Sample records for generated wake structures

  1. Analysis of Numerically Generated Wake Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanell, S.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming;


    Direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations are performed to achieve a better understanding of the behaviour of wakes generated by wind turbines. The simulations are performed by combining the in-house developed computer code EllipSys3D with the actuator-line methodology. In the a......Direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations are performed to achieve a better understanding of the behaviour of wakes generated by wind turbines. The simulations are performed by combining the in-house developed computer code EllipSys3D with the actuator-line methodology...

  2. Similarities and differences in the wake structure generated by different species of bats (United States)

    Hubel, Tatjana; Hristov, Nickolay; Swartz, Sharon; Breuer, Kenneth


    Flight kinematics and morphology differ greatly between the approx. 1200 bat species and the goal of our project is to understand how these differences affect the flight mechanisms, the generation of aerodynamic forces, and the resultant wake structures. Multiple individuals of three diverse species of bat were flown in the wind tunnel. The three species have different morphology, wing aspect ratio and wing loading, and exhibit different flight behaviors appropriate to their different ecologies. Particle Image Velocimetry in the cross-stream (Trefftz) plane acquired at 200 Hz was used to map the time-resolved wake velocities behind the bat, while three synchronized high-speed cameras monitored the wing motion. The measurements were taken at several flight speeds. Early predictions based on kinematic measurements suggest the development of discrete vortex rings as well as the generation of negative circulation in the wing tip area during the end of the downstroke. These hypotheses are tested and discussed, and the results show distinct differences between the species and as functions of flight speed.

  3. Thrust generation and wake structure for flow across a pitching airfoil at low Reynolds number

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Intesaaf Ashraf; Amit Agrawal; Majid Hassan Khan; Sooraj P; Atul Srivastava; Atul Sharma


    In this work, we present detailed particle image velocimetry (PIV) based investigation of wake structure of a pitching airfoil. PIV measurements have been carried out for NACA0015 airfoil at Re = 2900 with reduced frequency range of 1.82–10.92 and pitching angle of 5°. Two different wake structures (reverse Kármán shedding and deflected vortex shedding) are observed over this parameter range. The vorticity decreases substantially over a distance of two chord-lengths. The velocity profile indicates a jet-like flow downstream of the airfoil. It is shown that the jet-like flow downstream of the airfoil is however not a sufficient condition for the generation of thrust. The vortex strength is found to be invariant of the pitching frequency. Certain differences from the reported results are noted, which may be because of difference in the airfoil shape. These results can help improve understanding of the flow behavior as the low Reynolds number range is not well studied.

  4. Wake structure and thrust generation of a flapping foil in two-dimensional flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Schnipper, Teis


    We present a combined numerical (particle vortex method) and experimental (soap film tunnel) study of a symmetric foil undergoing prescribed oscillations in a two-dimensional free stream. We explore pure pitching and pure heaving, and contrast these two generic types of kinematics. We compare...... measurements and simulations when the foil is forced with pitching oscillations, and we find a close correspondence between flow visualisations using thickness variations in the soap film and the numerically determined vortex structures. Numerically, we determine wake maps spanned by oscillation frequency...

  5. Measurements and modeling of flow structure in the wake of a low profile wishbone vortex generator (United States)

    Wendt, B. J.; Hingst, W. R.


    The results of an experimental examination of the vortex structures shed from a low profile 'wishbone' generator are presented. The vortex generator height relative to the turbulent boundary layer was varied by testing two differently sized models. Measurements of the mean three-dimensional velocity field were conducted in cross-stream planes downstream of the vortex generators. In all cases, a counter-rotating vortex pair was observed. Individual vortices were characterized by three descriptors derived from the velocity data; circulation, peak vorticity, and cross-stream location of peak vorticity. Measurements in the cross plane at two axial locations behind the smaller wishbone characterize the downstream development of the vortex pairs. A single region of stream wise velocity deficit is shared by both vortex cores. This is in contrast to conventional generators, where each core coincides with a region of velocity deficit. The measured cross-stream velocities for each case are compared to an Oseen model with matching descriptors. The best comparison occurs with the data from the larger wishbone.

  6. Turbulent large-scale structure effects on wake meandering (United States)

    Muller, Y.-A.; Masson, C.; Aubrun, S.


    This work studies effects of large-scale turbulent structures on wake meandering using Large Eddy Simulations (LES) over an actuator disk. Other potential source of wake meandering such as the instablility mechanisms associated with tip vortices are not treated in this study. A crucial element of the efficient, pragmatic and successful simulations of large-scale turbulent structures in Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) is the generation of the stochastic turbulent atmospheric flow. This is an essential capability since one source of wake meandering is these large - larger than the turbine diameter - turbulent structures. The unsteady wind turbine wake in ABL is simulated using a combination of LES and actuator disk approaches. In order to dedicate the large majority of the available computing power in the wake, the ABL ground region of the flow is not part of the computational domain. Instead, mixed Dirichlet/Neumann boundary conditions are applied at all the computational surfaces except at the outlet. Prescribed values for Dirichlet contribution of these boundary conditions are provided by a stochastic turbulent wind generator. This allows to simulate large-scale turbulent structures - larger than the computational domain - leading to an efficient simulation technique of wake meandering. Since the stochastic wind generator includes shear, the turbulence production is included in the analysis without the necessity of resolving the flow near the ground. The classical Smagorinsky sub-grid model is used. The resulting numerical methodology has been implemented in OpenFOAM. Comparisons with experimental measurements in porous-disk wakes have been undertaken, and the agreements are good. While temporal resolution in experimental measurements is high, the spatial resolution is often too low. LES numerical results provide a more complete spatial description of the flow. They tend to demonstrate that inflow low frequency content - or large- scale turbulent structures - is

  7. Investigation of aircraft vortex wake structure (United States)

    Baranov, N. A.; Turchak, L. I.


    In this work we analyze the mechanisms of formation of the vortex wake structure of aircraft with different wing shape in the plan flying close to or away from the underlying surface cleaned or released mechanization wing.

  8. Separation of Lift-Generated Vortex Wakes Into Two Diverging Parts (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; Brown, Anthony P.


    As part of an ongoing study of the spreading rate of lift-generated vortex wakes, the present investigation considers possible reasons as to why segments of lift-generated wakes sometimes depart from the main part of the wake to move rapidly in either an upward or downward direction. It is assumed that deficiencies or enhancements of the lift carry over across the fuselage-shrouded wing are the driving mechanism for departures of wake-segments. The computations presented first indicate that upwardly departing wake segments that were observed and photographed could have been produced by a deficiency in lift carryover across the fuselage-shrouded part of the wing. Computations made of idealized vortex wakes indicate that upward departure of a wake segment requires a centerline reduction in the span loading of 70% or more, whether the engines are at idle or robust thrust. Similarly, it was found that downward departure of wake segments is produced when the lift over the center part of the wing is enhanced. However, it was also found that downward departures do not occur without the presence of robust engine-exhaust streams (i.e., engines must NOT be at idle). In those cases, downward departures of a wake segment occurs when the centerline value of the loading is enhanced by any amount between about 10% to 100%. Observations of condensation trails indicate that downward departure of wake segments is rare. Upward departures of wake segments appears to be more common but still rare. A study to determine the part of the aircraft that causes wake departures has not been carried out. However, even though departures of wake segments rarely occur, some aircraft do regularly shed these wake structures. If aircraft safety is to be assured to a high degree of reliability, and a solution for eliminating them is not implemented, existing guidelines for the avoidance of vortex wakes [1,3] may need to be broadened to include possible increases in wake sizes caused by vertical

  9. Three-Dimensional Structure of Wind Turbine Wakes as Measured by Scanning Lidar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundquist, Julie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bodini, Nicola [University of Colorado; University of Trento; Zardi, Dino [University of Trento


    The lower wind speeds and increased turbulence that are characteristic of turbine wakes have considerable consequences on large wind farms: turbines located downwind generate less power and experience increased turbulent loads. The structures of wakes and their downwind impacts are sensitive to wind speed and atmospheric variability. Wake characterization can provide important insights for turbine layout optimization in view of decreasing the cost of wind energy. The CWEX-13 field campaign, which took place between June and September 2013 in a wind farm in Iowa, was designed to explore the interaction of multiple wakes in a range of atmospheric stability conditions. Based on lidar wind measurements, we extend, present, and apply a quantitative algorithm to assess wake parameters such as the velocity deficits, the size of the wake boundaries, and the location of the wake centerlines. We focus on wakes from a row of four turbines at the leading edge of the wind farm to explore variations between wakes from the edge of the row (outer wakes) and those from turbines in the center of the row (inner wakes). Using multiple horizontal scans at different elevations, a three-dimensional structure of wakes from the row of turbines can be created. Wakes erode very quickly during unstable conditions and can in fact be detected primarily in stable conditions in the conditions measured here. During stable conditions, important differences emerge between the wakes of inner turbines and the wakes of outer turbines. Further, the strong wind veer associated with stable conditions results in a stretching of the wake structures, and this stretching manifests differently for inner and outer wakes. These insights can be incorporated into low-order wake models for wind farm layout optimization or for wind power forecasting.

  10. Numerical investigation of wake structures of slow-flying bats (United States)

    Wang, Shizhao; Zhang, Xing; He, Guowei


    Recently, some unique features of wake structure in bat flight have been revealed by experiments. It is found that the flow structure of bat flight is more complex than that of bird. A conceptual wake model of bat flight has been "rebuilt" using 2D DPIV images, but there is some risk of missing the details regarding dynamics of 3D vortex structures. Detailed flow information is still needed to understand the unsteady flow in bat flying. In this work, we perform 3D simulation of bat flying at the Reynolds number of 1000 (based on upstream flow and mean chord length) using the immersed boundary method. The geometry and wing-beat kinematics of bat are taken from the work of Watts et al (2001). The topology and evolution of the wake structures are described. The variation of topology in wake structures with the flapping Strouhal number is investigated. Moreover, the link between the generation of high lift and leading edge vortex is also studied.

  11. Regimes of Vorticity in the Wake of a Rectangular Vortex Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, Valery; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver


    This paper concerns the study of the secondary structures generated in the wake of a wall mounted rectangular vane, commonly referred to as a vortex generator. The study has been conducted by Stereoscopic PIV measurements in a wind tunnel and supplementary flow visualizations in a water channel...

  12. On the peculiar structure of a helical wake vortex behind an inclined prolate spheroid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Fengjian; Andersson, Helge I.; Gallardo, José P.;


    The self-similarity law for axisymmetric wakes has for the first time been examined and verified in a complex helical vortex in the far part of an asymmetric wake by means of direct numerical simulation (DNS). The helical vortex is the main coherent flow structure in the transitional non......-axisymmetric wake behind an inclined 6:1 prolate spheroid at Reynolds number 3000 based on the minor axis. The gradual development of the complex helical vortex structure has been described in detail all the way from its inception at the spheroid and into the far wake. We observed a complex vortex composition...... in the generation stage, a rare jet-like wake pattern in the near wake and an abrupt change of helical symmetry in the vortex core without an accompanying change in flow topology, i.e. with no recirculation bubble....

  13. Estimation of wake propagation behind the rotors of wind-powered generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naumov, I. V.; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Okulov, Valery


    in the experimental research in order to define the degree of self-damping of perturbations generated by oneself wind-powered generator. The obtained experimental data for the wake dynamics behind the model of wind-powered generator allowed ascertaining its impact on slowing down of incident vortex flow......The objectives of this work are to develop the experimental model of wake behind the wind-power generator rotor to estimate its propagation distance and the impact on the average and pulsation characteristics of incident flow with the possibility of further use of these data in the calculation...... and changes in the wake structure in the distance of more than 40 rotor diameters downstream with a slight level of turbulent pulsations (less than 2%) of free flow were investigated. A significant impact of external intense pulsations typical for natural atmospheric conditions was purposely excluded...

  14. Vorticity generation and wake transition for a translating circular cylinder: Wall proximity and rotation effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hourigan, K.; Rao, A.; Brøns, Morten


    The wake transitions of generic bluff bodies, such as a circular cylinder, near a wall are important because they provide understanding of different transition paths towards turbulence, and give some insight into the effect of surface modifications on the flow past larger downstream structures....... In this article, the fundamentals of vorticity generation and transport for the two-dimensional flow of incompressible Newtonian fluids are initially reviewed. Vorticity is generated only at boundaries by tangential pressure gradients or relative acceleration. After generation, it can cross......-annihilate with opposite-signed vorticity, and can be stored at a free surface, thus conserving the total vorticity, or circulation. Vorticity generation, diffusion and storage are demonstrated for a cylinder translating and rotating near a wall. The wake characteristics and the wake transitions are shown to change...

  15. Wake structure and kinematics in two insectivorous bats. (United States)

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Hristov, Nickolay I; Swartz, Sharon M; Breuer, Kenneth S


    We compare kinematics and wake structure over a range of flight speeds (4.0-8.2 m s(-1)) for two bats that pursue insect prey aerially, Tadarida brasiliensis and Myotis velifer Body mass and wingspan are similar in these species, but M. velifer has broader wings and lower wing loading. By using high-speed videography and particle image velocimetry of steady flight in a wind tunnel, we show that three-dimensional kinematics and wake structure are similar in the two species at the higher speeds studied, but differ at lower speeds. At lower speeds, the two species show significant differences in mean angle of attack, body-wingtip distance and sweep angle. The distinct body vortex seen at low speed in T. brasiliensis and other bats studied to date is considerably weaker or absent in M. velifer We suggest that this could be influenced by morphology: (i) the narrower thorax in this species probably reduces the body-induced discontinuity in circulation between the two wings and (ii) the wing loading is lower, hence the lift coefficient required for weight support is lower. As a result, in M. velifer, there may be a decreased disruption in the lift generation between the body and the wing, and the strength of the characteristic root vortex is greatly diminished, both suggesting increased flight efficiency.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'.

  16. Near and far wake structures behind freely flying bats (United States)

    Schunk, Cosima; Swartz, Sharon M.; Breuer, Kenneth S.


    While pseudo-volumetric reconstructions of the wakes of flying animals, based on transverse (Trefftz) wake measurements, have become a well-established tool in the study of animal aerodynamics in recent years, there are a number of concerns that persist regarding their use in estimating drag and flight efficiency. Here we report on stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements behind freely flying bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in both the transverse and streamwise planes. The streamwise plane measurements are taken on the wing as well as in the near and far wake region up to eight chord lengths behind the bat. By organizing the data according to the flight speed, wingbeat phase and the spanwise position of the laser sheet on the wing we are able to connect specific features of the wing and body geometry with observed wake structures and thereby construct a detailed time-space map of the wake. Furthermore, we can quantitatively assess wake distortion and assess the validity of lift and drag estimates based on transverse wake measurements. Supported by AFOSR.

  17. Wake structure of an oscillating cylinder in a flowing soap film (United States)

    Stremler, Mark; Yang, Wenchao


    When a circular cylinder oscillates with respect to a uniform background flow, a variety of wake patterns can be observed in which multiple vortices are generated during each shedding cycle. Thorough investigations of the possible wake patterns behind a cylinder undergoing forced oscillations have been conducted by C.H.K. Williamson using two-dimensional characterization of a three-dimensional flow. Attempts to reproduce the structural bifurcations using two-dimensional computational models have been only moderately successful. A flowing soap film, an experimental system with quasi-two-dimensional flow, provides an alternative method for investigating the role of system dimensionality in the structure and dynamics of complex vortex wakes. Wake patterns are observed directly through interference fringes caused by thickness variations in the soap film. Such systems have been used for decades to visualize wake structure, but they have not previously been used to conduct an analog of Williamson's work. We will discuss the results of an ongoing parametric study of the wake structure produced by a circular cylinder undergoing forced oscillations transverse to the background flow in an inclined soap film system.

  18. Generation of large-scale vortex dislocations in a three-dimensional wake-type flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Numerical study of three-dimensional evolution of wake-type flow and vortex dislocations is performed by using a compact finite diffenence-Fourier spectral method to solve 3-D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. A local spanwise nonuniformity in momentum defect is imposed on the incoming wake-type flow. The present numerical results have shown that the flow instability leads to three-dimensional vortex streets, whose frequency, phase as well as the strength vary with the span caused by the local nonuniformity. The vortex dislocations are generated in the nonuniform region and the large-scale chain-like vortex linkage structures in the dislocations are shown. The generation and the characteristics of the vortex dislocations are described in detail.

  19. Coalescing Wind Turbine Wakes (United States)

    Lee, S.; Churchfield, M.; Sirnivas, S.; Moriarty, P.; Nielsen, F. G.; Skaare, B.; Byklum, E.


    A team of researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Statoil used large-eddy simulations to numerically investigate the merging wakes from upstream offshore wind turbines. Merging wakes are typical phenomena in wind farm flows in which neighboring turbine wakes consolidate to form complex flow patterns that are as yet not well understood. In the present study, three 6-MW turbines in a row were subjected to a neutrally stable atmospheric boundary layer flow. As a result, the wake from the farthest upstream turbine conjoined the downstream wake, which significantly altered the subsequent velocity deficit structures, turbulence intensity, and the global meandering behavior. The complexity increased even more when the combined wakes from the two upstream turbines mixed with the wake generated by the last turbine, thereby forming a “triplet” structure. Although the influence of the wake generated by the first turbine decayed with downstream distance, the mutated wakes from the second turbine continued to influence the downstream wake. Two mirror-image angles of wind directions that yielded partial wakes impinging on the downstream turbines yielded asymmetric wake profiles that could be attributed to the changing flow directions in the rotor plane induced by the Coriolis force. The turbine wakes persisted for extended distances in the present study, which is a result of low aerodynamic surface roughness typically found in offshore conditions.

  20. Vortical structures in the wake of an undulating fin (United States)

    Dewey, Peter A.; Carriou, Antoine; Smits, Alexander J.


    Batoid fish such as the manta ray propel themselves through the water by producing a traveling wave motion along the chord of their pectoral fin. Such a motion produces thrust through the development of an unsteady vortex street that results in a jet-like average flow. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) is used to characterize the vortical patterns and structures developed in the wake of a manta ray-like fin. A DC servo motor powers a gear train to produce the traveling wave motion; whose frequency and wave length can be varied. The amplitude of the traveling wave motion linearly increases along the span of the fin. Wake morphologies for a wide spectrum of oscillation frequencies and traveling wave wavelengths are identified. A bifurcation from a 2S wake structure to a 2P wake structure is observed as the traveling wave wavelength is decreased, which corresponds to a decrease in efficiency as reported by Clark and Smits (2006). Alteration of the oscillation frequency, and thus Strouhal number, affects vortex interaction and is found to significantly modify the resulting velocity profiles in the wake of the fin. Notably, increasing the Strouhal number beyond optimal conditions, reported by Clark and Smits, corresponds to a reduction in the extent that the jet-like average flow is observed downstream of the fin.

  1. The structure of subsonic air wakes behind a flat plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreras, F.; Dopazo, C. [Centro Politecnico Superior de Ingenieros Area de Mecanica de Fluidos, Zaragoza (Spain); Lozano, A.; Yates, A.J. [LITEC/CSIC, Maria de Luna 3 E-50015-Zaragoza (Spain)


    Acetone vapor planar laser-induced fluorescence has been used to visualize the structure of a subsonic air wake behind a flat plate. Longitudinal and transversal wavelengths have been directly measured from the acquired images. The ratio between them has been calculated to be 2/5. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 10 refs.

  2. Computational hydrodynamics of animal swimming: boundary element method and three-dimensional vortex wake structure. (United States)

    Cheng, J Y; Chahine, G L


    The slender body theory, lifting surface theories, and more recently panel methods and Navier-Stokes solvers have been used to study the hydrodynamics of fish swimming. This paper presents progress on swimming hydrodynamics using a boundary integral equation method (or boundary element method) based on potential flow model. The unsteady three-dimensional BEM code 3DynaFS that we developed and used is able to model realistic body geometries, arbitrary movements, and resulting wake evolution. Pressure distribution over the body surface, vorticity in the wake, and the velocity field around the body can be computed. The structure and dynamic behavior of the vortex wakes generated by the swimming body are responsible for the underlying fluid dynamic mechanisms to realize the high-efficiency propulsion and high-agility maneuvering. Three-dimensional vortex wake structures are not well known, although two-dimensional structures termed 'reverse Karman Vortex Street' have been observed and studied. In this paper, simulations about a swimming saithe (Pollachius virens) using our BEM code have demonstrated that undulatory swimming reduces three-dimensional effects due to substantially weakened tail tip vortex, resulting in a reverse Karman Vortex Street as the major flow pattern in the three-dimensional wake of an undulating swimming fish.

  3. Turbulent axisymmetric swirling wake: equilibrium similarity solution and experiments with a wind turbine as wake generator (United States)

    Wosnik, Martin; Dufresne, Nathaniel


    An analytical and experimental investigation of the turbulent axisymmetric swirling wake was carried out. An equilibrium similarity theory was derived that obtained scaling functions from conditions for similarity from the equations of motion, leading to a new scaling function for the decay of the swirling velocity component. Axial and azimuthal (swirl) velocity fields were measured in the wake of a single 3-bladed model wind turbine with rotor diameter of 0.91 m, up to 20 diameters downstream, using X-wire constant temperature hot-wire anemometry. The turbine was positioned in the free stream, near the entrance of the UNH Flow Physics Facility, which has a test section of 6m × 2.7m cross section and 72m length. Measurements were conducted at different rotor loading conditions with blade tip-speed ratios up to 2.8. At U∞ = 7 m/s, the Reynolds number based on turbine diameter was approximately 5 ×105 . Both mean velocity deficit and mean swirl were found to persist beyond 20 diameters downstream. First evidence for a new scaling function for the mean swirl, Wmax ~Uo3 / 2 ~x-1 was found. The similarity solution thus predicts that in the axisymmetric swirling wake mean swirl decays faster with x-1 than mean velocity deficit with x - 2 / 3.

  4. Kármán vortex and turbulent wake generation by wind park piles (United States)

    Grashorn, Sebastian; Stanev, Emil V.


    Observational evidence of turbulent wakes behind wind parks' piles motivated a series of numerical experiments, aiming to identify the dynamic regimes associated with wakes' generation in tidal basins. We demonstrate that the obstacles such as piles of wind parks give rise to vortices similar to the known Kármán vortices which affect substantially the turbulent kinetic energy. The latter can be considered as the agent enhancing sediment remobilization from the ocean bottom, thus making wakes well visible in satellite data. The temporal and spatial variability of studied processes is analyzed under stationary and nonstationary conditions. The dependence of a vortex generation and evolution upon the environmental conditions is also studied, which demonstrates a large variety of appearances of turbulent wakes. The comparison between simulations using a suspended sediment model and satellite images demonstrated that the model is capable to realistically simulate sediment wakes observed in remote sensing data.

  5. Vortex wakes generated by robins Erithacus rubecula during free flight in a wind tunnel. (United States)

    Hedenström, A; Rosén, M; Spedding, G R


    The wakes of two individual robins were measured in digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) experiments conducted in the Lund wind tunnel. Wake measurements were compared with each other, and with previous studies in the same facility. There was no significant individual variation in any of the measured quantities. Qualitatively, the wake structure and its gradual variation with flight speed were exactly as previously measured for the thrush nightingale. A procedure that accounts for the disparate sources of circulation spread over the complex wake structure nevertheless can account for the vertical momentum flux required to support the weight, and an example calculation is given for estimating drag from the components of horizontal momentum flux (whose net value is zero). The measured circulations of the largest structures in the wake can be predicted quite well by simple models, and expressions are given to predict these and other measurable quantities in future bird flight experiments.

  6. Three-dimensional vortex wake structure of a flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle in forward flight configuration (United States)

    Percin, M.; van Oudheusden, B. W.; Eisma, H. E.; Remes, B. D. W.


    This paper investigates the formation and evolution of the unsteady three-dimensional wake structures generated by the flapping wings of the DelFly II micro aerial vehicle in forward flight configuration. Time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (Stereo-PIV) measurements were carried out at several spanwise-aligned planes in the wake, so as to allow a reconstruction of the temporal development of the wake of the flapping wings throughout the complete flapping cycle. Simultaneous thrust-force measurements were performed to explore the relation between the wake formation and the aerodynamic force generation mechanisms. The three-dimensional wake configuration was subsequently reconstructed from the planar PIV measurements by two different approaches: (1) a spatiotemporal wake reconstruction obtained by convecting the time-resolved, three-component velocity field data of a single measurement plane with the free-stream velocity; (2) for selected phases in the flapping cycle a direct three-dimensional spatial wake reconstruction is interpolated from the data of the different measurement planes, using a Kriging regression technique. Comparing the results derived from both methods in terms of the behavior of the wake formations, their phase and orientation indicate that the spatiotemporal reconstruction method allows to characterize the general three-dimensional structure of the wake, but that the spatial reconstruction method can reveal more details due to higher streamwise resolution. Comparison of the wake reconstructions for different values of the reduced frequency allows assessing the impact of the flapping frequency on the formation and interaction characteristics of the vortical structures. For low values of the reduced frequency, it is observed that the vortex structure formation of instroke and outstroke is relatively independent of each other, but that increasing interaction occurs at higher reduced frequencies. It is further shown that there is a

  7. RF heating from wake losses in diagnostics structures

    CERN Document Server

    Métral, E


    Heating of diagnostics structures (striplines, buttons, screen vessels, wire scanners, etc.) has been observed at many facilities with higher stored currents. Simulations of wake losses using 3D EM codes are regularly used to estimate the amount of power lost from the bunched beam but on its own this does not tell how much is radiated back into the beam pipe or transmitted into external ports and how much is actually being dissipated in the structure and where. This talk should introduce into the matter, summarise some of the observations at various facilities and illustrate what approaches of detailed simulations have been taken.

  8. Study on wake structure characteristics of a slotted micro-ramp with large-eddy simulation (United States)

    Dong, Xiangrui; Chen, Yaohui; Dong, Gang; Liu, Yixin


    In this paper, a novel slotted ramp-type micro vortex generator (slotted micro-ramp) for flow separation control is simulated in the supersonic flow of Ma = 1.5, based on large eddy simulation combined with the finite volume method. The wake structure characteristics and control mechanisms of both slotted and standard micro-ramps are presented and discussed. The results show that the wake of standard micro-ramp includes a primary counter-rotating streamwise vortex pair, a train of vortex rings, and secondary vortices. The slotted micro-ramp has more complicated wake structures, which contain a confluent counter-rotating streamwise vortex pair and additional streamwise vortices, with the same rotation generated by slot and the vortex rings enveloping the vortex pair. The additional vortices generated by the slot of the micro-ramp can mix with the primary counter-rotating vortex pair, extend the life time, and strengthen the vortex intensity of primary vortex pair. Moreover, the slot can effectively alleviate, or even eliminate the backflow and decrease the profile drag induced by the standard micro-ramp, therefore improving the efficiency of separation control.

  9. Wind turbine wake structure and yawed effect analysis (United States)

    Ge, Yuntian

    In this research, the three-dimensional CFD simulation of the complex flow around a two-bladed rotor based on NREL Phase VI Experiment is presented. Its accuracy is demonstrated by comparing torque, thrust, power and power coefficient with experimental data. Then the wake structure behind the rotor is analyzed by showing the vorticity contour and comparing the velocity distribution behind the rotor with previous studies. Furthermore, a triangle relationship among power, upstream wind speed and yaw angle is given by setting control groups simulation. Reasonable explanations to the simulation results are presented. Finally, a linear relationship between power output and cosine value of yaw angle is found and analyzed.

  10. Structure of the vortex wake in hovering Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna). (United States)

    Wolf, M; Ortega-Jimenez, V M; Dudley, R


    Hummingbirds are specialized hoverers for which the vortex wake has been described as a series of single vortex rings shed primarily during the downstroke. Recent findings in bats and birds, as well as in a recent study on Anna's hummingbirds, suggest that each wing may shed a discrete vortex ring, yielding a bilaterally paired wake. Here, we describe the presence of two discrete rings in the wake of hovering Anna's hummingbirds, and also infer force production through a wingbeat with contributions to weight support. Using flow visualization, we found separate vortices at the tip and root of each wing, with 15% stronger circulation at the wingtip than at the root during the downstroke. The upstroke wake is more complex, with near-continuous shedding of vorticity, and circulation of approximately equal magnitude at tip and root. Force estimates suggest that the downstroke contributes 66% of required weight support, whereas the upstroke generates 35%. We also identified a secondary vortex structure yielding 8-26% of weight support. Lift production in Anna's hummingbirds is more evenly distributed between the stroke phases than previously estimated for Rufous hummingbirds, in accordance with the generally symmetric down- and upstrokes that characterize hovering in these birds.

  11. Wake force computation in the time domain for long structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bane, K.; Weiland, T.


    One is often interested in calculating the wake potentials for short bunches in long structures using TBCI. For ultra-relativistic particles it is sufficient to solve for the fields only over a window containing the bunch and moving along with it. This technique reduces both the memory and the running time required by a factor that equals the ratio of the structure length to the window length. For example, for a bunch with sigma/sub z/ of one picosecond traversing a single SLAC cell this improvement factor is 15. It is thus possible to solve for the wakefields in very long structures: for a given problem, increasing the structure length will not change the memory required while only adding linearly to the CPU time needed.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Aiming; Zhu Minhui


    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging of ocean surface features is studied. The simulation of the turbulent and vortical features generated by a moving ship and SAR imaging of these wakes is carried out. The turbulent wake damping the ocean surface capillary waves may be partially responsible for the suppression of surface waves near the ship track. The vortex pair generating a change in the lateral flow field behind the ship may be partially responsible for an enhancement of the waves near the edges of the smooth area. These hydrodynamic phenomena as well as the changes of radar backscatter generated by turbulence and vortex are simulated.An SAR imaging model is then used on such ocean surface features to provide SAR images.Comparison of two ships' simulated SAR images shows that the wake features are different for various ship parameters.

  13. Numerical investigation of wake-collapse internal waves generated by a submerged moving body (United States)

    Liang, Jianjun; Du, Tao; Huang, Weigen; He, Mingxia


    The state-of-the-art OpenFOAM technology is used to develop a numerical model that can be devoted to numerically investigating wake-collapse internal waves generated by a submerged moving body. The model incorporates body geometry, propeller forcing, and stratification magnitude of seawater. The generation mechanism and wave properties are discussed based on model results. It was found that the generation of the wave and its properties depend greatly on the body speed. Only when that speed exceeds some critical value, between 1.5 and 4.5 m/s, can the moving body generate wake-collapse internal waves, and with increases of this speed, the time of generation advances and wave amplitude increases. The generated wake-collapse internal waves are confirmed to have characteristics of the second baroclinic mode. As the body speed increases, wave amplitude and length increase and its waveform tends to take on a regular sinusoidal shape. For three linearly temperature-stratified profiles examined, the weaker the stratification, the stronger the wake-collapse internal wave.

