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Sample records for generating spatiotemporal joint

  1. Generating spatiotemporal joint torque patterns from dynamical synchronization of distributed pattern generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Pitti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Pattern generators found in the spinal cords are no more seen as simple rhythmic oscillators for motion control. Indeed, they achieve flexible and dynamical coordination in interaction with the body and the environment dynamics to rise motor synergies. Discovering the mechanisms underlying the control of motor synergies constitute an important research question not only for neuroscience but also for robotics: the motors coordination of high dimensional robotic systems is still a drawback and new control methods based on biological solutions may reduce their overall complexity. We propose to model the flexible combination of motor synergies in embodied systems via partial phase synchronization of distributed chaotic systems; for specific coupling strength, chaotic systems are able to phase synchronize their dynamics to the resonant frequencies of one external force. We take advantage of this property to explore and exploit the intrinsic dynamics of one specified embodied system. In two experiments with bipedal walkers, we show how motor synergies emerge when the controllers phase synchronize to the body’s dynamics, entraining it to its intrinsic behavioral patterns. This stage is characterized by directed information flow from the sensors to the motors exhibiting the optimal situation when the body dynamics drive the controllers (mutual entrainment. Based on our results, we discuss the relevance of our findings for modeling the modular control of distributed pattern generators exhibited in the spinal cords, and for exploring the motor synergies in robots.

  2. Neural Sequence Generation Using Spatiotemporal Patterns of Inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Cannon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Stereotyped sequences of neural activity are thought to underlie reproducible behaviors and cognitive processes ranging from memory recall to arm movement. One of the most prominent theoretical models of neural sequence generation is the synfire chain, in which pulses of synchronized spiking activity propagate robustly along a chain of cells connected by highly redundant feedforward excitation. But recent experimental observations in the avian song production pathway during song generation have shown excitatory activity interacting strongly with the firing patterns of inhibitory neurons, suggesting a process of sequence generation more complex than feedforward excitation. Here we propose a model of sequence generation inspired by these observations in which a pulse travels along a spatially recurrent excitatory chain, passing repeatedly through zones of local feedback inhibition. In this model, synchrony and robust timing are maintained not through redundant excitatory connections, but rather through the interaction between the pulse and the spatiotemporal pattern of inhibition that it creates as it circulates the network. These results suggest that spatially and temporally structured inhibition may play a key role in sequence generation.

  3. Neural Sequence Generation Using Spatiotemporal Patterns of Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Jonathan; Kopell, Nancy; Gardner, Timothy; Markowitz, Jeffrey

    2015-11-01

    Stereotyped sequences of neural activity are thought to underlie reproducible behaviors and cognitive processes ranging from memory recall to arm movement. One of the most prominent theoretical models of neural sequence generation is the synfire chain, in which pulses of synchronized spiking activity propagate robustly along a chain of cells connected by highly redundant feedforward excitation. But recent experimental observations in the avian song production pathway during song generation have shown excitatory activity interacting strongly with the firing patterns of inhibitory neurons, suggesting a process of sequence generation more complex than feedforward excitation. Here we propose a model of sequence generation inspired by these observations in which a pulse travels along a spatially recurrent excitatory chain, passing repeatedly through zones of local feedback inhibition. In this model, synchrony and robust timing are maintained not through redundant excitatory connections, but rather through the interaction between the pulse and the spatiotemporal pattern of inhibition that it creates as it circulates the network. These results suggest that spatially and temporally structured inhibition may play a key role in sequence generation.

  4. Joint level-set and spatio-temporal motion detection for cell segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukari, Fatima; Makrogiannis, Sokratis

    2016-08-10

    Cell segmentation is a critical step for quantification and monitoring of cell cycle progression, cell migration, and growth control to investigate cellular immune response, embryonic development, tumorigenesis, and drug effects on live cells in time-lapse microscopy images. In this study, we propose a joint spatio-temporal diffusion and region-based level-set optimization approach for moving cell segmentation. Moving regions are initially detected in each set of three consecutive sequence images by numerically solving a system of coupled spatio-temporal partial differential equations. In order to standardize intensities of each frame, we apply a histogram transformation approach to match the pixel intensities of each processed frame with an intensity distribution model learned from all frames of the sequence during the training stage. After the spatio-temporal diffusion stage is completed, we compute the edge map by nonparametric density estimation using Parzen kernels. This process is followed by watershed-based segmentation and moving cell detection. We use this result as an initial level-set function to evolve the cell boundaries, refine the delineation, and optimize the final segmentation result. We applied this method to several datasets of fluorescence microscopy images with varying levels of difficulty with respect to cell density, resolution, contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio. We compared the results with those produced by Chan and Vese segmentation, a temporally linked level-set technique, and nonlinear diffusion-based segmentation. We validated all segmentation techniques against reference masks provided by the international Cell Tracking Challenge consortium. The proposed approach delineated cells with an average Dice similarity coefficient of 89 % over a variety of simulated and real fluorescent image sequences. It yielded average improvements of 11 % in segmentation accuracy compared to both strictly spatial and temporally linked Chan

  5. Low-dose 4D cone-beam CT via joint spatiotemporal regularization of tensor framelet and nonlocal total variation

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    Han, Hao; Gao, Hao; Xing, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Excessive radiation exposure is still a major concern in 4D cone-beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) due to its prolonged scanning duration. Radiation dose can be effectively reduced by either under-sampling the x-ray projections or reducing the x-ray flux. However, 4D-CBCT reconstruction under such low-dose protocols is prone to image artifacts and noise. In this work, we propose a novel joint regularization-based iterative reconstruction method for low-dose 4D-CBCT. To tackle the under-sampling problem, we employ spatiotemporal tensor framelet (STF) regularization to take advantage of the spatiotemporal coherence of the patient anatomy in 4D images. To simultaneously suppress the image noise caused by photon starvation, we also incorporate spatiotemporal nonlocal total variation (SNTV) regularization to make use of the nonlocal self-recursiveness of anatomical structures in the spatial and temporal domains. Under the joint STF-SNTV regularization, the proposed iterative reconstruction approach is evaluated first using two digital phantoms and then using physical experiment data in the low-dose context of both under-sampled and noisy projections. Compared with existing approaches via either STF or SNTV regularization alone, the presented hybrid approach achieves improved image quality, and is particularly effective for the reconstruction of low-dose 4D-CBCT data that are not only sparse but noisy.

  6. Spatio-temporal analysis of regional PV generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuño Martinez, Edgar; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) power is growing in importance worldwide and hence needs to be represented in operation and planning of power system. As opposed to traditional generation technologies, it is characterized by exhibiting both a high variability and a significant spatial dependence. This paper...... presents a fundamental analysis of regional solar generation time series, aiming to potentially facilitate large-scale solar integration. It will focus on characterizing the underlying dependence structure at the system level as well as describing both statistical and temporal properties of regional PV...

  7. An algebra for spatio-temporal information generation

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    Pebesma, Edzer; Scheider, Simon; Gräler, Benedikt; Stasch, Christoph; Hinz, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    When we accept the premises of James Frew's laws of metadata (Frew's first law: scientists don't write metadata; Frew's second law: any scientist can be forced to write bad metadata), but also assume that scientists try to maximise the impact of their research findings, can we develop our information infrastructures such that useful metadata is generated automatically? Currently, sharing of data and software to completely reproduce research findings is becoming standard, e.g. in the Journal of Statistical Software [1]. The reproduction (e.g. R) scripts however convey correct syntax, but still limited semantics. We propose [2] a new, platform-neutral way to algebraically describe how data is generated, e.g. by observation, and how data is derived, e.g. by processing observations. It starts with forming functions composed of four reference system types (space, time, quality, entity), which express for instance continuity of objects over time, and continuity of fields over space and time. Data, which is discrete by definition, is generated by evaluating such functions at discrete space and time instances, or by evaluating a convolution (aggregation) over them. Derived data is obtained by inputting data to data derivation functions, which for instance interpolate, estimate, aggregate, or convert fields into objects and vice versa. As opposed to the traditional when, where and what semantics of data sets, our algebra focuses on describing how a data set was generated. We argue that it can be used to discover data sets that were derived from a particular source x, or derived by a particular procedure y. It may also form the basis for inferring meaningfulness of derivation procedures [3]. Current research focuses on automatically generating provenance documentation from R scripts. [1] http://www.jstatsoft.org/ (open access) [2] http://www.meaningfulspatialstatistics.org has the full paper (in review) [3] Stasch, C., S. Scheider, E. Pebesma, W. Kuhn, 2014. Meaningful

  8. Nuclear steam generator tube to tubesheet joint optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, Rod

    1999-01-01

    Industry-wide problems with Stress Corrosion Cracking in the Nuclear Steam Generator tube-to-tubesheet joint have led to costly repairs, plugging, and replacement of entire vessels. To improve corrosion resistance, new and replacement Steam Generator developments typically employ the hydraulic tube expansion process (full depth) to minimize tensile residual stresses and cold work at the critical transition zone between the expanded and unexpanded tube. These variables have undergone detailed study using specialized X-ray diffraction and analytical techniques. Responding to increased demands from Nuclear Steam Generator operators and manufacturers to credit the leak-tightness and strength contributions of the hydraulic expansion, various experimental tasks with complimentary analytical modelling were applied to improve understanding and control of tube to hole contact pressure. With careful consideration to residual stress impact, design for strength/leak tightness optimization addresses: Experimentally determined minimum contact pressure levels necessary to preclude incipient leakage into the tube/hole interface. The degradation of contact pressure at surrounding expansions caused by the sequential expansion process. The transient and permanent contact pressure variation associated with tubesheet hole dilation during Steam Generator operation. An experimental/analytical simulation has been developed to reproduce cyclic Steam Generator operating strains on the tubesheet and expanded joint. Leak tightness and pullout tests were performed during and following simulated Steam Generator operating transients. The overall development has provided a comprehensive understanding of the fabrication and in-service mechanics of hydraulically expanded joints. Based on this, the hydraulic expansion process can be optimized with respect to critical residual stress/cold work and the strength/leakage barrier criteria. (author)

  9. Joint spatiotemporal variability of global sea surface temperatures and global Palmer drought severity index values

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    Apipattanavis, S.; McCabe, G.J.; Rajagopalan, B.; Gangopadhyay, S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominant modes of individual and joint variability in global sea surface temperatures (SST) and global Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) values for the twentieth century are identified through a multivariate frequency domain singular value decomposition. This analysis indicates that a secular trend and variability related to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are the dominant modes of variance shared among the global datasets. For the SST data the secular trend corresponds to a positive trend in Indian Ocean and South Atlantic SSTs, and a negative trend in North Pacific and North Atlantic SSTs. The ENSO reconstruction shows a strong signal in the tropical Pacific, North Pacific, and Indian Ocean regions. For the PDSI data, the secular trend reconstruction shows high amplitudes over central Africa including the Sahel, whereas the regions with strong ENSO amplitudes in PDSI are the southwestern and northwestern United States, South Africa, northeastern Brazil, central Africa, the Indian subcontinent, and Australia. An additional significant frequency, multidecadal variability, is identified for the Northern Hemisphere. This multidecadal frequency appears to be related to the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). The multidecadal frequency is statistically significant in the Northern Hemisphere SST data, but is statistically nonsignificant in the PDSI data.

  10. Assessment on spatiotemporal relationship between rainfall and cloud top temperature from new generation weather satellite imagery

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    Wei, Chiang; Yeh, Hui-Chung; Chen, Yen-Chang

    2017-04-01

    This study addressed the relationship between rainfall and cloud top temperature (CCT) from new generation satellite Himawari-8 imagery at different spatiotemporal scale. This satellite provides higher band, more bits for data format, spatial and temporal resolution compared with previous GMS series. The multi-infrared channels with 10-minute and 1-2 km resolution make it possible for rainfall estimating/forecasting in small/medium watershed. The preliminary result investigated at Chenyulan watershed (443.6 square kilometer) of Central Taiwan in 2016 Typhoon Megi shows the regression coefficient fitted by negative exponential equation of largest rainfall vs. CCT (B8 band) at pixel scale increases as time scales enlarges and reach 0.462 for 120-minute accumulative rainfall; the value (CTT of B15 band) decreases from 0.635 for 10-minute to 0.423 for 120-minute accumulative rainfall at basin-wide scale. More rainfall events for different regime are yet to evaluate to get solid results.

  11. Evaluation of high resolution spatio-temporal precipitation extremes from a stochastic weather generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Christensen, O. B.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Spatio-temporal rainfall is modelled for the North-Eastern part of Zealand (Denmark) using the Spatio-Temporal Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulses model as implemented in the RainSim software. Hourly precipitation series for fitting the model are obtained from a dense network of tipping bucket rain...... gauges in the model area. The spatiotemporal performance of the model with respect to precipitation extremes is evaluated in the points of a 2x2 km regular grid covering the full model area. The model satisfactorily reproduces the extreme behaviour of the observed precipitation with respect to event...... intensity levels and unconditional spatial correlation when evaluated using an event based ranking approach at point scale and an advanced spatiotemporal coupling of extreme events. Prospectively the model can be used as a tool to evaluate the impact of climate change without relying on precipitation output...

  12. Joint sparse learning for 3-D facial expression generation.

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    Song, Mingli; Tao, Dacheng; Sun, Shengpeng; Chen, Chun; Bu, Jiajun

    2013-08-01

    3-D facial expression generation, including synthesis and retargeting, has received intensive attentions in recent years, because it is important to produce realistic 3-D faces with specific expressions in modern film production and computer games. In this paper, we present joint sparse learning (JSL) to learn mapping functions and their respective inverses to model the relationship between the high-dimensional 3-D faces (of different expressions and identities) and their corresponding low-dimensional representations. Based on JSL, we can effectively and efficiently generate various expressions of a 3-D face by either synthesizing or retargeting. Furthermore, JSL is able to restore 3-D faces with holes by learning a mapping function between incomplete and intact data. Experimental results on a wide range of 3-D faces demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach by comparing with representative ones in terms of quality, time cost, and robustness.

  13. Evaluation of high resolution spatio-temporal precipitation extremes from a stochastic weather generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Christensen, O. B.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    gauges in the model area. The spatio-temporal performance of the model with respect to precipitation extremes is evaluated in the points of a 2x2 km regular grid covering the full model area. The model satisfactorily reproduces the extreme behaviour of the observed precipitation with respect to event...... intensity levels and unconditional spatial correlation when evaluated using an event based ranking approach at point scale and an advanced spatio-temporal coupling of extreme events. Prospectively the model can be used as a tool to evaluate the impact of climate change without relying onprecipitation output......Spatio-temporal rainfall is modelled for the North-Eastern part of Zealand (Denmark) using the Spatio-Temporal Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulses model as implemented in the RainSim software. Hourly precipitation series for fitting the model are obtained from a dense network of tipping bucket rain...

  14. Using a weather generator to downscale spatio-temporal precipitation at urban scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Christensen, Ole Bøssing; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    In recent years, urban flooding has occurred in Denmark due to very local extreme precipitation events with very short lifetime. Several of these floods have been among the most severe ever experienced. The current study demonstrates the applicability of the Spatio-Temporal Neyman-Scott Rectangular...... the observed spatio-temporal differences at very fine scale for all measured parameters. For downscaling, perturbation with a climate change signal, precipitation from four different regional climate model simulations has been analysed. The analysed models are two runs from the ENSEMBLES (RACMO...

  15. Spatio-Temporal Constrained Human Trajectory Generation from the PIR Motion Detector Sensor Network Data: A Geometric Algebra Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhaoyuan; Yuan, Linwang; Luo, Wen; Feng, Linyao; Lv, Guonian

    2015-12-30

    Passive infrared (PIR) motion detectors, which can support long-term continuous observation, are widely used for human motion analysis. Extracting all possible trajectories from the PIR sensor networks is important. Because the PIR sensor does not log location and individual information, none of the existing methods can generate all possible human motion trajectories that satisfy various spatio-temporal constraints from the sensor activation log data. In this paper, a geometric algebra (GA)-based approach is developed to generate all possible human trajectories from the PIR sensor network data. Firstly, the representation of the geographical network, sensor activation response sequences and the human motion are represented as algebraic elements using GA. The human motion status of each sensor activation are labeled using the GA-based trajectory tracking. Then, a matrix multiplication approach is developed to dynamically generate the human trajectories according to the sensor activation log and the spatio-temporal constraints. The method is tested with the MERL motion database. Experiments show that our method can flexibly extract the major statistical pattern of the human motion. Compared with direct statistical analysis and tracklet graph method, our method can effectively extract all possible trajectories of the human motion, which makes it more accurate. Our method is also likely to provides a new way to filter other passive sensor log data in sensor networks.

  16. Spatio-Temporal Constrained Human Trajectory Generation from the PIR Motion Detector Sensor Network Data: A Geometric Algebra Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyuan Yu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Passive infrared (PIR motion detectors, which can support long-term continuous observation, are widely used for human motion analysis. Extracting all possible trajectories from the PIR sensor networks is important. Because the PIR sensor does not log location and individual information, none of the existing methods can generate all possible human motion trajectories that satisfy various spatio-temporal constraints from the sensor activation log data. In this paper, a geometric algebra (GA-based approach is developed to generate all possible human trajectories from the PIR sensor network data. Firstly, the representation of the geographical network, sensor activation response sequences and the human motion are represented as algebraic elements using GA. The human motion status of each sensor activation are labeled using the GA-based trajectory tracking. Then, a matrix multiplication approach is developed to dynamically generate the human trajectories according to the sensor activation log and the spatio-temporal constraints. The method is tested with the MERL motion database. Experiments show that our method can flexibly extract the major statistical pattern of the human motion. Compared with direct statistical analysis and tracklet graph method, our method can effectively extract all possible trajectories of the human motion, which makes it more accurate. Our method is also likely to provides a new way to filter other passive sensor log data in sensor networks.

  17. Monte carlo simulation of vesicular release, spatiotemporal distribution of glutamate in synaptic cleft and generation of postsynaptic currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavinovíc, M I

    1999-02-01

    The release of vesicular glutamate, spatiotemporal changes in glutamate concentration in the synaptic cleft and the subsequent generation of fast excitatory postsynaptic currents at a hippocampal synapse were modeled using the Monte Carlo method. It is assumed that glutamate is released from a spherical vesicle through a cylindrical fusion pore into the synaptic cleft and that S-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy -5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors are uniformly distributed postsynaptically. The time course of change in vesicular concentration can be described by a single exponential, but a slow tail is also observed though only following the release of most of the glutamate. The time constant of decay increases with vesicular size and a lower diffusion constant, and is independent of the initial concentration, becoming markedly shorter for wider fusion pores. The cleft concentration at the fusion pore mouth is not negligible compared to vesicular concentration, especially for wider fusion pores. Lateral equilibration of glutamate is rapid, and within approximately 50 micros all AMPA receptors on average see the same concentration of glutamate. Nevertheless the single-channel current and the number of channels estimated from mean-variance plots are unreliable and different when estimated from rise- and decay-current segments. Greater saturation of AMPA receptor channels provides higher but not more accurate estimates. Two factors contribute to the variability of postsynaptic currents and render the mean-variance nonstationary analysis unreliable, even when all receptors see on average the same glutamate concentration. Firstly, the variability of the instantaneous cleft concentration of glutamate, unlike the mean concentration, first rapidly decreases before slowly increasing; the variability is greater for fewer molecules in the cleft and is spatially nonuniform. Secondly, the efficacy with which glutamate produces a response changes with time. Understanding

  18. Spatiotemporal Oscillations in Tokamak Edge Layer and their Generation by Various Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daybelge, U.; Yarim, C., E-mail: daybelge@itu.edu.tr [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey); Nicolai, A. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: Toroidal and poloidal rotations of plasma at the edge region of tokamak devices have long been known to play an important role, such as enhancing the confinement properties by suppressing turbulent behaviour, improving tolerance to error fields and increasing stability to neoclassical tearing modes. Hence, understanding of creation and evolution of rotation is important, since external momentum would not be enough or could not even be realized especially for future large fusion devices. In addition to the externally applied momentum, several mechanisms have been suggested to explain the reasons for spontaneous toroidal rotation of plasmas. For a tokamak edge region as found, for example, within the operational boundaries of the ASDEX upgrade, relevance of the collisional neoclassical theory was recently emphasized. In this regime gyrostresses play a considerable role in modifying the coupled flux surface averaged continuity, energy and momentum equations. Examination of the terms in these equations that are responsible for diffusion or reaction and acting as sources, can show the share of the neoclassical mechanisms to terms like intrinsic rotation, etc. Using similarities of our equations to the nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations with a susceptibility to the Turing instability and applying some robust numerical methods, we present here an approach based on the spatiotemporal simulation of the oscillations in plasma temperature, density, toroidal and poloidal rotation velocities under various perturbative effects. Present study considers a subsonic, collisional plasma in front of the magnetic separatrix. Study indicates a nonlinear, three-time-scales-coupling between the evolutions of the density, temperature and poloidal and toroidal rotation velocities. Numerical solutions of the coupled system for the vector W = [T,N,U{sub {phi}}, U{sub {theta}}] were studied under various given sources such as a periodic pellet injection or loop voltage variation

  19. Joint support schemes for renewable generation and barriers for implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hansen, Lise-Lotte Pade; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    expansion with lower prices that will affect existing conventional producers. Supporting that development will be opposed by producers whereas consumers will support such a strategy. However, the investment will be influenced by decisions of producers and the option of securing connection to other markets...... the 2020 RES targets. The countries might also find themselves competing for investment in a market with limited capital available. In both cases, the cost-efficiency of the renewable support policies will be reduced from a coordinated solution. We suggest possible policy solutions for joint support......EU has opened for using joint support schemes as support for promoting renewable energy to meet the 2020 targets. Countries are supporting renewable investment by many different types of support schemes and with different levels of support. The potential coordination benefits with more efficient...

  20. Spatiotemporal impacts of LULC changes on hydrology from the perspective of runoff generation mechanism using SWAT model with evolving parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Chang, J.; Luo, L.

    2017-12-01

    It is of great importance for water resources management to model the truly hydrological process under changing environment, especially under significant changes of underlying surfaces like the Wei River Bain (WRB) where the subsurface hydrology is highly influenced by human activities, and to systematically investigate the interactions among LULC change, streamflow variation and changes in runoff generation process. Therefore, we proposed the idea of evolving parameters in hydrological model (SWAT) to reflect the changes in physical environment with different LULC conditions. Then with these evolving parameters, the spatiotemporal impacts of LULC changes on streamflow were quantified, and qualitative analysis was conducted to further explore how LULC changes affect the streamflow from the perspective of runoff generation mechanism. Results indicate the following: 1) evolving parameter calibration is not only effective but necessary to ensure the validity of the model when dealing with significant changes in underlying surfaces due to human activities. 2) compared to the baseline period, the streamflow in wet seasons increased in the 1990s but decreased in the 2000s. While at yearly and dry seasonal scales, the streamflow decreased in both two decades; 3) the expansion of cropland is the major contributor to the reduction of surface water component, thus causing the decline in streamflow at yearly and dry seasonal scales. While compared to the 1990s, the expansions of woodland in the middle stream and grassland in the downstream are the main stressors that increased the soil water component, thus leading to the more decline of the streamflow in the 2000s.

  1. Spatiotemporal reconstruction of the Aquilegia rapid radiation through next-generation sequencing of rapidly evolving cpDNA regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fior, Simone; Li, Mingai; Oxelman, Bengt; Viola, Roberto; Hodges, Scott A; Ometto, Lino; Varotto, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Aquilegia is a well-known model system in the field of evolutionary biology, but obtaining a resolved and well-supported phylogenetic reconstruction for the genus has been hindered by its recent and rapid diversification. Here, we applied 454 next-generation sequencing to PCR amplicons of 21 of the most rapidly evolving regions of the plastome to generate c. 24 kb of sequences from each of 84 individuals from throughout the genus. The resulting phylogeny has well-supported resolution of the main lineages of the genus, although recent diversification such as in the European taxa remains unresolved. By producing a chronogram of the whole Ranunculaceae family based on published data, we inferred calibration points for dating the Aquilegia radiation. The genus originated in the upper Miocene c. 6.9 million yr ago (Ma) in Eastern Asia, and diversification occurred c. 4.8 Ma with the split of two main clades, one colonizing North America, and the other Western Eurasia through the mountains of Central Asia. This was followed by a back-to-Asia migration, originating from the European stock using a North Asian route. These results provide the first backbone phylogeny and spatiotemporal reconstruction of the Aquilegia radiation, and constitute a robust framework to address the adaptative nature of speciation within the group. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Spatiotemporal correlations in entangled photons generated by spontaneous parametric down conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, Clara I; Valencia, Alejandra; Torres, Juan P

    2008-01-01

    In most configurations aimed at generating entangled photons based on spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC), the generated pairs of photons are required to be entangled in only one degree of freedom. Any distinguishing information coming from the other degrees of freedom that characterize the photon should be suppressed to avoid correlations with the degree of freedom of interest. However, this suppression is not always possible. Here, we show how the frequency information available affects the purity of the two-photon state in space, revealing a correlation between the frequency and the space degrees of freedom. This correlation should be taken into account to calculate the total amount of entanglement between the photons.

  3. Automated analysis of non-mass-enhancing lesions in breast MRI based on morphological, kinetic, and spatio-temporal moments and joint segmentation-motion compensation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; Shutler, Jamie D.; Lobbes, Marc; Burgeth, Bernhard; Meyer-Bäse, Anke

    2013-12-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) represents an established method for the detection and diagnosis of breast lesions. While mass-like enhancing lesions can be easily categorized according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) MRI lexicon, a majority of diagnostically challenging lesions, the so called non-mass-like enhancing lesions, remain both qualitatively as well as quantitatively difficult to analyze. Thus, the evaluation of kinetic and/or morphological characteristics of non-masses represents a challenging task for an automated analysis and is of crucial importance for advancing current computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems. Compared to the well-characterized mass-enhancing lesions, non-masses have no well-defined and blurred tumor borders and a kinetic behavior that is not easily generalizable and thus discriminative for malignant and benign non-masses. To overcome these difficulties and pave the way for novel CAD systems for non-masses, we will evaluate several kinetic and morphological descriptors separately and a novel technique, the Zernike velocity moments, to capture the joint spatio-temporal behavior of these lesions, and additionally consider the impact of non-rigid motion compensation on a correct diagnosis.

  4. A prototype data assimilation framework for generating spatiotemporally continuous SWOT data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadis, K.; Margulis, S. A.; Li, D.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite will provide critical surface water observations for the hydrologic community. However, production of key SWOT variables, such as river discharge and surface inundation, as well as lake, reservoir, and wetland storage change will be complicated by the discontinuity of the observations in space and time. A methodology that generates products with spatially and temporally continuous fields based on SWOT observables would be highly desirable. Data assimilation provides a mechanism for merging observations from SWOT with model predictions in order to produce estimates of quantities such as river discharge, storage change, and water heights for locations and times when there is no satellite overpass or other constraints (such as layover) render the measurement unusable. We describe here a prototype assimilation system with application to the Upper Mississippi basin, implemented using synthetic SWOT observations. We use a hydrologic model (VIC) coupled with a hydrodynamic model (LISFLOOD-FP) which generates "true" fields of surface water variables. The true fields are then used to generate synthetic SWOT observations using the SWOT Instrument Simulator. We also perform a "first-guess" (or open-loop) simulation with the coupled model using a configuration that contains errors representative of the imperfect knowledge of parameters and input data, including channel topography, bankfull widths and depths, and inflows, to create an ensemble of 20 model trajectories. Subsequently we assimilate the synthetic SWOT observations into the open-loop model results to estimate water surface elevation, discharge, and storage change. Our preliminary results using three data assimilation strategies show that all improve the water surface elevation estimate accuracy by 25% - 35% for a river reach of the upper Mississippi River. Ongoing work is examining whether the improved water surface elevation estimates propagate to improvements

  5. How important is the spatiotemporal structure of a rainfall field when generating a streamflow hydrograph? An investigation using Reverse Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, Ann; Tych, Wlodek; Beven, Keith; Chappell, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Flooding is the most widely occurring natural disaster affecting thousands of lives and businesses worldwide each year, and the size and frequency of flood-events are predicted to increase with climate change. The main input-variable for models used in flood prediction is rainfall. Estimating the rainfall input is often based on a sparse network of raingauges, which may or may not be representative of the salient rainfall characteristics responsible for generating of storm-hydrographs. A method based on Reverse Hydrology (Kretzschmar et al 2014 Environ Modell Softw) has been developed and is being tested using the intensively-instrumented Brue catchment (Southwest England) to explore the spatiotemporal structure of the rainfall-field (using 23 rain gauges over the 135.2 km2 basin). We compare how well the rainfall measured at individual gauges, or averaged over the basin, represent the rainfall inferred from the streamflow signal. How important is it to get the detail of the spatiotemporal rainfall structure right? Rainfall is transformed by catchment processes as it moves to streams, so exact duplication of the structure may not be necessary. 'True' rainfall estimated using 23 gauges / 135.2 km2 is likely to be a good estimate of the overall-catchment-rainfall, however, the integration process 'smears' the rainfall patterns in time, i.e. reduces the number of and lengthens rain-events as they travel across the catchment. This may have little impact on the simulation of stream-hydrographs when events are extensive across the catchment (e.g., frontal rainfall events) but may be significant for high-intensity, localised convective events. The Reverse Hydrology approach uses the streamflow record to infer a rainfall sequence with a lower time-resolution than the original input time-series. The inferred rainfall series is, however, able simulate streamflow as well as the observed, high resolution rainfall (Kretzschmar et al 2015 Hydrol Res). Most gauged catchments in

  6. Selenide isotope generators for the Galileo Mission: SIG hermetic bimetal weld transition joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, W.J.

    1979-08-01

    The successful development of the commercial 6061-T651/Silver/304L explosive clad plate material as a bimetal weld transition joint material, as described herein, satisfies all SIG Galileo design requirements for hermetic weld attachment of stainless steel subassemblies to aluminum alloy generator housing or end cover structures. The application of this type weld transition joint to the hermetic attachment of stainless steel shell connectors is well-developed and tested. Based on on-going life tests of stainless steel receptacle/bimetal ring attachment assemblies and metallurgical characterization studies of this transition joint material, it appears evident that this transition joint material has more than adequate capability to meet the 250 to 300 0 F and 50,000 hr. design life of the SIG/Galileo mission. Its extended life temperture capability may well approach 350 to 400 0 F

  7. Evaluation of stresses generated in steel finger joint of bridge by X-ray stress measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohri, Ami; Kawano, Yutaka; Nishido, Takayuki

    2017-01-01

    In a steel bridge, the evaluation of the stress generated in the finger joint without a gap to absorb temperature change can be an index when evaluating the remaining life. This study chose as the object the finger joint of a diagonal bridge, where the generated stress state is considered to be more complicated, prepared a finger joint test specimen that simulated an actual part, and performed a load test. For judgment, FEM analysis, non-destructive X-ray stress measurement, and measurement of the generated stress using strain gauge were applied. Compared with the FEM analysis results, the difference in the stress value was generated due to the difference in the contact state, but the trends of the stress distribution were equivalent. In addition, the same measurement value as the strain gauge was obtained, and the validity of the X-ray stress measurement method was confirmed. As a result, it was found that the stress measurement method by X-ray is effective for measuring the generated stress including the residual stress of the finger joint without gap at a bridge. (A.O.)

  8. Joint environmental and cost efficiency analysis of electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Eric; Barnum, Darold

    2009-01-01

    Fossil-fuel based electricity generation produces the largest proportion of human-related carbon pollution in the United States. Hence, fuel choices by steam plants are key determinants of the industry's impact on national and global greenhouse gas emissions, and key foci for climate change policy. Yet, little research has been done to examine the economic and environmental tradeoffs among the different types of fuels that are used by these plants. This paper applies a Data Envelopment Analysis procedure that incorporates the materials balance principle to estimate the allocations of coal, gas and oil inputs that minimize carbon emissions and costs. Using EIA 906 and FERC 423 data, the paper estimates cost/carbon tradeoffs facing two sets of plants: those that use coal and gas inputs, and those that use coal, gas and oil inputs. Findings for our three-input sample show that there would be a 79% increase in cost for moving from the cost-efficient point to the carbon efficient point, while there would be a 38% increase in carbon for moving from the carbon efficient point to the cost-efficient point. These conclusions indicate that, in general, the gap between efficient cost and efficient environmental production is wide, and would require substantial policy intervention, technological change or market adjustment before it could be narrowed. However, our examination of individual plants shows that what is true in general is often not true for specific plants. Some plants that are currently less efficient than those on the production frontier could produce the same amount of electricity with less carbon output and less fuel input. Additionally, many plants on the production frontier could improve both cost and carbon efficiency by changing their mixture of fossil-fuel inputs. (author)

  9. The independent effects of speed and propulsive force on joint power generation in walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Michael G; Franz, Jason R

    2017-04-11

    Walking speed is modulated using propulsive forces (F P ) during push-off and both preferred speed and F P decrease with aging. However, even prior to walking slower, reduced F P may be accompanied by potentially unfavorable changes in joint power generation. For example, compared to young adults, older adults exhibit a redistribution of mechanical power generation from the propulsive plantarflexor muscles to more proximal muscles acting across the knee and hip. Here, we used visual biofeedback based on real-time F P measurements to decouple and investigate the interaction between joint-level coordination, whole-body F P , and walking speed. 12 healthy young subjects walked on a dual-belt instrumented treadmill at a range of speeds (0.9-1.3m/s). We immediately calculated the average F P from each speed. Subjects then walked at 1.3m/s while completing a series of biofeedback trials with instructions to match their instantaneous F P to their averaged F P from slower speeds. Walking slower decreased F P and total positive joint work with little effect on relative joint-level contributions. Conversely, subjects walked at a constant speed with reduced F P , not by reducing total positive joint work, but by redistributing the mechanical demands of each step from the plantarflexor muscles during push-off to more proximal leg muscles during single support. Interestingly, these naturally emergent joint- and limb-level biomechanical changes, in the absence of neuromuscular constraints, resemble those due to aging. Our findings provide important reference data to understand the presumably complex interactions between joint power generation, whole-body F P , and walking speed in our aging population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A calculating method of tube-to-tubesheet joints design for steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fuyuan

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical calculating method of the hydraulically expanded tube-to-tubesheet joints design is described. As a mathematical model, the total expanded process of the joints is divided in four stages. with the elastic and plastic theories, the stress, strain and displacement of the tube or tube and tubesheet are analysed by stages, then expansion pressure, deformation, residual stress and push-out force are evaluated. The method may be used to design the steam generators and steel tubular heat exchangers. The paper points out that the hydraulic-expansion plus local roller expansion (hybrid expansion) is better than the only hydraulic-expansion for the tube-to-tubesheet joints of the nuclear steam generators

  11. Assessment of weld joints of steam generator of prototype fast breeder reactor by microfocal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatraman, B.; Saravanan, T.; Jayakumar, T.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Raj, B.

    2004-01-01

    The tube to tubesheet (TTS) welds of steam generator of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) are quite critical. Sodium flows on shell side and water on tube side. Any failure would thus be catastrophic. Apart from defects such as porosities, wall thinning due to concavity is endemic in such joints and needs to be detected. This paper presents the methodologies developed for quantitative evaluation of defects including wall thinning due to concavity in the TTS welds by micro focal radiography. The method has been successfully adopted in the shop floor for the evaluation of TTS welds of steam generator and evaporator. (author)

  12. Magnetostrictive energy generator for harvesting the rotation of human knee joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiping Yan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and fabrication of a rotary-impact magnetostrictive energy generator, used to harvest the rotation of human knee joint. The harvester consists of twelve movable Terfenol-D rods, surrounded by the picked up coils respectively, and alternate permanent magnet (PM array sandwiched in each part of the shell. Rotational electromagnetic power generating effect and impacted magnetostrictive power generating effect are designed in the harvester. Modeling and simulation are used to validate the concept. Then, magnetic field and leakage of the harvester are analyzed, electromagnetic force in the harvester is simulated. A prototype of harvester is fabricated, and subjected to the experimental characterization. It can be concluded that huge induced voltage generated in the short-time impact situation and that induced voltage in the harvester can reach up to 60-80 volts at 0.91Hz low frequency rotation. Also, the presented harvester has good harvesting effects at low frequency human walking and periodic swing crus situation, which are suitable to be used for future researches of wearable knee joint applications.

  13. Magnetostrictive energy generator for harvesting the rotation of human knee joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Baiping; Zhang, Chengming; Li, Liyi

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents the design and fabrication of a rotary-impact magnetostrictive energy generator, used to harvest the rotation of human knee joint. The harvester consists of twelve movable Terfenol-D rods, surrounded by the picked up coils respectively, and alternate permanent magnet (PM) array sandwiched in each part of the shell. Rotational electromagnetic power generating effect and impacted magnetostrictive power generating effect are designed in the harvester. Modeling and simulation are used to validate the concept. Then, magnetic field and leakage of the harvester are analyzed, electromagnetic force in the harvester is simulated. A prototype of harvester is fabricated, and subjected to the experimental characterization. It can be concluded that huge induced voltage generated in the short-time impact situation and that induced voltage in the harvester can reach up to 60-80 volts at 0.91Hz low frequency rotation. Also, the presented harvester has good harvesting effects at low frequency human walking and periodic swing crus situation, which are suitable to be used for future researches of wearable knee joint applications.

  14. Leak behavior of steam generator tube-to-tubesheet joints under creep condition: Experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, Chi Bum; Majumdar, Saurin; Kasza, Ken E.; Shack, William J.

    2013-01-01

    To address concerns regarding excessive leakage from throughwall cracks in steam generator tube-to-tubesheet joints under severe accident conditions, leak rate testing was conducted using tube-to-collar joint specimens. The tube interior and the interface between tube and collar (crevice) were pressurized independently using nitrogen gas. The leak rate through the crevice was almost zero when the specimens were pressurized at ∼500 °C; this low leak rate is attributed to thermal mismatch effects preventing much leakage. The near zero leak rate was maintained until the onset of large leakage at higher temperatures. The leak rate behavior after the onset of the large leakage was not much affected by the crevice length or heat-to-heat variation of Alloy 600 tubes. This suggests that once the crevice gap opens, the creep rate of the low alloy steel collar becomes dominant. Specimens with different tube diameters behaved essentially the same way. To simulate a flawed steam generator tube in the tubesheet, the crevice region was pressurized through a hole in the tube. This simulation resulted in essentially the same behavior as those specimens whose tubes and crevices were pressurized independently. Oxidation of low alloy steel collars in air tests can increase the flow resistance, and thus tests using nitrogen gas would provide more conservative leak rate data. Highlights: ► Leak rates were measured by using tube-to-collar joint specimens under creep condition. ► Leak rate through the joint interface was almost zero at ∼500 °C due to thermal mismatch. ► The near zero leak rate was maintained until the onset of large leakage at ∼680 °C. ► The leak behavior after the onset of the large leakage was not affected by hydraulic expansion length or tube heats.

  15. Property evaluation of Ni base alloy for superconducting generators and its application to seal welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobuhisa Suzuki; Toshiaki Murakami; Kenichi Suzuki; Satoru Asai; Minorou Tanaka; Yoshio Kobayashi

    1992-01-01

    Property requirements demanded on structural materials for rotors of superconducting generators are quite strict while there are many themes in the technical development of such materials. Components used in the cryogenic temperature are of course required to be nonmagnetic material. Additional requirements demanded on cryogenic structural materials for high response excitation superconducting generators can be summarized as follows: (1) 0.2% yield strength > 800 MPa (RT) (2) Charpy absorbed energy > 25 J (4K) (3) Electrical resistivity > 90 μΩ·cm (4K). As a candidate material which satisfy the above property requirements, we can cite precipitation-hardened Ni base alloys, for example, Inconel 718. However, production of Inconel718 is limited to about 2 tons due to problems related to segregation etc., and therefore fabrication of large-sized ingots for manufacturing generator components may be difficult. Also, there may be problems regarding weldability, especially from the viewpoint of microcracking in the heat affected zone, among strength-supporting parts or the parts requiring functional capability such as seal welded joints. Under such background circumstances, we conducted studies on chemical composition by considering producibility of large-sized ingots and weldability of the alloy as well as property evaluations of materials incorporating such requirements. Further, included in this paper are the application of the alloy to seal welded joints and its unified fatigue strength evaluation method

  16. Automatic generation of statistical pose and shape models for articulated joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin Chen; Graham, Jim; Hutchinson, Charles; Muir, Lindsay

    2014-02-01

    Statistical analysis of motion patterns of body joints is potentially useful for detecting and quantifying pathologies. However, building a statistical motion model across different subjects remains a challenging task, especially for a complex joint like the wrist. We present a novel framework for simultaneous registration and segmentation of multiple 3-D (CT or MR) volumes of different subjects at various articulated positions. The framework starts with a pose model generated from 3-D volumes captured at different articulated positions of a single subject (template). This initial pose model is used to register the template volume to image volumes from new subjects. During this process, the Grow-Cut algorithm is used in an iterative refinement of the segmentation of the bone along with the pose parameters. As each new subject is registered and segmented, the pose model is updated, improving the accuracy of successive registrations. We applied the algorithm to CT images of the wrist from 25 subjects, each at five different wrist positions and demonstrated that it performed robustly and accurately. More importantly, the resulting segmentations allowed a statistical pose model of the carpal bones to be generated automatically without interaction. The evaluation results show that our proposed framework achieved accurate registration with an average mean target registration error of 0.34 ±0.27 mm. The automatic segmentation results also show high consistency with the ground truth obtained semi-automatically. Furthermore, we demonstrated the capability of the resulting statistical pose and shape models by using them to generate a measurement tool for scaphoid-lunate dissociation diagnosis, which achieved 90% sensitivity and specificity.

  17. The validity of the first and second generation Microsoft Kinect™ for identifying joint center locations during static postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu; McGorry, Raymond W

    2015-07-01

    The Kinect™ sensor released by Microsoft is a low-cost, portable, and marker-less motion tracking system for the video game industry. Since the first generation Kinect sensor was released in 2010, many studies have been conducted to examine the validity of this sensor when used to measure body movement in different research areas. In 2014, Microsoft released the computer-used second generation Kinect sensor with a better resolution for the depth sensor. However, very few studies have performed a direct comparison between all the Kinect sensor-identified joint center locations and their corresponding motion tracking system-identified counterparts, the result of which may provide some insight into the error of the Kinect-identified segment length, joint angles, as well as the feasibility of adapting inverse dynamics to Kinect-identified joint centers. The purpose of the current study is to first propose a method to align the coordinate system of the Kinect sensor with respect to the global coordinate system of a motion tracking system, and then to examine the accuracy of the Kinect sensor-identified coordinates of joint locations during 8 standing and 8 sitting postures of daily activities. The results indicate the proposed alignment method can effectively align the Kinect sensor with respect to the motion tracking system. The accuracy level of the Kinect-identified joint center location is posture-dependent and joint-dependent. For upright standing posture, the average error across all the participants and all Kinect-identified joint centers is 76 mm and 87 mm for the first and second generation Kinect sensor, respectively. In general, standing postures can be identified with better accuracy than sitting postures, and the identification accuracy of the joints of the upper extremities is better than for the lower extremities. This result may provide some information regarding the feasibility of using the Kinect sensor in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  18. Spatiotemporal optical solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malomed, Boris A; Mihalache, Dumitru; Wise, Frank; Torner, Lluis

    2005-01-01

    In the course of the past several years, a new level of understanding has been achieved about conditions for the existence, stability, and generation of spatiotemporal optical solitons, which are nondiffracting and nondispersing wavepackets propagating in nonlinear optical media. Experimentally, effectively two-dimensional (2D) spatiotemporal solitons that overcome diffraction in one transverse spatial dimension have been created in quadratic nonlinear media. With regard to the theory, fundamentally new features of light pulses that self-trap in one or two transverse spatial dimensions and do not spread out in time, when propagating in various optical media, were thoroughly investigated in models with various nonlinearities. Stable vorticity-carrying spatiotemporal solitons have been predicted too, in media with competing nonlinearities (quadratic-cubic or cubic-quintic). This article offers an up-to-date survey of experimental and theoretical results in this field. Both achievements and outstanding difficulties are reviewed, and open problems are highlighted. Also briefly described are recent predictions for stable 2D and 3D solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates supported by full or low-dimensional optical lattices. (review article)

  19. SPATIO-TEMPORAL CLUSTERING OF MOVEMENT DATA: AN APPLICATION TO TRAJECTORIES GENERATED BY HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. McArdle

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Advances in ubiquitous positioning technologies and their increasing availability in mobile devices has generated large volumes of movement data. Analysing these datasets is challenging. While data mining techniques can be applied to this data, knowledge of the underlying spatial region can assist interpreting the data. We have developed a geovisual analysis tool for studying movement data. In addition to interactive visualisations, the tool has features for analysing movement trajectories, in terms of their spatial and temporal similarity. The focus in this paper is on mouse trajectories of users interacting with web maps. The results obtained from a user trial can be used as a starting point to determine which parts of a mouse trajectory can assist personalisation of spatial web maps.

  20. Heterogeneous flow in multi-layer joint networks and its influence on incipient karst generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Jourde, H.

    2017-12-01

    Various dissolution types (e.g. pipe, stripe and sheet karstic features) have been observed in fractured layered limestones. Yet, due to a large range of structural and hydraulic parameters play a role in the karstification process, the dissolution mechanism, occurring either along fractures or bedding planes, is difficult to quantify. In this study, we use numerical models to investigate the influence of these parameters on the generation of different types of incipient karst. Specifically, we focus on two parameters: the fracture intensity contrast between adjacent layers and the aperture ratio between bedding planes and joints (abed/ajoint). The DFN models were generated using a pseudo-genetic code that considers the stress shadow zone. Flow simulations were performed using a combined finite-volume finite-element simulator under practical boundary conditions. The flow channeling within the fracture networks was characterized by applying a multi-fractal technique. The rock block equivalent permeability (keff) was also calculated to quantify the change in bulk hydraulic properties when changing the selected structural and hydraulic parameters. The flow simulation results show that the abed/ajoint ratio has a first-order control on the heterogeneous distribution of flow in the multi-layer system and on the magnitude of equivalent permeability. When abed/ajoint 0.1, the bedding plane has more control and flow becomes more pervasive and uniform, and the keff is accordingly high. A simple model, accounting for the calculation of the heterogeneous distributions of Damköhler number associated with different aperture ratios, is proposed to predict what type of incipient karst tends to develop under the studied flow conditions.

  1. The integrity of 9Cr-1Mo to stainless steel transition joints in AGR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, D.W.; Neumann, P.; Soo, J.

    1982-01-01

    The metallurgical aspects of the transition joint between 9Cr-1Mo and 316 stainless steel boiler tube sections are reviewed. A large minimum superheat margin (106 0 C) between the dryout zone and the 9Cr-1Mo to stainless steel transition joint was specified in the original design to eliminate the risk of wetting the stainless steel which is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. However, small defects were discovered in the welds between the 9Cr-1Mo and Sanicro (72%Ni-16%Cr-10%Fe) transition piece, resulting from dilution of the weld pool by nickel from the transition piece. This led to the possibility of weld failure as a result of creep crack growth in service, and any significant reduction in operating temperature would mean that the large superheat margin could not be sustained. The creep properties of the joints, together with the transition joint temperature distribution, enabled tube failure rates to be determined as a function of operating temperature. A probabilistic model was developed so that the transition joint could be operated within a temperature 'window', the lower temperature limit being determined by stress corrosion considerations and the upper limit being set by creep rate limitations. This allows full load performance from the boilers throughout the anticipated life of the plant. (author)

  2. Coordinated Volt/Var Control in Distribution Systems with Distributed Generations Based on Joint Active and Reactive Powers Dispatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abouzar Samimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant control schemes in optimal operation of distribution networks is Volt/Var control (VVC. Owing to the radial structure of distribution systems and distribution lines with a small X/R ratio, the active power scheduling affects the VVC issue. A Distribution System Operator (DSO procures its active and reactive power requirements from Distributed Generations (DGs along with the wholesale electricity market. This paper proposes a new operational scheduling method based on a joint day-ahead active/reactive power market at the distribution level. To this end, based on the capability curve, a generic reactive power cost model for DGs is developed. The joint active/reactive power dispatch model presented in this paper motivates DGs to actively participate not only in the energy markets, but also in the VVC scheme through a competitive market. The proposed method which will be performed in an offline manner aims to optimally determine (i the scheduled active and reactive power values of generation units; (ii reactive power values of switched capacitor banks; and (iii tap positions of transformers for the next day. The joint active/reactive power dispatch model for daily VVC is modeled in GAMS and solved with the DICOPT solver. Finally, the plausibility of the proposed scheduling framework is examined on a typical 22-bus distribution test network over a 24-h period.

  3. Flange joint system for SRF cavities utilizing high force spring clamps for low particle generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    None

    2017-09-05

    A flange joint system for SRF cavities. The flange joint system includes a set of high force spring clamps that produce high force on the simple flanges of Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities to squeeze conventional metallic seals. The system establishes the required vacuum and RF-tight seal with minimum particle contamination to the inside of the cavity assembly. The spring clamps are designed to stay within their elastic range while being forced open enough to mount over the flange pair. Upon release, the clamps have enough force to plastically deform metallic seal surfaces and continue to a new equilibrium sprung dimension where the flanges remain held against one another with enough preload such that normal handling will not break the seal.

  4. Hierarchical Bayesian modeling of spatio-temporal patterns of lung cancer incidence risk in Georgia, USA: 2000-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ping; Mu, Lan; Madden, Marguerite; Vena, John E.

    2014-10-01

    Lung cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in both men and women in Georgia, USA. However, the spatio-temporal patterns of lung cancer risk in Georgia have not been fully studied. Hierarchical Bayesian models are used here to explore the spatio-temporal patterns of lung cancer incidence risk by race and gender in Georgia for the period of 2000-2007. With the census tract level as the spatial scale and the 2-year period aggregation as the temporal scale, we compare a total of seven Bayesian spatio-temporal models including two under a separate modeling framework and five under a joint modeling framework. One joint model outperforms others based on the deviance information criterion. Results show that the northwest region of Georgia has consistently high lung cancer incidence risk for all population groups during the study period. In addition, there are inverse relationships between the socioeconomic status and the lung cancer incidence risk among all Georgian population groups, and the relationships in males are stronger than those in females. By mapping more reliable variations in lung cancer incidence risk at a relatively fine spatio-temporal scale for different Georgian population groups, our study aims to better support healthcare performance assessment, etiological hypothesis generation, and health policy making.

  5. Elimination of spiral waves and spatiotemporal chaos by the pulse with a specific spatiotemporal configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Guoyong; Yang Shiping; Wang Guangrui; Chen Shigang

    2008-01-01

    Spiral waves and spatiotemporal chaos are sometimes harmful and should be controlled. In this paper spiral waves and spatiotemporal chaos are successfully eliminated by the pulse with a very specific spatiotemporal configuration. The excited position D of spiral waves or spatiotemporal chaos is first recorded at an arbitrary time (t 0 ). When the system at the domain D enters a recovering state, the external pulse is injected into the domain. If the intensity and the working time of the pulse are appropriate, spiral waves and spatiotemporal chaos can finally be eliminated because counter-directional waves can be generated by the pulse. There are two advantages in the method. One is that the tip can be quickly eliminated together with the body of spiral wave, and the other is that the injected pulse may be weak and the duration can be very short so that the original system is nearly not affected, which is important for practical applications

  6. Ultrasonic Control of welded joints by using specific PC generated AVG diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondon Torriente, S.; Galeano Alvarez, N.J.; Frometas Castillo, T.; Gonzalez Mastrapa, J.J. Unidad Presupuestada Inversionista Para la Construccion de la Central Electronuclear de Juragua, Juragua . Laboratorio de Metales.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes an algoritm easy to be implemented in a modern personnel computer (PC), which can be used to obtain the specific AVG diagrams required during the ultrasonic control of welded joints by the AVG method. The algoritm is illustrated by means of the derivation of some specific diagrams corresponding to given inspection testing. Also some results and standard practices given in recent issues of several international codes are outlined, which can be used in recent issues of several international codes are outlined, which can be used to overcome common problems founded during the practical use of the AVG method with conventional shear wave ultrasonic transducers

  7. Spatiotemporal Wave Patterns: Information Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhail Rabinovich; Lev Tsimring

    2006-01-20

    Pattern formation has traditionally been studied in non-equilibrium physics from the viewpoint of describing the basic structures and their interactions. While this is still an important area of research, the emphasis in the last few years has shifted towards analysis of specific properties of patterns in various complex media. For example, diverse and unexpected phenomena occur in neuro-like media that are characterized by highly non-trivial local dynamics. We carried out an active research program on analysis of spatio-temporal patterns in various physical systems (convection, oscillating fluid layer, soap film), as well as in neuro-like media, with an emphasis on informational aspects of the dynamics. Nonlinear nonequilibrium media and their discrete analogs have a unique ability to represent, memorize, and process the information contained in spatio-temporal patterns. Recent neurophysiological experiments demonstrated a certain universality of spatio-temporal representation of information by neural ensembles. Information processing is also revealed in the spatio-temporal dynamics of cellular patterns in nonequilibrium media. It is extremely important for many applications to study the informational aspects of these dynamics, including the origins and mechanisms of information generation, propagation and storage. Some of our results are: the discovery of self-organization of periodically oscillatory patterns in chaotic heterogeneous media; the analysis of the propagation of the information along a chaotic media as function of the entropy of the signal; the analysis of wave propagation in discrete non-equilibrium media with autocatalytic properties, which simulates the calcium dynamics in cellular membranes. Based on biological experiments we suggest the mechanism by which the spatial sensory information is transferred into the spatio-temporal code in the neural media. We also found a new mechanism of self-pinning in cellular structures and the related phenomenon

  8. On Developments in the Mean Joint Lifetimes of Three- and Four-Generation Families in Western and Eastern Germany – A model Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Grünheid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article tackles the question of how, on the one hand, the high life expectancy and, on the other, the increasing age of mothers at childbirth will impact the joint lifetime of three and four generations and will develop in future. To this end, indicators are derived from the official data on mortality and fertility for the mean joint lifetimes of three- and four-generation families. Because of the complicated data available, the investigation will be restricted to the female succession of generations, and here to an observation of the first-born child in each case. The indicators act as model calculations, which is why they serve above all to indicate (future developments in mean joint lifetimes. The indicators are calculated for the average jointly-spent lifetime of three-generation families for the period from 1990 to 2060, and of four-generation families for the period from 2010 to 2060. The result of the calculations for Western Germany show an increase in the jointly-spent lifetime of three generations of up to roughly 35 years in 2000, after which that the figure falls continually to a value of roughly 30 years. A similarly developing trend emerges for four generations, but this is delayed by roughly 30 years towards the future, and reaches the highest value around 2030 to 2040, at roughly seven to ten years. For Eastern Germany, with its even younger age of women at childbirth in both the past and in the present, the maximum jointly-spent life years of three generations at the beginning of the observation period (roughly around 1990 is almost 40 years, after which this indicator falls continuously. The indicator of the average jointly-spent years of four-generation families, by contrast, probably reaches a maximum around 2020, with a value of 12 to 14 years. Also after this, one may anticipate a reduction in the joint lifetimes of four-generation families in Eastern Germany. All in all, the trends of the indicators denote that one

  9. Optimization of Spatiotemporal Apertures in Channel Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels; Pedersen, Claus; Yin, Xuefeng

    2008-01-01

    a spatiotemporal model which can describe parallel as well as switched sounding systems. The proposed model is applicable for arbitrary layouts of the spatial arrays. To simplify the derivations we investigate the special case of linear spatial arrays. However, the results obtained for linear arrays can......In this paper we investigate the impact of the spatio-temporal aperture of a channel sounding system equipped with antenna arrays at the transmitter and receiver on the accuracy of joint estimation of Doppler frequency and bi-direction. The contribution of this work is three-fold. Firstly, we state...... be generalized to arbitrary arrays. Secondly, we give the necessary and sufficient conditions for a spatio-temporal array to yield the minimum Cramér-Rao lower bound in the single-path case and Bayesian Cramér-Rao Lower Bound in the multipath case. The obtained conditions amount to an orthogonality condition...

