially in typhoidal Salmonella isolates. Primary research questions: 1. To study risk factors of gastrointestinal infections and antimicrobial resistance 2. What

  17. Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and molecular .... The solid product was filtered, washed with ether (3 × 20 ... dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to obtain 5120 mg/mL ...... catalysts for direct diastereo-and regioselective Mannich.

  18. Fast Neutron Spectrum Potassium Worth for Space Power Reactor Design Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bess, John D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Marshall, Margaret A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Briggs, J. Blair [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tsiboulia, Anatoli [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rozhikhin, Yevgeniy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mihalczo, John T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    graphite reflected (2 inches or less) experiments also using the same set of highly enriched uranium metal parts are evaluated in HEU MET FAST 071. Polyethylene-reflected configurations are evaluated in HEU-MET-FAST-076. A stack of highly enriched metal discs with a thick beryllium top reflector is evaluated in HEU-MET-FAST-069, and two additional highly enriched uranium annuli with beryllium cores are evaluated in HEU-MET-FAST-059. Both detailed and simplified model specifications are provided in this evaluation. Both of these fast neutron spectra assemblies were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments. The calculated eigenvalues for both the detailed and the simple benchmark models are within ~0.26 % of the benchmark values for Configuration 1 (calculations performed using MCNP6 with ENDF/B-VII.1 neutron cross section data), but under-calculate the benchmark values by ~7s because the uncertainty in the benchmark is very small: ~0.0004 (1s); for Configuration 2, the under-calculation is ~0.31 % and ~8s. Comparison of detailed and simple model calculations for the potassium worth measurement and potassium mass coefficient yield results approximately 70 – 80 % lower (~6s to 10s) than the benchmark values for the various nuclear data libraries utilized. Both the potassium worth and mass coefficient are also deemed to be acceptable benchmark experiment measurements.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls in aquatic invertebrates and fish and observations about nitrogen and carbon isotope composition in relation to trophic structure and bioaccumulation patterns, Lake Worth and Meandering Road Creek, Fort Worth, Texas, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moring, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    During 2007-08 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, evaluated the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic invertebrates and fish from one site in the main body of Lake Worth, two sites in a small inlet in Lake Worth (upper and lower Woods Inlet), and one site in Meandering Road Creek in Fort Worth, Texas. The four sites sampled during 2007-08 were located at or near sites where surficial bed-sediment samples had been collected and analyzed for PCBs during previous U.S. Geological Survey studies so that PCB concentrations in aquatic invertebrates and fish and PCB concentrations in surficial bed-sediment samples could be compared. Stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes were used to help assess differences in the amount of these isotopes by species and sampling location. The sum of 15 PCB-congener concentrations was highest for aquatic invertebrates and fish from the upper Woods Inlet site and lowest for the same aquatic invertebrates and fish from Lake Worth site, where PCBs historically had not been detected in lake bed sediment. An increase in the ratio of the heavier nitrogen-15 (15N) isotope to the lighter nitrogen-14 (14N) isotope, referred to as enrichment of 15N, was highest in largemouth bass (representing the highest trophic level sampled) at all sites and lowest for true midge larvae inhabiting surficial bed sediment in the lake (representing the lowest trophic level sampled). Enrichment of 15N was less variable in largemouth bass and other fish from the highest trophic level compared with shorter lived, primary consumer invertebrates from lower trophic levels, such as true midge larvae, mayfly nymphs, and zooplankton. The delta carbon-13 (delta13C) values measured in true midge larvae collected at the Lake Worth and upper and lower Woods Inlet sites were more negative compared with the delta13C values measured for all other taxa, indicating true midge larvae were more depleted of carbon-13 (13C) compared

  20. Bacterial flora and antimicrobial resistance in raw frozen cultured seafood imported to Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Uddin, Gazi M; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Guardabassi, Luca; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2013-03-01