  14. Wind Turbine Power Curve Design for Optimal Power Generation in Wind Farms Considering Wake Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Jie; Zhou, Dao; Su, Chi


    In modern wind farms, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is widely implemented. Using the MPPT method, each individual wind turbine is controlled by its pitch angle and tip speed ratio to generate the maximum active power. In a wind farm, the upstream wind turbine may cause power loss to its...... downstream wind turbines due to the wake effect. According to the wake model, downstream power loss is also determined by the pitch angle and tip speed ratio of the upstream wind turbine. By optimizing the pitch angle and tip speed ratio of each wind turbine, the total active power of the wind farm can...... be increased. In this paper, the optimal pitch angle and tip speed ratio are selected for each wind turbine by the exhausted search. Considering the estimation error of the wake model, a solution to implement the optimized pitch angle and tip speed ratio is proposed, which is to generate the optimal control...

  15. Manipulation of vertical fence wake using passive vortex generators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kim Hyoung-Bum; Kim Seoung-Jun; Tu Xin-Cheng; Park Seung-Ha


    The effect of streamwise vortices generated from passive vortex generators was investigated to manipulate the separation bubble behind the vertical fence.The experiments were carried out in a cir-culating water channel and the velocity fields were measured using 2D and stereoscopic PIV method. The distance between the vortex generator and fence and the effect of the Reynolds number were inves-tigated.In addition,the effect of boundary layer thickness was also investigated.The averaged recircu-lation lengths were compared with that of uncontrolled fence flow.The results showed the oscillatory variation of recirculation region appeared under the existence of vortex generators.The reduction of the separation bubble became larger when the fence was submerged in the thick boundary layer with in-creasing the distance between the generator and fence.When the boundary layer is thin,vortex gene-rator can only suppress the separation bubble under the specific condition.

  16. Wake-up transceivers for structural health monitoring of bridges (United States)

    Kumberg, T.; Kokert, J.; Younesi, V.; Koenig, S.; Reindl, L. M.


    In this article we present a wireless sensor network to monitor the structural health of a large-scale highway bridge in Germany. The wireless sensor network consists of several sensor nodes that use wake-up receivers to realize latency free and low-power communication. The sensor nodes are either equipped with very accurate tilt sensor developed by Northrop Grumman LITEF GmbH or with a Novatel OEM615 GNSS receiver. Relay nodes are required to forward measurement data to a base station located on the bridge. The base station is a gateway that transmits the local measurement data to a remote server where it can be further analyzed and processed. Further on, we present an energy harvesting system to supply the energy demanding GNSS sensor nodes to realize long term monitoring.

  17. Ionization effects in the generation of wake-fields by ultra-high contrast femtosecond laser pulses in argon gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makito, K.; Shin, J.-H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Zhidkov, A.; Hosokai, T.; Masuda, S. [Photon Pioneers Center, Osaka University, 2-8, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), CREST, 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Kodama, R. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Photon Pioneers Center, Osaka University, 2-8, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), CREST, 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan)


    Difference in mechanisms of wake-field generation and electron self-injection by high contrast femtosecond laser pulses in an initially neutral Argon gas and in pre-ionized plasma without ionization is studied via 2D particle-in-cell simulations including optical ionization of the media. For shorter laser pulses, 40 fs, ionization results only in an increase of the charge of accelerated electrons by factor of {approx}3 with qualitatively the same energy distribution. For longer pulses, 80 fs, a more stable wake field structure is observed in the neutral gas with the maximal energy of the accelerated electrons exceeding that in the fixed density plasma. In higher density Argon, an ionizing laser pulse converts itself to a complex system of solitons at a self-induced, critical density ramp.

  18. Ionization effects in the generation of wake-fields by ultra-high contrast femtosecond laser pulses in argon gas (United States)

    Makito, K.; Zhidkov, A.; Hosokai, T.; Shin, J.-H.; Masuda, S.; Kodama, R.


    Difference in mechanisms of wake-field generation and electron self-injection by high contrast femtosecond laser pulses in an initially neutral Argon gas and in pre-ionized plasma without ionization is studied via 2D particle-in-cell simulations including optical ionization of the media. For shorter laser pulses, 40 fs, ionization results only in an increase of the charge of accelerated electrons by factor of ˜3 with qualitatively the same energy distribution. For longer pulses, 80 fs, a more stable wake field structure is observed in the neutral gas with the maximal energy of the accelerated electrons exceeding that in the fixed density plasma. In higher density Argon, an ionizing laser pulse converts itself to a complex system of solitons at a self-induced, critical density ramp.

  19. Generation of large-scale vortex dislocations in a three- dimensional wake-type flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING; Guocan


    ., Eckelmann, H., Vortex splitting and its consequences in the vortex street wake of cylinders at low Reynolds number, Phys. Fluids, 1989, 1: 189.[15]Gerrard, J. H., The three-dimensional structure of the wake of a circular cylinder, J. Fluid Mech., 1996, 25: 143.[16]Gaster, M., Vortex shedding from circular cylinder at low Reynolds number, J. Fluid Mech., 1971, 46: 749.[17]Bearman, P. W., Challenging problems in bluff body wakes, bluff-body wakes, dynamics and instabilities, IUTAM Symposium Gittingen/Germany, 1992, 19.[18]So, A., Maekawa, H., Study of vortex dislocations in the wake of a flat plate with finite thickness, Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers B, 2000, 66: 649.[19]Browand, F. K., Troutt, T. R., The turbulent mixing layer: geometry of large vortices, J. Fluid Mech., 1985, 158: 489.[20]Ling Guocan, Xiong Zhongmin, The three dimensional flow features of interaction between two vortex streets, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Montréal, Canada, May 24—29, 1998.[21]Pocheau, A., Croquette, V., Gal, P. L., Turbulence in a cylindrical container of Argon near threshold of convection, Phys. Rev. Lett., 1985, 55: 1094.[22]Noack, B. R., Ohle, F., Eckelmann, H., On the cell formation in vortex streets, J. Fluid Mech., 1991, 227: 293.[23]Albarède, R., Provansal, M., Quasi-periodic cylinder wakes and the Ginzburg-Landau model. J. Fluid Mech., 1995, 291: 191.[24]Park, D. S., Redekopp, L. G., Selection principles for spatio-temporal patterns in wake flows, in Proc. IUTAM Symp. on Bluff-body Wake, Dynamics, and Instability, Gittingen, Sept. 7—11, 1992.[25]Monkewitz, P. A., Williamson, C. H. K., Miller, G. D., Phase dynamics of K-rm-n vortices in cylinder wakes, Phys. Fluids, A, 1996, 8: 91.[26]Triantafyllou, G. S., Karniadakis, G. E., Computational reducibility of unsteady viscous flows, Phys. Fluids A, 1990, 2: 653.[27]Xiong, Z. M., Ling, G. C

  20. Wake Structure of Wind Turbines in Yaw under Uniform Inflow Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Howland, Michael F; Martinez-Tossas, Luis A; Meyers, Johan; Meneveau, Charles


    Reducing wake losses in wind farms by deflecting the wakes through turbine yawing has been shown to be a feasible wind farm controls approach. Nonetheless, the effectiveness of yawing depends not only on the degree of wake deflection but also on the resulting shape of the wake. In this work, the deflection and morphology of wakes behind a wind turbine operating in yawed conditions are studied using wind tunnel experiments of a wind turbine modeled as a porous disk in a uniform inflow. First, by measuring velocity distributions at various downstream positions and comparing with prior studies, we confirm that the non-rotating wind turbine model in yaw generates realistic wake deflections. Second, we characterize the wake shape and make first observations of what is termed a curled wake, displaying significant spanwise asymmetry. The wake curling observed in the experiments is also reproduced qualitatively in large eddy simulations using both actuator disk and actuator line models. When a wind turbine is yawed f...

  1. A study of wake development and structure in constant pressure gradients (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng


    Motivated by the application to high-lift aerodynamics for commercial transport aircraft, a systematic investigation into the response of symmetric/asymmetric planar turbulent wake development to constant adverse, zero and favorable pressure gradients has been conducted. The experiments are performed at a Reynolds number of 2.4 × 106 based on the chord of the wake generator. A unique feature of this wake study is that the pressure gradients imposed on the wake flow field are held constant. The experimental measurements involve both conventional Laser Doppler Velocimetry and Hot Wire Anemometry flow field surveys of mean and turbulent quantities including the turbulent kinetic energy budget. In addition, similarity analysis and numerical simulation have also been conducted for this wake study. A focus of the research has been to isolate the effects of both pressure gradient and initial wake asymmetry on the wake development. Experimental results reveal that the pressure gradient has a tremendous influence on the wake development, despite the relatively modest pressure gradients imposed. For a given pressure gradient, the development of an initially asymmetric wake is different from the initially symmetric wake. An explicit similarity solution for the shape parameters of the symmetric wake is obtained and agrees with the experimental results. The turbulent kinetic energy budget measurements of the symmetric wake demonstrate that except for the convection term, the imposed pressure gradient does not change the fundamental flow physics of turbulent kinetic energy transport. Based on the turbulent kinetic energy budget measurements, an approach to correct the bias error associated with the notoriously difficult dissipation estimate is proposed and validated through the comparison of the experimental estimate with a direct numerical simulation result.

  2. A family of vortex wakes generated by a thrush nightingale in free flight in a wind tunnel over its entire natural range of flight speeds. (United States)

    Spedding, G R; Rosén, M; Hedenström, A


    In view of the complexity of the wing-beat kinematics and geometry, an important class of theoretical models for analysis and prediction of bird flight performance entirely, or almost entirely, ignores the action of the wing itself and considers only the resulting motions in the air behind the bird. These motions can also be complicated, but some success has previously been recorded in detecting and measuring relatively simple wake structures that can sometimes account for required quantities used to estimate aerodynamic power consumption. To date, all bird wakes, measured or presumed, seem to fall into one of two classes: the closed-loop, discrete vortex model at low flight speeds, and the constant-circulation, continuous vortex model at moderate to high speeds. Here, novel and accurate quantitative measurements of velocity fields in vertical planes aligned with the freestream are used to investigate the wake structure of a thrush nightingale over its entire range of natural flight speeds. At most flight speeds, the wake cannot be categorised as one of the two standard types, but has an intermediate structure, with approximations to the closed-loop and constant-circulation models at the extremes. A careful accounting for all vortical structures revealed with the high-resolution technique permits resolution of the previously unexplained wake momentum paradox. All the measured wake structures have sufficient momentum to provide weight support over the wingbeat. A simple model is formulated and explained that mimics the correct, measured balance of forces in the downstroke- and upstroke-generated wake over the entire range of flight speeds. Pending further work on different bird species, this might form the basis for a generalisable flight model.

  3. Investigating fundamental properties of wind turbine wake structure using particle image velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whale, J. [Univ. of Edinburgh, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)


    Low Reynolds number flow visualization tests are often used for showing the flow pattern changes associated with changes in lift-coefficients at a higher Reynolds number. In wind turbine studies, analysis of measured wake structures at small scale may reveal fundamental properties of the wake which will offer wake modellers a more complete understanding of rotor flows. Measurements are presented from experiments on a model wind turbine rig conducted in a water channel. The laser-optics technique of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is used to make simultaneous multi-point measurements of the wake flow behind small-scale rotors. Analysis of the PIV data shows trends in velocity and vorticity structure in the wake. Study of the flow close to the rotor plane reveals information on stalled flow and blade performance. (au)

  4. Validation of Vortex-Lattice Method for Loads on Wings in Lift-Generated Wakes (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.


    A study is described that evaluates the accuracy of vortex-lattice methods when they are used to compute the loads induced on aircraft as they encounter lift-generated wakes. The evaluation is accomplished by the use of measurements made in the 80 by 120 ft Wind Tunnel of the lift, rolling moment, and downwash in the wake of three configurations of a model of a subsonic transport aircraft. The downwash measurements are used as input for a vortex-lattice code in order to compute the lift and rolling moment induced on wings that have a span of 0.186, 0.510, or 1.022 times the span of the wake-generating model. Comparison of the computed results with the measured lift and rolling-moment distributions the vortex-lattice method is very reliable as long as the span of the encountering or following wing is less than about 0.2 of the generator span. As the span of the following wing increases above 0.2, the vortex-lattice method continues to correctly predict the trends and nature of the induced loads, but it overpredicts the magnitude of the loads by increasing amounts.

  5. Influence of Coriolis forces on the structure and evolution of wind-turbine wakes (United States)

    Abkar, Mahdi; Porté-Agel, Fernando


    In this study, large-eddy simulation (LES) is combined with a turbine model to investigate the effect of Coriolis forces on the structure and evolution of wind-turbine wakes. In order to isolate the Coriolis effect on the turbulent wake flow, two set of simulations are performed. In the first set of simulations, atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow is driven by the geostrophic forces including the effect of Earth's rotation, while in the second case, the ABL flow is driven by a unidirectional pressure gradient forcing. Both cases have the same mean horizontal velocity and turbulence intensity at the hub height. The simulation results show that the Coriolis forces significantly affect the spatial distribution of the mean velocity deficit and turbulence statistics in the wake region. In particular, it is found that the Coriolis effect, responsible for vertical wind veer, has important lateral wake stretching effects, which in turn significantly impacts the wake recovery and wake meandering characteristics downwind of the turbines. We also apply the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to LES data of the wake. The results indicate a very high correlation between the most energetic modes and both maximum velocity deficit and wake meandering characteristics.

  6. Study on steady state wind and turbulence environments. [structure of wakes near buildings (United States)

    Brundidge, K. C.


    The structure of wakes and how this structure is related to the size and shape of buildings and other obstacles, and to ambient winds, was investigated. Mean values of natural atmospheric flow were obtained and used in conjunction with theoretical relationships developed by dimensional analysis to establish a model of the flow in the wake. Results indicate that conventional and V/STOL aircraft passing through the wake during takeoff and landing would experience not only a change in turbulence level, but also a change in mean wind speed of a magnitude roughly equivalent to that of the eddy components.

  7. Wind Turbine Power Curve Design for Optimal Power Generation in Wind Farms Considering Wake Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Tian


    Full Text Available In modern wind farms, maximum power point tracking (MPPT is widely implemented. Using the MPPT method, each individual wind turbine is controlled by its pitch angle and tip speed ratio to generate the maximum active power. In a wind farm, the upstream wind turbine may cause power loss to its downstream wind turbines due to the wake effect. According to the wake model, downstream power loss is also determined by the pitch angle and tip speed ratio of the upstream wind turbine. By optimizing the pitch angle and tip speed ratio of each wind turbine, the total active power of the wind farm can be increased. In this paper, the optimal pitch angle and tip speed ratio are selected for each wind turbine by the exhausted search. Considering the estimation error of the wake model, a solution to implement the optimized pitch angle and tip speed ratio is proposed, which is to generate the optimal control curves for each individual wind turbine off-line. In typical wind farms with regular layout, based on the detailed analysis of the influence of pitch angle and tip speed ratio on the total active power of the wind farm by the exhausted search, the optimization is simplified with the reduced computation complexity. By using the optimized control curves, the annual energy production (AEP is increased by 1.03% compared to using the MPPT method in a case-study of a typical eighty-turbine wind farm.

  8. Influence of the Coriolis force on the structure and evolution of wind turbine wakes (United States)

    Abkar, Mahdi; Porté-Agel, Fernando


    In this study, large-eddy simulation combined with a turbine model is used to investigate the effect of vertical wind veer associated with the Coriolis force on the structure and evolution of wind turbine wakes. In order to isolate the Coriolis effect on the wake, two cases are considered. In the first case, atmospheric boundary-layer flow is driven by a geostrophic wind, including the effect of Earth's rotation and the Coriolis force. In the second case, the boundary-layer flow is unidirectional and is forced by an imposed pressure gradient. Both cases have the same mean horizontal velocity and turbulence intensity at the hub height. The simulation results show that the Coriolis force significantly affects the aerodynamics of the wake including the mean velocity deficit, turbulence statistics, and wake-meandering characteristics downwind of the turbine. In particular, when the flow is forced by a geostrophic wind, vertical wind veer causes a skewed spatial structure in the wake. Moreover, the presence of lateral wind shear, in addition to the vertical one, enhances the shear production of turbulent kinetic energy and the turbulent momentum flux. This leads to a larger flow entrainment and, thus, a faster wake recovery compared to the case forced by unidirectional pressure gradient. Consistent with this result, wake meandering is also stronger in both lateral and vertical directions in the case of geostrophic forcing compared to the case with pressure-gradient forcing.

  9. Turbulence Structure in the Wake Region of a Meteorological Tower (United States)

    Barthlott, Christian; Fiedler, Franz

    A meteorological tower significantly modifies the air flow, the mean windspeed and wind direction as well as the turbulencestructure of the air. Suchchanges can be noticed in particular in the wake region of the tower.Measurementson the 200 m tower ofForschungszentrum Karlsruhewere carried outusing Solent sonic anemometers in the lee of the towerand cup anemometers on both sides.In the wake region, spectral energydensity is increased in the high-frequency range. Superposition of this disturbance spectrum on the undisturbedspectrum yields a `knee' in the resulting spectrum. In the case of low turbulence intensity with stable stratification,a plateau with a constant energy content is observed in front of the knee.This effect is caused by the new production of turbulence energy from the mean flow as well as by an energy transfer fromlarger to smaller vortices. Power spectra in strongly stable conditionsshow a more rapid decrease of intensity in the region where the inertialsubrange is expected.The relevant scales of wake turbulence are derived from the maximum of the disturbance spectrum.Locations of the high-frequency peak do not depend on atmospheric stability,but are controlled mainly by mean wind speed.Apart from the reduction of the mean wind speed, the spectra and cospectra exhibit a strong anisotropy for such cases.The results demonstrate the significant influence of a tower on turbulence spectra in the wake region.

  10. The wake structure and thrust performance of a rigid low-aspect-ratio pitching panel (United States)



    Thrust performance and wake structure were investigated for a rigid rectangular panel pitching about its leading edge in a free stream. For ReC = O(104), thrust coefficient was found to depend primarily on Strouhal number St and the aspect ratio of the panel AR. Propulsive efficiency was sensitive to aspect ratio only for AR less than 0.83; however, the magnitude of the peak efficiency of a given panel with variation in Strouhal number varied inversely with the amplitude to span ratio A/S, while the Strouhal number of optimum efficiency increased with increasing A/S. Peak efficiencies between 9 % and 21 % were measured. Wake structures corresponding to a subset of the thrust measurements were investigated using dye visualization and digital particle image velocimetry. In general, the wakes divided into two oblique jets; however, when operating at or near peak efficiency, the near wake in many cases represented a Kármán vortex street with the signs of the vortices reversed. The three-dimensional structure of the wakes was investigated in detail for AR = 0.54, A/S = 0.31 and ReC = 640. Three distinct wake structures were observed with variation in Strouhal number. For approximately 0.20 0.25, a reorganization of some of the spanwise vorticity yielded a bifurcating wake formed by trains of vortex rings connected to the tips of the horseshoes. For St > 0.5, an additional structure formed from a perturbation of the streamwise leg which caused a spanwise expansion. The wake model paradigm established here is robust with variation in Reynolds number and is consistent with structures observed for a wide variety of unsteady flows. Movies are available with the online version of the paper. PMID:19746195

  11. Effect of Fluid Structure Interaction on the Wake Structure of a Thin Flexible Cylinder (United States)

    Gurram, Harika; Subramanian, Chelakara; Kanherkar, Priyanka


    Previous studies by the authors of the drag coefficient for thin flexible cylinders (diameter O(mm)) in a cross flow for Reynolds's numbers range between 100-1000 showed about 20 - 30 percent reduction compared to literature values. At free stream low Reynolds number around 100 the spectral analysis of the hotwire signals in the wake showed tonal and broadband frequencies suggesting features similar to transition flows. To better understand the flow behind the cylinder and wake structure interaction with boundary layer for above range of Reynolds number DNS simulations were conducted. The computational study is performed for two cases: (1) flow on rigid thin cylinder, and (2) flow with 3-D fluid structure interaction for the thin cylinder. It is observed the coefficient of drag values computed for the rigid wire were 8 -12 percent lower compared to the experimental results, while simulation with the fluid structure interaction gave results within 4 percent of the experimental values. The wake structure results based on the experiment and computational study will be discussed. Graduate Student.

  12. The scaling and structure of aquatic animal wakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, JJ; Stamhuis, EJ; Muller, UK; van Duren, LA


    Animal generated water movements are visualized and quantified using two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV). The resulting vector flow fields allow for the study of the distribution of velocity, vorticity and vortices. Structural and temporal aspects of animal-induced flows covering a rang

  13. Spatial characterization of vortical structures and internal waves in stratified turbulent wake using POD (United States)

    Diamessis, P.; Gurka, R.; Liberzon, A.


    Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is applied to 2-D slices of vorticity and horizontal divergence obtained from the 3-D DNS of the stratified turbulent wake of a towed sphere at Re=5x10^3 and Fr=4. Slices are sampled along the stream-depth (Oxz) and stream-span planes (Oxy) at 231 times during the interval Nt[12,35]. POD was chosen amongst the available statistical tools due to its advantage in characterization of simulated and experimentally measured velocity gradient fields, as previously demonstrated for turbulent boundary layers. In the Oxz planes, at the wake centerline, the higher most energetic modes reveal a structure similar of the structure of late-time stratified wakes. Off-set from centerline, the signature of internal waves in the form of forward-inclined coherent beams extending into the ambient becomes evident. The angle of inclination becomes progressively vertical with increasing POD mode. Lower POD modes on the Oyz planes show a layered structure in the wake core with coherent beams radiating out into the ambient over a broad range of angles. Further insight is provided through the relative energy spectra distribution of the vorticity eigenmodes. POD analysis has provided a statistical description of the geometrical features previously observed in instantaneous flow fields of stratified turbulent wakes.

  14. Capturing relativistic wake eld structures in plasmas using ultrashort high-energy electrons as a probe

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, C J; Xu, X L; Li, F; Pai, C -H; Wan, Y; Wu, Y P; Gu, Y Q; Mori, W B; Joshi, C; Lu, W


    A new method capable of capturing coherent electric field structures propagating at nearly the speed of light in plasma with a time resolution as small as a few femtoseconds is proposed. This method uses a few femtoseconds long relativistic electron bunch to probe the wake produced in a plasma by an intense laser pulse or an ultra-short relativistic charged particle beam. As the probe bunch traverses the wake, its momentum is modulated by the electric field of the wake, leading to a density variation of the probe after free-space propagation. This variation of probe density produces a snapshot of the wake that can directly give many useful information of the wake structure and its evolution. Furthermore, this snapshot allows detailed mapping of the longitudinal and transverse components of the wakefield. We develop a theoretical model for field reconstruction and verify it using 3-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. This model can accurately reconstruct the wakefield structure in the linear regime...

  15. Wake Vortex Structure Characteristics of a Flexible Oscillating Fin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-dong Wang; Pei Chen; Xiao-qing Zhang


    We compute the wake of a two-dimensional and three-dimensional flexible fin in an unsteady flow field with heaving and pitching motions using FLUENT. Deflexion mode is used for a non-uniform cantilever beam with non-uniformly distributed load. The effect of chordwise deflexion length on the characteristics of propulsion is discussed for two-dimensional flexible fin.The thrust coefficient decreases, propulsive efficiency increases and the intensity of turbulence attenuates gradually as the deflexion length increases. For a three-dimensional flexible fin, the intensity of the vortex in the plane of symmetry is higher than that in the plane at 3/4 span length of the caudal fro. But the propulsive performance achieved is not what we expected with the given deflexion mode.

  16. Simulation of wind turbine wakes using the actuator line technique. (United States)

    Sørensen, Jens N; Mikkelsen, Robert F; Henningson, Dan S; Ivanell, Stefan; Sarmast, Sasan; Andersen, Søren J


    The actuator line technique was introduced as a numerical tool to be employed in combination with large eddy simulations to enable the study of wakes and wake interaction in wind farms. The technique is today largely used for studying basic features of wakes as well as for making performance predictions of wind farms. In this paper, we give a short introduction to the wake problem and the actuator line methodology and present a study in which the technique is employed to determine the near-wake properties of wind turbines. The presented results include a comparison of experimental results of the wake characteristics of the flow around a three-bladed model wind turbine, the development of a simple analytical formula for determining the near-wake length behind a wind turbine and a detailed investigation of wake structures based on proper orthogonal decomposition analysis of numerically generated snapshots of the wake.

  17. Simulation of wind turbine wakes using the actuator line technique (United States)

    Sørensen, Jens N.; Mikkelsen, Robert F.; Henningson, Dan S.; Ivanell, Stefan; Sarmast, Sasan; Andersen, Søren J.


    The actuator line technique was introduced as a numerical tool to be employed in combination with large eddy simulations to enable the study of wakes and wake interaction in wind farms. The technique is today largely used for studying basic features of wakes as well as for making performance predictions of wind farms. In this paper, we give a short introduction to the wake problem and the actuator line methodology and present a study in which the technique is employed to determine the near-wake properties of wind turbines. The presented results include a comparison of experimental results of the wake characteristics of the flow around a three-bladed model wind turbine, the development of a simple analytical formula for determining the near-wake length behind a wind turbine and a detailed investigation of wake structures based on proper orthogonal decomposition analysis of numerically generated snapshots of the wake. PMID:25583862

  18. Lagrangian structures and mixing in the wake of a streamwise oscillating cylinder (United States)

    Cagney, N.; Balabani, S.


    Lagrangian analysis is capable of revealing the underlying structure and complex phenomena in unsteady flows. We present particle-image velocimetry measurements of the wake of a cylinder undergoing streamwise vortex-induced vibrations and calculate the Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponents (FTLE) in backward- and forward-time. The FTLE fields are compared to the phase-averaged vorticity fields for the four different wake modes observed while the cylinder experiences streamwise vortex-induced vibrations. The backward-time FTLE fields characterise the formation of vortices, with the roll up of spiral-shaped ridges coinciding with the roll up of the shear layers to form the vortices. Ridges in the forward-time fields tend to lie perpendicular to the flow direction and separate nearby vortices. The shedding of vortices coincides with a "peel off" process in the forward-time FTLE fields, in which a ridge connected to the cylinder splits into two strips, one of which moves downstream. Particular attention is given to the "wake breathing" process, in which the streamwise motion of the cylinder causes both shear layers to roll up simultaneously and two vortices of opposite sign to be shed into the wake. In this case, the ridges in forward-time FTLE fields are shown to define "vortex cells," in which the new vortices form, and the FTLE fields allow the wake to be decomposed into three distinct regions. Finally, the mixing associated with each wake mode is examined, and it is shown that cross-wake mixing is significantly enhanced when the vibration amplitude is large and the vortices are shed alternately. However, while the symmetric shedding induces large amplitude vibrations, no increase in mixing is observed relative to the von Kármán vortex street observed behind near-stationary bodies.

  19. 3D Modeling of sediment movement by ships-generated wakes in confined shipping channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengcheng JI; Abdellatif OUAHSINE; Hassan SMAOUI; Philippe SERGENT


    Ship-generated waves and return currents are capable of re-suspending significant quantities of bottom and bank sediments. However, most of the previous studies done on the subject do not show how and where sediment is re-suspended by the wakes and the directions of net transport. In this paper, a 3D numerical model based on hydro-sedimentary coupling is presented to search the relationship between the sediment movement, and the pattern of ship-generated waves around and far away from the vessel and the return currents around the ships. The hydrodynamic model is based on 3D Navier-Stokes equations including the standard k-ε model for turbulence processes, and the sediment transport model is based on a 3D equation for the re-suspended sediment transport. The computation results show that the areas of sediment concentration and transport (whether by resuspension or by the bedload) depend mainly on the position, the speed of the ship in the waterways, the kinematics of ship-generated waves and on the return flows. Thus, a map of sediment distribution and the modes of sediment transport generated by the passage of the ship are presented.

  20. The mathematical structure of the human sleep-wake cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Strogatz, Steven H


    Over the past three years I have grown accustomed to the puzzled look which appears on people's faces when they hear that I am a mathematician who studies sleep. They wonder, but are usually too polite to ask, what does mathematics have to do with sleep? Instead they ask the questions that fascinate us all: Why do we have to sleep? How much sleep do we really need? Why do we dream? These questions usually spark a lively discussion leading to the exchange of anecdotes, last night's dreams, and other personal information. But they are questions about the func­ tion of sleep and, interesting as they are, I shall have little more to say about them here. The questions that have concerned me deal instead with the timing of sleep. For those of us on a regular schedule, questions of timing may seem vacuous. We go to bed at night and get up in the morning, going through a cycle of sleeping and waking every 24 hours. Yet to a large extent, the cycle is imposed by the world around us.

  1. Three-dimensional vortex wake structure of flapping wings in hovering flight. (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Roll, Jesse; Liu, Yun; Troolin, Daniel R; Deng, Xinyan


    Flapping wings continuously create and send vortices into their wake, while imparting downward momentum into the surrounding fluid. However, experimental studies concerning the details of the three-dimensional vorticity distribution and evolution in the far wake are limited. In this study, the three-dimensional vortex wake structure in both the near and far field of a dynamically scaled flapping wing was investigated experimentally, using volumetric three-component velocimetry. A single wing, with shape and kinematics similar to those of a fruitfly, was examined. The overall result of the wing action is to create an integrated vortex structure consisting of a tip vortex (TV), trailing-edge shear layer (TESL) and leading-edge vortex. The TESL rolls up into a root vortex (RV) as it is shed from the wing, and together with the TV, contracts radially and stretches tangentially in the downstream wake. The downwash is distributed in an arc-shaped region enclosed by the stretched tangential vorticity of the TVs and the RVs. A closed vortex ring structure is not observed in the current study owing to the lack of well-established starting and stopping vortex structures that smoothly connect the TV and RV. An evaluation of the vorticity transport equation shows that both the TV and the RV undergo vortex stretching while convecting downwards: a three-dimensional phenomenon in rotating flows. It also confirms that convection and secondary tilting and stretching effects dominate the evolution of vorticity.

  2. Multiple vortex structures in the wake of a rectangular winglet in ground effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Okulov, Valery L.


    between the axial and the rotational flow. In the current work, even the longitudinal secondary structures detected from measured streamwise vorticity display similar behavior. A regime map depicting the observed stable far wake states of the multiple vortices as a function of winglet height and angle...