  10. The inter-agency joint project decades: a framework for comparatively assessing electricity generation options and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental and health-related impacts of different energy systems are become some the important issues for the years to come. The fact that all fuel chains for the electricity generation system involve some health risks and lead to some environmental impacts and that many countries have the need to define their energy programmes for the coming decades, have arouse a growing interest in the application of improved data, tools and techniques for comparative assessment of different electricity systems, and more specially for theirs environmental and human health aspects. The need to design and implement sustainable strategies in the electricity sector has been stressed in many international fora. The essential goal of sustainable strategies is to provide the energy services required for supporting economic growth and improving quality of life, especially in developing countries, while minimizing the health and environmental impacts of human activities. The inter-agency joint project on data bases and methodologies for comparative assessment of different energy sources for electricity generation (DECADES) has been established with the objective of enhancing capabilities for incorporating health and environmental issues in the comparative assessment of different electricity generation chains and strategies in the process of planning and decision making for the electricity sector. This project is carried out jointly by a number of international organizations. In order to cover the main issues to be addressed for carrying out this comparative assessment the DECADES project focuses on: technology inventory, development of an integrated software package for electricity system analysis and expansion planning, compilation and review of methodologies, analytical models and computerized tools for comparative assessment, some case studies addressing specific national or regional issues. (author). 3 boxes

  11. Simultaneous spatio-temporal focusing for tissue manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Squier J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous spatiotemporal focusing (SSTF is applied to lens tissue and compared directly with standard femtosecond micromachining of the tissue at the same numerical aperture. Third harmonic generation imaging is used for spatio-temporal characterization of the processing conditions obtained with both a standard and SSTF focus.

  12. Joint Polar Satellite System: the United States New Generation Civilian Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandt, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) is the Nation's advanced series of polar-orbiting environmental satellites. JPSS represents significant technological and scientific advancements in observations used for severe weather prediction and environmental monitoring. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) is providing state-of-the art atmospheric, oceanographic, and environmental data, as the first of the JPSS satellites while the second in the series, J-1, is scheduled to launch in October 2017. The JPSS baseline consists of a suite of four instruments: an advanced microwave and infrared sounders which are critical for weather forecasting; a leading-edge visible and infrared imager critical to data sparse areas such as Alaska and needed for environmental assessments such as snow/ice cover, droughts, volcanic ash, forest fires and surface temperature; and an ozone sensor primarily used for global monitoring of ozone and input to weather and climate models. The same suite of instruments that are on JPSS-1 will be on JPSS-2, 3 and 4. The JPSS-2 instruments are well into their assembly and test phases and are scheduled to be completed in 2018. The JPSS-2 spacecraft critical design review (CDR) is scheduled for 2Q 2018 with the launch in 2021. The sensors for the JPSS-3 and 4 spacecraft have been approved to enter into their acquisition phases. JPSS partnership with the US National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) continues to provide a strong foundation for the program's success. JPSS also continues to maintain its important international relationships with European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). JPSS works closely with its user community through the Proving Ground and Risk Reduction (PGRR) Program to identify opportunities to maximize the operational application of current JPSS capabilities. The PGRR Program also helps identify and evaluate the use of JPSS

  13. Spatio-temporal analysis of prodelta dynamics by means of new satellite generation: the case of Po river by Landsat-8 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Ciro; Braga, Federica; Zaggia, Luca; Brando, Vittorio Ernesto; Giardino, Claudia; Bresciani, Mariano; Bassani, Cristiana

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes a procedure to perform spatio-temporal analysis of river plume dispersion in prodelta areas by multi-temporal Landsat-8-derived products for identifying zones sensitive to water discharge and for providing geostatistical patterns of turbidity linked to different meteo-marine forcings. In particular, we characterized the temporal and spatial variability of turbidity and sea surface temperature (SST) in the Po River prodelta (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy) during the period 2013-2016. To perform this analysis, a two-pronged processing methodology was implemented and the resulting outputs were analysed through a series of statistical tools. A pixel-based spatial correlation analysis was carried out by comparing temporal curves of turbidity and SST hypercubes with in situ time series of wind speed and water discharge, providing correlation coefficient maps. A geostatistical analysis was performed to determine the spatial dependency of the turbidity datasets per each satellite image, providing maps of correlation and variograms. The results show a linear correlation between water discharge and turbidity variations in the points more affected by the buoyant plumes and along the southern coast of Po River delta. Better inverse correlation was found between turbidity and SST during floods rather than other periods. The correlation maps of wind speed with turbidity show different spatial patterns depending on local or basin-scale wind effects. Variogram maps identify different spatial anisotropy structures of turbidity in response to ambient conditions (i.e. strong Bora or Scirocco winds, floods). Since the implemented processing methodology is based on open source software and free satellite data, it represents a promising tool for the monitoring of maritime ecosystems and to address water quality analyses and the investigations of sediment dynamics in estuarine and coastal waters.

  14. A stream cipher based on a spatiotemporal chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ping; Li Zhong; Halang, Wolfgang A.; Chen Guanrong

    2007-01-01

    A stream cipher based on a spatiotemporal chaotic system is proposed. A one-way coupled map lattice consisting of logistic maps is served as the spatiotemporal chaotic system. Multiple keystreams are generated from the coupled map lattice by using simple algebraic computations, and then are used to encrypt plaintext via bitwise XOR. These make the cipher rather simple and efficient. Numerical investigation shows that the cryptographic properties of the generated keystream are satisfactory. The cipher seems to have higher security, higher efficiency and lower computation expense than the stream cipher based on a spatiotemporal chaotic system proposed recently

  15. A Study on Tooling and Its Effect on Heat Generation and Mechanical Properties of Welded Joints in Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikader, Sujoy; Biswas, Pankaj; Puri, Asit Baran

    2018-04-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) has been the most attracting solid state welding process as it serves numerous advantages like good mechanical, metallurgical properties etc. Non weldable aluminium alloys like 5XXX, 7XXX series can be simply joined by this process. In this present study a mathematical model has been developed and experiments were successfully performed to evaluate mechanical properties of FSW on similar aluminium alloys i.e. AA1100 for different process parameters and mainly two kind of tool geometry (straight cylindrical and conical or cylindrical tapered shaped pin with flat shoulder). Tensile strength and micro hardness for different process parameters are reported of the welded plate sample. It was noticed that in FSW of similar alloy with tool made of SS-310 tool steel, friction is the major contributor for the heat generation. It was seen that tool geometry, tool rotational speed, plunging force by the tool and traverse speed have significant effect on tensile strength and hardness of friction stir welded joints.

  16. Indeterminacy and Spatiotemporal Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfoser, D.; Tryfona, N.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2005-01-01

    For some spatiotemporal applications, it can be assumed that the modeled world is precise and bounded, and that our record of it is precise. While these simplifying assumptions are sufficient in applications like a land information system, they are unnecessarily crude for many other applications...

  17. Achievement reports on joint research of solar energy power generation field test project in fiscal 1997. Part 2 of 3; 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho 2/3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    This report is a collection of 26 achievement reports on joint research of a solar energy power generation field test project. The major contents of the achievement reports relate to the solar energy power generation field test project (summarized as manufacture and installation of solar energy power generation systems, summary of solar energy power generation facilities, peripheral devices, and daily schedule of the construction). The reports describe achievements of the joint research (names and achievements of the joint research, study presentation, lectures, literatures, status of patents, similar research in and cooperation with other research institutions), generalization of the research, and future problems. Locations of the joint research carried out are libraries, kindergartens, health and welfare centers, children's culture centers, general traffic centers, primary and middle schools, river water purifying facilities, credit banks, manufactories, retail shops at car parking areas, office buildings, hospitals, joint prefectural office buildings, municipal health centers, and prefectural general power generation control stations. (NEDO)

  18. Spatio-Temporal Rule Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in communication and information technology, such as the increasing accuracy of GPS technology and the miniaturization of wireless communication devices pave the road for Location-Based Services (LBS). To achieve high quality for such services, spatio-temporal data mining techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe experiences with spatio-temporal rule mining in a Danish data mining company. First, a number of real world spatio-temporal data sets are described, leading to a taxonomy of spatio-temporal data. Second, the paper describes a general methodology that transforms...... the spatio-temporal rule mining task to the traditional market basket analysis task and applies it to the described data sets, enabling traditional association rule mining methods to discover spatio-temporal rules for LBS. Finally, unique issues in spatio-temporal rule mining are identified and discussed....

  19. Integrity assessment of the ferritic / austenitic dissimilar weld joint between intermediate heat exchanger and steam generator in fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakumar, T.; Laha, K.; Chandravathi, K. S.; Parameswaran, P.; Goyal, S.; Kumar, J. G.; Mathew, M. D. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam- 603 102 (India)

    2012-07-01

    Integrity of the modified 9Cr-1Mo / alloy 800 dissimilar joint welded with Inconel 182 electrodes has been assessed under creep condition based on the detailed analysis of microstructure and stress distribution across the joint by finite element analysis. A hardness peak at the ferritic / austenitic weld interface and a hardness trough at the inter-critical heat affected zone (HAZ) in ferritic base metal developed. Un-tempered martensite was found at the ferritic / austenitic weld interface to impart high hardness in it; whereas annealing of martensitic structure of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel by inter-critical heating during welding thermal cycle resulted in hardness tough in the inter-critical HAZ. Creep tests were carried out on the joint and ferritic steel base metal at 823 K over a stress range of 160-320 MPa. The joint possessed lower creep rupture strength than its ferritic steel base metal. Failure of the joint at relatively lower stresses occurred at the ferritic / austenitic weld interface; whereas it occurred at inter-critical region of HAZ at moderate stresses. Cavity nucleation associated with the weld interface particles led to premature failure of the joint. Finite element analysis of stress distribution across the weld joint considering the micro-mechanical strength inhomogeneity across it revealed higher von-Mises and principal stresses at the weld interface. These stresses induced preferential creep cavitation at the weld interface. Role of precipitate in enhancing creep cavitation at the weld interface has been elucidated based on the FE analysis of stress distribution across it. (authors)

  20. Leak behaviors of steam generator tube-to-tubesheet joints from room temperature to 320 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, Chi Bum; Majumdar, Saurin; Kasza, Ken E.; Shack, William J.

    2013-01-01

    To address concerns about excessive leakage from throughwall cracks in nuclear reactor tube-to-tubesheet joints under accident conditions, leak rates were measured experimentally by using tube-to-collar joint specimens and nitrogen gas. Rates were dependent on differential pressure between the tube internal surface and the crevice (i.e., the tube-to-collar interface region) and on temperature. As specimen temperature was raised to 320 °C, leak rates decreased gradually due to changes in gas properties and to differential thermal expansion between the Alloy 600 tubes and the SA508 collars. The leak rates did not change even after repeated temperature excursions to 320 °C, suggesting that thermally induced creep and subsequent contact pressure relaxation is negligible below that temperature. When considering factors that could increase flow resistance, such as oxidation, or debris on top of the tubesheet, the measured leak rates in this work are considered to be conservative. The test results were further used to validate the contact pressure calculation and a leak rate model. Highlights: ► Leak rates were measured by using tube-to-collar joint specimens. ► Leak rates were dependent on differential pressure between tube internal and joint interface. ► Leak rates decreased gradually as specimen temperature was raided to 320 °C. ► Differential thermal expansion between Alloy 600 tube and SA508 collar plays a major role on the leak behavior.

  1. Spatiotemporal Modeling of Community Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Ertugay, and Sebnem Duzgun, “Exploratory and Inferential Methods for Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Residential Fire Clustering in Urban Areas,” Fire ...response in communities.”26 In “Exploratory and Inferential Methods for Spatio-temporal Analysis of Residential Fire Clustering in Urban Areas,” Ceyhan...of fire resources spread across the community. Spatiotemporal modeling shows that actualized risk is dynamic and relatively patterned. Though

  2. Improved kinect-based spatiotemporal and kinematic treadmill gait assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltoukhy, Moataz; Oh, Jeonghoon; Kuenze, Christopher; Signorile, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    A cost-effective, clinician friendly gait assessment tool that can automatically track patients' anatomical landmarks can provide practitioners with important information that is useful in prescribing rehabilitative and preventive therapies. This study investigated the validity and reliability of the Microsoft Kinect v2 as a potential inexpensive gait analysis tool. Ten healthy subjects walked on a treadmill at 1.3 and 1.6m·s -1 , as spatiotemporal parameters and kinematics were extracted concurrently using the Kinect and three-dimensional motion analysis. Spatiotemporal measures included step length and width, step and stride times, vertical and mediolateral pelvis motion, and foot swing velocity. Kinematic outcomes included hip, knee, and ankle joint angles in the sagittal plane. The absolute agreement and relative consistency between the two systems were assessed using interclass correlations coefficients (ICC2,1), while reproducibility between systems was established using Lin's Concordance Correlation Coefficient (rc). Comparison of ensemble curves and associated 90% confidence intervals (CI90) of the hip, knee, and ankle joint angles were performed to investigate if the Kinect sensor could consistently and accurately assess lower extremity joint motion throughout the gait cycle. Results showed that the Kinect v2 sensor has the potential to be an effective clinical assessment tool for sagittal plane knee and hip joint kinematics, as well as some spatiotemporal temporal variables including pelvis displacement and step characteristics during the gait cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Managing Joint Production Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2011-01-01

    We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared...... representations of actions and tasks; cognitively coordinate cooperation; and choose their own behaviors in terms of joint goals. Using goal-framing theory, we explain how motivation for joint production can be managed by cognitive/symbolic management and organizational design....

  4. A joint model of mode and shipment size choice using the first generation of Commodity Flow Survey Public Use Microdata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Stinson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A behavior-based supply chain and freight transportation model was developed and implemented for the Maricopa Association of Governments (MAG and Pima Association of Governments (PAG. This innovative, data-driven modeling system simulates commodity flows to, from and within Phoenix and Tucson Megaregion and is used for regional planning purposes. This paper details the logistics choice component of the system and describes the position and functioning of this component in the overall framework. The logistics choice model uses a nested logit formulation to evaluate mode choice and shipment size jointly. Modeling decisions related to integrating this component within the overall framework are discussed. This paper also describes practical insights gained from using the 2012 Commodity Flow Survey Public Use Microdata (released in 2015, which was the principal data source used to estimate the joint shipment size-mode choice nested logit model. Finally, the validation effort and related lessons learned are described.

  5. Energy prediction using spatiotemporal pattern networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Zhanhong; Liu, Chao; Akintayo, Adedotun; Henze, Gregor P.; Sarkar, Soumik

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a novel data-driven technique based on the spatiotemporal pattern network (STPN) for energy/power prediction for complex dynamical systems. Built on symbolic dynamical filtering, the STPN framework is used to capture not only the individual system characteristics but also the pair-wise causal dependencies among different sub-systems. To quantify causal dependencies, a mutual information based metric is presented and an energy prediction approach is subsequently proposed based on the STPN framework. To validate the proposed scheme, two case studies are presented, one involving wind turbine power prediction (supply side energy) using the Western Wind Integration data set generated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for identifying spatiotemporal characteristics, and the other, residential electric energy disaggregation (demand side energy) using the Building America 2010 data set from NREL for exploring temporal features. In the energy disaggregation context, convex programming techniques beyond the STPN framework are developed and applied to achieve improved disaggregation performance.

  6. Spatiotemporal Scaling Effect on Rainfall Network Design Using Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Wei

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Because of high variation in mountainous areas, rainfall data at different spatiotemporal scales may yield potential uncertainty for network design. However, few studies focus on the scaling effect on both the spatial and the temporal scale. By calculating the maximum joint entropy of hourly typhoon events, monthly, six dry and wet months and annual rainfall between 1992 and 2012 for 1-, 3-, and 5-km grids, the relocated candidate rain gauges in the National Taiwan University Experimental Forest of Central Taiwan are prioritized. The results show: (1 the network exhibits different locations for first prioritized candidate rain gauges for different spatiotemporal scales; (2 the effect of spatial scales is insignificant compared to temporal scales; and (3 a smaller number and a lower percentage of required stations (PRS reach stable joint entropy for a long duration at finer spatial scale. Prioritized candidate rain gauges provide key reference points for adjusting the network to capture more accurate information and minimize redundancy.

  7. Joint imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hengst, W.

    1984-01-01

    Joint imaging is a proven diagnostic procedure which has become indispensable to the detection and treatment of different joint diseases in almost all disciplines. The method is suited for early diagnosis of joint affections both in soft tissue and bone which cannot be detected by X-ray or other procedures. The local activity accumulation depends on the rate of metabolism and is visualized in the scan, which in turn enables the extension and floridity of focal lesions to be evaluated and followed-up. Although joint scans may often give hints to probabilities relevant to differential diagnosis, the method is non-specific and only useful if based on the underlying clinical picture and X-ray finding, if possible. The radiation exposure is very low and does not represent a hazard in cases of adequate assessment of indication. In pregnant women and children the assessment of indication has to be based on very strict principles. The method is suited for out-patient diagnosis and can be applied in all installations equipped with a gamma camera and a technetium generator. (orig.) [de

  8. Cryptanalysis of a spatiotemporal chaotic cryptosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhouma, Rhouma; Belghith, Safya

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes three different attacks on a recently proposed chaotic cryptosystem in [Li P, Li Z, Halang WA, Chen G. A stream cipher based on a spatiotemporal chaotic system. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2007;32:1867-76]. The cryptosystem under study displays weakness in the generation of the keystream. The encryption is made by generating a keystream mixed with blocks generated from the plaintext. The so obtained keystream remains unchanged for every encryption procedure. Moreover, its generation does neither depend on the plaintext nor on the ciphertext, that's to say, the keystream remains unchangeable for every plaintext with the same length. Guessing the keystream leads to guessing the key. This paper presents three possible attacks able to break the whole cryptosystem based on this drawback in generating the keystream.

  9. Spatio-temporal data analytics for wind energy integration

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents spatio-temporal data analytics for wind energy integration using stochastic modeling and optimization methods. It explores techniques for efficiently integrating renewable energy generation into bulk power grids. The operational challenges of wind, and its variability are carefully examined. A spatio-temporal analysis approach enables the authors to develop Markov-chain-based short-term forecasts of wind farm power generation. To deal with the wind ramp dynamics, a support vector machine enhanced Markov model is introduced. The stochastic optimization of economic di

  10. A flexible spatiotemporal method for fusing satellite images with different resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaolin Zhu; Eileen H. Helmer; Feng Gao; Desheng Liu; Jin Chen; Michael A. Lefsky

    2016-01-01

    Studies of land surface dynamics in heterogeneous landscapes often require remote sensing datawith high acquisition frequency and high spatial resolution. However, no single sensor meets this requirement. This study presents a new spatiotemporal data fusion method, the Flexible Spatiotemporal DAta Fusion (FSDAF) method, to generate synthesized frequent high spatial...

  11. Subsidized project for development of technology in putting photovoltaic power generation system into practice. Report of international joint demonstrative R and D on photovoltaic power generation system; Taiyoko hatsuden system kokusai kyodo jissho kaihatsu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The following joint researches are in progress utilizing natural conditions and social systems in Nepal, Mongolia, Thailand, Malaysia and Vietnam for the purpose of enhancing environmental adaptability, reliability, etc., of technologies. (1) Nepal; accelerated demonstrative research utilizing highland conditions, (2) Mongolia; demonstrative research of movable type photovoltaic power generation system, (3) Thailand; demonstrative research of photovoltaic generation system for battery-charging stations, (4) Malaysia; accelerated demonstrative research utilizing tropical conditions, and (5) Vietnam; demonstrative research of hybrid system on photovoltaic power generation and micro hydro power generation. The research assets of (1) and (3) whose researches have been finished were provided gratis for the co-researcher countries. In (5), on the basis of the geographical conditions such as annual average quantity of solar radiation, conduit for water-turbine, energy complementing relation, load demand, and degree of installation difficulty, Trang Village in Vietnam was selected, with a system decided on PV:100 kW/MH:25 kW/control system. The MH is an induction generator. The primary pieces of equipment are a generator, a storage battery, an inverter and a system control panel. (NEDO)

  12. Spatiotemporal Data Organization and Application Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C.; Yan, S.

    2017-09-01

    Organization and management of spatiotemporal data is a key support technology for intelligence in all fields of the smart city. The construction of a smart city cannot be realized without spatiotemporal data. Oriented to support intelligent applications this paper proposes an organizational model for spatiotemporal data, and details the construction of a spatiotemporal big data calculation, analysis, and service framework for highly efficient management and intelligent application of spatiotemporal data for the entire data life cycle.

  13. Spatiotemporal chaos from bursting dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berenstein, Igal; De Decker, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the emergence of spatiotemporal chaos from mixed-mode oscillations, by using an extended Oregonator model. We show that bursting dynamics consisting of fast/slow mixed mode oscillations along a single attractor can lead to spatiotemporal chaotic dynamics, although the spatially homogeneous solution is itself non-chaotic. This behavior is observed far from the Hopf bifurcation and takes the form of a spatiotemporal intermittency where the system locally alternates between the fast and the slow phases of the mixed mode oscillations. We expect this form of spatiotemporal chaos to be generic for models in which one or several slow variables are coupled to activator-inhibitor type of oscillators

  14. Properties of thick welded joints on superheater collectors made from new generation high alloy martensitic creep-resisting steels for supercritical parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrzanski, Janusz; Zielinski, Adam [Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, Gliwice (Poland); Pasternak, Jerzy [Boiler Engineering Company RAFAKO S.A., Raciborz (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The continuously developing power generation sector, including boilers with supercritical parameters, requires applications of new creep-resistant steel grades for construction of boilers steam superheater components. This paper presents selected information, experience within the field of research and implementation of a new group of creep-resistant as X10CrMoVNb9-1(P91), X10CrWMoVNb9-2(P92) and X12CrCoWVNb12-2-2(VM12) grades, containing 9-12%Cr. During welding and examination process the results of mechanical properties, requested level for base material and welded joints, as well as: tensile strength, impact strength and technological properties have been evaluated. Additional destructive examinations, with evaluation of structure stability, hardness distribution, for base material and welded joints after welding, heat treatment, again process have been determined. Recommendations due to the implementation influence of operating parameters of the main boiler components are part of this paper. (orig.)

  15. Sporting Activity Is Reduced 11 Years After First-Generation Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation in the Knee Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdle, Benjamin; Herrmann, Simon; Porichis, Stella; Uhl, Markus; Ghanem, Nadir; Schmal, Hagen; Suedkamp, Norbert; Niemeyer, Philipp; Salzmann, Gian M

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about long-term sporting activity after periosteal autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI-P) and its correlation to clinical, morphological, and ultrastructural cartilage characteristics on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To evaluate long-term sporting activity after ACI-P and to correlate with clinical and MRI findings. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Patients who underwent ACI-P for isolated cartilage defects of the knee joint between 1997 and 2001 were analyzed for sporting ability for 3 different time points: lifetime until the onset of pain, the year before ACI-P, and 11 years (range, 9.0-13.4 years) postoperatively. Sporting activity was assessed and patients' level of activity scaled using standardized questionnaires. MRI scans of the affected knee joint at follow-up were analyzed using the MOCART (magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue) score and T2 mapping. Seventy of 86 patients (81% follow-up rate) consisting of 25 female and 45 male patients, with a mean age of 33.3 ± 10.2 years at the time of surgery, mean defect size of 6.5 ± 4.0 cm 2 , and 1.17 treated defects per patient, agreed to participate in the study at a mean 10.9 ± 1.1 years after ACI-P. Fifty-nine patients (69% of total; 84% of follow-up) agreed to MRI, allowing the complete evaluation of 71 transplant sites. Before the onset of symptoms (lifetime), 95.7% of patients played a mean 6.0 sporting activities at a competitive level. In the year before ACI-P, 81.4% of patients played a mean 3.4 sporting activities in 2.4 sessions during 5.4 hours per week at a recreational level. At follow-up, 82.9% of the patients played a mean 3.0 sporting activities in 1.8 sessions during 3.0 hours per week at a recreational level. In contrast to objective factors, 65.6% of the patients felt that their subjective sporting ability had improved or strongly improved after ACI-P, whereas 12.9% felt that their situation had declined or strongly declined, and 21.4% stated

  16. Robust Co-Optimization to Energy and Reserve Joint Dispatch Considering Wind Power Generation and Zonal Reserve Constraints in Real-Time Electricity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlai Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an energy and reserve joint dispatch model based on a robust optimization approach in real-time electricity markets, considering wind power generation uncertainties as well as zonal reserve constraints under both normal and N-1 contingency conditions. In the proposed model, the operating reserves are classified as regulating reserve and spinning reserve according to the response performance. More specifically, the regulating reserve is usually utilized to reduce the gap due to forecasting errors, while the spinning reserve is commonly adopted to enhance the ability for N-1 contingencies. Since the transmission bottlenecks may inhibit the deliverability of reserve, the zonal placement of spinning reserve is considered in this paper to improve the reserve deliverability under the contingencies. Numerical results on the IEEE 118-bus test system show the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  17. Pms2 and uracil-DNA glycosylases act jointly in the mismatch repair pathway to generate Ig gene mutations at A-T base pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girelli Zubani, Giulia; Zivojnovic, Marija; De Smet, Annie; Albagli-Curiel, Olivier; Huetz, François; Weill, Jean-Claude; Reynaud, Claude-Agnès; Storck, Sébastien

    2017-04-03

    During somatic hypermutation (SHM) of immunoglobulin genes, uracils introduced by activation-induced cytidine deaminase are processed by uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) and mismatch repair (MMR) pathways to generate mutations at G-C and A-T base pairs, respectively. Paradoxically, the MMR-nicking complex Pms2/Mlh1 is apparently dispensable for A-T mutagenesis. Thus, how detection of U:G mismatches is translated into the single-strand nick required for error-prone synthesis is an open question. One model proposed that UNG could cooperate with MMR by excising a second uracil in the vicinity of the U:G mismatch, but it failed to explain the low impact of UNG inactivation on A-T mutagenesis. In this study, we show that uracils generated in the G1 phase in B cells can generate equal proportions of A-T and G-C mutations, which suggests that UNG and MMR can operate within the same time frame during SHM. Furthermore, we show that Ung -/- Pms2 -/- mice display a 50% reduction in mutations at A-T base pairs and that most remaining mutations at A-T bases depend on two additional uracil glycosylases, thymine-DNA glycosylase and SMUG1. These results demonstrate that Pms2/Mlh1 and multiple uracil glycosylases act jointly, each one with a distinct strand bias, to enlarge the immunoglobulin gene mutation spectrum from G-C to A-T bases. © 2017 Girelli Zubani et al.

  18. Bio-inspired control of joint torque and knee stiffness in a robotic lower limb exoskeleton using a central pattern generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrade, Stefan O; Nager, Yannik; Wu, Amy R; Gassert, Roger; Ijspeert, Auke

    2017-07-01

    Robotic lower limb exoskeletons are becoming increasingly popular in therapy and recreational use. However, most exoskeletons are still rather limited in their locomotion speed and the activities of daily live they can perform. Furthermore, they typically do not allow for a dynamic adaptation to the environment, as they are often controlled with predefined reference trajectories. Inspired by human leg stiffness modulation during walking, variable stiffness actuators increase flexibility without the need for more complex controllers. Actuation with adaptable stiffness is inspired by the human leg stiffness modulation during walking. However, this actuation principle also introduces the stiffness setpoint as an additional degree of freedom that needs to be coordinated with the joint trajectories. As a potential solution to this issue a bio-inspired controller based on a central pattern generator (CPG) is presented in this work. It generates coordinated joint torques and knee stiffness modulations to produce flexible and dynamic gait patterns for an exoskeleton with variable knee stiffness actuation. The CPG controller is evaluated and optimized in simulation using a model of the exoskeleton. The CPG controller produced stable and smooth gait for walking speeds from 0.4 m/s up to 1.57 m/s with a torso stabilizing force that simulated the use of crutches, which are commonly needed by exoskeleton users. Through the CPG, the knee stiffness intrinsically adapted to the frequency and phase of the gait, when the speed was changed. Additionally, it adjusted to changes in the environment in the form of uneven terrain by reacting to ground contact forces. This could allow future exoskeletons to be more adaptive to various environments, thus making ambulation more robust.

  19. Replication Strategy for Spatiotemporal Data Based on Distributed Caching System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lian; Yang, Liu; Tao, Yang; Xu, Juan; Zhao, Lun

    2018-01-14

    The replica strategy in distributed cache can effectively reduce user access delay and improve system performance. However, developing a replica strategy suitable for varied application scenarios is still quite challenging, owing to differences in user access behavior and preferences. In this paper, a replication strategy for spatiotemporal data (RSSD) based on a distributed caching system is proposed. By taking advantage of the spatiotemporal locality and correlation of user access, RSSD mines high popularity and associated files from historical user access information, and then generates replicas and selects appropriate cache node for placement. Experimental results show that the RSSD algorithm is simple and efficient, and succeeds in significantly reducing user access delay.

  20. Artificial neural network does better spatiotemporal compressive sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Young; Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2012-06-01

    Spatiotemporal sparseness is generated naturally by human visual system based on artificial neural network modeling of associative memory. Sparseness means nothing more and nothing less than the compressive sensing achieves merely the information concentration. To concentrate the information, one uses the spatial correlation or spatial FFT or DWT or the best of all adaptive wavelet transform (cf. NUS, Shen Shawei). However, higher dimensional spatiotemporal information concentration, the mathematics can not do as flexible as a living human sensory system. The reason is obviously for survival reasons. The rest of the story is given in the paper.

  1. Replication Strategy for Spatiotemporal Data Based on Distributed Caching System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lian; Tao, Yang; Xu, Juan; Zhao, Lun

    2018-01-01

    The replica strategy in distributed cache can effectively reduce user access delay and improve system performance. However, developing a replica strategy suitable for varied application scenarios is still quite challenging, owing to differences in user access behavior and preferences. In this paper, a replication strategy for spatiotemporal data (RSSD) based on a distributed caching system is proposed. By taking advantage of the spatiotemporal locality and correlation of user access, RSSD mines high popularity and associated files from historical user access information, and then generates replicas and selects appropriate cache node for placement. Experimental results show that the RSSD algorithm is simple and efficient, and succeeds in significantly reducing user access delay. PMID:29342897

  2. Size-dependent diffusion promotes the emergence of spatiotemporal patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lai; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Banerjee, Malay

    2014-01-01

    intraspecific physiological variations at the individual level. Here we explore the impacts of size variation within species resulting from individual ontogeny, on the emergence of spatiotemporal patterns in a fully size-structured population model. We found that size dependency of animal's diffusivity greatly......, we found that the single-generation cycle is more likely to drive spatiotemporal patterns compared to predator-prey cycles, meaning that the mechanism of Hopf bifurcation might be more common than hitherto appreciated since the former cycle is more widespread than the latter in case of interacting...

  3. Achievement reports on joint research of solar energy power generation field test project in fiscal 1997. Part 3 of 3; 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho 3/3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    This report is a collection of 40 achievement reports on joint research of a solar energy power generation field test project. The major contents of the achievement reports relate to the solar energy power generation field test project (summarized as manufacture and installation of solar energy power generation systems, summary of solar energy power generation facilities, status of installation of solar cells, peripheral devices, and daily schedule of the construction). The reports describe achievements of the joint research (names and achievements of the joint research, study presentation, lectures, literatures, status of patents, similar research in and cooperation with other research institutions), generalization of the research, and future problems. Locations of the joint research carried out are hospitals, township hospitals, a science hall for youths, study and educational cities, primary schools, middle schools, high schools, universities, senior health centers, a life cooperative association, retails shops, factories, office buildings, joint governmental office buildings, Shinkansen stations, prefectural industrial testing centers, health and welfare centers, FM broadcasting studios, a town operated hall of technologies, prefectural office buildings and training centers. (NEDO)

  4. SU-D-207A-01: Female Pelvic Synthetic CT Generation Based On Joint Shape and Intensity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L; Jolly, S; Cao, Y; Vineberg, K; Fessler, J; Balter, J [University Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a method for generating female pelvic synthetic CT (MRCT) images from a single MR scan and evaluate its utility in radiotherapy. Methods: Under IRB-approval, an imaging sequence (T1-VIBE-Dixon) was acquired for 10 patients. This sequence yields 3 useful image volumes of different contrast (“in-phase” T1-weighted, fat and water). A previously published pelvic bone shape model was used to generate a rough bone mask for each patient. A modified fuzzy c-means classification was performed on the multi spectral MR data, with a regularization term that utilizes the prior knowledge provided by the bone mask and addresses the intensity overlap between different tissue types. A weighted sum of classification probabilities with attenuation values yielded MRCT volumes. The mean absolute error (MAE) between MRCT and real CT on various regions was calculated following deformable alignment (Velocity). Intensity modulated Treatment plans based on actual CT and MRCT were made and compared. Results: The average/standard deviation of MAE across 10 patients was 10.1/6.7 HU for muscle, 6.7/4.6 HU for fat, 136.9/53.5 HU for bony tissues under 850 HU (97% of total bone volume), 188.9/119.3 HU for bony tissues above 850 HU and 17.3/13.3 HU for intrapelvic soft tissues. Calculated doses were comparable for plans generated on CT and calculated using MRCT densities or vice versa, with differences in PTV D99% (mean/σ) of (–0.1/0.2 Gy) and (0.3/0.2 Gy), PTV D0.5cc of (–0.3/0.2 Gy) and (–0.4/1.7 Gy). OAR differences were similarly small for comparable structures, with differences in bowel V50Gy of (–0.3/0.2%) and (0.0/0.2%), femur V30Gy of (0.7/1.2%) and (0.2/1.2%), sacrum V20GY of (0.0/0.1%) and (–0.1/1.1%) and mean pelvic V20Gy of (0.0/0.1%) and (0.6/1.8%). Conclusion: MRCT based on a single imaging sequence in the female pelvis is feasible, with acceptably small variations in attenuation estimates and calculated doses to target and critical organs. Work

  5. Spatiotemporal Interpolation Methods for Solar Event Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filali Boubrahimi, Soukaina; Aydin, Berkay; Schuh, Michael A.; Kempton, Dustin; Angryk, Rafal A.; Ma, Ruizhe

    2018-05-01

    This paper introduces four spatiotemporal interpolation methods that enrich complex, evolving region trajectories that are reported from a variety of ground-based and space-based solar observatories every day. Our interpolation module takes an existing solar event trajectory as its input and generates an enriched trajectory with any number of additional time–geometry pairs created by the most appropriate method. To this end, we designed four different interpolation techniques: MBR-Interpolation (Minimum Bounding Rectangle Interpolation), CP-Interpolation (Complex Polygon Interpolation), FI-Interpolation (Filament Polygon Interpolation), and Areal-Interpolation, which are presented here in detail. These techniques leverage k-means clustering, centroid shape signature representation, dynamic time warping, linear interpolation, and shape buffering to generate the additional polygons of an enriched trajectory. Using ground-truth objects, interpolation effectiveness is evaluated through a variety of measures based on several important characteristics that include spatial distance, area overlap, and shape (boundary) similarity. To our knowledge, this is the first research effort of this kind that attempts to address the broad problem of spatiotemporal interpolation of solar event trajectories. We conclude with a brief outline of future research directions and opportunities for related work in this area.

  6. Spatiotemporal Data Mining: A Computational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Shekhar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Explosive growth in geospatial and temporal data as well as the emergence of new technologies emphasize the need for automated discovery of spatiotemporal knowledge. Spatiotemporal data mining studies the process of discovering interesting and previously unknown, but potentially useful patterns from large spatiotemporal databases. It has broad application domains including ecology and environmental management, public safety, transportation, earth science, epidemiology, and climatology. The complexity of spatiotemporal data and intrinsic relationships limits the usefulness of conventional data science techniques for extracting spatiotemporal patterns. In this survey, we review recent computational techniques and tools in spatiotemporal data mining, focusing on several major pattern families: spatiotemporal outlier, spatiotemporal coupling and tele-coupling, spatiotemporal prediction, spatiotemporal partitioning and summarization, spatiotemporal hotspots, and change detection. Compared with other surveys in the literature, this paper emphasizes the statistical foundations of spatiotemporal data mining and provides comprehensive coverage of computational approaches for various pattern families. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4 2307 We also list popular software tools for spatiotemporal data analysis. The survey concludes with a look at future research needs.

  7. Report of fiscal 1999 basic survey for promoting joint implementation, etc. Combined cycle power generation project for Surgut No.1 power station in the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper explains fiscal 1999 survey on a combined cycle power generation project for Surgut power plant in the Russian Federation for the purpose of making the project tied to the COP3 joint implementation. This power plant consists of 16 units with the total capacity of 3,300 MW. This project is to replace the existing superannuated No.1 through No.6 units with a new high-efficiency gas combined cycle power plant. The project plant is planned to comprise of three units, having the capacity of 417 MW, each consisting of one gas turbine and one steam turbine. The average generation efficiency will be improved tremendously from the present 37.2% to 55.2%. The initial investment will be 615 million in US dollars (at 109.2 yen/dollar). Energy saving will be 634,800 toe/year, with cost to effect 9,452 toe-y/million yen. Greenhouse effect gas reduction will be 1,509,000 t-CO2/year, with cost to effect 22.5 t-CO2-y/million yen. The investment recovery period is estimated to be 24 years. The Russian side strongly wishes to be granted a finance on a favorable terms and conditions to realize this project. It is possible that the Russian government requests Japan for grant of the Yen credit. Accordingly, an early start is necessary in order to deal with such request. (NEDO)

  8. Achievement reports on joint research of solar energy power generation field test project in fiscal 1997. Part 1 of 3; 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho 1/3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    This report is a collection of 101 achievement reports on joint research of solar energy power generation field test project. The contents of the achievement reports are the results and generalization of the joint research with respect to the solar energy power generation field test project. As regards the locations of executing the joint research, the locations by areas and applications are stated. By areas, the joint research was carried out on gymnasiums, parks, recreation centers in the standard areas, universities, sports facilities, public halls, agricultural associations, aged persons' homes, primary, middle and high schools, prefectural office buildings and industrial technology centers in cold districts; prefectural office buildings, agricultural associations, universities, museums, industrial technology centers in good insolation districts; museums, primary, middle and high schools, parks in strong wind and salt polluted districts; and universities and police stations in snowy districts. By applications, the joint research was performed on life cooperative halls, factories, nursery schools, hospitals, clinics, local newspaper companies, indoor warm-water swimming pools, and mushroom fields. (NEDO)

  9. Achievement reports on joint research of solar energy power generation field test project in fiscal 1997. Part 1 of 3; 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho 1/3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    This report is a collection of 101 achievement reports on joint research of solar energy power generation field test project. The contents of the achievement reports are the results and generalization of the joint research with respect to the solar energy power generation field test project. As regards the locations of executing the joint research, the locations by areas and applications are stated. By areas, the joint research was carried out on gymnasiums, parks, recreation centers in the standard areas, universities, sports facilities, public halls, agricultural associations, aged persons' homes, primary, middle and high schools, prefectural office buildings and industrial technology centers in cold districts; prefectural office buildings, agricultural associations, universities, museums, industrial technology centers in good insolation districts; museums, primary, middle and high schools, parks in strong wind and salt polluted districts; and universities and police stations in snowy districts. By applications, the joint research was performed on life cooperative halls, factories, nursery schools, hospitals, clinics, local newspaper companies, indoor warm-water swimming pools, and mushroom fields. (NEDO)

  10. A hybrid spatio-temporal data indexing method for trajectory databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Shengnan; Gong, Jun; Li, Songnian; Zhu, Qing; Liu, Xintao; Zhang, Yeting

    2014-07-21

    In recent years, there has been tremendous growth in the field of indoor and outdoor positioning sensors continuously producing huge volumes of trajectory data that has been used in many fields such as location-based services or location intelligence. Trajectory data is massively increased and semantically complicated, which poses a great challenge on spatio-temporal data indexing. This paper proposes a spatio-temporal data indexing method, named HBSTR-tree, which is a hybrid index structure comprising spatio-temporal R-tree, B*-tree and Hash table. To improve the index generation efficiency, rather than directly inserting trajectory points, we group consecutive trajectory points as nodes according to their spatio-temporal semantics and then insert them into spatio-temporal R-tree as leaf nodes. Hash table is used to manage the latest leaf nodes to reduce the frequency of insertion. A new spatio-temporal interval criterion and a new node-choosing sub-algorithm are also proposed to optimize spatio-temporal R-tree structures. In addition, a B*-tree sub-index of leaf nodes is built to query the trajectories of targeted objects efficiently. Furthermore, a database storage scheme based on a NoSQL-type DBMS is also proposed for the purpose of cloud storage. Experimental results prove that HBSTR-tree outperforms TB*-tree in some aspects such as generation efficiency, query performance and query type.

  11. A Hybrid Spatio-Temporal Data Indexing Method for Trajectory Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Ke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been tremendous growth in the field of indoor and outdoor positioning sensors continuously producing huge volumes of trajectory data that has been used in many fields such as location-based services or location intelligence. Trajectory data is massively increased and semantically complicated, which poses a great challenge on spatio-temporal data indexing. This paper proposes a spatio-temporal data indexing method, named HBSTR-tree, which is a hybrid index structure comprising spatio-temporal R-tree, B*-tree and Hash table. To improve the index generation efficiency, rather than directly inserting trajectory points, we group consecutive trajectory points as nodes according to their spatio-temporal semantics and then insert them into spatio-temporal R-tree as leaf nodes. Hash table is used to manage the latest leaf nodes to reduce the frequency of insertion. A new spatio-temporal interval criterion and a new node-choosing sub-algorithm are also proposed to optimize spatio-temporal R-tree structures. In addition, a B*-tree sub-index of leaf nodes is built to query the trajectories of targeted objects efficiently. Furthermore, a database storage scheme based on a NoSQL-type DBMS is also proposed for the purpose of cloud storage. Experimental results prove that HBSTR-tree outperforms TB*-tree in some aspects such as generation efficiency, query performance and query type.

  12. A Hybrid Spatio-Temporal Data Indexing Method for Trajectory Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Shengnan; Gong, Jun; Li, Songnian; Zhu, Qing; Liu, Xintao; Zhang, Yeting

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been tremendous growth in the field of indoor and outdoor positioning sensors continuously producing huge volumes of trajectory data that has been used in many fields such as location-based services or location intelligence. Trajectory data is massively increased and semantically complicated, which poses a great challenge on spatio-temporal data indexing. This paper proposes a spatio-temporal data indexing method, named HBSTR-tree, which is a hybrid index structure comprising spatio-temporal R-tree, B*-tree and Hash table. To improve the index generation efficiency, rather than directly inserting trajectory points, we group consecutive trajectory points as nodes according to their spatio-temporal semantics and then insert them into spatio-temporal R-tree as leaf nodes. Hash table is used to manage the latest leaf nodes to reduce the frequency of insertion. A new spatio-temporal interval criterion and a new node-choosing sub-algorithm are also proposed to optimize spatio-temporal R-tree structures. In addition, a B*-tree sub-index of leaf nodes is built to query the trajectories of targeted objects efficiently. Furthermore, a database storage scheme based on a NoSQL-type DBMS is also proposed for the purpose of cloud storage. Experimental results prove that HBSTR-tree outperforms TB*-tree in some aspects such as generation efficiency, query performance and query type. PMID:25051028

  13. Joint ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    Afhandlingen analysere de konkurrenceretlige og selskabsretlige regler som er bestemmende for hvordan et joint venture samarbejde er struktureret......Afhandlingen analysere de konkurrenceretlige og selskabsretlige regler som er bestemmende for hvordan et joint venture samarbejde er struktureret...

  14. Closing the gap between behavior and models in route choice: The role of spatiotemporal constraints and latent traits in choice set formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    not account for individual-related spatiotemporal constraints. This paper reduces the gap by proposing a route choice model incorporating spatiotemporal constraints and latent traits. The proposed approach combines stochastic route generation with a latent variable semi-compensatory model representing......A considerable gap exists between the behavioral paradigm of choice set formation in route choice and its representation in route choice modeling. While travelers form their viable choice set by retaining routes that satisfy spatiotemporal constraints, existing route generation techniques do...

  15. Coracoclavicular joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Park, Chan Il; Ahn, Jae Doo; Lim, Chong Won [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1970-10-15

    The coracoclvicular joint, a rear abnormality which may be the cause of pain in the shoulder and limitation of motion of the shoulder joint, is discussed. A case of coracoclvicular joint with shoulder pain was observed in 65 yrs old Korean male.

  16. The Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Digital News Audiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Chris

    2016-01-01

    of changing the socially-situated affordances of news use. Having sketched these contours, the chapter then highlights analytical challenges for understanding and conceptualizing the new interrelations between digital news content, production, and consumption, grounding this analysis with theoretical insights...... that emphasize the significance of spatiotemporal dynamics. The emphasis here is on the interrelations and mobilities of digital news audiences, based on a recognition of the productive impacts of media use while being careful to note the limitations of a paradigm shift that points solely to the possibilities...... generated by the ubiquitous presence of media in our everyday lives. Aspects of interaction and personalization beget by new media technologies certainly shape the possibilities, practices and power audiences have to choose news wherever, whenever, and however they want. However, this simultaneously...

  17. Spatiotemporal aspects of flood exposure in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röthlisberger Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While flood hazard mapping in Switzerland is close to completion, only a limited number of studies have been specifically conducted on exposure and vulnerability. We fill this knowledge gap by conducting a nation-wide study of flood exposure of buildings in Switzerland. Therefore, we generate a country-wide comprehensive and homogenous data set of polygons of residential buildings and their period of construction and overlay these building polygons with compiled and harmonized flood hazard maps provided by the Swiss cantons. In this paper we present first results of spatiotemporal analyses, namely the evolution of exposure from 1919 to 2012. Surprising is the increase in the share of exposure of new constructed buildings since the 1980s which contradicts the indented effects of the Swiss flood risk management strategies and calls for further investigations.

  18. Control of Spiral Waves and Spatiotemporal Chaos by Exciting Travel Wave Trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Guoyong; Wang Guangrui; Chen Shigang

    2005-01-01

    Spiral waves and spatiotemporal chaos usually are harmful and need to be suppressed. In this paper, a method is proposed to control them. Travel wave trains can be generated by periodic excitations near left boundary, spiral waves and spatiotemporal chaos can be eliminated by the trains for some certain excitation periods. Obvious resonant behavior can be observed from the relation between the periods of the trains and excitation ones. The method is against noise.

  19. Spatio-Temporal Data Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Ha Le

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available On the route to a spatio-temporal geoscience information system, an appropriate data model for geo-objects in space and time has been developed. In this model, geo-objects are represented as sequences of geometries and properties with continuous evolution in each time interval. Because geomodeling software systems usually model objects at specific time instances, we want to interpolate the geometry and properties from two models of an object with only geometrical constraints (no physical or mechanical constraints. This process is called spatio-temporal data construction or morphological interpolation of intermediate geometries. This paper is strictly related to shape morphing, shape deformation, cross-parameterization and compatible remeshing and is only concerned with geological surfaces. In this study, two main sub-solutions construct compatible meshes and find trajectories in which vertices of the mesh evolve. This research aims to find an algorithm to construct spatio-temporal data with some constraints from the geosciences, such as cutting surfaces by faulting or fracturing phenomena and evolving boundaries attached to other surfaces. Another goal of this research is the implementation of the algorithm in a software product, namely a gOcad plug-in. The four main procedures of the algorithm are cutting the surfaces, setting up constraints, partitioning and calculating the parameterizations and trajectories. The software has been tested to construct data for a salt dome and other surfaces in regard to the geological processes of faulting, deposition and erosion. The result of this research is an algorithm and software for the construction of spatio-temporal data.

  20. Dynamic characterizers of spatiotemporal intermittency

    OpenAIRE

    Gupte, Neelima; Jabeen, Zahera

    2006-01-01

    Systems of coupled sine circle maps show regimes of spatiotemporally intermittent behaviour with associated scaling exponents which belong to the DP class, as well as regimes of spatially intermittent behaviour (with associated regular dynamical behaviour) which do not belong to the DP class. Both types of behaviour are seen along the bifurcation boundaries of the synchronized solutions, and contribute distinct signatures to the dynamical characterizers of the system, viz. the distribution of...

  1. Compressing spatio-temporal trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Joachim; Katajainen, Jyrki; Merrick, Damian

    2009-01-01

    such that the most common spatio-temporal queries can still be answered approximately after the compression has taken place. In the process, we develop an implementation of the Douglas–Peucker path-simplification algorithm which works efficiently even in the case where the polygonal path given as input is allowed...... to self-intersect. For a polygonal path of size n, the processing time is O(nlogkn) for k=2 or k=3 depending on the type of simplification....

  2. Visual representation of spatiotemporal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, Kerstin; Zetzsche, Christoph; Brauer, Wilfried; Eisenkolb, A.; Musto, A.

    1998-07-01

    The processing and representation of motion information is addressed from an integrated perspective comprising low- level signal processing properties as well as higher-level cognitive aspects. For the low-level processing of motion information we argue that a fundamental requirement is the existence of a spatio-temporal memory. Its key feature, the provision of an orthogonal relation between external time and its internal representation, is achieved by a mapping of temporal structure into a locally distributed activity distribution accessible in parallel by higher-level processing stages. This leads to a reinterpretation of the classical concept of `iconic memory' and resolves inconsistencies on ultra-short-time processing and visual masking. The spatial-temporal memory is further investigated by experiments on the perception of spatio-temporal patterns. Results on the direction discrimination of motion paths provide evidence that information about direction and location are not processed and represented independent of each other. This suggests a unified representation on an early level, in the sense that motion information is internally available in form of a spatio-temporal compound. For the higher-level representation we have developed a formal framework for the qualitative description of courses of motion that may occur with moving objects.

  3. Spatiotemporal Dynamics and Reliable Computations in Recurrent Spiking Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Ryan; Rosenbaum, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Randomly connected networks of excitatory and inhibitory spiking neurons provide a parsimonious model of neural variability, but are notoriously unreliable for performing computations. We show that this difficulty is overcome by incorporating the well-documented dependence of connection probability on distance. Spatially extended spiking networks exhibit symmetry-breaking bifurcations and generate spatiotemporal patterns that can be trained to perform dynamical computations under a reservoir computing framework.

  4. Spatiotemporal Dynamics and Reliable Computations in Recurrent Spiking Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Ryan; Rosenbaum, Robert

    2017-01-06

    Randomly connected networks of excitatory and inhibitory spiking neurons provide a parsimonious model of neural variability, but are notoriously unreliable for performing computations. We show that this difficulty is overcome by incorporating the well-documented dependence of connection probability on distance. Spatially extended spiking networks exhibit symmetry-breaking bifurcations and generate spatiotemporal patterns that can be trained to perform dynamical computations under a reservoir computing framework.

  5. Tensor-based spatiotemporal saliency detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Hao; Li, Bin; Deng, Qianqian; Zhang, LiRui; Pan, Zhihong; Tian, Jinwen

    2018-03-01

    This paper proposes an effective tensor-based spatiotemporal saliency computation model for saliency detection in videos. First, we construct the tensor representation of video frames. Then, the spatiotemporal saliency can be directly computed by the tensor distance between different tensors, which can preserve the complete temporal and spatial structure information of object in the spatiotemporal domain. Experimental results demonstrate that our method can achieve encouraging performance in comparison with the state-of-the-art methods.

  6. Evolution of spatio-temporal drought characteristics: validation, projections and effect of adaptation scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, J.-P.; Martin, E.; Kitova, N.; Najac, J.; Soubeyroux, J.-M.

    2012-08-01

    Drought events develop in both space and time and they are therefore best described through summary joint spatio-temporal characteristics, such as mean duration, mean affected area and total magnitude. This paper addresses the issue of future projections of such characteristics of drought events over France through three main research questions: (1) Are downscaled climate projections able to simulate spatio-temporal characteristics of meteorological and agricultural droughts in France over a present-day period? (2) How such characteristics will evolve over the 21st century? (3) How to use standardized drought indices to represent theoretical adaptation scenarios? These questions are addressed using the Isba land surface model, downscaled climate projections from the ARPEGE General Circulation Model under three emissions scenarios, as well as results from a previously performed 50-yr multilevel and multiscale drought reanalysis over France. Spatio-temporal characteristics of meteorological and agricultural drought events are computed using the Standardized Precipitation Index and the Standardized Soil Wetness Index, respectively, and for time scales of 3 and 12 months. Results first show that the distributions of joint spatio-temporal characteristics of observed events are well simulated by the downscaled hydroclimate projections over a present-day period. All spatio-temporal characteristics of drought events are then found to dramatically increase over the 21st century, with stronger changes for agricultural droughts. Two theoretical adaptation scenarios are eventually built based on hypotheses of adaptation to evolving climate and hydrological normals, either retrospective or prospective. The perceived spatio-temporal characteristics of drought events derived from these theoretical adaptation scenarios show much reduced changes, but they call for more realistic scenarios at both the catchment and national scale in order to accurately assess the combined effect of

  7. Adaptive observer for the joint estimation of parameters and input for a coupled wave PDE and infinite dimensional ODE system

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor; Mechhoud, Sarra; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with joint parameters and input estimation for coupled PDE-ODE system. The system consists of a damped wave equation and an infinite dimensional ODE. This model describes the spatiotemporal hemodynamic response in the brain

  8. Spatiotemporal chaos involving wave instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenstein, Igal; Carballido-Landeira, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate pattern formation in a model of a reaction confined in a microemulsion, in a regime where both Turing and wave instability occur. In one-dimensional systems, the pattern corresponds to spatiotemporal intermittency where the behavior of the systems alternates in both time and space between stationary Turing patterns and traveling waves. In two-dimensional systems, the behavior initially may correspond to Turing patterns, which then turn into wave patterns. The resulting pattern also corresponds to a chaotic state, where the system alternates in both space and time between standing wave patterns and traveling waves, and the local dynamics may show vanishing amplitude of the variables.

  9. Noise tolerant spatiotemporal chaos computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Behnam; Kia, Sarvenaz; Lindner, John F; Sinha, Sudeshna; Ditto, William L

    2014-12-01

    We introduce and design a noise tolerant chaos computing system based on a coupled map lattice (CML) and the noise reduction capabilities inherent in coupled dynamical systems. The resulting spatiotemporal chaos computing system is more robust to noise than a single map chaos computing system. In this CML based approach to computing, under the coupled dynamics, the local noise from different nodes of the lattice diffuses across the lattice, and it attenuates each other's effects, resulting in a system with less noise content and a more robust chaos computing architecture.

  10. Temporomandibular joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westesson, P.L.; Hatala, M.; Tallents, R.H.; Katzberg, R.W.; Musgrave, M.; Levitt, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines the frequency of MR signs of abnormal temporomandibular joints (TMJs) in asymptomatic volunteers. Forty-two volunteers with 84 clinically normal TMJs were imaged in the sagittal and coronal planes with surface coil MR imaging. Sagittal closed and open and coronal closed views were obtained bilaterally in all volunteers. The images were classified as normal (superior disk position) or abnormal (disk displacement of degenerative joint disease). Eighteen joints in 11 volunteers were abnormal; 12 had disk displacement with reduction and six had disk displacement without reduction, with associated degenerative joint disease in three of the six. Asymptomatic internal derangement and degenerative joint disease occur in about one-fourth of asymptomatic volunteers

  11. SPATIOTEMPORAL CONTRAST SENSITIVITY OF EARLY VISION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van

    Based on the spatial and temporal statistics of natural images, a theory is developed that specifies spatiotemporal filters that maximize the flow of information through noisy channels of limited dynamic range. Sensitivities resulting from these spatiotemporal filters are very similar to the human

  12. Spatiotemporal Thinking in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, T. F.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Tikoff, B.