    Intensified aquaculture includes the use of antimicrobials for disease control. In contrast to the situation in livestock, Escherichia coli and enterococci are not part of the normal gastrointestinal flora of fish and shrimp and therefore not suitable indicators of antimicrobial resistance in seafood. In this study, the diversity and phenotypic characteristics of the bacterial flora in raw frozen cultured and wild-caught shrimp and fish were evaluated to identify potential indicators of antimicrobial resistance. The bacterial flora cultured on various agar media at different temperatures yielded total viable counts of 4.0 × 10(4) to 3.0 × 10(5) CFU g(-1). Bacterial diversity was indicated by 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 84 isolates representing different colony types; 24 genera and 51 species were identified. Pseudomonas spp. (23% of isolates), Psychrobacter spp. (17%), Serratia spp. (13%), Exiguobacterium spp. (7%), Staphylococcus spp. (6%), and Micrococcus spp. (6%) dominated. Disk susceptibility testing of 39 bacterial isolates to 11 antimicrobials revealed resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, erythromycin, and third generation cephalosporins. Resistance to third generation cephalosporins was found in Pseudomonas, a genus naturally resistant to most β-lactam antibiotics, and in Staphylococcus hominis. Half of the isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. Results indicate that identification of a single bacterial resistance indicator naturally present in seafood at point of harvest is unlikely. The bacterial flora found likely represents a processing rather than a raw fish flora because of repeated exposure of raw material to water during processing. Methods and appropriate indicators, such as quantitative PCR of resistance genes, are needed to determine how antimicrobials used in aquaculture affect resistance of bacteria in retailed products.

  1. Long-term sodium and chloride surface water exports from the Dallas/Fort Worth region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, M K; Aitkenhead-Peterson, J A

    2011-07-15

    Sodium and chloride in surface water are typically related to urbanization and population density and can have a significant impact on drinking water sources and the subsequent salinity of aquatic ecosystems. While the majority of research has focused on the impact of deicing salts on urban surface waters in colder climates, the effect of urbanization on sodium and chloride concentrations has been found to occur in warmer climates. This study investigated long-term exports of sodium and chloride from watersheds with increasing urbanization in the humid subtropical Dallas-Fort Worth region. We compared exports to characteristics of urbanization: urban land cover, impervious surface area, and calculated contributions from wastewater discharges. Long-term data (1980-2008) were obtained from five USGS gages located in and around the cities. Exports were calculated by regression analysis between concentrations and discharge and normalized for time and the watershed area. Grab samples were collected from June 2009 to May 2010 and sodium and chloride concentrations quantified. Our results show a strong positive relationship between the mean annual sodium and chloride exports from each watershed and the percent urban land cover and impervious surface area. Long-term increases in sodium and chloride fluxes were found for the three watersheds with the highest percentage of urban land cover. The single largest contributor was wastewater effluent that was estimated to contribute approximately half of the total loads in the three urbanized watersheds. Atmospheric deposition and deicing salts accounted for small amounts of the total export for urbanized watersheds. The source of the remaining salt load is still unknown and may be a combination of non-point sources. Estimates of urban salt exports were similar to estimates from northern watersheds affected by deicing salts.

  2. Worthing Physiological Score vs Revised Trauma Score in Outcome Prediction of Trauma patients; a Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhjavan-Shahraki, Babak; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Hajighanbari, Mohammad Javad; Karimi, Parviz; Baikpour, Masoud; Mirzay Razaz, Jalaledin; Yaseri, Mehdi; Shahsavari, Kavous; Mahdizadeh, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Awareness about the outcome of trauma patients in the emergency department (ED) has become a topic of interest. Accordingly, the present study aimed to compare the rapid trauma score (RTS) and worthing physiological scoring system (WPSS) in predicting in-hospital mortality and poor outcome of trauma patients. Methods: In this comparative study trauma patients brought to five EDs in different cities of Iran during the year 2016 were included. After data collection, discriminatory power and calibration of the models were assessed and compared using STATA 11. Results: 2148 patients with the mean age of 39.50±17.27 years were included (75.56% males). The AUC of RTS and WPSS models for prediction of mortality were 0.86 (95% CI: 0.82-0.90) and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.87-0.94), respectively (p=0.006). RTS had a sensitivity of 71.54 (95% CI: 62.59-79.13) and a specificity of 97.38 (95% CI: 96.56-98.01) in prediction of mortality. These measures for the WPSS were 87.80 (95% CI: 80.38-92.78) and 83.45 (95% CI: 81.75-85.04), respectively. The AUC of RTS and WPSS in predicting poor outcome were 0.81 (95% CI: 0.77-0.85) and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.92), respectively (p<0.0001). Conclusion: The findings showed a higher prognostic value for the WPSS model in predicting mortality and severe disabilities in trauma patients compared to the RTS model. Both models had good overall performance in prediction of mortality and poor outcome. PMID:28286838