  3. The Effect of Geometry on the Wake Structure of a Surface Mounted Obstacle (United States)

    Addepalli, Bhagirath; Pardyjak, Eric; Brown, Michael


    Experiments were conducted to better understand the flow structure in the wake of a square cylinder as a function of its height and develop a parameterization for tall buildings for the QUIC-URB wind model. The experiments were conducted in an open-circuit wind tunnel in a fully turbulent boundary layer. 2D PIV was used to measure the flow field along the vertical symmetry plane of the model buildings. Numerous experimental cases were run in which the geometry was varied by increasing the wall-normal height H of a square cylinder (where W=L; L is streamwise length and W is spanwise width) from H/L=1 to H/L=3 in increments of 0.3L. Preliminary results indicate that a saddle point appears for heights greater than H/L=1.6. The saddle is accompanied by a significant modification of the wake structure. This change can be attributed to the enhanced flux of momentum around the sidewall into the near-wake as the height of the model building is increased. Future work will include horizontal plane measurements in the wake of the model building to further explore the mechanisms that lead to the change in the flow structure.

  4. A typical wave wake from high-speed vessels: its group structure and run-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Didenkulova


    Full Text Available High-amplitude water waves induced by high-speed vessels are regularly observed in Tallinn Bay, the Baltic Sea, causing intense beach erosion and disturbing marine habitants in the coastal zone. Such a strong impact on the coast may be a result of a certain group structure of the wave wake. In order to understand it, here we present an experimental study of the group structure of these wakes at Pikakari beach, Tallinn Bay. The most energetic vessel waves at this location (100 m from the coast at the water depth 2.7 m have amplitudes of about 1 m and periods of 8–10 s and cause maximum run-up heights on a beach up to 1.4 m. These waves represent frequency modulated packets where the largest and longest waves propagate ahead of other smaller amplitude and period waves. Sometimes the groups of different heights and periods can be separated even within one wave wake event. The wave heights within a wake are well described by the Weibull distribution, which has different parameters for wakes from different vessels. Wave run-up heights can also be described by Weibull distribution and its parameters can be connected to the parameters of the distribution of wave heights 100 m from the coast. Finally, the run-up of individual waves within a packet is studied. It is shown that the specific structure of frequency modulated wave packets, induced by high-speed vessels, leads to a sequence of high wave run-ups at the coast, even when the original wave heights are rather moderate. This feature can be a key to understanding the significant impact on coasts caused by fast vessels.

  5. The near wake structure and the development of vorticity behind a model horizontal axis wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, P.; Wood, D. [The Univ. of Newcastle, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Callaghan (Australia)


    The wake of a two bladed model HAWT operating at zero yaw angle and in a steady flow in a wind tunnel was measured using hot wire probes. By phase locked averaging and moving the probe axially and radially the full three dimensional mean flow file was determined. All measurements were within two chord lengths of the blades and at tip speed ratios giving high turbine power output, a condition approaching runaway, and a stalled condition. For all tip speed ratios the wakes were significantly three dimensional. Large velocity variations were associated with vortex structures in the wakes, and irrotational fluctuations caused by the blade bound circulation. The vorticity clearly defined the hub and tip vortices that traced helical paths downstream, with the constant tip vortex pitch inversely proportional to tip speed ratio. Close to the blades the flow was complicated, though vortex roll-up was completed within one chord length. Considerable changes in wake structure occurred with tip speed ratio. At high power output the wake showed tip and hub vortices connected by a diffuse vortex sheet of mostly radial vorticity from the blade boundary layers; blade bound circulation was almost constant. The structure approaching runaway was similar though the hub vortex was not well defined and formed a vortex sheet around the hub which lifted away and diffused. The stalled condition was more complicated, with evidence of incomplete tip and hub vortex formation. The stream-wise velocity of the tip vortex core decreased with increasing tip speed ratio, but this was never aligned with local streamlines. The core of the tip vortex was not circular but more elliptical. A phase locked averaged angular momentum analysis was undertaken, the extra terms introduced through phase locked averaging were small. (Abstract Truncated)

  6. Wake structures of two side by side spheres in a tripped boundary layer flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canli Eyüb


    Full Text Available Two independent spheres were placed in a side by side arrangement and flow structure in the wake region of the spheres was investigated with a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV system when the spheres were in a boundary layer over a flat plate as a special case. Reynolds number was 5000 based on the sphere diameter which was 42.5 mm. Boundary layer was tripped 8mm away from the leading edge of the flat plate with a 5 mm trip wire. The thickness of the hydrodynamically developed boundary layer was determined as 63mm which was larger than the sphere diameter of D=42.5mm. Wake region of the spheres was examined from point of flow physics for the different sphere locations in the ranges of 0≤G/D ≤1.5 and 0≤S/D ≤1.5 where G and S were the distance between the spheres and the distance between the bottom point of the spheres and the flat plate surface, respectively. Depending on the different sphere locations, instantaneous and time averaged vorticity data, scalar values of time-averaged velocity components and their root mean square (rms values and time averaged vorticity data are presented in the study for the evaluation of wake region of the spheres. It is demonstrated that the gap between the two spheres and the interaction between the gap and the boundary layer greatly affects flow pattern, especially when spheres are located near to the flat plate surface, i.e. S/D=0.1 for 0≤G/D ≤1.5. Different distances between the spheres resulted in various flow patterns as the spheres were approached to the flat plate. The distance S/D=0.1 for all gap values has the strongest effect on the wake structures. Beyond G/D=1.0, the sphere wakes tend to be similar to single sphere case. The instantaneous vorticity fields of the side by side arrangements comprised wavy structures in higher level comparing to an individual sphere case. The gap flow intensifies the occurrence of small scale eddies in the wake region. The submersion rate of the spheres

  7. Wake structures of two side by side spheres in a tripped boundary layer flow (United States)

    Canli, Eyüb; Özgören, Muammer; Dogan, Sercan; Hilmi Aksoy, Muharrem; Akilli, Huseyin


    Two independent spheres were placed in a side by side arrangement and flow structure in the wake region of the spheres was investigated with a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system when the spheres were in a boundary layer over a flat plate as a special case. Reynolds number was 5000 based on the sphere diameter which was 42.5 mm. Boundary layer was tripped 8mm away from the leading edge of the flat plate with a 5 mm trip wire. The thickness of the hydrodynamically developed boundary layer was determined as 63mm which was larger than the sphere diameter of D=42.5mm. Wake region of the spheres was examined from point of flow physics for the different sphere locations in the ranges of 0≤G/D ≤1.5 and 0≤S/D ≤1.5 where G and S were the distance between the spheres and the distance between the bottom point of the spheres and the flat plate surface, respectively. Depending on the different sphere locations, instantaneous and time averaged vorticity data, scalar values of time-averaged velocity components and their root mean square (rms) values and time averaged vorticity data are presented in the study for the evaluation of wake region of the spheres. It is demonstrated that the gap between the two spheres and the interaction between the gap and the boundary layer greatly affects flow pattern, especially when spheres are located near to the flat plate surface, i.e. S/D=0.1 for 0≤G/D ≤1.5. Different distances between the spheres resulted in various flow patterns as the spheres were approached to the flat plate. The distance S/D=0.1 for all gap values has the strongest effect on the wake structures. Beyond G/D=1.0, the sphere wakes tend to be similar to single sphere case. The instantaneous vorticity fields of the side by side arrangements comprised wavy structures in higher level comparing to an individual sphere case. The gap flow intensifies the occurrence of small scale eddies in the wake region. The submersion rate of the spheres actually determines the

  8. Electron crystallography--the waking beauty of structural biology. (United States)

    Pope, Christopher R; Unger, Vinzenz M


    Since its debut in the mid 1970s, electron crystallography has been a valuable alternative in the structure determination of biological macromolecules. Its reliance on single-layered or double-layered two-dimensionally ordered arrays and the ability to obtain structural information from small and disordered crystals make this approach particularly useful for the study of membrane proteins in a lipid bilayer environment. Despite its unique advantages, technological hurdles have kept electron crystallography from reaching its full potential. Addressing the issues, recent initiatives developed high-throughput pipelines for crystallization and screening. Adding progress in automating data collection, image analysis and phase extension methods, electron crystallography is poised to raise its profile and may lead the way in exploring the structural biology of macromolecular complexes.

  9. Next Generation Fiber Coherent Lidar System for Wake Vortex Detection Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SibellOptics proposes to develop an eye-safe, long-range, compact, versatile, all-fiber wind LIDAR system for wake vortex measurement and other wind measurement...

  10. Generative Moire Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian – Mihail Marian


    Full Text Available “GRAPHIC ON COMPUTER” – the work of the Czech Petar Milojevic, published in Titus Mocanu’s book “THE MODERN ART’S MORPHOLOGY”, in 1973, had great influence on me. I tried to discover the algorithm that generated this work. It was not so difficult to do and in a short time I was able to draw 12 such structures. In time, with interruptions, I have returned to this kind of works. In my personal exhibition “CYBERNETIC DESIGN” that took place at “M4-1-13-etopa” gallery of Pitesti, in March 1981, I have presented 8 such structures. To my joy, they had an impact on art lovers.

  11. Flow structures in the wake of heaving and pitching foils (United States)

    Najdzin, Derek; Pardo, Enrique; Leftwich, Megan C.; Bardet, Philippe M.


    A 10-bar mechanism drives a cambering hydrofoil in an oscillatory heaving and pitching motion that replicates the flapping motion of a dolphin tail. The mechanism sits on a force-balance with six strain gages that together measure the forces and moments experienced by the fin during an oscillation. Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence is used to image the flow structures created downstream of the cambering fin for a range of Reynolds and Strouhal numbers. The images are taken in the mid-plane, parallel to the bottom of the water tunnel. These results are compared to a rigid foil at matching conditions to investigate the role of camber changes during the flapping cycle.

  12. Investigation on 3Dt wake flow structures of swimming bionic fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.-X.Shen; G.-K.Tan; G.-J.Lai


    A bionic experimental platform was designed for the purpose of investigating time accurate three-dimensional flow field,using digital particle image velocimetry (DSPIV).The wake behind the flapping trail of a robotic fish model was studied at high spatial resolution.The study was performed in a water channel.A robot fish model was designed and built.The model was fixed onto a rigid support framework using a cable-supporting method,with twelve stretched wires.The entire tail of the model can perform prescribed motions in two degrees of freedom,mainly in carangiform mode,by driving its afterbody and lunate caudal fin respectively The DSPIV system was set up to operate in a translational manner,measuring velocity field in a series of parallel slices.Phase locked measurements were repeated for a number of runs,allowing reconstruction of phase average flow field.Vortex structures with phase history of the wake were obtained.The study reveals some new and complex three-dimensional flow structures in the wake of the fish,including "reverse hairpin vortex" and "reverse Karman S-H vortex rings",allowing insight into physics of this complex flow.

  13. Investigation on 3D t wake flow structures of swimming bionic fish (United States)

    Shen, G.-X.; Tan, G.-K.; Lai, G.-J.


    A bionic experimental platform was designed for the purpose of investigating time accurate three-dimensional flow field, using digital particle image velocimetry (DSPIV). The wake behind the flapping trail of a robotic fish model was studied at high spatial resolution. The study was performed in a water channel. A robot fish model was designed and built. The model was fixed onto a rigid support framework using a cable-supporting method, with twelve stretched wires. The entire tail of the model can perform prescribed motions in two degrees of freedom, mainly in carangiform mode, by driving its afterbody and lunate caudal fin respectively. The DSPIV system was set up to operate in a translational manner, measuring velocity field in a series of parallel slices. Phase locked measurements were repeated for a number of runs, allowing reconstruction of phase average flow field. Vortex structures with phase history of the wake were obtained. The study reveals some new and complex three-dimensional flow structures in the wake of the fish, including "reverse hairpin vortex" and "reverse Karman S-H vortex rings", allowing insight into physics of this complex flow.

  14. Chaotic dynamics of large-scale structures in a turbulent wake (United States)

    Varon, Eliott; Eulalie, Yoann; Edwige, Stephie; Gilotte, Philippe; Aider, Jean-Luc


    The dynamics of a three-dimensional (3D) bimodal turbulent wake downstream of a square-back Ahmed body are experimentally studied in a wind tunnel through high-frequency wall-pressure probes mapping the rear of the model and a horizontal two-dimensional (2D) velocity field. The barycenters of the pressure distribution over the rear part of the model and the intensity recirculation are found highly correlated. Both described the most energetic large-scale structures dynamics, confirming the relation between the large-scale recirculation bubble and its wall-pressure footprint. Focusing on the pressure, its barycenter trajectory has a stochastic behavior but its low-frequency dynamics exhibit the same characteristics as a weak strange chaotic attractor system, with two well-defined attractors. The low-frequency dynamics associated to the large-scale structures are then analyzed. The largest Lyapunov exponent is first estimated, leading to a low positive value characteristic of strange attractors and weak chaotic systems. Afterwards, analyzing the autocorrelation function of the timeseries, we compute the correlation dimension, larger than two. The signal is finally transformed and analyzed as a telegraph signal, showing that its dynamics correspond to a quasirandom telegraph signal. This is the first demonstration that the low-frequency dynamics of a turbulent 3D wake are not a purely stochastic process but rather a weak chaotic process exhibiting strange attractors. From the flow control point of view, it also opens the path to more simple closed-loop flow-control strategies aiming at the stabilization of the wake and the control of the dynamics of the wake barycenter.

  15. Wake structure and wingbeat kinematics of a house-martin Delichon urbica. (United States)

    Rosén, M; Spedding, G R; Hedenström, A


    The wingbeat kinematics and wake structure of a trained house martin in free, steady flight in a wind tunnel have been studied over a range of flight speeds, and compared and contrasted with similar measurements for a thrush nightingale and a pair of robins. The house martin has a higher aspect ratio (more slender) wing, and is a more obviously agile and aerobatic flyer, catching insects on the wing. The wingbeat is notable for the presence at higher flight speeds of a characteristic pause in the upstroke. The essential characteristics of the wing motions can be reconstructed with a simple two-frequency model derived from Fourier analysis. At slow speeds, the distribution of wake vorticity is more simple than for the other previously measured birds, and the upstroke does not contribute to weight support. The upstroke becomes gradually more significant as the flight speed increases, and although the vortex wake shows a signature of the pause phase, the global circulation measurements are otherwise in good agreement with surprisingly simple aerodynamic models, and with predictions across the different species, implying quite similar aerodynamic performance of the wing sections. The local Reynolds numbers of the wing sections are sufficiently low that the well-known instabilities of attached laminar flows over lifting surfaces, which are known to occur at two to three times this value, may not develop.

  16. Volumetric imaging of shark tail hydrodynamics reveals a three-dimensional dual-ring vortex wake structure. (United States)

    Flammang, Brooke E; Lauder, George V; Troolin, Daniel R; Strand, Tyson


    Understanding how moving organisms generate locomotor forces is fundamental to the analysis of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic flow patterns that are generated during body and appendage oscillation. In the past, this has been accomplished using two-dimensional planar techniques that require reconstruction of three-dimensional flow patterns. We have applied a new, fully three-dimensional, volumetric imaging technique that allows instantaneous capture of wake flow patterns, to a classic problem in functional vertebrate biology: the function of the asymmetrical (heterocercal) tail of swimming sharks to capture the vorticity field within the volume swept by the tail. These data were used to test a previous three-dimensional reconstruction of the shark vortex wake estimated from two-dimensional flow analyses, and show that the volumetric approach reveals a different vortex wake not previously reconstructed from two-dimensional slices. The hydrodynamic wake consists of one set of dual-linked vortex rings produced per half tail beat. In addition, we use a simple passive shark-tail model under robotic control to show that the three-dimensional wake flows of the robotic tail differ from the active tail motion of a live shark, suggesting that active control of kinematics and tail stiffness plays a substantial role in the production of wake vortical patterns.

  17. Interaction of a swept shock wave and a supersonic wake (United States)

    He, G.; Zhao, Y. X.; Zhou, J.


    The interaction of a swept shock wave and a supersonic wake has been studied. The swept shock wave is generated by a swept compression sidewall, and the supersonic wake is generated by a wake generator. The flow field is visualized with the nanoparticle-based planar laser scattering method, and a supplementary numerical simulation is conducted by solving the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The results show that the pressure rise induced by the swept shock wave can propagate upstream in the wake, which makes the location where vortices are generated move upstream, thickens the laminar section of the wake, and enlarges the generated vortices. The wake is swept away from the swept compression sidewall by the pressure gradient of the swept shock wave. This pressure gradient is not aligned with the density gradient of the supersonic wake, so the baroclinic torque generates streamwise vorticity and changes the distribution of the spanwise vorticity. The wake shock is curved, so the flow downstream of it is non-uniform, leaving the swept shock wave being distorted. A three-dimensional Mach disk structure is generated when the wake shock interacts with the swept shock wave.

  18. Interaction of a swept shock wave and a supersonic wake (United States)

    He, G.; Zhao, Y. X.; Zhou, J.


    The interaction of a swept shock wave and a supersonic wake has been studied. The swept shock wave is generated by a swept compression sidewall, and the supersonic wake is generated by a wake generator. The flow field is visualized with the nanoparticle-based planar laser scattering method, and a supplementary numerical simulation is conducted by solving the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The results show that the pressure rise induced by the swept shock wave can propagate upstream in the wake, which makes the location where vortices are generated move upstream, thickens the laminar section of the wake, and enlarges the generated vortices. The wake is swept away from the swept compression sidewall by the pressure gradient of the swept shock wave. This pressure gradient is not aligned with the density gradient of the supersonic wake, so the baroclinic torque generates streamwise vorticity and changes the distribution of the spanwise vorticity. The wake shock is curved, so the flow downstream of it is non-uniform, leaving the swept shock wave being distorted. A three-dimensional Mach disk structure is generated when the wake shock interacts with the swept shock wave.

  19. Dynamic wake meandering modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Madsen Aagaard, Helge; Bingöl, Ferhat;

    , are an integrated part the model complex. For design applications, the computational efficiency of wake deficit prediction is a key issue. Two computationally low cost models are developed for this purpose. The character of the added wake turbulence, generated by the up-stream turbine in the form of shed......We present a consistent, physically based theory for the wake meandering phenomenon, which we consider of crucial importance for the overall description of wind turbine loadings in wind farms. In its present version the model is confined to single wake situations. The model philosophy does, however......, have the potential to include also mutual wake interaction phenomenons. The basic conjecture behind the dynamic wake meandering model is that wake transportation in the atmospheric boundary layer is driven by the large scale lateral- and vertical turbulence components. Based on this conjecture...

  20. Spatial characterization of vortical structures and internal waves in a stratified turbulent wake using proper orthogonal decomposition (United States)

    Diamessis, Peter J.; Gurka, Roi; Liberzon, Alex


    Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) has been applied to two-dimensional transects of vorticity obtained from numerical simulations of the stratified turbulent wake of a towed sphere at a Reynolds number Re=(UD)/ν =5×103 and Froude number Fr=2U/(ND)=4 (U and D are characteristic velocity and length scales and N is the stratification frequency). At 231 times during the interval 12wake core in terms of the relative influence of buoyancy on flow dynamics. The geometry of the individual eigenmodes shows a vorticity structure that is buoyancy-controlled at the lowest modes and is increasingly more actively turbulent as modal index is increased. In the wake ambient, i.e., the initially quiescent region outside the turbulent wake, the geometry of the POD modes consists of distinct internal wave rays whose angle to the horizontal is strongly dependent on modal index. Reconstruction of vorticity fields from subranges of POD modes indicates that, both inside the wake core but also in the wave-dominated ambient, each modal subrange is not only associated with a particular flow structure but also a characteristic timescale of motion. These preliminary findings suggest that POD may be a highly suitable alternative to globally defined basis functions in analyzing spatially localized internal wave fields emitted from a turbulent source that are also localized in space. In particular, it may serve as a platform toward an improved understanding of two fundamental questions associated with the nonequilibrium regime of stratified wake evolution: the structural transitions of the vorticity field within the wake core and the radiation of internal waves by the wake.

  1. Investigation to Study the Aerodynamic Ship Wake Turbulence Generated by a DD963 Destroyer. (United States)


    115 Appendices A Run Log for Ship A9roynantc Wake Turbulenc Test - BYWT 242/243 . . . . . . . . . . . .......... 117 B Steady State...ground- plane and shedding a large powerful vortex into the flow field (which then corkscrews around like the tip vortices of a jumbo jet with flaps...identification only. Full inter- pretation of this tape requires use of the Test Run Log (Appendix A), and Table 3 presented in Appendix B. e A second edited tape

  2. Wind tunnel measurements of wake structure and wind farm power for actuator disk model wind turbines in yaw (United States)

    Howland, Michael; Bossuyt, Juliaan; Kang, Justin; Meyers, Johan; Meneveau, Charles


    Reducing wake losses in wind farms by deflecting the wakes through turbine yawing has been shown to be a feasible wind farm control approach. In this work, the deflection and morphology of wakes behind a wind turbine operating in yawed conditions are studied using wind tunnel experiments of a wind turbine modeled as a porous disk in a uniform inflow. First, by measuring velocity distributions at various downstream positions and comparing with prior studies, we confirm that the nonrotating wind turbine model in yaw generates realistic wake deflections. Second, we characterize the wake shape and make observations of what is termed a "curled wake," displaying significant spanwise asymmetry. Through the use of a 100 porous disk micro-wind farm, total wind farm power output is studied for a variety of yaw configurations. Strain gages on the tower of the porous disk models are used to measure the thrust force as a substitute for turbine power. The frequency response of these measurements goes up to the natural frequency of the model and allows studying the spatiotemporal characteristics of the power output under the effects of yawing. This work has been funded by the National Science Foundation (Grants CBET-113380 and IIA-1243482, the WINDINSPIRE project). JB and JM are supported by ERC (ActiveWindFarms, Grant No. 306471).

  3. Experimental investigation of the turbulent axisymmetric wake with rotation generated by a wind turbine (United States)

    Dufresne, Nathaniel P.

    An experimental investigation of the axial and azimuthal (swirl) velocity field in the wake of a single 3-bladed wind turbine with rotor diameter of 0.91m was conducted, up to 20 diameters downstream. The turbine was positioned in the free stream, near the entrance of the 6m x 2.7m cross section of the University of New Hampshire (UNH) Flow Physics Facility. Velocity measurements were conducted at different rotor loading conditions with blade tip-speed ratios from 2.0 to 2.8. A Pitot-static tube and constant temperature hot-wire anemometer with a multi-wire sensor were used to measure velocity fields. An equilibrium similarity theory for the turbulent axisymmetric wake with rotation was outlined, and first evidence for a new scaling function for the mean swirling velocity component, Wmax ∝ x-1 ∝ U3/2o a was found; where W represents swirl, x represents downstream distance, and Uo, represents the centerline velocity deficit in the wake.

  4. Field investigation of a wake structure downwind of a VAWT in a windfarm array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.T.; Buck, J.W.; Germain, A.C.; Hinchee, M.E.; Solt, T.S.; LeRoy, G.M.; Srnsky, R.A.


    The effects of upwind turbine wakes on the performance of a FloWind 17-m VAWT were investigated through a series of field experiments conducted at the FloWind windfarm on Cameron Ridge, Tehachapi, California. The field experiment was conducted within a VAWT array consisting of more than nine VAWTs with separations 3D crosswised by 8D downwind (where D is the turbine diameter) in a staggered configuration. The array is the upwind three rows of VAWTS in a total of six rows that are on top of the Cameron Ridge plateau. The terrain features in the vicinity are reasonably regular, with an upslope of 7 deg on the average; however, several local irregularities are present. The annual hourly averaged wind speed exceeds 8 m/s at the site. The wind field and the power-outputs of nine turbines within the array were measured with wind sensors and power transducers. Nine Gill propeller and 18 Maximum cup anemometers and one direction sensor were mounted on portable and stack-up towers installed upwind and within the turbine array. From the field measurements, the velocity and power/energy deficits were derived under various turbine on/off configurations. Much information was provided to characterize the structure of VAWT wakes and to assess their effects on the performance of downwind turbines. Recommendations are made for optimizing windfarm design and operations as well as for wind energy management.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Li-ming; LING Guo-can; WU Ying-xiang; ZENG Xiao-hui


    A Nonlinear Fluid Damping(NFD)in the form of the square-velocity is applied in the response analysis of Vortex-Induced Vibrations(VIV).Its nonlinear hydrodynamic effects on the coupled wake and structure oscillators are investigated.A comparison between the coupled systems with the linear and nonlinear fluid dampings and experiments shows that the NFD model can well describe response characteristics,such as the amplification of body displacement at lock-in and frequency lock-in,both at high and low mass ratios.Particularly,the predicted peak amplitude of the body in the Griffin plot is in good agreement with experimental data and empirical equation,indicating the significant effect of the NFD on the structure motion.

  6. Leg movements during wakefulness in restless legs syndrome: time structure and relationships with periodic leg movements during sleep. (United States)

    Ferri, Raffaele; Manconi, Mauro; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Bruni, Oliviero; Cosentino, Filomena I I; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Zucconi, Marco


    Approximately one third of patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) also show periodic leg movements (PLM) during relaxed wake fulness (PLMW). In contrast with the large amount of data published on periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS), PLMW have received less attention from the scientific community. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlations/differences of time-structure and response to a dopamine-agonist between PLMW and PLMS in patients with RLS. Ninety idiopathic RLS patients and 28 controls were recruited. Subjects underwent clinical and neurophysiological evaluation, hematological screening, and one or two consecutive full-night polysomnographic studies. A subset of patients received 0.25mg of pramipexole or placebo before the second recording. Polysomnographic recordings were scored and LM activity was analyzed during sleep and during the epochs of wakefulness occurring during the first recording hour. RLS patients had higher LM activity during wakefulness than controls, but with a similar periodicity. Even if correlated, the ability of the PLMW index to predict the PLMS index decreased with increasing LM activity. Intermovement intervals during wakefulness showed one peak only at approximately 4s, gradually decreasing with increasing interval in both patients and controls. The effect of pramipexole was very limited and involved the small periodic portion of LM activity during wakefulness. PLMW index and PLMS index were correlated; however, the magnitude of this correlation was not sufficient to suggest that PLMW can be good predictors of PLMS. Short-interval LM activity during wakefulness and sleep might be linked to the severity of sleep disruption in RLS patients and the differences between their features obtained during wakefulness or sleep might be relevant for the diagnosis of sleep disturbances in RLS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Directivity and trends of noise generated by a propeller in a wake (United States)

    Block, P. J. W.; Gentry, C. L., Jr.


    An experimental study of the effects on far-field propeller noise of a pylon wake interaction was conducted with a scale model of a single-rotation propeller in a low-speed anechoic wind tunnel. A detailed mapping of the noise directivity was obtained at 10 test conditions covering a wide range of propeller power landings at several subsonic tip speeds. Two types of noise penalties were investigated-pulser and spacing. The pusher noise penalty is the difference in the average overall sound pressure level, OASPL, for pusher and tractor installations. (In a pusher installation, the propeller disk is downstream of a pylon or another aerodynamic surface.) The spacing noise penalty is the difference in the average OASPL for different distances between the pylon trailing edge and the propeller. The variations of these noise penalties with axial, or flyover, angle theta and circumferential angle phi are presented, and the trends in these noise penalties with tip Mach number and power loading are given for selected values of theta and phi. The circumferential directivity of the noise from a pusher installation showed that the addition noise due to the interaction of the pylon wake with the propeller had a broad peak over a wide range of circumferential angles approximately perpendicular to the pylon with a sharp minimum 90 deg. to the pylon for the majority of cases tested. The variation of the pusher noise penalty with theta had a minimum occurring near the propeller plane and maximum values of as much as 20 dB occurring toward the propeller axes. The magnitude of the pusher noise penalty generally decreased as propeller tip Mach number or power loading was increased.

  8. Study of vortex generator influence on the flow in the wake of high-lift system wing (United States)

    Bragin, N. N.; Ryabov, D. I.; Skomorokhov, S. I.; Slitinskaya, A. Yu.


    Passive vortex generators (VG) are known as one of the ways to improve the flow of the wings and other surfaces in the presence of flow separation. In particular, the VG are installed on the wings and nacelles of many foreign airplanes, including the most recent ones (for example, Boeing 787, Airbus A-350). The principle of the passive VG effects on flow is to transfer the kinetic energy of the external flow separation region by the vortices system arising from the flow VG themselves. For example, by increasing the angle of attack of the wing separation it is highly three-dimensional picture of the flow and sufficiently sensitive to external influences. Thus separated flow can be controlled when using the VG destroy large separation vortices. The VG effectiveness depends on many parameters. This is primarily the relative position of the second harmonic and the separation region on the wing and their size and position relative to each other, the orientation of the second harmonic relative to the local flow direction of the external flow, etc. Obviously, the VG effect will depend essentially on the intensity ratio of the second harmonic vortexes and nature of flow separation in the separation area. In the presence of intense flow separation the effect of conventional VG may be reduced or not occur at all. Until recently, investigations and selection of position of conventional VG were made only experimentally. Currently, the possibilities of calculation methods allow estimating the VG effect on the flow in the separation area. However, due to the phenomenon complexity the accuracy of these calculations is low. The experimental data are required to validate the computational methods, including information not only about the total impact, but also about the flow structure in the separation area. To obtain such information is the subject of this paper. In the test model of high-lift devices swept wing with modern supercritical profile the parametric studies were

  9. Propulsion and perception in intermediate Re regimes: aquatic microcrustacean copepod responses to wake structures. (United States)

    Yen, J.; Pender Healy, L. A.; Heaphy, M.


    Flow sensing by the mechanoreceptive cuticular arrays of sensors on copepods has been shaped by over 400 million years of evolution and plays an important role in predator avoidance, foraging, mating, and rheotaxis. These 3D wakes are produced by animal propulsive activities and contain cues that guide these key survival responses. We have demonstrated that the fluid mechanical and chemical information retained in the hydrodynamic envelope can be interpreted by suitable sensor arrays; copepod sensor arrays are capable of perceiving minute differences in wake structures. Temora longicornis, a coastal marine copepod, and Hesperodiaptomus shoshone, a high-alpine freshwater lake copepod, track laminar trails. High-speed videography coupled with high-magnification Schlieren optics enabled us to visualize the deformation of the trail signal and the propulsive movements of the male copepod. Males followed the trail mimic and our observations show clear differences between the marine and freshwater species. Comparative analyses reveal tracking mechanisms that differ in sensor location with respect to the trail and locomotory kinematics. Copepods perform directed motions that lead them to a stimulus source in the absence of other collimating stimuli. Tracking by the copepod around the trail allows it to have one or numerous sensors inside and outside the trail to facilitate edge detection using spatial sampling. The advantage of this remarkable behavior of following trails fast and accurately is to encounter mates or food patches more frequently, thus contributing to population recruitment and energy transfer up the trophic food web. Precise mate and food finding strategies found for pelagic copepods may be a key adaptation, promoting survival in these open-ocean planktonic populations.