    2011-12-01

    Reasoning about spatial relations is a critical skill for geoscientists. Within the geosciences different disciplines may reason about different sorts of relationships. These relationships may span vastly different spatial and temporal scales (from the spatial alignment in atoms in crystals to the changes in the shape of plates). As part of work in a research center on spatial thinking in STEM education, we have been working to classify the spatial skills required in geology, develop tests for each spatial skill, and develop the cognitive science tools to promote the critical spatial reasoning skills. Research in psychology, neurology and linguistics supports a broad classification of spatial skills along two dimensions: one versus many objects (which roughly translates to object- focused and navigation focused skills) and static versus dynamic spatial relations. The talk will focus on the interaction of space and time in spatial cognition in the geosciences. We are working to develop measures of skill in visualizing spatiotemporal changes. A new test developed to measure visualization of brittle deformations will be presented. This is a skill that has not been clearly recognized in the cognitive science research domain and thus illustrates the value of interdisciplinary work that combines geosciences with cognitive sciences. Teaching spatiotemporal concepts can be challenging. Recent theoretical work suggests analogical reasoning can be a powerful tool to aid student learning to reason about temporal relations using spatial skills. Recent work in our lab has found that progressive alignment of spatial and temporal scales promotes accurate reasoning about temporal relations at geological time scales.

  13. Scalable Top-k Spatio-Temporal Term Querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Anders; Sidlauskas, Darius; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    With the rapidly increasing deployment of Internet-connected, location-aware mobile devices, very large and increasing amounts of geo-tagged and timestamped user-generated content, such as microblog posts, are being generated. We present indexing, update, and query processing techniques...... that are capable of providing the top-k terms seen in posts in a user-specified spatio-temporal range. The techniques enable interactive response times in the millisecond range in a realistic setting where the arrival rate of posts exceeds today's average tweet arrival rate by a factor of 4-10. The techniques...

  14. Laboratory characterization of rock joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiung, S.M.; Kana, D.D.; Ahola, M.P.; Chowdhury, A.H.; Ghosh, A.

    1994-05-01

    A laboratory characterization of the Apache Leap tuff joints under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loads has been undertaken to obtain a better understanding of dynamic joint shear behavior and to generate a complete data set that can be used for validation of existing rock-joint models. Study has indicated that available methods for determining joint roughness coefficient (JRC) significantly underestimate the roughness coefficient of the Apache Leap tuff joints, that will lead to an underestimation of the joint shear strength. The results of the direct shear tests have indicated that both under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loadings the joint resistance upon reverse shearing is smaller than that of forward shearing and the joint dilation resulting from forward shearing recovers during reverse shearing. Within the range of variation of shearing velocity used in these tests, the shearing velocity effect on rock-joint behavior seems to be minor, and no noticeable effect on the peak joint shear strength and the joint shear strength for the reverse shearing is observed

  15. Effective and efficient analysis of spatio-temporal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongnan

    Spatio-temporal data mining, i.e., mining knowledge from large amount of spatio-temporal data, is a highly demanding field because huge amounts of spatio-temporal data have been collected in various applications, ranging from remote sensing, to geographical information systems (GIS), computer cartography, environmental assessment and planning, etc. The collection data far exceeded human's ability to analyze which make it crucial to develop analysis tools. Recent studies on data mining have extended to the scope of data mining from relational and transactional datasets to spatial and temporal datasets. Among the various forms of spatio-temporal data, remote sensing images play an important role, due to the growing wide-spreading of outer space satellites. In this dissertation, we proposed two approaches to analyze the remote sensing data. The first one is about applying association rules mining onto images processing. Each image was divided into a number of image blocks. We built a spatial relationship for these blocks during the dividing process. This made a large number of images into a spatio-temporal dataset since each image was shot in time-series. The second one implemented co-occurrence patterns discovery from these images. The generated patterns represent subsets of spatial features that are located together in space and time. A weather analysis is composed of individual analysis of several meteorological variables. These variables include temperature, pressure, dew point, wind, clouds, visibility and so on. Local-scale models provide detailed analysis and forecasts of meteorological phenomena ranging from a few kilometers to about 100 kilometers in size. When some of above meteorological variables have some special change tendency, some kind of severe weather will happen in most cases. Using the discovery of association rules, we found that some special meteorological variables' changing has tight relation with some severe weather situation that will happen

  16. Joint diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The authors discuss how x-ray examination is essential in the diagnosis and evaluation of the arthritides. Most arthritides are first suspected by the clinician, and x-ray evaluation of these entities along with laboratory testing is important for confirmation of the clinical diagnosis and in staging of the disease process. Several arthritides are often diagnosed first by the podiatrist on x-ray evaluation, including pseudogout, ankylosing spondylitis, early rheumatoid arthritis, degenerative joint disease, and tuberculosis of bone. The joint responds to insult in only a limited number of ways that become apparent on x-ray. The soft tissues surrounding the joint, the articulating bones, and alignment of the joint space may all be involved by the arthritic process. On roentgenographic examination, the soft tissues must be examined for edema, masses, calcifications, and atrophy. The articulating bones must be examined for demineralization, erosions, osteophytes, periosteal reaction, cysts and sclerosis

  17. Joint pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or conditions. It may be linked to arthritis , bursitis , and muscle pain . No matter what causes it, ... Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus Bursitis Chondromalacia patellae Crystals in the joint: Gout (especially ...

  18. Joint Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the latest publication of The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety (JQPS). . How We Work Process improvement program breeds quality culture, empowers staff An article in Quality Progress, June ...

  19. Spatiotemporal and plantar pressure patterns of 1000 healthy individuals aged 3-101 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Marnee J; Baldwin, Jennifer N; Ferreira, Paulo; Simic, Milena; Vanicek, Natalie; Wojciechowski, Elizabeth; Mudge, Anita; Burns, Joshua

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normative reference values for spatiotemporal and plantar pressure parameters, and to investigate the influence of demographic, anthropometric and physical characteristics. In 1000 healthy males and females aged 3-101 years, spatiotemporal and plantar pressure data were collected barefoot with the Zeno™ walkway and Emed ® platform. Correlograms were developed to visualise the relationships between widely reported spatiotemporal and pressure variables with demographic (age, gender), anthropometric (height, mass, waist circumference) and physical characteristics (ankle strength, ankle range of motion, vibration perception) in children aged 3-9 years, adolescents aged 10-19 years, adults aged 20-59 years and older adults aged over 60 years. A comprehensive catalogue of 31 spatiotemporal and pressure variables were generated from 1000 healthy individuals. The key findings were that gait velocity was stable during adolescence and adulthood, while children and older adults walked at a comparable slower speed. Peak pressures increased during childhood to older adulthood. Children demonstrated highest peak pressures beneath the rearfoot whilst adolescents, adults and older adults demonstrated highest pressures at the forefoot. Main factors influencing spatiotemporal and pressure parameters were: increased age, height, body mass and waist circumference, as well as ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion strength. This study has established whole of life normative reference values of widely used spatiotemporal and plantar pressure parameters, and revealed changes to be expected across the lifespan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Selecting salient frames for spatiotemporal video modeling and segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaomu; Fan, Guoliang

    2007-12-01

    We propose a new statistical generative model for spatiotemporal video segmentation. The objective is to partition a video sequence into homogeneous segments that can be used as "building blocks" for semantic video segmentation. The baseline framework is a Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-based video modeling approach that involves a six-dimensional spatiotemporal feature space. Specifically, we introduce the concept of frame saliency to quantify the relevancy of a video frame to the GMM-based spatiotemporal video modeling. This helps us use a small set of salient frames to facilitate the model training by reducing data redundancy and irrelevance. A modified expectation maximization algorithm is developed for simultaneous GMM training and frame saliency estimation, and the frames with the highest saliency values are extracted to refine the GMM estimation for video segmentation. Moreover, it is interesting to find that frame saliency can imply some object behaviors. This makes the proposed method also applicable to other frame-related video analysis tasks, such as key-frame extraction, video skimming, etc. Experiments on real videos demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  1. Sex & vision I: Spatio-temporal resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramov Israel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral cortex has a very large number of testosterone receptors, which could be a basis for sex differences in sensory functions. For example, audition has clear sex differences, which are related to serum testosterone levels. Of all major sensory systems only vision has not been examined for sex differences, which is surprising because occipital lobe (primary visual projection area may have the highest density of testosterone receptors in the cortex. We have examined a basic visual function: spatial and temporal pattern resolution and acuity. Methods We tested large groups of young adults with normal vision. They were screened with a battery of standard tests that examined acuity, color vision, and stereopsis. We sampled the visual system’s contrast-sensitivity function (CSF across the entire spatio-temporal space: 6 spatial frequencies at each of 5 temporal rates. Stimuli were gratings with sinusoidal luminance profiles generated on a special-purpose computer screen; their contrast was also sinusoidally modulated in time. We measured threshold contrasts using a criterion-free (forced-choice, adaptive psychophysical method (QUEST algorithm. Also, each individual’s acuity limit was estimated by fitting his or her data with a model and extrapolating to find the spatial frequency corresponding to 100% contrast. Results At a very low temporal rate, the spatial CSF was the canonical inverted-U; but for higher temporal rates, the maxima of the spatial CSFs shifted: Observers lost sensitivity at high spatial frequencies and gained sensitivity at low frequencies; also, all the maxima of the CSFs shifted by about the same amount in spatial frequency. Main effect: there was a significant (ANOVA sex difference. Across the entire spatio-temporal domain, males were more sensitive, especially at higher spatial frequencies; similarly males had significantly better acuity at all temporal rates. Conclusion As with other sensory systems

  2. A novel image block cryptosystem based on a spatiotemporal chaotic system and a chaotic neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xing-Yuan; Bao Xue-Mei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel block cryptographic scheme based on a spatiotemporal chaotic system and a chaotic neural network (CNN). The employed CNN comprises a 4-neuron layer called a chaotic neuron layer (CNL), where the spatiotemporal chaotic system participates in generating its weight matrix and other parameters. The spatiotemporal chaotic system used in our scheme is the typical coupled map lattice (CML), which can be easily implemented in parallel by hardware. A 160-bit-long binary sequence is used to generate the initial conditions of the CML. The decryption process is symmetric relative to the encryption process. Theoretical analysis and experimental results prove that the block cryptosystem is secure and practical, and suitable for image encryption. (general)

  3. Association of PM2.5 with diabetes, asthma, and high blood pressure incidence in Canada: A spatiotemporal analysis of the impacts of the energy generation and fuel sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requia, Weeberb J; Adams, Matthew D; Koutrakis, Petros

    2017-04-15

    Numerous studies have reported an association between fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and human health. Often these relationships are influenced by environmental factor that varies spatially and/or temporally. To our knowledge, there are no studies in Canada that have considered energy generation and fuel sales as PM 2.5 effects modifiers. Determining exposure and disease-specific risk factors over space and time is crucial for disease prevention and control. In this study, we evaluated the association of PM 2.5 with diabetes, asthma, and High Blood Pressure (HBP) incidence in Canada. Then we explored the impact of the energy generation and fuel sales on association changes. We fit an age-period-cohort as the study design, and we applied an over-dispersed Poisson regression model to estimate the risk. We conducted a sensitivity analysis to explore the impact of variation in clean energy rates and fuel sales on outcomes changes. The study included 117 health regions in Canada between 2007 and 2014. Our findings showed strong association of PM 2.5 with diabetes, asthma, and HBP incidence. A two-year increase of 10μg/m 3 in PM 2.5 was associated with an increased risk of 5.34% (95% CI: 2.28%; 12.53%) in diabetes incidence, 2.24% (95% CI: 0.93%; 5.38%) in asthma incidence, and 8.29% (95% CI: 3.44%; 19.98%) in HBP incidence. Our sensitivity analysis findings suggest higher risks of diabetes, asthma and HBP incidence when there is low clean energy generation. On the other hand, we found lower risk when we considered high rate of clean energy generation. For example, considering only diabetes incidence, we found that the risk in health regions with low rates of clean electricity is approximately 700% higher than the risk in health regions with high rates of clean electricity. Furthermore, our analysis suggested that the risk in regions with low fuel sales is 66% lower than the risk is health regions with low rates of clean electricity. Our study provides support for

  4. The contribution of quasi-joint stiffness of the ankle joint to gait in patients with hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Yusuke; Muraki, Takayuki; Kuramatsu, Yuko; Furusawa, Yoshihito; Izumi, Shin-Ichi

    2012-06-01

    The role of ankle joint stiffness during gait in patients with hemiparesis has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of quasi-joint stiffness of the ankle joint to spatiotemporal and kinetic parameters regarding gait in patients with hemiparesis due to brain tumor or stroke and healthy individuals. Spatiotemporal and kinetic parameters regarding gait in twelve patients with hemiparesis due to brain tumor or stroke and nine healthy individuals were measured with a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. Quasi-joint stiffness was calculated from the slope of the linear regression of the moment-angle curve of the ankle joint during the second rocker. There was no significant difference in quasi-joint stiffness among both sides of patients and the right side of controls. Quasi-joint stiffness on the paretic side of patients with hemiparesis positively correlated with maximal ankle power (r=0.73, Phemiparesis. In contrast, healthy individuals might decrease quasi-joint stiffness to avoid deceleration of forward tilt of the tibia. Our findings might be useful for selecting treatment for increased ankle stiffness due to contracture and spasticity in patients with hemiparesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Joint Intentionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koreň Ladislav

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the shared intentionality hypothesis proposed by Michael Tomasello, two cognitive upgrades – joint and collective intentionality, respectively – make human thinking unique. Joint intentionality, in particular, is a mindset supposed to account for our early, species-specific capacity to participate in collaborative activities involving two (or a few agents. In order to elucidate such activities and their proximate cognitive-motivational mechanism, Tomasello draws on philosophical accounts of shared intentionality. I argue that his deference to such cognitively demanding accounts of shared intentional activities is problematic if his theoretical ambition is in part to show that and how early (prelinguistic and precultural capacities for joint action contribute to the development of higher cognitive capacities.

  6. Temporomandibular Joint Regenerative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Van Bellinghen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The temporomandibular joint (TMJ is an articulation formed between the temporal bone and the mandibular condyle which is commonly affected. These affections are often so painful during fundamental oral activities that patients have lower quality of life. Limitations of therapeutics for severe TMJ diseases have led to increased interest in regenerative strategies combining stem cells, implantable scaffolds and well-targeting bioactive molecules. To succeed in functional and structural regeneration of TMJ is very challenging. Innovative strategies and biomaterials are absolutely crucial because TMJ can be considered as one of the most difficult tissues to regenerate due to its limited healing capacity, its unique histological and structural properties and the necessity for long-term prevention of its ossified or fibrous adhesions. The ideal approach for TMJ regeneration is a unique scaffold functionalized with an osteochondral molecular gradient containing a single stem cell population able to undergo osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation such as BMSCs, ADSCs or DPSCs. The key for this complex regeneration is the functionalization with active molecules such as IGF-1, TGF-β1 or bFGF. This regeneration can be optimized by nano/micro-assisted functionalization and by spatiotemporal drug delivery systems orchestrating the 3D formation of TMJ tissues.

  7. Joint purpose?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    2013-01-01

    Starting from Crenshaw´s point that antiracism often fails to interrogate patriarchy and that feminism often reproduces racist practices (1991: 1252), this paper asks: What are the theoretical reasons for believing that feminism and anti-racism can be regarded as fighting for the joint purpose...

  8. SAAS-CNV: A Joint Segmentation Approach on Aggregated and Allele Specific Signals for the Identification of Somatic Copy Number Alterations with Next-Generation Sequencing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongyang; Hao, Ke

    2015-11-01

    Cancer genomes exhibit profound somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs). Studying tumor SCNAs using massively parallel sequencing provides unprecedented resolution and meanwhile gives rise to new challenges in data analysis, complicated by tumor aneuploidy and heterogeneity as well as normal cell contamination. While the majority of read depth based methods utilize total sequencing depth alone for SCNA inference, the allele specific signals are undervalued. We proposed a joint segmentation and inference approach using both signals to meet some of the challenges. Our method consists of four major steps: 1) extracting read depth supporting reference and alternative alleles at each SNP/Indel locus and comparing the total read depth and alternative allele proportion between tumor and matched normal sample; 2) performing joint segmentation on the two signal dimensions; 3) correcting the copy number baseline from which the SCNA state is determined; 4) calling SCNA state for each segment based on both signal dimensions. The method is applicable to whole exome/genome sequencing (WES/WGS) as well as SNP array data in a tumor-control study. We applied the method to a dataset containing no SCNAs to test the specificity, created by pairing sequencing replicates of a single HapMap sample as normal/tumor pairs, as well as a large-scale WGS dataset consisting of 88 liver tumors along with adjacent normal tissues. Compared with representative methods, our method demonstrated improved accuracy, scalability to large cancer studies, capability in handling both sequencing and SNP array data, and the potential to improve the estimation of tumor ploidy and purity.

  9. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  10. Mercury Toolset for Spatiotemporal Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Palanisamy, Giri; Green, James; Wilson, Bruce; Rhyne, B. Timothy; Lindsley, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Mercury (http://mercury.ornl.gov) is a set of tools for federated harvesting, searching, and retrieving metadata, particularly spatiotemporal metadata. Version 3.0 of the Mercury toolset provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additional metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS (Really Simple Syndication) delivery of search results, and enhanced customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects that use Mercury. It provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems, each of which may use different metadata formats. Mercury harvests metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The search interfaces then allow the users to perform a variety of fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data. Mercury periodically (typically daily)harvests metadata sources through a collection of interfaces and re-indexes these metadata to provide extremely rapid search capabilities, even over collections with tens of millions of metadata records. A number of both graphical and application interfaces have been constructed within Mercury, to enable both human users and other computer programs to perform queries. Mercury was also designed to support multiple different projects, so that the particular fields that can be queried and used with search filters are easy to configure for each different project.

  11. Mercury Toolset for Spatiotemporal Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bruce E.; Palanisamy, Giri; Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Rhyne, B. Timothy; Lindsley, Chris; Green, James

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (http://mercury.ornl.gov) is a set of tools for federated harvesting, searching, and retrieving metadata, particularly spatiotemporal metadata. Version 3.0 of the Mercury toolset provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additional metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS (Really Simple Syndication) delivery of search results, and enhanced customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects that use Mercury. It provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems, each of which may use different metadata formats. Mercury harvests metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The search interfaces then allow the users to perform a variety of fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data. Mercury periodically (typically daily) harvests metadata sources through a collection of interfaces and re-indexes these metadata to provide extremely rapid search capabilities, even over collections with tens of millions of metadata records. A number of both graphical and application interfaces have been constructed within Mercury, to enable both human users and other computer programs to perform queries. Mercury was also designed to support multiple different projects, so that the particular fields that can be queried and used with search filters are easy to configure for each different project.

  12. Comparison of Spatiotemporal Mapping Techniques for Enormous Etl and Exploitation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiotte, R.; La Valley, R.

    2017-10-01

    The need to extract, transform, and exploit enormous volumes of spatiotemporal data has exploded with the rise of social media, advanced military sensors, wearables, automotive tracking, etc. However, current methods of spatiotemporal encoding and exploitation simultaneously limit the use of that information and increase computing complexity. Current spatiotemporal encoding methods from Niemeyer and Usher rely on a Z-order space filling curve, a relative of Peano's 1890 space filling curve, for spatial hashing and interleaving temporal hashes to generate a spatiotemporal encoding. However, there exist other space-filling curves, and that provide different manifold coverings that could promote better hashing techniques for spatial data and have the potential to map spatiotemporal data without interleaving. The concatenation of Niemeyer's and Usher's techniques provide a highly efficient space-time index. However, other methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding computational cost, efficiency, and utility. This paper explores the several methods using a range of sizes of data sets from 1K to 10M observations and provides a comparison of the methods.

  13. COMPARISON OF SPATIOTEMPORAL MAPPING TECHNIQUES FOR ENORMOUS ETL AND EXPLOITATION PATTERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Deiotte

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The need to extract, transform, and exploit enormous volumes of spatiotemporal data has exploded with the rise of social media, advanced military sensors, wearables, automotive tracking, etc. However, current methods of spatiotemporal encoding and exploitation simultaneously limit the use of that information and increase computing complexity. Current spatiotemporal encoding methods from Niemeyer and Usher rely on a Z-order space filling curve, a relative of Peano’s 1890 space filling curve, for spatial hashing and interleaving temporal hashes to generate a spatiotemporal encoding. However, there exist other space-filling curves, and that provide different manifold coverings that could promote better hashing techniques for spatial data and have the potential to map spatiotemporal data without interleaving. The concatenation of Niemeyer’s and Usher’s techniques provide a highly efficient space-time index. However, other methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding computational cost, efficiency, and utility. This paper explores the several methods using a range of sizes of data sets from 1K to 10M observations and provides a comparison of the methods.

  14. Calculation of temperature fields formed in induction annealing of closing welded joint of jacket of steam generator for WWER 440 type nuclear power plant using ICL 2960 computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajnar, P.; Fiala, J.

    1983-01-01

    The problems are discussed of the mathematical description and simulation of temperature fields in annealing the closing weld of the steam generator jacket of the WWER 440 nuclear power plant. The basic principles are given of induction annealing, the method of calculating temperature fields is indicated and the mathematical description is given of boundary conditions on the outer and inner surfaces of the steam generator jacket for the computation of temperature fields arising during annealing. Also described are the methods of determining the temperature of exposed parts of heat exchange tubes inside the steam generator and the technical possibilities are assessed of the annealing equipment from the point of view of its computer simulation. Five alternatives are given for the computation of temperature fields in the area around the weld for different boundary conditions. The values are given of maximum differences in the temperatures of the metal in the annealed part of the steam generator jacket which allow the assessment of individual computation variants, this mainly from the point of view of observing the course of annealing temperature in the required width of the annealed jacket of the steam generator along both sides of the closing weld. (B.S.)

  15. Short-term spatio-temporal wind power forecast in robust look-ahead power system dispatch

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Le

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel statistical wind power forecast framework, which leverages the spatio-temporal correlation in wind speed and direction data among geographically dispersed wind farms. Critical assessment of the performance of spatio-temporal wind power forecast is performed using realistic wind farm data from West Texas. It is shown that spatio-temporal wind forecast models are numerically efficient approaches to improving forecast quality. By reducing uncertainties in near-term wind power forecasts, the overall cost benefits on system dispatch can be quantified. We integrate the improved forecast with an advanced robust look-ahead dispatch framework. This integrated forecast and economic dispatch framework is tested in a modified IEEE RTS 24-bus system. Numerical simulation suggests that the overall generation cost can be reduced by up to 6% using a robust look-ahead dispatch coupled with spatio-temporal wind forecast as compared with persistent wind forecast models. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. Joint Operation Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    .... It sets forth joint doctrine to govern the joint operation planning activities and performance of the Armed Forces of the United States in joint operations, and provides the joint doctrinal basis...

  17. Development of the Next Generation Air Quality Modeling System (20th Joint Conference on the Applications of Air Pollution Meteorology with the A&WMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A next generation air quality modeling system is being developed at the U.S. EPA to enable modeling of air quality from global to regional to (eventually) local scales. We envision that the system will have three configurations: 1. Global meteorology with seamless mesh refinemen...

  18. US/USSR cooperative program in open-cycle MHD electrical power gneration. Joint test report No. 2: tests in the U-25B facility; MHD generator test No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempelmeyer, K.E.; Sokolov, Y.N.

    1979-04-01

    The third joint test with a Soviet U-25B MHD generator and a US superconducting magnet system (SCMS) was conducted in the Soviet U-25B Facility. The primary objectives of the 3rd test were: (1) to operate the facility and MHD channel over a wider range of test parameters, and (2) to study the performance of all components and systems of the flow train at increased mass flow rates of combustion products (up to 4 kg/s), at high magnetic-field induction (up to 5 T), and high values of the electrical field in the MHD generator. The third test has demonstrated that all components and systems of the U-25B facility performed reliably. The electric power generated by the MHD generaor reached a maximum of 575 kW during this test. The MHD generator was operated under electrical loading conditions for 9 hours, and the combustor for a total of approximately 14 hours. Very high Hall fields (2.1 kV/m) were produced in the MHD channel, with a total Hall voltage of 4.24 kV. A detailed description is given of (1) performance of all components and systems of the U-25B facility, (2) analysis of the thermal, gasdynamic, and electrical characteristics of the MHD generator, (3) results of plasma diagnostic studies, (4) studies of vibrational characteristics of the flow train, (5) fluctuation of electrodynamic and gasdynamic parameters, (6) interaction of the MHD generator with the superconducting magnet, and (7) an operational problem, which terminated the test

  19. Dynamic decomposition of spatiotemporal neural signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ambrogioni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Neural signals are characterized by rich temporal and spatiotemporal dynamics that reflect the organization of cortical networks. Theoretical research has shown how neural networks can operate at different dynamic ranges that correspond to specific types of information processing. Here we present a data analysis framework that uses a linearized model of these dynamic states in order to decompose the measured neural signal into a series of components that capture both rhythmic and non-rhythmic neural activity. The method is based on stochastic differential equations and Gaussian process regression. Through computer simulations and analysis of magnetoencephalographic data, we demonstrate the efficacy of the method in identifying meaningful modulations of oscillatory signals corrupted by structured temporal and spatiotemporal noise. These results suggest that the method is particularly suitable for the analysis and interpretation of complex temporal and spatiotemporal neural signals.

  20. Spatio-Temporal Data Exchange Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Schmidt, Albrecht

    2003-01-01

    We believe that research that concerns aspects of spatio-temporal data management may benefit from taking into account the various standards for spatio-temporal data formats. For example, this may contribute to rendering prototype software “open” and more readily useful. This paper thus identifies...... and briefly surveys standardization in relation to primarily the exchange and integration of spatio-temporal data. An overview of several data exchange languages is offered, along with reviews their potential for facilitating the collection of test data and the leveraging of prototypes. The standards, most...... of which are XML-based, lend themselves to the integration of prototypes into middleware architectures, e.g., as Web services....

  1. Spatiotemporal representation of cardiac vectorcardiogram (VCG signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hui

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vectorcardiogram (VCG signals monitor both spatial and temporal cardiac electrical activities along three orthogonal planes of the body. However, the absence of spatiotemporal resolution in conventional VCG representations is a major impediment for medical interpretation and clinical usage of VCG. This is especially so because time-domain features of 12-lead ECG, instead of both spatial and temporal characteristics of VCG, are widely used for the automatic assessment of cardiac pathological patterns. Materials and methods We present a novel representation approach that captures critical spatiotemporal heart dynamics by displaying the real time motion of VCG cardiac vectors in a 3D space. Such a dynamic display can also be realized with only one lead ECG signal (e.g., ambulatory ECG through an alternative lag-reconstructed ECG representation from nonlinear dynamics principles. Furthermore, the trajectories are color coded with additional dynamical properties of space-time VCG signals, e.g., the curvature, speed, octant and phase angles to enhance the information visibility. Results In this investigation, spatiotemporal VCG signal representation is used to characterize various spatiotemporal pathological patterns for healthy control (HC, myocardial infarction (MI, atrial fibrillation (AF and bundle branch block (BBB. The proposed color coding scheme revealed that the spatial locations of the peak of T waves are in the Octant 6 for the majority (i.e., 74 out of 80 of healthy recordings in the PhysioNet PTB database. In contrast, the peak of T waves from 31.79% (117/368 of MI subjects are found to remain in Octant 6 and the rest (68.21% spread over all other octants. The spatiotemporal VCG signal representation is shown to capture the same important heart characteristics as the 12-lead ECG plots and more. Conclusions Spatiotemporal VCG signal representation is shown to facilitate the characterization of space-time cardiac

  2. Ultrasonic guided wave inspection of Inconel 625 brazed lap joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comot, Pierre; Bocher, Philippe; Belanger, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The aerospace industry has been investigating the use of brazing for structural joints, as a mean of reducing cost and weight. There therefore is a need for a rapid, robust, and cost-effective non-destructive testing method for evaluating the structural integrity of the joints. The mechanical strength of brazed joints depends mainly on the amount of brittle phases in their microstructure. Ultrasonic guided waves offer the possibility of detecting brittle phases in joints using spatio-temporal measurements. Moreover, they offer the opportunity to inspect complex shape joints. This study focused on the development of a technique based on ultrasonic guided waves for the inspection of Inconel 625 lap joints brazed with BNi-2 filler metal. A finite element model of a lap joint was used to optimize the inspection parameters and assess the feasibility of detecting the amount of brittle phases in the joint. A finite element parametric study simulating the input signal shape, the center frequency, and the excitation direction was performed. The simulations showed that the ultrasonic guided wave energy transmitted through, and reflected from, the joints was proportional to the amount of brittle phases in the joint.

  3. Spread-spectrum communication using binary spatiotemporal chaotic codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xingang; Zhan Meng; Gong Xiaofeng; Lai, C.H.; Lai, Y.-C.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a scheme to generate binary code for baseband spread-spectrum communication by using a chain of coupled chaotic maps. We compare the performances of this type of spatiotemporal chaotic code with those of a conventional code used frequently in digital communication, the Gold code, and demonstrate that our code is comparable or even superior to the Gold code in several key aspects: security, bit error rate, code generation speed, and the number of possible code sequences. As the field of communicating with chaos faces doubts in terms of performance comparison with conventional digital communication schemes, our work gives a clear message that communicating with chaos can be advantageous and it deserves further attention from the nonlinear science community

  4. Efficient image or video encryption based on spatiotemporal chaos system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Shiguo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, an efficient image/video encryption scheme is constructed based on spatiotemporal chaos system. The chaotic lattices are used to generate pseudorandom sequences and then encrypt image blocks one by one. By iterating chaotic maps for certain times, the generated pseudorandom sequences obtain high initial-value sensitivity and good randomness. The pseudorandom-bits in each lattice are used to encrypt the Direct Current coefficient (DC) and the signs of the Alternating Current coefficients (ACs). Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the scheme has good cryptographic security and perceptual security, and it does not affect the compression efficiency apparently. These properties make the scheme a suitable choice for practical applications.

  5. Mapping near-surface air temperature, pressure, relative humidity and wind speed over Mainland China with high spatiotemporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Zheng, Xiaogu; Dai, Yongjiu; Yang, Chi; Chen, Zhuoqi; Zhang, Shupeng; Wu, Guocan; Wang, Zhonglei; Huang, Chengcheng; Shen, Yan; Liao, Rongwei

    2014-09-01

    As part of a joint effort to construct an atmospheric forcing dataset for mainland China with high spatiotemporal resolution, a new approach is proposed to construct gridded near-surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and surface pressure with a resolution of 1 km×1 km. The approach comprises two steps: (1) fit a partial thin-plate smoothing spline with orography and reanalysis data as explanatory variables to ground-based observations for estimating a trend surface; (2) apply a simple kriging procedure to the residual for trend surface correction. The proposed approach is applied to observations collected at approximately 700 stations over mainland China. The generated forcing fields are compared with the corresponding components of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis dataset and the Princeton meteorological forcing dataset. The comparison shows that, both within the station network and within the resolutions of the two gridded datasets, the interpolation errors of the proposed approach are markedly smaller than the two gridded datasets.

  6. Optimizing an estuarine water quality monitoring program through an entropy-based hierarchical spatiotemporal Bayesian framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Ibrahim; Karmakar, Subhankar; Qian, Song S.; Paerl, Hans W.; Reckhow, Kenneth H.

    2013-10-01

    The total maximum daily load program aims to monitor more than 40,000 standard violations in around 20,000 impaired water bodies across the United States. Given resource limitations, future monitoring efforts have to be hedged against the uncertainties in the monitored system, while taking into account existing knowledge. In that respect, we have developed a hierarchical spatiotemporal Bayesian model that can be used to optimize an existing monitoring network by retaining stations that provide the maximum amount of information, while identifying locations that would benefit from the addition of new stations. The model assumes the water quality parameters are adequately described by a joint matrix normal distribution. The adopted approach allows for a reduction in redundancies, while emphasizing information richness rather than data richness. The developed approach incorporates the concept of entropy to account for the associated uncertainties. Three different entropy-based criteria are adopted: total system entropy, chlorophyll-a standard violation entropy, and dissolved oxygen standard violation entropy. A multiple attribute decision making framework is adopted to integrate the competing design criteria and to generate a single optimal design. The approach is implemented on the water quality monitoring system of the Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina, USA. The model results indicate that the high priority monitoring areas identified by the total system entropy and the dissolved oxygen violation entropy criteria are largely coincident. The monitoring design based on the chlorophyll-a standard violation entropy proved to be less informative, given the low probabilities of violating the water quality standard in the estuary.

  7. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on joint research business (1/2). Photovoltaic power generation field test for public facilities; 1998 nendo kokyo shisetsu nadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo (1/2). Kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Photovoltaic power generation systems are experimentally installed at public facilities at various locations, and subjected to field tests in which they experience long-term operation under real loads. At Livelihood Cooperative Association Co-Op Kanagawa, a photovoltaic cell system is installed on the roof, facing true south, of its Yokohama eastern district joint purchase center, and the power generated by the system is utilized as interconnected with the commercial distribution line connecting to its power facilities. It is called a '10kW Photovoltaic Power Generation Model System,' and is subjected to a verification test, carried over from the previous fiscal year, centering about its usability and safety. Similar systems are also installed at many locations, such as the Kadosawa Bridge district of Ebina City, Kanagawa Prefectural Industrial Technology Research Center, Shiga Prefectural University, Suntory Museum, Fukui Institute of Technology, Saigo Police Station, Higashi-Murayama Water Purification Plant, Kanagawa Prefectural Disaster Prevention Center, Toyosato-cho Health Center, Kyodo Gakusha School, Sakuragi Nursery School, Yagi Junior High School, Shizuoka Prefectural Environmental Radiation Monitoring Center, Tanabe City Health Center. (NEDO)

  8. Analyzing Spatiotemporal Anomalies through Interactive Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As we move into the big data era, data grows not just in size, but also in complexity, containing a rich set of attributes, including location and time information, such as data from mobile devices (e.g., smart phones, natural disasters (e.g., earthquake and hurricane, epidemic spread, etc. We are motivated by the rising challenge and build a visualization tool for exploring generic spatiotemporal data, i.e., records containing time location information and numeric attribute values. Since the values often evolve over time and across geographic regions, we are particularly interested in detecting and analyzing the anomalous changes over time/space. Our analytic tool is based on geographic information system and is combined with spatiotemporal data mining algorithms, as well as various data visualization techniques, such as anomaly grids and anomaly bars superimposed on the map. We study how effective the tool may guide users to find potential anomalies through demonstrating and evaluating over publicly available spatiotemporal datasets. The tool for spatiotemporal anomaly analysis and visualization is useful in many domains, such as security investigation and monitoring, situation awareness, etc.

  9. Comparison of Spatiotemporal Fusion Models: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneously capturing spatial and temporal dynamics is always a challenge for the remote sensing community. Spatiotemporal fusion has gained wide interest in various applications for its superiority in integrating both fine spatial resolution and frequent temporal coverage. Though many advances have been made in spatiotemporal fusion model development and applications in the past decade, a unified comparison among existing fusion models is still limited. In this research, we classify the models into three categories: transformation-based, reconstruction-based, and learning-based models. The objective of this study is to (i compare four fusion models (STARFM, ESTARFM, ISTAFM, and SPSTFM under a one Landsat-MODIS (L-M pair prediction mode and two L-M pair prediction mode using time-series datasets from the Coleambally irrigation area and Poyang Lake wetland; (ii quantitatively assess prediction accuracy considering spatiotemporal comparability, landscape heterogeneity, and model parameter selection; and (iii discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the three categories of spatiotemporal fusion models.

  10. Spatio-temporal modeling for residential burglary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahfoud, M.; Bhulai, Sandjai; van der Mei, R.D.; Bhulai, Sandjai; Kardaras, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    Spatio-temporal modeling is widely recognized as a promising means for predicting crime patterns. Despite their enormous potential, the available methods are still in their infancy. A lot of research focuses on crime hotspot detection and geographic crime clusters, while a systematic approach to

  11. Spatiotemporal complexity in coupled map lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Kunihiko

    1986-01-01

    Some spatiotemporal patterns of couple map lattices are presented. The chaotic kink-like motions are shown for the phase motion of the coupled circle lattices. An extension of the couple map lattice approach to Hamiltonian dynamics is briefly reported. An attempt to characterize the high-dimensional attractor by the extension of the correlation dimension is discussed. (author)

  12. Validating spatiotemporal predictions of an important pest of small grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Scott C; Holtzer, Thomas O; Peairs, Frank B; Lester, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod pests are typically managed using tactics applied uniformly to the whole field. Precision pest management applies tactics under the assumption that within-field pest pressure differences exist. This approach allows for more precise and judicious use of scouting resources and management tactics. For example, a portion of a field delineated as attractive to pests may be selected to receive extra monitoring attention. Likely because of the high variability in pest dynamics, little attention has been given to developing precision pest prediction models. Here, multimodel synthesis was used to develop a spatiotemporal model predicting the density of a key pest of wheat, the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov). Spatially implicit and spatially explicit models were synthesized to generate spatiotemporal pest pressure predictions. Cross-validation and field validation were used to confirm model efficacy. A strong within-field signal depicting aphid density was confirmed with low prediction errors. Results show that the within-field model predictions will provide higher-quality information than would be provided by traditional field scouting. With improvements to the broad-scale model component, the model synthesis approach and resulting tool could improve pest management strategy and provide a template for the development of spatially explicit pest pressure models. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Spatiotemporal electromagnetic soliton and spatial ring formation in nonlinear metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinggui; Wen Shuangchun; Xiang Yuanjiang; Wang Youwen; Luo Hailu

    2010-01-01

    We present a systematic investigation of ultrashort electromagnetic pulse propagation in metamaterials (MMs) with simultaneous cubic electric and magnetic nonlinearity. We predict that spatiotemporal electromagnetic solitons may exist in the positive-index region of a MM with focusing nonlinearity and anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD), as well as in the negative-index region of the MM with defocusing nonlinearity and normal GVD. The experimental circumstances for generating and manipulating spatiotemporal electromagnetic solitons can be created by elaborating appropriate MMs. In addition, we find that, in the negative-index region of a MM, a spatial ring may be formed as the electromagnetic pulse propagates for focusing nonlinearity and anomalous GVD; while the phenomenon of temporal splitting of the electromagnetic pulse may appear for the same case except for the defocusing nonlinearity. Finally, we demonstrate that the nonlinear magnetization makes the sign of effective electric nonlinear effect switchable due to the combined action of electric and magnetic nonlinearity, exerting a significant influence on the propagation of electromagnetic pulses.

  14. Integrating GIS and ABM to Explore Spatiotemporal Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M.; Jiang, Y.; Yang, C.

    2013-12-01

    Agent-based modeling as a methodology for the bottom-up exploration with the account of adaptive behavior and heterogeneity of system components can help discover the development and pattern of the complex social and environmental system. However, ABM is a computationally intensive process especially when the number of system components becomes large and the agent-agent/agent-environmental interaction is modeled very complex. Most of traditional ABM frameworks developed based on CPU do not have a satisfying computing capacity. To address the problem and as the emergence of advanced techniques, GPU computing with CUDA can provide powerful parallel structure to enable the complex simulation of spatiotemporal dynamics. In this study, we first develop a GPU-based ABM system. Secondly, in order to visualize the dynamics generated from the movement of agent and the change of agent/environmental attributes during the simulation, we integrate GIS into the ABM system. Advanced geovisualization technologies can be utilized for representing the spatiotemporal change events, such as proper 2D/3D maps with state-of-the-art symbols, space-time cube and multiple layers each of which presents pattern in one time-stamp, etc. Thirdly, visual analytics which include interactive tools (e.g. grouping, filtering, linking, etc.) is included in our ABM-GIS system to help users conduct real-time data exploration during the progress of simulation. Analysis like flow analysis and spatial cluster analysis can be integrated according to the geographical problem we want to explore.

  15. Mining Spatiotemporal Patterns of the Elder's Daily Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. R.; Chen, C. F.; Liu, M. E.; Tsai, S. J.; Son, N. T.; Kinh, L. V.

    2016-06-01

    With rapid developments in wearable device technology, a vast amount of spatiotemporal data, such as people's movement and physical activities, are generated. Information derived from the data reveals important knowledge that can contribute a long-term care and psychological assessment of the elders' living condition especially in long-term care institutions. This study aims to develop a method to investigate the spatial-temporal movement patterns of the elders with their outdoor trajectory information. To achieve the goal, GPS based location data of the elderly subjects from long-term care institutions are collected and analysed with geographic information system (GIS). A GIS statistical model is developed to mine the elderly subjects' spatiotemporal patterns with the location data and represent their daily movement pattern at particular time. The proposed method first finds the meaningful trajectory and extracts the frequent patterns from the time-stamp location data. Then, a density-based clustering method is used to identify the major moving range and the gather/stay hotspot in both spatial and temporal dimensions. The preliminary results indicate that the major moving area of the elderly people encompasses their dorm and has a short moving distance who often stay in the same site. Subjects' outdoor appearance are corresponded to their life routine. The results can be useful for understanding elders' social network construction, risky area identification and medical care monitoring.

  16. A modified consumer inkjet for spatiotemporal control of gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Cohen

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low-cost inkjet dosing system capable of continuous, two-dimensional spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression via delivery of diffusible regulators to a custom-mounted gel culture of E. coli. A consumer-grade, inkjet printer was adapted for chemical printing; E. coli cultures were grown on 750 microm thick agar embedded in micro-wells machined into commercial compact discs. Spatio-temporal regulation of the lac operon was demonstrated via the printing of patterns of lactose and glucose directly into the cultures; X-Gal blue patterns were used for visual feedback. We demonstrate how the bistable nature of the lac operon's feedback, when perturbed by patterning lactose (inducer and glucose (inhibitor, can lead to coordination of cell expression patterns across a field in ways that mimic motifs seen in developmental biology. Examples of this include sharp boundaries and the generation of traveling waves of mRNA expression. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of reaction-diffusion effects in the well-studied lac operon. A finite element reaction-diffusion model of the lac operon is also presented which predicts pattern formation with good fidelity.

  17. A Flexible Spatio-Temporal Model for Air Pollution with Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Covariates

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Johan; Szpiro, Adam A; Sampson, Paul D; Oron, Assaf P; Richards, Mark; Larson, Tim V; Sheppard, Lianne

    2013-01-01

    The development of models that provide accurate spatio-temporal predictions of ambient air pollution at small spatial scales is of great importance for the assessment of potential health effects of air pollution. Here we present a spatio-temporal framework that predicts ambient air pollution by combining data from several different monitoring networks and deterministic air pollution model(s) with geographic information system (GIS) covariates. The model presented in this paper has been implem...

  18. The Voronoi spatio-temporal data structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioc, Darka

    2002-04-01

    Current GIS models cannot integrate the temporal dimension of spatial data easily. Indeed, current GISs do not support incremental (local) addition and deletion of spatial objects, and they can not support the temporal evolution of spatial data. Spatio-temporal facilities would be very useful in many GIS applications: harvesting and forest planning, cadastre, urban and regional planning, and emergency planning. The spatio-temporal model that can overcome these problems is based on a topological model---the Voronoi data structure. Voronoi diagrams are irregular tessellations of space, that adapt to spatial objects and therefore they are a synthesis of raster and vector spatial data models. The main advantage of the Voronoi data structure is its local and sequential map updates, which allows us to automatically record each event and performed map updates within the system. These map updates are executed through map construction commands that are composed of atomic actions (geometric algorithms for addition, deletion, and motion of spatial objects) on the dynamic Voronoi data structure. The formalization of map commands led to the development of a spatial language comprising a set of atomic operations or constructs on spatial primitives (points and lines), powerful enough to define the complex operations. This resulted in a new formal model for spatio-temporal change representation, where each update is uniquely characterized by the numbers of newly created and inactivated Voronoi regions. This is used for the extension of the model towards the hierarchical Voronoi data structure. In this model, spatio-temporal changes induced by map updates are preserved in a hierarchical data structure that combines events and corresponding changes in topology. This hierarchical Voronoi data structure has an implicit time ordering of events visible through changes in topology, and it is equivalent to an event structure that can support temporal data without precise temporal

  19. Fiscal 2000 report on data of international joint demonstrative development of photovoltaic power generation system. Demonstrative research on photovoltaic power generation system interconnection system (Myanmar); 2000 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system kokusai kyodo jissho kaihatsu hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden keito renkei system jissho kenkyu (Myanmar) - shiryohen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the fiscal 2000 report on research data of joint demonstrative development with Myanmar concerning photovoltaic power generation system interconnection system. The purpose is an operation research in the case where a small-scale electric power generation system in an remote island or the like in Japan is linked with a severely output-fluctuating power generation system using energy of nature such as photovoltaic and wind power generation. In particular, among the system control (demand side management) methods by adjustment from a loading side, ballast load control was employed that adjustably operates load of an ice machine for example. As the contents of the data, the quantity of solar radiation and wind velocity at the Chaungthar site were shown as meteorological observation data. In addition, a graph was made on the meteorological observation data at the Chaungthar and Letkhokekone sites. The paper also explains the final explanatory data for selecting the sites in implementing the demonstrative research. As to the operation method of the hybrid power generation system, assumption was made for the daytime load in four cases from 50% (30kW) to 0% (0kW) of the nighttime. Storage batteries and diesel generators were installed and used in combination. Simulation results were also presented. (NEDO)

  20. Proceedings of the 1998 international joint power generation conference (FACT-Vol.22). Volume 1: Fuels and combustion technologies; Gas turbines; Environmental engineering; Nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.; Natole, R.; Sanyal, A.; Veilleux, J.

    1998-01-01

    Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Fuels and combustion technologies; Low NOx burner applications; Low cost solutions to utility NOx compliance issues; Coal combustion--Retrofit experiences, low NOx, and efficiency; Highly preheated air combustion; Combustion control and optimization; Advanced technology for gas fuel combustion; Spray combustion and mixing; Efficient power generation using gas turbines; Safety issues in power industry; Efficient and environmentally benign conversion of wastes to energy; Artificial intelligence monitoring, control, and optimization of power plants; Combustion modeling and diagnostics; Advanced combustion technologies and combustion synthesis; Aero and industrial gas turbine presentations IGTI gas turbine division; NOx/SO 2 ; Plant cooling water system problems and solutions; Issues affecting plant operations and maintenance; and Costs associated with operating and not operating a nuclear power plant. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the database

  1. Spatiotemporal drought forecasting using nonlinear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliades, Lampros; Loukas, Athanasios

    2010-05-01

    Spatiotemporal data mining is the extraction of unknown and implicit knowledge, structures, spatiotemporal relationships, or patterns not explicitly stored in spatiotemporal databases. As one of data mining techniques, forecasting is widely used to predict the unknown future based upon the patterns hidden in the current and past data. In order to achieve spatiotemporal forecasting, some mature analysis tools, e.g., time series and spatial statistics are extended to the spatial dimension and the temporal dimension, respectively. Drought forecasting plays an important role in the planning and management of natural resources and water resource systems in a river basin. Early and timelines forecasting of a drought event can help to take proactive measures and set out drought mitigation strategies to alleviate the impacts of drought. Despite the widespread application of nonlinear mathematical models, comparative studies on spatiotemporal drought forecasting using different models are still a huge task for modellers. This study uses a promising approach, the Gamma Test (GT), to select the input variables and the training data length, so that the trial and error workload could be greatly reduced. The GT enables to quickly evaluate and estimate the best mean squared error that can be achieved by a smooth model on any unseen data for a given selection of inputs, prior to model construction. The GT is applied to forecast droughts using monthly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) timeseries at multiple timescales in several precipitation stations at Pinios river basin in Thessaly region, Greece. Several nonlinear models have been developed efficiently, with the aid of the GT, for 1-month up to 12-month ahead forecasting. Several temporal and spatial statistical indices were considered for the performance evaluation of the models. The predicted results show reasonably good agreement with the actual data for short lead times, whereas the forecasting accuracy decreases with

  2. Joint modeling of constrained path enumeration and path choice behavior: a semi-compensatory approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    A behavioural and a modelling framework are proposed for representing route choice from a path set that satisfies travellers’ spatiotemporal constraints. Within the proposed framework, travellers’ master sets are constructed by path generation, consideration sets are delimited according to spatio...

  3. Enhanced electricity system analysis for decision making - A reference book[Inter-agency joint project on data bases and methodologies for comparative assessment of different energy sources for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    The objective of electricity system analysis in support of decision making is to provide comparative assessment results upon which relevant policy choices between alternative technology options and supply strategies can be based. This reference book offers analysts, planners and decision makers documented information on enhanced approaches to electricity system analysis, that can assist in achieving this objective. The book describes the main elements of comprehensive electricity system analysis and outlines an advanced integrated analysis and decision making framework for the electric power sector. Emphasis is placed on mechanisms for building consensus between interested and affected parties, and on aspects of planning that go beyond the traditional economic optimisation approach. The scope and contents of the book cover the topics to be addressed in decision making for the power sector and the process of integrating economic, social, health and environmental aspects in the comparative assessment of alternative options and strategies. The book describes and discusses overall frameworks, processes and state of the art methods and techniques available to analysts and planners for carrying out comparative assessment studies, in order to provide sound information to decision makers. This reference book is published as part of a series of technical reports and documents prepared in the framework of the inter-agency joint project (DECADES) on databases and methodologies for comparative assessment of different energy sources for electricity generation. The overall objective of the DECADES project is to enhance capabilities for incorporating economic, social, health and environmental issues in the comparative assessment of electricity generation options and strategies in the process of decision making for the power sector. The project, established in 1992, is carried out jointly by the European Commission (EC), the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

  4. Joint Analysis of Strain and Parent-of-Origin Effects for Recombinant Inbred Intercrosses Generated from Multiparent Populations with the Collaborative Cross as an Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanyan; Xiong, Sican; Sun, Wei; Zou, Fei

    2018-02-02

    Multiparent populations (MPP) have become popular resources for complex trait mapping because of their wider allelic diversity and larger population size compared with traditional two-way recombinant inbred (RI) strains. In mice, the collaborative cross (CC) is one of the most popular MPP and is derived from eight genetically diverse inbred founder strains. The strategy of generating RI intercrosses (RIX) from MPP in general and from the CC in particular can produce a large number of completely reproducible heterozygote genomes that better represent the (outbred) human population. Since both maternal and paternal haplotypes of each RIX are readily available, RIX is a powerful resource for studying both standing genetic and epigenetic variations of complex traits, in particular, the parent-of-origin (PoO) effects, which are important contributors to many complex traits. Furthermore, most complex traits are affected by >1 genes, where multiple quantitative trait locus mapping could be more advantageous. In this paper, for MPP-RIX data but taking CC-RIX as a working example, we propose a general Bayesian variable selection procedure to simultaneously search for multiple genes with founder allelic effects and PoO effects. The proposed model respects the complex relationship among RIX samples, and the performance of the proposed method is examined by extensive simulations. Copyright © 2018 Liu et al.

  5. Evaluation technology for burnup and generated amount of plutonium by measurement of Xenon isotopic ratio in dissolver off-gas at reprocessing facility (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Masanori; Kuno, Takehiko; Shirouzu, Hidetomo; Yamada, Keiji; Sakai, Toshio; Takahashi, Ichiro; Charlton, William S.; Wells, Cyndi A.; Hemberger, Philip H.

    2006-12-01

    The amount of Pu in the spent fuel was evaluated from Xe isotopic ratio in off-gas in reprocessing facility, is related to burnup. Six batches of dissolver off-gas (DOG) at spent fuel dissolution process were sampled from the main stack in Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) during BWR fuel (approx. 30GWD/MTU) reprocessing campaign. Xenon isotopic ratio was determined with Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. Burnup and generated amount of Pu were evaluated with Noble Gas Environmental Monitoring Application code (NOVA), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Inferred burnup evaluated by Xe isotopic measurements and NOVA were in good agreement with those of the declared burnup in the range from -3.8% to 7.1%. Also, the inferred amount of Pu in spent fuel was in good agreed with those of the declared amount of Pu calculated by ORIGEN code in the range from -0.9% to 4.7%. The evaluation technique is applicable for both burnup credit to achieve efficient criticality safety control and a new measurement method for safeguards inspection. (author)

  6. A joint-constraint model for human joints using signed distance-fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Abel, Sarah Maria Niebe; Erleben, Kenny

    2012-01-01

    We present a local joint-constraint model for a single joint which is based on distance fields. Our model is fast, general, and well suited for modeling human joints. In this work, we take a geometric approach and model the geometry of the boundary of the feasible region, i.e., the boundary of all...... allowed poses. A region of feasible poses can be built by embedding motion captured data points in a signed distance field. The only assumption is that the feasible poses form a single connected set of angular values. We show how signed distance fields can be used to generate fast and general joint......-joint dependencies, or joints with more than three degrees of freedom. The resolution of the joint-constraints can be tweaked individually for each degree of freedom, which can be used to optimize memory usage. We perform a comparative study of the key-properties of various joint-constraint models, as well...

  7. Nonparametric evaluation of dynamic disease risk: a spatio-temporal kernel approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Zhang

    Full Text Available Quantifying the distributions of disease risk in space and time jointly is a key element for understanding spatio-temporal phenomena while also having the potential to enhance our understanding of epidemiologic trajectories. However, most studies to date have neglected time dimension and focus instead on the "average" spatial pattern of disease risk, thereby masking time trajectories of disease risk. In this study we propose a new idea titled "spatio-temporal kernel density estimation (stKDE" that employs hybrid kernel (i.e., weight functions to evaluate the spatio-temporal disease risks. This approach not only can make full use of sample data but also "borrows" information in a particular manner from neighboring points both in space and time via appropriate choice of kernel functions. Monte Carlo simulations show that the proposed method performs substantially better than the traditional (i.e., frequency-based kernel density estimation (trKDE which has been used in applied settings while two illustrative examples demonstrate that the proposed approach can yield superior results compared to the popular trKDE approach. In addition, there exist various possibilities for improving and extending this method.

  8. Joint Instability and Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl Blalock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA. Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA.

  9. Joint instability and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blalock, Darryl; Miller, Andrew; Tilley, Michael; Wang, Jinxi

    2015-01-01

    Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA.

  10. Factor copula models for data with spatio-temporal dependence

    KAUST Repository

    Krupskii, Pavel

    2017-10-13

    We propose a new copula model for spatial data that are observed repeatedly in time. The model is based on the assumption that there exists a common factor that affects the measurements of a process in space and in time. Unlike models based on multivariate normality, our model can handle data with tail dependence and asymmetry. The likelihood for the proposed model can be obtained in a simple form and therefore parameter estimation is quite fast. Simulation from this model is straightforward and data can be predicted at any spatial location and time point. We use simulation studies to show different types of dependencies, both in space and in time, that can be generated by this model. We apply the proposed copula model to hourly wind data and compare its performance with some classical models for spatio-temporal data.

  11. Factor copula models for data with spatio-temporal dependence

    KAUST Repository

    Krupskii, Pavel; Genton, Marc G.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new copula model for spatial data that are observed repeatedly in time. The model is based on the assumption that there exists a common factor that affects the measurements of a process in space and in time. Unlike models based on multivariate normality, our model can handle data with tail dependence and asymmetry. The likelihood for the proposed model can be obtained in a simple form and therefore parameter estimation is quite fast. Simulation from this model is straightforward and data can be predicted at any spatial location and time point. We use simulation studies to show different types of dependencies, both in space and in time, that can be generated by this model. We apply the proposed copula model to hourly wind data and compare its performance with some classical models for spatio-temporal data.

  12. Spatiotemporal Interpolation of Rainfall by Combining BME Theory and Satellite Rainfall Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Shi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The accurate assessment of spatiotemporal rainfall variability is a crucial and challenging task in many hydrological applications, mainly due to the lack of a sufficient number of rain gauges. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the spatiotemporal variations of annual and monthly rainfall over Fujian province in China by combining the Bayesian maximum entropy (BME method and satellite rainfall estimates. Specifically, based on annual and monthly rainfall data at 20 meteorological stations from 2000 to 2012, (1 the BME method with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM estimates considered as soft data, (2 ordinary kriging (OK and (3 cokriging (CK were employed to model the spatiotemporal variations of rainfall in Fujian province. Subsequently, the performance of these methods was evaluated using cross-validation statistics. The results demonstrated that BME with TRMM as soft data (BME-TRMM performed better than the other two methods, generating rainfall maps that represented the local rainfall disparities in a more realistic manner. Of the three interpolation (mapping methods, the mean absolute error (MAE and root mean square error (RMSE values of the BME-TRMM method were the smallest. In conclusion, the BME-TRMM method improved spatiotemporal rainfall modeling and mapping by integrating hard data and soft information. Lastly, the study identified new opportunities concerning the application of TRMM rainfall estimates.