  3. Variable-density effects on the worth of pressure data for characterizing aquifer permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seonkyoo; Kang, Peter; Williams, John

    2017-04-01

    We investigate variable-density effects on the worth of pressure data for estimating aquifer permeability. In variable-density flow and transport in porous media, the pressure distribution is transient even without changes in boundary conditions because the variable-density gradient itself can induce gravity currents. This means that the transient pressure distribution is implicitly coupled with additional information from the variable-density gradient, and consequently the data can be more informative than in density invariant cases for aquifer characterization. To systematically investigate the informativeness of the transient pressure data, we analyze the performance of permeability characterization employing the pressure data under various levels of variable-density effects. The variable-density effects can be controlled by a mixed convection ratio, which is a ratio between two characteristic convections: free convection due to a density gradient and forced convection due to a hydraulic gradient. A 2D density-dependent flow and transport model is established to simulate a coastal aquifer system where density flow occurs due to density difference between saline seawater and fresh water. An ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) with convariance localization and inflation is used to sequentially estimate heterogeneous aquifer permeability fields by conditioning on real-time pressure head data. The performance of the permeability estimation is analyzed in terms of accuracy of estimated permeability fields, and predictability of arrival times of breakthrough curves in a push-pull setting. The analysis shows that the accuracy and predictability of the inverse estimation can be most improved when the free convection is balanced with the forced convection, which corresponds to the mixed convection ratio being one. This demonstrates that the pressure data is most informative for characterizing aquifer permeability fields when the two characteristic convections are balanced.

  4. 'Acupuncture for antenatal depression: It's worth giving it a go' - A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsby, Simone M; Dahlen, Hannah G; Ee, Carolyn C; Keedle, Hazel; Smith, Caroline A

    2017-09-28

    Treatment strategies for the management of antenatal depression are limited by varied and often modest response rates, unpleasant medication side effects and uncertainty regarding foetal safety. Consequently, many pregnant women experiencing depression seek alternative non-pharmaceutical options. Acupuncture may provide a safe and potentially effective additional treatment, however further investigation is required. In this qualitative study, we explored the views of health professionals regarding the possible incorporation of acupuncture into mainstream care. Two separate focus groups were run with 16 midwives. In-depth interviews were conducted with two maternity service managers and nine doctors (3 obstetricians, 2 psychiatrists and 4 general practitioners). Data was analysed using thematic analysis. Participants were generally positive about acupuncture and open to its possible inclusion in conventional care, on the proviso that it was safe and could be shown to be effective. The overarching theme to emerge was 'acupuncture for antenatal depression: it's worth giving it a go', which participants concluded after considering 'the dilemma of mental health' treatment during the antenatal period and the additional limitations this presented, along with the belief that 'if it doesn't do any harm, I'm not against it'. Practical considerations regarding potential 'barriers' and facilitators' to implementation were additionally explored in 'making it mainstream', whereby the different 'philosophical beliefs' held by participants were seen to influence perspectives. Participants expressed an overall positive attitude towards the possible inclusion of acupuncture into mainstream care for antenatal depression, suggesting various hospital barriers could be overcome with further safety and effectiveness evidence. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Microwave assisted synthesis of novel Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridines, acridine-l,8-diones and polyhydroquinolines bearing the tetrazolo [1,5-a]quinoline moiety and their antimicrobial activity assess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niraj K. Ladani; Divyesh C. Mungra; Manish P. Patel; Ranjan G. Patel

    2011-01-01

    Microwave assisted efficient Hantzsch reaction via four-component coupling reactions of tetrazolo [l,5-a]quinoline-4-carbal-dehyde, dimedone/cyclohexane-l,3-dione, ethyl/methyl acetoacetate and ammonium acetate was described as the preparation of tetrazolo [l,5-a]quinoline based 1,4-dihydropyridines, acridine-l,8-diones and polyhydroquinolines. The process presented here is simple, rapid, environmentally welcoming and high yielding. All the derivatives were subjected to an in vitro antimicrobial screening against a representative panel of bacteria and fungi and results worth further investigations.

  6. Remote Antimicrobial Stewardship in Community Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Zachary H. Wood; Nicolsen, Nicole C.; Nichole Allen; Cook, Paul P.