  10. Implications of Stably Stratified Atmospheric Boundary Layer Turbulence on the Near-Wake Structure of Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Bhaganagar


    Full Text Available Turbulence structure in the wake behind a full-scale horizontal-axis wind turbine under the influence of real-time atmospheric inflow conditions has been investigated using actuator-line-model based large-eddy-simulations. Precursor atmospheric boundary layer (ABL simulations have been performed to obtain mean and turbulence states of the atmosphere under stable stratification subjected to two different cooling rates. Wind turbine simulations have revealed that, in addition to wind shear and ABL turbulence, height-varying wind angle and low-level jets are ABL metrics that influence the structure of the turbine wake. Increasing stability results in shallower boundary layers with stronger wind shear, steeper vertical wind angle gradients, lower turbulence, and suppressed vertical motions. A turbulent mixing layer forms downstream of the wind turbines, the strength and size of which decreases with increasing stability. Height dependent wind angle and turbulence are the ABL metrics influencing the lateral wake expansion. Further, ABL metrics strongly impact the evolution of tip and root vortices formed behind the rotor. Two factors play an important role in wake meandering: tip vortex merging due to the mutual inductance form of instability and the corresponding instability of the turbulent mixing layer.

  11. Simulation of Rotary-Wing Near-Wake Vortex Structures Using Navier-Stokes CFD Methods (United States)

    Kenwright, David; Strawn, Roger; Ahmad, Jasim; Duque, Earl; Warmbrodt, William (Technical Monitor)


    This paper will use high-resolution Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to model the near-wake vortex roll-up behind rotor blades. The locations and strengths of the trailing vortices will be determined from newly-developed visualization and analysis software tools applied to the CFD solutions. Computational results for rotor nearwake vortices will be used to study the near-wake vortex roll up for highly-twisted tiltrotor blades. These rotor blades typically have combinations of positive and negative spanwise loading and complex vortex wake interactions. Results of the computational studies will be compared to vortex-lattice wake models that are frequently used in rotorcraft comprehensive codes. Information from these comparisons will be used to improve the rotor wake models in the Tilt-Rotor Acoustic Code (TRAC) portion of NASA's Short Haul Civil Transport program (SHCT). Accurate modeling of the rotor wake is an important part of this program and crucial to the successful design of future civil tiltrotor aircraft. The rotor wake system plays an important role in blade-vortex interaction noise, a major problem for all rotorcraft including tiltrotors.

  12. Ear-body lift and a novel thrust generating mechanism revealed by the complex wake of brown long-eared bats (Plecotus auritus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse;


    into the next wingbeat and rotates together with a newly formed tip vortex. Several smaller vortices, related to changes in circulation around the wing also spiral the tip vortex. Our results thus show a new level of complexity in bat wakes and suggest large eared bats are less aerodynamically limited than....... We also propose that the bats use a novel wing pitch mechanism at the end of the upstroke generating thrust at low speeds, which should provide effective pitch and yaw control. In addition, the wing tip vortices show a distinct spiraling pattern. The tip vortex of the previous wingbeat remains...... previous wake studies have suggested....

  13. Investigating coherent vortex structures in the near wake of a utility-scale wind turbine using flow visualization with natural snowfalls (United States)

    Dasari, Teja; Hong, Jiarong


    Flow visualization techniques using natural snowfall have been shown as an effective tool to probe coherent flow structures around utility-scale wind turbines. Here we present a follow-up study using the data collected during multiple deployments from 2014 to 2016 around the 2.5 MW turbine at EOLOS wind energy research station. The data include flow visualization from different perspectives in the near wake of the turbine. Coherent wake structures, including blade tip vortex, trailing vortex sheet, nacelle-generated structures, and tower vortex characterized by the snow voids, are correlated with atmospheric conditions (e.g. turbulence intensity), turbine operational conditions (e.g. power and tip-speed ratio) as well as turbine response (e.g. tower and blade strain). Physical factors and processes that affect the features and the behaviors of tip vortices including their void size and shape, their stability (e.g. meandering and intermittent appearance) and vortex interaction (e.g. vortex merging and leapfrogging) are analyzed. In particular, a strong influence of the tower on tip-vortex structures is demonstrated through simultaneous comparison of vortex voids at elevations below and above the height of nacelle and the plan view visualization. Sponsored by NSF Fluid Dynamics Program.

  14. Exploratory flight investigation of aircraft response to the wing vortex wake generated by the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft (United States)

    Jacobsen, R. A.; Drinkwater, F. J., III


    A brief exploratory flight program was conducted at Ames Research Center to investigate the vortex wake hazard of a powered-lift STOL aircraft. The study was made by flying an instrumented Cessna 210 aircraft into the wake of the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft at separation distances from 1 to 4 n.mi. Characteristics of the wake were evaluated in terms of the magnitude of the upset of the probing aircraft. Results indicated that within 1 n.mi. separation the wake could cause rolling moments in excess of roll control power and yawing moments equivalent to rudder control power of the probe aircraft. Subjective evaluations by the pilots of the Cessna 210 aircraft, supported by response measurements, indicated that the upset caused by the wake of the STOL aircraft was comparable to that of a DC-9 in the landing configuration.

  15. Dynamic wake meandering modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Gunner C.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Bingoel, F. (and others)


    We present a consistent, physically based theory for the wake meandering phenomenon, which we consider of crucial importance for the overall description of wind turbine loadings in wind farms. In its present version the model is confined to single wake situations. The model philosophy does, however, have the potential to include also mutual wake interaction phenomenons. The basic conjecture behind the dynamic wake meandering model is that wake transportation in the atmospheric boundary layer is driven by the large scale lateral- and vertical turbulence components. Based on this conjecture a stochastic model of the downstream wake meandering is formulated. In addition to the kinematic formulation of the dynamics of the 'meandering frame of reference', models characterizing the mean wake deficit as well as the added wake turbulence, described in the meandering frame of reference, are an integrated part the model complex. For design applications, the computational efficiency of wake deficit prediction is a key issue. Two computationally low cost models are developed for this purpose. The character of the added wake turbulence, generated by the up-stream turbine in the form of shed and trailed vorticity, has been approached by analytical as well as by numerical studies. The dynamic wake meandering philosophy has been verified by comparing model predictions with extensive full-scale measurements. These comparisons have demonstrated good agreement, both qualitatively and quantitatively, concerning both flow characteristics and turbine load characteristics. Contrary to previous attempts to model wake loading, the dynamic wake meandering approach opens for a unifying description in the sense that turbine power and load aspects can be treated simultaneously. This capability is a direct and attractive consequence of the model being based on the underlying physical process, and it potentially opens for optimization of wind farm topology, of wind farm operation as

  16. Investigation on the near-wake flow structures of a utility-scale wind turbine using snowflake based flow visualization (United States)

    Dasari, Teja; Toloui, Mostafa; Guala, Michele; Hong, Jiarong


    Super-large-scale particle image velocimetry and flow visualization techniques using natural snow particles have been shown as an effective tool to probe the structure of the flow around full-scale wind turbines (Hong et al. Nature Comm. 2014). Here we present a follow-up study based on the data collected during a deployment around the 2.5 MW wind turbine at EOLOS Wind Energy Research Station on April, 4th, 2014. The dataset includes the snow visualization of flow fields from different perspectives in the near wake of the turbine. The motions of the dominant coherent structures including tip, blade root, hub and tower vortices, represented by the snow voids, are examined with the objective of quantifying and correlating their behavior with the meteorological and turbine operating conditions. Some preliminary studies on flow-structure interaction are also performed by correlating the data from strain gauges, accelerometers mounted on the turbine blades, with the flow measurements. The statistical analysis of the motions of blade induced vortices shows a clear impact of atmospheric turbulence and vortex interaction on flow development in the near wake. The result further indicates a strong connection between near-wake vorticity field, turbine operation and structure deformations. The work was supported by National Science Foundation (NSF-CBET-1454259) and the research infrastructure was supported by Department of Energy.

  17. Generation of high-field narrowband terahertz radiation by counterpropagating plasma wakes

    CERN Document Server

    Timofeev, I V; Volchok, E P


    It is found that nonlinear interaction of plasma wakefields driven by counterpropagating laser or particle beams can efficiently generate high-power electromagnetic radiation at the second harmonic of the plasma frequency. Using a simple analytical theory and particle-in-cell simulations, we show that this phenomenon can be attractive for producing high-field ($\\sim 10$ MV/cm) narrowband terahertz pulses with the gigawatt power level and millijoule energy content.

  18. Thrust production and wake structure of a batoid-inspired oscillating fin (United States)

    CLARK, R. P.; SMITS, A. J.


    Experiments are reported on the hydrodynamic performance of a flexible fin. The fin replicates some features of the pectoral fin of a batoid fish (such as a ray or skate) in that it is actuated in a travelling wave motion, with the amplitude of the motion increasing linearly along the span from root to tip. Thrust is found to increase with non-dimensional frequency, and an optimal oscillatory gait is identified. Power consumption measurements lead to the computation of propulsive efficiency, and an optimal efficiency condition is evaluated. Wake visualizations are presented, and a vortex model of the wake near zero net thrust is suggested. Strouhal number effects on the wake topology are also illustrated. PMID:19746188

  19. Coherent structure in the turbulent wake behind a circular cylinder 3. Flow visualization and hot wire measurements (United States)

    Yamane, Ryuichiro; Oshima, Shuzo; Okubo, Masaaki; Kotani, Juzo


    In the previous papers the authors have reported that the two-dimensional Kármán vortices behind a circular cylinder are deformed until they form chains of spoon-shaped vortex couples whose spanwise scale is about 8 d, which is a new type of coherent structure. In this report experimental evidence of this structure is presented. Formation process of the structure and the turbulence in it were investigated for the wake behind a circular cylinder with Re = 2100 and 4200 by means of the flow visualization technique, simultaneous hot wire measurements, spanwise correlation measurements, construction of instantaneous velocity field by the conditional sampling method, etc.

  20. On the acoustic signature of tandem airfoils: The sound of an elastic airfoil in the wake of a vortex generator (United States)

    Manela, A.


    The acoustic signature of an acoustically compact tandem airfoil setup in uniform high-Reynolds number flow is investigated. The upstream airfoil is considered rigid and is actuated at its leading edge with small-amplitude harmonic pitching motion. The downstream airfoil is taken passive and elastic, with its motion forced by the vortex-street excitation of the upstream airfoil. The non-linear near-field description is obtained via potential thin-airfoil theory. It is then applied as a source term into the Powell-Howe acoustic analogy to yield the far-field dipole radiation of the system. To assess the effect of downstream-airfoil elasticity, results are compared with counterpart calculations for a non-elastic setup, where the downstream airfoil is rigid and stationary. Depending on the separation distance between airfoils, airfoil-motion and airfoil-wake dynamics shift between in-phase (synchronized) and counter-phase behaviors. Consequently, downstream airfoil elasticity may act to amplify or suppress sound through the direct contribution of elastic-airfoil motion to the total signal. Resonance-type motion of the elastic airfoil is found when the upstream airfoil is actuated at the least stable eigenfrequency of the downstream structure. This, again, results in system sound amplification or suppression, depending on the separation distance between airfoils. With increasing actuation frequency, the acoustic signal becomes dominated by the direct contribution of the upstream airfoil motion, whereas the relative contribution of the elastic airfoil to the total signature turns negligible.

  1. Fast particle tracking with wake fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohlus, M.; Floettmann, K.; Henning, C.


    Tracking calculations of charged particles in electromagnetic fields require in principle the simultaneous solution of the equation of motion and of Maxwell's equations. In many tracking codes a simpler and more efficient approach is used: external fields like that of the accelerating structures are provided as field maps, generated in separate computations and for the calculation of self fields the model of a particle bunch in uniform motion is used. We describe how an externally computed wake function can be approximated by a table of Taylor coefficients and how the wake field kick can be calculated for the particle distribution in a tracking calculation. The integrated kick, representing the effect of a distributed structure, is applied at a discrete time. As an example, we use our approach to calculate the emittance growth of a bunch in an undulator beam pipe due to resistive wall wake field effects. (orig.)

  2. Three-dimensional structures and turbulence closure of the wake developing in a wall shear layer (United States)

    Hah, C.


    The turbulent wake interacting with the rotating wall shear layer is investigated analytically and numerically. The turbulent wakes of the rotating blades in a compressor which are interacting with the rotating hub-wall boundary layer are analyzed. A modified version of the closure model of the pressure-strain correlation term in the Reynolds stress transport equation is developed to predict the effect of rotation, which is appreciable for the present flow because the thick hub-wall boundary layer is interacting with the rotor wake. It is noted that the Poisson type equation for the pressure-strain correlation has an extra rotation term when the entire flow field is rotating. This extra rotation term is modeled to accommodate the effect of rotation. In addition, the standard correction for the wall effect is incorporated for the utilized Reynolds stress closure model. The rotation-modified Reynolds stress closure model is used to predict the present flow, and the predictions are compared with the experimental data. The experimental data reveal that the characteristics of the three-dimensional turbulent wake interacting with the wall shear layer are considerably altered by the effects of the wall and the rotation. These features are predicted with good accuracy by the turbulence closure model developed.

  3. Structure of self-gravity wakes in Saturn's A ring as measured by Cassini CIRS (United States)

    Ferrari, C.; Brooks, S.; Edgington, S.; Leyrat, C.; Pilorz, S.; Spilker, L.


    The CIRS infrared spectrometer onboard the Cassini spacecraft has scanned Saturn's A ring azimuthally from several viewing angles since its orbit insertion in 2004. A quadrupolar asymmetry has been detected in this ring at spacecraft elevations ranging between 16° to 37°. Its fractional amplitude decreases from 22% to 8% from 20° to 37° elevations. The patterns observed in two almost complete azimuthal scans at elevations 20° and 36° strongly favor the self-gravity wakes as the origin of the asymmetry. The elliptical, infinite cylinder model of Hedman et al. [Hedman, M.M., Nicholson, P.D., Salo, H., Wallis, B.D., Buratti, B.J., Baines, K.H., Brown, R.H., Clark, R.N., 2007. Astron. J. 133, 2624-2629] can reproduce the CIRS observations well. Such wakes are found to have an average height-to-spacing ratio H/λ=0.1607±0.0002, a width-over-spacing W/λ=0.3833±0.0008. Gaps between wakes, which are filled with particles, have an optical depth τ=0.1231±0.0005. The wakes mean pitch angle Φ is 70.70°±0.07°, relative to the radial direction. The comparison of ground-based visible data with CIRS observations constrains the A ring to be a monolayer. For a surface mass density of 40 g cm -2 [Tiscarino, M.S., Burns, J.A., Nicholson, P.D., Hedman, M.M., Porco, C.C., 2007. Icarus 189, 14-34], the expected spacing of wakes is λ≈60 m. Their height and width would then be H≈10 m and W≈24 m, values that match the maximum size of particles in this ring as determined from ground-based stellar occultations [French, R.G., Nicholson, P.D., 2000. Icarus 145, 502-523].

  4. Control of flow structure in the wake region of circular cylinder with meshy wire in deep water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Oğuz


    Full Text Available In this study the aim is decreasing the effect and the intensity of the temporary loads resulted from vortex shedding that have an impact on the cylinder (chimneys, high buildings etc. located in deep water and the object or objects in the wake region and definition of the optimum values (wire thickness and porosity β With different thickness and different porosity ratios the effect of meshy wire that surrounded a circular cylinder of D=50 mm diameter was observed at Re_D=5000. The porosity ratios were four different values between a range of β=0.5-0.8 with an interval of 0.1. The thicknesses of wire were 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm. The flow structure in the wake region of circular cylinder was tried to be controlled by meshy wire that surrounded the cylinder. Experiments were carried out by using particle image velocimetry (PIV technique. Comparing with bare cylinder results, turbulence kinetic energy (TKE and Reynolds shear stress values increase with wire thicknesses of b=1 mm, 2 mm for all porosity ratios and decrease with b=3 mm, 4 mm. With porosity ratio of β=0.6 and wire thickness of b=4 mm TKE and Reynolds shear stress results show that meshy wire controls the flow in the wake region of the cylinder. Frequency value results also define that best flow control is obtained with β=0.6 and b=4 mm.

  5. Numerical Analysis of the Unsteady Propeller Performance in the Ship Wake Modified By Different Wake Improvement Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugalski Tomasz


    Full Text Available The paper presents the summary of results of the numerical analysis of the unsteady propeller performance in the non-uniform ship wake modified by the different wake improvement devices. This analysis is performed using the lifting surface program DUNCAN for unsteady propeller analysis. Te object of the analysis is a 7000 ton chemical tanker, for which four different types of the wake improvement devices have been designed: two vortex generators, a pre-swirl stator, and a boundary layer alignment device. These produced five different cases of the ship wake structure: the original hull and hull equipped alternatively with four wake improvement devices. Two different propellers were analyzed in these five wake fields, one being the original reference propeller P0 and the other - a specially designed, optimized propeller P3. Te analyzed parameters were the pictures of unsteady cavitation on propeller blades, harmonics of pressure pulses generated by the cavitating propellers in the selected points and the fluctuating bearing forces on the propeller shaft. Some of the calculated cavitation phenomena were confronted with the experimental. Te objective of the calculations was to demonstrate the differences in the calculated unsteady propeller performance resulting from the application of different wake improvement devices. Te analysis and discussion of the results, together with the appropriate conclusions, are included in the paper.

  6. Characteristics of wake vortex generated by a Boeing 727 jet transport during two-segment and normal ILS approach flight paths (United States)

    Kurkowski, R. L.; Barber, M. R.; Garodz, L. J.


    A series of flight tests was conducted to evaluate the vortex wake characteristics of a Boeing 727 (B727-200) aircraft during conventional and two-segment ILS approaches. Twelve flights of the B727, which was equipped with smoke generators for vortex marking, were flown and its vortex wake was intentionally encountered by a Lear Jet model 23 (LR-23) and a Piper Twin Comanche (PA-30). Location of the B727 vortex during landing approach was measured using a system of photo-theodolites. The tests showed that at a given separation distance there were no readily apparent differences in the upsets resulting from deliberate vortex encounters during the two types of approaches. Timed mappings of the position of the landing configuration vortices showed that they tended to descend approximately 91 m(300 ft) below the flight path of the B727. The flaps of the B727 have a dominant effect on the character of the trailed wake vortex. The clean wing produces a strong, concentrated vortex but as the flaps are lowered, the vortex system becomes more diffuse. Pilot opinion and roll acceleration data indicate that 4.5 n.mi. would be a minimum separation distance at which roll control of light aircraft (less than 5,670 kg (12,500 lb) could be maintained during parallel encounters of the B727's landing configuration wake. This minimum separation distance is generally in scale with results determined from previous tests of other aircraft using the small roll control criteria.

  7. Sleep-wake as a biological rhythm. (United States)

    Lavie, P


    Evidence that the sleep-wake rhythm is generated endogenously has been provided by studies employing a variety of experimental paradigms such as sleep deprivation, sleep displacement, isolating subjects in environments free of time cues, or imposing on subjects sleep-wake schedules widely deviating from 24 hours. The initial observations obtained in isolated subjects revealed that the period of the endogenous circadian pacemaker regulating sleep is of approximately 25 hours. More recent studies, however, in which a more rigorous control of subjects' behavior was exerted, particularly over lighting conditions, have shown that the true periodicity of the endogenous pacemaker deviates from 24 hours by a few minutes only. Besides sleep propensity, the circadian pacemaker has been shown to regulate sleep consolidation, sleep stage structure, and electroencephalographic activities. The pattern of light exposure throughout the 24 hours appears to participate in the entrainment of the circadian pacemaker to the geophysical day-night cycle. Melatonin, the pineal hormone produced during the dark hours, participates in communicating both between the environmental light-dark cycle and the circadian pacemaker, and between the circadian pacemaker and the sleep-wake-generating mechanism. In contrast to prevailing views that have placed great emphasis on homeostatic sleep drive, recent data have revealed a potent circadian cycle in the drive for wakefulness, which is generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This drive reaches a peak during the evening hours just before habitual bedtime.

  8. Computation of Rotorcraft Wake Geometry using NURBS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hoydonck, W.R.M.


    This thesis contains the results of research in the area of rotorcraft aerodynamics with a focus on method development related to the vortical wake generated by rotor blades. It is applied to a vortex tube representation of the wake (using a single NURBS surface) and a simplified filament wake model

  9. Ear-body lift and a novel thrust generating mechanism revealed by the complex wake of brown long-eared bats (Plecotus auritus). (United States)

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders


    Large ears enhance perception of echolocation and prey generated sounds in bats. However, external ears likely impair aerodynamic performance of bats compared to birds. But large ears may generate lift on their own, mitigating the negative effects. We studied flying brown long-eared bats, using high resolution, time resolved particle image velocimetry, to determine the aerodynamics of flying with large ears. We show that the ears and body generate lift at medium to cruising speeds (3-5 m/s), but at the cost of an interaction with the wing root vortices, likely reducing inner wing performance. We also propose that the bats use a novel wing pitch mechanism at the end of the upstroke generating thrust at low speeds, which should provide effective pitch and yaw control. In addition, the wing tip vortices show a distinct spiraling pattern. The tip vortex of the previous wingbeat remains into the next wingbeat and rotates together with a newly formed tip vortex. Several smaller vortices, related to changes in circulation around the wing also spiral the tip vortex. Our results thus show a new level of complexity in bat wakes and suggest large eared bats are less aerodynamically limited than previous wake studies have suggested.

  10. Shed Vortex Structure and Phase-Averaged Velocity Statistics in Symmetric/Asymmetric Turbulent Flat Plate Wakes (United States)

    Rai, Man Mohan


    The near wake of a flat plate is investigated via direct numerical simulations (DNS). Many earlier experimental investigations have used thin plates with sharp trailing edges and turbulent boundary layers to create the wake. This results in large theta divided by D (sub TE) values (theta is the boundary layer momentum thickness towards the end of the plate and D (sub TE) is the trailing edge thickness). In the present study the emphasis is on relatively thick plates with circular trailing edges (CTE) resulting in theta divided by D values less than one (D is the plate thickness and the diameter of the CTE), and vigorous vortex shedding. The Reynolds numbers based on the plate length and D are 1.255 x 10 (sup 6) and 10,000, respectively. Two cases are computed; one with turbulent boundary layers on both the upper and lower surfaces of the plate (statistically the same, symmetric wake, Case TT) and, a second with turbulent and laminar boundary layers on the upper and lower surfaces, respectively (asymmetric case, Case TL). The data and understanding obtained is of considerable engineering interest, particularly in turbomachinery where the pressure side of an airfoil can remain laminar or transitional because of a favorable pressure gradient and the suction side is turbulent. Shed-vortex structure and phase-averaged velocity statistics obtained in the two cases are compared here. The upper negative shed vortices in Case TL (turbulent separating boundary layer) are weaker than the lower positive ones (laminar separating boundary layer) at inception (a factor 1.27 weaker in terms of peak phase-averaged spanwise vorticity at first appearance of a peak). The upper vortices weaken rapidly as they travel downstream. A second feature of interest in Case TL is a considerable increase in the peak phase-averaged, streamwise normal intensity (random component) with increasing streamwise distance (x divided by D) that occurs nears the positive vortex cores. This behavior is

  11. Characteristic flow patterns generated by macrozoobenthic structures (United States)

    Friedrichs, M.; Graf, G.


    A laboratory flume channel, equipped with an acoustic Doppler flow sensor and a bottom scanning laser, was used for detailed, non-intrusive flow measurements (at 2 cm s - 1 and 10 cm s - 1 ) around solitary biogenic structures, combined with high-resolution mapping of the structure shape and position. The structures were replicates of typical macrozoobenthic species commonly found in the Mecklenburg Bight and with a presumed influence on both, the near-bed current regime and sediment transport dynamics: a worm tube, a snail shell, a mussel, a sand mound, a pit, and a cross-stream track furrow. The flow was considerably altered locally by the different protruding structures (worm tube, snail, mussel and mound). They reduced the horizontal approach velocity by 72% to 79% in the wake zone at about 1-2 cm height, and the flow was deflected around the structures with vertical and lateral velocities of up to 10% and 20% of the free-stream velocity respectively in a region adjacent to the structures. The resulting flow separation (at flow Reynolds number of about 4000 and 20,000 respectively) divided an outer deflection region from an inner region with characteristic vortices and the wake region. All protruding structures showed this general pattern, but also produced individual characteristics. Conversely, the depressions (track and pit) only had a weak influence on the local boundary layer flow, combined with a considerable flow reduction within their cavities (between 29% and 53% of the free-stream velocity). A longitudinal vortex formed, below which a stagnant space was found. The average height affected by the structure-related mass flow rate deficit for the two velocities was 1.6 cm and 1.3 cm respectively (80% of height and 64%) for the protruding structures and 0.6 cm and 0.9 cm (90% and 127% of depth) for the depressions. Marine benthic soft-bottom macrozoobenthos species are expected to benefit from the flow modifications they induce, particularly in terms of

  12. Changes in microbial community structure in the wake of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. (United States)

    Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Rocca, Jennifer D; Lamontagne, Michael G; Dennett, Mark R; Gast, Rebecca J


    Hurricanes have the potential to alter the structures of coastal ecosystems and generate pathogen-laden floodwaters thatthreaten public health. To examine the impact of hurricanes on urban systems, we compared microbial community structures in samples collected after Hurricane Katrina and before and after Hurricane Rita. We extracted environmental DNA and sequenced small-subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene clone libraries to survey microbial communities in floodwater, water, and sediment samples collected from Lake Charles, Lake Pontchartrain, the 17th Street and Industrial Canals in New Orleans, and raw sewage. Correspondence analysis showed that microbial communities associated with sediments formed one cluster while communities associated with lake and Industrial Canal water formed a second. Communities associated with water from the 17th Street Canal and floodwaters collected in New Orleans showed similarity to communities in raw sewage and contained a number of sequences associated with possible pathogenic microbes. This suggests that a distinct microbial community developed in floodwaters following Hurricane Katrina and that microbial community structures as a whole might be sensitive indicators of ecosystem health and serve as "sentinels" of water quality in the environment.

  13. Numerical Calculations of Wake Fields and Impedances of LHC Collimators' Real Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Frasciello, Oscar; Zobov, Mikhail


    The LHC collimators have very complicated mechanical designs including movable jaws made of higly resistive materials, ferrite materials, tiny RF contacts. Since the jaws are moved very close to the circulating beams their contribution in the overall LHC coupling impedance is dominant, with respect to other machine components. For these reasons accurate simulation of collimators' impedance becomes very important and challenging. Besides, several dedicated tests have been performed to verify correct simulations of lossy dispersive material properties, such as resistive wall and ferrites, benchmarking code results with analytical, semi-analytical and other numerical codes outcomes. Here we describe all the performed numerical tests and discuss the results of LHC collimators' impedances and wake fields calculations.

  14. Mean, coherent and stochastic flow structure interactions in the near-wake of an oscillatory foil (United States)

    Siala, Firas; Liburdy, James


    Particle image velocimetry measurements are conducted to investigate the transport mechanism of flow kinetic energy in the near-wake of an oscillating foil at a reduced frequency of 0.18-0.2. Velocity triple decomposition is used to decompose the flow into mean, coherent and stochastic fields, and the kinetic energy evolution equations are utilized to study the energy exchange between the three components of the flow fields. The results show that the leading edge vortex (LEV) is responsible in extracting the majority of the free stream kinetic energy via the coherent shear strain. Furthermore, a scale-based model that characterizes the energy content of the LEV is developed. It is shown that coherent kinetic energy produced by the mean rate of strain scales remarkably well with the LEV energy content estimated by the model.

  15. Integral Compressor/Generator/Fan Unitary Structure


    Dreiman, Nelik


    INTEGRAL COMPRESSOR / GENERATOR / FAN UNITARY STRUCTURE.*) Dr. Nelik Dreiman Consultant, P.O.Box 144, Tipton, MI E-mail: An extremely compact, therefore space saving single compressor/generator/cooling fan structure of short axial length and light weight has been developed to provide generation of electrical power with simultaneous operation of the compressor when power is unavailable or function as a regular AC compressor powered by a power line. The generators and ai...

  16. Wind farm array wake losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.W. [Impact Weather, Washougal, WA (United States); McCarthy, E.F. [Wind Economics & Technology, Inc., Martinez, CA (United States)


    A wind turbine wake study was conducted in the summer of 1987 at an Altamont Pass wind electric generating facility. The wind speed deficits, turbulence, and power deficits from an array consisting of several rows of wind turbines is discussed. A total of nine different test configurations were evaluated for a downwind spacing ranging from 7 rotor diameters (RD) to 34 RD and a cross wind spacing of 1.3 RD and 2.7 RD. Wake power deficits of 15% were measured at 16 RD and power losses of a few percent were even measurable at 27 RD for the closer cross wind spacing. For several rows of turbines separated by 7-9 RD the wake zones overlapped and formed compound wakes with higher velocity deficits. The wind speed and direction turbulence in the wake was much higher than the ambient turbulence. The results from this study are compared to the findings from other similar field measurements.

  17. Uniform generation of combinatorial structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zito, M.; Pu, I.; Amos, M.; Gibbons, A. [Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom)


    We describe several RNC algorithms for generating graphs and subgraphs uniformly at random. For example, unlabelled undirected graphs are generated in O(log{sup 3} n lg lg n) time using O({epsilon}n{sup 1.5}/lg{sup 3} n lg lg n) processors if their number is n lg lg n known in advance and in O(lg n) time using O ({epsilon}n{sup 2}/lg n) processors otherwise. In both cases the error probability is the inverse of a polynomial in {epsilon}. Thus {epsilon} may be chosen to trade-off processors for error probability. Also, for an arbitrary graph, we describe RNC algorithms for the uniform generation of its subgraphs that are either non-simple paths or spanning trees. The work measure for the subgraph algorithms is essentially determined by the transitive closure bottleneck. As for sequential algorithms, the general notion of constructing generators from counters also applies to parallel algorithms although this approach is not employed by all the algorithms of this paper.

  18. Development and validation of a new two-dimensional wake model for wind turbine wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Linlin; Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong;


    of the wake deficit in the crosswind direction. Moreover, a variable wake decay rate is proposed to take into account both the ambient turbulence and the rotor generated turbulence, different from a constant wake decay rate used in the Jensen model. The obtained results are compared to field measurements...