  13. a Comparative Analysis of Spatiotemporal Data Fusion Models for Landsat and Modis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazaymeh, K.; Almagbile, A.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, three documented spatiotemporal data fusion models were applied to Landsat-7 and MODIS surface reflectance, and NDVI. The algorithms included the spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model (STARFM), sparse representation based on a spatiotemporal reflectance fusion model (SPSTFM), and spatiotemporal image-fusion model (STI-FM). The objectives of this study were to (i) compare the performance of these three fusion models using a one Landsat-MODIS spectral reflectance image pairs using time-series datasets from the Coleambally irrigation area in Australia, and (ii) quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the synthetic images generated from each fusion model using statistical measurements. Results showed that the three fusion models predicted the synthetic Landsat-7 image with adequate agreements. The STI-FM produced more accurate reconstructions of both Landsat-7 spectral bands and NDVI. Furthermore, it produced surface reflectance images having the highest correlation with the actual Landsat-7 images. This study indicated that STI-FM would be more suitable for spatiotemporal data fusion applications such as vegetation monitoring, drought monitoring, and evapotranspiration.

  14. Spatiotemporal chaos and two-dimensional dissipative rogue waves in Lugiato-Lefever model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panajotov, Krassimir; Clerc, Marcel G.; Tlidi, Mustapha

    2017-06-01

    Driven nonlinear optical cavities can exhibit complex spatiotemporal dynamics. We consider the paradigmatic Lugiato-Lefever model describing driven nonlinear optical resonator. This model is one of the most-studied nonlinear equations in optics. It describes a large spectrum of nonlinear phenomena from bistability, to periodic patterns, localized structures, self-pulsating localized structures and to a complex spatiotemporal behavior. The model is considered also as prototype model to describe several optical nonlinear devices such as Kerr media, liquid crystals, left handed materials, nonlinear fiber cavity, and frequency comb generation. We focus our analysis on a spatiotemporal chaotic dynamics in one-dimension. We identify a route to spatiotemporal chaos through an extended quasiperiodicity. We have estimated the Kaplan-Yorke dimension that provides a measure of the strange attractor complexity. Likewise, we show that the Lugiato-Leferver equation supports rogues waves in two-dimensional settings. We characterize rogue-wave formation by computing the probability distribution of the pulse height. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Theory and Applications of the Lugiato-Lefever Equation", edited by Yanne K. Chembo, Damia Gomila, Mustapha Tlidi, Curtis R. Menyuk.

  15. Spatiotemporally Representative and Cost-Efficient Sampling Design for Validation Activities in Wanglang Experimental Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaofei Yin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporally representative Elementary Sampling Units (ESUs are required for capturing the temporal variations in surface spatial heterogeneity through field measurements. Since inaccessibility often coexists with heterogeneity, a cost-efficient sampling design is mandatory. We proposed a sampling strategy to generate spatiotemporally representative and cost-efficient ESUs based on the conditioned Latin hypercube sampling scheme. The proposed strategy was constrained by multi-temporal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI imagery, and the ESUs were limited within a sampling feasible region established based on accessibility criteria. A novel criterion based on the Overlapping Area (OA between the NDVI frequency distribution histogram from the sampled ESUs and that from the entire study area was used to assess the sampling efficiency. A case study in Wanglang National Nature Reserve in China showed that the proposed strategy improves the spatiotemporally representativeness of sampling (mean annual OA = 74.7% compared to the single-temporally constrained (OA = 68.7% and the random sampling (OA = 63.1% strategies. The introduction of the feasible region constraint significantly reduces in-situ labour-intensive characterization necessities at expenses of about 9% loss in the spatiotemporal representativeness of the sampling. Our study will support the validation activities in Wanglang experimental site providing a benchmark for locating the nodes of automatic observation systems (e.g., LAINet which need a spatially distributed and temporally fixed sampling design.

  16. A FRAMEWORK FOR ONLINE SPATIO-TEMPORAL DATA VISUALIZATION BASED ON HTML5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Web is entering a new phase – HTML5. New features of HTML5 should be studied for online spatio-temporal data visualization. In the proposed framework, spatio-temporal data is stored in the data server and is sent to user browsers with WebSocket. Public geo-data such as Internet digital map is integrated into the browsers. Then animation is implemented through the canvas object defined by the HTML5 specification. To simulate the spatio-temporal data source, we collected the daily location of 15 users with GPS tracker. The current positions of the users are collected every minute and are recorded in a file. Based on this file, we generate a real time spatio-temporal data source which sends out current user location every second.By enlarging the real time scales by 60 times, we can observe the movement clearly. The data transmitted with WebSocket is the coordinates of users' current positions, which will can be demonstrated in client browsers.

  17. Effects of climate change adaptation scenarios on perceived spatio-temporal characteristics of drought events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, J.-P.; Martin, E.; Kitova, N.; Najac, J.; Soubeyroux, J.-M.

    2012-04-01

    Drought events develop in both space and time and they are therefore best described through summary joint spatio-temporal characteristics, like mean duration, mean affected area and total magnitude. This study addresses the issue of future projections of such characteristics of drought events over France through three main research questions: (1) Are downscaled climate projections able to reproduce spatio-temporal characteristics of meteorological and agricultural droughts in France over a present-day period? (2) How such characteristics will evolve over the 21st century under different emissions scenarios? (3) How would perceived drought characteristics evolve under theoretical adaptation scenarios? These questions are addressed using the Isba land surface model, downscaled climate projections from the ARPEGE General Circulation Model under three emissions scenarios, as well as results from a previously performed 50-year multilevel and multiscale drought reanalysis over France (Vidal et al., 2010). Spatio-temporal characteristics of meteorological and agricultural drought events are computed using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardized Soil Wetness Index (SSWI), respectively, and for time scales of 3 and 12 months. Results first show that the distributions of joint spatio-temporal characteristics of observed events are well reproduced by the downscaled hydroclimate projections over a present-day period. All spatio-temporal characteristics of drought events are then found to dramatically increase over the 21st century under all considered emissions scenarios, with stronger changes for agricultural droughts. Two theoretical adaptation scenarios are eventually built based on hypotheses of adaptation to evolving climate and hydrological normals. The two scenarios differ by the way the transient adaptation is performed for a given date in the future, with reference to the normals over either the previous 30-year window ("retrospective

  18. What Is Spatio-Temporal Data Warehousing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisman, Alejandro; Zimányi, Esteban

    In the last years, extending OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) systems with spatial and temporal features has attracted the attention of the GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and database communities. However, there is no a commonly agreed definition of what is a spatio-temporal data warehouse and what functionality such a data warehouse should support. Further, the solutions proposed in the literature vary considerably in the kind of data that can be represented as well as the kind of queries that can be expressed. In this paper we present a conceptual framework for defining spatio-temporal data warehouses using an extensible data type system. We also define a taxonomy of different classes of queries of increasing expressive power, and show how to express such queries using an extension of the tuple relational calculus with aggregated functions.

  19. Statistical methods for spatio-temporal systems

    CERN Document Server

    Finkenstadt, Barbel

    2006-01-01

    Statistical Methods for Spatio-Temporal Systems presents current statistical research issues on spatio-temporal data modeling and will promote advances in research and a greater understanding between the mechanistic and the statistical modeling communities.Contributed by leading researchers in the field, each self-contained chapter starts with an introduction of the topic and progresses to recent research results. Presenting specific examples of epidemic data of bovine tuberculosis, gastroenteric disease, and the U.K. foot-and-mouth outbreak, the first chapter uses stochastic models, such as point process models, to provide the probabilistic backbone that facilitates statistical inference from data. The next chapter discusses the critical issue of modeling random growth objects in diverse biological systems, such as bacteria colonies, tumors, and plant populations. The subsequent chapter examines data transformation tools using examples from ecology and air quality data, followed by a chapter on space-time co...

  20. Exploring the spatio-temporal neural basis of face learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Xu, Yang; Jew, Carol A.; Pyles, John A.; Kass, Robert E.; Tarr, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Humans are experts at face individuation. Although previous work has identified a network of face-sensitive regions and some of the temporal signatures of face processing, as yet, we do not have a clear understanding of how such face-sensitive regions support learning at different time points. To study the joint spatio-temporal neural basis of face learning, we trained subjects to categorize two groups of novel faces and recorded their neural responses using magnetoencephalography (MEG) throughout learning. A regression analysis of neural responses in face-sensitive regions against behavioral learning curves revealed significant correlations with learning in the majority of the face-sensitive regions in the face network, mostly between 150–250 ms, but also after 300 ms. However, the effect was smaller in nonventral regions (within the superior temporal areas and prefrontal cortex) than that in the ventral regions (within the inferior occipital gyri (IOG), midfusiform gyri (mFUS) and anterior temporal lobes). A multivariate discriminant analysis also revealed that IOG and mFUS, which showed strong correlation effects with learning, exhibited significant discriminability between the two face categories at different time points both between 150–250 ms and after 300 ms. In contrast, the nonventral face-sensitive regions, where correlation effects with learning were smaller, did exhibit some significant discriminability, but mainly after 300 ms. In sum, our findings indicate that early and recurring temporal components arising from ventral face-sensitive regions are critically involved in learning new faces. PMID:28570739

  1. Spatiotemporal control of laser intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froula, Dustin H.; Turnbull, David; Davies, Andrew S.; Kessler, Terrance J.; Haberberger, Dan; Palastro, John P.; Bahk, Seung-Whan; Begishev, Ildar A.; Boni, Robert; Bucht, Sara; Katz, Joseph; Shaw, Jessica L.

    2018-05-01

    The controlled coupling of a laser to plasma has the potential to address grand scientific challenges1-6, but many applications have limited flexibility and poor control over the laser focal volume. Here, we present an advanced focusing scheme called a `flying focus', where a chromatic focusing system combined with chirped laser pulses enables a small-diameter laser focus to propagate nearly 100 times its Rayleigh length. Furthermore, the speed at which the focus moves (and hence the peak intensity) is decoupled from the group velocity of the laser. It can co- or counter-propagate along the laser axis at any velocity. Experiments validating the concept measured subluminal (-0.09c) to superluminal (39c) focal-spot velocities, generating a nearly constant peak intensity over 4.5 mm. Among possible applications, the flying focus could be applied to a photon accelerator7 to mitigate dephasing, facilitating the production of tunable XUV sources.

  2. Spatiotemporal patterns and predictability of cyberattacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Zhong Chen

    Full Text Available A relatively unexplored issue in cybersecurity science and engineering is whether there exist intrinsic patterns of cyberattacks. Conventional wisdom favors absence of such patterns due to the overwhelming complexity of the modern cyberspace. Surprisingly, through a detailed analysis of an extensive data set that records the time-dependent frequencies of attacks over a relatively wide range of consecutive IP addresses, we successfully uncover intrinsic spatiotemporal patterns underlying cyberattacks, where the term "spatio" refers to the IP address space. In particular, we focus on analyzing macroscopic properties of the attack traffic flows and identify two main patterns with distinct spatiotemporal characteristics: deterministic and stochastic. Strikingly, there are very few sets of major attackers committing almost all the attacks, since their attack "fingerprints" and target selection scheme can be unequivocally identified according to the very limited number of unique spatiotemporal characteristics, each of which only exists on a consecutive IP region and differs significantly from the others. We utilize a number of quantitative measures, including the flux-fluctuation law, the Markov state transition probability matrix, and predictability measures, to characterize the attack patterns in a comprehensive manner. A general finding is that the attack patterns possess high degrees of predictability, potentially paving the way to anticipating and, consequently, mitigating or even preventing large-scale cyberattacks using macroscopic approaches.

  3. Fiscal 2000 report on result of international joint demonstrative development of photovoltaic power generation system. Demonstrative research on photovoltaic power generation system interconnection system (Myanmar); 2000 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system kokusai kyodo jissho kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden keito renkei system jissho kenkyu (Myanmar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Joint research was conducted with Myanmar on a photovoltaic power generation system interconnection system, for which fiscal 2000 results were described in this paper. Power generating facilities were set up consisting of 80kW photovoltaic, 40kW wind and 60kW diesel systems. With the photovoltaic and wind power generation connected to a small-scale power system as a ballast load, the system interconnection is formed through load adjusting equipment such as storage batteries. The hybrid system feeding is from 6 o'clock early in the morning until 23 late at night. The diesel power generation is free from restrictions. The operating method was set on system control (demand side management) by adjustment from the load side, with ballast load control employed that adjustably operates an ice machine load. The basic design was drafted in terms of a storage battery capacity of 1,000Ah and an ice machine load of 32kW. The daytime load was assumed to be 25% of the night load. On the equipment specifications set in this basic design, arrangement design was conducted for the equipment in the premises, making a land development plan and a basic construction plan including a temporary work site, construction steps, transportation and delivery of the equipment. Quantity of solar radiation and wind data were continuously observed. (NEDO)

  4. Cryptanalysis on an image block encryption algorithm based on spatiotemporal chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xing-Yuan; He Guo-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    An image block encryption scheme based on spatiotemporal chaos has been proposed recently. In this paper, we analyse the security weakness of the proposal. The main problem of the original scheme is that the generated keystream remains unchanged for encrypting every image. Based on the flaws, we demonstrate a chosen plaintext attack for revealing the equivalent keys with only 6 pairs of plaintext/ciphertext used. Finally, experimental results show the validity of our attack. (general)

  5. Rainfall spatiotemporal variability relation to wetlands hydroperiods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Hidalgo, Carmen; Guardiola-Albert, Carolina; Fernandez-Naranjo, Nuria

    2017-04-01

    Doñana natural space (Southwestern Spain) is one of the largest protected wetlands in Europe. The wide marshes present in this natural space have such ecological value that this wetland has been declared a Ramsar reserve in 1982. Apart from the extensive marsh, there are also small lagoons and seasonally flooded areas which are likewise essential to maintain a wide variety of valuable habitats. Hydroperiod, the length of time each point remains flooded along an annual cycle, is a critical ecological parameter that shapes aquatic plants and animals distribution and determines available habitat for many of the living organisms in the marshes. Recently, there have been published two different works estimating the hydroperiod of Doñana lagoons with Landsat Time Series images (Cifuentes et al., 2015; Díaz-Delgado et al., 2016). In both works the flooding cycle hydroperiod in Doñana marshes reveals a flooding regime mainly driven by rainfall, evapotranspiration, topography and local hydrological management actions. The correlation found between rainfall and hydroperiod is studied differently in both works. While in one the rainfall is taken from one raingauge (Cifuentes et al., 2015), the one performed by Díaz-Delgado (2016) uses annual rainfall maps interpolated with the inverse of the distance method. The rainfall spatiotemporal variability in this area can be highly significant; however the amount of this importance has not been quantified at the moment. In the present work the geostatistical tool known as spatiotemporal variogram is used to study the rainfall spatiotemporal variability. The spacetime package implemented in R (Pebesma, 2012) facilities its computation from a high rainfall data base of more than 100 raingauges from 1950 to 2016. With the aid of these variograms the rainfall spatiotemporal variability is quantified. The principal aim of the present work is the study of the relation between the rainfall spatiotemporal variability and the

  6. Spatiotemporal Ultrafast-Plasmon Control Based on Response Functions of Nanostructures Measured by Interferometric Cross-Correlation Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusaba Miyuki

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate an electrical-field cross-correlation imaging technique to obtain a response function of localized plasmon generated by femtosecond laser pulses on gold nanostructures. Based on the measured response functions, we spatiotemporally control the plasmon by shaping the femtosecond excitation laser pulses.

  7. International joint ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2001-01-01

    The article analysis problems connected with corporate joint ventures. Among others the possible conflicts between the joint venture agreement and the statutes of the companies is examined, as well as certain problems connected to the fact that the joint venture partners have created commen control...... over their joint company....

  8. Unsupervised Learning of Spatiotemporal Features by Video Completion

    OpenAIRE

    Nallabolu, Adithya Reddy

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present an unsupervised representation learning approach for learning rich spatiotemporal features from videos without the supervision from semantic labels. We propose to learn the spatiotemporal features by training a 3D convolutional neural network (CNN) using video completion as a surrogate task. Using a large collection of unlabeled videos, we train the CNN to predict the missing pixels of a spatiotemporal hole given the remaining parts of the video through minimizing per...

  9. Spatiotemporal Propagation of the Cortical Atrophy: Population and Individual Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Koval

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Repeated failures in clinical trials for Alzheimer’s disease (AD have raised a strong interest for the prodromal phase of the disease. A better understanding of the brain alterations during this early phase is crucial to diagnose patients sooner, to estimate an accurate disease stage, and to give a reliable prognosis. According to recent evidence, structural alterations in the brain are likely to be sensitive markers of the disease progression. Neuronal loss translates in specific spatiotemporal patterns of cortical atrophy, starting in the enthorinal cortex and spreading over other cortical regions according to specific propagation pathways. We developed a digital model of the cortical atrophy in the left hemisphere from prodromal to diseased phases, which is built on the temporal alignment and combination of several short-term observation data to reconstruct the long-term history of the disease. The model not only provides a description of the spatiotemporal patterns of cortical atrophy at the group level but also shows the variability of these patterns at the individual level in terms of difference in propagation pathways, speed of propagation, and age at propagation onset. Longitudinal MRI datasets of patients with mild cognitive impairments who converted to AD are used to reconstruct the cortical atrophy propagation across all disease stages. Each observation is considered as a signal spatially distributed on a network, such as the cortical mesh, each cortex location being associated to a node. We consider how the temporal profile of the signal varies across the network nodes. We introduce a statistical mixed-effect model to describe the evolution of the cortex alterations. To ensure a spatiotemporal smooth propagation of the alterations, we introduce a constrain on the propagation signal in the model such that neighboring nodes have similar profiles of the signal changes. Our generative model enables the reconstruction of personalized

  10. UNDERSTANDING SEVERE WEATHER PROCESSES THROUGH SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — UNDERSTANDING SEVERE WEATHER PROCESSES THROUGH SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS AMY MCGOVERN, TIMOTHY SUPINIE, DAVID JOHN GAGNE II, NATHANIEL TROUTMAN,...

  11. Benefits of spatiotemporal modeling for short-term wind power forecasting at both individual and aggregated levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenzi, Amanda; Steinsland, Ingelin; Pinson, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    The share of wind energy in total installed power capacity has grown rapidly in recent years. Producing accurate and reliable forecasts of wind power production, together with a quantification of the uncertainty, is essential to optimally integrate wind energy into power systems. We build...... spatiotemporal models for wind power generation and obtain full probabilistic forecasts from 15 min to 5 h ahead. Detailed analyses of forecast performances on individual wind farms and aggregated wind power are provided. The predictions from our models are evaluated on a data set from wind farms in western...... Denmark using a sliding window approach, for which estimation is performed using only the last available measurements. The case study shows that it is important to have a spatiotemporal model instead of a temporal one to achieve calibrated aggregated forecasts. Furthermore, spatiotemporal models have...

  12. Spatio-temporal intermittency on the sandpile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erzan, A.; Sinha, S.

    1990-08-01

    The self-organized critical state exhibited by a sandpile model is shown to correspond to motion on an attractor characterized by an invariant distribution of the height variable. The largest Lyapunov exponent is equal to zero. The model nonetheless displays intermittent chaos, with a multifractal distribution of local expansion coefficients in history space. Laminar spatio-temporal regions are interrupted by chaotic bursts caused by avalanches. We introduce the concept of local histories in configuration space and show that their expansion parameters also exhibit a multifractal distribution in time and space. (author). 22 refs, 5 figs

  13. One-way hash function construction based on the spatiotemporal chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yu-Ling; Du Ming-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Based on the spatiotemporal chaotic system, a novel algorithm for constructing a one-way hash function is proposed and analysed. The message is divided into fixed length blocks. Each message block is processed by the hash compression function in parallel. The hash compression is constructed based on the spatiotemporal chaos. In each message block, the ASCII code and its position in the whole message block chain constitute the initial conditions and the key of the hash compression function. The final hash value is generated by further compressing the mixed result of all the hash compression values. Theoretic analyses and numerical simulations show that the proposed algorithm presents high sensitivity to the message and key, good statistical properties, and strong collision resistance. (general)

  14. Spatio-temporal scaling of channels in braided streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.G. Hunt; G.E. Grant; V.K. Gupta

    2006-01-01

    The spatio-temporal scaling relationship for individual channels in braided streams is shown to be identical to the spatio-temporal scaling associated with constant Froude number, e.g., Fr = l. A means to derive this relationship is developed from a new theory of sediment transport. The mechanism by which the Fr = l condition apparently governs the scaling seems to...

  15. Spatiotemporal Data Mining, Analysis, and Visualization of Human Activity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xun

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the research challenge of developing efficient new methods for discovering useful patterns and knowledge in large volumes of electronically collected spatiotemporal activity data. I propose to analyze three types of such spatiotemporal activity data in a methodological framework that integrates spatial analysis, data…

  16. Joint Replacement (Finger and Wrist Joints)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Joint Replacement Email to a friend * required fields ...

  17. Spatiotemporal chaos in coupled logistic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varella Guedes, Andre; Amorim Savi, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of coupled logistic maps. These maps are prototypes of high-dimensional dynamical systems and have been used to describe the evolution and pattern formation in different systems. Here, the logistic map lattice is coupled by a power law and, therefore, each map is influenced by other maps in its neighborhood. The Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy density is employed to quantify the complexity of system behavior, permitting a general qualitative understanding of different aspects of system dynamics. Three kinds of boundary conditions are treated and the influence of initial conditions is also of concern. Non-homogeneous maps are investigated, showing interesting aspects of spatiotemporal dynamics. The idea is to analyze the spatial interaction between two qualitative different types of behavior from a grid that is split into two parts. Numerical simulations show what types of conditions present a greater tendency to develop chaotic, periodic and synchronized responses. It should be highlighted that non-homogeneous grids have situations where a chaotic pattern can emerge from two periodic responses and also situations where a periodic pattern can emerge from chaos.

  18. Spatiotemporal modelling and mapping of the bubonic plague epidemic in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christakos George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This work studies the spatiotemporal evolution of bubonic plague in India during 1896–1906 using stochastic concepts and geographical information science techniques. In the past, most investigations focused on selected cities to conduct different kinds of studies, such as the ecology of rats. No detailed maps existed incorporating the space-time dependence structure and uncertainty sources of the epidemic system and providing a composite space-time picture of the disease propagation characteristics. Results Informative spatiotemporal maps were generated that represented mortality rates and geographical spread of the disease, and epidemic indicator plots were derived that offered meaningful characterizations of the spatiotemporal disease distribution. The bubonic plague in India exhibited strong seasonal and geographical features. During its entire duration, the plague continued to invade new geographical areas, while it followed a re-emergence pattern at many localities; its rate changed significantly during each year and the mortality distribution exhibited space-time heterogeneous patterns; prevalence usually occurred in the autumn and spring, whereas the plague stopped moving towards new locations during the summers. Conclusion Modern stochastic modelling and geographical information science provide powerful means to study the spatiotemporal distribution of the bubonic plague epidemic under conditions of uncertainty and multi-sourced databases; to account for various forms of interdisciplinary knowledge; and to generate informative space-time maps of mortality rates and propagation patterns. To the best of our knowledge, this kind of plague maps and plots become available for the first time, thus providing novel perspectives concerning the distribution and space-time propagation of the deadly epidemic. Furthermore, systematic maps and indicator plots make possible the comparison of the spatial-temporal propagation

  19. Assessment of Spatiotemporal Fusion Algorithms for Planet and Worldview Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Chiman; Zhu, Xiaolin; Gao, Feng; Chou, Bryan; Perez, Daniel; Li, Jiang; Shen, Yuzhong; Koperski, Krzysztof; Marchisio, Giovanni

    2018-03-31

    Although Worldview-2 (WV) images (non-pansharpened) have 2-m resolution, the re-visit times for the same areas may be seven days or more. In contrast, Planet images are collected using small satellites that can cover the whole Earth almost daily. However, the resolution of Planet images is 3.125 m. It would be ideal to fuse these two satellites images to generate high spatial resolution (2 m) and high temporal resolution (1 or 2 days) images for applications such as damage assessment, border monitoring, etc. that require quick decisions. In this paper, we evaluate three approaches to fusing Worldview (WV) and Planet images. These approaches are known as Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM), Flexible Spatiotemporal Data Fusion (FSDAF), and Hybrid Color Mapping (HCM), which have been applied to the fusion of MODIS and Landsat images in recent years. Experimental results using actual Planet and Worldview images demonstrated that the three aforementioned approaches have comparable performance and can all generate high quality prediction images.

  20. Not the time or the place: the missing spatio-temporal link in publicly available genetic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Lisa C; Liggins, Libby; Keyse, Jude; Carvalho, Silvia B; Riginos, Cynthia

    2015-08-01

    Genetic data are being generated at unprecedented rates. Policies of many journals, institutions and funding bodies aim to ensure that these data are publicly archived so that published results are reproducible. Additionally, publicly archived data can be 'repurposed' to address new questions in the future. In 2011, along with other leading journals in ecology and evolution, Molecular Ecology implemented mandatory public data archiving (the Joint Data Archiving Policy). To evaluate the effect of this policy, we assessed the genetic, spatial and temporal data archived for 419 data sets from 289 articles in Molecular Ecology from 2009 to 2013. We then determined whether archived data could be used to reproduce analyses as presented in the manuscript. We found that the journal's mandatory archiving policy has had a substantial positive impact, increasing genetic data archiving from 49 (pre-2011) to 98% (2011-present). However, 31% of publicly archived genetic data sets could not be recreated based on information supplied in either the manuscript or public archives, with incomplete data or inconsistent codes linking genetic data and metadata as the primary reasons. While the majority of articles did provide some geographic information, 40% did not provide this information as geographic coordinates. Furthermore, a large proportion of articles did not contain any information regarding date of sampling (40%). Although the inclusion of spatio-temporal data does require an increase in effort, we argue that the enduring value of publicly accessible genetic data to the molecular ecology field is greatly compromised when such metadata are not archived alongside genetic data. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Hip joint injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicine into the joint. The provider uses a real-time x-ray (fluoroscopy) to see where to place ... Wakefield RJ. Arthrocentesis and injection of joints and soft tissue. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, ...

  2. Sacroiliac joint pain - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000610.htm Sacroiliac joint pain - aftercare To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a term used to describe ...

  3. Reliability of Tubular Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper the preliminary results obtained by tests on tubular joints are presented. The joints are T-joints and the loading is static. It is the intention in continuation of these tests to perform tests on other types of joints (e.g. Y-joints) and also with dynamic loading. The purpose...... of the test is partly to obtain empirical data for the ultimate load-carrying capacity of tubular T-joints and partly to obtain some experience in performing tests with tubular joints. It is well known that tubular joints are usually designed in offshore engineering on the basis of empirical formulas obtained...... by experimental test results. Therefore, there is a need for performing experimental tests in this area....

  4. Hip joint replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100006.htm Hip joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The hip joint is made up of two major parts: ...

  5. Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating competence by effecting preconjugal strategies and inferences in mock social trials via behavioral heuristics built from Hebbian-like associative learning. Heuristics embody serial patterns of socially relevant action that evolve into ordered, topologically invariant computational networks supporting intra- and intermate selection. S. ambiguum employs heuristics to acquire, store, plan, compare, modify, select, and execute sets of mating propaganda. One major adaptive constraint over formation and use of heuristics involves a ciliate's initial subjective bias, responsiveness, or preparedness, as defined by Stevens' Law of subjective stimulus intensity, for perceiving the meaningfulness of mechanical pressures accompanying cell-cell contacts and additional perimating events. This bias controls durations and valences of nonassociative learning, search rates for appropriate mating strategies, potential net reproductive payoffs, levels of social honesty and deception, successful error diagnosis and correction of mating signals, use of insight or analysis to solve mating dilemmas, bioenergetics expenditures, and governance of mating decisions by classical or quantum statistical mechanics. I now report this same social bias also differentially affects the spatiotemporal sparseness, as measured with metric entropy, of ciliate heuristics. Sparseness plays an important role in neural systems through optimizing the specificity, efficiency, and capacity of memory representations. The present

  6. Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating competence by effecting preconjugal strategies and inferences in mock social trials via behavioral heuristics built from Hebbian-like associative learning. Heuristics embody serial patterns of socially relevant action that evolve into ordered, topologically invariant computational networks supporting intra- and intermate selection. S. ambiguum employs heuristics to acquire, store, plan, compare, modify, select, and execute sets of mating propaganda. One major adaptive constraint over formation and use of heuristics involves a ciliate’s initial subjective bias, responsiveness, or preparedness, as defined by Stevens’ Law of subjective stimulus intensity, for perceiving the meaningfulness of mechanical pressures accompanying cell-cell contacts and additional perimating events. This bias controls durations and valences of nonassociative learning, search rates for appropriate mating strategies, potential net reproductive payoffs, levels of social honesty and deception, successful error diagnosis and correction of mating signals, use of insight or analysis to solve mating dilemmas, bioenergetics expenditures, and governance of mating decisions by classical or quantum statistical mechanics. I now report this same social bias also differentially affects the spatiotemporal sparseness, as measured with metric entropy, of ciliate heuristics. Sparseness plays an important role in neural systems through optimizing the specificity, efficiency, and capacity of memory representations. The

  7. Design of mechanical joints

    CERN Document Server

    Blake, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    A cornerstone publication that covers the basic principles and practical considerations of design methodology for joints held by rivets, bolts, weld seams, and adhesive materials, Design of Mechanical Joints gives engineers the practical results and formulas they need for the preliminary design of mechanical joints, combining the essential topics of joint mechanics...strength of materials...and fracture control to provide a complete treatment of problems pertinent to the field of mechanical connections.

  8. Spatiotemporal Stochastic Resonance:Theory and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Jung

    1996-03-01

    The amplification of weak periodic signals in bistable or excitable systems via stochastic resonance has been studied intensively over the last years. We are going one step further and ask: Can noise enhance spatiotemporal patterns in excitable media and can this effect be observed in nature? To this end, we are looking at large, two dimensional arrays of coupled excitable elements. Due to the coupling, excitation can propagate through the array in form of nonlinear waves. We observe target waves, rotating spiral waves and other wave forms. If the coupling between the elements is below a critical threshold, any excitational pattern will die out in the absence of noise. Below this threshold, large scale rotating spiral waves - as they are observed above threshold - can be maintained by a proper level of the noise[1]. Furthermore, their geometric features, such as the curvature can be controlled by the homogeneous noise level[2]. If the noise level is too large, break up of spiral waves and collisions with spontaneously nucleated waves yields spiral turbulence. Driving our array with a spatiotemporal pattern, e.g. a rotating spiral wave, we show that for weak coupling the excitational response of the array shows stochastic resonance - an effect we have termed spatiotemporal stochastic resonance. In the last part of the talk I'll make contact with calcium waves, observed in astrocyte cultures and hippocampus slices[3]. A. Cornell-Bell and collaborators[3] have pointed out the role of calcium waves for long-range glial signaling. We demonstrate the similarity of calcium waves with nonlinear waves in noisy excitable media. The noise level in the tissue is characterized by spontaneous activity and can be controlled by applying neuro-transmitter substances[3]. Noise effects in our model are compared with the effect of neuro-transmitters on calcium waves. [1]P. Jung and G. Mayer-Kress, CHAOS 5, 458 (1995). [2]P. Jung and G. Mayer-Kress, Phys. Rev. Lett.62, 2682 (1995). [3

  9. Micro-precise spatiotemporal delivery system embedded in 3D printing for complex tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafder, Solaiman; Koch, Alia; Jun, Yena; Chou, Conrad; Awadallah, Mary R; Lee, Chang H

    2016-04-25

    Three dimensional (3D) printing has emerged as an efficient tool for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, given its advantages for constructing custom-designed scaffolds with tunable microstructure/physical properties. Here we developed a micro-precise spatiotemporal delivery system embedded in 3D printed scaffolds. PLGA microspheres (μS) were encapsulated with growth factors (GFs) and then embedded inside PCL microfibers that constitute custom-designed 3D scaffolds. Given the substantial difference in the melting points between PLGA and PCL and their low heat conductivity, μS were able to maintain its original structure while protecting GF's bioactivities. Micro-precise spatial control of multiple GFs was achieved by interchanging dispensing cartridges during a single printing process. Spatially controlled delivery of GFs, with a prolonged release, guided formation of multi-tissue interfaces from bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs). To investigate efficacy of the micro-precise delivery system embedded in 3D printed scaffold, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc scaffolds were fabricated with micro-precise spatiotemporal delivery of CTGF and TGFβ3, mimicking native-like multiphase fibrocartilage. In vitro, TMJ disc scaffolds spatially embedded with CTGF/TGFβ3-μS resulted in formation of multiphase fibrocartilaginous tissues from MSCs. In vivo, TMJ disc perforation was performed in rabbits, followed by implantation of CTGF/TGFβ3-μS-embedded scaffolds. After 4 wks, CTGF/TGFβ3-μS embedded scaffolds significantly improved healing of the perforated TMJ disc as compared to the degenerated TMJ disc in the control group with scaffold embedded with empty μS. In addition, CTGF/TGFβ3-μS embedded scaffolds significantly prevented arthritic changes on TMJ condyles. In conclusion, our micro-precise spatiotemporal delivery system embedded in 3D printing may serve as an efficient tool to regenerate complex and inhomogeneous tissues.

  10. Radiology of disorders of the sacroiliac joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnik, C.S.; Resnick, D.

    1985-01-01

    Many disorders can lead to radiological abnormalities of the sacroiliac joints. Some present a characteristic appearance, while others may be diagnosed by analyzing both the appearance and the distribution of findings. Computed tomography provides excellent visualization of the sacroiliac joints and can be helpful in the evaluation of articular disorders as well as pelvic trauma and neoplasms. Radionuclide scanning of bone can also be used to evaluate the sacroiliac joints, particularly if the two sides are compared with the assistance of computer-generated activity counts. This article describes the radiological features of these various disorders that often allow an exact diagnosis to be made

  11. Knee joint vibroarthrographic signal processing and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the cutting-edge technologies of knee joint vibroarthrographic signal analysis for the screening and detection of knee joint injuries. It describes a number of effective computer-aided methods for analysis of the nonlinear and nonstationary biomedical signals generated by complex physiological mechanics. This book also introduces several popular machine learning and pattern recognition algorithms for biomedical signal classifications. The book is well-suited for all researchers looking to better understand knee joint biomechanics and the advanced technology for vibration arthrometry. Dr. Yunfeng Wu is an Associate Professor at the School of Information Science and Technology, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China.

  12. Nonreciprocal Thermal Material by Spatiotemporal Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent, Daniel; Poncelet, Olivier; Batsale, Jean-Chirstophe

    2018-03-01

    The thermal properties of a material with a spatiotemporal modulation, in the form of a traveling wave, in both the thermal conductivity and the specific heat capacity are studied. It is found that these materials behave as materials with an internal convectionlike term that provides them with nonreciprocal properties, in the sense that the heat flux has different properties when it propagates in the same direction or in the opposite one to the modulation of the parameters. An effective medium description is presented which accurately describes the modulated material, and numerical simulations support this description and verify the nonreciprocal properties of the material. It is found that these materials are promising candidates for the design of thermal diodes and other advanced devices for the control of the heat flow at all scales.

  13. Inositol trisphosphate receptor mediated spatiotemporal calcium signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, S

    1995-04-01

    Spatiotemporal Ca2+ signalling in the cytoplasm is currently understood as an excitation phenomenon by analogy with electrical excitation in the plasma membrane. In many cell types, Ca2+ waves and Ca2+ oscillations are mediated by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor/Ca2+ channels in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, with positive feedback between cytosolic Ca2+ and IP3-induced Ca2+ release creating a regenerative process. Remarkable advances have been made in the past year in the analysis of subcellular Ca2+ microdomains using confocal microscopy and of Ca2+ influx pathways that are functionally coupled to IP3-induced Ca2+ release. Ca2+ signals can be conveyed into the nucleus and mitochondria. Ca2+ entry from outside the cell allows repetitive Ca2+ release by providing Ca2+ to refill the endoplasmic reticulum stores, thus giving rise to frequency-encoded Ca2+ signals.

  14. Economic agglomerations and spatio-temporal cycles in a spatial growth model with capital transport cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juchem Neto, J. P.; Claeyssen, J. C. R.; Pôrto Júnior, S. S.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we introduce capital transport cost in a unidimensional spatial Solow-Swan model of economic growth with capital-induced labor migration, considered in an unbounded domain. Proceeding with a stability analysis, we show that there is a critical value for the capital transport cost where the dynamic behavior of the economy changes, provided that the intensity of capital-induced labor migration is strong enough. On the one hand, if the capital transport cost is higher than this critical value, the spatially homogeneous equilibrium of coexistence of the model is stable, and the economy converges to this spatially homogeneous state in the long run; on the other hand, if transport cost is lower than this critical value, the equilibrium is unstable, and the economy may develop different spatio-temporal dynamics, including the formation of stable economic agglomerations and spatio-temporal economic cycles, depending on the other parameters in the model. Finally, numerical simulations support the results of the stability analysis, and illustrate the spatio-temporal dynamics generated by the model, suggesting that the economy as a whole benefits from the formation of economic agglomerations and cycles, with a higher capital transport cost reducing this gain.

  15. EFFECT OF HEEL LIFTS ON PATELLOFEMORAL JOINT STRESS DURING RUNNING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestelle, Zachary; Kernozek, Thomas; Adkins, Kelly S; Miller, Jessica; Gheidi, Naghmeh

    2017-10-01

    Patellofemoral pain is a debilitating injury for many recreational runners. Excessive patellofemoral joint stress may be the underlying source of pain and interventions often focus on ways to reduce patellofemoral joint stress. Heel lifts have been used as an intervention within Achilles tendon rehabilitation programs and to address leg length discrepancies. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of running with heel lifts on patellofemoral joint stress, patellofemoral stress impulse, quadriceps force, step length, cadence, and other related kinematic and spatiotemporal variables. A repeated-measures research design. Sixteen healthy female runners completed five running trials in a controlled laboratory setting with and without 11mm heel lifts inserted in a standard running shoe. Kinetic and kinematic data were used in combination with a static optimization technique to estimate individual muscle forces. These data were inserted into a patellofemoral joint model which was used to estimate patellofemoral joint stress and other variables during running. When running with heel lifts, peak patellofemoral joint stress and patellofemoral stress impulse were reduced by a 4.2% (p=0.049) and 9.3% (p=0.002). Initial center of pressure was shifted anteriorly 9.1% when running with heel lifts (p0.05) were shown between conditions. Heel lift use resulted in decreased patellofemoral joint stress and impulse without associated changes in step length or frequency, or other variables shown to influence patellofemoral joint stress. The center of pressure at initial contact was also more anterior using heel lifts. The use of heel lifts may have therapeutic benefits for runners with patellofemoral pain if the primary goal is to reduce patellofemoral joint stress. 3b.

  16. Running Economy: Neuromuscular and Joint Stiffness Contributions in Trained Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Nicholas; Tucker, Ross; Santos-Concejero, Jordan; Prins, Danielle; Lamberts, Robert P

    2018-05-29

    It is debated whether running biomechanics make good predictors of running economy, with little known information about the neuromuscular and joint stiffness contributions to economical running gait. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between certain neuromuscular and spatiotemporal biomechanical factors associated with running economy. Thirty trained runners performed a 6-minute constant-speed running set at 3.3 m∙s -1 , where oxygen consumption was assessed. Overground running trials were also performed at 3.3 m∙s -1 to assess kinematics, kinetics and muscle activity. Spatiotemporal gait variables, joint stiffness, pre-activation and stance phase muscle activity (gluteus medius; rectus femoris (RF); biceps femoris(BF); peroneus longus (PL); tibialis anterior (TA); gastrocnemius lateralis and medius (LG and MG) were variables of specific interest and thus determined. Additionally, pre-activation and ground contact of agonist:antagonist co-activation were calculated. More economical runners presented with short ground contact times (r=0.639, p<0.001) and greater strides frequencies (r=-0.630, p<0.001). Lower ankle and greater knee stiffness were associated with lower oxygen consumption (r=0.527, p=0.007 & r=0.384, p=0.043, respectively). Only LG:TA co-activation during stance were associated with lower oxygen cost of transport (r=0.672, p<0.0001). Greater muscle pre-activation and bi-articular muscle activity during stance were associated with more economical runners. Consequently, trained runners who exhibit greater neuromuscular activation prior to and during ground contact, in turn optimise spatiotemporal variables and joint stiffness, will be the most economical runners.

  17. A spatiotemporal model for the LTE uplink: Spatially interacting tandem queues approach

    KAUST Repository

    Gharbieh, Mohammad

    2017-07-31

    With the proliferation of the Internet-of-things (IoT), there is an undeniable consensus that cellular LTE networks will have to support a dramatically larger number of uplink connections. This is true since most of the devices to be added incur machine-type communications which is dominantly upstream. Can current LTE network withstand this challenge? To answer this question, the joint performance of random access process and the uplink data transmission should be investigated. These two problems have been classically treated in the literature in a disjoint fashion. In this paper, they are jointly analyzed as an inseparable couple. To do that, a tandem queuing model is adopted whereby devices are represented as spatially interacting queues. The interaction between queues is governed by the mutual inter-cell and intra-cell interference. To that end, a joint stochastic geometry and queueing theory model is exploited to study this problem and a spatiotemporal analytical model is developed accordingly. Network stability and scalability are two prime performance criteria for performance assessment. In light of these two criteria, the developed model is poised to offer valuable insights into efficient access and resource allocation strategies.

  18. A parallel spatiotemporal saliency and discriminative online learning method for visual target tracking in aerial videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamohammadi, Amirhossein; Ang, Mei Choo; A Sundararajan, Elankovan; Weng, Ng Kok; Mogharrebi, Marzieh; Banihashem, Seyed Yashar

    2018-01-01

    Visual tracking in aerial videos is a challenging task in computer vision and remote sensing technologies due to appearance variation difficulties. Appearance variations are caused by camera and target motion, low resolution noisy images, scale changes, and pose variations. Various approaches have been proposed to deal with appearance variation difficulties in aerial videos, and amongst these methods, the spatiotemporal saliency detection approach reported promising results in the context of moving target detection. However, it is not accurate for moving target detection when visual tracking is performed under appearance variations. In this study, a visual tracking method is proposed based on spatiotemporal saliency and discriminative online learning methods to deal with appearance variations difficulties. Temporal saliency is used to represent moving target regions, and it was extracted based on the frame difference with Sauvola local adaptive thresholding algorithms. The spatial saliency is used to represent the target appearance details in candidate moving regions. SLIC superpixel segmentation, color, and moment features can be used to compute feature uniqueness and spatial compactness of saliency measurements to detect spatial saliency. It is a time consuming process, which prompted the development of a parallel algorithm to optimize and distribute the saliency detection processes that are loaded into the multi-processors. Spatiotemporal saliency is then obtained by combining the temporal and spatial saliencies to represent moving targets. Finally, a discriminative online learning algorithm was applied to generate a sample model based on spatiotemporal saliency. This sample model is then incrementally updated to detect the target in appearance variation conditions. Experiments conducted on the VIVID dataset demonstrated that the proposed visual tracking method is effective and is computationally efficient compared to state-of-the-art methods.

  19. A parallel spatiotemporal saliency and discriminative online learning method for visual target tracking in aerial videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Visual tracking in aerial videos is a challenging task in computer vision and remote sensing technologies due to appearance variation difficulties. Appearance variations are caused by camera and target motion, low resolution noisy images, scale changes, and pose variations. Various approaches have been proposed to deal with appearance variation difficulties in aerial videos, and amongst these methods, the spatiotemporal saliency detection approach reported promising results in the context of moving target detection. However, it is not accurate for moving target detection when visual tracking is performed under appearance variations. In this study, a visual tracking method is proposed based on spatiotemporal saliency and discriminative online learning methods to deal with appearance variations difficulties. Temporal saliency is used to represent moving target regions, and it was extracted based on the frame difference with Sauvola local adaptive thresholding algorithms. The spatial saliency is used to represent the target appearance details in candidate moving regions. SLIC superpixel segmentation, color, and moment features can be used to compute feature uniqueness and spatial compactness of saliency measurements to detect spatial saliency. It is a time consuming process, which prompted the development of a parallel algorithm to optimize and distribute the saliency detection processes that are loaded into the multi-processors. Spatiotemporal saliency is then obtained by combining the temporal and spatial saliencies to represent moving targets. Finally, a discriminative online learning algorithm was applied to generate a sample model based on spatiotemporal saliency. This sample model is then incrementally updated to detect the target in appearance variation conditions. Experiments conducted on the VIVID dataset demonstrated that the proposed visual tracking method is effective and is computationally efficient compared to state-of-the-art methods. PMID:29438421

  20. Spatiotemporal Spike Coding of Behavioral Adaptation in the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laureline Logiaco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The frontal cortex controls behavioral adaptation in environments governed by complex rules. Many studies have established the relevance of firing rate modulation after informative events signaling whether and how to update the behavioral policy. However, whether the spatiotemporal features of these neuronal activities contribute to encoding imminent behavioral updates remains unclear. We investigated this issue in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC of monkeys while they adapted their behavior based on their memory of feedback from past choices. We analyzed spike trains of both single units and pairs of simultaneously recorded neurons using an algorithm that emulates different biologically plausible decoding circuits. This method permits the assessment of the performance of both spike-count and spike-timing sensitive decoders. In response to the feedback, single neurons emitted stereotypical spike trains whose temporal structure identified informative events with higher accuracy than mere spike count. The optimal decoding time scale was in the range of 70-200 ms, which is significantly shorter than the memory time scale required by the behavioral task. Importantly, the temporal spiking patterns of single units were predictive of the monkeys' behavioral response time. Furthermore, some features of these spiking patterns often varied between jointly recorded neurons. All together, our results suggest that dACC drives behavioral adaptation through complex spatiotemporal spike coding. They also indicate that downstream networks, which decode dACC feedback signals, are unlikely to act as mere neural integrators.

  1. Spatio-Temporal Parameters\\' Changes in Gait of Male Elderly Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydar Sadeghi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare spatio-temporal gait parameters between elderly and young male subjects. Methods & Materials: 57 able-bodied elderly (72±5.5 years and 57 healthy young (25±8.5 years subjects participated in this study. A four segment model consist of trunk, hip, shank, and foot with 10 reflective markers were used to define lower limbs. Kinematic data collected using four high speed video based cameras at a sampling frequency of 90 Hz.The t-testfor independent samples (α≤0.05 applied for statistical analysis. Results: Significant differences showed longer stance phase (2%, longer push-of time (4%, slower cadence (13%, slower speed (28% and shorter step length (15% for elderly in comparison with young subjects, though no significant differences were seen in double supporttime between two groups. Conclusion: Due to results, spatio-temporal changes are mainly attributed to the age-related decreases in muscular flexibility, joints>ranges of motion and neuromuscular control in elderly people.

  2. Use of Poisson spatiotemporal regression models for the Brazilian Amazon Forest: malaria count data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Achcar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Malaria is a serious problem in the Brazilian Amazon region, and the detection of possible risk factors could be of great interest for public health authorities. The objective of this article was to investigate the association between environmental variables and the yearly registers of malaria in the Amazon region using Bayesian spatiotemporal methods. METHODS: We used Poisson spatiotemporal regression models to analyze the Brazilian Amazon forest malaria count for the period from 1999 to 2008. In this study, we included some covariates that could be important in the yearly prediction of malaria, such as deforestation rate. We obtained the inferences using a Bayesian approach and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC methods to simulate samples for the joint posterior distribution of interest. The discrimination of different models was also discussed. RESULTS: The model proposed here suggests that deforestation rate, the number of inhabitants per km², and the human development index (HDI are important in the prediction of malaria cases. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to conclude that human development, population growth, deforestation, and their associated ecological alterations are conducive to increasing malaria risk. We conclude that the use of Poisson regression models that capture the spatial and temporal effects under the Bayesian paradigm is a good strategy for modeling malaria counts.

  3. Use of Poisson spatiotemporal regression models for the Brazilian Amazon Forest: malaria count data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achcar, Jorge Alberto; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Souza, Aparecida Doniseti Pires de; Tachibana, Vilma Mayumi; Flores, Edilson Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is a serious problem in the Brazilian Amazon region, and the detection of possible risk factors could be of great interest for public health authorities. The objective of this article was to investigate the association between environmental variables and the yearly registers of malaria in the Amazon region using bayesian spatiotemporal methods. We used Poisson spatiotemporal regression models to analyze the Brazilian Amazon forest malaria count for the period from 1999 to 2008. In this study, we included some covariates that could be important in the yearly prediction of malaria, such as deforestation rate. We obtained the inferences using a bayesian approach and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods to simulate samples for the joint posterior distribution of interest. The discrimination of different models was also discussed. The model proposed here suggests that deforestation rate, the number of inhabitants per km², and the human development index (HDI) are important in the prediction of malaria cases. It is possible to conclude that human development, population growth, deforestation, and their associated ecological alterations are conducive to increasing malaria risk. We conclude that the use of Poisson regression models that capture the spatial and temporal effects under the bayesian paradigm is a good strategy for modeling malaria counts.

  4. Spatiotemporal Spike Coding of Behavioral Adaptation in the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logiaco, Laureline; Quilodran, René; Procyk, Emmanuel; Arleo, Angelo

    2015-08-01

    The frontal cortex controls behavioral adaptation in environments governed by complex rules. Many studies have established the relevance of firing rate modulation after informative events signaling whether and how to update the behavioral policy. However, whether the spatiotemporal features of these neuronal activities contribute to encoding imminent behavioral updates remains unclear. We investigated this issue in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) of monkeys while they adapted their behavior based on their memory of feedback from past choices. We analyzed spike trains of both single units and pairs of simultaneously recorded neurons using an algorithm that emulates different biologically plausible decoding circuits. This method permits the assessment of the performance of both spike-count and spike-timing sensitive decoders. In response to the feedback, single neurons emitted stereotypical spike trains whose temporal structure identified informative events with higher accuracy than mere spike count. The optimal decoding time scale was in the range of 70-200 ms, which is significantly shorter than the memory time scale required by the behavioral task. Importantly, the temporal spiking patterns of single units were predictive of the monkeys' behavioral response time. Furthermore, some features of these spiking patterns often varied between jointly recorded neurons. All together, our results suggest that dACC drives behavioral adaptation through complex spatiotemporal spike coding. They also indicate that downstream networks, which decode dACC feedback signals, are unlikely to act as mere neural integrators.

  5. Spatio-Temporal Video Segmentation with Shape Growth or Shrinkage Constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabalka, Yuliya; Charpiat, Guillaume; Brucker, Ludovic; Menze, Bjoern H.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new method for joint segmentation of monotonously growing or shrinking shapes in a time sequence of noisy images. The task of segmenting the image time series is expressed as an optimization problem using the spatio-temporal graph of pixels, in which we are able to impose the constraint of shape growth or of shrinkage by introducing monodirectional infinite links connecting pixels at the same spatial locations in successive image frames. The globally optimal solution is computed with a graph cut. The performance of the proposed method is validated on three applications: segmentation of melting sea ice floes and of growing burned areas from time series of 2D satellite images, and segmentation of a growing brain tumor from sequences of 3D medical scans. In the latter application, we impose an additional intersequences inclusion constraint by adding directed infinite links between pixels of dependent image structures.

  6. Controlling spatiotemporal chaos in one- and two-dimensional coupled logistic map lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astakhov, V.V.; Anishchenko, V.S.; Strelkova, G.I.; Shabunin, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    A method of control of spatiotemporal chaos in lattices of coupled maps is proposed in this work. Forms of spatiotemporal perturbations of a system parameter are analytically determined for one- and two-dimensional logistic map lattices with different kinds of coupling to stabilize chosen spatiotemporal states previously unstable. The results are illustrated by numerical simulation. Controlled transition from the regime of spatiotemporal chaos to the previously chosen regular spatiotemporal patterns is demonstrated. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  7. Spatio-temporal patterns of coral recruitment at Vamizi Island ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatio-temporal patterns of coral recruitment at Vamizi Island, Quirimbas Archipelago, Mozambique. ... Spatial and temporal patterns of recruitment of reef corals were assessed for the first time in Mozambique ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. Transition to turbulence via spatiotemporal intermittency in stimulated Raman backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.; Jovanovic, M.S.; Rajkovic, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    The spatiotemporal evolution of stimulated Raman backscattering in a bounded, uniform, weakly dissipative plasma is studied. The nonlinear model of a three-wave interaction involves a quadratic coupling of slowly varying complex amplitudes of the laser pump, the backscattered and the electron plasma wave. The corresponding set of coupled partial differential equations with nonlinear phase detuning that is taken into account is solved numerically in space time with fixed nonzero source boundary conditions. The study of the above open, convective, weakly confined system reveals a quasiperiodic transition to spatiotemporal chaos via spatiotemporal intermittency. In the analysis of transitions a dual scheme borrowed from fields of nonlinear dynamics and statistical physics is applied. An introduction of a nonlinear three-wave interaction to a growing family of paradigmatic equations which exhibit a route to turbulence via spatiotemporal intermittency is outlined in this work. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  9. The application of a hierarchical Bayesian spatiotemporal model for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Process (GP) model by using the Gibbs sampling method. The result for ... good indicator of the HBST method. The statistical ... summary and discussion of future works are given .... spatiotemporal package in R language (R core team. 2013).

  10. Annual spatiotemporal migration schedules in three larger insectivorous birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Jensen, Niels Odder; Willemoes, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of spatiotemporal migration patterns is important for our understanding of migration ecology and ultimately conservation of migratory species. We studied the annual migration schedules of European nightjar, a large nocturnal insectivore and compared it with two other larger ...

  11. Spatiotemporal patterns formed by deformed adhesive in peeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Toda, Akihiko

    2007-01-01

    Dynamical properties of peeling an adhesive tape are investigated experimentally as an analogy of sliding friction. An adhesive tape is peeled by pulling an elastic spring connected to the tape. Controlling its spring constant k and pulling speed V, peel force is measured and spatiotemporal patterns formed on the peeled tape by deformed adhesive are observed. It is found that there exist two kinds of adhesive state in peeling front. The emergence of multiple states is caused by the stability of a characteristic structure (tunnel structure) formed by deformed adhesive. Tunnel structures are distributed spatiotemporally on adhesive tape after peeling. Based on the spatiotemporal distribution, a morphology-dynamical phase diagram is constructed on k-V space and is divided into the four regions: (A) uniform pattern with tunnel structure, (B) uniform pattern without tunnel structure, (C) striped pattern with oscillatory peeling, and (D) spatiotemporally coexistent pattern

  12. Spatiotemporal modeling of WNV in mosquitoes in Suffolk County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — R code and dataset to produce spatial models. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Meyer, M., S. Campbell, and J. Johnston. Spatiotemporal...

  13. The use of spatio-temporal correlation to forecast critical transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karssenberg, Derek; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2010-05-01

    spatio-temporal autocorrelation and variance are consistent predictors of a critical transition, even under the condition of a poorly defined system. Second, we perform data assimilation experiments using an artificial exhaustive data set generated by one realization of the model. To mimic real-world sampling, an observational data set is created from this exhaustive data set. This is done by sampling on a regular spatio-temporal grid, supplemented by sampling locations at a short distance. Spatial and temporal autocorrelation in this observational data set is calculated for different spatial and temporal separation (lag) distances. To assign appropriate weights to observations (here, autocorrelation values and variance) in the Particle Filter, the covariance matrix of the error in these observations is required. This covariance matrix is estimated using Monte Carlo sampling, selecting a different random position of the sampling network relative to the exhaustive data set for each realization. At each update moment in the Particle Filter, observed autocorrelation values are assimilated into the model and the state of the model is updated. Using this approach, it is shown that the use of autocorrelation reduces the uncertainty in the forecasted timing of a critical transition compared to runs without data assimilation. The performance of the use of spatial autocorrelation versus temporal autocorrelation depends on the timing and number of observational data. This study is restricted to a single model only. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that spatio-temporal autocorrelation and variance can be used as early warning signals for a large number of systems. Thus, it is expected that spatio-temporal autocorrelation and variance are valuable in data assimilation frameworks in a large number of dynamical systems.