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship has become standard practice at university medical centers, but the practice is more difficult to implement in remote community hospitals that lack infectious diseases trained practitioners. Starting in 2011, six community hospitals within the Vidant Health system began an antimicrobial stewardship program utilizing pharmacists who reviewed charts remotely from Vidant Medical Center. Pharmacists made recommendations within the electronic medical record (EMR) to strea...

  7. Antimicrobial activity of Tridax procumbens leaf

    OpenAIRE

    S. Santhosh Kumar; John, R.; G.Lakshmi Narayanan

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of the antimicrobial property of Tridax procumbens’s leaf was carried out by the use of chloroform, petroleum ether, ethyl alcohol and hexaneas solvents. Leaf extract of Tridax procumbens obtained by soxhlet extractor, using the above mentioned solvents were examined against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas vulgaris. The antimicrobial activity of Tridax procumbens performed by using agarwell diffusion method showed a result showcasing an effective limit when as ...

  8. Antimicrobials of Bacillus species: mining and engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus sp. have been successfully used to suppress various bacterial and fungal pathogens. Due to the wide availability of whole genome sequence data and the development of genome mining tools, novel antimicrobials are being discovered and updated,;not only bacteriocins, but also NRPs and PKs. A new classification system of known and putative antimicrobial compounds of Bacillus by genome mining is presented in Chapter 2. Importantly, predicting, isolating and screening of Bacillus strains w...

  9. The Scottish approach to enhancing antimicrobial stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathwani, Dilip; Christie, Peter

    2007-08-01

    In 2002, the Scottish Executive produced the Antimicrobial Resistance Strategy and Scottish Action Plan, which highlighted antimicrobial stewardship as a key objective in combating resistance. An important response, as a part of the Ministerial Healthcare Associated Infection Task Force work programme was the publication of 'Antimicrobial Prescribing Policy and Practice in Scotland: recommendations for good antimicrobial practice in acute hospitals' in 2005. This article briefly reviews the core components of the Scottish approach, reviews progress with some key goals and explores how many of these goals are being taken forward through a cohesive Scottish national multifaceted strategy, which incorporates primary and secondary care. Much of this will spring from the current review of the Scottish Action Plan. While recognizing the significant progress achieved by the Appropriate Antimicrobial Prescribing for Tomorrow's Doctors Project Group in the education of undergraduate medical students, the article also reviews the NHS Education Scotland-supported Scottish National Antimicrobial Prescribing Project, aimed at foundation training doctors in Scotland. We hope that this experience can be shared and further developed with colleagues within the United Kingdom and European Union.

  10. The antimicrobial possibilities of green tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda C Reygaert

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is a popular drink, especially in Asian countries, although its popularity continues to spread across the globe. The health benefits of green tea, derived from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant, have been studied for many years. Fairly recently, researchers have begun to look at the possibility of using green tea in antimicrobial therapy, and the potential prevention of infections. The particular properties of catechins found in the tea have shown promise for having antimicrobial effects. There are four main catechins (polyphenols found in green tea: (--epicatechin (EC, (--epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG, (--epigallocatechin (EGC, and (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. Three of these, ECG, EGC, and EGCG have been shown to have antimicrobial effects against a variety of organisms. These catechins have exhibited a variety of antimicrobial mechanisms. The results of studies on the antimicrobial effects of green tea have shown that the potential for preventive and therapeutic purposes is present. Further data collection on studies performed with human consumption during the course of infections, and studies on the occurrence of infections in populations that consume regular amounts of green tea will be necessary to complete the picture of its antimicrobial possibilities.

  11. Friendship predictors of global self-worth and domain-specific self-concepts in university students with and without learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shany, Michal; Wiener, Judith; Assido, Michal

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the association among friendship, global self-worth, and domain-specific self-concepts in 102 university students with and without learning disabilities (LD). Students with LD reported lower global self-worth and academic self-concept than students without LD, and this difference was greater for women. Students with LD also reported that they had more stable friendships than students without LD. Students with LD were more likely to have higher global self-worth and self-perceptions of social acceptance if they had stable friendships and had relationships where they communicated spontaneously and frankly. None of the friendship variables predicted academic self-concept. Thus, having stable and intimate friendships is a protective factor in relation to global self-worth and social self-concept in university students with LD.