  19. Numerical simulations of wake interaction between two wind turbines at various inflow conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Niels; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge;


    The phenomenon of wake interaction between two wind turbines was analysed using the actuator line technique and full unsteady Navier–Stokes computations. Results are presented for varying mutual distances between the two turbines and both full wake and half wake situations were considered. Furthe...... as the development of wake generated vortex structures. Moreover, the influence of the wake of the upstream turbine on the external aerodynamic loading on the blades of the downstream turbine was studied. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.......The phenomenon of wake interaction between two wind turbines was analysed using the actuator line technique and full unsteady Navier–Stokes computations. Results are presented for varying mutual distances between the two turbines and both full wake and half wake situations were considered....... Furthermore, simulations were carried out at different degrees of ambient turbulence intensity representing laminar, offshore and onshore conditions. From the simulations, the main characteristics of the interacting wakes were extracted including the averaged velocity and turbulence fields as well...

  20. Substitute Valuations: Generation and Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Hajek, Bruce


    Substitute valuations (in some contexts called gross substitute valuations) are prominent in combinatorial auction theory. An algorithm is given in this paper for generating a substitute valuation through Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, the geometry of the set of all substitute valuations for a fixed number of goods K is investigated. The set consists of a union of polyhedrons, and the maximal polyhedrons are identified for K=4. It is shown that the maximum dimension of the maximal polyhedrons increases with K nearly as fast as two to the power K.

  1. Effects of Low Reynolds Number on Wake-Generated Unsteady Flow of an Axial-Flow Turbine Rotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsunuma Takayuki


    Full Text Available The unsteady flow field downstream of axial-flow turbine rotors at low Reynolds numbers was investigated experimentally using hot-wire probes. Reynolds number, based on rotor exit velocity and rotor chord length Re out,RT , was varied from 3.2× 10 4 to 12.8× 10 4 at intervals of 1.0× 10 4 by changing the flow velocity of the wind tunnel. The time-averaged and time-dependent distributions of velocity and turbulence intensity were analyzed to determine the effect of Reynolds number. The reduction of Reynolds number had a marked influence on the turbine flow field. The regions of high turbulence intensity due to the wake and the secondary vortices were increased dramatically with the decreasing Reynolds number. The periodic fluctuation of the flow due to rotor-stator interaction also increased with the decreasing Reynolds number. The energy-dissipation thickness of the rotor midspan wake at the low Reynolds number Re out,RT =3.2× 10 4 was 1.5 times larger than that at the high Reynolds number Re out,RT =12.8× 10 4 . The curve of the −0.2 power of the Reynolds number agreed with the measured energy-dissipation thickness at higher Reynolds numbers. However, the curve of the −0.4 power law fitted more closely than the curve of the −0.2 power law at lower Reynolds numbers below 6.4× 10 4 .

  2. Next generation structural silicone glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Clift


    Full Text Available This paper presents an advanced engineering evaluation, using nonlinear analysis of hyper elastic material that provides significant improvement to structural silicone glazing (SSG design in high performance curtain wall systems. Very high cladding wind pressures required in hurricane zones often result in bulky SSG profile dimensions. Architectural desire for aesthetically slender curtain wall framing sight-lines in combination with a desire to reduce aluminium usage led to optimization of silicone material geometry for better stress distribution.To accomplish accurate simulation of predicted behaviour under structural load, robust stress-strain curves of the silicone material are essential. The silicone manufacturer provided physical property testing via a specialized laboratory protocol. A series of rigorous curve fit techniques were then made to closely model test data in the finite element computer analysis that accounts for nonlinear strain of hyper elastic silicone.Comparison of this advanced design technique to traditional SSG design highlights differences in stress distribution contours in the silicone material. Simplified structural engineering per the traditional SSG design method does not provide accurate forecasting of material and stress optimization as shown in the advanced design.Full-scale specimens subject to structural load testing were performed to verify the design capacity, not only for high wind pressure values, but also for debris impact per ASTM E1886 and ASTM E1996. Also, construction of the test specimens allowed development of SSG installation techniques necessitated by the unique geometry of the silicone profile. Finally, correlation of physical test results with theoretical simulations is made, so evaluation of design confidence is possible. This design technique will introduce significant engineering advancement to the curtain wall industry.

  3. Global stability analysis of turbulent 3D wakes (United States)

    Rigas, Georgios; Sipp, Denis; Juniper, Matthew


    At low Reynolds numbers, corresponding to laminar and transitional regimes, hydrodynamic stability theory has aided the understanding of the dynamics of bluff body wake-flows and the application of effective control strategies. However, flows of fundamental importance to many industries, in particular the transport industry, involve high Reynolds numbers and turbulent wakes. Despite their turbulence, such wake flows exhibit organisation which is manifested as coherent structures. Recent work has shown that the turbulent coherent structures retain the shape of the symmetry-breaking laminar instabilities and only those manifest as large-scale structures in the near wake (Rigas et al., JFM vol. 750:R5 2014, JFM vol. 778:R2 2015). Based on the findings of the persistence of the laminar instabilities at high Reynolds numbers, we investigate the global stability characteristics of a turbulent wake generated behind a bluff three-dimensional axisymmetric body. We perform a linear global stability analysis on the experimentally obtained mean flow and we recover the dynamic characteristics and spatial structure of the coherent structures, which are linked to the transitional instabilities. A detailed comparison of the predictions with the experimental measurements will be provided.

  4. A prediction model for the vortex shedding noise from the wake of an airfoil or axial flow fan blades (United States)

    Lee, C.; Chung, M. K.; Kim, Y.-H.


    An analytical model is presented for predicting the vortex shedding noise generated from the wake of axial flow fan blades. The downstream wake of a fan blade is assumed to be dominated by the von Karman vortex street, and the strength and the shedding frequency of the wake vortex are determined from the wake structure model. The fluctuating pressure and lift on the blade surface, which are induced from the vortices in the wake, are analyzed by incorporating the wake model for the von Karman vortex street with thin airfoil theory. The predicted vortex shedding frequency and the overall sound pressure level compare favorably with the measured results for the vortex shedding noise from axial flow fans.

  5. Evaluation of Fast-Time Wake Vortex Models using Wake Encounter Flight Test Data (United States)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; VanValkenburg, Randal L.; Bowles, Roland L.; Limon Duparcmeur, Fanny M.; Gloudesman, Thijs; van Lochem, Sander; Ras, Eelco


    This paper describes a methodology for the integration and evaluation of fast-time wake models with flight data. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted detailed flight tests in 1995 and 1997 under the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System Program to characterize wake vortex decay and wake encounter dynamics. In this study, data collected during Flight 705 were used to evaluate NASA's fast-time wake transport and decay models. Deterministic and Monte-Carlo simulations were conducted to define wake hazard bounds behind the wake generator. The methodology described in this paper can be used for further validation of fast-time wake models using en-route flight data, and for determining wake turbulence constraints in the design of air traffic management concepts.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明侯; Zhou,Y; 等


    The structure free vibration cases can be seen in many engineering applications, such as tall buildings, bridges, turbomachinery blades, fuel rods in nuclear reactors, etc. The data of structure free vibration are not well documented . Therefore, the present study concentrates only on the free vibration case. It is well known that vortex shedding from a structure creates unsteady fluid excitation forces. The forces cause structural vibrations which, in turn, influence the flow field and the excitation forces. This process gives rise to a complicated fluid-structure coupling that modifies the vortex shedding frequency, the separation behavior, the magnitude and frequency contents of the unsteady forces, the wake structure and the turbulence field in the near wake and perhaps even the far wake. An experimental study of the fluid-structure interactions had been initiated, with a focus on effect of structural vibrations on the turbulent near wake. The wake velocity field investigations were carried out using two brass cylinders with diameters 3.8 mm and 12.7mm. This choice was dictated by the fact that a large vibration effect on the wake was desired and by the fact that a very inelastic cylinder has to be used to simulate the rigid case.The transverse vibration displacements of cylinders were measured using a laser vibrometer, while hot-wires and laser Doppler anemometer were used to examine the near wake. The flow Reynolds numbers (Re = Uood/v, where Ua is free stream velocity, d is cylinder diameter and v is the fluid kinematic viscosity) were varied from 1000 to 8000 by changing the upstream velocity and by experimenting with cylinders of different diameters. The near wake structure of two cylinders, one relatively rigid and one elastic, were measured in detailed and the data were used to analyze the vibration effects on the mean and turbulence field. It is found that the vibration effects on the near wake are very significant; While the mean velocity after

  7. Wake-Effect Minimising Optimal Control of Wind Farms, with Load Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchersen, Anders Bech; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Sivabalan, Senthuran


    the wake effects in the farm, while maintaining optimal power output. A feature which enables the MPC to spare certain turbines, while maintaining the power output is also implemented. The MPC controller is able to minimize the wake effect in the wind farm, when the power demand is not using the full......A power generating wind turbine causes a speed reduction and an added turbulence to the wind. Wind turbines in wind farms are often caught in these wakes and are found to have a higher structural load than non affected wind turbines. This article investigates the possibility of designing a control...... strategy which optimizes the power production, while minimizing the effect of the wakes in the wind farm. A generic wind farm model which is able to calculate the wind turbines influence on each other is developed. Models for the reduction in wind speed as well as turbulence in the wake effects...

  8. Structured grid generator on parallel computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Kazuhiro; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Higashida, Akihiro; Yanagisawa, Ichiro


    A general purpose structured grid generator on parallel computers, which generates a large-scale structured grid efficiently, has been developed. The generator is applicable to Cartesian, cylindrical and BFC (Boundary-Fitted Curvilinear) coordinates. In case of BFC grids, there are three adaptable topologies; L-type, O-type and multi-block type, the last of which enables any combination of L- and O-grids. Internal BFC grid points can be automatically generated and smoothed by either algebraic supplemental method or partial differential equation method. The partial differential equation solver is implemented on parallel computers, because it consumes a large portion of overall execution time. Therefore, high-speed processing of large-scale grid generation can be realized by use of parallel computer. Generated grid data are capable to be adjusted to domain decomposition for parallel analysis. (author)

  9. Passive Wake Vortex Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J M


    The collapse of the Soviet Union and ending of the Cold War brought about many significant changes in military submarine operations. The enemies that the US Navy faces today and in the future will not likely be superpowers armed with nuclear submarines, but rather smaller, rogue nations employing cheaper diesel/electric submarines with advanced air-independent propulsion systems. Unlike Cold War submarine operations, which occurred in deep-water environments, future submarine conflicts are anticipated to occur in shallow, littoral regions that are complex and noisy. Consequently, non-acoustic signatures will become increasingly important and the submarine stealth technology designed for deep-water operations may not be effective in these environments. One such non-acoustic signature is the surface detection of a submarine's trailing vortex wake. If a submarine runs in a slightly buoyant condition, its diving planes must be inclined at a negative angle of attack to generate sufficient downforce, which keeps the submarine from rising to the surface. As a result, the diving planes produce a pair of counter-rotating trailing vortices that propagate to the water surface. In previous deep-water operations, this was not an issue since the submarines could dive deep enough so that the vortex pair became incoherent before it reached the water surface. However, in shallow, littoral environments, submarines do not have the option of diving deep and, hence, the vortex pair can rise to the surface and leave a distinct signature that might be detectable by synthetic aperture radar. Such detection would jeopardize not only the mission of the submarine, but also the lives of military personnel on board. There has been another attempt to solve this problem and reduce the intensity of trailing vortices in the wakes of military submarines. The research of Quackenbush et al. over the past few years has been directed towards an idea called ''vortex leveraging

  10. Performance and wake conditions of a rotor located in the wake of an obstacle (United States)

    Naumov, I. V.; Kabardin, I. K.; Mikkelsen, R. F.; Okulov, V. L.; Sørensen, J. N.


    Obstacles like forests, ridges and hills can strongly affect the velocity profile in front of a wind turbine rotor. The present work aims at quantifying the influence of nearby located obstacles on the performance and wake characteristics of a downstream located wind turbine. Here the influence of an obstacle in the form of a cylindrical disk was investigated experimentally in a water flume. A model of a three-bladed rotor, designed using Glauert's optimum theory at a tip speed ratio λ = 5, was placed in the wake of a disk with a diameter close to the one of the rotor. The distance from the disk to the rotor was changed from 4 to 8 rotor diameters, with the vertical distance from the rotor axis varied 0.5 and 1 rotor diameters. The associated turbulent intensity of the incoming flow to the rotor changed 3 to '6% due to the influence of the disk wake. In the experiment, thrust characteristics and associated pulsations as a function of the incoming flow structures were measured by strain gauges. The flow condition in front of the rotor was measured with high temporal accuracy using LDA and power coefficients were determine as function of tip speed ratio for different obstacle positions. Furthermore, PIV measurements were carried out to study the development of the mean velocity deficit profiles of the wake behind the wind turbine model under the influence of the wake generated by the obstacle. By use of regression techniques to fit the velocity profiles it was possible to determine velocity deficits and estimate length scales of the wake attenuation.

  11. A stochastic wind turbine wake model based on new metrics for wake characterization: A stochastic wind turbine wake model based on new metrics for wake characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doubrawa, Paula [Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Upson Hall Ithaca 14850 New York USA; Barthelmie, Rebecca J. [Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Upson Hall Ithaca 14850 New York USA; Wang, Hui [Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Upson Hall Ithaca 14850 New York USA; Churchfield, Matthew J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden 80401 Colorado USA


    Understanding the detailed dynamics of wind turbine wakes is critical to predicting the performance and maximizing the efficiency of wind farms. This knowledge requires atmospheric data at a high spatial and temporal resolution, which are not easily obtained from direct measurements. Therefore, research is often based on numerical models, which vary in fidelity and computational cost. The simplest models produce axisymmetric wakes and are only valid beyond the near wake. Higher-fidelity results can be obtained by solving the filtered Navier-Stokes equations at a resolution that is sufficient to resolve the relevant turbulence scales. This work addresses the gap between these two extremes by proposing a stochastic model that produces an unsteady asymmetric wake. The model is developed based on a large-eddy simulation (LES) of an offshore wind farm. Because there are several ways of characterizing wakes, the first part of this work explores different approaches to defining global wake characteristics. From these, a model is developed that captures essential features of a LES-generated wake at a small fraction of the cost. The synthetic wake successfully reproduces the mean characteristics of the original LES wake, including its area and stretching patterns, and statistics of the mean azimuthal radius. The mean and standard deviation of the wake width and height are also reproduced. This preliminary study focuses on reproducing the wake shape, while future work will incorporate velocity deficit and meandering, as well as different stability scenarios.

  12. Droplet depinning in a wake (United States)

    Hooshanginejad, Alireza; Lee, Sungyon


    Pinning and depinning of a windswept droplet on a surface is familiar yet deceptively complex for it depends on the interaction of the contact line with the microscopic features of the solid substrate. This physical picture is further compounded when wind of the Reynolds number greater than 100 blows over pinned drops, leading to the boundary layer separation and wake generation. In this Rapid Communication, we incorporate the well-developed ideas of the classical boundary layer to study partially wetting droplets in a wake created by a leader object. Depending on its distance from the leader, the droplet is observed to exhibit drafting, upstream motion, and splitting, due to the wake-induced hydrodynamic coupling that is analogous to drafting of moving bodies. We successfully rationalize the onset of the upstream motion regime using a reduced model that computes the droplet shape governed by the pressure field inside the wake.

  13. On the wake flow of asymmetrically beveled trailing edges (United States)

    Guan, Yaoyi; Pröbsting, Stefan; Stephens, David; Gupta, Abhineet; Morris, Scott C.


    Trailing edge and wake flows are of interest for a wide range of applications. Small changes in the design of asymmetrically beveled or semi-rounded trailing edges can result in significant difference in flow features which are relevant for the aerodynamic performance, flow-induced structural vibration and aerodynamically generated sound. The present study describes in detail the flow field characteristics around a family of asymmetrically beveled trailing edges with an enclosed trailing-edge angle of 25° and variable radius of curvature R. The flow fields over the beveled trailing edges are described using data obtained by particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments. The flow topology for different trailing edges was found to be strongly dependent on the radius of curvature R, with flow separation occurring further downstream as R increases. This variation in the location of flow separation influences the aerodynamic force coefficients, which were evaluated from the PIV data using a control volume approach. Two-point correlations of the in-plane velocity components are considered to assess the structure in the flow field. The analysis shows large-scale coherent motions in the far wake, which are associated with vortex shedding. The wake thickness parameter yf is confirmed as an appropriate length scale to characterize this large-scale roll-up motion in the wake. The development in the very near wake was found to be critically dependent on R. In addition, high-speed PIV measurements provide insight into the spectral characteristics of the turbulent fluctuations. Based on the time-resolved flow field data, the frequency range associated with the shedding of coherent vortex pairs in the wake is identified. By means of time-correlation of the velocity components, turbulent structures are found to convect from the attached or separated shear layers without distinct separation point into the wake.

  14. VLCC前置导管结构设计与强度分析%Structure Design and Stress Assessment of Wake Equalizing Duct for VLCC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奕谦; 谢小龙


    An assessment on resonance risk for a wake equalizing duct is made in this article. By using finite element method and boundary element method, natural frequencies and mode shapes of the wake equalizing duct are got in both air and water. Different strengthening methods are compared and analyzed, and appropriate wake equalizing duct structure design is determined ultimately. According to the requirements of hull load by IACS Common Structural Rules (CSR) and Germanischer Lloyd (GL Rules), possible load on the wake equalizing duct structure in actual operations is analyzed. A three-dimensional finite element model of wake equalizing duct is established, and structural stress levels under various combinations of loads are checked. Design methods of wake equalizing duct structure are investigated by using a simple mechanical model and estimation formulae are verified with finite element analysis.%应用有限元法和流体边界元法得到导管在空气中和水中的固有频率和振型,并对不同的加强方案进行比较分析,最终确定合适的导管结构设计方案。根据IACS共同结构规范(CSR)及德国劳氏船级社(GL RULES)关于船体载荷的要求,对前置导管结构在实际运营中可能受到的载荷进行定量分析。通过建立前置导管三维有限元模型,根据不同载荷组合对导管结构应力水平进行有限元分析校核。并利用简单的力学模型,探讨了导管结构设计验证的方法和剖面模数估算公式。

  15. SPIV investigations of correlation between streamwise vorticity and velocity in the wake of a vortex generator in a boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, Valery; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver


    The current work describes the experimental parametric study of streamwise vortices generated in a boundary layer by a rectangular vane (commonly named vortex generator) mounted perpendicularly to the wall and at an angle to the oncoming flow. Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements...

  16. Tomographic particle image velocimetry of desert locust wakes: instantaneous volumes combine to reveal hidden vortex elements and rapid wake deformation (United States)

    Bomphrey, Richard J.; Henningsson, Per; Michaelis, Dirk; Hollis, David


    Aerodynamic structures generated by animals in flight are unstable and complex. Recent progress in quantitative flow visualization has advanced our understanding of animal aerodynamics, but measurements have hitherto been limited to flow velocities at a plane through the wake. We applied an emergent, high-speed, volumetric fluid imaging technique (tomographic particle image velocimetry) to examine segments of the wake of desert locusts, capturing fully three-dimensional instantaneous flow fields. We used those flow fields to characterize the aerodynamic footprint in unprecedented detail and revealed previously unseen wake elements that would have gone undetected by two-dimensional or stereo-imaging technology. Vortex iso-surface topographies show the spatio-temporal signature of aerodynamic force generation manifest in the wake of locusts, and expose the extent to which animal wakes can deform, potentially leading to unreliable calculations of lift and thrust when using conventional diagnostic methods. We discuss implications for experimental design and analysis as volumetric flow imaging becomes more widespread. PMID:22977102

  17. Tomographic particle image velocimetry of desert locust wakes: instantaneous volumes combine to reveal hidden vortex elements and rapid wake deformation. (United States)

    Bomphrey, Richard J; Henningsson, Per; Michaelis, Dirk; Hollis, David


    Aerodynamic structures generated by animals in flight are unstable and complex. Recent progress in quantitative flow visualization has advanced our understanding of animal aerodynamics, but measurements have hitherto been limited to flow velocities at a plane through the wake. We applied an emergent, high-speed, volumetric fluid imaging technique (tomographic particle image velocimetry) to examine segments of the wake of desert locusts, capturing fully three-dimensional instantaneous flow fields. We used those flow fields to characterize the aerodynamic footprint in unprecedented detail and revealed previously unseen wake elements that would have gone undetected by two-dimensional or stereo-imaging technology. Vortex iso-surface topographies show the spatio-temporal signature of aerodynamic force generation manifest in the wake of locusts, and expose the extent to which animal wakes can deform, potentially leading to unreliable calculations of lift and thrust when using conventional diagnostic methods. We discuss implications for experimental design and analysis as volumetric flow imaging becomes more widespread.

  18. Star clusters and the structure of the ISM Tunnels and wakes in giant extragalactic HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, G; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Tanco, Gustavo Medina


    Several structures have been discovered embedded in regions of recent or ongoing star formation, which point to the importance of the interaction between fast moving wind-blowing stars and their environment. Using hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the passage through the interstellar medium of a supersonic stellar wind source, and show how it can naturally lead to the formation of tubes, channels and swamps of globules as interfaces are crossed. The results are in excellent agreement with observation of 30 Doradus.

  19. Wind turbine wake measurement in complex terrain (United States)

    Hansen, KS; Larsen, GC; Menke, R.; Vasiljevic, N.; Angelou, N.; Feng, J.; Zhu, WJ; Vignaroli, A.; W, W. Liu; Xu, C.; Shen, WZ


    SCADA data from a wind farm and high frequency time series measurements obtained with remote scanning systems have been analysed with focus on identification of wind turbine wake properties in complex terrain. The analysis indicates that within the flow regime characterized by medium to large downstream distances (more than 5 diameters) from the wake generating turbine, the wake changes according to local atmospheric conditions e.g. vertical wind speed. In very complex terrain the wake effects are often “overruled” by distortion effects due to the terrain complexity or topology.

  20. Vortex wakes of a flapping foil in a flowing soap film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    We present an experimental study of an oscillating, symmetric foil in a vertically flowing soap film. By varying frequency and amplitude of the oscillation we explore and visualize a variety of wake structures, including von K´arm´an wake, reverse von K´arm´an wake, 2P wake, and 2P+2S wake. We...

  1. Wake characteristics of a model ornithopter (United States)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harlow, Jacob; Allen, James; Ferreira de Sousa, Paulo


    This paper details unsteady wake measurements from a model Ornithopther flying in a wind tunnel at representative flight conditions. Testing over a range of Strouhal number, 0.1-0.3, shows that the unsteady wake is composed of coherent vortical structures that resemble vortex rings. A single ring is formed in the wake of each wing during one wing beat. Momentum balance from velocity field measurements are reconciled with unsteady lift and drag measurements from a drag balance.

  2. Jovian Plasmas Torus Interaction with Europa. Plasma Wake Structure and Effect of Inductive Magnetic Field: 3D Hybrid Kinetic Simulation (United States)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Cooper, J F.; Paterson, W. R.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Hartle, R. E.; Simpson, David G.


    The hybrid kinetic model supports comprehensive simulation of the interaction between different spatial and energetic elements of the Europa moon-magnetosphere system with respect to a variable upstream magnetic field and flux or density distributions of plasma and energetic ions, electrons, and neutral atoms. This capability is critical for improving the interpretation of the existing Europa flyby measurements from the Galileo Orbiter mission, and for planning flyby and orbital measurements (including the surface and atmospheric compositions) for future missions. The simulations are based on recent models of the atmosphere of Europa (Cassidy et al., 2007; Shematovich et al., 2005). In contrast to previous approaches with MHD simulations, the hybrid model allows us to fully take into account the finite gyroradius effect and electron pressure, and to correctly estimate the ion velocity distribution and the fluxes along the magnetic field (assuming an initial Maxwellian velocity distribution for upstream background ions). Photoionization, electron-impact ionization, charge exchange and collisions between the ions and neutrals are also included in our model. We consider the models with Oþ þ and Sþ þ background plasma, and various betas for background ions and electrons, and pickup electrons. The majority of O2 atmosphere is thermal with an extended non-thermal population (Cassidy et al., 2007). In this paper, we discuss two tasks: (1) the plasma wake structure dependence on the parameters of the upstream plasma and Europa's atmosphere (model I, cases (a) and (b) with a homogeneous Jovian magnetosphere field, an inductive magnetic dipole and high oceanic shell conductivity); and (2) estimation of the possible effect of an induced magnetic field arising from oceanic shell conductivity. This effect was estimated based on the difference between the observed and modeled magnetic fields (model II, case (c) with an inhomogeneous Jovian magnetosphere field, an inductive

  3. Compact Structural Test Generation for Analog Macros

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaal, V.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.


    A structural, fault-model based methodology for the generation of compact high-quality test sets for analog macros is presented. Results are shown for an IV-converter macro design. Parameters of so-called test configurations are optimized for detection of faults in a fault-list and an optimal

  4. Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mawet, Dimitri; Lawson, Peter; Mugnier, Laurent; Traub, Wesley; Boccaletti, Anthony; Trauger, John; Gladysz, Szymon; Serabyn, Eugene; Milli, Julien; Belikov, Ruslan; Kasper, Markus; Baudoz, Pierre; Macintosh, Bruce; Marois, Christian; Oppenheimer, Ben; Barrett, Harrisson; Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Devaney, Nicolas; Girard, Julien; Guyon, Olivier; Krist, John; Mennesson, Bertrand; Mouillet, David; Murakami, Naoshi; Poyneer, Lisa; Savransky, Dmitri; ́erinaud, Christophe V; Wallace, James K


    Small-angle coronagraphy is technically and scientifically appealing because it enables the use of smaller telescopes, allows covering wider wavelength ranges, and potentially increases the yield and completeness of circumstellar environment - exoplanets and disks - detection and characterization campaigns. However, opening up this new parameter space is challenging. Here we will review the four posts of high contrast imaging and their intricate interactions at very small angles (within the first 4 resolution elements from the star). The four posts are: choice of coronagraph, optimized wavefront control, observing strategy, and post-processing methods. After detailing each of the four foundations, we will present the lessons learned from the 10+ years of operations of zeroth and first-generation adaptive optics systems. We will then tentatively show how informative the current integration of second-generation adaptive optics system is, and which lessons can already be drawn from this fresh experience. Then, w...

  5. The wake south of the Alps: Dynamics and structure of the lee-side flow and secondary potential vorticity banners (United States)

    Flamant, C.; Richard, E.; Schär, C.; Rotunno, R.; Nance, L.; Sprenger, M.; Benoit, R.


    The dynamics and structure of the lee-side flow over the Po valley during a northerly föhn event, which occurred in the framework of the Mesoscale Alpine Programme Special Observation Period (on 8 November 1999 during Intensive Observation Period 15), has been investigated using aircraft data and high-resolution numerical simulations. Numerical simulations were performed with the mesoscale non-hydrostatic model Meso-NH, using three nested domains (with horizontal resolutions 32, 8 and 2 km), the 2 km resolution domain being centred on the Po valley. The basic data-model comparison, and back-trajectory and tracer release analyses, provided evidence that the jet/wake structure of the flow above the Po valley could be reasonably identified with the mountain pass/peak distributions. Measurements from three aircraft flying below the Alps crestline (at 2700, 1500 and 600 m above sea level) along two 350 km east-west legs, designed to be approximately perpendicular to the northerly synoptic flow, were used to compute the potential vorticity (PV) experimentally assuming the lee-side flow to be two-dimensional. (The simplified form of the PV under these assumptions is hereafter referred to as SPV). Due to increasing lee-side flow curvature with decreasing altitude (caused by flow splitting at the scale of the Alps), the experimentally derived SPV was compared to its simulated counterpart.In situ measurements showed that coherent secondary PV banners (PVB2s) do exist downstream of the complex Alpine terrain, as observations show oscillations between positive and negative values of SPV as expected from the simulations. The details of the structure of the SPV field simulated with Meso-NH were found to be different from the observations (i.e. the location of observed maxima and minima of SPV did not match their simulated counterparts at particular points). This is because the correspondence between observed and modelled velocity and potential temperature fields was not good

  6. Wake Identification Based Wake Impact Alleviation Control


    Ehlers, Jana; Fischenberg, Dietrich; Niedermeier, Dominik


    During a wake vortex encounter an aircraft is exposed to strong unsteady disturbance velocities which can lead to significant changes in the aircraft attitude and flight path. This can represent a severe safety risk and can result in injuries to the passengers and crew as well as damages to the aircraft. The application of a wake impact alleviation control system can considerably decrease the aircraft’s response during the wake encounter, and hence diminish the pilot workload while reducing t...

  7. Regimes of flow past a vortex generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, V.L.; Naumov, I.V.


    A complete parametric investigation of the development of multi-vortex regimes in a wake past simple vortex generator has been carried out. It is established that the vortex structure in the wake is much more complicated than a simple monopole tip vortex. The vortices were studied by stereoscopic...

  8. Actuator Line Modeling of Wind Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Niels


    inflow shows that besides an expected vertical skewed wake the wake also becomes increasingly asymmetric in the horizontal direction as it is convected downstream. The latter phenomena, which is also often observed in measurements, is argued to be caused by the rotation of the wake. A detailed study....... Furthermore, it is shown that the main effect governing the large scale meandering of wakes is the large scale structures of the ambient turbulence field. Finally studies are conducted on rows of respectively two and three turbines. The investigation includes evaluation of the loading on the rotors...

  9. Design and analysis of small wind turbine blades with wakes similar to those of industrial scale turbines (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Arash; Naughton, Jonathan


    A new design approach has been developed for wind turbine blades to be used in wind tunnel experiments that study wind turbine wakes. The approach allows wakes of small scale (2 m diameter) wind turbine rotors to simulate the important physics of wakes generated by a "parent" industrial scale wind turbine rotor despite the difference in size. The design approach forces the normalized normal and tangential force distributions of the small scale wind turbine blades to match those of the "parent" industrial scale wind turbine blades. The wake arises from the interaction between the flow and the blade, which imparts a momentum deficit and rotation to the flow due to the forces created by the blade on the flow. In addition, the wake dynamics and stability are affected by the load distribution across the blade. Thus, it is expected that matching normalized force distributions should result in similar wake structure. To independently assess the blades designed using this approach, the "parent" industrial scale and small scale wind turbine rotors are modeled using a free vortex wake method to study the generation and evolution of the two wakes. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, under Award # DE-SC0012671.