  14. Mechanics of Suture Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaning; Song, Juha; Ortiz, Christine; Boyce, Mary; Ortiz Group/DMSE/MIT Team; Boyce Group/ME/MIT Team

    2011-03-01

    Biological sutures are joints which connect two stiff skeletal or skeletal-like components. These joints possess a wavy geometry with a thin organic layer providing adhesion. Examples of biological sutures include mammalian skulls, the pelvic assembly of the armored fish Gasterosteus aculeatus (the three-spined stickleback), and the suture joints in the shell of the red-eared slider turtle. Biological sutures allow for movement and compliance, control stress concentrations, transmit loads, reduce fatigue stress and absorb energy. In this investigation, the mechanics of the role of suture geometry in providing a naturally optimized joint is explored. In particular, analytical and numerical micromechanical models of the suture joint are constructed. The anisotropic mechanical stiffness and strength are studied as a function of suture wavelength, amplitude and the material properties of the skeletal and organic components, revealing key insights into the optimized nature of these ubiquitous natural joints.

  15. Markovian Limit of a Spatio-Temporal Correlated Open Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnai, T.

    Large fluctuation of Brownian particles is affected by the finiteness of the correlation length of the background noise field. Indeed a Fokker—Planck equation is derived in a Markovian limit of a spatio-temporal short correlated noise. Corresponding kinetic quantities are renormalized due to the spatio-temporal memory. We also investigate the case of open system by connecting a thermostat to the system.

  16. Expansion joints for LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzenus, M.; Hundhausen, W.; Jansing, W.

    1979-10-15

    This discourse recounts efforts put into the SNR-2 project; specifically the development of compensation devices. The various prototypes of these compensation devices are described and the state of development reviewed. The expansion joints were developed on the basis of specific design criteria whereby differentiation is made between expansion joints of small and large nominal diameter. Expansion joints for installation in the sodium-filled primary piping are equipped with safety bellows in addition to the actual working bellows.

  17. A full time-domain approach to spatio-temporal dynamics of semiconductor lasers. II. Spatio-temporal dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhringer, Klaus; Hess, Ortwin

    The spatio-temporal dynamics of novel semiconductor lasers is discussed on the basis of a space- and momentum-dependent full time-domain approach. To this means the space-, time-, and momentum-dependent Full-Time Domain Maxwell Semiconductor Bloch equations, derived and discussed in our preceding paper I [K. Böhringer, O. Hess, A full time-domain approach to spatio-temporal dynamics of semiconductor lasers. I. Theoretical formulation], are solved by direct numerical integration. Focussing on the device physics of novel semiconductor lasers that profit, in particular, from recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology, we discuss the examples of photonic band edge surface emitting lasers (PBE-SEL) and semiconductor disc lasers (SDLs). It is demonstrated that photonic crystal effects can be obtained for finite crystal structures, and leading to a significant improvement in laser performance such as reduced lasing thresholds. In SDLs, a modern device concept designed to increase the power output of surface-emitters in combination with near-diffraction-limited beam quality, we explore the complex interplay between the intracavity optical fields and the quantum well gain material in SDL structures. Our simulations reveal the dynamical balance between carrier generation due to pumping into high energy states, momentum relaxation of carriers, and stimulated recombination from states near the band edge. Our full time-domain approach is shown to also be an excellent framework for the modelling of the interaction of high-intensity femtosecond and picosecond pulses with semiconductor nanostructures. It is demonstrated that group velocity dispersion, dynamical gain saturation and fast self-phase modulation (SPM) are the main causes for the induced changes and asymmetries in the amplified pulse shape and spectrum of an ultrashort high-intensity pulse. We attest that the time constants of the intraband scattering processes are critical to gain recovery. Moreover, we present

  18. Visualization and assessment of spatio-temporal covariance properties

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Huang

    2017-11-23

    Spatio-temporal covariances are important for describing the spatio-temporal variability of underlying random fields in geostatistical data. For second-order stationary random fields, there exist subclasses of covariance functions that assume a simpler spatio-temporal dependence structure with separability and full symmetry. However, it is challenging to visualize and assess separability and full symmetry from spatio-temporal observations. In this work, we propose a functional data analysis approach that constructs test functions using the cross-covariances from time series observed at each pair of spatial locations. These test functions of temporal lags summarize the properties of separability or symmetry for the given spatial pairs. We use functional boxplots to visualize the functional median and the variability of the test functions, where the extent of departure from zero at all temporal lags indicates the degree of non-separability or asymmetry. We also develop a rank-based nonparametric testing procedure for assessing the significance of the non-separability or asymmetry. Essentially, the proposed methods only require the analysis of temporal covariance functions. Thus, a major advantage over existing approaches is that there is no need to estimate any covariance matrix for selected spatio-temporal lags. The performances of the proposed methods are examined by simulations with various commonly used spatio-temporal covariance models. To illustrate our methods in practical applications, we apply it to real datasets, including weather station data and climate model outputs.

  19. Joint Spatio-Temporal Filtering Methods for DOA and Fundamental Frequency Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Benesty, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    some attention in the community and is quite promising for several applications. The proposed methods are based on optimal, adaptive filters that leave the desired signal, having a certain DOA and fundamental frequency, undistorted and suppress everything else. The filtering methods simultaneously...... operate in space and time, whereby it is possible resolve cases that are otherwise problematic for pitch estimators or DOA estimators based on beamforming. Several special cases and improvements are considered, including a method for estimating the covariance matrix based on the recently proposed...

  20. Uncertainty principle, steady state and spatiotemporal evolution in the systemic analysis of the socioenvironmental relations in tourism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heros Augusto Santos Lobo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The general theory of systems is based in the integrated analysis of the spatiotemporal relations among the components, the system matrix and also the arising processes. In tourist systems, the current studies are focused on the description of its components and in some of its interaction relationships. The present contribution focuses on the processes between the components and the matrix of the tourist systems, considering the inherent complexity of open systems, its homeostasis and entropy in function of the carrying capacity of processing the received inputs, and also some questions linked to the steady state, the self-maintenance and the collapse of tourist system generated by structural-deterministic or stochastic causes. In the final considerations, the low similarity of the processes developed in different tourist systems and also in different spatiotemporal conditions in the same system are raised, highlighting the practical impossibility of universal models generation to the tourist systems.

  1. Fiscal 2000 report on the international joint verification of photovoltaic power generation system. Verification of hybrid system comprising photovoltaic power generation system and micro-hydroelectric power generation systems; 2000 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system kokusai kyodo jissho kaihatsu hokokusho. Taiyoko micro suiryoku hybrid system jissho kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    Research was conducted in Vietnam for the development of a hybrid system comprising a photovoltaic power generation system and a micro-hydroelectric power generation system. In verification test operation, data measurement had been under way for approximately 18 months since it was started in September 1999. The rate of days on which effective data were obtained throughout this period was 93.4%. Power generated by the micro-hydroelectric power generation system was 19.4kWh/d with so small a capacity factor of 3.2%. The capacity factor of the photovoltaic power generation system was again very small at 4.5% since the amount consumed by the load was as small as 131.0kWh/d. Weather data of solar radiation and precipitation were being collected smoothly. In the study of hybrid system optimization, the effect of inductor generator activation upon the inverter was taken up. In the study of capacity balance optimization between the constituent elements of the hybrid system, methodology was established and verified, and calculations were carried out. (NEDO)

  2. Flexible joints in structural and multibody dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Bauchau

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Flexible joints, sometimes called bushing elements or force elements, are found in all structural and multibody dynamics codes. In their simplest form, flexible joints simply consist of sets of three linear and three torsional springs placed between two nodes of the model. For infinitesimal deformations, the selection of the lumped spring constants is an easy task, which can be based on a numerical simulation of the joint or on experimental measurements. If the joint undergoes finite deformations, identification of its stiffness characteristics is not so simple, specially if the joint is itself a complex system. When finite deformations occur, the definition of deformation measures becomes a critical issue. This paper proposes a family of tensorial deformation measures suitable for elastic bodies of finite dimension. These families are generated by two parameters that can be used to modify the constitutive behavior of the joint, while maintaining the tensorial nature of the deformation measures. Numerical results demonstrate the objectivity of the deformations measures, a feature that is not shared by the deformations measures presently used in the literature. The impact of the choice of the two parameters on the constitutive behavior of the flexible joint is also investigated.

  3. Seismic response of rock joints and jointed rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.; Hsiung, S.M.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1996-06-01

    Long-term stability of emplacement drifts and potential near-field fluid flow resulting from coupled effects are among the concerns for safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). A number of factors can induce drift instability or change the near-field flow patterns. Repetitive seismic loads from earthquakes and thermal loads generated by the decay of emplaced waste are two significant factors. One of two key technical uncertainties (KTU) that can potentially pose a high risk of noncompliance with the performance objectives of 10 CFR Part 60 is the prediction of thermal-mechanical (including repetitive seismic load) effects on stability of emplacement drifts and the engineered barrier system. The second KTU of concern is the prediction of thermal-mechanical-hydrological (including repetitive seismic load) effects on the host rock surrounding the engineered barrier system. The Rock Mechanics research project being conducted at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) is intended to address certain specific technical issues associated with these two KTUs. This research project has two major components: (i) seismic response of rock joints and a jointed rock mass and (ii) coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological (TMH) response of a jointed rock mass surrounding the engineered barrier system (EBS). This final report summarizes the research activities concerned with the repetitive seismic load aspect of both these KTUs

  4. Stochastic Management of Non-Point Source Contamination: Joint Impact of Aquifer Heterogeneity and Well Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, C. V.; Harter, T.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural activities are recognized as the preeminent origin of non-point source (NPS) contamination of water bodies through the leakage of nitrate, salt and agrochemicals. A large fraction of world agricultural activities and therefore NPS contamination occurs over unconsolidated alluvial deposit basins offering soil composition and topography favorable to productive farming. These basins represent also important groundwater reservoirs. The over-exploitation of aquifers coupled with groundwater pollution by agriculture-related NPS contaminant has led to a rapid deterioration of the quality of these groundwater basins. The management of groundwater contamination from NPS is challenged by the inherent complexity of aquifers systems. Contaminant transport dynamics are highly uncertain due to the heterogeneity of hydraulic parameters controlling groundwater flow. Well characteristics are also key uncertain elements affecting pollutant transport and NPS management but quantifying uncertainty in NPS management under these conditions is not well documented. Our work focuses on better understanding the joint impact of aquifer heterogeneity and pumping well characteristics (extraction rate and depth) on (1) the transport of contaminants from NPS and (2) the spatio-temporal extension of the capture zone. To do so, we generate a series of geostatistically equivalent 3D heterogeneous aquifers and simulate the flow and non-reactive solute transport from NPS to extraction wells within a stochastic framework. The propagation of the uncertainty on the hydraulic conductivity field is systematically analyzed. A sensitivity analysis of the impact of extraction well characteristics (pumping rate and screen depth) is also conducted. Results highlight the significant role that heterogeneity and well characteristics plays on management metrics. We finally show that, in case of NPS contamination, the joint impact of regional longitudinal and transverse vertical hydraulic gradients and

  5. Spatiotemporal video deinterlacing using control grid interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Ragav; Zwart, Christine M.; Frakes, David H.; Li, Baoxin

    2015-03-01

    With the advent of progressive format display and broadcast technologies, video deinterlacing has become an important video-processing technique. Numerous approaches exist in the literature to accomplish deinterlacing. While most earlier methods were simple linear filtering-based approaches, the emergence of faster computing technologies and even dedicated video-processing hardware in display units has allowed higher quality but also more computationally intense deinterlacing algorithms to become practical. Most modern approaches analyze motion and content in video to select different deinterlacing methods for various spatiotemporal regions. We introduce a family of deinterlacers that employs spectral residue to choose between and weight control grid interpolation based spatial and temporal deinterlacing methods. The proposed approaches perform better than the prior state-of-the-art based on peak signal-to-noise ratio, other visual quality metrics, and simple perception-based subjective evaluations conducted by human viewers. We further study the advantages of using soft and hard decision thresholds on the visual performance.

  6. Spatio-temporal problems of locomotion control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolyaninov, Vladimir V

    2000-01-01

    The problem of the spatio-temporal construction of legged movements involves structural freedoms due to the multi-link structure of the extremities, kinematic freedoms of the stepping cycle, and interextremity coordination freedoms, whose purposive organization is established by means of appropriate synergies, i.e. additional functional links the brain's control system forms. The main focus of attention in this work is on the kinematic and coordination synergies of the legged movements of humans and animals. The comparative historical analysis of experimental data and modelling metaphors concentrates on obtaining a unified description, whereas the ultimate mathematical metaphor reduces to space-time geometry, with base step synergies as its invariants. Thus, the concept of a synergetic organization for biomechanical movement freedoms is transformed to the geochronometry concept, actually a modification of Minkowskian geometry. To determine the spectrum of possible geochronometries, the consequences of a generalized 'postulate of a constant speed of light' are studied and different models of wave chronometers compared. (reviews of topical problems)

  7. MANAGING JOINT PRODUCTION MOTIVATION : THE ROLE OF GOAL FRAMING AND GOVERNANCE MECHANISMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai J.

    We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared

  8. Aspects of second-order analysis of structured inhomogeneous spatio-temporal processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Ghorbani, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Statistical methodology for spatio-temporal point processes is in its infancy. We consider second-order analysis based on pair correlation functions and K-functions for general inhomogeneous spatio-temporal point processes and for inhomogeneous spatio-temporal Cox processes. Assuming spatio......-temporal separability of the intensity function, we clarify different meanings of second-order spatio-temporal separability. One is second-order spatio-temporal independence and relates to log-Gaussian Cox processes with an additive covariance structure of the underlying spatio-temporal Gaussian process. Another...... concerns shot-noise Cox processes with a separable spatio-temporal covariance density. We propose diagnostic procedures for checking hypotheses of second-order spatio-temporal separability, which we apply on simulated and real data....

  9. Second-order analysis of structured inhomogeneous spatio-temporal point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Ghorbani, Mohammad

    Statistical methodology for spatio-temporal point processes is in its infancy. We consider second-order analysis based on pair correlation functions and K-functions for first general inhomogeneous spatio-temporal point processes and second inhomogeneous spatio-temporal Cox processes. Assuming...... spatio-temporal separability of the intensity function, we clarify different meanings of second-order spatio-temporal separability. One is second-order spatio-temporal independence and relates e.g. to log-Gaussian Cox processes with an additive covariance structure of the underlying spatio......-temporal Gaussian process. Another concerns shot-noise Cox processes with a separable spatio-temporal covariance density. We propose diagnostic procedures for checking hypotheses of second-order spatio-temporal separability, which we apply on simulated and real data (the UK 2001 epidemic foot and mouth disease data)....

  10. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1987-03-01

    The paper presents the progress report of the Joint European Torus (JET) Joint Undertaking, 1986. The report contains a survey of the scientific and technical achievements on JET during 1986; the more important articles referred to in this survey are reproduced as appendices to this Report. The last section discusses developments which might improve the overall performance of the machine. (U.K.)

  11. 13. Sacroiliac joint pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanelderen, P.; Szadek, K.M.; Cohen, S.P.; Witte, J.; Lataster, A.; Patijn, J.; Mekhail, N.; van Kleef, M.; van Zundert, J.

    2010-01-01

    The sacroiliac joint accounts for approximately 16% to 30% of cases of chronic mechanical low back pain. Pain originating in the sacroiliac joint is predominantly perceived in the gluteal region, although pain is often referred into the lower and upper lumbar region, groin, abdomen, and/ or lower

  12. Transversely Compressed Bonded Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Stang, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The load capacity of bonded joints can be increased if transverse pressure is applied at the interface. The transverse pressure is assumed to introduce a Coulomb-friction contribution to the cohesive law for the interface. Response and load capacity for a bonded single-lap joint was derived using...

  13. Joint Newspaper Operating Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Marie

    The number of competing daily newspapers in American cities has dwindled until only about 50 cities boast two papers. Of the newspapers in those cities, 23 now maintain separate editorial operations but have joint printing, advertising, and circulation departments. The concept of joint operation is 50 years old, dating from the Depression years…

  14. Joint Hub Network Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Dullaert, W.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework for joint hub network development. Building a joint physical hub for transhipment of goods is expensive and therefore involves considerable risks for the cooperating companies. In a practical setting, it is unlikely that an entire network will be built at once.

  15. Elbow joint instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Henriksen, M G; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    1994-01-01

    The effect of simultaneous ulnar and radial collateral ligament division on the kinematics of the elbow joint is studied in a cadaveric model. Severance of the anterior part of the ulnar collateral ligament and the annular ligament led to significant elbow joint instability in valgus and varus...

  16. Bistable Articulated Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graighead, Norwood D., II; Preliasco, R. J.; Hult, T. D.

    1986-01-01

    Joint with four-bar-linkage geometry has following attributes: Springs to fully extended fully folded positions. Automatically locks in its extended position. Joint combines zero backlash, positive locking, and centerline pivoting. Used in folding tool handles, portable antenna booms, and many other deployable structures.

  17. MP Joint Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy MP Joint Arthritis Email to a friend * required ...

  18. Creep of timber joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kuilen, J.W.G.

    2008-01-01

    A creep analysis has been performed on nailed, toothed-plates and split-ring joints in a varying uncontrolled climate. The load levels varied between 30% and 50% of the average ultimate short term strength of these joints, tested in accordance with ISO 6891. The climate in which the tests were

  19. MR diagnosis of temporomandibular joint. A study of joint effusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneda, Takashi; Yamashiro, Mitsuaki; Ozawa, Kaoru; Suzuki, Hiromi; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the relationship between correlation of MR joint effusion of the temporomandibular joint and disk position, to evaluate the relationship between joint effusion and aging, and to assess the frequency of MR joint effusion of bilateral temporomandibular joints. The temporomandibular joints of 192 patients with clinical symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorders were imaged bilaterally using high field, surface-coil MR imaging. Oblique sagittal and coronal proton density-weighted and T2-weighted images were obtained. Imaging findings of joint effusion were correlated with disk position, aging, and bilateral temporomandibular joints. MR showed effusion in 4% of the joints with normal superior disk position, 36% of the joints with disk displacement with reduction, and 45% of the joints with disk displacement without reduction. There were significant differences in the incidence of joint effusion between normal disk position and anterior disk displacement with or without reduction. Younger patients less than 40 years were significant higher the incidence of joint effusion than those of older patients. A significant association was seen between joint effusion and aging. MR showed effusion in 17% of the unilateral temporomandibular joint, 24% of the bilateral temporomandibular joints. There was no significant difference between unilateral and bilateral case. These results indicated that joint effusion using MR imaging was associated with varied temporomandibular joint pathologic states. (author)

  20. Generalised joint hypermobility and knee joint hypermobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Tina; Henriksen, Peter; Hansen, Sebrina

    2018-01-01

    . Respondents with GJHk and KJH reported lower HRQoL. CONCLUSION: GJHk and KJH were frequently reported in the Danish adult population, mostly in women. Respondents with GJHk and KJH were two times more likely to report knee joint-related symptoms such as pain, reduced performance of usual activity and lower...

  1. Integrated approaches to spatiotemporally directing angiogenesis in host and engineered tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Rajeev J; Coulombe, Kareen L K

    2018-03-15

    The field of tissue engineering has turned towards biomimicry to solve the problem of tissue oxygenation and nutrient/waste exchange through the development of vasculature. Induction of angiogenesis and subsequent development of a vascular bed in engineered tissues is actively being pursued through combinations of physical and chemical cues, notably through the presentation of topographies and growth factors. Presenting angiogenic signals in a spatiotemporal fashion is beginning to generate improved vascular networks, which will allow for the creation of large and dense engineered tissues. This review provides a brief background on the cells, mechanisms, and molecules driving vascular development (including angiogenesis), followed by how biomaterials and growth factors can be used to direct vessel formation and maturation. Techniques to accomplish spatiotemporal control of vascularization include incorporation or encapsulation of growth factors, topographical engineering, and 3D bioprinting. The vascularization of engineered tissues and their application in angiogenic therapy in vivo is reviewed herein with an emphasis on the most densely vascularized tissue of the human body - the heart. Vascularization is vital to wound healing and tissue regeneration, and development of hierarchical networks enables efficient nutrient transfer. In tissue engineering, vascularization is necessary to support physiologically dense engineered tissues, and thus the field seeks to induce vascular formation using biomaterials and chemical signals to provide appropriate, pro-angiogenic signals for cells. This review critically examines the materials and techniques used to generate scaffolds with spatiotemporal cues to direct vascularization in engineered and host tissues in vitro and in vivo. Assessment of the field's progress is intended to inspire vascular applications across all forms of tissue engineering with a specific focus on highlighting the nuances of cardiac tissue

  2. Spatiotemporal exploratory models for broad-scale survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Daniel; Hochachka, Wesley M; Zuckerberg, Benjamin; Winkler, David W; Shaby, Ben; Munson, M Arthur; Hooker, Giles; Riedewald, Mirek; Sheldon, Daniel; Kelling, Steve

    2010-12-01

    The distributions of animal populations change and evolve through time. Migratory species exploit different habitats at different times of the year. Biotic and abiotic features that determine where a species lives vary due to natural and anthropogenic factors. This spatiotemporal variation needs to be accounted for in any modeling of species' distributions. In this paper we introduce a semiparametric model that provides a flexible framework for analyzing dynamic patterns of species occurrence and abundance from broad-scale survey data. The spatiotemporal exploratory model (STEM) adds essential spatiotemporal structure to existing techniques for developing species distribution models through a simple parametric structure without requiring a detailed understanding of the underlying dynamic processes. STEMs use a multi-scale strategy to differentiate between local and global-scale spatiotemporal structure. A user-specified species distribution model accounts for spatial and temporal patterning at the local level. These local patterns are then allowed to "scale up" via ensemble averaging to larger scales. This makes STEMs especially well suited for exploring distributional dynamics arising from a variety of processes. Using data from eBird, an online citizen science bird-monitoring project, we demonstrate that monthly changes in distribution of a migratory species, the Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), can be more accurately described with a STEM than a conventional bagged decision tree model in which spatiotemporal structure has not been imposed. We also demonstrate that there is no loss of model predictive power when a STEM is used to describe a spatiotemporal distribution with very little spatiotemporal variation; the distribution of a nonmigratory species, the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis).

  3. A hybrid spatiotemporal drought forecasting model for operational use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliades, L.; Loukas, A.

    2010-09-01

    Drought forecasting plays an important role in the planning and management of natural resources and water resource systems in a river basin. Early and timelines forecasting of a drought event can help to take proactive measures and set out drought mitigation strategies to alleviate the impacts of drought. Spatiotemporal data mining is the extraction of unknown and implicit knowledge, structures, spatiotemporal relationships, or patterns not explicitly stored in spatiotemporal databases. As one of data mining techniques, forecasting is widely used to predict the unknown future based upon the patterns hidden in the current and past data. This study develops a hybrid spatiotemporal scheme for integrated spatial and temporal forecasting. Temporal forecasting is achieved using feed-forward neural networks and the temporal forecasts are extended to the spatial dimension using a spatial recurrent neural network model. The methodology is demonstrated for an operational meteorological drought index the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) calculated at multiple timescales. 48 precipitation stations and 18 independent precipitation stations, located at Pinios river basin in Thessaly region, Greece, were used for the development and spatiotemporal validation of the hybrid spatiotemporal scheme. Several quantitative temporal and spatial statistical indices were considered for the performance evaluation of the models. Furthermore, qualitative statistical criteria based on contingency tables between observed and forecasted drought episodes were calculated. The results show that the lead time of forecasting for operational use depends on the SPI timescale. The hybrid spatiotemporal drought forecasting model could be operationally used for forecasting up to three months ahead for SPI short timescales (e.g. 3-6 months) up to six months ahead for large SPI timescales (e.g. 24 months). The above findings could be useful in developing a drought preparedness plan in the region.

  4. Biomechanical Effects of Prefabricated Foot Orthoses and Rocker‐Sole Footwear in Individuals With First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auhl, Maria; Tan, Jade M.; Levinger, Pazit; Roddy, Edward; Munteanu, Shannon E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of prefabricated foot orthoses and rocker‐sole footwear on spatiotemporal parameters, hip and knee kinematics, and plantar pressures in people with first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. A total of 102 people with first MTP joint OA were randomly allocated to receive prefabricated foot orthoses or rocker‐sole footwear. The immediate biomechanical effects of the interventions (compared to usual footwear) were examined using a wearable sensor motion analysis system and an in‐shoe plantar pressure measurement system. Results Spatiotemporal/kinematic and plantar pressure data were available from 88 and 87 participants, respectively. The orthoses had minimal effect on spatiotemporal or kinematic parameters, while the rocker‐sole footwear resulted in reduced cadence, percentage of the gait cycle spent in stance phase, and sagittal plane hip range of motion. The orthoses increased peak pressure under the midfoot and lesser toes. Both interventions significantly reduced peak pressure under the first MTP joint, and the rocker‐sole shoes also reduced peak pressure under the second through fifth MTP joints and heel. When the effects of the orthoses and rocker‐sole shoes were directly compared, there was no difference in peak pressure under the hallux, first MTP joint, or heel; however, the rocker‐sole shoes exhibited lower peak pressure under the lesser toes, second through fifth MTP joints, and midfoot. Conclusion Prefabricated foot orthoses and rocker‐sole footwear are effective at reducing peak pressure under the first MTP joint in people with first MTP joint OA, but achieve this through different mechanisms. Further research is required to determine whether these biomechanical changes result in improvements in symptoms. PMID:26640157

  5. Spatiotemporal Fusion of Remote Sensing Images with Structural Sparsity and Semi-Coupled Dictionary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Wei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusion of remote sensing images with different spatial and temporal resolutions is highly needed by diverse earth observation applications. A small number of spatiotemporal fusion methods using sparse representation appear to be more promising than traditional linear mixture methods in reflecting abruptly changing terrestrial content. However, one of the main difficulties is that the results of sparse representation have reduced expressional accuracy; this is due in part to insufficient prior knowledge. For remote sensing images, the cluster and joint structural sparsity of the sparse coefficients could be employed as a priori knowledge. In this paper, a new optimization model is constructed with the semi-coupled dictionary learning and structural sparsity to predict the unknown high-resolution image from known images. Specifically, the intra-block correlation and cluster-structured sparsity are considered for single-channel reconstruction, and the inter-band similarity of joint-structured sparsity is considered for multichannel reconstruction, and both are implemented with block sparse Bayesian learning. The detailed optimization steps are given iteratively. In the experimental procedure, the red, green, and near-infrared bands of Landsat-7 and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS satellites are put to fusion with root mean square errors to check the prediction accuracy. It can be concluded from the experiment that the proposed methods can produce higher quality than state-of-the-art methods.

  6. Spatio-temporal expression patterns of Wnt signaling pathway during the development of temporomandibular condylar cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kan; Quan, Huixin; Chen, Gang; Xiao, Di

    2017-11-01

    There is a growing body of evidence supporting the involvement of the Wnt signaling pathway in various aspects of skeletal and joint development; however, it is unclear whether it is involved in the process of temporomandibular joint development. In order to clarify this issue, we examined the spatio-temporal distribution of mRNAs and proteins of the Wnt family during the formation of the mandibular condylar cartilage at the prenatal and postnatal stages. An in situ hybridization test revealed no mRNAs of β-catenin and Axin2 during early mesenchymal condensation; the ligands surveyed in this study (including Wnt-4, 5a, and 9a) were clearly detected at various ranges of expression, mainly in the condylar blastema and later distinct cartilaginous layers. Apart from β-catenin and Axin2, the Wnt family members surveyed in this study, including Lef-1, were found to be immunopositive during early chondrogenesis in the condylar cartilage at E14.5. After distinct chondrocyte layers were identified within the cartilage at E16.5, the expression of the Wnt signaling members was different and mainly restricted to proliferating cells and mineralized hypertrophic chondrocytes. In the adult mandibular condylar cartilage, the Wnt-4 mRNA, as well as the Wnt-4 and Wnt-9a proteins, was not observed. Our findings demonstrated that the Wnt signaling pathway was associated with the development of mandibular condylar cartilage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatiotemporal dynamics of large-scale brain activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Jeremy

    Understanding the dynamics of large-scale brain activity is a tough challenge. One reason for this is the presence of an incredible amount of complexity arising from having roughly 100 billion neurons connected via 100 trillion synapses. Because of the extremely high number of degrees of freedom in the nervous system, the question of how the brain manages to properly function and remain stable, yet also be adaptable, must be posed. Neuroscientists have identified many ways the nervous system makes this possible, of which synaptic plasticity is possibly the most notable one. On the other hand, it is vital to understand how the nervous system also loses stability, resulting in neuropathological diseases such as epilepsy, a disease which affects 1% of the population. In the following work, we seek to answer some of these questions from two different perspectives. The first uses mean-field theory applied to neuronal populations, where the variables of interest are the percentages of active excitatory and inhibitory neurons in a network, to consider how the nervous system responds to external stimuli, self-organizes and generates epileptiform activity. The second method uses statistical field theory, in the framework of single neurons on a lattice, to study the concept of criticality, an idea borrowed from physics which posits that in some regime the brain operates in a collectively stable or marginally stable manner. This will be examined in two different neuronal networks with self-organized criticality serving as the overarching theme for the union of both perspectives. One of the biggest problems in neuroscience is the question of to what extent certain details are significant to the functioning of the brain. These details give rise to various spatiotemporal properties that at the smallest of scales explain the interaction of single neurons and synapses and at the largest of scales describe, for example, behaviors and sensations. In what follows, we will shed some

  8. The timing and spatiotemporal patterning of Neanderthal disappearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Tom; Douka, Katerina; Wood, Rachel; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Brock, Fiona; Basell, Laura; Camps, Marta; Arrizabalaga, Alvaro; Baena, Javier; Barroso-Ruíz, Cecillio; Bergman, Christopher; Boitard, Coralie; Boscato, Paolo; Caparrós, Miguel; Conard, Nicholas J; Draily, Christelle; Froment, Alain; Galván, Bertila; Gambassini, Paolo; Garcia-Moreno, Alejandro; Grimaldi, Stefano; Haesaerts, Paul; Holt, Brigitte; Iriarte-Chiapusso, Maria-Jose; Jelinek, Arthur; Jordá Pardo, Jesús F; Maíllo-Fernández, José-Manuel; Marom, Anat; Maroto, Julià; Menéndez, Mario; Metz, Laure; Morin, Eugène; Moroni, Adriana; Negrino, Fabio; Panagopoulou, Eleni; Peresani, Marco; Pirson, Stéphane; de la Rasilla, Marco; Riel-Salvatore, Julien; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Santamaria, David; Semal, Patrick; Slimak, Ludovic; Soler, Joaquim; Soler, Narcís; Villaluenga, Aritza; Pinhasi, Ron; Jacobi, Roger

    2014-08-21

    The timing of Neanderthal disappearance and the extent to which they overlapped with the earliest incoming anatomically modern humans (AMHs) in Eurasia are key questions in palaeoanthropology. Determining the spatiotemporal relationship between the two populations is crucial if we are to understand the processes, timing and reasons leading to the disappearance of Neanderthals and the likelihood of cultural and genetic exchange. Serious technical challenges, however, have hindered reliable dating of the period, as the radiocarbon method reaches its limit at ∼50,000 years ago. Here we apply improved accelerator mass spectrometry (14)C techniques to construct robust chronologies from 40 key Mousterian and Neanderthal archaeological sites, ranging from Russia to Spain. Bayesian age modelling was used to generate probability distribution functions to determine the latest appearance date. We show that the Mousterian ended by 41,030-39,260 calibrated years bp (at 95.4% probability) across Europe. We also demonstrate that succeeding 'transitional' archaeological industries, one of which has been linked with Neanderthals (Châtelperronian), end at a similar time. Our data indicate that the disappearance of Neanderthals occurred at different times in different regions. Comparing the data with results obtained from the earliest dated AMH sites in Europe, associated with the Uluzzian technocomplex, allows us to quantify the temporal overlap between the two human groups. The results reveal a significant overlap of 2,600-5,400 years (at 95.4% probability). This has important implications for models seeking to explain the cultural, technological and biological elements involved in the replacement of Neanderthals by AMHs. A mosaic of populations in Europe during the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition suggests that there was ample time for the transmission of cultural and symbolic behaviours, as well as possible genetic exchanges, between the two groups.

  9. Charging stations location model based on spatiotemporal electromobility use patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagany, Raphaela; Marquardt, Anna; Zink, Roland

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges for mainstream adoption of electric vehicles is the provision of infrastructure for charging the batteries of the vehicles. The charging stations must not only be located dense enough to allow users to complete their journeys, but the electric energy must also be provided from renewable sources in order to truly offer a transportation with less CO2 emissions. The examination of potential locations for the charging of electric vehicles can facilitate the adaption of electromobility and the integration of electronic vehicles in everyday life. A geographic information system (GIS) based model for optimal location of charging stations in a small and regional scale is presented. This considers parameters such as the forecast of electric vehicle use penetration, the relevant weight of diverse point of interests and the distance between parking area and destination for different vehicle users. In addition to the spatial scale the temporal modelling of the energy demand at the different charging locations has to be considerate. Depending on different user profiles (commuters, short haul drivers etc.) the frequency of charging vary during the day, the week and the year. In consequence, the spatiotemporal variability is a challenge for a reliable energy supply inside a decentralized renewable energy system. The presented model delivers on the one side the most adequate identified locations for charging stations and on the other side the interaction between energy supply and demand for electromobility under the consideration of temporal aspects. Using ESRI ArcGIS Desktop, first results for the case study region of Lower Bavaria are generated. The aim of the concept is to keep the model transferable to other regions and also open to integrate further and more detailed user profiles, derived from social studies about i.e. the daily behavior and the perception of electromobility in a next step.

  10. Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    promulgate command-specific policy and guidance for EMS use, the joint restricted frequency list (JRFL) process, the joint communications–electronics...joint communications–electronics operating instructions (JCEOI) and joint restricted frequency list (JRFL). Examples of FM include providing the...joint restricted frequency list Figure III-4. Joint Frequency Management Office Spectrum Management Process Chapter III III-10 JP 6-01 assignments

  11. An evaluation of space time cube representation of spatiotemporal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensson, Per Ola; Dahlbäck, Nils; Anundi, Daniel; Björnstad, Marius; Gillberg, Hanna; Haraldsson, Jonas; Mårtensson, Ingrid; Nordvall, Mathias; Ståhl, Josefine

    2009-01-01

    Space time cube representation is an information visualization technique where spatiotemporal data points are mapped into a cube. Information visualization researchers have previously argued that space time cube representation is beneficial in revealing complex spatiotemporal patterns in a data set to users. The argument is based on the fact that both time and spatial information are displayed simultaneously to users, an effect difficult to achieve in other representations. However, to our knowledge the actual usefulness of space time cube representation in conveying complex spatiotemporal patterns to users has not been empirically validated. To fill this gap, we report on a between-subjects experiment comparing novice users' error rates and response times when answering a set of questions using either space time cube or a baseline 2D representation. For some simple questions, the error rates were lower when using the baseline representation. For complex questions where the participants needed an overall understanding of the spatiotemporal structure of the data set, the space time cube representation resulted in on average twice as fast response times with no difference in error rates compared to the baseline. These results provide an empirical foundation for the hypothesis that space time cube representation benefits users analyzing complex spatiotemporal patterns.

  12. Spatio-temporal networks: reachability, centrality and robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Matthew J; Musolesi, Mirco

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in spatial and temporal networks have enabled researchers to more-accurately describe many real-world systems such as urban transport networks. In this paper, we study the response of real-world spatio-temporal networks to random error and systematic attack, taking a unified view of their spatial and temporal performance. We propose a model of spatio-temporal paths in time-varying spatially embedded networks which captures the property that, as in many real-world systems, interaction between nodes is non-instantaneous and governed by the space in which they are embedded. Through numerical experiments on three real-world urban transport systems, we study the effect of node failure on a network's topological, temporal and spatial structure. We also demonstrate the broader applicability of this framework to three other classes of network. To identify weaknesses specific to the behaviour of a spatio-temporal system, we introduce centrality measures that evaluate the importance of a node as a structural bridge and its role in supporting spatio-temporally efficient flows through the network. This exposes the complex nature of fragility in a spatio-temporal system, showing that there is a variety of failure modes when a network is subject to systematic attacks.

  13. Joint Quantum Institute

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Joint Quantum Institute (JQI) is pursuing that goal through the work of leading quantum scientists from the Department of Physics of the University of Maryland...

  14. Temporomandibular Joint Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Baby Bottle Tooth Decay? Pacifiers Have Negative and Positive Effects What is Dental Amalgam (Silver Filling)? Check Menstrual Calendar for Tooth Extraction Temporomandibular Joint Disorder Learn what those dental words mean. Check out how your teeth and mouth ...

  15. Hip joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hip arthroplasty; Total hip replacement; Hip hemiarthroplasty; Arthritis - hip replacement; Osteoarthritis - hip replacement ... Your hip joint is made up of 2 major parts. One or both parts may be replaced during surgery: ...

  16. Knee joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to make everyday tasks easier. Practice using a cane, walker , crutches , or a wheelchair correctly. On the ... ask your doctor Knee joint replacement - discharge Preventing falls Preventing falls - what to ask your doctor Surgical ...

  17. Concrete pavement joint deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Concrete pavements are an important part of our national infrastructure. In recent years the relatively small number of reported joints deteriorating prematurely in concrete pavements around Indiana has increased. Changes over the past 45 years in IN...

  18. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Arslan, Ahmet; Koç, Omer Nadir; Dalkiliç, Turker; Naderi, Sait

    2010-07-01

    Sacroiliac joint dysfunction is a disorder presenting with low back and groin pain. It should be taken into consideration during the preoperative differential diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation, lumbar spinal stenosis and facet syndrome. Four cases with sacroiliac dysfunction are presented. The clinical and radiological signs supported the evidence of sacroiliac dysfunction, and exact diagnosis was made after positive response to sacroiliac joint block. A percutaneous sacroiliac fixation provided pain relief in all cases. The mean VAS scores reduced from 8.2 to 2.2. It is concluded that sacroiliac joint dysfunction diagnosis requires a careful physical examination of the sacroiliac joints in all cases with low back and groin pain. The diagnosis is made based on positive response to the sacroiliac block. Sacroiliac fixation was found to be effective in carefully selected cases.

  19. Spatio-temporal Eigenvector Filtering: Application on Bioenergy Crop Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Kamarianakis, Y.; Georgescu, M.

    2017-12-01

    A suite of 10-year ensemble-based simulations was conducted to investigate the hydroclimatic impacts due to large-scale deployment of perennial bioenergy crops across the continental United States. Given the large size of the simulated dataset (about 60Tb), traditional hierarchical spatio-temporal statistical modelling cannot be implemented for the evaluation of physics parameterizations and biofuel impacts. In this work, we propose a filtering algorithm that takes into account the spatio-temporal autocorrelation structure of the data while avoiding spatial confounding. This method is used to quantify the robustness of simulated hydroclimatic impacts associated with bioenergy crops to alternative physics parameterizations and observational datasets. Results are evaluated against those obtained from three alternative Bayesian spatio-temporal specifications.

  20. Spiking neural network for recognizing spatiotemporal sequences of spikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Dezhe Z.

    2004-01-01

    Sensory neurons in many brain areas spike with precise timing to stimuli with temporal structures, and encode temporally complex stimuli into spatiotemporal spikes. How the downstream neurons read out such neural code is an important unsolved problem. In this paper, we describe a decoding scheme using a spiking recurrent neural network. The network consists of excitatory neurons that form a synfire chain, and two globally inhibitory interneurons of different types that provide delayed feedforward and fast feedback inhibition, respectively. The network signals recognition of a specific spatiotemporal sequence when the last excitatory neuron down the synfire chain spikes, which happens if and only if that sequence was present in the input spike stream. The recognition scheme is invariant to variations in the intervals between input spikes within some range. The computation of the network can be mapped into that of a finite state machine. Our network provides a simple way to decode spatiotemporal spikes with diverse types of neurons

  1. Dynamical topology and statistical properties of spatiotemporal chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Quntao; Gao, Xun; Ouyang, Qi; Wang, Hongli

    2012-12-01

    For spatiotemporal chaos described by partial differential equations, there are generally locations where the dynamical variable achieves its local extremum or where the time partial derivative of the variable vanishes instantaneously. To a large extent, the location and movement of these topologically special points determine the qualitative structure of the disordered states. We analyze numerically statistical properties of the topologically special points in one-dimensional spatiotemporal chaos. The probability distribution functions for the number of point, the lifespan, and the distance covered during their lifetime are obtained from numerical simulations. Mathematically, we establish a probabilistic model to describe the dynamics of these topologically special points. In spite of the different definitions in different spatiotemporal chaos, the dynamics of these special points can be described in a uniform approach.

  2. A Modified Spatiotemporal Fusion Algorithm Using Phenological Information for Predicting Reflectance of Paddy Rice in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengxue Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite data for studying surface dynamics in heterogeneous landscapes are missing due to frequent cloud contamination, low temporal resolution, and technological difficulties in developing satellites. A modified spatiotemporal fusion algorithm for predicting the reflectance of paddy rice is presented in this paper. The algorithm uses phenological information extracted from a moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer enhanced vegetation index time series to improve the enhanced spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model (ESTARFM. The algorithm is tested with satellite data on Yueyang City, China. The main contribution of the modified algorithm is the selection of similar neighborhood pixels by using phenological information to improve accuracy. Results show that the modified algorithm performs better than ESTARFM in visual inspection and quantitative metrics, especially for paddy rice. This modified algorithm provides not only new ideas for the improvement of spatiotemporal data fusion method, but also technical support for the generation of remote sensing data with high spatial and temporal resolution.

  3. Joint Hub Network Development

    OpenAIRE

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Dullaert, W.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework for joint hub network development. Building a joint physical hub for transhipment of goods is expensive and therefore involves considerable risks for the cooperating companies. In a practical setting, it is unlikely that an entire network will be built at once. Rather, the partners will have a more cautious attitude and build the hub facilities one-by-one. In the proposed framework, every time a new hub is introduced, partners will have the opportunity to dec...

  4. Prosthetic Joint Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Saima; Darouiche, Rabih O.

    2012-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infections represent a major therapeutic challenge for both healthcare providers and patients. This paper reviews the predisposing factors, pathogenesis, microbiology, diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of prosthetic joint infection. The most optimal management strategy should be identified based on a number of considerations including type and duration of infection, antimicrobial susceptibility of the infecting pathogen, condition of infected tissues and bone stock, patient wishes and functional status. PMID:22847032

  5. A spatiotemporal mixed model to assess the influence of environmental and socioeconomic factors on the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianfa Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a common infectious disease, hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD is affected by multiple environmental and socioeconomic factors, and its pathogenesis is complex. Furthermore, the transmission of HFMD is characterized by strong spatial clustering and autocorrelation, and the classical statistical approach may be biased without consideration of spatial autocorrelation. In this paper, we propose to embed spatial characteristics into a spatiotemporal additive model to improve HFMD incidence assessment. Methods Using incidence data (6439 samples from 137 monitoring district for Shandong Province, China, along with meteorological, environmental and socioeconomic spatial and spatiotemporal covariate data, we proposed a spatiotemporal mixed model to estimate HFMD incidence. Geo-additive regression was used to model the non-linear effects of the covariates on the incidence risk of HFMD in univariate and multivariate models. Furthermore, the spatial effect was constructed to capture spatial autocorrelation at the sub-regional scale, and clusters (hotspots of high risk were generated using spatiotemporal scanning statistics as a predictor. Linear and non-linear effects were compared to illustrate the usefulness of non-linear associations. Patterns of spatial effects and clusters were explored to illustrate the variation of the HFMD incidence across geographical sub-regions. To validate our approach, 10-fold cross-validation was conducted. Results The results showed that there were significant non-linear associations of the temporal index, spatiotemporal meteorological factors and spatial environmental and socioeconomic factors with HFMD incidence. Furthermore, there were strong spatial autocorrelation and clusters for the HFMD incidence. Spatiotemporal meteorological parameters, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, the temporal index, spatiotemporal clustering and spatial effects played important roles as predictors in

  6. Benign joint hypermobility syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Słowińska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS, commonly known as loose ligament syndrome, is a non-inflammatory rheumatic condition. It is characterised by a greater than normal range of motion of the joints of the limbs and spine. The prevalence of the syndrome in preschool-age children is estimated to be between 2% and 30%, depending on ethnic background (with higher prevalence in Asian and African populations, occurring most often in families with a history of the condition and more frequently in girls. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old girl. A broad differential diagnostic approach to recurrent joint inflammation with joint effusion and pain made it possible to establish a diagnosis of benign joint hypermobility syndrome. The child met the Brighton criteria; her Beighton score was 7 out of 9. Patient education aimed at eliminating abnormal joint movement and an appropriate rehabilitation programme play key roles in the treatment of BJHS.

  7. Bridge damage detection using spatiotemporal patterns extracted from dense sensor network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chao; Sarkar, Soumik; Gong, Yongqiang; Laflamme, Simon; Phares, Brent

    2017-01-01

    The alarmingly degrading state of transportation infrastructures combined with their key societal and economic importance calls for automatic condition assessment methods to facilitate smart management of maintenance and repairs. With the advent of ubiquitous sensing and communication capabilities, scalable data-driven approaches is of great interest, as it can utilize large volume of streaming data without requiring detailed physical models that can be inaccurate and computationally expensive to run. Properly designed, a data-driven methodology could enable fast and automatic evaluation of infrastructures, discovery of causal dependencies among various sub-system dynamic responses, and decision making with uncertainties and lack of labeled data. In this work, a spatiotemporal pattern network (STPN) strategy built on symbolic dynamic filtering (SDF) is proposed to explore spatiotemporal behaviors in a bridge network. Data from strain gauges installed on two bridges are generated using finite element simulation for three types of sensor networks from a density perspective (dense, nominal, sparse). Causal relationships among spatially distributed strain data streams are extracted and analyzed for vehicle identification and detection, and for localization of structural degradation in bridges. Multiple case studies show significant capabilities of the proposed approach in: (i) capturing spatiotemporal features to discover causality between bridges (geographically close), (ii) robustness to noise in data for feature extraction, (iii) detecting and localizing damage via comparison of bridge responses to similar vehicle loads, and (iv) implementing real-time health monitoring and decision making work flow for bridge networks. Also, the results demonstrate increased sensitivity in detecting damages and higher reliability in quantifying the damage level with increase in sensor network density. (paper)

  8. Exploring Multi-Scale Spatiotemporal Twitter User Mobility Patterns with a Visual-Analytics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Yin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding human mobility patterns is of great importance for urban planning, traffic management, and even marketing campaign. However, the capability of capturing detailed human movements with fine-grained spatial and temporal granularity is still limited. In this study, we extracted high-resolution mobility data from a collection of over 1.3 billion geo-located Twitter messages. Regarding the concerns of infringement on individual privacy, such as the mobile phone call records with restricted access, the dataset is collected from publicly accessible Twitter data streams. In this paper, we employed a visual-analytics approach to studying multi-scale spatiotemporal Twitter user mobility patterns in the contiguous United States during the year 2014. Our approach included a scalable visual-analytics framework to deliver efficiency and scalability in filtering large volume of geo-located tweets, modeling and extracting Twitter user movements, generating space-time user trajectories, and summarizing multi-scale spatiotemporal user mobility patterns. We performed a set of statistical analysis to understand Twitter user mobility patterns across multi-level spatial scales and temporal ranges. In particular, Twitter user mobility patterns measured by the displacements and radius of gyrations of individuals revealed multi-scale or multi-modal Twitter user mobility patterns. By further studying such mobility patterns in different temporal ranges, we identified both consistency and seasonal fluctuations regarding the distance decay effects in the corresponding mobility patterns. At the same time, our approach provides a geo-visualization unit with an interactive 3D virtual globe web mapping interface for exploratory geo-visual analytics of the multi-level spatiotemporal Twitter user movements.

  9. Semi-supervised tracking of extreme weather events in global spatio-temporal climate datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. K.; Prabhat, M.; Williams, D. N.

    2017-12-01

    Deep neural networks have been successfully applied to solve problem to detect extreme weather events in large scale climate datasets and attend superior performance that overshadows all previous hand-crafted methods. Recent work has shown that multichannel spatiotemporal encoder-decoder CNN architecture is able to localize events in semi-supervised bounding box. Motivated by this work, we propose new learning metric based on Variational Auto-Encoders (VAE) and Long-Short-Term-Memory (LSTM) to track extreme weather events in spatio-temporal dataset. We consider spatio-temporal object tracking problems as learning probabilistic distribution of continuous latent features of auto-encoder using stochastic variational inference. For this, we assume that our datasets are i.i.d and latent features is able to be modeled by Gaussian distribution. In proposed metric, we first train VAE to generate approximate posterior given multichannel climate input with an extreme climate event at fixed time. Then, we predict bounding box, location and class of extreme climate events using convolutional layers given input concatenating three features including embedding, sampled mean and standard deviation. Lastly, we train LSTM with concatenated input to learn timely information of dataset by recurrently feeding output back to next time-step's input of VAE. Our contribution is two-fold. First, we show the first semi-supervised end-to-end architecture based on VAE to track extreme weather events which can apply to massive scaled unlabeled climate datasets. Second, the information of timely movement of events is considered for bounding box prediction using LSTM which can improve accuracy of localization. To our knowledge, this technique has not been explored neither in climate community or in Machine Learning community.

  10. Accounting for spatiotemporal errors of gauges: A critical step to evaluate gridded precipitation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guoqiang; Behrangi, Ali; Long, Di; Li, Changming; Hong, Yang

    2018-04-01

    Rain gauge observations are commonly used to evaluate the quality of satellite precipitation products. However, the inherent difference between point-scale gauge measurements and areal satellite precipitation, i.e. a point of space in time accumulation v.s. a snapshot of time in space aggregation, has an important effect on the accuracy and precision of qualitative and quantitative evaluation results. This study aims to quantify the uncertainty caused by various combinations of spatiotemporal scales (0.1°-0.8° and 1-24 h) of gauge network designs in the densely gauged and relatively flat Ganjiang River basin, South China, in order to evaluate the state-of-the-art satellite precipitation, the Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG). For comparison with the dense gauge network serving as "ground truth", 500 sparse gauge networks are generated through random combinations of gauge numbers at each set of spatiotemporal scales. Results show that all sparse gauge networks persistently underestimate the performance of IMERG according to most metrics. However, the probability of detection is overestimated because hit and miss events are more likely fewer than the reference numbers derived from dense gauge networks. A nonlinear error function of spatiotemporal scales and the number of gauges in each grid pixel is developed to estimate the errors of using gauges to evaluate satellite precipitation. Coefficients of determination of the fitting are above 0.9 for most metrics. The error function can also be used to estimate the required minimum number of gauges in each grid pixel to meet a predefined error level. This study suggests that the actual quality of satellite precipitation products could be better than conventionally evaluated or expected, and hopefully enables non-subject-matter-expert researchers to have better understanding of the explicit uncertainties when using point-scale gauge observations to evaluate areal products.

  11. A Fresh Look at Spatio-Temporal Remote Sensing Data: Data Formats, Processing Flow, and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gens, R.

    2017-12-01

    With increasing number of experimental and operational satellites in orbit, remote sensing based mapping and monitoring of the dynamic Earth has entered into the realm of `big data'. Just the Landsat series of satellites provide a near continuous archive of 45 years of data. The availability of such spatio-temporal datasets has created opportunities for long-term monitoring diverse features and processes operating on the Earth's terrestrial and aquatic systems. Processes such as erosion, deposition, subsidence, uplift, evapotranspiration, urbanization, land-cover regime shifts can not only be monitored and change can be quantified using time-series data analysis. This unique opportunity comes with new challenges in management, analysis, and visualization of spatio-temporal datasets. Data need to be stored in a user-friendly format, and relevant metadata needs to be recorded, to allow maximum flexibility for data exchange and use. Specific data processing workflows need to be defined to support time-series analysis for specific applications. Value-added data products need to be generated keeping in mind the needs of the end-users, and using best practices in complex data visualization. This presentation systematically highlights the various steps for preparing spatio-temporal remote sensing data for time series analysis. It showcases a prototype workflow for remote sensing based change detection that can be generically applied while preserving the application-specific fidelity of the datasets. The prototype includes strategies for visualizing change over time. This has been exemplified using a time-series of optical and SAR images for visualizing the changing glacial, coastal, and wetland landscapes in parts of Alaska.

  12. Stochastic resonance based on modulation instability in spatiotemporal chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Liu, Hongjun; Huang, Nan; Wang, Zhaolu

    2017-04-03

    A novel dynamic of stochastic resonance in spatiotemporal chaos is presented, which is based on modulation instability of perturbed partially coherent wave. The noise immunity of chaos can be reinforced through this effect and used to restore the coherent signal information buried in chaotic perturbation. A theoretical model with fluctuations term is derived from the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation via Wigner transform. It shows that through weakening the nonlinear threshold and triggering energy redistribution, the coherent component dominates the instability damped by incoherent component. The spatiotemporal output showing the properties of stochastic resonance may provide a potential application of signal encryption and restoration.

  13. Coexistence of collapse and stable spatiotemporal solitons in multimode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtyrina, Olga V.; Fedoruk, Mikhail P.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    2018-01-01

    We analyze spatiotemporal solitons in multimode optical fibers and demonstrate the existence of stable solitons, in a sharp contrast to earlier predictions of collapse of multidimensional solitons in three-dimensional media. We discuss the coexistence of blow-up solutions and collapse stabilization by a low-dimensional external potential in graded-index media, and also predict the existence of stable higher-order nonlinear waves such as dipole-mode spatiotemporal solitons. To support the main conclusions of our numerical studies we employ a variational approach and derive analytically the stability criterion for input powers for the collapse stabilization.

  14. Tensor analysis methods for activity characterization in spatiotemporal data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haass, Michael Joseph; Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Ochoa, Edward M

    2014-03-01

    Tensor (multiway array) factorization and decomposition offers unique advantages for activity characterization in spatio-temporal datasets because these methods are compatible with sparse matrices and maintain multiway structure that is otherwise lost in collapsing for regular matrix factorization. This report describes our research as part of the PANTHER LDRD Grand Challenge to develop a foundational basis of mathematical techniques and visualizations that enable unsophisticated users (e.g. users who are not steeped in the mathematical details of matrix algebra and mulitway computations) to discover hidden patterns in large spatiotemporal data sets.

  15. Secondary Instabilities and Spatiotemporal Chaos in Parametric Surface Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.; Vinals, J.

    1995-01-01

    A 2D model is introduced to study the onset of parametric surface waves, their secondary instabilities, and the transition to spatiotemporal chaos. We obtain the stability boundary of a periodic standing wave above onset against Eckhaus, zigzag, and transverse amplitude modulations (TAM), as a function of the control parameter var-epsilon and the wavelength of the pattern. The Eckhaus and TAM boundaries cross at a finite value of var-epsilon, thus explaining the finite threshold for the TAM observed experimentally. At larger values of var-epsilon, a numerical solution reveals a transition to spatiotemporal chaotic states mediated by the TAM instability

  16. Pattern control and suppression of spatiotemporal chaos using geometrical resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.A.; Bellorin, A.; Reyes, L.I.; Vasquez, C.; Guerrero, L.E.

    2004-01-01

    We generalize the concept of geometrical resonance to perturbed sine-Gordon, Nonlinear Schroedinger, phi (cursive,open) Greek 4 , and Complex Ginzburg-Landau equations. Using this theory we can control different dynamical patterns. For instance, we can stabilize breathers and oscillatory patterns of large amplitudes successfully avoiding chaos. On the other hand, this method can be used to suppress spatiotemporal chaos and turbulence in systems where these phenomena are already present. This method can be generalized to even more general spatiotemporal systems. A short report of some of our results has been published in [Europhys. Lett. 64 (2003) 743

  17. Spatio-Temporal Data Mining for Location-Based Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo

    . The objectives of the presented thesis are three-fold. First, to extend popular data mining methods to the spatio-temporal domain. Second, to demonstrate the usefulness of the extended methods and the derived knowledge in promising LBS examples. Finally, to eliminate privacy concerns in connection with spatio......-temporal data mining by devising systems for privacy-preserving location data collection and mining.......Location-Based Services (LBS) are continuously gaining popularity. Innovative LBSes integrate knowledge about the users into the service. Such knowledge can be derived by analyzing the location data of users. Such data contain two unique dimensions, space and time, which need to be analyzed...