  12. Danish integrated antimicrobial in resistance monitoring and research program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Anette Marie; Heuer, Ole Eske; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe

    2007-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is an emerging problem worldwide. Awareness of the undesirable consequences of its widespread occurrence has led to the initiation of antimicrobial agent resistance monitoring programs in several countries. In 1995, Denmark was the first country to establish a s...... activities related to DANMAP have contributed to restrictions or bans of use of several antimicrobial agents in food animals in Denmark and other European Union countries....... a systematic and continuous monitoring program of antimicrobial drug consumption and antimicrobial agent resistance in animals, food, and humans, the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program (DANMAP). Monitoring of antimicrobial drug resistance and a range of research......Resistance to antimicrobial agents is an emerging problem worldwide. Awareness of the undesirable consequences of its widespread occurrence has led to the initiation of antimicrobial agent resistance monitoring programs in several countries. In 1995, Denmark was the first country to establish...

  13. Antimicrobial resistance of ESBLand AmpC-producing Escherichia coli isolated from meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasiński Bernard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 25 Escherichia coli strains isolated from beef, pork, and poultry meat, and producing extendedspectrum β-lactamases (ESBL (18 strains or AmpC- cephalosporinases (7 strains were tested for antimicrobial resistance using the minimum inhibitory concentration method with 16 antimicrobial agents. All examined strains were resistant to ampicillin and the first-generation cephalosporins. Variable resistance to the third-generation cephalosporins (40%-100% among ESBLproducing strains and 0-72% among AmpC-producing strains was noted. Less than 30% of examined strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin. All isolates were susceptible to the fourth-generation cephalosporins, cephalosporins connected with inhibitors of β-lactamases, carbapenems, and gentamycin

  14. Improving antimicrobial prescribing: implementation of an antimicrobial i.v.-to-oral switch policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, A D; Sutherland, R K; Mackintosh, C L

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship programmes reduce the risk of hospital associated infections (HAI) and antimicrobial resistance, and include early intravenous-to-oral switch (IVOS) as a key stewardship measure. We audited the number of patients on intravenous antimicrobials suitable for oral switch, assessed whether prescribing guidelines were followed and reviewed prescribing documentation in three clinical areas in the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, in late 2012. Following this, the first cycle results and local guidelines were presented at a local level and at the hospital grand rounds, posters with recommendations were distributed, joint infection consult and antimicrobial rounds commenced and an alert antimicrobial policy was introduced before re-auditing in early 2013. We demonstrate suboptimal prescribing of intravenous antimicrobials, with 43.9% (43/98) of patients eligible for IVOS at the time of auditing. Only 56.1% (55/98) followed empiric prescribing recommendations. Documentation of antimicrobial prescribing was poor with stop dates recorded in 14.3%, indication on prescription charts in 18.4% and in the notes in 90.8%. The commonest reason for deferring IVOS was deteriorating clinical condition or severe sepsis. Further work to encourage prudent antimicrobial prescribing and earlier consideration of IVOS is required.

  15. Is fear of others linked to an uncertain sense of self? The relevance of self-worth, interpersonal self-concepts, and dysfunctional beliefs to paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Tania M; Mehl, Stephanie; Ziegler, Michael; Kesting, Marie-Luise; Exner, Cornelia; Rief, Winfried

    2010-06-01

    The assumption that a low sense of self-worth can give rise to paranoid delusions is relevant from a therapeutic perspective, but research has been inconsistent. The present study sought to investigate how interpersonal self-concepts and global self-worth relate to psychotic and depressive psychopathology in persons with psychosis. Participants with psychosis (n=83) and healthy controls (n=33) were assessed for global self-worth, interpersonal self-concepts, and dysfunctional beliefs using the Frankfurt Self-Concept Scale and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale. Symptoms were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory, the Paranoia Checklist, and the Beck Depression Inventory. We hypothesized that perceived threat to self-worth, as expressed in dysfunctional acceptance beliefs and negative interpersonal self-concepts, would be uniquely associated with persecutory delusions. In contrast, low global self-worth would be strongly associated with symptoms of depression. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the association between symptoms and self-concepts. As expected, low global self-worth was associated with depression, whereas the more specific perception of not being accepted by relevant others was most clearly related to psychotic symptoms. Almost half of the variance in paranoia scores was explained by negative interpersonal self-concepts and the interaction between negative interpersonal self-concepts and dysfunctional acceptance beliefs. Thus, cognitive interventions for delusions might be improved by focusing more on interpersonal self-concepts.