  10. Wake-vortex decay in external turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuczaj, Arkadiusz K.; Armenio, V.; Fröhlich, J.; Geurts, Bernardus J.


    Wake vortices that form behind a moving aircraft represent 11 safety COil cern for other aircraft.s that follow. These tornado-like wake structures may persist for several minutes, extending for many kilometers across the sky. This safety issue is particularly important close to major airports where

  11. Wake-vortex decay in external turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Bernard J.; Kuczaj, Arkadiusz K.; Armenio, V.; Fröhlich, J.; Geurts, B.J.


    Wake vortices that form behind a moving aircraft represent 11 safety COil cern for other aircraft.s that follow. These tornado-like wake structures may persist for several minutes, extending for many kilometers across the sky. This safety issue is particularly important close to major airports where

  12. Wake up and Die

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke


    Anmeldelse af den colombianske gyserfilm Volver a morir (eng. titel Wake Up and Die) af Miguel Urrutia......Anmeldelse af den colombianske gyserfilm Volver a morir (eng. titel Wake Up and Die) af Miguel Urrutia...

  13. Influence of Tip Speed Ratio on Wake Flow Characteristics Utilizing Fully Resolved CFD Methodology (United States)

    Salman Siddiqui, M.; Rasheed, Adil; Kvamsdal, Trond; Tabib, Mandar


    Dominant flow structures in the wake region behind the turbine employed in the Blind Test campaign [1], [2] is investigated numerically. The effect on the wake configuration at variable operating conditions are studied. The importance of the introduction of turbine tower inside the numerical framework is highlighted. High-fidelity simulations are performed with Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) numerical methodology. A thorough comparison among the cases is presented, and the wake evolution is analyzed at variable stations downstream of the turbine. Streamlines of flow field traveled towards ground adjacent to turbine tower and strongly dependent on the operating tip speed ratio. Wake is composed of tower shadow superimposed by rotor wake. Shadow of the tower varies from x/R=2 until x/R=4 and breaks down into small vortices with the interaction of rotor wake. This study also shows that the wake distribution consists of two zones; inner zone composed of disturbances generated by blade root, nacelle and the tower, and an outer zone consisting of tip vortices.

  14. Investigation of wake characteristics in wind farm varying turbulent inflow condition (United States)

    Na, Jisung; Koo, Eunmo; Domingo, Munoz-Esparza; Jin, Emilia Kyung; Linn, Rodman; Lee, Joon Sang


    In this study, we investigate the wake characteristics in wind farm varying turbulent property at inlet condition. To solve the flow with wind turbines and its wake, we use large eddy simulation (LES) technique with actuator line method (ALM). The wake characteristics in wind farm is important mainly in performance of wind farm because non-fully recovered wake induced by upstream wind turbines interferes power generation at downstream wind turbines. Turbulent inflow which contains the information of turbulence in atmospheric boundary layer is one of the key factors for describing the wake in wind farm accurately. We perform the quantitative analysis of velocity deficit and turbulent intensity in whole cases. In the comparison between cases with and without turbulent inflow, we observe that wake in case with turbulent inflow is more diffused to span-wise direction. And we analyze the coherent structures behind wind turbines at each row. Through above-analysis, we reveal how the wake is interacted with performance of wind farm. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korean Government (MSIP) (No.2015R1A5A1037668).

  15. Statistical analyses of a screen cylinder wake (United States)

    Mohd Azmi, Azlin; Zhou, Tongming; Zhou, Yu; Cheng, Liang


    The evolution of a screen cylinder wake was studied by analysing its statistical properties over a streamwise range of x/d={10-60}. The screen cylinder was made of a stainless steel screen mesh of 67% porosity. The experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 7000 using an X-probe. The results were compared with those obtained in the wake generated by a solid cylinder. It was observed that the evolution of the statistics in the wake of the screen cylinder was different from that of a solid cylinder, reflecting the differences in the formation of the organized large-scale vortices in both wakes. The streamwise evolution of the Reynolds stresses, energy spectra and cross-correlation coefficients indicated that there exists a critical location that differentiates the screen cylinder wake into two regions over the measured streamwise range. The formation of the fully formed large-scale vortices was delayed until this critical location. Comparison with existing results for screen strips showed that although the near-wake characteristics and the vortex formation mechanism were similar between the two wake generators, variation in the Strouhal frequencies was observed and the self-preservation states were non-universal, reconfirming the dependence of a wake on its initial condition.

  16. On point vortex models of exotic bluff body wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stremler, Mark A; Basu, Saikat, E-mail: [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)


    Exotic vortex wakes, in which three or more vortices are generated during each shedding cycle, are frequently found in the wake of an oscillating bluff body. Two common examples are P+S wakes (with 3 vortices) and 2P wakes (with 4 vortices). We consider mathematical models of these wakes consisting of N = 3 or 4 point vortices with constant strengths in an inviscid fluid that is otherwise at rest in a singly-periodic domain. By enforcing constraints on the vortex strengths and, in the case of N = 4, on the symmetry of the vortex locations, the mathematical models reduce to integrable Hamiltonian systems. We compare the point vortex trajectories with two exotic wake patterns reported in the literature. Results support the use of point vortex modeling to investigate vortex dynamics in exotic wakes and suggest the need for additional classification of experimental wake patterns. (paper)

  17. Wind-Turbine Wakes in a Convective Boundary Layer: A Wind-Tunnel Study (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Markfort, Corey D.; Porté-Agel, Fernando


    Thermal stability changes the properties of the turbulent atmospheric boundary layer, and in turn affects the behaviour of wind-turbine wakes. To better understand the effects of thermal stability on the wind-turbine wake structure, wind-tunnel experiments were carried out with a simulated convective boundary layer (CBL) and a neutral boundary layer. The CBL was generated by cooling the airflow to 12-15 °C and heating up the test section floor to 73-75 °C. The freestream wind speed was set at about 2.5 m s-1, resulting in a bulk Richardson number of -0.13. The wake of a horizontal-axis 3-blade wind-turbine model, whose height was within the lowest one third of the boundary layer, was studied using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (S-PIV) and triple-wire (x-wire/cold-wire) anemometry. Data acquired with the S-PIV were analyzed to characterize the highly three-dimensional turbulent flow in the near wake (0.2-3.2 rotor diameters) as well as to visualize the shedding of tip vortices. Profiles of the mean flow, turbulence intensity, and turbulent momentum and heat fluxes were measured with the triple-wire anemometer at downwind locations from 2-20 rotor diameters in the centre plane of the wake. In comparison with the wake of the same wind turbine in a neutral boundary layer, a smaller velocity deficit (about 15 % at the wake centre) is observed in the CBL, where an enhanced radial momentum transport leads to a more rapid momentum recovery, particularly in the lower part of the wake. The velocity deficit at the wake centre decays following a power law regardless of the thermal stability. While the peak turbulence intensity (and the maximum added turbulence) occurs at the top-tip height at a downwind distance of about three rotor diameters in both cases, the magnitude is about 20 % higher in the CBL than in the neutral boundary layer. Correspondingly, the turbulent heat flux is also enhanced by approximately 25 % in the lower part of the wake, compared to that

  18. Natural snowfall reveals large-scale flow structures in the wake of a 2.5-MW wind turbine. (United States)

    Hong, Jiarong; Toloui, Mostafa; Chamorro, Leonardo P; Guala, Michele; Howard, Kevin; Riley, Sean; Tucker, James; Sotiropoulos, Fotis


    To improve power production and structural reliability of wind turbines, there is a pressing need to understand how turbines interact with the atmospheric boundary layer. However, experimental techniques capable of quantifying or even qualitatively visualizing the large-scale turbulent flow structures around full-scale turbines do not exist today. Here we use snowflakes from a winter snowstorm as flow tracers to obtain velocity fields downwind of a 2.5-MW wind turbine in a sampling area of ~36 × 36 m(2). The spatial and temporal resolutions of the measurements are sufficiently high to quantify the evolution of blade-generated coherent motions, such as the tip and trailing sheet vortices, identify their instability mechanisms and correlate them with turbine operation, control and performance. Our experiment provides an unprecedented in situ characterization of flow structures around utility-scale turbines, and yields significant insights into the Reynolds number similarity issues presented in wind energy applications.

  19. Stochastic Generator of Chemical Structure. 3. Reaction Network Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A new method to generate chemical reaction network is proposed. The particularity of the method is that network generation and mechanism reduction are performed simultaneously using sampling techniques. Our method is tested for hydrocarbon thermal cracking. Results and theoretical arguments demonstrate that our method scales in polynomial time while other deterministic network generator scale in exponential time. This finding offers the possibility to investigate complex reacting systems such as those studied in petroleum refining and combustion.

  20. 立方体人工鱼礁背涡流的三维涡结构%The 3D vortex structure of cube artificial reef's wake vortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓磊; 栾曙光; 陈勇; 张瑞瑾


    The paper takes cube artificial reef as an example to make numerical simulation of 3 D flow field under the action of steady flow with CFD software. The simulation reveals the 3D vortex structure of cube artificial reef. The result shows that two symmetrical crosswise vortexes are formed and have opposite directions behind the reef af-ter water flows from the sides of reef, that a streamwise vortex is formed after water flows and falls from the top sur-face of reef, that the size of streamwise vortex is similar to the reef, that crosswise vortex determines the width of wake vortex, that streamwise vortex determines the height of wake vortex, that crosswise vortex and streamwise vor-tex have similar length and determine the length of wake vortex together, and that crosswise vortex and streamwise vortex constitute the 3D vortex structure of cube artificial reefs wake vortex.%以立方体人工鱼礁为例,应用CFD软件对其在定常流作用下的三维流场进行了数值模拟试验,以揭示立方体人工鱼礁背涡流的三维涡结构.结果表明:流过礁体侧面的水体在礁体后形成两个对称的旋转方向相反的展向涡,流经礁体上表面的水体脱落后形成一个尺寸与礁体尺寸相当的流向涡,展向涡宽度决定背涡流流场宽度,流向涡高度决定背涡流流场高度;展向涡和流向涡长度近似相等,二者的长度共同决定背涡流流场的长度;展向涡、流向涡共同构成了人工鱼礁背涡流的三维涡结构.

  1. Bifurcation and instability problems in vortex wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aref, H [Center for Fluid Dynamics and Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, DK-2800 (Denmark); Broens, M [Center for Fluid Dynamics and Department of Mathematics, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, DK-2800 (Denmark); Stremler, M A [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)


    A number of instability and bifurcation problems related to the dynamics of vortex wake flows are addressed using various analytical tools and approaches. We discuss the bifurcations of the streamline pattern behind a bluff body as a vortex wake is produced, a theory of the universal Strouhal-Reynolds number relation for vortex wakes, the bifurcation diagram for 'exotic' wake patterns behind an oscillating cylinder first determined experimentally by Williamson and Roshko, and the bifurcations in topology of the streamlines pattern in point vortex streets. The Hamiltonian dynamics of point vortices in a periodic strip is considered. The classical results of von Karman concerning the structure of the vortex street follow from the two-vortices-in-a-strip problem, while the stability results follow largely from a four-vortices-in-a-strip analysis. The three-vortices-in-a-strip problem is argued to be relevant to the wake behind an oscillating body.

  2. Wind Farm Wake: The Horns Rev Photo Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Elouan Réthoré


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine the nowadays well-known wind farm wake photographs taken on 12 February 2008 at the offshore Horns Rev 1 wind farm. The meteorological conditions are described from observations from several satellite sensors quantifying clouds, surface wind vectors and sea surface temperature as well as ground-based information at and near the wind farm, including Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA data. The SCADA data reveal that the case of fog formation occurred 12 February 2008 on the 10:10 UTC. The fog formation is due to very special atmospheric conditions where a layer of cold humid air above a warmer sea surface re-condensates to fog in the wake of the turbines. The process is fed by warm humid air up-drafted from below in the counter-rotating swirl generated by the clock-wise rotating rotors. The condensation appears to take place primarily in the wake regions with relatively high axial velocities and high turbulent kinetic energy. The wind speed is near cut-in and most turbines produce very little power. The rotational pattern of spiraling bands produces the large-scale structure of the wake fog.

  3. Detection of wind wakes offshore from satellite SAR (United States)

    Christiansen, M. B.; Hasager, C. B.

    A study is presented on the mapping of ocean wind fields for detection of wind wakes downstream of an offshore wind farm. The study is based on ERS-2 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) scenes obtained in 2003 over Horns Reef in the North Sea. A large offshore wind farm (80 wind turbines) is located 14-20 km offshore of Denmark on this submerged reef. Meteorological observations are available from an offshore mast; wind speed is measured at four heights up to 62 m and wind direction is measured at 60 m. Maps of wind speed are generated from geophysical model functions (CMOD-4, CMOD-IFR2) with a resolution of 400 m by 400 m using wind direction obtained from in-situ measurements as model input. The wind maps display zones of reduced mean wind speed downstream of the wind farm compared to upwind conditions. The reduction is approximately 10 % immediately behind the wind farm and the wake effect is vanishing over distances in the order of 10 km downstream. This is consistent with wake model predictions. Satellite SAR provides a good estimate of the propagation of wind wakes. Information on how structures affect the local wind climate is useful for wind energy purposes, particularly for siting of future offshore wind farms.

  4. Wake-Vortex Hazards During Cruise (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; James, Kevin D.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)


    Even though the hazard posed by lift-generated wakes of subsonic transport aircraft has been studied extensively for approach and departure at airports, only a small amount of effort has gone into the potential hazard at cruise altitude. This paper reports on a studio of the wake-vortex hazard during cruise because encounters may become more prevalent when free-flight becomes available and each aircraft, is free to choose its own route between destinations. In order to address the problem, the various fluid-dynamic stages that vortex wakes usually go through as they age will be described along with estimates of the potential hazard that each stage poses. It appears that a rolling-moment hazard can be just as severe at cruise as for approach at airports, but it only persists for several minutes. However, the hazard posed by the downwash in the wake due to the lift on the generator aircraft persists for tens of minutes in a long narrow region behind the generating aircraft. The hazard consists of severe vertical loads when an encountering aircraft crosses the wake. A technique for avoiding vortex wakes at cruise altitude will be described. To date the hazard posed by lift-generated vortex wakes and their persistence at cruise altitudes has been identified and subdivided into several tasks. Analyses of the loads to be encounter and are underway and should be completed shortly. A review of published literature on the subject has been nearly completed (see text) and photographs of vortex wakes at cruise altitudes have been taken and the various stages of decay have been identified. It remains to study and sort the photographs for those that best illustrate the various stages of decay after they are shed by subsonic transport aircraft at cruise altitudes. The present status of the analysis and the paper are described.

  5. How to perform measurements in a hovering animal's wake: physical modelling of the vortex wake of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta. (United States)

    Tytell, Eric D; Ellington, Charles P


    The vortex wake structure of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, was investigated using a vortex ring generator. Based on existing kinematic and morphological data, a piston and tube apparatus was constructed to produce circular vortex rings with the same size and disc loading as a hovering hawkmoth. Results show that the artificial rings were initially laminar, but developed turbulence owing to azimuthal wave instability. The initial impulse and circulation were accurately estimated for laminar rings using particle image velocimetry; after the transition to turbulence, initial circulation was generally underestimated. The underestimate for turbulent rings can be corrected if the transition time and velocity profile are accurately known, but this correction will not be feasible for experiments on real animals. It is therefore crucial that the circulation and impulse be estimated while the wake vortices are still laminar. The scaling of the ring Reynolds number suggests that flying animals of about the size of hawkmoths may be the largest animals whose wakes stay laminar for long enough to perform such measurements during hovering. Thus, at low advance ratios, they may be the largest animals for which wake circulation and impulse can be accurately measured.

  6. Circadian Sleep-Wake Rhythm of Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities (United States)

    Maaskant, Marijke; van de Wouw, Ellen; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Echteld, Michael A.


    The circadian sleep-wake rhythm changes with aging, resulting in a more fragmented sleep-wake pattern. In individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), brain structures regulating the sleep-wake rhythm might be affected. The aims of this study were to compare the sleep-wake rhythm of older adults with ID to that of older adults in the general…

  7. A Critical Review of the Transport and Decay of Wake Vortices in Ground Effect (United States)

    Sarpkaya, T.


    This slide presentation reviews the transport and decay of wake vortices in ground effect and cites a need for a physics-based parametric model. The encounter of a vortex with a solid body is always a complex event involving turbulence enhancement, unsteadiness, and very large gradients of velocity and pressure. Wake counter in ground effect is the most dangerous of them all. The interaction of diverging, area-varying, and decaying aircraft wake vortices with the ground is very complex because both the vortices and the flow field generated by them are altered to accommodate the presence of the ground (where there is very little room to maneuver) and the background turbulent flow. Previous research regarding vortex models, wake vortex decay mechanisms, time evolution within in ground effect of a wake vortex pair, laminar flow in ground effect, and the interaction of the existing boundary layer with a convected vortex are reviewed. Additionally, numerical simulations, 3-dimensional large-eddy simulations, a probabilistic 2-phase wake vortex decay and transport model and a vortex element method are discussed. The devising of physics-based, parametric models for the prediction of (operational) real-time response, mindful of the highly three-dimensional and unsteady structure of vortices, boundary layers, atmospheric thermodynamics, and weather convective phenomena is required. In creating a model, LES and field data will be the most powerful tools.

  8. Numerical Analysis of NREL 5MW Wind Turbine: A Study Towards a Better Understanding of Wake Characteristic and Torque Generation Mechanism (United States)

    Salman Siddiqui, M.; Rasheed, Adil; Tabib, Mandar; Kvamsdal, Trond


    With the increased feasibility of harvesting offshore wind energy, scale of wind turbines is growing rapidly and there is a trend towards clustering together higher number of turbines in order to harvest maximum yield and to leave a smaller footprint on the environment. This causes complex flow configurations inside the farms, the study of which is essential to making offshore wind energy a success. The present study focuses on NREL 5MW wind turbine with the following objectives (a)To compare Sliding Mesh Interface and Multiple Reference Frame modeling approaches and their predictive capabilities in reproducing the characteristics of flow around the full scale wind turbine. (b)To get a better insight into wake dynamics behind the turbine in near and far wake regions operating under different tip-speed-ratio and incoming turbulence intensities.

  9. Simulation and Prediction of Wakes and Wake Interaction in Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Juhl

    The highly turbulent wake and the wake interaction of merging wakes between multiple wind turbines are modelled using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) in a general Navier-Stokes solver. The Actuator Line (AL) technique is employed to model the wind turbines, and the aeroelastic computations are fully...... coupled with the flow solver. The numerical simulations include the study of the far wake behind a single turbine, three idealised cases of infinitely long rows of turbines and finally three infinite wind farm scenarios with different spacings. The flow characteristics between the turbines, turbine...... performance, and principal turbulent quantities are examined for the different scenarios. The study focuses on the large coherent structures and movements of the wake behind and between wind turbines. The large coherent structures are analysed using Proper Orthogonal Decoposition (POD). POD constitutes...

  10. Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.


    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions......, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed conditions. The emphasis is put on measurements in controlled conditions.For the far wake, the survey focusses on both single turbines and wind farm effects, and the experimental and numerical work are reviewed; the main interest...... is to study how the far wake decays downstream, in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines.The article is further restricted to horizontal axis wind turbines and excludes all other types of turbines....

  11. Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.


    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions......, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed conditions. The emphasis is put on measurements in controlled conditions.For the far wake, the survey focusses on both single turbines and wind farm effects, and the experimental and numerical work are reviewed; the main interest...... is to study how the far wake decays downstream, in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines.The article is further restricted to horizontal axis wind turbines and excludes all other types of turbines....

  12. Wake modeling and simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Madsen Aagaard, Helge; Larsen, Torben J.;

    , have the potential to include also mutual wake interaction phenomenons. The basic conjecture behind the dynamic wake meandering (DWM) model is that wake transportation in the atmospheric boundary layer is driven by the large scale lateral- and vertical turbulence components. Based on this conjecture...... and trailed vorticity, has been approached by a simple semi-empirical model essentially based on an eddy viscosity philosophy. Contrary to previous attempts to model wake loading, the DWM approach opens for a unifying description in the sense that turbine power- and load aspects can be treated simultaneously...... methodology has been implemented in the aeroelastic code HAWC2, and example simulations of wake situations, from the small Tjæreborg wind farm, have been performed showing satisfactory agreement between predictions and measurements...

  13. Analysis of turbulent wake behind a wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermani, Nasrin Arjomand; Andersen, Søren Juhl; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær;


    The aim of this study is to improve the classical analytical model for estimation of the rate of wake expansion and the decay of wake velocity deficit in the far wake region behind a wind turbine. The relations for a fully turbulent axisymmetric far wake were derived by applying the mass and mome......The aim of this study is to improve the classical analytical model for estimation of the rate of wake expansion and the decay of wake velocity deficit in the far wake region behind a wind turbine. The relations for a fully turbulent axisymmetric far wake were derived by applying the mass...... and momentum conservations, the selfsimilarity of mean velocity profile and the eddy viscosity closure. The theoretical approach is validated using the numerical results obtained from large eddy simulations with an actuator line technique at 0.1% and 3% ambient turbulence level and ambient wind velocity of 10....... Therefore the theoretical determination of the power law for the wake expansion and the decay of the wake velocity deficit may not be valid in the case of the wake generated behind a wind turbine with low ambient turbulence and high thrust coefficient. Although at higher ambient turbulence levels or lower...

  14. Turbulent wakes of fractal objects. (United States)

    Staicu, Adrian; Mazzi, Biagio; Vassilicos, J C; van de Water, Willem


    Turbulence of a windtunnel flow is stirred using objects that have a fractal structure. The strong turbulent wakes resulting from three such objects which have different fractal dimensions are probed using multiprobe hot-wire anemometry in various configurations. Statistical turbulent quantities are studied within inertial and dissipative range scales in an attempt to relate changes in their self-similar behavior to the scaling of the fractal objects.

  15. Bifurcation and instability problems in vortex wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aref, Hassan; Brøns, Morten; Stremler, Mark A.


    A number of instability and bifurcation problems related to the dynamics of vortex wake flows are addressed using various analytical tools and approaches. We discuss the bifurcations of the streamline pattern behind a bluff body as a vortex wake is produced, a theory of the universal Strouhal......-Reynolds number relation for vortex wakes, the bifurcation diagram for "exotic" wake patterns behind an oscillating cylinder first determined experimentally by Williamson & Roshko, and the bifurcations in topology of the streamlines pattern in point vortex streets. The Hamiltonian dynamics of point vortices...... in a periodic strip is considered. The classical results of von Kármán concerning the structure of the vortex street follow from the two-vortices-in-a-strip problem, while the stability results follow largely from a four-vortices-in-a-strip analysis. The three-vortices-in-a-strip problem is argued...

  16. Wakes in Inertial Fusion Plasmas (United States)

    Ellis, Ian Norman

    Plasma wave wakes, which are the collective oscillatory response near the plasma frequency to the propagation of particles or electromagnetic waves through a plasma, play a critical role in many plasma processes. New results from backwards stimulated Raman scattering (BSRS), in which wakes with phase velocities much less than the speed of light are induced by the beating of counter-propagating light waves, and from electron beam stopping, in which the wakes are produced by the motion of relativistically propagating electrons through the dense plasma, are discussed. Both processes play important roles in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). In BSRS, laser light is scattered backwards out of the plasma, decreasing the energy available to compress the ICF capsule and affecting the symmetry of where the laser energy hits the hohlraum wall in indirect drive ICF. The plasma wave wake can also generate superthermal electrons that can preheat the core and/or the ablator. Electron beam stopping plays a critical role in the Fast Ignition (FI) ICF concept, in which a beam of relativistic electrons is used to heat the target core to ignition temperatures after the compression stage. The beam stopping power determines the effectiveness of the heating process. This dissertation covers new discoveries on the importance of plasma wave wakes in both BSRS and electron beam stopping. In the SRS studies, 1D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations using OSIRIS are performed, which model a short-duration (˜500/ω0 --1FWHM) counter-propagating scattered light seed pulse in the presence of a constant pump laser with an intensity far below the absolute instability threshold for plasma waves undergoing Landau damping. The seed undergoes linear convective Raman amplification and dominates over the amplification of fluctuations due to particle discreteness. The simulation results are in good agreement with results from a coupled-mode solver when special relativity and the effects of finite size PIC

  17. Utilizing Surface Sensors to Identify Wake Regimes (United States)

    Wang, Mengying; Hemati, Maziar S.


    Marine swimmers often exploit external flow structures to reduce locomotive effort. To achieve this advantage, these swimmers utilize mechanosensory organs on the surface of their bodies to detect hydrodynamic signals from the surrounding fluid, which can then be used to inform the control task. Recently, there has been a growing interest in developing similar flow sensing systems to achieve enhanced propulsive efficiency and maneuverability in human-engineered underwater vehicles. In particular, much attention has been given to the problem of wake sensing; however, these investigations have concentrated on a restricted class of wakes-i.e., Kármán-type vortex streets-whereas more complicated wake structures can arise in practice. In this talk, we will explore the possibility of identifying wake regimes through the use of surface sensors. Potential flow theory is adopted to simulate the interactions of various wakes with a fish-like body. Wakes in different dynamical regimes impart distinct hydrodynamic signatures on the body, which permits these regimes to be distinguished from one another in an automated fashion. Our results can provide guidance for improving flow sensing capabilities in human-engineered systems and hint at how marine swimmers may sense their hydrodynamic surroundings.

  18. HARP PRIA- Wake (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This HARP was first deployed off of Wake Atoll in 2010. It has been recovered and redeployed multiple times (see time frames for information).

  19. Flow visualization study of the MOD-2 wind turbine wake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu H.T.; Waite, J.W.; Hiester, T.R.; Tacheron, P.H.; Srnsky, R.A.


    The specific objectives of the study reported were: to determine the geometry of the MOD-2 wind turbine wake in terms of wake height and width as a function of downstream distance under two conditions of atmospheric stability; to estimate the mean velocity deficit at several downstream stations in the turbine wake; and to investigate the behavior of the rotor-generated vortices, particularly their configuration and persistence. The background of the wake problem is briefly examined, including a discussion of the critical issues that the flow visualization study addresses. Experimental techniques and data analysis methods are described in detail. (LEW)

  20. The effect of acoustic forcing on trailing edge separation and near wake development of an airfoil (United States)

    Huang, L. S.; Bryant, T. D.; Maestrello, L.


    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of acoustic forcing on flow fields near the trailing edge of a symmetric airfoil at zero angle of attack. At low chord Reynolds numbers, the boundary layers separate from the surfaces in the rear part of the airfoil and create recirculation regions near the trailing edge. It is shown that with the introduction of acoustic forcing through a slot in the vicinity of the separation point, periodic large-scale structures are generated in the trailing edge region. Significant reduction of trailing edge separation is achieved. It is also found that the most effective forcing frequency to control trailing edge separation is the wake vortex shedding frequency. As a result of forcing, applied only on the upper surface, the upper boundary layer is accelerated and the flow over the lower surface decelerated. Consequently, an asymmetric wake is formed. The results presented indicate that the development of the near wake varies with forcing conditions.

  1. Impact of Wake Dispersion on Axial Compressor Performance (United States)

    Hah, Chunill


    Detailed development of wakes and their impact on the performance of a low-speed one and half stage axial compressor are investigated with a large eddy simulation (LES). To investigate effects of wake mixing recovery and wake interaction with the boundary layer of the downstream blade, spacing between the rotor blade and the stator is varied. The calculated LES flow fields based on a fine computational grid are compared with related measurements and analyzed in detail at several radial locations. The current LES calculates the effects of wake recovery very well. The effects of wake recovery vary significantly in the radial direction. Loss generation is higher on the pressure side at the stator exit at both near design and near stall condition. The current investigation indicates that better management of wake development can be achieved for improved compressor performance.

  2. Ionospheric plasma flow over large high-voltage space platforms. I - Ion-plasma-time scale interactions of a plate at zero angle of attack. II - The formation and structure of plasma wake (United States)

    Wang, J.; Hastings, D. E.


    The paper presents the theory and particle simulation results for the ionospheric plasma flow over a large high-voltage space platform at a zero angle of attack and at a large angle of attack. Emphasis is placed on the structures in the large, high-voltage regime and the transient plasma response on the ion-plasma time scale. Special consideration is given to the transient formation of the space-charge wake and its steady-state structure.

  3. The impact of reactants composition and temperature on the flow structure in a wake stabilized laminar lean premixed CH4/H2/air flames; mechanism and scaling

    KAUST Repository

    Michaels, D.


    In this paper we investigate the role of reactants composition and temperature in defining the steady flow structure in bluff body stabilized premixed flames. The study was motivated by experiments which showed that the flow structure and stability map for different fuels and inlet conditions collapse using the extinction strain rate as the chemical time scale. The investigation is conducted using a laminar lean premixed flame stabilized on a heat conducting bluff-body. Calculations are performed for a wide range of mixtures of CH4/H2/air (0.35 ≤ ϕ ≤ 0.75, 0 ≤ %H2 ≤ 40, 300 ≤ Tin [K] ≤ 500) in order to systematically vary the burning velocity (2.0–35.6 cm/s), dilatation ratio (2.7–6.4), and extinction strain rate (106–2924 1/s). The model is based on a fully resolved unsteady two-dimensional flow with detailed chemistry and species transport, and with no artificial flame anchoring boundary conditions. Calculations reveal that the recirculation zone length correlates with a chemical time scale based on the flame extinction strain rate corresponding to the inlet fuel composition, stoichiometry, pressure and temperature; and are consistent with experimental data in literature. It was found that in the wake region the flame is highly stretched and its location and interaction with the flow is governed by the reactants combustion characteristics under high strain.

  4. Structured Beam Generation with a Single Metasurface

    CERN Document Server

    Yue, Fuyong; Xin, Jingtao; Gerardot, Brian; Li, Jensen; Chen, Xianzhong


    Despite a plethora of applications ranging from quantum memories to high-resolution lithography, the current technologies to generate vector vortex beams (VVBs) suffer from less efficient energy use, poor resolution, low damage threshold, bulky size and complicated experimental setup, preventing further practical applications. We propose and experimentally demonstrate an approach to generate VVBs with a single metasurface by locally tailoring phase and transverse polarization distribution. This method features the spin-orbit coupling and the superposition of the converted part with an additional phase pickup and the residual part without a phase change. By maintaining the equal components for the converted part and the residual part, the cylindrically polarized vortex beams carrying orbital angular momentum are experimentally demonstrated based on a single metasurface at subwavelength scale. The proposed approach provides unprecedented freedom in engineering the properties of optical waves with the high-effic...