  18. Spatio-temporal databases complex motion pattern queries

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, Marcos R

    2013-01-01

    This brief presents several new query processing techniques, called complex motion pattern queries, specifically designed for very large spatio-temporal databases of moving objects. The brief begins with the definition of flexible pattern queries, which are powerful because of the integration of variables and motion patterns. This is followed by a summary of the expressive power of patterns and flexibility of pattern queries. The brief then present the Spatio-Temporal Pattern System (STPS) and density-based pattern queries. STPS databases contain millions of records with information about mobi

  19. Routes to spatiotemporal chaos in Kerr optical frequency combs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coillet, Aurélien; Chembo, Yanne K

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the various routes to spatiotemporal chaos in Kerr optical frequency combs, obtained through pumping an ultra-high Q-factor whispering-gallery mode resonator with a continuous-wave laser. The Lugiato-Lefever model is used to build bifurcation diagrams with regards to the parameters that are externally controllable, namely, the frequency and the power of the pumping laser. We show that the spatiotemporal chaos emerging from Turing patterns and solitons display distinctive dynamical features. Experimental spectra of chaotic Kerr combs are also presented for both cases, in excellent agreement with theoretical spectra.

  20. Spatiotemporal variability in carbon exchange fluxes across the Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagesson, Håkan Torbern; Fensholt, Rasmus; Cappelaere, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    for semi-arid ecosystems. We have synthesized data on the land-atmosphere exchange of CO2 measured with the eddy covariance technique from the six existing sites across the Sahel, one of the largest semi-arid regions in the world. The overall aim of the study is to analyse and quantify the spatiotemporal...... variability in these fluxes and to analyse to which degree spatiotemporal variation can be explained by hydrological, climatic, edaphic and vegetation variables. All ecosystems were C sinks (average ± total error -162 ± 48 g C m-2 y-1), but were smaller when strongly impacted by anthropogenic influences...

  1. Spatio-temporal modeling of nonlinear distributed parameter systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Han-Xiong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this volume is to provide a brief review of the previous work on model reduction and identifi cation of distributed parameter systems (DPS), and develop new spatio-temporal models and their relevant identifi cation approaches. In this book, a systematic overview and classifi cation on the modeling of DPS is presented fi rst, which includes model reduction, parameter estimation and system identifi cation. Next, a class of block-oriented nonlinear systems in traditional lumped parameter systems (LPS) is extended to DPS, which results in the spatio-temporal Wiener and Hammerstein s

  2. Mobile technologies and the spatiotemporal configurations of institutional practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina; Troshynski, Emily; Dourish, Paul

    2015-01-01

    are specifically concerned with what happens to institutional roles, power relationships, and decision-making processes when a particular type of information—that of spatiotemporal location of people—is made into a technologically tradable object through the use of location-based systems. We examine...... in which broad adoption of location-based and mobile technologies has the capacity to radically reconfigure the spatiotemporal arrangement of institutional processes. The presence of digital location traces creates new forms of institutional accountability, facilitates a shift in the understood relation...... between location and action, and necessitates new models of interpretation and sense making in practice....

  3. Estimating the state of large spatio-temporally chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, E.; Hunt, B.R.; Szunyogh, I.; Zimin, A.V.; Kostelich, E.J.; Corazza, M.; Kalnay, E.; Patil, D.J.; Yorke, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the estimation of the state of a large spatio-temporally chaotic system from noisy observations and knowledge of a system model. Standard state estimation techniques using the Kalman filter approach are not computationally feasible for systems with very many effective degrees of freedom. We present and test a new technique (called a Local Ensemble Kalman Filter), generally applicable to large spatio-temporally chaotic systems for which correlations between system variables evaluated at different points become small at large separation between the points

  4. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the HIV-1 subtype G epidemic in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatorre, Edson; Mir, Daiana; Bello, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype G is the second most prevalent HIV-1 clade in West Africa, accounting for nearly 30% of infections in the region. There is no information about the spatiotemporal dynamics of dissemination of this HIV-1 clade in Africa. To this end, we analyzed a total of 305 HIV-1 subtype G pol sequences isolated from 11 different countries from West and Central Africa over a period of 20 years (1992 to 2011). Evolutionary, phylogeographic and demographic parameters were jointly estimated from sequence data using a Bayesian coalescent-based method. Our analyses indicate that subtype G most probably emerged in Central Africa in 1968 (1956-1976). From Central Africa, the virus was disseminated to West and West Central Africa at multiple times from the middle 1970s onwards. Two subtype G strains probably introduced into Nigeria and Togo between the middle and the late 1970s were disseminated locally and to neighboring countries, leading to the origin of two major western African clades (G WA-I and G WA-II). Subtype G clades circulating in western and central African regions displayed an initial phase of exponential growth followed by a decline in growth rate since the early/middle 1990 s; but the mean epidemic growth rate of G WA-I (0.75 year-1) and G WA-II (0.95 year-1) clades was about two times higher than that estimated for central African lineages (0.47 year-1). Notably, the overall evolutionary and demographic history of G WA-I and G WA-II clades was very similar to that estimated for the CRF06_cpx clade circulating in the same region. These results support the notion that the spatiotemporal dissemination dynamics of major HIV-1 clades circulating in western Africa have probably been shaped by the same ecological factors.

  5. Jointness for the Rest of Us: Reforming Joint Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    transferred to the Joint Staff. 13 DOD’s instinct to “overly centralize planning, organization, and management.”20 The authors contend that this...2. 3 John F. Schank and others, Who is Joint? Reevaluating the Joint Duty Assignment List : A Study Prepared for the Joint Staff, by the RAND...and code those billets as such. Once identified, DOD must expand the Joint Duty Assignment List (JDAL) to include billets that offer enlisted personnel

  6. Acromioclavicular joint separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devan Pandya, BS

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 30-year-old male was brought in by ambulance to the emergency department as a trauma activation after a motorcycle accident. The patient was the helmeted rider of a motorcycle traveling at an unknown speed when he lost control and was thrown off his vehicle. He denied loss of consciousness, nausea, or vomiting. The patient’s vital signs were stable and his only complaint was pain around his left shoulder. On exam, the patient had a prominent left clavicle without skin compromise. He had adequate range of motion in the left shoulder with moderate pain, and his left upper extremity was neurovascularly intact. Significant findings: Plain films of the left shoulder showed elevation of the left clavicle above the acromion. There was an increase in the acromioclavicular (AC and coracoclavicular (CC distances (increased joint distances marked with red and blue arrows, respectively. A normal AC joint measures 1-3 mm whereas a normal CC distance measures 11-13 mm.1 The injury was classified as a Rockwood type III AC joint separation. Discussion: The AC joint is a synovial joint between an oval facet on the acromion and a similar facet on the distal end of the clavicle. Horizontal stability is provided by the AC joint while axial stability is provided by the CC joint.2,3 AC joint injuries account for about 9%-12% of shoulder girdle injuries, and the most common mechanism is direct trauma.4,5 Initial evaluation with imaging includes plain films with three views: the anterior-posterior (AP view with the shoulder in internal and external rotation as well as an axillary, or scapula-Y view (sensitivity 40%, specificity 90% for all films.6,7 AC joint injuries are classified by the Rockwood system.8 Type I involves a sprain or incomplete tear of the AC ligaments with an intact CC ligament. The AC joint appears normal on X-ray, but can become widened with stress, achieved by having the patient hold a 10-15 pound weight from each

  7. Proceedings of the Clean and Efficient Use of Fossil Energy for Power Generation in Thailand. The Joint Eighth APEC Clean Fossil Energy Technical Seminar and the Seventh APEC Coal Flow Seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-30

    The convention named above held jointly by the two seminars also named above took place in Bangkok, Thailand, in the period October 30 through November 3. Open remarks were delivered by Mr. Piromsakdi Laparojkit, Secretary General of National Energy Policy Council, Thailand; Mr. Yoshito Yoshimura, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Japan; Mr. Paul Toghe, Embassy of Australia in Bangkok; and Mr. Robert Gee, Department of Energy, U.S.A. There were ten technical sessions, in which presentations were made and discussion was held over coal in the APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference) economy, important role of coal and natural gas in developing economies, coal and environmental situation in Thailand, coal fired power plant related environmental issues, commercially available CCTs (clean coal technologies) in the APEC region, emerging technologies for reducing GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions, clean fuels in the APEC region, growing importance of IPPs (independent power producers) in the APEC region, cooperation among APEC economies, and the like. (NEDO)

  8. Role and Place of the Joint-Stock Company -ECOMET-S- in the System of Solid Radioactive Waste Treatment Generated at the Nuclear Power Plants of the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelbutovski, A.B.; Troshev, A.V.; Cheremisin, P.I.

    2009-01-01

    In this work the existing situation and ways of solving the problem of solid radioactive waste (SRW) management, resulting from the nuclear power industry are considered. It is shown, that one of the ways to manage SRW is transferring the task to a specialized enterprise. Such an enterprise in Russia is the Joint-Stock Company (JSC) 'ECOMET-S', whose main activity is providing services for processing and disposal of radioactive metal waste. They reduce the volume of SRW, ship it for burial and return metal return to industry for unlimited use. The basic provisions of the system of radioactive metal waste (hereinafter RMW) management developed by JSC 'ECOMET-S' are given. Information referring to technology and enterprise industrial capacity is represented. The results of the JSC 'ECOMET-S' activity for processing and disposal of low-activity radioactive metal waste from the Nuclear Power Plant (hereinafter NPP) of the Russian Federation are shown. (authors)

  9. Report of fiscal 1998 results. Feasibility study of overseas technological development (feasibility study for joint research on photovoltaic power generation in Myanmar); 1998 nendo kaigai gijutsu kaihatsu kanosei chosa hokokusho. Myanmar ni okeru taiyoko hatsuden system kyodo kenkyu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Feasibility was studied of a demonstrative research concerning effective operation of a hybrid system consisting of photovoltaic, wind and diesel power generations in Myanmar. Upon confirmation of Myanmar's request and assistance, Myanmar electric Power Enterprise was selected as the counterpart, with Kantangyi village determined as the candidate site from the viewpoint of the quantity of solar radiation, wind conditions, and convenience in transportation service. Meteorological observation instruments were installed at Nyaung U observatory, with the observation implemented. It was grasped that the demand spreading pattern and the demand for electric power was 40 kWh/month per household. It was also judged that the system structure should be constituted of photovoltaic power, wind power, and diesel generator/battery/adjustable load. The problems are stable supply technology, technology for effective use of renewable energy, technology for complementary effects of photovoltaic power generation and wind power generation, and demonstration of a 100 kW class wind power generation system. Particularly important is consistency between the capacity of power storage equipment and that of diesel power generation. The study results applicable to Japan is the verification of a small-sized independent system for remote islands or the like. The total research expenses were estimated to be 600 million yen. (NEDO)

  10. Harbour porpoise distribution can vary at small spatiotemporal scales in energetic habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamins, Steven; van Geel, Nienke; Hastie, Gordon; Elliott, Jim; Wilson, Ben

    2017-07-01

    Marine habitat heterogeneity underpins species distribution and can be generated through interactions between physical and biological drivers at multiple spatiotemporal scales. Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) is used worldwide to study potential impacts of marine industrial activities on cetaceans, but understanding of animals' site use at small spatiotemporal scales (marine renewable energy development (MRED) sites was investigated by deploying dense arrays of C-POD passive acoustic detectors at a wave energy test site (the European Marine Energy Centre [Billia Croo, Orkney]) and by a minor tidal-stream site (Scarba [Inner Hebrides]). Respective arrays consisted of 7 and 11 moorings containing two C-PODs each and were deployed for up to 55 days. Minimum inter-mooring distances varied between 300-600 m. All C-POD data were analysed at a temporal resolution of whole minutes, with each minute classified as 1 or 0 on the basis of presence/absence of porpoise click trains (Porpoise-Positive Minutes/PPMs). Porpoise detection rates were analysed using Generalised Additive Models (GAMs) with Generalised Estimation Equations (GEEs). Although there were many porpoise detections (wave test site: N=3,432; tidal-stream site: N=17,366), daily detection rates varied significantly within both arrays. Within the wave site array (<1 km diameter), average daily detection rates varied from 4.3 to 14.8 PPMs/day. Within the tidal-stream array (<2 km diameter), average daily detection rates varied from 10.3 to 49.7 PPMs/day. GAM-GEE model results for individual moorings within both arrays indicated linkages between porpoise presence and small-scale heterogeneity among different environmental covariates (e.g., tidal phase, time of day). Porpoise detection rates varied considerably but with coherent patterns between moorings only several hundred metres apart and within hours. These patterns presumably have ecological relevance. These results indicate that, in energetically active and

  11. Recent results on the spatiotemporal modelling and comparative analysis of Black Death and bubonic plague epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, G.; Olea, R.A.; Yu, H.-L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This work demonstrates the importance of spatiotemporal stochastic modelling in constructing maps of major epidemics from fragmentary information, assessing population impacts, searching for possible etiologies, and performing comparative analysis of epidemics. Methods: Based on the theory previously published by the authors and incorporating new knowledge bases, informative maps of the composite space-time distributions were generated for important characteristics of two major epidemics: Black Death (14th century Western Europe) and bubonic plague (19th-20th century Indian subcontinent). Results: The comparative spatiotemporal analysis of the epidemics led to a number of interesting findings: (1) the two epidemics exhibited certain differences in their spatiotemporal characteristics (correlation structures, trends, occurrence patterns and propagation speeds) that need to be explained by means of an interdisciplinary effort; (2) geographical epidemic indicators confirmed in a rigorous quantitative manner the partial findings of isolated reports and time series that Black Death mortality was two orders of magnitude higher than that of bubonic plague; (3) modern bubonic plague is a rural disease hitting harder the small villages in the countryside whereas Black Death was a devastating epidemic that indiscriminately attacked large urban centres and the countryside, and while the epidemic in India lasted uninterruptedly for five decades, in Western Europe it lasted three and a half years; (4) the epidemics had reverse areal extension features in response to annual seasonal variations. Temperature increase at the end of winter led to an expansion of infected geographical area for Black Death and a reduction for bubonic plague, reaching a climax at the end of spring when the infected area in Western Europe was always larger than in India. Conversely, without exception, the infected area during winter was larger for the Indian bubonic plague; (5) during the

  12. Forming a multinational joint venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, N.K.; Garb, R.H.; Statton, T.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the basis and mechanics for forming a multinational joint venture. The topics of the paper include the motivations for a joint venture, selection of the appropriate co-venturer, management of the multinational joint venture, and the joint venture agreement. The authors state that a joint venture is not applicable or desirable in all instances and to be successful, must be carefully planned

  13. State estimation of spatio-temporal phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan

    This dissertation addresses the state estimation problem of spatio-temporal phenomena which can be modeled by partial differential equations (PDEs), such as pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere. After discretizing the PDE, the dynamical system has a large number of degrees of freedom (DOF). State estimation using Kalman Filter (KF) is computationally intractable, and hence, a reduced order model (ROM) needs to be constructed first. Moreover, the nonlinear terms, external disturbances or unknown boundary conditions can be modeled as unknown inputs, which leads to an unknown input filtering problem. Furthermore, the performance of KF could be improved by placing sensors at feasible locations. Therefore, the sensor scheduling problem to place multiple mobile sensors is of interest. The first part of the dissertation focuses on model reduction for large scale systems with a large number of inputs/outputs. A commonly used model reduction algorithm, the balanced proper orthogonal decomposition (BPOD) algorithm, is not computationally tractable for large systems with a large number of inputs/outputs. Inspired by the BPOD and randomized algorithms, we propose a randomized proper orthogonal decomposition (RPOD) algorithm and a computationally optimal RPOD (RPOD*) algorithm, which construct an ROM to capture the input-output behaviour of the full order model, while reducing the computational cost of BPOD by orders of magnitude. It is demonstrated that the proposed RPOD* algorithm could construct the ROM in real-time, and the performance of the proposed algorithms on different advection-diffusion equations. Next, we consider the state estimation problem of linear discrete-time systems with unknown inputs which can be treated as a wide-sense stationary process with rational power spectral density, while no other prior information needs to be known. We propose an autoregressive (AR) model based unknown input realization technique which allows us to recover the input

  14. Facet joint syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigrai, M.; Zakovic, J.; Brezinova, M.; Pavlovicova, M.

    2002-01-01

    It is the purpose of the study to demonstrate the clinical relevance of degenerative changes in the facet joint of patients with low back pain irradiating to the lower extremities, and discuss some problems relating to diagnosis and different diagnosis. 119 patients presenting the listed bellow syndromes are covered by the study: scoliosis, polytopic pain vertebral syndrome, paresis and history of trauma. all patients undergo comprehensive neurological examination with special attention focused on the spine: CT and plain x-rays are taken of the lumbosacral segment to assess the condition of the facet joints. The neurological examination demonstrates in all cases pain syndrome in the lumbar spine referred to one or both lower extremities. In 56% it is a matter of persisting pain, and in 44% - recurrent. More than half of the patients complain of sacroiliac (SI) dislocation and palpatory pain. Unilateral or bilateral degenerative changes are documented by imaging studies in all patients, including: subchondral thickening, osteopathy narrowing the lateral or central part of the spinal canal with ensuing nerve root compression. The lumbosacral zygoapophyseal joints are source of pseudoradicular pain. A correlation between clinical picture and GT changes is noted in all patients with facet joint syndrome. CT is an indispensable method in diagnosing facet joint syndrome. (authors)

  15. Temporomandibular joint examination reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guarda Nardini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ it’s a joint closely related to the skull base, the spine, and the jaws; all these anatomical structures must be taken in consideration when evaluating pain involving the tmj. In order to detect patients affected by pathology or dysfunctions of the tmj, physical examination is of great value in orienting the diagnosis. Inspection must consider the symmetry of the body, the dental status and the type of occlusion. Palpation is a way to assess contractiont involving the muscles of the masticatory system and of the neck. Auscultation, based on articular noise provides means to determine whether we are dealing with degeneration of the joint or a dislocation of the intrarticular disc. In order to confirm the diagnosis obtained with the clinical evaluation, it’s useful to perform imaging techniques as opt, tomography and TC of the tmj and electromyokineosiography – index of the mandibular functionality and of the muscles status. MRI and dynamic MRI are among the non invasive exams which give the greatest amount of information, regarding the disc position and the joint degeneration. Arthroscopy is an invasive technique that allows early diagnosis of degeneration and is helpful to reveal early inflammatory processes of the joint.

  16. Distal radioulnar joint injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu P Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint , forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triangular fibrocartilage or the radioulnar ligaments.The patients usually present with ulnar sided wrist pain, features of instability, or restriction of rotation. Difficulty in carrying loads in the hand is a major constraint for these patients. Thorough clinical examination to localize point of tenderness and appropriate provocative tests help in diagnosis. Radiology and MRI are extremely useful, while arthroscopy is the gold standard for evaluation. The treatment protocols are continuously evolving and range from conservative, arthroscopic to open surgical methods. Isolated dislocation are uncommon. Basal fractures of the ulnar styloid tend to make the joint unstable and may require operative intervention. Chronic instability requires reconstruction of the stabilizing ligaments to avoid onset of arthritis. Prosthetic replacement in arthritis is gaining acceptance in the management of arthritis.

  17. Formation of Exfoliation Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, S. J.

    2004-12-01

    The Earth's internal stresses interact with the topographic surface to affect many phenomena. Exfoliation joints, or sheeting joints, are widespread manifestations of this interaction. These opening-mode fractures form subparallel to the Earth's surface, bounding roughly concentric slabs of rock that resemble the layers of an onion. They occur worldwide in all major bedrock types, attain in-plane dimensions of hundreds of meters, exert a strong influence on groundwater flow, and help produce spectacular scenery, as in Yosemite National Park. The mechanism that causes them has been enigmatic. They are widely regarded as forming in response to "removal of overburden", but large fractures do not open in rocks merely by relieving a compressive stress. High fluid pressures, thermal effects, rock heterogeneity, and weathering also are rejected as primary causes of these fractures. Tensile stresses normal to the surface are required for large exfoliation fractures to open. Intriguingly, high surface-parallel compressive stresses are widely documented where exfoliation joints occur. Both numerical and analytical solutions for two-dimensional elastic bodies show that localized tensile stresses perpendicular to the ground surface must develop beneath certain topographies subject to strong compressive stresses parallel to the surface. This highly non-intuitive effect reflects the profound influence that topography can have on stresses near the surface of the Earth, and it can explain how exfoliation joints open. The theoretical results also indicate that exfoliation joint distributions could be used to infer the horizontal stresses near the Earth's surface.

  18. The temporomandibular joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, W.

    1984-01-01

    Whilst the temporomandibular joint is in many ways unique, it is subject to all the diseases and disorders found in joints in other parts of the human skeleton. By far the most common disorder is injury, followed by arthropathy, acute and chronic dislocations, ankylosis, and in rare instances, neoplasms. The diagnosis and management of the temporomandibular joint are the primary responsibility of the oral surgeon. Nevertheless, this anatomical region is an area in which the cooperation of medical and dental disciplines may be required for the satisfactory conclusion of treatment. The more so when the disease process involves either associated psychosomatic illness or malignancy. The mainstay of the diagnosis is a careful radiological examination of the joint. There exists a delicate relationship between the dentition, the muscles of mastication, and the temporomandibular articulation, which is controlled by arthrokinetic reflex activity of the branches of the 5th cranial nerve. Imbalance between one or more of the components of this integrated system frequently leads to disturbances in function. Pain-dysfunction disorders constitute the larger part of temporomandibular joint disturbances generally encountered

  19. Spatiotemporal variability of marine renewable energy resources in Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varlas, George; Christakos, Konstantinos; Cheliotis, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, A.; Steeneveld, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Marine Renewable Energy (MRE) resources such as wind and wave energy depend on the complex behaviour of weather and climatic conditions which determine the development of MRE technologies, energy grid, supply and prices. This study investigates the spatiotemporal variability of MRE resources along

  20. Spatiotemporal distribution patterns of forest fires in northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavo Pérez-Verdin; M. A. Márquez-Linares; A. Cortes-Ortiz; M. Salmerón-Macias

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2000-2011 CONAFOR databases, a spatiotemporal analysis of the occurrence of forest fires in Durango, one of the most affected States in Mexico, was conducted. The Moran's index was used to determine a spatial distribution pattern; also, an analysis of seasonal and temporal autocorrelation of the data collected was completed. The geographically weighted...

  1. Large scale stochastic spatio-temporal modelling with PCRaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssenberg, D.J.; Drost, N.; Schmitz, O.; Jong, K. de; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2013-01-01

    PCRaster is a software framework for building spatio-temporal models of land surface processes (http://www.pcraster.eu). Building blocks of models are spatial operations on raster maps, including a large suite of operations for water and sediment routing. These operations are available to model

  2. Spatiotemporal dynamics of cortical representations during and after stimulus presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijzen, M.E. van de; Borne, E.W.P. van den; Jensen, O.; Gerven, M.A.J. van

    2016-01-01

    Visual perception is a spatiotemporally complex process. In this study, we investigated cortical dynamics during and after stimulus presentation. We observed that visual category information related to the difference between faces and objects became apparent in the occipital lobe after 63 ms. Within

  3. ELASTIC CLOUD COMPUTING ARCHITECTURE AND SYSTEM FOR HETEROGENEOUS SPATIOTEMPORAL COMPUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Shi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporal computation implements a variety of different algorithms. When big data are involved, desktop computer or standalone application may not be able to complete the computation task due to limited memory and computing power. Now that a variety of hardware accelerators and computing platforms are available to improve the performance of geocomputation, different algorithms may have different behavior on different computing infrastructure and platforms. Some are perfect for implementation on a cluster of graphics processing units (GPUs, while GPUs may not be useful on certain kind of spatiotemporal computation. This is the same situation in utilizing a cluster of Intel's many-integrated-core (MIC or Xeon Phi, as well as Hadoop or Spark platforms, to handle big spatiotemporal data. Furthermore, considering the energy efficiency requirement in general computation, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA may be a better solution for better energy efficiency when the performance of computation could be similar or better than GPUs and MICs. It is expected that an elastic cloud computing architecture and system that integrates all of GPUs, MICs, and FPGAs could be developed and deployed to support spatiotemporal computing over heterogeneous data types and computational problems.

  4. Elastic Cloud Computing Architecture and System for Heterogeneous Spatiotemporal Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X.

    2017-10-01

    Spatiotemporal computation implements a variety of different algorithms. When big data are involved, desktop computer or standalone application may not be able to complete the computation task due to limited memory and computing power. Now that a variety of hardware accelerators and computing platforms are available to improve the performance of geocomputation, different algorithms may have different behavior on different computing infrastructure and platforms. Some are perfect for implementation on a cluster of graphics processing units (GPUs), while GPUs may not be useful on certain kind of spatiotemporal computation. This is the same situation in utilizing a cluster of Intel's many-integrated-core (MIC) or Xeon Phi, as well as Hadoop or Spark platforms, to handle big spatiotemporal data. Furthermore, considering the energy efficiency requirement in general computation, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) may be a better solution for better energy efficiency when the performance of computation could be similar or better than GPUs and MICs. It is expected that an elastic cloud computing architecture and system that integrates all of GPUs, MICs, and FPGAs could be developed and deployed to support spatiotemporal computing over heterogeneous data types and computational problems.

  5. Spatiotemporal radiotherapy planning using a global optimization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibi, Ali; Salari, Ehsan

    2018-02-01

    This paper aims at quantifying the extent of potential therapeutic gain, measured using biologically effective dose (BED), that can be achieved by altering the radiation dose distribution over treatment sessions in fractionated radiotherapy. To that end, a spatiotemporally integrated planning approach is developed, where the spatial and temporal dose modulations are optimized simultaneously. The concept of equivalent uniform BED (EUBED) is used to quantify and compare the clinical quality of spatiotemporally heterogeneous dose distributions in target and critical structures. This gives rise to a large-scale non-convex treatment-plan optimization problem, which is solved using global optimization techniques. The proposed spatiotemporal planning approach is tested on two stylized cancer cases resembling two different tumor sites and sensitivity analysis is performed for radio-biological and EUBED parameters. Numerical results validate that spatiotemporal plans are capable of delivering a larger BED to the target volume without increasing the BED in critical structures compared to conventional time-invariant plans. In particular, this additional gain is attributed to the irradiation of different regions of the target volume at different treatment sessions. Additionally, the trade-off between the potential therapeutic gain and the number of distinct dose distributions is quantified, which suggests a diminishing marginal gain as the number of dose distributions increases.

  6. Gaze control during interceptive actions with different spatiotemporal demands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navia, J.A.; Dicks, M.S.; van der Kamp, J; Ruiz, L.

    It is widely accepted that the sources of information used to guide interceptive actions depend on conflicting spatiotemporal task demands. However, there is a paucity of evidence that shows how information pick-up during interceptive actions is adapted to such conflicting constraints. The present

  7. Pain Recognition using Spatiotemporal Oriented Energy of Facial Muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irani, Ramin; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Pain is a critical sign in many medical situations and its automatic detection and recognition using computer vision techniques is of great importance. Utilizes this fact that pain is a spatiotemporal process, the proposed system in this paper employs steerable and separable filters to measures e...

  8. Spatio-temporal point process filtering methods with an application

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frcalová, B.; Beneš, V.; Klement, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, 3-4 (2010), s. 240-252 ISSN 1180-4009 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA101120604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cox point process * filtering * spatio-temporal modelling * spike Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.750, year: 2010

  9. Spatio-temporal analysis of Salmonella surveillance data in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho Calado Domingues, Ana Rita; Vieira, Antonio; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the usefulness of spatio-temporal statistical tools to detect outbreaks using routine surveillance data where limited epidemiological information is available. A dataset from 2002 to 2007 containing information regarding date, origin, source and serotype of 29 586 Salmonella ...

  10. On spatio-temporal Lévy based Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokesova, Michaela; Hellmund, Gunnar; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses a new class of models for spatio-temporal Cox point processes. In these models, the driving field is defined by means of an integral of a weight function with respect to a Lévy basis. The relations to other Cox process models studied previously are discussed and formulas for t...

  11. Spatiotemporal Coupling of the Tongue in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, Mili S.; Green, Jordan R.; Yunusova, Yana; Hanford, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of the investigation was to identify deficits in spatiotemporal coupling between tongue regions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The relations between disease-related changes in tongue movement patterns and speech intelligibility were also determined. Methods: The authors recorded word productions from 11…

  12. Spatio-Temporal Saliency Perception via Hypercomplex Frequency Spectral Contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Tian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Salient object perception is the process of sensing the salient information from the spatio-temporal visual scenes, which is a rapid pre-attention mechanism for the target location in a visual smart sensor. In recent decades, many successful models of visual saliency perception have been proposed to simulate the pre-attention behavior. Since most of the methods usually need some ad hoc parameters or high-cost preprocessing, they are difficult to rapidly detect salient object or be implemented by computing parallelism in a smart sensor. In this paper, we propose a novel spatio-temporal saliency perception method based on spatio-temporal hypercomplex spectral contrast (HSC. Firstly, the proposed HSC algorithm represent the features in the HSV (hue, saturation and value color space and features of motion by a hypercomplex number. Secondly, the spatio-temporal salient objects are efficiently detected by hypercomplex Fourier spectral contrast in parallel. Finally, our saliency perception model also incorporates with the non-uniform sampling, which is a common phenomenon of human vision that directs visual attention to the logarithmic center of the image/video in natural scenes. The experimental results on the public saliency perception datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach compared to eleven state-of-the-art approaches. In addition, we extend the proposed model to moving object extraction in dynamic scenes, and the proposed algorithm is superior to the traditional algorithms.

  13. Spatio-temporal joins on symbolic indoor tracking data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Hua; Yang, Bin; Jensen, Christian S.

    2011-01-01

    and studies probabilistic, spatio-temporal joins on historical indoor tracking data. Two meaningful types of join are defined. They return object pairs that satisfy spatial join predicates either at a time point or during a time interval. The predicates considered include “same X,” where X is a semantic...

  14. Mode locking and spatiotemporal chaos in periodically driven Gunn diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik; Feldberg, Rasmus; Knudsen, Carsten

    1990-01-01

    oscillation entrains with the external signal. This produces a devil’s staircase of frequency-locked solutions. At higher microwave amplitudes, period doubling and other forms of mode-converting bifurcations can be seen. In this interval the diode also exhibits spatiotemporal chaos. At still higher microwave...

  15. Spatiotemporal Diffusive Evolution and Fractal Structure of Ground Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwada, Tsuyoshi

    2018-02-01

    The spatiotemporal diffusive evolution and fractal structure of ground motion have been investigated at the in-ground tunnel of the KEK B-Factory (KEKB) injector linear accelerator (linac). The slow dynamic fluctuating displacements of the tunnel floor are measured in real time with a new remote-controllable sensing system based on a laser-based alignment system. Based on spatiotemporal analyses with linear-regression models, which were applied in both the time and frequency domains to time-series data recorded over a period of approximately 8 months, both coherent and stochastic components in the displacements of the tunnel floor were clearly observed along the entire length of the linac. In particular, it was clearly observed that the stochastic components exhibited characteristic spatiotemporal diffusive evolution with the fractal structure and fractional dimension. This report describes in detail the experimental techniques and analyses of the spatiotemporal diffusive evolution of ground motion observed at the in-ground tunnel of the injector linac using a real-time remote-controllable sensing system.

  16. Spatiotemporal resonances in mixing of open viscous fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Fridolin; Tabeling, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    In this Letter, we reveal a new dynamical phenomenon, called "spatiotemporal resonance," which is expected to take place in a broad range of viscous, periodically forced, open systems. The observation originates from a numerical and theoretical analysis of a micromixer, and is supported...

  17. Synchronization of spatiotemporal chaotic systems by feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Y.; Grebogi, C.

    1994-01-01

    We demonstrate that two identical spatiotemporal chaotic systems can be synchronized by (1) linking one or a few of their dynamical variables, and (2) applying a small feedback control to one of the systems. Numerical examples using the diffusively coupled logistic map lattice are given. The effect of noise and the limitation of the technique are discussed

  18. Control and characterization of spatio-temporal disorder in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    characterizing the type of spatio-temporal disorder that is embodied in this disordered ... The results from this experiment will shed light on the more general questions ... sponds to only odd or even multiples of the common frequency, ω0. Thus ...

  19. Spatiotemporal synchronization of drift waves in a magnetron sputtering plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martines, E.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Adámek, Jiří; Antoni, V.; Serianni, G.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 10 (2014), s. 102309-102309 ISSN 1070-664X Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Drift waves * Magnetron sputtering plasma * Spatiotemporal synchronization Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.142, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4898693

  20. Multi-perspective analysis and spatiotemporal mapping of air pollution monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovos, Alexander; Skupin, André; Jerrett, Michael; Christakos, George

    2010-09-01

    Space-time data analysis and assimilation techniques in atmospheric sciences typically consider input from monitoring measurements. The input is often processed in a manner that acknowledges characteristics of the measurements (e.g., underlying patterns, fluctuation features) under conditions of uncertainty; it also leads to the derivation of secondary information that serves study-oriented goals, and provides input to space-time prediction techniques. We present a novel approach that blends a rigorous space-time prediction model (Bayesian maximum entropy, BME) with a cognitively informed visualization of high-dimensional data (spatialization). The combined BME and spatialization approach (BME-S) is used to study monthly averaged NO2 and mean annual SO4 measurements in California over the 15-year period 1988-2002. Using the original scattered measurements of these two pollutants BME generates spatiotemporal predictions on a regular grid across the state. Subsequently, the prediction network undergoes the spatialization transformation into a lower-dimensional geometric representation, aimed at revealing patterns and relationships that exist within the input data. The proposed BME-S provides a powerful spatiotemporal framework to study a variety of air pollution data sources.

  1. Data on spatiotemporal urban sprawl of Dire Dawa City, Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffa, Chaltu; Mekonen, Teferi; Mulugeta, Messay; Tesfaye, Bechaye

    2017-06-01

    The data presented in this paper shows the spatiotemporal expansion of Dire Dawa City (eastern Ethiopia) and the ensuing land use land cover changes in its peri-urban areas between 1985 and 2015. The data were generated from satellite images of Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper-Plus (ETM+) and OLI (Operational Land Image) with path/raw value of 166/053 by using Arc GIS 10.1 software. The precision of the images was verified by geolocation data collected from ground control points by using Geographic Positioning System (GPS) receiver. Four LULC classes (built up area, vegetation, barren land and farmland) with their respective spatiotemporal dimensions were clearly identified in the analysis. Built up area had shown an overall annual increment of 15.8% (82 ha per year) from 517 ha in 1985 to 2976 ha in 2015. Expansion took place in all directions but it was more pronounced along the main road towards other nearby towns, recently established business/service areas and the Industrial Park. Barren land, farmland and vegetation areas showed speedy decline over the years.

  2. Caudal regulates the spatiotemporal dynamics of pair-rule waves in Tribolium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzat El-Sherif

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the short-germ beetle Tribolium castaneum, waves of pair-rule gene expression propagate from the posterior end of the embryo towards the anterior and eventually freeze into stable stripes, partitioning the anterior-posterior axis into segments. Similar waves in vertebrates are assumed to arise due to the modulation of a molecular clock by a posterior-to-anterior frequency gradient. However, neither a molecular candidate nor a functional role has been identified to date for such a frequency gradient, either in vertebrates or elsewhere. Here we provide evidence that the posterior gradient of Tc-caudal expression regulates the oscillation frequency of pair-rule gene expression in Tribolium. We show this by analyzing the spatiotemporal dynamics of Tc-even-skipped expression in strong and mild knockdown of Tc-caudal, and by correlating the extension, level and slope of the Tc-caudal expression gradient to the spatiotemporal dynamics of Tc-even-skipped expression in wild type as well as in different RNAi knockdowns of Tc-caudal regulators. Further, we show that besides its absolute importance for stripe generation in the static phase of the Tribolium blastoderm, a frequency gradient might serve as a buffer against noise during axis elongation phase in Tribolium as well as vertebrates. Our results highlight the role of frequency gradients in pattern formation.

  3. Data on spatiotemporal urban sprawl of Dire Dawa City, Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaltu Taffa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this paper shows the spatiotemporal expansion of Dire Dawa City (eastern Ethiopia and the ensuing land use land cover changes in its peri-urban areas between 1985 and 2015. The data were generated from satellite images of Thematic Mapper (TM, Enhanced Thematic Mapper-Plus (ETM+ and OLI (Operational Land Image with path/raw value of 166/053 by using Arc GIS 10.1 software. The precision of the images was verified by geolocation data collected from ground control points by using Geographic Positioning System (GPS receiver. Four LULC classes (built up area, vegetation, barren land and farmland with their respective spatiotemporal dimensions were clearly identified in the analysis. Built up area had shown an overall annual increment of 15.8% (82 ha per year from 517 ha in 1985 to 2976 ha in 2015. Expansion took place in all directions but it was more pronounced along the main road towards other nearby towns, recently established business/service areas and the Industrial Park. Barren land, farmland and vegetation areas showed speedy decline over the years.

  4. A Statistical Physics Characterization of the Complex Systems Dynamics: Quantifying Complexity from Spatio-Temporal Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koorehdavoudi, Hana; Bogdan, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Biological systems are frequently categorized as complex systems due to their capabilities of generating spatio-temporal structures from apparent random decisions. In spite of research on analyzing biological systems, we lack a quantifiable framework for measuring their complexity. To fill this gap, in this paper, we develop a new paradigm to study a collective group of N agents moving and interacting in a three-dimensional space. Our paradigm helps to identify the spatio-temporal states of the motion of the group and their associated transition probabilities. This framework enables the estimation of the free energy landscape corresponding to the identified states. Based on the energy landscape, we quantify missing information, emergence, self-organization and complexity for a collective motion. We show that the collective motion of the group of agents evolves to reach the most probable state with relatively lowest energy level and lowest missing information compared to other possible states. Our analysis demonstrates that the natural group of animals exhibit a higher degree of emergence, self-organization and complexity over time. Consequently, this algorithm can be integrated into new frameworks to engineer collective motions to achieve certain degrees of emergence, self-organization and complexity.

  5. Spatiotemporal norepinephrine mapping using a high-density CMOS microelectrode array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wydallis, John B; Feeny, Rachel M; Wilson, William; Kern, Tucker; Chen, Tom; Tobet, Stuart; Reynolds, Melissa M; Henry, Charles S

    2015-10-21

    A high-density amperometric electrode array containing 8192 individually addressable platinum working electrodes with an integrated potentiostat fabricated using Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) processes is reported. The array was designed to enable electrochemical imaging of chemical gradients with high spatiotemporal resolution. Electrodes are arranged over a 2 mm × 2 mm surface area into 64 subarrays consisting of 128 individual Pt working electrodes as well as Pt pseudo-reference and auxiliary electrodes. Amperometric measurements of norepinephrine in tissue culture media were used to demonstrate the ability of the array to measure concentration gradients in complex media. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidics were incorporated to control the chemical concentrations in time and space, and the electrochemical response at each electrode was monitored to generate electrochemical heat maps, demonstrating the array's imaging capabilities. A temporal resolution of 10 ms can be achieved by simultaneously monitoring a single subarray of 128 electrodes. The entire 2 mm × 2 mm area can be electrochemically imaged in 64 seconds by cycling through all subarrays at a rate of 1 Hz per subarray. Monitoring diffusional transport of norepinephrine is used to demonstrate the spatiotemporal resolution capabilities of the system.

  6. A graph-based approach to detect spatiotemporal dynamics in satellite image time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttler, Fabio; Ienco, Dino; Nin, Jordi; Teisseire, Maguelonne; Poncelet, Pascal

    2017-08-01

    Enhancing the frequency of satellite acquisitions represents a key issue for Earth Observation community nowadays. Repeated observations are crucial for monitoring purposes, particularly when intra-annual process should be taken into account. Time series of images constitute a valuable source of information in these cases. The goal of this paper is to propose a new methodological framework to automatically detect and extract spatiotemporal information from satellite image time series (SITS). Existing methods dealing with such kind of data are usually classification-oriented and cannot provide information about evolutions and temporal behaviors. In this paper we propose a graph-based strategy that combines object-based image analysis (OBIA) with data mining techniques. Image objects computed at each individual timestamp are connected across the time series and generates a set of evolution graphs. Each evolution graph is associated to a particular area within the study site and stores information about its temporal evolution. Such information can be deeply explored at the evolution graph scale or used to compare the graphs and supply a general picture at the study site scale. We validated our framework on two study sites located in the South of France and involving different types of natural, semi-natural and agricultural areas. The results obtained from a Landsat SITS support the quality of the methodological approach and illustrate how the framework can be employed to extract and characterize spatiotemporal dynamics.

  7. Parallel optical control of spatiotemporal neuronal spike activity using high-frequency digital light processingtechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason eJerome

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurons in the mammalian neocortex receive inputs from and communicate back to thousands of other neurons, creating complex spatiotemporal activity patterns. The experimental investigation of these parallel dynamic interactions has been limited due to the technical challenges of monitoring or manipulating neuronal activity at that level of complexity. Here we describe a new massively parallel photostimulation system that can be used to control action potential firing in in vitro brain slices with high spatial and temporal resolution while performing extracellular or intracellular electrophysiological measurements. The system uses Digital-Light-Processing (DLP technology to generate 2-dimensional (2D stimulus patterns with >780,000 independently controlled photostimulation sites that operate at high spatial (5.4 µm and temporal (>13kHz resolution. Light is projected through the quartz-glass bottom of the perfusion chamber providing access to a large area (2.76 x 2.07 mm2 of the slice preparation. This system has the unique capability to induce temporally precise action potential firing in large groups of neurons distributed over a wide area covering several cortical columns. Parallel photostimulation opens up new opportunities for the in vitro experimental investigation of spatiotemporal neuronal interactions at a broad range of anatomical scales.

  8. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the spin transition in [Fe (HB(tz)3) 2] single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridier, Karl; Rat, Sylvain; Shepherd, Helena J.; Salmon, Lionel; Nicolazzi, William; Molnár, Gábor; Bousseksou, Azzedine

    2017-10-01

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of the spin transition have been thoroughly investigated in single crystals of the mononuclear spin-crossover (SCO) complex [Fe (HB (tz )3)2] (tz = 1 ,2 ,4-triazol-1-yl) by optical microscopy. This compound exhibits an abrupt spin transition centered at 334 K with a narrow thermal hysteresis loop of ˜1 K (first-order transition). Most single crystals of this compound reveal exceptional resilience upon repeated switching (several hundred cycles), which allowed repeatable and quantitative measurements of the spatiotemporal dynamics of the nucleation and growth processes to be carried out. These experiments revealed remarkable properties of the thermally induced spin transition: high stability of the thermal hysteresis loop, unprecedented large velocities of the macroscopic low-spin/high-spin phase boundaries up to 500 µm/s, and no visible dependency on the temperature scan rate. We have also studied the dynamics of the low-spin → high-spin transition induced by a local photothermal excitation generated by a spatially localized (Ø = 2 μ m ) continuous laser beam. Interesting phenomena have been evidenced both in quasistatic and dynamic conditions (e.g., threshold effects and long incubation periods, thermal activation of the phase boundary propagation, stabilization of the crystal in a stationary biphasic state, and thermal cutoff frequency). These measurements demonstrated the importance of thermal effects in the transition dynamics, and they enabled an accurate determination of the thermal properties of the SCO compound in the framework of a simple theoretical model.

  9. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. GISpark: A Geospatial Distributed Computing Platform for Spatiotemporal Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Zhong, E.; Wang, E.; Zhong, Y.; Cai, W.; Li, S.; Gao, S.

    2016-12-01

    Geospatial data are growing exponentially because of the proliferation of cost effective and ubiquitous positioning technologies such as global remote-sensing satellites and location-based devices. Analyzing large amounts of geospatial data can provide great value for both industrial and scientific applications. Data- and compute- intensive characteristics inherent in geospatial big data increasingly pose great challenges to technologies of data storing, computing and analyzing. Such challenges require a scalable and efficient architecture that can store, query, analyze, and visualize large-scale spatiotemporal data. Therefore, we developed GISpark - a geospatial distributed computing platform for processing large-scale vector, raster and stream data. GISpark is constructed based on the latest virtualized computing infrastructures and distributed computing architecture. OpenStack and Docker are used to build multi-user hosting cloud computing infrastructure for GISpark. The virtual storage systems such as HDFS, Ceph, MongoDB are combined and adopted for spatiotemporal data storage management. Spark-based algorithm framework is developed for efficient parallel computing. Within this framework, SuperMap GIScript and various open-source GIS libraries can be integrated into GISpark. GISpark can also integrated with scientific computing environment (e.g., Anaconda), interactive computing web applications (e.g., Jupyter notebook), and machine learning tools (e.g., TensorFlow/Orange). The associated geospatial facilities of GISpark in conjunction with the scientific computing environment, exploratory spatial data analysis tools, temporal data management and analysis systems make up a powerful geospatial computing tool. GISpark not only provides spatiotemporal big data processing capacity in the geospatial field, but also provides spatiotemporal computational model and advanced geospatial visualization tools that deals with other domains related with spatial property. We

  11. Spatiotemporal solitons in quadratic nonlinear media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optical solitons are localized electromagnetic waves that propagate stably in .... conversion generates a nonlinear phase shift ∆ΦNL at the FH frequency. ... to incidence on the SHG crystal (lithium iodate or barium borate, cut for type-I interac-.

  12. Respiratory pattern changes during costovertebral joint movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, R

    1980-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine if costovertebral joint manipulation (CVJM) could influence the respiratory pattern. Phrenic efferent activity (PA) was monitored in dogs that were anesthetized with Dial-urethane, vagotomized, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated. Ribs 6-10 (bilaterally) were cut and separated from ribs 5-11. Branches of thoracic nerves 5-11 were cut, leaving only the joint nerve supply intact. Manual joint movement in an inspiratory or expiratory direction had an inhibitory effect on PA. Sustained displacement of the ribs could inhibit PA for a duration equal to numerous respiratory cycles. CVJM in synchrony with PA resulted in an increased respiratory rate. The inspiratory inhibitory effect of joint receptor stimulation was elicited with manual chest compression in vagotomized spontaneously breathing dogs, but not with artificial lung inflation or deflation. It is concluded that the effect of CVJM on the respiratory pattern is due to stimulation of joint mechanoreceptors, and that they exert their influence in part via the medullary-pontine rhythm generator.

  13. JOINT INVOLVEMENT IN SYPHILIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Zlobina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint involvement in syphilis has been considered as casuistry in recent years. At the same time, the high incidence of primary syphilis and the notified cases of late neurosyphilis may suggest that joint involvement in this disease is by no means always verified. Traditionally there are two forms of syphilitic arthritis: primary synovial (involving the articular membranes and sac and primary bone (involving the articular bones and cartilages ones. The paper describes the authors' clinical case of the primary bone form of articular syphilis in a 34-year-old man. 

  14. Expansion joints for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzenus, M.; Hundhausen, W.; Jansing, W.

    1980-01-01

    This discourse recounts efforts put into the SNR-2 project; specifically the development of compensation devices. The various prototypes of these compensation devices are described and the state of the development reviewed. Large Na (sodium)-heat transfer systems require a lot of valuable space if the component lay-out does not include compensation devices. So, in order to condense the spatial requirement as much as possible, expansion joints must be integrated into the pipe system. There are two basic types to suit the purpose: axial expansion joints and angular expansion joints. The expansion joints were developed on the basis of specific design criteria whereby differentiation is made between expansion joints of small and large nominal diameter. Expansion joints for installation in the sodium-filled primary piping are equipped with safety bellows in addition to the actual working bellows. Expansion joints must be designed and mounted in a manner to completely withstand seismic forces. The design must exclude any damage to the bellows during intermittent operations, that is, when sodium is drained the bellows' folds must be completely empty; otherwise residual solidified sodium could destroy the bellows when restarting. The expansion joints must be engineered on the basis of the following design data for the secondary system of the SNR project: working pressure: 16 bar; failure mode pressure: 5 events; failure mode: 5 sec., 28.5 bar, 520 deg. C; working temperature: 520 deg. C; temperature transients: 30 deg. C/sec.; service life: 200,000 h; number of load cycles: 10 4 ; material: 1.4948 or 1.4919; layer thickness of folds: 0.5 mm; angular deflection (DN 800): +3 deg. C or; axial expansion absorption (DN 600): ±80 mm; calculation: ASME class. The bellows' development work is not handled within this scope. The bellows are supplied by leading manufacturers, and warrant highest quality. Multiple bellows were selected on the basis of maximum elasticity - a property

  15. Sacroiliac Joint Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Quijano, David A; Otero Loperena, Eduardo

    2018-02-01

    Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain is an important cause of lower back problems. Multiple SIJ injection techniques have been proposed over the years to help in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition. However, the SIJ innervation is complex and variable, and truly intra-articular injections are sometimes difficult to obtain. Different sacroiliac joint injections have shown to provide pain relief in patients suffering this ailment. Various techniques for intraarticular injections, sacral branch blocks and radiofrequency ablation, both fluoroscopy guided and ultrasound guided are discussed in this paper. Less common techniques like prolotherapy, platelet rich plasma injections and botulism toxin injections are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prosthetic Joint Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tande, Aaron J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a tremendous burden for individual patients as well as the global health care industry. While a small minority of joint arthroplasties will become infected, appropriate recognition and management are critical to preserve or restore adequate function and prevent excess morbidity. In this review, we describe the reported risk factors for and clinical manifestations of PJI. We discuss the pathogenesis of PJI and the numerous microorganisms that can cause this devastating infection. The recently proposed consensus definitions of PJI and approaches to accurate diagnosis are reviewed in detail. An overview of the treatment and prevention of this challenging condition is provided. PMID:24696437

  17. Spatiotemporal analysis and mapping of oral cancer risk in changhua county (taiwan): an application of generalized bayesian maximum entropy method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chiang, Chi-Ting; Lin, Shu-De; Chang, Tsun-Kuo

    2010-02-01

    Incidence rate of oral cancer in Changhua County is the highest among the 23 counties of Taiwan during 2001. However, in health data analysis, crude or adjusted incidence rates of a rare event (e.g., cancer) for small populations often exhibit high variances and are, thus, less reliable. We proposed a generalized Bayesian Maximum Entropy (GBME) analysis of spatiotemporal disease mapping under conditions of considerable data uncertainty. GBME was used to study the oral cancer population incidence in Changhua County (Taiwan). Methodologically, GBME is based on an epistematics principles framework and generates spatiotemporal estimates of oral cancer incidence rates. In a way, it accounts for the multi-sourced uncertainty of rates, including small population effects, and the composite space-time dependence of rare events in terms of an extended Poisson-based semivariogram. The results showed that GBME analysis alleviates the noises of oral cancer data from population size effect. Comparing to the raw incidence data, the maps of GBME-estimated results can identify high risk oral cancer regions in Changhua County, where the prevalence of betel quid chewing and cigarette smoking is relatively higher than the rest of the areas. GBME method is a valuable tool for spatiotemporal disease mapping under conditions of uncertainty. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. FY 1999 report on the results of the joint study - project on the industry use photovoltaic power generation field test. 2/3; 1999 nendo sangyonadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho. 2/3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the field test, solar cell panels were installed on rooftop, and inverters were installed indoors. The electric power generated was connected at high pressure with electric installation of facilities and was also supplied to power equipment, lighting, air conditioning, etc. in facilities. The FY 1999 results were summarized. The installation of photovoltaic power generation facilities at 38 places and the results of the study were summarized in this report including a new public office building of Nio town, Kagawa prefecture, General Welfare Center of Matsumae town, Ehime prefecture, General Culture Center of Nakajima town, Ehime prefecture, Educational Foundation Sugao School, Training Center of Japan Railway Co., etc. (NEDO)

  19. FY 1999 report on the results of the joint study - project on the industry use photovoltaic power generation field test. 1/3; 1999 nendo sangyonadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho. 1/3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the field test, solar cell panels were installed on rooftop, and inverters were installed indoors. The electric power generated was connected at high pressure with electric installation of facilities and was also supplied to power equipment, lighting, air conditioning, etc. in facilities. The FY 1999 results were summarized. The installation of photovoltaic power generation facilities at 88 places and the results of the study were summarized in this report including Social Welfare Corporation Seishoen, Maruto Co., Saga Sanyo Industries Co., Koyama Cranial Nerve Surgery/Internal Medicine Hospital, Tsuchiura Urban Development Co., Osaka Alloy Works, Suntory Limited, etc. (NEDO)

  20. FY 1999 report on the results of the joint study - project on the industry use photovoltaic power generation field test. 3/3; 1999 nendo sangyonadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho. 3/3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the field test, solar cell panels were installed on rooftop, and inverters were installed indoors. The electric power generated was connected at high pressure with electric installation of facilities and was also supplied to power equipment, lighting, air conditioning, etc. in facilities. The FY 1999 results were summarized. The installation of photovoltaic power generation facilities at 39 places and the results of the study were summarized in this report including a community hall of Iwade town, Wakayama prefecture, Sugihara Industrial Co., a public library of Mabi town, Okayama prefecture, Social Welfare Corporation Shofukai Aiwaen, Japan Kodo Paper Industries Co., etc. (NEDO)

  1. A Mixed Land Cover Spatio-temporal Data Model Based on Object-oriented and Snapshot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yinchao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatio-temporal data model (STDM is one of the hot topics in the domains of spatio-temporal database and data analysis. There is a common view that a universal STDM is always of high complexity due to the various situation of spatio-temporal data. In this article, a mixed STDM is proposed based on object-oriented and snapshot models for modelling and analyzing landcover change (LCC. This model uses the object-oriented STDM to describe the spatio-temporal processes of land cover patches and organize their spatial and attributive properties. In the meantime, it uses the snapshot STDM to present the spatio-temporal distribution of LCC on the whole via snapshot images. The two types of models are spatially and temporally combined into a mixed version. In addition to presenting the spatio-temporal events themselves, this model could express the transformation events between different classes of spatio-temporal objects. It can be used to create database for historical data of LCC, do spatio-temporal statistics, simulation and data mining with the data. In this article, the LCC data in Heilongjiang province is used for case study to validate spatio-temporal data management and analysis abilities of mixed STDM, including creating database, spatio-temporal query, global evolution analysis and patches spatio-temporal process expression.

  2. Imaging findings of charcot joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Quanfei; Zhou Chunxiang; Chen Yingming; Jiang Bo

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the MRI characters of Charcot joint, and to evaluate the diagnostic value of X-ray, CT, and MRI on Charcot joint. Methods: Eight patients with 8 Charcot joints underwent X-ray, CT, and MR examinations. 6 of them had syringomyelia, 1 patient had injury of the spinal cord, and 1 case had diabetes. All 8 patients had sensory reduction or deficit in the sick extremities. Results: There were two types of Charcot joint, hypertrophic and atrophic. Radiographic and CT features of hypertrophic joint (n=3) showed hyperostotic osteosclerosis and mammoth osteophytes in the sick bones, periarticular ossification, and articular disorganization. Radiographic and CT features of atrophic joint (n=5) showed extensive bone resorption (destruction), periarticular debris, and articular disorganization. Main MRI features of Charcot joint included hydrarthrosis within joint capsule, thickened, loose, and elongated joint capsule with para-joint, peri-diaphysis, and inter-muscular extension in a pseudopodia pattern. The irregular joint capsule wall was presented as mild hypointensity on T 1 WI, slight hyper-intensity on T 2 WI, and was markedly enhanced after Gd-DTPA was administrated, which was considered as a characteristic manifestation of the lesion. Soft tissue mass containing hypo-intense stripes on both T 1 WI and T 2 WI was commonly noted adjacent to the involved joint. Conclusion: X-rays plain film is the first choice for the diagnosis of Charcot joint, and MRI is pretty useful in the diagnosis of Charcot joint

  3. Joint studies on large CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ikhwan; Yu, S. K. W.

    1994-01-01

    from economic, safety and strategic viewpoints. A large number of research and development programs are now in place at AECL and KAERI that will permit substantial improvements to be realized in the next generation of CANDU okabts, Furthermore, opportunities exist for engineered improvements based on the research and development in advancing the generic CANDU Technology. Final Large CANDU joint study report with technical deliverables will be issued 1994 October. Phase 2 R and D program of the joint studies will be determined this year and implemented in next year. CANDU neutron economy permits versatility in choices of fuel cycles. This allows a utility to choose fuel cycle options for lower fuelling cost, better security of supply, and ultimately for much lower spent-fuel volume, than with PWR's alone. To meet Korea's strategic requirements, CANDU should be an integral part of the electricity supply mix.