  16. New approaches to antimicrobial discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kim

    2017-06-15

    The spread of resistant organisms is producing a human health crisis, as we are witnessing the emergence of pathogens resistant to all available antibiotics. An increase in chronic infections presents an additional challenge - these diseases are difficult to treat due to antibiotic-tolerant persister cells. Overmining of soil Actinomycetes ended the golden era of antibiotic discovery in the 60s, and efforts to replace this source by screening synthetic compound libraries was not successful. Bacteria have an efficient permeability barrier, preventing penetration of most synthetic compounds. Empirically establishing rules of penetration for antimicrobials will form the knowledge base to produce libraries tailored to antibiotic discovery, and will revive rational drug design. Two untapped sources of natural products hold the promise of reviving natural product discovery. Most bacterial species, over 99%, are uncultured, and methods to grow these organisms have been developed, and the first promising compounds are in development. Genome sequencing shows that known producers harbor many more operons coding for secondary metabolites than we can account for, providing an additional rich source of antibiotics. Revival of natural product discovery will require high-throughput identification of novel compounds within a large background of known substances. This could be achieved by rapid acquisition of transcription profiles from active extracts that will point to potentially novel compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Effects of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Conventional Antimicrobial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie de Rapper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender essential oil in combination with four commercial antimicrobial agents. Stock solutions of chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nystatin, and fusidic acid were tested in combination with L. angustifolia essential oil. The antimicrobial activities of the combinations were investigated against the Gram-positive bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538 and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27858 and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 was selected to represent the yeasts. The antimicrobial effect was performed using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC microdilution assay. Isobolograms were constructed for varying ratios. The most prominent interaction was noted when L. angustifolia essential oil was combined with chloramphenicol and tested against the pathogen P. aeruginosa (ΣFIC of 0.29. Lavendula angustifolia essential oil was shown in most cases to interact synergistically with conventional antimicrobials when combined in ratios where higher volumes of L. angustifolia essential oil were incorporated into the combination.

  18. Quaternized Chitosan as an Antimicrobial Agent: Antimicrobial Activity, Mechanism of Action and Biomedical Applications in Orthopedics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziwei Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan (CS is a linear polysaccharide with good biodegradability, biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity, which makes it potentially useful for biomedical applications, including an antimicrobial agent either alone or blended with other polymers. However, the poor solubility of CS in most solvents at neutral or high pH substantially limits its use. Quaternary ammonium CS, which was prepared by introducing a quaternary ammonium group on a dissociative hydroxyl group or amino group of the CS, exhibited improved water solubility and stronger antibacterial activity relative to CS over an entire range of pH values; thus, this quaternary modification increases the potential biomedical applications of CS in the field of anti-infection. This review discusses the current findings on the antimicrobial properties of quaternized CS synthesized using different methods and the mechanisms of its antimicrobial actions. The potential antimicrobial applications in the orthopedic field and perspectives regarding future studies in this field are also considered.

  19. Genomic and functional techniques to mine the microbiome for novel antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Oppong, Boahemaa; Gasparrini, Andrew J; Dantas, Gautam

    2017-01-01

    Microbial communities contain diverse bacteria that play important roles in every environment. Advances in sequencing and computational methodologies over the past decades have illuminated the phylogenetic and functional diversity of microbial communities from diverse habitats. Among the activities encoded in microbiomes are the abilities to synthesize and resist small molecules, yielding antimicrobial activity. These functions are of particular interest when viewed in light of the public health emergency posed by the increase in clinical antimicrobial resistance and the dwindling antimicrobial discovery and approval pipeline, and given the intimate ecological and evolutionary relationship between antimicrobial biosynthesis and resistance. Here, we review genomic and functional methods that have been developed for accessing the antimicrobial biosynthesis and resistance capacity of microbiomes and highlight outstanding examples of their applications. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Review of immobilized antimicrobial agents and methods for testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, John-Bruce D; Fulghum, Timothy; Nordhaus, Mark A

    2011-12-01

    Antimicrobial surfaces for food and medical applications have historically involved antimicrobial coatings that elute biocides for effective kill in solution or at surfaces. However, recent efforts have focused on immobilized antimicrobial agents in order to avoid toxicity and the compatibility and reservoir limitations common to elutable agents. This review critically examines the assorted antimicrobial agents reported to have been immobilized, with an emphasis on the interpretation of antimicrobial testing as it pertains to discriminating between eluting and immobilized agents. Immobilization techniques and modes of antimicrobial action are also discussed.