  5. Potential load reductions on megawatt turbines exposed to wakes using individual-pitch wake compensator and trailing-edge flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Helen; Andersen, Peter Bjørn; Larsen, Gunner Chr.


    for the loading conditions of the individual turbines in the farm. The dynamic wake meandering model (DWM) is believed to capture the essential physics of the wake problem, and thus, both load and production aspects can be predicted, which is contrary to the traditional engineering wake prediction methods...... that typically focus on either load or power prediction. As a consequence, the wake affected inflow field generated by the DWM formulation opens for control strategies for the individual turbine. Two different control approaches for load reduction on the individual turbines are implemented in the multi-body aero...

  6. PREFACE: Wake Conference 2015 (United States)

    Barney, Andrew; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Ivanell, Stefan


    The 44 papers in this volume constitute the proceedings of the 2015 Wake Conference, held in Visby on the island of Gotland in Sweden. It is the fourth time this conference has been held. The Wake Conference series started in Visby, where it was held in 2009 and 2011. In 2013 it took place in Copenhagen where it was combined with the International Conference on Offshore Wind Energy and Ocean Energy. In 2015 it is back where it started in Visby, where it takes place at Uppsala University Campus Gotland, June 9th-11th. The global yearly production of electrical energy by wind turbines has grown tremendously in the past decade and it now comprises more than 3% of the global electrical power consumption. Today the wind power industry has a global annual turnover of more than 50 billion USD and an annual average growth rate of more than 20%. State-of-the-art wind turbines have rotor diameters of up to 150 m and 8 MW installed capacity. These turbines are often placed in large wind farms that have a total production capacity corresponding to that of a nuclear power plant. In order to make a substantial impact on one of the most significant challenges of our time, global warming, the industry's growth has to continue for a decade or two yet. This in turn requires research into the physics of wind turbine wakes and wind farms. Modern wind turbines are today clustered in wind farms in which the turbines are fully or partially influenced by the wake of upstream turbines. As a consequence, the wake behind the wind turbines has a lower mean wind speed and an increased turbulence level, as compared to the undisturbed flow outside the farm. Hence, wake interaction results in decreased total production of power, caused by lower kinetic energy in the wind, and an increase in the turbulence intensity. Therefore, understanding the physical nature of the vortices and their dynamics in the wake of a turbine is important for the optimal design of a wind farm. This conference is aimed

  7. Exploiting stiffness nonlinearities to improve flow energy capture from the wake of a bluff body (United States)

    Alhadidi, Ali H.; Abderrahmane, Hamid; Daqaq, Mohammed F.


    Fluid-structure coupling mechanisms such as wake galloping have been recently utilized to develop scalable flow energy harvesters. Unlike traditional rotary-type generators which are known to suffer serious scalability issues because their efficiency drops significantly as their size decreases; wake-galloping flow energy harvesters (FEHs) operate using a very simple motion mechanism, and, hence can be scaled down to fit the desired application. Nevertheless, wake-galloping FEHs have their own shortcomings. Typically, a wake-galloping FEH has a linear restoring force which results in a very narrow lock-in region. As a result, it does not perform well under the broad range of shedding frequencies normally associated with a variable flow speed. To overcome this critical problem, this article demonstrates theoretically and experimentally that, a bi-stable restoring force can be used to broaden the steady-state bandwidth of wake galloping FEHs and, thereby to decrease their sensitivity to variations in the flow speed. An experimental case study is carried out in a wind tunnel to compare the performance of a bi-stable and a linear FEH under single- and multi-frequency vortex street. An experimentally-validated lumped-parameters model of the bi-stable harvester is also introduced, and solved using the method of multiple scales to study the influence of the shape of the potential energy function on the output voltage.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.


    Results are presented from experiments, and numerical analysis of wake fields set up by electron bunches passing through a cylindrical or rectangular dielectric-lined structure. These bunches excite many TM-modes, with Ez components of the wake fields sharply localized on the axis of the structure periodically behind the bunches. The experiment with the cylindrical structure, carried out at ATF Brookhaven National Laboratory, used up to three 50 MeV bunches spaced by one wake field period (21 cm) to study the superposition of wake fields by measuring the energy loss of each bunch after it passed through the 53-cm long dielectric element. The millimeter-wave spectrum of radiation excited by the passage of bunches is also studied. Numerical analysis was aimed not only to simulate the behavior of our device, but in general to predict dielectric wake field accelerator performance. It is shown that one needs to match the radius of the cylindrical dielectric channel with the bunch longitudinal rms-length to achieve optimal performance.

  9. Nano Structured Devices for Energy Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej

    This work focuses on the enhancement of α-sexithiophene / buckminsterfullerene (α-6T / C60) inverted bilayer organic solar cell effciency by the introduction of crystalline nanostructures in the electron donor layer. In order to utilize the charge carrier mobility anisotropy in crystalline α-6T......?uorescence polarimetry and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Layer thicknesses of inverted α-6T / C60 bilayer organic solar cells fabricated at room temperature were optimized to obtain the model device for the performance enhancement studies. By variation of the substrate temperature during deposition of α-6T, the structures...... structures in solar cells, the orientation of the individual molecules should favor charge transport perpendicular to the substrate plane. Such orientation is realized from α-6T molecules lying on the substrate, which additionally infers the preferred orientation of the transition dipole for maximal light...

  10. A computer generator for randomly layered structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jia-shun; HE Zhen-hua


    An algorithm is introduced in this paper for the synthesis of randomly layered earth models. Under the assumption that the layering and the physical parameters for a layer are random variables with truncated normal distributions, random numbers sampled from the distributions can be used to construct the layered structure and determine physical parameters for the layers. To demonstrate its application, random models were synthesized for the modelling of seismic ground motion amplification of a site with uncertainties in its model parameters.

  11. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Structures 60 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific. (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (60 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...

  12. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Structures 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific. (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...

  13. On helical behavior of turbulence in the ship wake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Turbulent ship wake conservation at a long distance is among unsolved problems at present.It is well known that far wakes have a vortical structure and slowly expand with distance.As was obtained by Dubrovin et al.,slow expansion of the wake may be related to the distribution of turbulent viscosity in it.In our work we study the effect of helicity in the wake on the behavior of turbulent viscosity.Taking into account the helical nature of the wake,we can clarify the difference between turbulence inside and outside the wake on the one hand and slowing down of its expansion with time on the other hand.

  14. Wake fields in the LHCb vertex detector : alternative designs for the wake field suppressor

    CERN Document Server

    Van Bakel, N; Ferro-Luzzi, M


    Two previous LHCb notes showed that wake field suppressors are needed to prevent dissipating excessive power in resonating modes of the vertex detector components. This note concentrates on two different designs of the encapsulations of the silicon detectors which can serve as an alternative to the design which uses long thin strips spanned throughout the vertex detector near the beam axis. The quality of wake field suppression with respect to the depth of a corrugated structure is simulated.

  15. Dynamics of the vortex wakes of flying and swimming vertebrates. (United States)

    Rayner, J M


    The vortex wakes of flying and swimming animals provide evidence of the history of aero- and hydrodynamic force generation during the locomotor cycle. Vortex-induced momentum flux in the wake is the reaction of forces the animal imposes on its environment, which must be in equilibrium with inertial and external forces. In flying birds and bats, the flapping wings generate lift both to provide thrust and to support the weight. Distinct wingbeat and wake movement patterns can be identified as gaits. In flow visualization experiments, only two wake patterns have been identified: a vortex ring gait with inactive upstroke, and a continuous vortex gait with active upstroke. These gaits may be modelled theoretically by free vortex and lifting line theory to predict mechanical energy consumption, aerodynamic forces and muscle activity. Longer-winged birds undergo a distinct gait change with speed, but shorter-winged species use the vortex ring gait at all speeds. In swimming fish, the situation is more complex: the wake vortices form a reversed von Kármán vortex street, but little is known about the mechanism of generation of the wake, or about how it varies with speed and acceleration or with body form and swimming mode. An unresolved complicating factor is the interaction between the drag wake of the flapping fish body and the thrusting wake from the tail.

  16. The effect of single-horn glaze ice on the vortex structures in the wake of a horizontal axis wind turbine (United States)

    Jin, Zhe-Yan; Dong, Qiao-Tian; Yang, Zhi-Gang


    The present study experimentally investigated the effect of a simulated single-horn glaze ice accreted on rotor blades on the vortex structures in the wake of a horizontal axis wind turbine by using the stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (Stereo-PIV) technique. During the experiments, four horizontal axis wind turbine models were tested, and both "free-run" and "phase-locked" Stereo-PIV measurements were carried out. Based on the "free-run" measurements, it was found that because of the simulated single-horn glaze ice, the shape, vorticity, and trajectory of tip vortices were changed significantly, and less kinetic energy of the airflow could be harvested by the wind turbine. In addition, the "phase-locked" results indicated that the presence of simulated single-horn glaze ice resulted in a dramatic reduction of the vorticity peak of the tip vortices. Moreover, as the length of the glaze ice increased, both root and tip vortex gaps were found to increase accordingly.

  17. Capturing coherent structures and turbulent interfaces in wake flows by means of the Organised Eddy Simulation, OES and by Tomo-PIV (United States)

    Deri, E.; Ouvrard, H.; Braza, M.; Hunt, J.; Hoarau, Y.; Cazin, S.; Cid, E.; Harran, G.


    The present study aims at a physical analysis of the coherent and chaotic vortex dynamics in the near wake around a flat plate at incidence, to provide new elements in respect of the flow physics turbulence modelling for high-Reynolds number flows around bodies. This constitutes nowadays a challenge in the aeronautics design. A special attention is paid to capture the thin shear layer interfaces downstream of the separation, responsible for aeroacoustics phenomena related to noise reduction and directly linked to an accurate prediction of the aerodynamic forces. The experimental investigation is carried out by means of tomographic PIV. The interaction of the most energetic coherent structures with the random turbulence is discussed. Furthermore, the POD analysis allowed evaluation of 3D phase averaged dynamics as well as the influence of higher modes associated with the finer-scale turbulence. The numerical study by means of the Organised Eddy Simulation, OES approach ensured a reduced turbulence diffusion that allowed development of the von Karman instability and of capturing of the thin shear-layer interfaces, by using appropriate criteria based on vorticity and dissipation rate of kinetic energy. A comparison between the experiments and the simulations concerning the coherent vortex pattern is carried out.

  18. Empirical modeling of single-wake advection and expansion using full-scale pulsed lidar-based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machefaux, Ewan; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Troldborg, Niels;


    fairly well in the far wake but lacks accuracy in the outer region of the near wake. An empirical relationship, relating maximum wake induction and wake advection velocity, is derived and linked to the characteristics of a spherical vortex structure. Furthermore, a new empirical model for single-wake......In the present paper, single-wake dynamics have been studied both experimentally and numerically. The use of pulsed lidar measurements allows for validation of basic dynamic wake meandering modeling assumptions. Wake center tracking is used to estimate the wake advection velocity experimentally...... and to obtain an estimate of the wake expansion in a fixed frame of reference. A comparison shows good agreement between the measured average expansion and the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) large eddy simulation–actuator line computations. Frandsen’s expansion model seems to predict the wake expansion...

  19. Multiple Turbine Wakes


    Machefaux, Ewan; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Mann, Jakob


    Formålet med nærværende forskningsprojekt har dels været at studere wakes efter enkeltstående vindmøller, dels at studere flere interagerende wakes - baseret på så vel fuldskala LiDAR målinger som på detaljerede CFD simuleringer. Indledningsvist er dynamikken af enkelt-wakes studeret gennem analyser af fuldskala (nacelle-baserede) pulsede LiDAR målinger udført på en 500kW vindmølle placeret på testområdet ved DTU’s Risø campus. Som en del af den eksperimentelle analyse er der foretaget en val...

  20. Numerical Simulation of Wakes in a Weakly Stratified Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Rottman, James W; Innis, George E; O'Shea, Thomas T; Novikov, Evgeny


    This paper describes some preliminary numerical studies using large eddy simulation of full-scale submarine wakes. Submarine wakes are a combination of the wake generated by a smooth slender body and a number of superimposed vortex pairs generated by various control surfaces and other body appendages. For this preliminary study, we attempt to gain some insight into the behavior of full-scale submarine wakes by computing separately the evolution the self-propelled wake of a slender body and the motion of a single vortex pair in both a non-stratified and a stratified environment. An important aspect of the simulations is the use of an iterative procedure to relax the initial turbulence field so that turbulent production and dissipation are in balance.

  1. Doppler lidar investigation of wind turbine wake characteristics and atmospheric turbulence under different surface roughness. (United States)

    Zhai, Xiaochun; Wu, Songhua; Liu, Bingyi


    Four field experiments based on Pulsed Coherent Doppler Lidar with different surface roughness have been carried out in 2013-2015 to study the turbulent wind field in the vicinity of operating wind turbine in the onshore and offshore wind parks. The turbulence characteristics in ambient atmosphere and wake area was analyzed using transverse structure function based on Plane Position Indicator scanning mode. An automatic wake processing procedure was developed to determine the wake velocity deficit by considering the effect of ambient velocity disturbance and wake meandering with the mean wind direction. It is found that the turbine wake obviously enhances the atmospheric turbulence mixing, and the difference in the correlation of turbulence parameters under different surface roughness is significant. The dependence of wake parameters including the wake velocity deficit and wake length on wind velocity and turbulence intensity are analyzed and compared with other studies, which validates the empirical model and simulation of a turbine wake for various atmosphere conditions.

  2. Nano Structured Devices for Energy Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej

    This work focuses on the enhancement of α-sexithiophene / buckminsterfullerene (α-6T / C60) inverted bilayer organic solar cell effciency by the introduction of crystalline nanostructures in the electron donor layer. In order to utilize the charge carrier mobility anisotropy in crystalline α-6T...... structures in solar cells, the orientation of the individual molecules should favor charge transport perpendicular to the substrate plane. Such orientation is realized from α-6T molecules lying on the substrate, which additionally infers the preferred orientation of the transition dipole for maximal light...... temperatures and a shutter were controlled by the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system, which has been implemented in LabVIEW environment. The temperatures, process pressure, and deposition rate were stored for future analysis. By variation of the substrate temperature during deposition...

  3. Multiple Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machefaux, Ewan; Mann, Jakob

    as part of the experimental analysis. An inflow wind sector of 30° is selected based on both a wind resource and a lidar data assessment. Wake measurements are averaged within a mean wind speed bin of 1 m/s and classified according to atmospheric stability using 3 different approaches: the Obukhov length...... wind are adapted to the thermal stratification using a newly developed spectral tensor, which includes buoyancy effects. Discrepancies are discussed as basis for future model development and improvement. Moreover, the impact of atmospheric stability and terrain on large/small scale wake flow...

  4. Wake Studies of Ornithopters (United States)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harlow, Jacob; Allen, James; Ferreira de Sousa, Paulo


    This paper details experiments using a mechanical ornithopter flying in a low speed wind tunnel. Experiments were conducted for a Strouhal number of 0.3 and Reynolds number of 2300, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and flow visualization was used to develop quantitative and qualitative information about the nature of the wake. The data shows that the wake is made of a series of discrete vortex rings. The impulse of these rings has been estimated with PIV data and the results correlate well with the lift required to sustain the ornithopter in flight.

  5. An experimental study on the aeromechanics and wake characteristics of a novel twin-rotor wind turbine in a turbulent boundary layer flow (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Tian, Wei; Ozbay, Ahmet; Sharma, Anupam; Hu, Hui


    The aeromechanic performance and wake characteristics of a novel twin-rotor wind turbine (TRWT) design, which has an extra set of smaller, auxiliary rotor blades appended in front of the main rotor, was evaluated experimentally, in comparison with those of a conventional single-rotor wind turbine (SRWT) design. The comparative study was performed in a large-scale wind tunnel with scaled TRWT and SRWT models mounted in the same incoming turbulent boundary layer flow. In addition to quantifying power outputs and the dynamic wind loadings acting on the model turbines, the wake characteristics behind the model turbines were also measured by using a particle image velocimetry system and a Cobra anemometry probe. The measurement results reveal that, while the TRWT design is capable of harnessing more wind energy from the same incoming airflow by reducing the roots losses incurred in the region near the roots of the main rotor blades, it also cause much greater dynamic wind loadings acting on the TRWT model and higher velocity deficits in the near wake behind the TRWT model, in comparison with those of the SRWT case. Due to the existence of the auxiliary rotor, more complex vortex structures were found to be generated in the wake behind the TRWT model, which greatly enhanced the turbulent mixing in the turbine wake, and caused a much faster recovery of the velocity deficits in the turbine far wake. As a result, the TRWT design was also found to enable the same downstream turbine to generate more power when sited in the wake behind the TRWT model than that in the SRWT wake, i.e., by mitigating wake losses in typical wind farm settings.

  6. Wake Vortices of Landing Aircraft, in High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering


    Holzäpfel, Frank; Stephan, Anton; Heel, Tobias


    As an unavoidable consequence of lift aircraft generate a pair of counter-rotating and long-lived wake vortices that pose a potential risk to following aircraft. The prescribed aircraft separations during landing to avoid wake vortex hazards contribute significantly to capacity restrictions of large airports. Severe encounters of wake vortices have also been reported during cruise. Wake vortex behavior is largely controlled by the prevailing meteorological conditions a...

  7. Inlet Guide Vane Wakes Including Rotor Effects (United States)

    Johnston, R. T.; Fleeter, S.


    Fundamental experiments are described directed at the investigation of forcing functions generated by an inlet guide vane (IGV) row, including interactions with the downstream rotor, for application to turbomachine forced response design systems. The experiments are performed in a high-speed research fan facility comprised of an IGV row upstream of a rotor. IGV-rotor axial spacing is variable, with the IGV row able to be indexed circumferentially, thereby allowing measurements to be made across several IGV wakes. With an IGV relative Mach number of 0.29, measurements include the IGV wake pressure and velocity fields for three IGV-rotor axial spacings. The decay characteristics of the IGV wakes are compared to the Majjigi and Gliebe empirical correlations. After Fourier decomposition, a vortical-potential gust splitting analysis is implemented to determine the vortical and potential harmonic wake gust forcing functions both upstream and downstream of the rotor. Higher harmonics of the vortical gust component of the IGV wakes are found to decay at a uniform rate due to viscous diffusion.

  8. The wake of hovering flight in bats (United States)

    Håkansson, Jonas; Hedenström, Anders; Winter, York; Johansson, L. Christoffer


    Hovering means stationary flight at zero net forward speed, which can be achieved by animals through muscle powered flapping flight. Small bats capable of hovering typically do so with a downstroke in an inclined stroke plane, and with an aerodynamically active outer wing during the upstroke. The magnitude and time history of aerodynamic forces should be reflected by vorticity shed into the wake. We thus expect hovering bats to generate a characteristic wake, but this has until now never been studied. Here we trained nectar-feeding bats, Leptonycteris yerbabuenae, to hover at a feeder and using time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry in conjunction with high-speed kinematic analysis we show that hovering nectar-feeding bats produce a series of bilateral stacked vortex loops. Vortex visualizations suggest that the downstroke produces the majority of the weight support, but that the upstroke contributes positively to the lift production. However, the relative contributions from downstroke and upstroke could not be determined on the basis of the wake, because wake elements from down- and upstroke mix and interact. We also use a modified actuator disc model to estimate lift force, power and flap efficiency. Based on our quantitative wake-induced velocities, the model accounts for weight support well (108%). Estimates of aerodynamic efficiency suggest hovering flight is less efficient than forward flapping flight, while the overall energy conversion efficiency (mechanical power output/metabolic power) was estimated at 13%. PMID:26179990

  9. Molecular wakes for ultrashort laser pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The molecular wake-assisted interaction between two collinear femotosecond laser pulses is investigated in air,which leads to the generation of a controllable 1.8 mJ super-continuum pulse with an elongated self-guided channel due to the cross-phase modulation of the impulsively aligned diatomic molecules in air. For two parallel launched femtosecond laser pulses with a certain spatial separation,controllable attraction and repulsion of the pulses are observed due to the counter-balance among molecular wakes,Kerr and plasma effects,where the molecular wakes show a longer interaction distance than the others to control the propagation of the intense ultrashort laser pulses.

  10. Ising model with conserved magnetization on the human connectome: Implications on the relation structure-function in wakefulness and anesthesia (United States)

    Stramaglia, S.; Pellicoro, M.; Angelini, L.; Amico, E.; Aerts, H.; Cortés, J. M.; Laureys, S.; Marinazzo, D.


    Dynamical models implemented on the large scale architecture of the human brain may shed light on how a function arises from the underlying structure. This is the case notably for simple abstract models, such as the Ising model. We compare the spin correlations of the Ising model and the empirical functional brain correlations, both at the single link level and at the modular level, and show that their match increases at the modular level in anesthesia, in line with recent results and theories. Moreover, we show that at the peak of the specific heat (the critical state), the spin correlations are minimally shaped by the underlying structural network, explaining how the best match between the structure and function is obtained at the onset of criticality, as previously observed. These findings confirm that brain dynamics under anesthesia shows a departure from criticality and could open the way to novel perspectives when the conserved magnetization is interpreted in terms of a homeostatic principle imposed to neural activity.

  11. Spectral coherence in windturbine wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojstrup, J. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)


    This paper describes an experiment at a Danish wind farm to investigate the lateral and vertical coherences in the nonequilibrium turbulence of a wind turbine wake. Two meteorological masts were instrumented for measuring profiles of mean speed, turbulence, and temperature. Results are provided graphically for turbulence intensities, velocity spectra, lateral coherence, and vertical coherence. The turbulence was somewhat influenced by the wake, or possibly from aggregated wakes further upstream, even at 14.5 diameters. Lateral coherence (separation 5m) seemed to be unaffected by the wake at 7.5 diameters, but the flow was less coherent in the near wake. The wake appeared to have little influence on vertical coherence (separation 13m). Simple, conventional models for coherence appeared to be adequate descriptions for wake turbulence except for the near wake situation. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Structured adaptive grid generation using algebraic methods (United States)

    Yang, Jiann-Cherng; Soni, Bharat K.; Roger, R. P.; Chan, Stephen C.


    The accuracy of the numerical algorithm depends not only on the formal order of approximation but also on the distribution of grid points in the computational domain. Grid adaptation is a procedure which allows optimal grid redistribution as the solution progresses. It offers the prospect of accurate flow field simulations without the use of an excessively timely, computationally expensive, grid. Grid adaptive schemes are divided into two basic categories: differential and algebraic. The differential method is based on a variational approach where a function which contains a measure of grid smoothness, orthogonality and volume variation is minimized by using a variational principle. This approach provided a solid mathematical basis for the adaptive method, but the Euler-Lagrange equations must be solved in addition to the original governing equations. On the other hand, the algebraic method requires much less computational effort, but the grid may not be smooth. The algebraic techniques are based on devising an algorithm where the grid movement is governed by estimates of the local error in the numerical solution. This is achieved by requiring the points in the large error regions to attract other points and points in the low error region to repel other points. The development of a fast, efficient, and robust algebraic adaptive algorithm for structured flow simulation applications is presented. This development is accomplished in a three step process. The first step is to define an adaptive weighting mesh (distribution mesh) on the basis of the equidistribution law applied to the flow field solution. The second, and probably the most crucial step, is to redistribute grid points in the computational domain according to the aforementioned weighting mesh. The third and the last step is to reevaluate the flow property by an appropriate search/interpolate scheme at the new grid locations. The adaptive weighting mesh provides the information on the desired concentration

  13. Large eddy stimulation and experimental measurement of near wake structures of a slotted circular cylinder%开缝圆柱近场尾流的大涡模拟和实验测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨锦文; 何意; 鲍锋


    The flow around cylinder is one of the classic research issues of fluid mechanics.The modifica-tion of the cylindrical geometry will affect the cylinder’s pressure distribution and near wake flow structures. The present study on slotted cylinder has some certain values in engineering applications such as vortex gen-erator in flow meters and heat convection.Large eddy stimulation based on 3-D Fluent code was carried out for cylinders with slit,with respect to test model of ratio of slit width to diameter s/d =0.15 on five different Reynolds numbers (Re =1500、3000、4400、5837、7200).By the means of qualitative flow visualization and quantitative PIV experiments,the flow patterns between the slit and the shedding vortex of the baseline and slotted cylinder were carefully investigated,measuring and predicting of the shedding vortex frequency were included.The results of numerical simulation agreed well with the experimental measurement.The experi-mental and computational results show that the flow in the slit demonstrated periodic motion,this oscillating vent-flow has greatly altered the near wake flow features.The periodic oscillation in the slit has enhanced the periodicity of the flow around circular cylinder;consequently,the slotted cylinder exhibited an increase in shedding vortex frequency and Strouhal number compared with their baseline case at the same Reynolds numbers.Meanwhile,The wake of the slotted cylinder presented obvious three dimensional features.%基于 Fluent 软件平台采用大涡模拟(LES)的方法对开缝圆柱绕流进行了三维数值仿真,计算了五组不同雷诺数(Re =1500、3000、4400、5837、7200)情况下缝宽比 s/d =0.15的开缝圆柱绕流流场。通过定性的流动显示和定量的 PIV 实验,对 s/d =0.15情况下开缝圆柱内部缝隙流动以及旋涡脱落情况进行了细致研究,并测量了基准圆柱与开缝圆柱的脱落涡频率。数值模拟与实验测量结果符合

  14. Predictive simulation of wind turbine wake interaction with an adaptive lattice Boltzmann method for moving boundaries (United States)

    Deiterding, Ralf; Wood, Stephen L.


    Operating horizontal axis wind turbines create large-scale turbulent wake structures that affect the power output of downwind turbines considerably. The computational prediction of this phenomenon is challenging as efficient low dissipation schemes are necessary that represent the vorticity production by the moving structures accurately and are able to transport wakes without significant artificial decay over distances of several rotor diameters. We have developed the first version of a parallel adaptive lattice Boltzmann method for large eddy simulation of turbulent weakly compressible flows with embedded moving structures that considers these requirements rather naturally and enables first principle simulations of wake-turbine interaction phenomena at reasonable computational costs. The presentation will describe the employed algorithms and present relevant verification and validation computations. For instance, power and thrust coefficients of a Vestas V27 turbine are predicted within 5% of the manufacturer's specifications. Simulations of three Vestas V27-225kW turbines in triangular arrangement analyze the reduction in power production due to upstream wake generation for different inflow conditions.

  15. TR PIV Experimental Investigation on Bypass Transition Induced by a Cylinder Wake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhan-Qi; JIANG Nan


    @@ The process of laminar to turbulent transition induced by a cylinder wake is studied by time-resolved(TR)particle image velocimetry(PIV) in a water channel.The combination of multi-scale local-averaged structure function analysis with criteria is used to identify the generation of secondary transverse vortex structure andto track its evolution along the streamvise.At the beginning of transition,with the decent of cylinder wake vortex,the secondary vortex structure is induced near the vall.As the secondary vortex moves dovnstream,it is induced to lift up by the wake vortex,meanwhile they are diffused and dissipated.According to the method of spatial conditional average,a low-speedhump is found in the near-wallregion along the bypass transition zone,accompanied by a low-speed region in the free stream occupied by the vake vortex.With further downstream,the hump in the near-wall region becomes more and more obvious.At the later stage of transition zone,hairpin vortex can be seen by conditional-averaged low-pass filtered vorticity.The hairpin head is almost vertical to the wall with an inclination angle of about 90°,which is attributed to the additional lift-up behavior induced by wake vortex.It can be concluded that in the process of bypass transition,the wake vortex would not only induce the secondary vortex but also leaven its growth and evolution,resulting in the robust and rapidly growing hairpin vortex.%The process of laminar to turbulent transition induced by a cylinder wake is studied by time-resolved (TR)particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a water channel. The combination of multi-scale local-averaged structure function analysis with criteria is used to identify the generation of secondary transverse vortex structure and to track its evolution along the streamwise. At the beginning of transition, with the decent of cylinder wake vortex, the secondary vortex structure is induced near the wall. As the secondary vortex moves downstream, it is induced to lift

  16. Automated quadrilateral mesh generation for digital image structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    With the development of advanced imaging technology, digital images are widely used. This paper proposes an automatic quadrilateral mesh generation algorithm for multi-colour imaged structures. It takes an original arbitrary digital image as an input for automatic quadrilateral mesh generation, this includes removing the noise, extracting and smoothing the boundary geometries between different colours, and automatic all-quad mesh generation with the above boundaries as constraints. An application example is...

  17. Mutation Sampling Technique for the Generation of Structural Test Data

    CERN Document Server

    Scholive, M; Robach, C; Flottes, M L; Rouzeyre, B


    Our goal is to produce validation data that can be used as an efficient (pre) test set for structural stuck-at faults. In this paper, we detail an original test-oriented mutation sampling technique used for generating such data and we present a first evaluation on these validation data with regard to a structural test.