  4. Spatiotemporal psychopathology I: No rest for the brain's resting state activity in depression? Spatiotemporal psychopathology of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, Georg

    2016-01-15

    Despite intense neurobiological investigation in psychiatric disorders like major depressive disorder (MDD), the basic disturbance that underlies the psychopathological symptoms of MDD remains, nevertheless, unclear. Neuroimaging has focused mainly on the brain's extrinsic activity, specifically task-evoked or stimulus-induced activity, as related to the various sensorimotor, affective, cognitive, and social functions. Recently, the focus has shifted to the brain's intrinsic activity, otherwise known as its resting state activity. While various abnormalities have been observed during this activity, their meaning and significance for depression, along with its various psychopathological symptoms, are yet to be defined. Based on findings in healthy brain resting state activity and its particular spatial and temporal structure - defined in a functional and physiological sense rather than anatomical and structural - I claim that the various depressive symptoms are spatiotemporal disturbances of the resting state activity and its spatiotemporal structure. This is supported by recent findings that link ruminations and increased self-focus in depression to abnormal spatial organization of resting state activity. Analogously, affective and cognitive symptoms like anhedonia, suicidal ideation, and thought disorder can be traced to an increased focus on the past, increased past-focus as basic temporal disturbance o the resting state. Based on these findings, I conclude that the various depressive symptoms must be conceived as spatiotemporal disturbances of the brain's resting state's activity and its spatiotemporal structure. Importantly, this entails a new form of psychopathology, "Spatiotemporal Psychopathology" that directly links the brain and psyche, therefore having major diagnostic and therapeutic implications for clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Temporomandibular Joint Septic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Frojo, MD

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Infection of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ is a rare pediatric condition resulting from the introduction of pathogens into the joint by hematogenous seeding, local extension, or trauma. Early recognition of the typical signs and symptoms including fever, trismus, preauricular swelling, and TMJ region tenderness are critical in order to initiate further evaluation and prevent feared complications of fibrosis, ankylosis, abnormal facial structure, or persistence of symptoms. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography with ancillary laboratory analysis including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and white blood cell count are beneficial in confirming the suspected diagnosis and monitoring response to therapy. Initial intervention should include empiric parenteral antibiotics, early mandibular mobilization, and joint decompression to provide synovial fluid for analysis including cultures. This report describes a case of TMJ bacterial arthritis in a healthy 6-year-old male who was promptly treated nonsurgically with intravenous antibiotics and localized needle joint decompression with return to normal function after completion of oral antibiotics and physical therapy.

  6. Joint-Use Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casstevens, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The joint-use library is a place where people of all ages, interests, and income levels can find items of interest at no personal cost. The mission of A. H. Meadows Public and High School Library in Midlothian, Texas, is to offer what other public libraries provide: educational and entertainment resources to a community. Yet, the staff also wants…

  7. Keyed shear joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus

    This report gives a summary of the present information on the behaviour of vertical keyed shear joints in large panel structures. An attemp is made to outline the implications which this information might have on the analysis and design of a complete wall. The publications also gives a short...

  8. Jointness: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    AD-A431-767) http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA431767 Lamb , William L. Moving beyond Goldwater-Nichols: The Case for Continued Reform of the DoD...in Support of the Joint Force’." Army Aviation 55 (May 2006): 22-24. Magnuson, Stew . "Turf Battles: Strategic Command’s Expanded Portfolio

  9. Gonococcal Prosthetic Joint Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassiep, Ian; Gilpin, Bradley; Douglas, Joel; Siebert, David

    2017-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoea is a common sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Disseminated gonococcal infection is an infrequent presentation and rarely can be associated with septic arthritis. Incidence of this infection is rising, both internationally and in older age groups. We present the first documented case of N. gonorrhoea prosthetic joint infection which was successfully treated with laparoscopic debridement and antimicrobial therapy.

  10. Flat H Frangible Joint Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diegelman, Thomas E.; Hinkel, Todd J.; Benjamin, Andrew; Rochon, Brian V.; Brown, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Space vehicle staging and separation events require pyrotechnic devices. They are single-use mechanisms that cannot be tested, nor can failure-tolerant performance be demonstrated in actual flight articles prior to flight use. This necessitates the implementation of a robust design and test approach coupled with a fully redundant, failure-tolerant explosive mechanism to ensure that the system functions even in the event of a single failure. Historically, NASA has followed the single failure-tolerant (SFT) design philosophy for all human-rated spacecraft, including the Space Shuttle Program. Following the end of this program, aerospace companies proposed building the next generation human-rated vehicles with off-the-shelf, non-redundant, zero-failure-tolerant (ZFT) separation systems. Currently, spacecraft and launch vehicle providers for both the Orion and Commercial Crew Programs (CCPs) plan to deviate from the heritage safety approach and NASA's SFT human rating requirements. Both programs' partners have base-lined ZFT frangible joints for vehicle staging and fairing separation. These joints are commercially available from pyrotechnic vendors. Non-human-rated missions have flown them numerous times. The joints are relatively easy to integrate structurally within the spacecraft. In addition, the separation event is debris free, and the resultant pyro shock is lower than that of other design solutions. It is, however, a serious deficiency to lack failure tolerance. When used for critical applications on human-rated vehicles, a single failure could potentially lead to loss of crew (LOC) or loss of mission (LOM)). The Engineering and Safety & Mission Assurance directorates within the NASA Johnson Space Center took action to address this safety issue by initiating a project to develop a fully redundant, SFT frangible joint design, known as the Flat H. Critical to the ability to retrofit on launch vehicles being developed, the SFT mechanisms must fit within the same

  11. An analysis of a joint shear model for jointed media with orthogonal joint sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koteras, J.R.

    1991-10-01

    This report describes a joint shear model used in conjunction with a computational model for jointed media with orthogonal joint sets. The joint shear model allows nonlinear behavior for both joint sets. Because nonlinear behavior is allowed for both joint sets, a great many cases must be considered to fully describe the joint shear behavior of the jointed medium. An extensive set of equations is required to describe the joint shear stress and slip displacements that can occur for all the various cases. This report examines possible methods for simplifying this set of equations so that the model can be implemented efficiently form a computational standpoint. The shear model must be examined carefully to obtain a computationally efficient implementation that does not lead to numerical problems. The application to fractures in rock is discussed. 5 refs., 4 figs

  12. Spatio-temporal variability of the polar middle atmosphere. Insights from over 30 years of research satellite observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahoz, W.A.; Orsolini, Y.J.; Manney, G.L.; Minschwaner, K.; Allen, D.R.; Errera, Q.; Jackson, D.R.; Lambert, A.; Lee, J.; Pumphrey, H.; Schwartz, M.; Wu, D.

    2012-07-01

    We discuss the insights that research satellite observations from the last 30 years have provided on the spatio-temporal variability of the polar middle atmosphere. Starting from the time of the NASA LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) and TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) instruments, both launched in 1978, we show how these observations have augmented our knowledge of the polar middle atmosphere, in particular how information on ozone and tracers has augmented our knowledge of: (i) the spatial and temporal characteristics of the wintertime polar stratosphere and the summertime circulation; and (ii) the roles of chemistry and transport in determining the stratospheric ozone distribution. We address the increasing joint use of observations and models, in particular in data assimilation, in contributing to this understanding. Finally, we outline requirements to allow continuation of the wealth of information on the polar middle atmosphere provided by research satellites over the last 30 years.(Author)

  13. Temporomandibular joint space in children without joint disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larheim, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    Bilateral assessment of the temporomandibular joint space in children without joint disease is reported. Twenty-eight children were examined with conventional radiography and 23 with tomography. High prevalence of asymmetric joint spaces with both techniques indicated that great care should be taken when using narrowing or widening of the joint space as a diagnostic criterion in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Other signs, such as restricted translation of the mandibular head, and clinical symptoms should be evaluated. (Auth.)

  14. Anaerobic prosthetic joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Neel B; Tande, Aaron J; Patel, Robin; Berbari, Elie F

    2015-12-01

    In an effort to improve mobility and alleviate pain from degenerative and connective tissue joint disease, an increasing number of individuals are undergoing prosthetic joint replacement in the United States. Joint replacement is a highly effective intervention, resulting in improved quality of life and increased independence [1]. By 2030, it is predicted that approximately 4 million total hip and knee arthroplasties will be performed yearly in the United States [2]. One of the major complications associated with this procedure is prosthetic joint infection (PJI), occurring at a rate of 1-2% [3-7]. In 2011, the Musculoskeletal Infectious Society created a unifying definition for prosthetic joint infection [8]. The following year, the Infectious Disease Society of America published practice guidelines that focused on the diagnosis and management of PJI. These guidelines focused on the management of commonly encountered organisms associated with PJI, including staphylococci, streptococci and select aerobic Gram-negative bacteria. However, with the exception of Propionibacterium acnes, management of other anaerobic organisms was not addressed in these guidelines [1]. Although making up approximately 3-6% of PJI [9,10], anaerobic microorganisms cause devastating complications, and similar to the more common organisms associated with PJI, these bacteria also result in significant morbidity, poor outcomes and increased health-care costs. Data on diagnosis and management of anaerobic PJI is mostly derived from case reports, along with a few cohort studies [3]. There is a paucity of published data outlining factors associated with risks, diagnosis and management of anaerobic PJI. We therefore reviewed available literature on anaerobic PJI by systematically searching the PubMed database, and collected data from secondary searches to determine information on pathogenesis, demographic data, clinical features, diagnosis and management. We focused our search on five commonly

  15. FY 1999 report on the results of the joint study - project on the public facility use photovoltaic power generation field test; 1999 nendo kokyo shisetsunadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the field test, solar cell panels were installed on rooftop, and inverters were installed indoors. The electric power generated was connected at high pressure with electric installation of facilities and was also supplied to power equipment, lighting, air conditioning, etc. in facilities. The FY 1999 results were summarized. The installation of photovoltaic power generation facilities at 137 places and the results of the study were summarized in this report including a new university co-op building, Tokyo Metropolitan Advanced Technology Education Center, Suwano Center House of Fukushima prefecture, Environment Center of Saga prefecture, Educational Foundation Utsukushino Kindergarten, Hikarigaoka Park of Yamagata prefecture, Koiwai factory of Koiwai Dairy Products Co., Social Welfare Corporation Kameyama Ayumi Nursery School, etc. (NEDO)

  16. A spatio-temporal model for estimating the long-term effects of air pollution on respiratory hospital admissions in Greater London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushworth, Alastair; Lee, Duncan; Mitchell, Richard

    2014-07-01

    It has long been known that air pollution is harmful to human health, as many epidemiological studies have been conducted into its effects. Collectively, these studies have investigated both the acute and chronic effects of pollution, with the latter typically based on individual level cohort designs that can be expensive to implement. As a result of the increasing availability of small-area statistics, ecological spatio-temporal study designs are also being used, with which a key statistical problem is allowing for residual spatio-temporal autocorrelation that remains after the covariate effects have been removed. We present a new model for estimating the effects of air pollution on human health, which allows for residual spatio-temporal autocorrelation, and a study into the long-term effects of air pollution on human health in Greater London, England. The individual and joint effects of different pollutants are explored, via the use of single pollutant models and multiple pollutant indices. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. The Importance of Spatiotemporal Information in Biological Motion Perception: White Noise Presented with a Step-like Motion Activates the Biological Motion Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Akiko; Callan, Daniel; Ando, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    Humans can easily recognize the motion of living creatures using only a handful of point-lights that describe the motion of the main joints (biological motion perception). This special ability to perceive the motion of animate objects signifies the importance of the spatiotemporal information in perceiving biological motion. The posterior STS (pSTS) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) region have been established by many functional neuroimaging studies as a locus for biological motion perception. Because listening to a walking human also activates the pSTS/pMTG region, the region has been proposed to be supramodal in nature. In this study, we investigated whether the spatiotemporal information from simple auditory stimuli is sufficient to activate this biological motion area. We compared spatially moving white noise, having a running-like tempo that was consistent with biological motion, with stationary white noise. The moving-minus-stationary contrast showed significant differences in activation of the pSTS/pMTG region. Our results suggest that the spatiotemporal information of the auditory stimuli is sufficient to activate the biological motion area.

  18. Fiscal 2000 project of inviting proposals for international joint research - invitation for international proposal (Power generation No.14). Achievement report on joint research for utilizing Russia's now-unused high-viscosity crude oil as fuel for power generation; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu teian kobo jigyo - kokusai teian kobo (hatsuden No.14). Russia miriyo konensei gen'yu no denryoku nenryo riyo kyodo kenkyu chosa seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The Russkoye high-viscosity oil field is located in the western part of Siberia, Russia. Joint research is under way to develop a technology for reducing the viscosity for the collection of crude oil through the utilization of a gas condensate discharged by a neighboring gas field. This report comprises eight chapters, namely, (1) the background, purpose, and contents of the research, (2) Russia's oil resources and oil industry, (3) high-viscosity oil fields in Russia, (4) analysis of Russkoye crude oil and gas condensates yielded in Russia, (5) methods for viscosity reduction, (6) evaluation of combustibility, (7) scenario for developing the Russkoye oil field, and (8) research results as summarized and future tasks. Studied in chapter (5) are approaches to viscosity reduction, methods for emulsification, and a method for viscosity reduction by use of a gas condensate. These are tested and the results after analysis clearly show that the Russkoye crude oil, when blended with a gas condensate, will turn transportable and will provide a fuel equivalent to fuel oil C. (NEDO)

  19. Spatiotemporally resolved characteristics of a gliding arc discharge in a turbulent air flow at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Ehn, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    A gliding arc discharge was generated in a turbulent air flow at atmospheric pressure driven by a 35 kHz alternating current (AC) electric power. The spatiotemporally resolved characteristics of the gliding arc discharge, including glow-type discharges, spark-type discharges, short-cutting events...... and transitions among the different types of discharges, were investigated using simultaneously optical and electrical diagnostics. The glow-type discharge shows sinusoidal-like voltage and current waveforms with a peak current of hundreds of milliamperes. The frequency of the emission intensity variation...... of the glow-type discharge is the same as that of the electronic power dissipated in the plasma column. The glow-type discharge can transfer into a spark discharge characterized by a sharp peak current of several amperes and a sudden increase of the brightness in the plasma column. Transitions can also...

  20. Dynamic video encryption algorithm for H.264/AVC based on a spatiotemporal chaos system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Tong, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Miao; Wang, Zhu; Li, Ling-Hao

    2016-06-01

    Video encryption schemes mostly employ the selective encryption method to encrypt parts of important and sensitive video information, aiming to ensure the real-time performance and encryption efficiency. The classic block cipher is not applicable to video encryption due to the high computational overhead. In this paper, we propose the encryption selection control module to encrypt video syntax elements dynamically which is controlled by the chaotic pseudorandom sequence. A novel spatiotemporal chaos system and binarization method is used to generate a key stream for encrypting the chosen syntax elements. The proposed scheme enhances the resistance against attacks through the dynamic encryption process and high-security stream cipher. Experimental results show that the proposed method exhibits high security and high efficiency with little effect on the compression ratio and time cost.

  1. Command and Control for Joint Air Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    systems, to include collaborative air planning tools such as the theater battle management core system ( TBMCS ). Operational level air planning occurs in...sight communications and data exchange equipment in order to respond to joint force requirements. For example, the TBMCS is often used. The use of ATO...generation and dissemination software portions of TBMCS has been standardized. This ATO feature allows the JAOC to be interoperable with other

  2. Longitudinal joint specifications and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Deterioration of longitudinal joints is widely recognized as one of the major factors contributing to failure of asphalt pavements. Finding : ways to improve the durability of longitudinal joints will lead to improved service lives and lower life cyc...

  3. Spatio-temporal foreshock activity during stick-slip experiments of large rock samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Y.; Kawakata, H.; Fukuyama, E.; Yamashita, F.; Xu, S.; Mizoguchi, K.; Takizawa, S.; Hirano, S.

    2016-12-01

    Foreshock activity has sometimes been reported for large earthquakes, and has been roughly classified into the following two classes. For shallow intraplate earthquakes, foreshocks occurred in the vicinity of the mainshock hypocenter (e.g., Doi and Kawakata, 2012; 2013). And for intraplate subduction earthquakes, foreshock hypocenters migrated toward the mainshock hypocenter (Kato, et al., 2012; Yagi et al., 2014). To understand how foreshocks occur, it is useful to investigate the spatio-temporal activities of foreshocks in the laboratory experiments under controlled conditions. We have conducted stick-slip experiments by using a large-scale biaxial friction apparatus at NIED in Japan (e.g., Fukuyama et al., 2014). Our previous results showed that stick-slip events repeatedly occurred in a run, but only those later events were preceded by foreshocks. Kawakata et al. (2014) inferred that the gouge generated during the run was an important key for foreshock occurrence. In this study, we proceeded to carry out stick-slip experiments of large rock samples whose interface (fault plane) is 1.5 meter long and 0.5 meter wide. After some runs to generate fault gouge between the interface. In the current experiments, we investigated spatio-temporal activities of foreshocks. We detected foreshocks from waveform records of 3D array of piezo-electric sensors. Our new results showed that more than three foreshocks (typically about twenty) had occurred during each stick-slip event, in contrast to the few foreshocks observed during previous experiments without pre-existing gouge. Next, we estimated the hypocenter locations of the stick-slip events, and found that they were located near the opposite end to the loading point. In addition, we observed a migration of foreshock hypocenters toward the hypocenter of each stick-slip event. This suggests that the foreshock activity observed in our current experiments was similar to that for the interplate earthquakes in terms of the

  4. Joint Pitch and DOA Estimation Using the ESPRIT method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yuntao; Amir, Leshem; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of joint multi-pitch and direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation for multi-channel harmonic sinusoidal signals is considered. A spatio-temporal matrix signal model for a uniform linear array is defined, and then the ESPRIT method based on subspace techniques that exploits...... the invariance property in the time domain is first used to estimate the multi pitch frequencies of multiple harmonic signals. Followed by the estimated pitch frequencies, the DOA estimations based on the ESPRIT method are also presented by using the shift invariance structure in the spatial domain. Compared...... to the existing stateof-the-art algorithms, the proposed method based on ESPRIT without 2-D searching is computationally more efficient but performs similarly. An asymptotic performance analysis of the DOA and pitch estimation of the proposed method are also presented. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed...

  5. Determination of Parachute Joint Factors using Seam and Joint Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollmann, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This paper details the methodology for determining the joint factor for all parachute components. This method has been successfully implemented on the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) for the NASA Orion crew module for use in determining the margin of safety for each component under peak loads. Also discussed are concepts behind the joint factor and what drives the loss of material strength at joints. The joint factor is defined as a "loss in joint strength...relative to the basic material strength" that occurs when "textiles are connected to each other or to metals." During the CPAS engineering development phase, a conservative joint factor of 0.80 was assumed for each parachute component. In order to refine this factor and eliminate excess conservatism, a seam and joint testing program was implemented as part of the structural validation. This method split each of the parachute structural joints into discrete tensile tests designed to duplicate the loading of each joint. Breaking strength data collected from destructive pull testing was then used to calculate the joint factor in the form of an efficiency. Joint efficiency is the percentage of the base material strength that remains after degradation due to sewing or interaction with other components; it is used interchangeably with joint factor in this paper. Parachute materials vary in type-mainly cord, tape, webbing, and cloth -which require different test fixtures and joint sample construction methods. This paper defines guidelines for designing and testing samples based on materials and test goals. Using the test methodology and analysis approach detailed in this paper, the minimum joint factor for each parachute component can be formulated. The joint factors can then be used to calculate the design factor and margin of safety for that component, a critical part of the design verification process.

  6. Finite element analysis of elasto-plastic tee joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, G.H.

    1974-09-01

    The theory and computational procedures used in the computer program B169TJ/EP for the analysis of elasto-plastic tee joints are described, and detailed user's guide is presented. The program is particularly applicable to joints conforming to the ANSI B16.9 Manufacturing Standard, but can also be applied to other joint geometries. The joint may be loaded by internal pressure and by arbitrary combinations of applied forces and moments at the ends of the branch and run pipes, and the loading sequence may be arbitrary. The joint material is assumed to yield according to the von Mises criterion, and to exhibit either linear kinematic hardening or nonlinear isotropic hardening after yield. The program makes use of the finite element and mesh generation procedures previously applied in the elastic stress analysis program B16.9TJ/ SA, with minor modifications. (U.S.)

  7. Approximate spatio-temporal top-k publish/subscribe

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Lisi; Shang, Shuo

    2018-01-01

    Location-based publish/subscribe plays a significant role in mobile information disseminations. In this light, we propose and study a novel problem of processing location-based top-k subscriptions over spatio-temporal data streams. We define a new type of approximate location-based top-k subscription, Approximate Temporal Spatial-Keyword Top-k (ATSK) Subscription, that continuously feeds users with relevant spatio-temporal messages by considering textual similarity, spatial proximity, and information freshness. Different from existing location-based top-k subscriptions, Approximate Temporal Spatial-Keyword Top-k (ATSK) Subscription can automatically adjust the triggering condition by taking the triggering score of other subscriptions into account. The group filtering efficacy can be substantially improved by sacrificing the publishing result quality with a bounded guarantee. We conduct extensive experiments on two real datasets to demonstrate the performance of the developed solutions.

  8. Spatiotemporal Characteristics for the Depth from Luminance Contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Matsubara

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Images with higher luminance contrast tend to be perceived closer in depth. To investigate a spatiotemporal characteristic of this effect, we evaluated subjective depth of a test stimulus with various spatial and temporal frequencies. For the purpose, the depth of a reference stimulus was matched to that of the test stimulus by changing the binocular disparity. The results showed that the test stimulus was perceived closer with higher luminance contrast for all conditions. Contrast efficiency was obtained from the contrast that provided the subjective depth for each spatiotemporal frequency. The shape of the contrast efficiency function was spatially low-pass and temporally band-pass. This characteristic is different from the one measure for a detection task. This suggests that only subset of contrast signals are used for depth from contrast.

  9. Against Laplacian Reduction of Newtonian Mass to Spatiotemporal Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Niels C. M.

    2018-03-01

    Laplace wondered about the minimal choice of initial variables and parameters corresponding to a well-posed initial value problem. Discussions of Laplace's problem in the literature have focused on choosing between spatiotemporal variables relative to absolute space (i.e. substantivalism) or merely relative to other material bodies (i.e. relationalism) and between absolute masses (i.e. absolutism) or merely mass ratios (i.e. comparativism). This paper extends these discussions of Laplace's problem, in the context of Newtonian Gravity, by asking whether mass needs to be included in the initial state at all, or whether a purely spatiotemporal initial state suffices. It is argued that mass indeed needs to be included; removing mass from the initial state drastically reduces the predictive and explanatory power of Newtonian Gravity.

  10. Spatial and spatio-temporal bayesian models with R - INLA

    CERN Document Server

    Blangiardo, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Dedication iiiPreface ix1 Introduction 11.1 Why spatial and spatio-temporal statistics? 11.2 Why do we use Bayesian methods for modelling spatial and spatio-temporal structures? 21.3 Why INLA? 31.4 Datasets 32 Introduction to 212.1 The language 212.2 objects 222.3 Data and session management 342.4 Packages 352.5 Programming in 362.6 Basic statistical analysis with 393 Introduction to Bayesian Methods 533.1 Bayesian Philosophy 533.2 Basic Probability Elements 573.3 Bayes Theorem 623.4 Prior and Posterior Distributions 643.5 Working with the Posterior Distribution 663.6 Choosing the Prior Distr

  11. Approximate spatio-temporal top-k publish/subscribe

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Lisi

    2018-04-26

    Location-based publish/subscribe plays a significant role in mobile information disseminations. In this light, we propose and study a novel problem of processing location-based top-k subscriptions over spatio-temporal data streams. We define a new type of approximate location-based top-k subscription, Approximate Temporal Spatial-Keyword Top-k (ATSK) Subscription, that continuously feeds users with relevant spatio-temporal messages by considering textual similarity, spatial proximity, and information freshness. Different from existing location-based top-k subscriptions, Approximate Temporal Spatial-Keyword Top-k (ATSK) Subscription can automatically adjust the triggering condition by taking the triggering score of other subscriptions into account. The group filtering efficacy can be substantially improved by sacrificing the publishing result quality with a bounded guarantee. We conduct extensive experiments on two real datasets to demonstrate the performance of the developed solutions.

  12. Nonlinear Spatio-Temporal Dynamics and Chaos in Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöll, Eckehard

    2005-08-01

    Nonlinear transport phenomena are an increasingly important aspect of modern semiconductor research. This volume deals with complex nonlinear dynamics, pattern formation, and chaotic behavior in such systems. It bridges the gap between two well-established fields: the theory of dynamic systems and nonlinear charge transport in semiconductors. This unified approach helps reveal important electronic transport instabilities. The initial chapters lay a general framework for the theoretical description of nonlinear self-organized spatio-temporal patterns, such as current filaments, field domains, fronts, and analysis of their stability. Later chapters consider important model systems in detail: impact ionization induced impurity breakdown, Hall instabilities, superlattices, and low-dimensional structures. State-of-the-art results include chaos control, spatio-temporal chaos, multistability, pattern selection, activator-inhibitor kinetics, and global coupling, linking fundamental issues to electronic device applications. This book will be of great value to semiconductor physicists and nonlinear scientists alike.

  13. Using Covariant Lyapunov Vectors to Understand Spatiotemporal Chaos in Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mark; Xu, Mu; Barbish, Johnathon; Mukherjee, Saikat

    2017-11-01

    The spatiotemporal chaos of fluids present many difficult and fascinating challenges. Recent progress in computing covariant Lyapunov vectors for a variety of model systems has made it possible to probe fundamental ideas from dynamical systems theory including the degree of hyperbolicity, the fractal dimension, the dimension of the inertial manifold, and the decomposition of the dynamics into a finite number of physical modes and spurious modes. We are interested in building upon insights such as these for fluid systems. We first demonstrate the power of covariant Lyapunov vectors using a system of maps on a lattice with a nonlinear coupling. We then compute the covariant Lyapunov vectors for chaotic Rayleigh-Bénard convection for experimentally accessible conditions. We show that chaotic convection is non-hyperbolic and we quantify the spatiotemporal features of the spectrum of covariant Lyapunov vectors. NSF DMS-1622299 and DARPA/DSO Models, Dynamics, and Learning (MoDyL).

  14. Precursor of transition to turbulence: spatiotemporal wave front.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, S; Sengupta, T K

    2014-04-01

    To understand transition to turbulence via 3D disturbance growth, we report here results obtained from the solution of Navier-Stokes equation (NSE) to reproduce experimental results obtained by minimizing background disturbances and imposing deterministic excitation inside the shear layer. A similar approach was adopted in Sengupta and Bhaumik [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 154501 (2011)], where a route of transition from receptivity to fully developed turbulent stage was explained for 2D flow in terms of the spatio-temporal wave-front (STWF). The STWF was identified as the unit process of 2D turbulence creation for low amplitude wall excitation. Theoretical prediction of STWF for boundary layer was established earlier in Sengupta, Rao, and Venkatasubbaiah [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 224504 (2006)] from the Orr-Sommerfeld equation as due to spatiotemporal instability. Here, the same unit process of the STWF during transition is shown to be present for 3D disturbance field from the solution of governing NSE.

  15. Swivel Joint For Liquid Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, James F.

    1988-01-01

    Swivel joint allows liquid-nitrogen pipe to rotate through angle of 100 degree with respect to mating pipe. Functions without cracking hard foam insulation on lines. Pipe joint rotates on disks so mechanical stress not transmitted to thick insulation on pipes. Inner disks ride on fixed outer disks. Disks help to seal pressurized liquid nitrogen flowing through joint.

  16. Joint audits - benefit or burden?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Thinggaard, Frank

    a joint audit regime to a single auditor/voluntary joint audit regime. The dataset used in this paper has been collected for the full population of non-financial Danish companies listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange (CSE) in the years 2004 and 2005. We find that a majority of firms perceive joint...

  17. A Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revesz Peter Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent recovery of ancient DNA from a growing number of human samples shows that mitochondrial DNA haplogroup I was introduced to Europe after the end of the Last Glacial Maximum. This paper provides a spatio-temporal analysis of the various subhaplogroups of mitochondrial DNA I. The study suggests that haplogroup I diversified into haplogroups I1, I2’3, I4 and I5 at specific regions in Eurasia and then spread southward to Crete and Egypt.

  18. Spatio-temporal reasoning and decision support tools

    OpenAIRE

    Renso, Chiara; Wachowicz, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Currently, mobility data is revolutionizing the traditional fields of spatio-temporal reasoning and decision making analysis, not only to scale-up to the large and growing data volumes, but also to address complex questions related to change, trends, duration, and evolution. In mobility data, space and time are inextricably linked, since humans, robots and systems that dynamically act, and interact within social networks, are embedded in space, and any change is often the result of actions an...

  19. Characteristics and Applications of Spatiotemporally Focused Femtosecond Laser Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenrui Jing

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing (SSTF of femtosecond laser pulses gives rise to strong suppression of nonlinear self-focusing during the propagation of the femtosecond laser beam. In this paper, we begin with an introduction of the principle of SSTF, followed by a review of our recent experimental results on the characterization and application of the spatiotemporally focused pulses for femtosecond laser micromachining. Finally, we summarize all of the results and give a future perspective of this technique.

  20. A simple spatiotemporal chaotic Lotka-Volterra model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprott, J.C.; Wildenberg, J.C.; Azizi, Yousef

    2005-01-01

    A mathematically simple example of a high-dimensional (many-species) Lotka-Volterra model that exhibits spatiotemporal chaos in one spatial dimension is described. The model consists of a closed ring of identical agents, each competing for fixed finite resources with two of its four nearest neighbors. The model is prototypical of more complicated models in its quasiperiodic route to chaos (including attracting 3-tori), bifurcations, spontaneous symmetry breaking, and spatial pattern formation

  1. Joint International Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2014-01-01

    The CERN and US Particle Accelerator Schools recently organised a Joint International Accelerator School on Beam Loss and Accelerator Protection, held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Newport Beach, California, USA from 5-14 November 2014. This Joint School was the 13th in a series of such schools, which started in 1985 and also involves the accelerator communities in Japan and Russia.   Photo courtesy of Alfonse Pham, Michigan State University.   The school attracted 58 participants representing 22 different nationalities, with around half from Europe and the other half from Asia and the Americas. The programme comprised 26 lectures, each of 90 minutes, and 13 hours of case study. The students were given homework each day and had an opportunity to sit a final exam, which counted towards university credit. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. Initial dis...

  2. Posterolateral elbow joint instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole; Nielsen, K K

    1998-01-01

    Thirty-five osteoligamentous elbows were included in a study on the kinematics of posterolateral elbow joint instability during the pivot shift test (PST) before and after separate ligament cuttings in the lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC). Division of the annular ligament or the lateral...... ulnar collateral ligament caused no laxity during the PST. Division of the lateral collateral ligament caused maximal laxity of 4 degrees and 23 degrees during forced PST in valgus and external rotation (supination), respectively. Cutting of the LCLC at the ulnar or the humeral insertion was necessary...... for any PST stressed elbow joint laxity to occur. Total division of the LCLC induced a maximal laxity of 7.9 degrees and 37 degrees during forced PST in valgus and external rotation (supination), respectively. This study suggests the lateral collateral ligament to be the primary soft tissue constraint...

  3. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.; Lallia, P.; O'Hara, G.W.; Pollard, I.E.

    1987-06-01

    The paper presents the annual report of the Joint European Torus (JET) Joint Undertaking, 1986. The report is divided into two parts: a part on the scientific and technical programme of the project, and a part setting out the administration and organisation of the Project. The first part includes: a summary of the main features of the JET apparatus, the JET experimental programme, the position of the Project in the overall Euratom programme, and how JET relates to other large fusion devices throughout the world. In addition, the technical status of JET is described, as well as the results of the JET operations in 1986. The final section of the first part outlines the proposed future programme of JET. (U.K.)

  4. Peripheral degenerative joint diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilzio Antonio da Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease, is the most commonrheumatic disorder mainly in a geriatric population. Manifestationsare pain, stiffness and functional loss in the affected joint.According to etiology it is classifi ed as primary (or idiopathicand secondary. Some risk factors for disease development aregenetics, race, age, sex, obesity, occupational activities andarticular biomechanics. Pathogenesis is the same for any cause orlocalization, being catabolic alterations, with synthesis, inhibitionand reparing intent of the cartilage matrix. Metalloproteinases andcytokines (IL-1,IL-6,TNF-α actions promote infl ammatory reactionand cartilage degradation. Pain, the most important symptom,does not correlate with radiologic fi ndings. Peripheral osteoarthritisoccurs predominantly in the knee, hip and hand. Diagnosis is basedon clinical features, laboratorial tests and radiological changes.Rheumatological associations’ guidelines for treatment includenon-pharmacologic (education, physiotherapy, assistive devices,and pharmacologic (analgesics, anti-infl ammatory drugs therapyand surgery. Arthroplasty seems to work better than medicines, butshould be used if other treatments have failed.

  5. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on joint research business (2/2). Photovoltaic power generation field test for public facilities; 1998 nendo kokyo shisetsu nadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo (2/2). Kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Photovoltaic power generation systems are experimentally installed at public facilities at various locations, and subjected to field tests in which they experience long-term operation under real loads. Mie Prefectural Iidaka Senior/Junior High School has a 10kW solar cell system installed on the south-side roof of the school house. The system is linked to an in-house transformation station and the power generated by the system is supplied to the lighting and air-conditioning facilities in the building, and surplus if any is transmitted to the Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., system. A field test is being conducted to determine if there are usability and safety in the 10kW system. A number of like systems are undergoing field tests, installed at a comprehensive technological training center of Kyushu Electric Power Safety Association, Kongo Gakuen Senior High School, Sakata Nursery School, Taiyo Daiichi Nursery School, Minami Kindergarten, Neyagawa Ishizu Old People's Home, Co-Op Living Konan, Factory Hishimeki, Tochigi Fuji Industries, Gamo-cho Hirabayashi Public Hall, Fukuoka Prefectural Culture Complex, Yatsusugi Forest Schooling Center, Osaka Prefectural Murano Water Purification Plant, Yamanashi Institute of Environmental Sciences, Utatsu-cho Town Office, Ginga Gakuen Junior High School, etc. (NEDO)

  6. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on joint research business (2/2). Photovoltaic power generation field test for public facilities; 1998 nendo kokyo shisetsu nadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo (2/2). Kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Photovoltaic power generation systems are experimentally installed at public facilities at various locations, and subjected to field tests in which they experience long-term operation under real loads. Mie Prefectural Iidaka Senior/Junior High School has a 10kW solar cell system installed on the south-side roof of the school house. The system is linked to an in-house transformation station and the power generated by the system is supplied to the lighting and air-conditioning facilities in the building, and surplus if any is transmitted to the Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., system. A field test is being conducted to determine if there are usability and safety in the 10kW system. A number of like systems are undergoing field tests, installed at a comprehensive technological training center of Kyushu Electric Power Safety Association, Kongo Gakuen Senior High School, Sakata Nursery School, Taiyo Daiichi Nursery School, Minami Kindergarten, Neyagawa Ishizu Old People's Home, Co-Op Living Konan, Factory Hishimeki, Tochigi Fuji Industries, Gamo-cho Hirabayashi Public Hall, Fukuoka Prefectural Culture Complex, Yatsusugi Forest Schooling Center, Osaka Prefectural Murano Water Purification Plant, Yamanashi Institute of Environmental Sciences, Utatsu-cho Town Office, Ginga Gakuen Junior High School, etc. (NEDO)

  7. The Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System: Its Impact on Air Force Acquisition Thirteen Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    PAROCHIALISM : OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND THE REQUIREMENTS GENERATION SYSTEM (RGS) ........................................................ 15 2003...SERVICE STOVEPIPES AND PAROCHIALISM : OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND THE REQUIREMENTS GENERATION SYSTEM (RGS) According to a 1974 General Accounting...The time had come to put aside service parochialism and self-interest and begin the march to joint capability development, joint concepts and

  8. Joint Counterdrug Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-17

    Chapter II Joint Pub 3-07.4 cocaine HCL production. There are over 150 groups trafficking in cocaine, with cartels centered in Medellin and Cali. These...nontraditional mapping products and several digital mapping data bases for geological information and intelligence systems. • Defense Security Assistance Agency...variety of means. Dissemination means include personal contact, physical transfer or courier of hard copy textual and graphic materials, digital and

  9. Jet Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.; O'Hara, G.W.; Pollard, I.E.

    1988-07-01

    The paper presents the Jet Joint Undertaking annual report 1987. A description is given of the JET and Euratom and International Fusion Programmes. The technical status of JET is outlined, including the development and improvements made to the system in 1987. The results of JET Operation in 1987 are described within the areas of: density effects, temperature improvements, energy confinement studies and other material effects. The contents also contain a summary of the future programme of JET. (U.K.)

  10. Joint Fire Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    intelligence application package for theater battle management core system ( TBMCS ) functionality at wing and squadron levels. The automated four... TBMCS , Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System (Ground Control Station), and Global Command and Control System, as well as with Allied FA...The TBMCS is a force level integrated air C2 system. TBMCS provides hardware, software, and communications interfaces to support the preparation

  11. Australias Joint Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    headquarters command and control architecture , including consideration of our suggestion of formalising the strategic J staff system for the support of... architecture … to support successful joint operations.”28 Our analysis involving consultation with a number of senior officers indicates that a more...transported armies into battle since ancient Egyptian times.57 The cooperation between the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) and the Australian Army began with

  12. Spatiotemporal behavior and nonlinear dynamics in a phase conjugate resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siuying Raymond

    1993-01-01

    The work described can be divided into two parts. The first part is an investigation of the transient behavior and stability property of a phase conjugate resonator (PCR) below threshold. The second part is an experimental and theoretical study of the PCR's spatiotemporal dynamics above threshold. The time-dependent coupled wave equations for four-wave mixing (FWM) in a photorefractive crystal, with two distinct interaction regions caused by feedback from an ordinary mirror, was used to model the transient dynamics of a PCR below threshold. The conditions for self-oscillation were determined and the solutions were used to define the PCR's transfer function and analyze its stability. Experimental results for the buildup and decay times confirmed qualitatively the predicted behavior. Experiments were carried out above threshold to study the spatiotemporal dynamics of the PCR as a function of Pragg detuning and the resonator's Fresnel number. The existence of optical vortices in the wavefront were identified by optical interferometry. It was possible to describe the transverse dynamics and the spatiotemporal instabilities by modeling the three-dimensional-coupled wave equations in photorefractive FWM using a truncated modal expansion approach.

  13. Artificial spatiotemporal touch inputs reveal complementary decoding in neocortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Calogero M; Mazzoni, Alberto; Spanne, Anton; Enander, Jonas M D; Mogensen, Hannes; Bengtsson, Fredrik; Camboni, Domenico; Micera, Silvestro; Jörntell, Henrik

    2017-04-04

    Investigations of the mechanisms of touch perception and decoding has been hampered by difficulties in achieving invariant patterns of skin sensor activation. To obtain reproducible spatiotemporal patterns of activation of sensory afferents, we used an artificial fingertip equipped with an array of neuromorphic sensors. The artificial fingertip was used to transduce real-world haptic stimuli into spatiotemporal patterns of spikes. These spike patterns were delivered to the skin afferents of the second digit of rats via an array of stimulation electrodes. Combined with low-noise intra- and extracellular recordings from neocortical neurons in vivo, this approach provided a previously inaccessible high resolution analysis of the representation of tactile information in the neocortical neuronal circuitry. The results indicate high information content in individual neurons and reveal multiple novel neuronal tactile coding features such as heterogeneous and complementary spatiotemporal input selectivity also between neighboring neurons. Such neuronal heterogeneity and complementariness can potentially support a very high decoding capacity in a limited population of neurons. Our results also indicate a potential neuroprosthetic approach to communicate with the brain at a very high resolution and provide a potential novel solution for evaluating the degree or state of neurological disease in animal models.

  14. Reliable Collaborative Filtering on Spatio-Temporal Privacy Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lots of multilayer information, such as the spatio-temporal privacy check-in data, is accumulated in the location-based social network (LBSN. When using the collaborative filtering algorithm for LBSN location recommendation, one of the core issues is how to improve recommendation performance by combining the traditional algorithm with the multilayer information. The existing approaches of collaborative filtering use only the sparse user-item rating matrix. It entails high computational complexity and inaccurate results. A novel collaborative filtering-based location recommendation algorithm called LGP-CF, which takes spatio-temporal privacy information into account, is proposed in this paper. By mining the users check-in behavior pattern, the dataset is segmented semantically to reduce the data size that needs to be computed. Then the clustering algorithm is used to obtain and narrow the set of similar users. User-location bipartite graph is modeled using the filtered similar user set. Then LGP-CF can quickly locate the location and trajectory of users through message propagation and aggregation over the graph. Through calculating users similarity by spatio-temporal privacy data on the graph, we can finally calculate the rating of recommendable locations. Experiments results on the physical clusters indicate that compared with the existing algorithms, the proposed LGP-CF algorithm can make recommendations more accurately.

  15. Visual memory performance for color depends on spatiotemporal context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivers, Christian N L; Schreij, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Performance on visual short-term memory for features has been known to depend on stimulus complexity, spatial layout, and feature context. However, with few exceptions, memory capacity has been measured for abruptly appearing, single-instance displays. In everyday life, objects often have a spatiotemporal history as they or the observer move around. In three experiments, we investigated the effect of spatiotemporal history on explicit memory for color. Observers saw a memory display emerge from behind a wall, after which it disappeared again. The test display then emerged from either the same side as the memory display or the opposite side. In the first two experiments, memory improved for intermediate set sizes when the test display emerged in the same way as the memory display. A third experiment then showed that the benefit was tied to the original motion trajectory and not to the display object per se. The results indicate that memory for color is embedded in a richer episodic context that includes the spatiotemporal history of the display.

  16. Spatio-temporal patterns in simple models of marine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feudel, U.; Baurmann, M.; Gross, T.

    2009-04-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns in marine systems are a result of the interaction of population dynamics with physical transport processes. These physical transport processes can be either diffusion processes in marine sediments or in the water column. We study the dynamics of one population of bacteria and its nutrient in in a simplified model of a marine sediments, taking into account that the considered bacteria possess an active as well as an inactive state, where activation is processed by signal molecules. Furthermore the nutrients are transported actively by bioirrigation and passively by diffusion. It is shown that under certain conditions Turing patterns can occur which yield heterogeneous spatial patterns of the species. The influence of bioirrigation on Turing patterns leads to the emergence of ''hot spots``, i.e. localized regions of enhanced bacterial activity. All obtained patterns fit quite well to observed patterns in laboratory experiments. Spatio-temporal patterns appear in a predator-prey model, used to describe plankton dynamics. These patterns appear due to the simultaneous emergence of Turing patterns and oscillations in the species abundance in the neighborhood of a Turing-Hopf bifurcation. We observe a large variety of different patterns where i) stationary heterogeneous patterns (e.g. hot and cold spots) compete with spatio-temporal patterns ii) slowly moving patterns are embedded in an oscillatory background iii) moving fronts and spiral waves appear.

  17. Spatiotemporal alignment of in utero BOLD-MRI series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Esra Abaci; Luo, Jie; Gagoski, Borjan; Pascau, Javier; Bibbo, Carolina; Robinson, Julian N; Grant, P Ellen; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Golland, Polina; Malpica, Norberto

    2017-08-01

    To present a method for spatiotemporal alignment of in-utero magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) time series acquired during maternal hyperoxia for enabling improved quantitative tracking of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes that characterize oxygen transport through the placenta to fetal organs. The proposed pipeline for spatiotemporal alignment of images acquired with a single-shot gradient echo echo-planar imaging includes 1) signal nonuniformity correction, 2) intravolume motion correction based on nonrigid registration, 3) correction of motion and nonrigid deformations across volumes, and 4) detection of the outlier volumes to be discarded from subsequent analysis. BOLD MRI time series collected from 10 pregnant women during 3T scans were analyzed using this pipeline. To assess pipeline performance, signal fluctuations between consecutive timepoints were examined. In addition, volume overlap and distance between manual region of interest (ROI) delineations in a subset of frames and the delineations obtained through propagation of the ROIs from the reference frame were used to quantify alignment accuracy. A previously demonstrated rigid registration approach was used for comparison. The proposed pipeline improved anatomical alignment of placenta and fetal organs over the state-of-the-art rigid motion correction methods. In particular, unexpected temporal signal fluctuations during the first normoxia period were significantly decreased (P quantitative studies of placental function by improving spatiotemporal alignment across placenta and fetal organs. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:403-412. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. Formation of tough composite joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, M.K.

    1997-05-01

    Joints which exhibit tough fracture behavior were formed in a composite with a Si/SiC matrix reinforced with Textron SCS-6 fibers with either boron nitride or silicon nitride fiber coatings. In composites with BN coatings fibers were aligned uniaxially, while composites with Si 3 N 4 -coated fibers had a 0/90 degree architecture. Lapped joints (joints with overlapping fingers) were necessary to obtain tough behavior. Geometrical requirements necessary to avoid brittle joint failure have been proposed. Joints with a simple overlap geometry (only a few fingers) would have to be very long in order to prevent brittle failure. Typical failure in these joints is caused by a crack propagating along the interfaces between the joint fingers. Joints of the same overall length, but with geometry changed to be symmetric about the joint centerline and with an extra shear surface exhibited tough fractures accompanied with extensive fiber pullout. The initial matrix cracking of these joints was relatively low because cracks propagated easily through the ends of the fingers. Joints with an optimized stepped sawtooth geometry produced composite-like failures with the stress/strain curves containing an elastic region followed by a region of rising stress with an increase of strain. Increasing the fiber/matrix interfacial strength from 9 to 25 MPa, by changing the fiber coating, increased matrix cracking and ultimate strength of the composite significantly. The best joints had matrix cracking stress and ultimate strength of 138 and 240 MPa, respectively. Joint failure was preceded by multiple matrix cracking in the entire composite. The high strength of the joints will permit building of structures containing joints with only a minor reduction of design stresses

  19. Critical joints in large composite aircraft structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, W. D.; Bunin, B. L.; Hart-Smith, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    A program was conducted at Douglas Aircraft Company to develop the technology for critical structural joints of composite wing structure that meets design requirements for a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. The prime objective of the program was to demonstrate the ability to reliably predict the strength of large bolted composite joints. Ancillary testing of 180 specimens generated data on strength and load-deflection characteristics which provided input to the joint analysis. Load-sharing between fasteners in multirow bolted joints was computed by the nonlinear analysis program A4EJ. This program was used to predict strengths of 20 additional large subcomponents representing strips from a wing root chordwise splice. In most cases, the predictions were accurate to within a few percent of the test results. In some cases, the observed mode of failure was different than anticipated. The highlight of the subcomponent testing was the consistent ability to achieve gross-section failure strains close to 0.005. That represents a considerable improvement over the state of the art.

  20. Cervical facet joint dysfunction: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpalani, Dhiruj; Mitra, Raj

    2008-04-01

    To review the relevant literature on cervical facet joint dysfunction and determine findings regarding its anatomy, etiology, prevalence, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment. A computer-aided search of several databases was performed, including Medline (1966 to present), Ovid (1966 to present), and the Cochrane database (1993 to present). Selected articles had the following criteria: (1) all articles analyzed cervical facet joint pain-anatomy, prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, treatment; (2) only full, published articles were studied, not abstracts; and (3) all articles were published in English. All articles were critically evaluated and included the following categories: randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, uncontrolled clinical trials, uncontrolled comparison studies, nonquantitative systematic reviews, and literature-based reviews. We examined 45 references that consisted of 44 journal articles and relevant sections from 1 textbook. Cervical facet joints have been well established in the literature as a common nociceptive pain generator, with an estimated prevalence that ranges from 25% to 66% of chronic axial neck pain. No studies have reported clinical examination findings that are diagnostic for cervical facet mediated pain. Overall the literature provides very limited information regarding the treatment of this condition, with only radiofrequency neurotomy showing evidence of effectively reducing pain from cervical facet joint dysfunction.

  1. 24 CFR 943.144 - What financial impact do operations of a subsidiary, affiliate, or joint venture have on a PHA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of a subsidiary, affiliate, or joint venture have on a PHA? 943.144 Section 943.144 Housing and Urban... CONSORTIA AND JOINT VENTURES Subsidiaries, Affiliates, Joint Ventures in Public Housing § 943.144 What financial impact do operations of a subsidiary, affiliate, or joint venture have on a PHA? Income generated...

  2. The World Spatiotemporal Analytics and Mapping Project (WSTAMP): Discovering, Exploring, and Mapping Spatiotemporal Patterns Across Heterogenous Space-Time Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, A.; Stewart, R.; Held, E.; Piburn, J.; Allen, M. R.; McManamay, R.; Sanyal, J.; Sorokine, A.; Bhaduri, B. L.

    2017-12-01

    Spatiotemporal (ST) analytics applied to major spatio-temporal data sources from major vendors such as USGS, NOAA, World Bank and World Health Organization have tremendous value in shedding light on the evolution of physical, cultural, and geopolitical landscapes on a local and global level. Especially powerful is the integration of these physical and cultural datasets across multiple and disparate formats, facilitating new interdisciplinary analytics and insights. Realizing this potential first requires an ST data model that addresses challenges in properly merging data from multiple authors, with evolving ontological perspectives, semantical differences, changing attributes, and content that is textual, numeric, categorical, and hierarchical. Equally challenging is the development of analytical and visualization approaches that provide a serious exploration of this integrated data while remaining accessible to practitioners with varied backgrounds. The WSTAMP project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has yielded two major results in addressing these challenges: 1) development of the WSTAMP database, a significant advance in ST data modeling that integrates 16000+ attributes covering 200+ countries for over 50 years from over 30 major sources and 2) a novel online ST exploratory and analysis tool providing an array of modern statistical and visualization techniques for analyzing these data temporally, spatially, and spatiotemporally under a standard analytic workflow. We report on these advances, provide an illustrative case study, and inform how others may freely access the tool.

  3. A nondestructive, reproducible method of measuring joint reaction force at the distal radioulnar joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canham, Colin D; Schreck, Michael J; Maqsoodi, Noorullah; Doolittle, Madison; Olles, Mark; Elfar, John C

    2015-06-01

    To develop a nondestructive method of measuring distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) joint reaction force (JRF) that preserves all periarticular soft tissues and more accurately reflects in vivo conditions. Eight fresh-frozen human cadaveric limbs were obtained. A threaded Steinmann pin was placed in the middle of the lateral side of the distal radius transverse to the DRUJ. A second pin was placed into the middle of the medial side of the distal ulna colinear to the distal radial pin. Specimens were mounted onto a tensile testing machine using a custom fixture. A uniaxial distracting force was applied across the DRUJ while force and displacement were simultaneously measured. Force-displacement curves were generated and a best-fit polynomial was solved to determine JRF. All force-displacement curves demonstrated an initial high slope where relatively large forces were required to distract the joint. This ended with an inflection point followed by a linear area with a low slope, where small increases in force generated larger amounts of distraction. Each sample was measured 3 times and there was high reproducibility between repeated measurements. The average baseline DRUJ JRF was 7.5 N (n = 8). This study describes a reproducible method of measuring DRUJ reaction forces that preserves all periarticular stabilizing structures. This technique of JRF measurement may also be suited for applications in the small joints of the wrist and hand. Changes in JRF can alter native joint mechanics and lead to pathology. Reliable methods of measuring these forces are important for determining how pathology and surgical interventions affect joint biomechanics. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatio-Temporal Video Object Segmentation via Scale-Adaptive 3D Structure Tensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yun Wang

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available To address multiple motions and deformable objects' motions encountered in existing region-based approaches, an automatic video object (VO segmentation methodology is proposed in this paper by exploiting the duality of image segmentation and motion estimation such that spatial and temporal information could assist each other to jointly yield much improved segmentation results. The key novelties of our method are (1 scale-adaptive tensor computation, (2 spatial-constrained motion mask generation without invoking dense motion-field computation, (3 rigidity analysis, (4 motion mask generation and selection, and (5 motion-constrained spatial region merging. Experimental results demonstrate that these novelties jointly contribute much more accurate VO segmentation both in spatial and temporal domains.

  5. Spatiotemporal variability and modeling of the solar irradiance transmissivity through a boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, D.; Isabelle, P. E.; Asselin, M. H.; Parent, A. C.; Jutras, S.; Anctil, F.

    2017-12-01

    Solar irradiance is the largest driver of land-surface exchanges of energy, water and trace gases. Its absorption by a forest canopy generates considerable sensible and latent heat fluxes as well as tree temperature changes. A fraction of the irradiance gets transmitted through the canopy and powers another layer of energy fluxes, which can reach substantial values. Transmitted radiation is also of particular relevance to understory vegetation photosynthesis, snowpack energetics and soil temperature dynamics. Boreal forest canopy transmissivity needs to be quantified to properly reproduce land-atmosphere interactions in the circumpolar boreal biome, but its high spatiotemporal variability makes it a challenging task. The objective of this study is to characterize the spatiotemporal variability in under-canopy radiation and to evaluate the performance of various models in representing plot-scale observations. The study site is located in Montmorency Forest (47°N, 71°W), in southern Quebec, Canada. The vegetation includes mostly juvenile balsam firs, up to 6 to 8 m tall. Since January 2016, a 15-m flux tower measures the four components of radiation, as well as other relevant fluxes and meteorological variables, on a ≈10° northeast-facing slope. In summer 2016, 20 portable weather stations were mounted in a 150 m x 200 m grid around the flux tower. These stations were equipped with silicon-cell pyranometers and provided measurements of downwelling irradiance at a height of 2 m. This setup allowed us to compute irradiance transmissivity and to assess its spatiotemporal variability at the site. First, we show that the average of daily incoming energy varies tremendously across the sites, from 1 MJ/m2 to nearly 9 MJ/m2, due to large variations in canopy structure over short distances. Using a regression tree analysis, we show that transmissivity mostly depends on sun elevation, diffuse fraction of radiation, sky and sun view fraction and wind speed above canopy. We

  6. Joint research achievement report on field test project for photovoltaic power generation of industrial use in fiscal 2000 (5/5); 2000 nendo sangyo tou you taiyokohatsuden field test jigyo kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho 5/5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000 on the field tests for photovoltaic power generation of industrial use. This report describes the details of the achievements on the following organizations: the Hiroshima Riverside Hotel; the Saraya Corporation; the Nanshin Subaru Corporation; the Ricoh Uni-techno Corporation; Toyota Motors Kyushu Corporation (Eco-center); Hitachi Electric Wires; Yuasa Corporation, Furukawa City in Ibaraki Prefecture; the Takasaki Branch Office of East Japan Passenger Railways; the World Trade Center Building, the Minami Trading Company, Onga Township in Fukuoka Prefecture; the Keio Electric Railways (Wakabadai Station); the Business Enterprise Bureau of Kyoto Prefectural Government; Okinawa Electric Power (Kita-Daito Island), Kawagoe Township in Mie Prefecture, the Keio Electric Railways (Meidai-mae Station); Kitakata Township in Gifu Prefecture; the Yamaguchi Prefectural Government; the MSK Corporation; the Fuji Pream Corporation; Kumano Township in Hiroshima Prefecture; Fukuroi City in Shizuoka Prefecture; the Water Supply Bureau of Yokohama Municipality in Kanagawa Prefecture; Ashiya City in Hyogo Prefecture; Shinoyama City in Hyogo Prefecture; the Gantan Beauty Industry; the Toyokuni Industry; and Minoo City in Osaka Prefecture. (NEDO)

  7. Report of year 2000 version on basic survey for promotion of joint execution. Study on reduction of greenhouse effect gas by means of rehabilitation of power generation systems of power plants in Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A feasibility study investigation was performed to renew old power plants in the city of Shymkent in the Republic of Kazakhstan to achieve reduction in greenhouse effect gas emission. The Clean Development Mechanism will also participate in the consultation. One each cogeneration power plant using gas turbines of 20 MW class diverted from aircraft use will be introduced into the first and second power plants. The first power plant will also be introduced with one generator of simple cycle of the same type. The facility cost will amount to US$61,279 million for the first power plant, and US$33,590 million for the second power plant. Fuel conservation will amount to 2,386,000 toe/year, and in cumulative total of 25 years, 5,964,000 toeCO2. Electric power and heat prices provided by the Kazakhstan side were used to calculate the finance internal return rate of return on investment (FIRRROI). The net cash flow was found to be in negative figures for both of before and after tax throughout the whole operation period, indicating no economic benefit whatsoever. This is because the electric power and heat unit price set for the calculation is extremely low compared to the international price. If the unit price is raised to 1.5 times, and the total calculation amount is reduced by 20%, the FIRRROI after tax will be ub a positive figure. (NEDO)

  8. FY 2000 report on the results of the joint research - Field test project on the photovoltaic power generation for public facility use; 2000 nendo kyodokenkyu gyomu seika hokokusho. Kokyo shisetsu you taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The paper arranged the FY 2000 results of the field test on the photovoltaic power generation for public facility use, etc. This report described in detail the results obtained at 237 places including the following: Social Welfare Corp. Seimei-kai, Kobe City (Hyogo Prefecture), Iitaka Town of Iinan County (Mie Prefecture), Kyushu Electric Safety Association, Educational Corp. Kongo Gakuen, Social Welfare Corp. Izumi-kai, Educational Corp. Shiobara Ikuei-kai, Educational Corp. Aiko Gakuen, Social Welfare Corp. Tachibana-kai, Cooperative Association Co-op Kobe, Social Welfare Corp. Hoshizuki-no-sato, Tochigi-Fuji Industrial Co., Hirabayashi Section of Gamo Town of Gamo County (Shiga Prefecture), Yanagawa City (Fukuoka Prefecture), Imadate City of Imadate County (Fukui Prefecture), Osaka Prefecture, Yamanashi Prefecture, Utazu Town of Ayauta County (Kagawa Prefecture), Educational Corp. Fukuyama Gakuen, New Energy Business Cooperative Association, Meitec Corp., Shikoku Medicom Co., Shizen Kobo Co., Educational Corp. Horikoshi Gakuen, Matama Town of Nishi-Kunisaki County (Oita Prefecture), Nio Town of Mitoyo County (Kagawa Prefecture), Educational Corp. Koshien Gakuin, Sansei Giken Co., Mitsui Greenland Co., AWI Mach Co., Nagoya City and Educational Corp. Kibogaoka Gakuen. (NEDO)

  9. Joint research achievement report on field test project for photovoltaic power generation of industrial use in fiscal 2000; 1999 nendo sangyo tou you taiyokohatsuden field test jigyo kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000 on the field tests for photovoltaic power generation of industrial use. This report describes the details of the achievements of the field tests in 36 locations including the following organizations: the Japan Industrial University, a school juristic person; the Harukawa Gakusha, a school juristic person; the Snow Brand Dairy; the Sony Chemicals; the West Japan Passenger Railways; the Hokushin Welfare Society, a social welfare juristic person; the Seikyou Gakuen, a school juristic person; the Miko Corporation; the Akashi Apparel Corporation; Shigenobu Township in Ehime Prefecture; the Japan Ham; the Seiko Epson; Henri Charpantier Corporation; the Joyo Gakuen, a school juristic person; Matsushita Electric Industry; Nio Township in Kagawa Prefecture; Matsumae Township in Ehime Prefecture; Nakajima Township in Ehime Prefecture; Sugo Gakuen, a school juristic person; the East Japan East Japan Passenger Railways (General Training Center); Shizuoka Automobile Gakuen, a school juristic person; Tomiyama Village in Aichi Prefecture; Futamura Grinding Industry; Toba City in Mie Prefecture; Higashi-ura Township in Hyogo Prefecture, Taisho Township in Kochi Prefecture; the Nagasaki Branch Office of the West Japan Telegraph and Telephone Company; Ashikita Township in Kumamoto Prefecture; the Miyazaki Branch Office of the West Japan Telegraph and Telephone Company; Oi Township in Fukui Prefecture; the Keishin Society, a social welfare juristic person; the Azabu Veterinarian School, a school juristic person, Omiya Township in Ibaraki Prefecture; and the Showa Electric Machinery. (NEDO)

  10. Vortex-based spatiotemporal characterization of nonlinear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Gregory A.

    Although the ubiquity of vortices in nature has been recognized by artists for over seven centuries, it was the work of artist and scientist Leonardo da Vinci that provided the monumental transition from an aesthetic form to a scientific tool. DaVinci used vortices to describe the motions he observed in air currents, flowing water and blood flow in the human heart. Five centuries later, the Navier-Stokes equations allow us to recreate the swirling motions of fluid observed in nature. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations have provided a lens through which to study the role of vortices in a wide variety of modern day applications. The research summarized below represents an effort to look through this lens and bring into focus the practical use of vortices in describing nonlinear flows. Vortex-based spatiotemporal characterizations are obtained using two specific mathematical tools: vortex core lines (VCL) and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). By applying these tools, we find that vortices continue to provide new insights in the realm of biofluids, urban flows and the phase space of dynamical systems. The insights we have gained are described in this thesis. Our primary focus is on biofluids. Specifically, we seek to gain new insights into the connection between vortices and vascular diseases in order to provide more effective methods for clinical diagnosis and treatment. We highlight several applications in which VCL and POD are used to characterize the flow conditions in a heart pump, identify stenosis in carotid arteries and validate numerical models against PIV-based experimental data. Next, we quantify the spatial complexity and temporal stability of hemodynamics generated by a database of 210 patient-specific aneurysm geometries. Visual classifications of the hemodynamics are compared to the automated, quantitative classifications. The quantities characterizing the hemodynamics are then compared to clinical data to determine conditions that are

  11. Temporomandibular joint motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, M.; Kawamura, Y.; Matsuda, T.; Itou, S.; Odori, T.; Ishii, Y.; Torizuka, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates MR imaging with the therapeutic effect after splint therapy in internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Fifteen patients (19 TMJs) with internal derangement of the TMJ and five normal volunteers (10 TMJs) were examined with sagittal T1-weighted spin-echo and gradient recalled acquisition in a steady state (GRASS) MR imaging. MR studies of the patients undergoing splint therapy were performed with an without splints. Pseudodynamic images of TMJ motion provide information that was not available from spin-echo T1-weighted images

  12. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a former member of the personnel, a beneficiary of the CERN Pension Fund, against the calculation of his pension in the framework of the Progressive Retirement Programme.   The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be available from 26 July to 11 August 2013 at the following link. HR Department Head Office

  13. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Luc Vos with regard to advancement. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 14 to 28 June 2002. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  14. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel against the decision to grant him only a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (bldg. 500) from 1 September to 14 September 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  15. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Poul Frandsen concerning his assimilation into the new career structure. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 13 to 24 January 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  16. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Personnel Division

    1999-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Joào Bento with regard to residential category. As the appellant has not objected, the recommendations of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article RÊVIÊ1.20 of the Staff Regulations.The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N¡ 60) from 29 October to 12 November 1999.Personnel DivisionTel. 74128

  17. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to advancement. The person concerned has requested that the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General be brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (No. 60) from 24 March to 10 April 2006. Human Resources Department Tel. 74128

  18. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has requested that the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General be brought to the notice of the members of the personnel, in accordance with Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (Bldg. 60) from 24 September to 7 October 2007. Human Resources Department

  19. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Olivier Francis Martin with regard to indefinite contract. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 8 to 25 June 2001.

  20. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Jack Blanchard with regard to 'non recognition of specific functions'. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 12th to 26th April 2002. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  1. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mrs Judith Igo-Kemenes concerning the application of procedures foreseen by Administrative Circular N§ 26 (Rev. 3). As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 6 to 20 June 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  2. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mrs Maria DIMOU with regard to a periodic one-step increase. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 30 April to 14 May 2004. Human Resources Department Tel. 74128

  3. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Joël Lahaye with regard to non-resident allowance. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 18 May to 1st June 2001.

  4. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to award him a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (Bldg. 500) from 17 March to 30 March 2008. Human Resources Department Tel. 73911

  5. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Bertrand Nicquevert with regard to the non-resident allowance. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 29 November to 13 December 2002. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  6. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Antonio Millich with regard to advancement. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 27 September to 11 October 2002. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  7. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to a periodic one-step increase. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 1 to 15 April 2005. Human Resources Department Tel. 74128

  8. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel against the decision to grant him only a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 500) from 1 September to 14 September 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  9. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Gert Jan Bossen with regard to dependent child allowance. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 1st to 15 March 2002. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  10. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 500) from 26 May to 6 June 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  11. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Serge Peraire with regard to exceptional advancement. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 17 to 31 May 2002. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  12. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel, in accordance with Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations. These documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 60) from 21 January to 3 February 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  13. Patellofemoral joint motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanford, W.; Phelan, J.; Albright, J.; Kathol, M.; Rooholamini, S.A.; El-Khoury, G.Y.; Palutsis, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the use of ultrafast computed tomography (CT) to obtain dynamic images of the patellofemoral joint during active motion. Thirty-eight patients underwent measurements of tangent offset, bisect offset, congruence angle, patellar tilt angle, lateral patellofemoral angle, sulcus angle, and sulcus depth made during leg movement. Selected parameters were compared with Merchant views. Significant correlations were obtained between Merchant views and comparable ultrafast CT views for all parameters except sulcus angle. Correlations between the other parameters were poor. Cine strips showed two patterns of movement; the patella remained centered either throughout excursion or until the last 20 0 of full extension, when it would sublux laterally

  14. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Aloïs Girardoz with regard to classification and advancement. As the appellant has not objected, the Board's report and the Director-General's decision will be brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 15 to 29 August 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  15. Spatiotemporal evolution of cavitation dynamics exhibited by flowing microbubbles during ultrasound exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, James J; Coussios, Constantin-C

    2012-11-01

    Ultrasound and microbubble-based therapies utilize cavitation to generate bioeffects, yet cavitation dynamics during individual pulses and across consecutive pulses remain poorly understood under physiologically relevant flow conditions. SonoVue(®) microbubbles were made to flow (fluid velocity: 10-40 mm/s) through a vessel in a tissue-mimicking material and were exposed to ultrasound [frequency: 0.5 MHz, peak-rarefactional pressure (PRP): 150-1200 kPa, pulse length: 1-100,000 cycles, pulse repetition frequency (PRF): 1-50 Hz, number of pulses: 10-250]. Radiated emissions were captured on a linear array, and passive acoustic mapping was used to spatiotemporally resolve cavitation events. At low PRPs, stable cavitation was maintained throughout several pulses, thus generating a steady rise in energy with low upstream spatial bias within the focal volume. At high PRPs, inertial cavitation was concentrated in the first 6.3 ± 1.3 ms of a pulse, followed by an energy reduction and high upstream bias. Multiple pulses at PRFs below a flow-dependent critical rate (PRF(crit)) produced predictable and consistent cavitation dynamics. Above the PRF(crit), energy generated was unpredictable and spatially biased. In conclusion, key parameters in microbubble-seeded flow conditions were matched with specific types, magnitudes, distributions, and durations of cavitation; this may help in understanding empirically observed in vivo phenomena and guide future pulse sequence designs.

  16. Spatio-temporal dynamics of the penetration resistance of recultivated soils formed after open cast mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zhukov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of studying the spatio-temporal dynamics of soil penetration resistance we proved the existence of the technozem ecomorphs as above horizon soil formations. Research was carried out at a research center for study of recultivation processes in Ordzhonikidze city. Measurement of soils penetration was made in field conditions using an Eijkelkamp penetrometer on a regular grid at depths of up to50 cmwith intervals of5 cm. Calculation of average values and degrees of variation was performed by means of descriptive statistical tools. The extent of soil penetration spatial dependence was assessed and the existence of ecomorphs was proved by means of geostatistical analysis. The degree of associativity of spatial distribution of indicators of a soil body in different years of research was established by means of correlation analysis. The level of variation in space and in time of  technozem penetration generated on loess-like loams, grey-green, red-brown clays, and also pedozems was revealed. The degree of spatial dependence of  technozem penetration within soil layers and also the linear sizes of ecomorphs as above horizon soil structures was established. The time dynamics of  penetration of various recultozems were described. As a result of research into the spatio-temporal dynamics of penetration of technozems, data confirming the hypothesis of the existence of ecomorphs as above horizon morphological soil formations were obtained. An ecomorphic approach to the study of the morphological structure of technozems is proposed. The comparative characteristics of ecomorphs from various types of technozem are presented. The results obtained solve the problem of combining the higher and lowest levels in the hierarchical system of soil organisation as a natural body, which should raise the efficiency of the analysis of relations of morphological elements as a basis for detailed reconstruction of recultivation processes, soil formation, and

  17. Modelling daily PM2.5 concentrations at high spatio-temporal resolution across Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoogh, Kees; Héritier, Harris; Stafoggia, Massimo; Künzli, Nino; Kloog, Itai

    2018-02-01

    Spatiotemporal resolved models were developed predicting daily fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) concentrations across Switzerland from 2003 to 2013. Relatively sparse PM 2.5 monitoring data was supplemented by imputing PM 2.5 concentrations at PM 10 sites, using PM 2.5 /PM 10 ratios at co-located sites. Daily PM 2.5 concentrations were first estimated at a 1 × 1km resolution across Switzerland, using Multiangle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) data in combination with spatiotemporal predictor data in a four stage approach. Mixed effect models (1) were used to predict PM 2.5 in cells with AOD but without PM 2.5 measurements (2). A generalized additive mixed model with spatial smoothing was applied to generate grid cell predictions for those grid cells where AOD was missing (3). Finally, local PM 2.5 predictions were estimated at each monitoring site by regressing the residuals from the 1 × 1km estimate against local spatial and temporal variables using machine learning techniques (4) and adding them to the stage 3 global estimates. The global (1 km) and local (100 m) models explained on average 73% of the total,71% of the spatial and 75% of the temporal variation (all cross validated) globally and on average 89% (total) 95% (spatial) and 88% (temporal) of the variation locally in measured PM 2.5 concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Spatiotemporal dynamics of surface water networks across a global biodiversity hotspot—implications for conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulbure, Mirela G; Broich, Mark; Kininmonth, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    The concept of habitat networks represents an important tool for landscape conservation and management at regional scales. Previous studies simulated degradation of temporally fixed networks but few quantified the change in network connectivity from disintegration of key features that undergo naturally occurring spatiotemporal dynamics. This is particularly of concern for aquatic systems, which typically show high natural spatiotemporal variability. Here we focused on the Swan Coastal Plain, a bioregion that encompasses a global biodiversity hotspot in Australia with over 1500 water bodies of high biodiversity. Using graph theory, we conducted a temporal analysis of water body connectivity over 13 years of variable climate. We derived large networks of surface water bodies using Landsat data (1999–2011). We generated an ensemble of 278 potential networks at three dispersal distances approximating the maximum dispersal distance of different water dependent organisms. We assessed network connectivity through several network topology metrics and quantified the resilience of the network topology during wet and dry phases. We identified ‘stepping stone’ water bodies across time and compared our networks with theoretical network models with known properties. Results showed a highly dynamic seasonal pattern of variability in network topology metrics. A decline in connectivity over the 13 years was noted with potential negative consequences for species with limited dispersal capacity. The networks described here resemble theoretical scale-free models, also known as ‘rich get richer’ algorithm. The ‘stepping stone’ water bodies are located in the area around the Peel-Harvey Estuary, a Ramsar listed site, and some are located in a national park. Our results describe a powerful approach that can be implemented when assessing the connectivity for a particular organism with known dispersal distance. The approach of identifying the surface water bodies that act as

  19. Spatiotemporal dynamics of surface water networks across a global biodiversity hotspot—implications for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulbure, Mirela G.; Kininmonth, Stuart; Broich, Mark

    2014-11-01

    The concept of habitat networks represents an important tool for landscape conservation and management at regional scales. Previous studies simulated degradation of temporally fixed networks but few quantified the change in network connectivity from disintegration of key features that undergo naturally occurring spatiotemporal dynamics. This is particularly of concern for aquatic systems, which typically show high natural spatiotemporal variability. Here we focused on the Swan Coastal Plain, a bioregion that encompasses a global biodiversity hotspot in Australia with over 1500 water bodies of high biodiversity. Using graph theory, we conducted a temporal analysis of water body connectivity over 13 years of variable climate. We derived large networks of surface water bodies using Landsat data (1999-2011). We generated an ensemble of 278 potential networks at three dispersal distances approximating the maximum dispersal distance of different water dependent organisms. We assessed network connectivity through several network topology metrics and quantified the resilience of the network topology during wet and dry phases. We identified ‘stepping stone’ water bodies across time and compared our networks with theoretical network models with known properties. Results showed a highly dynamic seasonal pattern of variability in network topology metrics. A decline in connectivity over the 13 years was noted with potential negative consequences for species with limited dispersal capacity. The networks described here resemble theoretical scale-free models, also known as ‘rich get richer’ algorithm. The ‘stepping stone’ water bodies are located in the area around the Peel-Harvey Estuary, a Ramsar listed site, and some are located in a national park. Our results describe a powerful approach that can be implemented when assessing the connectivity for a particular organism with known dispersal distance. The approach of identifying the surface water bodies that act as

  20. Spatio-temporal patterns of soil erosion and suspended sediment dynamics in the Mekong River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suif, Zuliziana; Fleifle, Amr; Yoshimura, Chihiro; Saavedra, Oliver

    2016-10-15

    Understanding of the distribution patterns of sediment erosion, concentration and transport in river basins is critically important as sediment plays a major role in river basin hydrophysical and ecological processes. In this study, we proposed an integrated framework for the assessment of sediment dynamics, including soil erosion (SE), suspended sediment load (SSL) and suspended sediment concentration (SSC), and applied this framework to the Mekong River Basin. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model was adopted with a geographic information system to assess SE and was coupled with a sediment accumulation and a routing scheme to simulate SSL. This framework also analyzed Landsat imagery captured between 1987 and 2000 together with ground observations to interpolate spatio-temporal patterns of SSC. The simulated SSL results from 1987 to 2000 showed the relative root mean square error of 41% and coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.89. The polynomial relationship of the near infrared exoatmospheric reflectance and the band 4 wavelength (760-900nm) to the observed SSC at 9 sites demonstrated the good agreement (overall relative RMSE=5.2%, R(2)=0.87). The result found that the severe SE occurs in the upper (China and Lao PDR) and lower (western part of Vietnam) regions. The SSC in the rainy season (June-November) showed increasing and decreasing trends longitudinally in the upper (China and Lao PDR) and lower regions (Cambodia), respectively, while the longitudinal profile of SSL showed a fluctuating trend along the river in the early rainy season. Overall, the results described the unique spatio-temporal patterns of SE, SSL and SSC in the Mekong River Basin. Thus, the proposed integrated framework is useful for elucidating complex process of sediment generation and transport in the land and river systems of large river basins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Geophysical Factor Resolving of Rainfall Mechanism for Super Typhoons by Using Multiple Spatiotemporal Components Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Lin; Hsu, Nien-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    This study develops a novel methodology to resolve the geophysical cause of typhoon-induced rainfall considering diverse dynamic co-evolution at multiple spatiotemporal components. The multi-order hidden patterns of complex hydrological process in chaos are detected to understand the fundamental laws of rainfall mechanism. The discovered spatiotemporal features are utilized to develop a state-of-the-art descriptive statistical model for mechanism validation, modeling and further prediction during typhoons. The time series of hourly typhoon precipitation from different types of moving track, atmospheric field and landforms are respectively precede the signal analytical process to qualify each type of rainfall cause and to quantify the corresponding affected degree based on the measured geophysical atmospheric-hydrological variables. This study applies the developed methodology in Taiwan Island which is constituted by complex diverse landform formation. The identified driving-causes include: (1) cloud height to ground surface; (2) co-movement effect induced by typhoon wind field with monsoon; (3) stem capacity; (4) interaction between typhoon rain band and terrain; (5) structural intensity variance of typhoon; and (6) integrated cloudy density of rain band. Results show that: (1) for the central maximum wind speed exceeding 51 m/sec, Causes (1) and (3) are the primary ones to generate rainfall; (2) for the typhoon moving toward the direction of 155° to 175°, Cause (2) is the primary one; (3) for the direction of 90° to 155°, Cause (4) is the primary one; (4) for the typhoon passing through mountain chain which above 3500 m, Cause (5) is the primary one; and (5) for the moving speed lower than 18 km/hr, Cause (6) is the primary one. Besides, the multiple geophysical component-based precipitation modeling can achieve 81% of average accuracy and 0.732 of average correlation coefficient (CC) within average 46 hours of duration, that improve their predictability.

  2. Glenohumeral Joint Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Christopher; Dhawan, Aman; Harwood, Daniel; Gochanour, Eric; Romeo, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Context: Intra-articular injections into the glenohumeral joint are commonly performed by musculoskeletal providers, including orthopaedic surgeons, family medicine physicians, rheumatologists, and physician assistants. Despite their frequent use, there is little guidance for injectable treatments to the glenohumeral joint for conditions such as osteoarthritis, adhesive capsulitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence Acquisition: We performed a comprehensive review of the available literature on glenohumeral injections to help clarify the current evidence-based practice and identify deficits in our understanding. We searched MEDLINE (1948 to December 2011 [week 1]) and EMBASE (1980 to 2011 [week 49]) using various permutations of intra-articular injections AND (corticosteroid OR hyaluronic acid) and (adhesive capsulitis OR arthritis). Results: We identified 1 and 7 studies that investigated intra-articular corticosteroid injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. Two and 3 studies investigated the use of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. One study compared corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and another discussed adhesive capsulitis. Conclusion: Based on existing studies and their level of evidence, there is only expert opinion to guide corticosteroid injection for osteoarthritis as well as hyaluronic acid injection for osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis. PMID:24427384

  3. Phytomedicine in Joint Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Dragos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic joint inflammatory disorders such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis have in common an upsurge of inflammation, and oxidative stress, resulting in progressive histological alterations and disabling symptoms. Currently used conventional medication (ranging from pain-killers to biological agents is potent, but frequently associated with serious, even life-threatening side effects. Used for millennia in traditional herbalism, medicinal plants are a promising alternative, with lower rate of adverse events and efficiency frequently comparable with that of conventional drugs. Nevertheless, their mechanism of action is in many cases elusive and/or uncertain. Even though many of them have been proven effective in studies done in vitro or on animal models, there is a scarcity of human clinical evidence. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available scientific information on the following joint-friendly medicinal plants, which have been tested in human studies: Arnica montana, Boswellia spp., Curcuma spp., Equisetum arvense, Harpagophytum procumbens, Salix spp., Sesamum indicum, Symphytum officinalis, Zingiber officinalis, Panax notoginseng, and Whitania somnifera.

  4. Jointly Sponsored Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett A. Sondreal; John G. Hendrikson; Thomas A. Erickson

    2009-03-31

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-98FT40321 funded through the Office of Fossil Energy and administered at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) supported the performance of a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) with a minimum 50% nonfederal cost share to assist industry in commercializing and effectively applying highly efficient, nonpolluting energy systems that meet the nation's requirements for clean fuels, chemicals, and electricity in the 21st century. The EERC in partnership with its nonfederal partners jointly performed 131 JSRP projects for which the total DOE cost share was $22,716,634 (38%) and the nonfederal share was $36,776,573 (62%). Summaries of these projects are presented in this report for six program areas: (1) resource characterization and waste management, (2) air quality assessment and control, (3) advanced power systems, (4) advanced fuel forms, (5) value-added coproducts, and (6) advanced materials. The work performed under this agreement addressed DOE goals for reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions through efficiency, capture, and sequestration; near-zero emissions from highly efficient coal-fired power plants; environmental control capabilities for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, fine respirable particulate (PM{sub 2.5}), and mercury; alternative transportation fuels including liquid synfuels and hydrogen; and synergistic integration of fossil and renewable resources.

  5. Joint resistance measurements of pancake and terminal joints for JT-60SA EF coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obana, Tetsuhiro, E-mail: obana.tetsuhiro@LHD.nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Takahata, Kazuya; Hamaguchi, Shinji; Mito, Toshiyuki; Imagawa, Shinsaku [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Kizu, Kaname; Murakami, Haruyuki; Yoshida, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • To evaluate the joint fabrication technology for the JT-60SA EF coils, joint resistance measurements were conducted with a joint sample. • The joint sample was composed of pancake and terminal joints. • The measurements demonstrated that both joints fulfilled the design requirement. • Considering the measurements, the characteristics of both joints were investigated using an analytical model that represents the joints. -- Abstract: To evaluate the joint fabrication technology for the JT-60SA EF coils, joint resistance measurements were conducted using a sample consisting of pancake and terminal joints. Both joints are shake-hands lap joints composed of cable-in-conduit conductors and a pure copper saddle-shaped spacer. The measurements demonstrated that both joints fulfilled the design requirement. Considering these measurements, the characteristics of both joints were investigated using analytical models that represent the joints. The analyses indicated that the characteristics of the conductors used in the joints affect the characteristics of the joints.

  6. Investigation of the physical and chemical characteristics of rural solid waste in China and its spatiotemporal distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohui; Yue, Bo; Huang, Qifei; Wang, Qi; Li, Zhilong; Wang, Yutang; Yu, Junying

    2018-04-13

    Despite governmental efforts toward the development of policies, funds, and technologies, the inherent characteristics of rural solid waste (RSW) discharge have led to great difficulties in RSW pollution control. However, establishing a realistic management strategy requires greater knowledge of RSW generation. Therefore, the RSW of 72 typical towns and villages from 12 provinces of China was analyzed for physicochemical characteristics, as well as its spatiotemporal distribution. The largest proportion of kitchen waste, coal ash, plastic, and paper of RSW was 33.70% ± 17.87%, 26.50% ± 17.61%, 13.48% ± 5.68%, and 10.75% ± 5.75%, respectively, in 2015. Although RSW had the potential for composting, it was still necessary to pay special attention to heavy metals pollution of RSW. The spatiotemporal distributions of RSW components were extremely non-homogenous, and significant variations existed in the kitchen residue, coal ash, plastic, and paper because of differences in economic growth, climatic changes, dietary habits, energy consumption structure, and consumer preferences. No obvious differences in RSW components were observed between villages and market towns. Overall, RSW treatment and management approaches should be considered based on local conditions of RSW generation.

  7. Spatiotemporal Co-variability of Surface Climate for Renewable Energy across the Contiguous United States: Role of the North Atlantic Subtropical High

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, K.; Steinschneider, S.

    2017-12-01

    The variability of renewable energy supply and drivers of demand across space and time largely determines the energy balance within power systems with a high penetration of renewable technologies. This study examines the joint spatiotemporal variability of summertime climate linked to renewable energy production (precipitation, wind speeds, insolation) and energy demand (temperature) across the contiguous United States (CONUS) between 1948 and 2015. Canonical correlation analysis is used to identify the major modes of joint variability between summer wind speeds and precipitation and related patterns of insolation and temperature. Canonical variates are then related to circulation anomalies to identify common drivers of the joint modes of climate variability. Results show that the first two modes of joint variability between summer wind speeds and precipitation exhibit pan-US dipole patterns with centers of action located in the eastern and central CONUS. Temperature and insolation also exhibit related US-wide dipoles. The relationship between canonical variates and lower-tropospheric geopotential height indicates that these modes are related to variability in the North Atlantic subtropical high (NASH). This insight can inform optimal strategies for siting renewables in an interconnected electric grid, and has implications for the impacts of climate variability and change on renewable energy systems.

  8. 4D cone beam CT via spatiotemporal tensor framelet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Hao; Li, Ruijiang; Xing, Lei; Lin, Yuting

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: On-board 4D cone beam CT (4DCBCT) offers respiratory phase-resolved volumetric imaging, and improves the accuracy of target localization in image guided radiation therapy. However, the clinical utility of this technique has been greatly impeded by its degraded image quality, prolonged imaging time, and increased imaging dose. The purpose of this letter is to develop a novel iterative 4DCBCT reconstruction method for improved image quality, increased imaging speed, and reduced imaging dose. Methods: The essence of this work is to introduce the spatiotemporal tensor framelet (STF), a high-dimensional tensor generalization of the 1D framelet for 4DCBCT, to effectively take into account of highly correlated and redundant features of the patient anatomy during respiration, in a multilevel fashion with multibasis sparsifying transform. The STF-based algorithm is implemented on a GPU platform for improved computational efficiency. To evaluate the method, 4DCBCT full-fan scans were acquired within 30 s, with a gantry rotation of 200°; STF is also compared with a state-of-art reconstruction method via spatiotemporal total variation regularization. Results: Both the simulation and experimental results demonstrate that STF-based reconstruction achieved superior image quality. The reconstruction of 20 respiratory phases took less than 10 min on an NVIDIA Tesla C2070 GPU card. The STF codes are available at https://sites.google.com/site/spatiotemporaltensorframelet . Conclusions: By effectively utilizing the spatiotemporal coherence of the patient anatomy among different respiratory phases in a multilevel fashion with multibasis sparsifying transform, the proposed STF method potentially enables fast and low-dose 4DCBCT with improved image quality.

  9. 4D cone beam CT via spatiotemporal tensor framelet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Hao, E-mail: hao.gao@emory.edu [Departments of Mathematics and Computer Science, and Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Li, Ruijiang; Xing, Lei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Lin, Yuting [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: On-board 4D cone beam CT (4DCBCT) offers respiratory phase-resolved volumetric imaging, and improves the accuracy of target localization in image guided radiation therapy. However, the clinical utility of this technique has been greatly impeded by its degraded image quality, prolonged imaging time, and increased imaging dose. The purpose of this letter is to develop a novel iterative 4DCBCT reconstruction method for improved image quality, increased imaging speed, and reduced imaging dose. Methods: The essence of this work is to introduce the spatiotemporal tensor framelet (STF), a high-dimensional tensor generalization of the 1D framelet for 4DCBCT, to effectively take into account of highly correlated and redundant features of the patient anatomy during respiration, in a multilevel fashion with multibasis sparsifying transform. The STF-based algorithm is implemented on a GPU platform for improved computational efficiency. To evaluate the method, 4DCBCT full-fan scans were acquired within 30 s, with a gantry rotation of 200°; STF is also compared with a state-of-art reconstruction method via spatiotemporal total variation regularization. Results: Both the simulation and experimental results demonstrate that STF-based reconstruction achieved superior image quality. The reconstruction of 20 respiratory phases took less than 10 min on an NVIDIA Tesla C2070 GPU card. The STF codes are available at https://sites.google.com/site/spatiotemporaltensorframelet . Conclusions: By effectively utilizing the spatiotemporal coherence of the patient anatomy among different respiratory phases in a multilevel fashion with multibasis sparsifying transform, the proposed STF method potentially enables fast and low-dose 4DCBCT with improved image quality.

  10. Measurement Error Correction for Predicted Spatiotemporal Air Pollution Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Joshua P; Chang, Howard H; Strickland, Matthew J; Szpiro, Adam A

    2017-05-01

    Air pollution cohort studies are frequently analyzed in two stages, first modeling exposure then using predicted exposures to estimate health effects in a second regression model. The difference between predicted and unobserved true exposures introduces a form of measurement error in the second stage health model. Recent methods for spatial data correct for measurement error with a bootstrap and by requiring the study design ensure spatial compatibility, that is, monitor and subject locations are drawn from the same spatial distribution. These methods have not previously been applied to spatiotemporal exposure data. We analyzed the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and birth weight in the US state of Georgia using records with estimated date of conception during 2002-2005 (n = 403,881). We predicted trimester-specific PM2.5 exposure using a complex spatiotemporal exposure model. To improve spatial compatibility, we restricted to mothers residing in counties with a PM2.5 monitor (n = 180,440). We accounted for additional measurement error via a nonparametric bootstrap. Third trimester PM2.5 exposure was associated with lower birth weight in the uncorrected (-2.4 g per 1 μg/m difference in exposure; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -3.9, -0.8) and bootstrap-corrected (-2.5 g, 95% CI: -4.2, -0.8) analyses. Results for the unrestricted analysis were attenuated (-0.66 g, 95% CI: -1.7, 0.35). This study presents a novel application of measurement error correction for spatiotemporal air pollution exposures. Our results demonstrate the importance of spatial compatibility between monitor and subject locations and provide evidence of the association between air pollution exposure and birth weight.

  11. Visual search of cyclic spatio-temporal events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Jacques; Davoine, Paule-Annick; Cunty, Claire

    2018-05-01

    The analysis of spatio-temporal events, and especially of relationships between their different dimensions (space-time-thematic attributes), can be done with geovisualization interfaces. But few geovisualization tools integrate the cyclic dimension of spatio-temporal event series (natural events or social events). Time Coil and Time Wave diagrams represent both the linear time and the cyclic time. By introducing a cyclic temporal scale, these diagrams may highlight the cyclic characteristics of spatio-temporal events. However, the settable cyclic temporal scales are limited to usual durations like days or months. Because of that, these diagrams cannot be used to visualize cyclic events, which reappear with an unusual period, and don't allow to make a visual search of cyclic events. Also, they don't give the possibility to identify the relationships between the cyclic behavior of the events and their spatial features, and more especially to identify localised cyclic events. The lack of possibilities to represent the cyclic time, outside of the temporal diagram of multi-view geovisualization interfaces, limits the analysis of relationships between the cyclic reappearance of events and their other dimensions. In this paper, we propose a method and a geovisualization tool, based on the extension of Time Coil and Time Wave, to provide a visual search of cyclic events, by allowing to set any possible duration to the diagram's cyclic temporal scale. We also propose a symbology approach to push the representation of the cyclic time into the map, in order to improve the analysis of relationships between space and the cyclic behavior of events.

  12. Radiosynoviorthesis in haemaphilic joint disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pad Bosch, P.J.I. van't; Putte, L.B.A. van de; Boerbooms, A.M.T.; Geerdink, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of radiosynoviorthesis on chronic haemophilic arthropathic joints were studied in six patients with severe haemophilia by a follow up study which spanned two and a half years. On clinical grounds the treatment was successful because pain and bleeding frequency diminished, although radiographic examination showed further deterioration of the treated joint. Chromosome damage was not detected. We conclude that radiosynoviorthesis is apparently changing the bleeding pattern of articular tissues without arresting the destruction and deformation of joints. (orig.) [de

  13. Spatiotemporal Signal Analysis via the Phase Velocity Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattor, Nathan

    2000-01-01

    The phase velocity transform (PVT) is an integral transform that divides a function of space and time into components that propagate at uniform phase velocities without distortion. This paper examines the PVT as a method to analyze spatiotemporal fluctuation data. The transform is extended to systems with discretely sampled data on a periodic domain, and applied to data from eight azimuthally distributed probes on the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX). This reveals features not shown by Fourier analysis, particularly regarding nonsinusoidal mode structure. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  14. Spatio-Temporal Encoding in Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    In this dissertation two methods for spatio-temporal encoding in medical ultrasound imaging are investigated. The first technique is based on a frequency division approach. Here, the available spectrum of the transducer is divided into a set of narrow bands. A waveform is designed for each band...... the signal to noise ratio and simultaneously the penetration depth so that the medical doctor can image deeper lying structures. The method is tested both experimentally and in simulation and has also evaluated for the purpose of blood flow estimation. The work presented is based on four papers which...

  15. PARALLEL SPATIOTEMPORAL SPECTRAL CLUSTERING WITH MASSIVE TRAJECTORY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Z. Gu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Massive trajectory data contains wealth useful information and knowledge. Spectral clustering, which has been shown to be effective in finding clusters, becomes an important clustering approaches in the trajectory data mining. However, the traditional spectral clustering lacks the temporal expansion on the algorithm and limited in its applicability to large-scale problems due to its high computational complexity. This paper presents a parallel spatiotemporal spectral clustering based on multiple acceleration solutions to make the algorithm more effective and efficient, the performance is proved due to the experiment carried out on the massive taxi trajectory dataset in Wuhan city, China.

  16. Image sequence analysis using spatio-temporal texture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, S.K.; Clark, G.A.; Barnes, F.L.; Schaich, P.C.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have developed and coded an algorithm for motion pattern classification based on spatio-temporal texture. The algorithm has been implemented and tested for the detection of wakes in simulated data with a relatively low signal-to-noise ratio (0.7 dB). Using a open-quote hold one out close-quote method, a detection probability of 100% with a 0% false alarm rate has been achieved on the limited number of samples (47 in each category) tested. The actual detection can be displayed in the form of a movie that can effectively show the submarine tracks based on the detected wake locations

  17. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Dendritic Spines in the Living Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chien eChen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic spines are ubiquitous postsynaptic sites of most excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain, and thus may serve as structural indicators of functional synapses. Recent works have suggested that neuronal coding of memories may be associated with rapid alterations in spine formation and elimination. Technological advances have enabled researchers to study spine dynamics in vivo during development as well as under various physiological and pathological conditions. We believe that better understanding of the spatiotemporal patterns of spine dynamics will help elucidate the principles of experience-dependent circuit modification and information processing in the living brain.

  18. Assessing global vegetation activity using spatio-temporal Bayesian modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Vera L.; van Eck, Christel M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Regnier, Pierre A. G.

    2016-04-01

    This work demonstrates the potential of modelling vegetation activity using a hierarchical Bayesian spatio-temporal model. This approach allows modelling changes in vegetation and climate simultaneous in space and time. Changes of vegetation activity such as phenology are modelled as a dynamic process depending on climate variability in both space and time. Additionally, differences in observed vegetation status can be contributed to other abiotic ecosystem properties, e.g. soil and terrain properties. Although these properties do not change in time, they do change in space and may provide valuable information in addition to the climate dynamics. The spatio-temporal Bayesian models were calibrated at a regional scale because the local trends in space and time can be better captured by the model. The regional subsets were defined according to the SREX segmentation, as defined by the IPCC. Each region is considered being relatively homogeneous in terms of large-scale climate and biomes, still capturing small-scale (grid-cell level) variability. Modelling within these regions is hence expected to be less uncertain due to the absence of these large-scale patterns, compared to a global approach. This overall modelling approach allows the comparison of model behavior for the different regions and may provide insights on the main dynamic processes driving the interaction between vegetation and climate within different regions. The data employed in this study encompasses the global datasets for soil properties (SoilGrids), terrain properties (Global Relief Model based on SRTM DEM and ETOPO), monthly time series of satellite-derived vegetation indices (GIMMS NDVI3g) and climate variables (Princeton Meteorological Forcing Dataset). The findings proved the potential of a spatio-temporal Bayesian modelling approach for assessing vegetation dynamics, at a regional scale. The observed interrelationships of the employed data and the different spatial and temporal trends support

  19. Estimating spatio-temporal dynamics of size-structured populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kasper; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2014-01-01

    with simple stock dynamics, to estimate simultaneously how size distributions and spatial distributions develop in time. We demonstrate the method for a cod population sampled by trawl surveys. Particular attention is paid to correlation between size classes within each trawl haul due to clustering...... of individuals with similar size. The model estimates growth, mortality and reproduction, after which any aspect of size-structure, spatio-temporal population dynamics, as well as the sampling process can be probed. This is illustrated by two applications: 1) tracking the spatial movements of a single cohort...

  20. Leveraging Technology for Joint Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, Jack

    1997-01-01

    .... While this innovation will have a significant impact on education and training, it will not fulfill its potential unless joint and component commanders understand what the technologies represent...

  1. Joint refinery selenium treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, C.L.; Folwarkow, S.

    1993-01-01

    The San Francisco Regional Water Quality Control Board recently established mass limits on discharges of selenium to the San Francisco Bay from several petroleum refineries. The refineries had been working independently to develop control strategies, including both source control and treatment options, for removal of selenium from their discharges. By January 1992, over fifty different combinations of treatment technologies, wastewater streams, and pretreatment steps had been investigated to determine their effectiveness and feasibility as selenium removal processes. No treatment process studied could achieve the required mass limits without serious negative environmental consequences, such as generation of large amounts of hazardous sludge. To better facilitate the development of a feasible selenium treatment process, the six Bay Area refineries shared results of their studies and identified several technologies that, with further work, could be developed further. This additional work is currently being carried out as part of a joint selenium treatability study sponsored by the Western States Petroleum Association. A review of the previous source control and treatment studies, along with a description of the current treatability studies will be discussed

  2. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Jointed Structures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, Michael James; Brake, Matthew Robert; Segalman, Daniel Joseph; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Ewins, David J.

    2013-08-01

    The Third International Workshop on Jointed Structures was held from August 16th to 17th, 2012, in Chicago Illinois, following the ASME 2012 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. Thirty two researchers from both the United States and international locations convened to discuss the recent progress of mechanical joints related research and associated efforts in addition to developing a roadmap for the challenges to be addressed over the next five to ten years. These proceedings from the workshop include the minutes of the discussions and follow up from the 2009 workshop [1], presentations, and outcomes of the workshop. Specifically, twelve challenges were formulated from the discussions at the workshop, which focus on developing a better understanding of uncertainty and variability in jointed structures, incorporating high fidelity models of joints in simulations that are tractable/efficient, motivating a new generation of researchers and funding agents as to the importance of joint mechanics research, and developing new insights into the physical phenomena that give rise to energy dissipation in jointed structures. The ultimate goal of these research efforts is to develop a predictive model of joint mechanics.

  3. Transfer of spatio-temporal multifractal properties of rainfall to simulated surface runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gires, Auguste; Giangola-Murzyn, Agathe; Richard, Julien; Abbes, Jean-Baptiste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel; Willinger, Bernard; Cardinal, Hervé; Thouvenot, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we suggest to use scaling laws and more specifically Universal Multifractals (UM) to analyse in a spatio-temporal framework both the radar rainfall and the simulated surface runoff. Such tools have been extensively used to analyse and simulate geophysical fields extremely variable over wide range of spatio-temporal scales such as rainfall, but have not often if ever been applied to surface runoff. Such novel combined analysis helps to improve the understanding of the rainfall-runoff relationship. Two catchments of the chair "Hydrology for resilient cities" sponsored by Véolia, and of the European Interreg IV RainGain project are used. They are both located in the Paris area: a 144 ha flat urban area in the Seine-Saint-Denis County, and a 250 ha urban area with a significant portion of forest located on a steep hillside of the Bièvre River. A fully distributed urban hydrological model currently under development called Multi-Hydro is implemented to represent the catchments response. It consists in an interacting core between open source software packages, each of them representing a portion of the water cycle in urban environment. The fully distributed model is tested with pixels of size 5, 10 and 20 m. In a first step the model is validated for three rainfall events that occurred in 2010 and 2011, for which the Météo-France radar mosaic with a resolution of 1 km in space and 5 min in time is available. These events generated significant surface runoff and some local flooding. The sensitivity of the model to the rainfall resolution is briefly checked by stochastically generating an ensemble of realistic downscaled rainfall fields (obtained by continuing the underlying cascade process which is observed on the available range of scales) and inputting them into the model. The impact is significant on both the simulated sewer flow and surface runoff. Then rainfall fields are generated with the help of discrete multifractal cascades and inputted in the

  4. Joint Manipulation: Toward a General Theory of High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude Thrust Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwich, Andrew S

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the initial stage of a generalized theory of high-velocity, low-amplitude thrust (HVLAT) techniques for joint manipulation. This study examined the movements described by authors from the fields of osteopathy, chiropractic, and physical therapy to produce joint cavitation in both the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint and the cervical spine apophysial joint. This study qualitatively compared the kinetics, the similarities, and the differences between MCP cavitation and cervical facet joint cavitation. A qualitative vector analysis of forces and movements was undertaken by constructing computer-generated, simplified graphical models of the MCP joint and a typical cervical apophysial joint and imposing the motions dictated by the clinical technique. Comparing the path to cavitation of 2 modes of HVLAT for the MCP joint, namely, distraction and hyperflexion, it was found that the hyperflexion method requires an axis of rotation, the hinge axis, which is also required for cervical HVLAT. These results show that there is an analogue of cervical HVLAT in one of the MCP joint HVLATs. The study demonstrated that in a theoretical model, the path to joint cavitation is the same for asymmetric separation of the joint surfaces in the cervical spine and the MCP joints.

  5. A Survey of Spatio-Temporal Grouping Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Megret, Remi; DeMenthon, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    ...) segmentation by trajectory grouping, and (3) joint spatial and temporal segmentation. The first category is the broadest, as it inherits the legacy techniques of image segmentation and motion segmentation...

  6. Pattern formations in chaotic spatio-temporal systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    5Beijing–Hong Kong–Singapore Joint Center of Nonlinear and Complex Systems, ... For theoretical studies most previous work has focused on pattern .... Lyapunov exponents from arbitrary initial conditions, and the plots look rather.

  7. Temporomandibular joint movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, M.; Itou, S.; Ishii, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Kawamura, Y.; Matsuda, T.; Hayashi, N.; Ishii, J.

    1992-01-01

    Ten temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 5 healthy volunteers and 19 TMJs of internal derangements in 16 patients with splint therapy were examined with MR imaging. T1-weighted images were obtained only in the closed mouth position, and gradient recalled acquisition in steady state (GRASS) images were obtained in active opening and closing phases, allowing a pseudodynamic display of TMJ movement. All patients received protrusive splint treatment. The usefulness of MR imaging to assess the efficacy of splint therapy was evaluated. Corrected disk position with the splint in place was clearly demonstrated in 9 TMJs, corresponding with elimination of reciprocal clicking. Ten other TMJs of anterior disk displacement without reduction showed uncorrected disk position by the splint. This information could confirm the therapeutic efficacy, or suggest other treatment alternatives. GRASS MR imaging can provide accurate and physiologic information about disk function in initial and follow-up assessment of protrusive splint therapy. (orig.)

  8. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Neil Calder, Mrs Sudeshna Datta Cockerill, Mrs Andrée Fontbonne, Mrs Moniek Laurent and Mr Ulrich Liptow with regard to membership in the Pension Fund under the period with a Paid Associate contract, appeals dealt with on a collective basis. As the appellants have not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 10 to 31 August 2001.

  9. Temporomandibular joint arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyung Sik; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Myoung Joon; Jun, Young Hwan; Chang, Duk Soo; Jung, Don Young; Jung, In Won

    1988-01-01

    The stress and occlusion disturbance are very important etiologic factors in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain dysfunction syndromes. Authors performed TMJ arthrograms in the patients with TMJ problem such as pain, click sound, limited motion and locking, etc. The following results noted: 1. The arthrographic findings of 22 TMJ were analyzed. a) Normal: 6 cases b) Anterior disc displacement with rediction: 6 cases · Early reduction: 2 cases · Intermediate reduction: 3 cases · Late reduction: 1 case c) Anterior disc displacement without reduction: 6 cases · Two cases had adhesion between the posterior portion of disc and the posterior surfaces of the articular eminence. 2. Among 22 cases, the clinical findings of 16 cases (73%) were compatible with arthrographic findings. 6 cases showed disparity between them.

  10. Sacroiliac joint: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushali Tilvawala

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sacroiliac joint (SIJ pain is one of the common but underdiagnosed source of mechanical low back pain. The incidence is estimated to be in the range of 15%–30% in patients with nonradicular low back pain. The signs and symptoms of SIJ pain mimic pain arising from other causes of low back pain. There is no single symptom or physical examination finding that can firmly diagnose SIJ as a source of patient's pain. There is good evidence suggesting that a combination of three or more positive provocative tests strongly suggests SIJ dysfunction. Intra-articular injection with local anesthetic is considered the gold standard for diagnosis of SIJ pain. Many treatment modalities are available for SIJ pain, ranging from conservative management to surgical interventions. This review article covers all the aspects of SIJ pain, with treatment section mainly covering evidence-based interventional procedures.

  11. Assessment of spatio-temporal gait parameters from trunk accelerations during human walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, W; Hof, AL

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of an analysis of spatio-temporal gait parameters based upon accelerometry. To this purpose, acceleration patterns of the trunk and their relationships with spatio-temporal gait parameters were analysed in healthy subjects. Based on model predictions of the body's

  12. Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Bin; Chu Wei; Li Guihua; Zhang Haisu; Ni Jielei [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Gao Hui; Liu Weiwei [Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071 (China); Yao Jinping; Cheng Ya; Xu Zhizhan [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Chin, See Leang [Center for Optics, Photonics and Laser (COPL) and Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Optics, Universite Laval, Quebec City, QC, G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    We demonstrate that the peak intensity in the filament core, which is inherently limited by the intensity clamping effect during femtosecond laser filamentation, can be significantly enhanced using spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses. In addition, the filament length obtained by spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses is {approx}25 times shorter than that obtained by a conventional focusing scheme, resulting in improved high spatial resolution.

  13. Building spatio-temporal database model based on ontological approach using relational database environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, N.; Burney, S.M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Everything in this world is encapsulated by space and time fence. Our daily life activities are utterly linked and related with other objects in vicinity. Therefore, a strong relationship exist with our current location, time (including past, present and future) and event through with we are moving as an object also affect our activities in life. Ontology development and its integration with database are vital for the true understanding of the complex systems involving both spatial and temporal dimensions. In this paper we propose a conceptual framework for building spatio-temporal database model based on ontological approach. We have used relational data model for modelling spatio-temporal data content and present our methodology with spatio-temporal ontological accepts and its transformation into spatio-temporal database model. We illustrate the implementation of our conceptual model through a case study related to cultivated land parcel used for agriculture to exhibit the spatio-temporal behaviour of agricultural land and related entities. Moreover, it provides a generic approach for designing spatiotemporal databases based on ontology. The proposed model is capable to understand the ontological and somehow epistemological commitments and to build spatio-temporal ontology and transform it into a spatio-temporal data model. Finally, we highlight the existing and future research challenges. (author)

  14. Spatio-temporal resolved diagnostics of the single filament barrier discharge in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.E.; Brandenburg, R.; Michel, P.; Kozlov, K.V.

    2001-01-01

    First experimental results on the spatio-temporal development of single filaments of DBDs in dry air at atmospheric pressure are presented. The measurements allow a detailed visualisation and interpretation of the streamer development. In combination with the kinetic model they are used to get information on the spatiotemporal development of the reduced field-strength E/n, too

  15. An implicit spatiotemporal shape model for human activity localization and recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomopoulos, A.; Patras, I.; Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of localisation and recognition of human activities in unsegmented image sequences. The main contribution of the proposed method is the use of an implicit representation of the spatiotemporal shape of the activity which relies on the spatiotemporal localization

  16. High current density, cryogenically cooled sliding electrical joint development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, H.

    1986-09-01

    In the past two years, conceptual designs for fusion energy research devices have focussed on compact, high magnetic field configurations. The concept of sliding electrical joints in the large magnets allows a number of technical advantages including enhanced mechanical integrity, remote maintainability, and reduced project cost. The rationale for sliding electrical joints is presented. The conceptual configuration for this generation of experimental devices is highlghted by an ∼ 20 T toroidal field magnet with a flat top conductor current of ∼ 300 kA and a sliding electrical joint with a gross current density of ∼ 0.6 kA/cm 2 . A numerical model was used to map the conductor current distribution as a function of time and position in the conductor. A series of electrical joint arrangements were produced against the system code envelope constraints for a specific version of the Ignition Studies Project (ISP) which is designated as 1025

  17. Biomechanics of the immediate impact of wearing a rigid thoracolumbar corset on gait kinematics and spatiotemporal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiar Redha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The corset support is a device classified as orthosis. It compensates a functional deficiency with means of protection, recovery, correction, maintenance, and support or contention. There are two types of orthosis 1 rest orthosis and 2 corrective orthosis. Rest orthosis maintains joints in a defined position to avoid deformities or to relieve a pain at joints. Corrective orthosis adjusts joint deformity either passively or actively. Corset is used in various pathological use, thoracic-lumbar fracture, scoliosis, Scheuermann’s disease or spinal dystrophy. The purpose of this study was 1 to determine the immediate impact of wearing a semi-rigid thoracolumbar corset, the Lombax® Dorso on gait kinematics and 2 spatiotemporal parameters in 6 adults. These parameters were recorded using the optoelectronic system Vicon® on treadmill gait subjects with and without corset for the comparison. The results showed that wearing a corset significantly decrease the rotation amplitudes of the scapular and pelvic girdles (p<0.05 in the frontal plane. The movement of the pelvis and hip in this same plane was decreased also when comparing with and without a corset effects (p<0.05. The corset significantly increased the range of flexion-extension of the hip during the gait cycle. At the conclusion of this study the discriminate parameters of wearing a corset was quantified. The results and in association with manufacturer will help to improve materials for better optimization support. Comparable perspectives and after improvement of materials will aim to experiment with patients on real daily life situation.

  18. Active sensing via movement shapes spatiotemporal patterns of sensory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamper, Sarah A; Roth, Eatai; Cowan, Noah J; Fortune, Eric S

    2012-05-01

    Previous work has shown that animals alter their locomotor behavior to increase sensing volumes. However, an animal's own movement also determines the spatial and temporal dynamics of sensory feedback. Because each sensory modality has unique spatiotemporal properties, movement has differential and potentially independent effects on each sensory system. Here we show that weakly electric fish dramatically adjust their locomotor behavior in relation to changes of modality-specific information in a task in which increasing sensory volume is irrelevant. We varied sensory information during a refuge-tracking task by changing illumination (vision) and conductivity (electroreception). The gain between refuge movement stimuli and fish tracking responses was functionally identical across all sensory conditions. However, there was a significant increase in the tracking error in the dark (no visual cues). This was a result of spontaneous whole-body oscillations (0.1 to 1 Hz) produced by the fish. These movements were costly: in the dark, fish swam over three times further when tracking and produced more net positive mechanical work. The magnitudes of these oscillations increased as electrosensory salience was degraded via increases in conductivity. In addition, tail bending (1.5 to 2.35 Hz), which has been reported to enhance electrosensory perception, occurred only during trials in the dark. These data show that both categories of movements - whole-body oscillations and tail bends - actively shape the spatiotemporal dynamics of electrosensory feedback.

  19. Electrophysiological evidence for spatiotemporal flexibility in the ventrolateral attention network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ristic

    Full Text Available Successful completion of many everyday tasks depends on interactions between voluntary attention, which acts to maintain current goals, and reflexive attention, which enables responding to unexpected events by interrupting the current focus of attention. Past studies, which have mostly examined each attentional mechanism in isolation, indicate that volitional and reflexive orienting depend on two functionally specialized cortical networks in the human brain. Here we investigated how the interplay between these two cortical networks affects sensory processing and the resulting overt behavior. By combining measurements of human performance and electrocortical recordings with a novel analytical technique for estimating spatiotemporal activity in the human cortex, we found that the subregions that comprise the reflexive ventrolateral attention network dissociate both spatially and temporally as a function of the nature of the sensory information and current task demands. Moreover, we found that together with the magnitude of the early sensory gain, the spatiotemporal neural dynamics accounted for the high amount of the variance in the behavioral data. Collectively these data support the conclusion that the ventrolateral attention network is recruited flexibly to support complex behaviors.

  20. Spatiotemporal Visualization of Tsunami Waves Using Kml on Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, H.; Delavar, M. R.; Sharifi, M. A.; Pirooz, M. D.

    2017-09-01

    Disaster risk is a function of hazard and vulnerability. Risk is defined as the expected losses, including lives, personal injuries, property damages, and economic disruptions, due to a particular hazard for a given area and time period. Risk assessment is one of the key elements of a natural disaster management strategy as it allows for better disaster mitigation and preparation. It provides input for informed decision making, and increases risk awareness among decision makers and other stakeholders. Virtual globes such as Google Earth can be used as a visualization tool. Proper spatiotemporal graphical representations of the concerned risk significantly reduces the amount of effort to visualize the impact of the risk and improves the efficiency of the decision-making process to mitigate the impact of the risk. The spatiotemporal visualization of tsunami waves for disaster management process is an attractive topic in geosciences to assist investigation of areas at tsunami risk. In this paper, a method for coupling virtual globes with tsunami wave arrival time models is presented. In this process we have shown 2D+Time of tsunami waves for propagation and inundation of tsunami waves, both coastal line deformation, and the flooded areas. In addition, the worst case scenario of tsunami on Chabahar port derived from tsunami modelling is also presented using KML on google earth.