  18. Synergistic Effects of Turbine Wakes and Atmospheric Stability on Power Production at an Onshore Wind Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K; Marjanovic, N


    This report examines the complex interactions between atmospheric stability and turbine-induced wakes on downwind turbine wind speed and power production at a West Coast North American multi-MW wind farm. Wakes are generated when the upwind flow field is distorted by the mechanical movement of the wind turbine blades. This has two consequences for downwind turbines: (1) the downwind turbine encounters wind flows with reduced velocity and (2) the downwind turbine encounters increased turbulence across multiple length scales via mechanical turbulence production by the upwind turbine. This increase in turbulence on top of ambient levels may increase aerodynamic fatigue loads on the blades and reduce the lifetime of turbine component parts. Furthermore, ambient atmospheric conditions, including atmospheric stability, i.e., thermal stratification in the lower boundary layer, play an important role in wake dissipation. Higher levels of ambient turbulence (i.e., a convective or unstable boundary layer) lead to higher turbulent mixing in the wake and a faster recovery in the velocity flow field downwind of a turbine. Lower levels of ambient turbulence, as in a stable boundary layer, will lead to more persistent wakes. The wake of a wind turbine can be divided into two regions: the near wake and far wake, as illustrated in Figure 1. The near wake is formed when the turbine structure alters the shape of the flow field and usually persists one rotor diameter (D) downstream. The difference between the air inside and outside of the near wake results in a shear layer. This shear layer thickens as it moves downstream and forms turbulent eddies of multiple length scales. As the wake travels downstream, it expands depending on the level of ambient turbulence and meanders (i.e., travels in non-uniform path). Schepers estimates that the wake is fully expanded at a distance of 2.25 D and the far wake region begins at 2-5 D downstream. The actual distance traveled before the wake

  19. Wind turbine wake in atmospheric turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rethore, P.-E.


    This thesis describes the different steps needed to design a steady-state computational fluid dynamics (CFD) wind farm wake model. The ultimate goal of the project was to design a tool that could analyze and extrapolate systematically wind farm measurements to generate wind maps in order to calibrate faster and simpler engineering wind farm wake models. The most attractive solution was the actuator disc method with the steady state k-epsilon turbulence model. The first step to design such a tool is the treatment of the forces. This thesis presents a computationally inexpensive method to apply discrete body forces into the finite-volume flow solver with collocated variable treatment (EllipSys), which avoids the pressure-velocity decoupling issue. The second step is to distribute the body forces in the computational domain accordingly to rotor loading. This thesis presents a generic flexible method that associates any kind of shapes with the computational domain discretization. The special case of the actuator disc performs remarkably well in comparison with Conway's heavily loaded actuator disc analytical solution and a CFD full rotor computation, even with a coarse discretization. The third step is to model the atmospheric turbulence. The standard k-epsilon model is found to be unable to model at the same time the atmospheric turbulence and the actuator disc wake and performs badly in comparison with single wind turbine wake measurements. A comparison with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) shows that the problem mainly comes from the assumptions of the eddy-viscosity concept, which are deeply invalidated in the wind turbine wake region. Different models that intent to correct the k-epsilon model's issues are investigated, of which none of them is found to be adequate. The mixing of the wake in the atmosphere is a deeply non-local phenomenon that is not handled correctly by an eddy-viscosity model such as k-epsilon. (author)

  20. Hub vortex instability within wind turbine wakes: Effects of wind turbulence, loading conditions, and blade aerodynamics (United States)

    Ashton, Ryan; Viola, Francesco; Camarri, Simone; Gallaire, Francois; Iungo, Giacomo Valerio


    The near wake of wind turbines is characterized by the presence of the hub vortex, which is a coherent vorticity structure generated from the interaction between the root vortices and the boundary layer evolving over the turbine nacelle. By moving downstream, the hub vortex undergoes an instability with growth rate, azimuthal and axial wavenumbers determined by the characteristics of the incoming wind and turbine aerodynamics. Thus, a large variability of the hub vortex instability is expected for wind energy applications with consequent effects on wake downstream evolution, wake interactions within a wind farm, power production, and fatigue loads on turbines invested by wakes generated upstream. In order to predict characteristics of the hub vortex instability for different operating conditions, linear stability analysis is carried out by considering different statistics of the incoming wind turbulence, thrust coefficient, tip speed ratio, and blade lift distribution of a wind turbine. Axial and azimuthal wake velocity fields are modeled through Carton-McWilliams velocity profiles by mimicking the presence of the hub vortex, helicoidal tip vortices, and matching the wind turbine thrust coefficient predicted through the actuator disk model. The linear stability analysis shows that hub vortex instability is strongly affected by the wind turbine loading conditions, and specifically it is promoted by a larger thrust coefficient. A higher load of the wind turbines produces an enhanced axial velocity deficit and, in turn, higher shear in the radial direction of the streamwise velocity. The axial velocity shear within the turbine wake is also the main physical mechanism promoting the hub vortex instability when varying the lift distribution over the blade span for a specific loading condition. Cases with a larger velocity deficit in proximity of the wake center and less aerodynamic load towards the blade tip result to be more unstable. Moreover, wake swirl promotes hub

  1. Interaction of Aircraft Wakes From Laterally Spaced Aircraft (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.


    Large Eddy Simulations are used to examine wake interactions from aircraft on closely spaced parallel paths. Two sets of experiments are conducted, with the first set examining wake interactions out of ground effect (OGE) and the second set for in ground effect (IGE). The initial wake field for each aircraft represents a rolled-up wake vortex pair generated by a B-747. Parametric sets include wake interactions from aircraft pairs with lateral separations of 400, 500, 600, and 750 ft. The simulation of a wake from a single aircraft is used as baseline. The study shows that wake vortices from either a pair or a formation of B-747 s that fly with very close lateral spacing, last longer than those from an isolated B-747. For OGE, the inner vortices between the pair of aircraft, ascend, link and quickly dissipate, leaving the outer vortices to decay and descend slowly. For the IGE scenario, the inner vortices ascend and last longer, while the outer vortices decay from ground interaction at a rate similar to that expected from an isolated aircraft. Both OGE and IGE scenarios produce longer-lasting wakes for aircraft with separations less than 600 ft. The results are significant because concepts to increase airport capacity have been proposed that assume either aircraft formations and/or aircraft pairs landing on very closely spaced runways.

  2. Experimental study on the near wake behind two side-by-side cylinders of unequal diameters (United States)

    Gao, Yangyang; Yu, Dingyong; Tan, Soonkeat; Wang, Xikun; Hao, Zhiyong


    The wake structure behind two side-by-side circular cylinders with unequal diameter was investigated using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. This investigation focused on the asymmetrical flow within the subcritical Reynolds number regime. A comparison between the time-averaged mean flow field of one cylinder and that of two side-by-side cylinders of unequal diameter was made for elucidating the mean flow characteristics attributable to the latter. The distribution of mean velocity behind two side-by-side unequal cylinders was distinctly different from that behind one cylinder, and an asymmetric combination was observed behind the two cylinders. The present paper also presents the authors' interpretation of the generation mechanism of gap flow deflection based on the instantaneous vorticity contours and velocity distribution. The effect of Reynolds number on flow structure was studied by analyzing the mean velocity distribution and time-averaged wake structures. The results showed that vortex formation length decreases with Reynolds number.

  3. Strongly Stratified Turbulence Wakes and Mixing Produced by Fractal Wakes (United States)

    Dimitrieva, Natalia; Redondo, Jose Manuel; Chashechkin, Yuli; Fraunie, Philippe; Velascos, David


    This paper describes Shliering and Shadowgraph experiments of the wake induced mixing produced by tranversing a vertical or horizontal fractal grid through the interfase between two miscible fluids at low Atwood and Reynolds numbers. This is a configuration design to models the mixing across isopycnals in stably-stratified flows in many environmental relevant situations (either in the atmosphere or in the ocean. The initial unstable stratification is characterized by a reduced gravity: g' = gΔρ ρ where g is gravity, Δρ being the initial density step and ρ the reference density. Here the Atwood number is A = g' _ 2 g . The topology of the fractal wake within the strong stratification, and the internal wave field produces both a turbulent cascade and a wave cascade, with frecuen parametric resonances, the envelope of the mixing front is found to follow a complex non steady 3rd order polinomial function with a maximum at about 4-5 Brunt-Vaisalla non-dimensional time scales: t/N δ = c1(t/N) + c2g Δρ ρ (t/N)2 -c3(t/N)3. Conductivity probes and Shliering and Shadowgraph visual techniques, including CIV with (Laser induced fluorescence and digitization of the light attenuation across the tank) are used in order to investigate the density gradients and the three-dimensionality of the expanding and contracting wake. Fractal analysis is also used in order to estimate the fastest and slowest growing wavelengths. The large scale structures are observed to increase in wave-length as the mixing progresses, and the processes involved in this increase in scale are also examined.Measurements of the pointwise and horizontally averaged concentrations confirm the picture obtained from past flow visualization studies. They show that the fluid passes through the mixing region with relatively small amounts of molecular mixing,and the molecular effects only dominate on longer time scales when the small scales have penetrated through the large scale structures. The Non

  4. Random generation of RNA secondary structures according to native distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebel Markus E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Random biological sequences are a topic of great interest in genome analysis since, according to a powerful paradigm, they represent the background noise from which the actual biological information must differentiate. Accordingly, the generation of random sequences has been investigated for a long time. Similarly, random object of a more complicated structure like RNA molecules or proteins are of interest. Results In this article, we present a new general framework for deriving algorithms for the non-uniform random generation of combinatorial objects according to the encoding and probability distribution implied by a stochastic context-free grammar. Briefly, the framework extends on the well-known recursive method for (uniform random generation and uses the popular framework of admissible specifications of combinatorial classes, introducing weighted combinatorial classes to allow for the non-uniform generation by means of unranking. This framework is used to derive an algorithm for the generation of RNA secondary structures of a given fixed size. We address the random generation of these structures according to a realistic distribution obtained from real-life data by using a very detailed context-free grammar (that models the class of RNA secondary structures by distinguishing between all known motifs in RNA structure. Compared to well-known sampling approaches used in several structure prediction tools (such as SFold ours has two major advantages: Firstly, after a preprocessing step in time O(n2 for the computation of all weighted class sizes needed, with our approach a set of m random secondary structures of a given structure size n can be computed in worst-case time complexity Om⋅n⋅ log(n while other algorithms typically have a runtime in O(m⋅n2. Secondly, our approach works with integer arithmetic only which is faster and saves us from all the discomforting details of using floating point arithmetic with

  5. Absorption-reduced waveguide structure for efficient terahertz generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pálfalvi, L., E-mail: [Institute of Physics, University of Pécs, Ifjúság ú. 6, 7624 Pécs (Hungary); Fülöp, J. A. [MTA-PTE High-Field Terahertz Research Group, Ifjúság ú. 6, 7624 Pécs (Hungary); Szentágothai Research Centre, University of Pécs, Ifjúság ú. 20, 7624 Pécs (Hungary); Hebling, J. [Institute of Physics, University of Pécs, Ifjúság ú. 6, 7624 Pécs (Hungary); MTA-PTE High-Field Terahertz Research Group, Ifjúság ú. 6, 7624 Pécs (Hungary); Szentágothai Research Centre, University of Pécs, Ifjúság ú. 20, 7624 Pécs (Hungary)


    An absorption-reduced planar waveguide structure is proposed for increasing the efficiency of terahertz (THz) pulse generation by optical rectification of femtosecond laser pulses with tilted-pulse-front in highly nonlinear materials with large absorption coefficient. The structure functions as waveguide both for the optical pump and the generated THz radiation. Most of the THz power propagates inside the cladding with low THz absorption, thereby reducing losses and leading to the enhancement of the THz generation efficiency by up to more than one order of magnitude, as compared with a bulk medium. Such a source can be suitable for highly efficient THz pulse generation pumped by low-energy (nJ-μJ) pulses at high (MHz) repetition rates delivered by compact fiber lasers.

  6. Analysis of the Radar Reflectivity of Aircraft Vortex Wakes (United States)

    Shariff, Karim; Wray, Alan; Yan, Jerry (Technical Monitor)


    Radar has been proposed as a way to track wake vortices to reduce aircraft spacing and tests have revealed radar echoes from aircraft wakes in clear air. The results are always interpreted qualitatively using Tatarski's theory of weak scattering by isotropic atmospheric turbulence. The goal of the present work was to predict the value of the radar cross-section (RCS) using simpler models. This is accomplished in two steps. First, the refractive index is obtained. Since the structure of the aircraft wakes is different from atmospheric turbulence, three simple mechanisms specific to vortex wakes are considered: (1) Radial density gradient in a two-dimensional vortex, (2) three-dimensional fluctuations in the vortex cores, and (3) Adiabatic transport of the atmospheric fluid in a two-dimensional oval surrounding the pair of vortices. The index of refraction is obtained more precisely for the two-dimensional mechanisms than for the three-dimensional ones. In the second step, knowing the index of refraction, a scattering analysis is performed. Tatarski's weak scattering approximation is kept but the usual assumptions of a far-field and a uniform incident wave are dropped. Neither assumption is generally valid for a wake that is coherent across the radar beam. For analytical insight, a simpler approximation that invokes, in addition to weak scattering, the far-field and wide cylindrical beam assumptions, is also developed and compared with the more general analysis. The predicted RCS values for the oval surround the vortices (mechanism C) agree with the experiments of Bilson conducted over a wide range of frequencies. However, the predictions have a cut-off away from normal incidence which is not present in the measurements. Estimates suggest that this is due to turbulence in the baroclinic vorticity generated at the boundary of the oval. The reflectivity of a vortex itself (mechanism A) is comparable to that of the oval (mechanism C) but cuts-off at frequencies lower

  7. A generative, probabilistic model of local protein structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Wouter; Mardia, Kanti V.; Taylor, Charles C.;


    Despite significant progress in recent years, protein structure prediction maintains its status as one of the prime unsolved problems in computational biology. One of the key remaining challenges is an efficient probabilistic exploration of the structural space that correctly reflects the relative...... conformational stabilities. Here, we present a fully probabilistic, continuous model of local protein structure in atomic detail. The generative model makes efficient conformational sampling possible and provides a framework for the rigorous analysis of local sequence-structure correlations in the native state...

  8. Coupled wake boundary layer model of wind-farms

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, Richard J A M; Meneveau, Charles


    We present and test a coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model that describes the distribution of the power output in a wind-farm. The model couples the traditional, industry-standard wake expansion/superposition approach with a top-down model for the overall wind-farm boundary layer structure. The wake expansion/superposition model captures the effect of turbine positioning, while the top-down portion adds the interaction between the wind-turbine wakes and the atmospheric boundary layer. Each portion of the model requires specification of a parameter that is not known a-priori. For the wake model the wake expansion coefficient is required, while the top-down model requires an effective span-wise turbine spacing within which the model's momentum balance is relevant. The wake expansion coefficient is obtained by matching the predicted mean velocity at the turbine from both approaches, while the effective span-wise turbine spacing depends on turbine positioning and thus can be determined from the wake expansion...

  9. Data-driven RANS for prediction of wind turbine wakes (United States)

    Iungo, Giacomo Valerio; Viola, Francesco; Ciri, Umberto; Camarri, Simone; Rotea, Mario A.; Leonardi, Stefano


    Wind turbine wakes are highly turbulent flows resulting from the interaction between the atmospheric boundary layer and wake vorticity structures. Measurement technologies, such as wind LiDARs, are currently available to perform velocity measurements in a set of locations of wakes past utility-scale wind turbines; however, computational methods are still needed to predict wake downstream evolution. In this work, a low-computational cost and accurate algorithm is proposed for prediction of the spatial evolution of wind turbine wakes. Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes equations (RANS) are formulated in cylindrical coordinates and simplified by using a boundary layer type approximation. Turbulence effects are taken into account with a mixing length model calibrated on the available observations. In this study, observations of wind turbine wakes consist in LES data of wakes produced by a wind turbine operating with different incoming wind and loading conditions. The mixing length calibrated on the LES data is constant in the near wake and only affected by the incoming turbulence, whereas further downstream it increases roughly linearly with the downstream position and with increased slope for increasing rotational speed of the turbine.

  10. Generating function approach to reliability analysis of structural systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The generating function approach is an important tool for performance assessment in multi-state systems. Aiming at strength reliability analysis of structural systems, generating function approach is introduced and developed. Static reliability models of statically determinate, indeterminate systems and fatigue reliability models are built by constructing special generating functions, which are used to describe probability distributions of strength (resistance), stress (load) and fatigue life, by defining composite operators of generating functions and performance structure functions thereof. When composition operators are executed, computational costs can be reduced by a big margin by means of collecting like terms. The results of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show that the generating function approach can be widely used for probability modeling of large complex systems with hierarchical structures due to the unified form, compact expression, computer program realizability and high universality. Because the new method considers twin loads giving rise to component failure dependency, it can provide a theoretical reference and act as a powerful tool for static, dynamic reliability analysis in civil engineering structures and mechanical equipment systems with multi-mode damage coupling.

  11. Structural Learning of Attack Vectors for Generating Mutated XSS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsun Wang


    Full Text Available Web applications suffer from cross-site scripting (XSS attacks that resulting from incomplete or incorrect input sanitization. Learning the structure of attack vectors could enrich the variety of manifestations in generated XSS attacks. In this study, we focus on generating more threatening XSS attacks for the state-of-the-art detection approaches that can find potential XSS vulnerabilities in Web applications, and propose a mechanism for structural learning of attack vectors with the aim of generating mutated XSS attacks in a fully automatic way. Mutated XSS attack generation depends on the analysis of attack vectors and the structural learning mechanism. For the kernel of the learning mechanism, we use a Hidden Markov model (HMM as the structure of the attack vector model to capture the implicit manner of the attack vector, and this manner is benefited from the syntax meanings that are labeled by the proposed tokenizing mechanism. Bayes theorem is used to determine the number of hidden states in the model for generalizing the structure model. The paper has the contributions as following: (1 automatically learn the structure of attack vectors from practical data analysis to modeling a structure model of attack vectors, (2 mimic the manners and the elements of attack vectors to extend the ability of testing tool for identifying XSS vulnerabilities, (3 be helpful to verify the flaws of blacklist sanitization procedures of Web applications. We evaluated the proposed mechanism by Burp Intruder with a dataset collected from public XSS archives. The results show that mutated XSS attack generation can identify potential vulnerabilities.

  12. Injecting Structured Data to Generative Topic Model in Enterprise Settings (United States)

    Xiao, Han; Wang, Xiaojie; Du, Chao

    Enterprises have accumulated both structured and unstructured data steadily as computing resources improve. However, previous research on enterprise data mining often treats these two kinds of data independently and omits mutual benefits. We explore the approach to incorporate a common type of structured data (i.e. organigram) into generative topic model. Our approach, the Partially Observed Topic model (POT), not only considers the unstructured words, but also takes into account the structured information in its generation process. By integrating the structured data implicitly, the mixed topics over document are partially observed during the Gibbs sampling procedure. This allows POT to learn topic pertinently and directionally, which makes it easy tuning and suitable for end-use application. We evaluate our proposed new model on a real-world dataset and show the result of improved expressiveness over traditional LDA. In the task of document classification, POT also demonstrates more discriminative power than LDA.

  13. On the Production of Flat Electron Bunches for Laser Wake Field Acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kando, M.; Fukuda, Y.; Kotaki, H.; Koga, J.; Bulanov, S.V.; Tajima, T.; /JAERI, Kyoto; Chao, A.; Pitthan, R.; /SLAC; Schuler, K.-P.; /DESY; Zhidkov, A.G.; /CRIEPI, Tokyo; Nemoto, K.; /CRIEPI, Tokyo


    We suggest a novel method for injection of electrons into the acceleration phase of particle accelerators, producing low emittance beams appropriate even for the demanding high energy Linear Collider specifications. In this paper we work out the injection into the acceleration phase of the wake field in a plasma behind a high intensity laser pulse, taking advantage of the laser polarization and focusing. With the aid of catastrophe theory we categorize the injection dynamics. The scheme uses the structurally stable regime of transverse wake wave breaking, when electron trajectory self-intersection leads to the formation of a flat electron bunch. As shown in three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of the interaction of a laser pulse in a line-focus with an underdense plasma, the electrons, injected via the transverse wake wave breaking and accelerated by the wake wave, perform betatron oscillations with different amplitudes and frequencies along the two transverse coordinates. The polarization and focusing geometry lead to a way to produce relativistic electron bunches with asymmetric emittance (flat beam). An approach for generating flat laser accelerated ion beams is briefly discussed.

  14. A Structural Algorithm for Complex Natural Languages Parse Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enikuomehin, A. O.


    Full Text Available In artificial intelligence, the study of how humans understand natural languages is cognitive based and such science is essential in the development of a modern day embedded robotic systems. Such systems should have the capability to process natural languages and generate meaningful output. As against machines, humans have the ability to understand a natural language sentence due to the in-born facility inherent in them and such is used to process it. Robotics requires appropriate PARSE systems to be developed in order to handle language based operations. In this paper, we present a new method of generating parse structures on complex natural language using algorithmic processes. The paper explores the process of generating meaning via parse structure and improves on the existing results using well established parsing scheme. The resulting algorithm was implemented in Java and a natural language interface for parse generation is presented. The result further shows that tokenizing sentences into their respective units affects the parse structure in the first instance and semantic representation in the larger scale. Efforts were made to limit the rules used in the generation of the grammar since natural language rules are almost infinite depending on the language set. (Abstract

  15. Learning Orthographic Structure With Sequential Generative Neural Networks. (United States)

    Testolin, Alberto; Stoianov, Ivilin; Sperduti, Alessandro; Zorzi, Marco


    Learning the structure of event sequences is a ubiquitous problem in cognition and particularly in language. One possible solution is to learn a probabilistic generative model of sequences that allows making predictions about upcoming events. Though appealing from a neurobiological standpoint, this approach is typically not pursued in connectionist modeling. Here, we investigated a sequential version of the restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM), a stochastic recurrent neural network that extracts high-order structure from sensory data through unsupervised generative learning and can encode contextual information in the form of internal, distributed representations. We assessed whether this type of network can extract the orthographic structure of English monosyllables by learning a generative model of the letter sequences forming a word training corpus. We show that the network learned an accurate probabilistic model of English graphotactics, which can be used to make predictions about the letter following a given context as well as to autonomously generate high-quality pseudowords. The model was compared to an extended version of simple recurrent networks, augmented with a stochastic process that allows autonomous generation of sequences, and to non-connectionist probabilistic models (n-grams and hidden Markov models). We conclude that sequential RBMs and stochastic simple recurrent networks are promising candidates for modeling cognition in the temporal domain.

  16. Structural looseness investigation in slow rotating permanent magnet generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Mijatovic, Nenad; Sweeney, Christian Walsted;


    Structural looseness in electric machines is a condition influencing the alignment of the machine and thus the overall bearing health. In this work, assessment of the above mentioned failure mode is tested on a slow rotating (running speed equal to 0.7Hz) permanent magnet generator (PMG), while...

  17. Learning Orthographic Structure with Sequential Generative Neural Networks (United States)

    Testolin, Alberto; Stoianov, Ivilin; Sperduti, Alessandro; Zorzi, Marco


    Learning the structure of event sequences is a ubiquitous problem in cognition and particularly in language. One possible solution is to learn a probabilistic generative model of sequences that allows making predictions about upcoming events. Though appealing from a neurobiological standpoint, this approach is typically not pursued in…

  18. Structural Learning of Attack Vectors for Generating Mutated XSS Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yi-Hsun; Lee, Hahn-Ming; 10.4204/EPTCS.35.2


    Web applications suffer from cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks that resulting from incomplete or incorrect input sanitization. Learning the structure of attack vectors could enrich the variety of manifestations in generated XSS attacks. In this study, we focus on generating more threatening XSS attacks for the state-of-the-art detection approaches that can find potential XSS vulnerabilities in Web applications, and propose a mechanism for structural learning of attack vectors with the aim of generating mutated XSS attacks in a fully automatic way. Mutated XSS attack generation depends on the analysis of attack vectors and the structural learning mechanism. For the kernel of the learning mechanism, we use a Hidden Markov model (HMM) as the structure of the attack vector model to capture the implicit manner of the attack vector, and this manner is benefited from the syntax meanings that are labeled by the proposed tokenizing mechanism. Bayes theorem is used to determine the number of hidden states in the model...

  19. Virtual Screening and Structure Generation Applied to Drug Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The methods of computer-aided drug design can be divided into two categories according to whether or not the structures of receptors are known1, corresponding to two principal strategies:(1) searching the bio-active ligands against virtual combinatorial libraries and calculating the affinity energy between ligand and receptor by docking ; (2) QSAR and 3D-structure data-mining.3D-QSAR method is now applied widely to drug discovery, but this method is generally limited to refine the structures of known bio-active compounds. During the process of drug design, we have usually the prejudice that certain groups or structural fragments will play or not important roles on the activity. This will sometimes be misleading, and prevent us from obtaining expected results.The method of generating firstly diverse structures, then screening out the promising structures by means of a computational method or QSAR model, is an efficient way for drug discovery. We developed an efficient virtual and rational drag design method. It combines virtual bioactive compound generation using genetic algorithms with 3D-QSAR model and docking. Using this method can generate a lot of highly diverse molecules and find virtual active lead compounds. The method was validated by the study on a set of anti-tumor drugs, colchicine analogs2. With the constraints of pharmacophore obtained determined by DISCO, 97 virtual bioactive compounds were generated,and their anti-tumor activities were predicted by CoMFA. 8 structures with high activity were selected and screened by 3D-QSAR model. The most active generated structure was further investigated by modifying its structure in order to increase the activity (see fig.1). This drug design method could also avoid the conflict between the insufficiency of active structures and the great quantity of compounds needed for high-throughput screening. This method has been also applied to anti-HIV drug design.We have developed equally another approach of virtual

  20. Survey on the consciousness structure toward nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.; Yoshida, T. (Nomura Research Institute, Kamakura, Kanagawa (Japan))


    A survey on the popular consciousness toward nuclear power generation was carried out by direct means of questionnaire to 1600 persons, ages from 20 to 69, in power demand areas (Tokyo and Osaka) and power supply areas (sites of nuclear power generation) from early February to early March, 1980, and the recovery rate was 74.4% (1190 persons). The results are described by way of their explanation. The purpose is to clarify the structure of popular consciousness toward nuclear energy, in particular nuclear power generation, and the nature of its acceptance. That is, it was surveyed how general people in the power supply and the power demand areas are taking nuclear power generation concerning its need and safety, and further how the attitudes are constituted and vary.

  1. Dyspnoea waking from sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Yildirim*


    Discussion: OSAS, as drivers working people, especially at night, is a disease that leads to serious consequences. Polysomnography is the gold standard for diagnosis and severity of the syndrome, apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI is determined by; AHI = normal  30 is severe. From repetitive episodes of apnoea increased sympathetic nerve activity, oxidative stress, intrathoracic pressure swings, sudden jumps in systemic blood pressure, hypoxia and hypercapnia. Emergency services waking from sleep dyspnoea, lethargy and fatigue in patients admitted with complaints of snoring and OSAS cannot be forgotten.

  2. Effect of Structural Modification on Second Harmonic Generation in Collagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoller, P C; Reiser, K M; Celliers, P M; Rubenchik, A M


    The effects of structural perturbation on second harmonic generation in collagen were investigated. Type I collagen fascicles obtained from rat tails were structurally modified by increasing nonenzymatic cross-linking, by thermal denaturation, by collagenase digestion, or by dehydration. Changes in polarization dependence were observed in the dehydrated samples. Surprisingly, no changes in polarization dependence were observed in highly crosslinked samples, despite significant alterations in packing structure. Complete thermal denaturation and collagenase digestion produced samples with no detectable second harmonic signal. Prior to loss of signal, no change in polarization dependence was observed in partially heated or digested collagen.

  3. Effect of structural modification on second harmonic generation in collagen (United States)

    Stoller, Patrick C.; Reiser, Karen M.; Celliers, Peter M.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.


    The effects of structural perturbation on second harmonic generation in collagen were investigated. Type I collagen fascicles obtained from rat tails were structurally modified by increasing nonenzymatic cross-linking, by thermal denaturation, by collagenase digestion, or by dehydration. Changes in polarization dependence were observed in the dehydrated samples. Surprisingly, no changes in polarization dependence were observed in highly crosslinked samples, despite significant alterations in packing structure. Complete thermal denaturation and collagenase digestion produced samples with no detectable second harmonic signal. Prior to loss of signal, no change in polarization dependence was observed in partially heated or digested collagen.

  4. Code Generation for Embedded Software for Modeling Clear Box Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Chandra Prakash


    Full Text Available Cleanroom software Engineering (CRSE recommended that the code related to the Application systems be generated either manually or through code generation models or represents the same as a hierarchy of clear box structures. CRSE has even advocated that the code be developed using the State models that models the internal behavior of the systems. No framework has been recommended by any Author using which the Clear boxes are designed using the code generation methods. Code Generation is one of the important quality issues addressed in cleanroom software engineering. It has been investigated that CRSE can be used for life cycle management of the embedded systems when the hardware-software co-design is in-built as part and parcel of CRSE by way of adding suitable models to CRSE and redefining the same. The design of Embedded Systems involves code generation in respect of hardware and Embedded Software. In this paper, a framework is proposed using which the embedded software is generated. The method is unique that it considers various aspects of the code generation which includes Code Segments, Code Functions, Classes, Globalization, Variable propagation etc. The proposed Framework has been applied to a Pilot project and the experimental results are presented.

  5. Wake Dynamics in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Over Complex Terrain (United States)

    Markfort, Corey D.

    The goal of this research is to advance our understanding of atmospheric boundary layer processes over heterogeneous landscapes and complex terrain. The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is a relatively thin (˜ 1 km) turbulent layer of air near the earth's surface, in which most human activities and engineered systems are concentrated. Its dynamics are crucially important for biosphere-atmosphere couplings and for global atmospheric dynamics, with significant implications on our ability to predict and mitigate adverse impacts of land use and climate change. In models of the ABL, land surface heterogeneity is typically represented, in the context of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, as changes in aerodynamic roughness length and surface heat and moisture fluxes. However, many real landscapes are more complex, often leading to massive boundary layer separation and wake turbulence, for which standard models fail. Trees, building clusters, and steep topography produce extensive wake regions currently not accounted for in models of the ABL. Wind turbines and wind farms also generate wakes that combine in complex ways to modify the ABL. Wind farms are covering an increasingly significant area of the globe and the effects of large wind farms must be included in regional and global scale models. Research presented in this thesis demonstrates that wakes caused by landscape heterogeneity must be included in flux parameterizations for momentum, heat, and mass (water vapor and trace gases, e.g. CO2 and CH4) in ABL simulation and prediction models in order to accurately represent land-atmosphere interactions. Accurate representation of these processes is crucial for the predictions of weather, air quality, lake processes, and ecosystems response to climate change. Objectives of the research reported in this thesis are: 1) to investigate turbulent boundary layer adjustment, turbulent transport and scalar flux in wind farms of varying configurations and develop an improved

  6. Improvements in ECN Wake Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versteeg, M.C. [University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Ozdemir, H.; Brand, A.J. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)


    Wind turbines extract energy from the flow field so that the flow in the wake of a wind turbine contains less energy and more turbulence than the undisturbed flow, leading to less energy extraction for the downstream turbines. In large wind farms, most turbines are located in the wake of one or more turbines causing the flow characteristics felt by these turbines differ considerably from the free stream flow conditions. The most important wake effect is generally considered to be the lower wind speed behind the turbine(s) since this decreases the energy production and as such the economical performance of a wind farm. The overall loss of a wind farm is very much dependent on the conditions and the lay-out of the farm but it can be in the order of 5-10%. Apart from the loss in energy production an additional wake effect is formed by the increase in turbulence intensity, which leads to higher fatigue loads. In this sense it becomes important to understand the details of wake behavior to improve and/or optimize a wind farm layout. Within this study improvements are presented for the existing ECN wake model which constructs the fundamental basis of ECN's FarmFlow wind farm wake simulation tool. The outline of this paper is as follows: first, the governing equations of the ECN wake farm model are presented. Then the near wake modeling is discussed and the results compared with the original near wake modeling and EWTW (ECN Wind Turbine Test Site Wieringermeer) data as well as the results obtained for various near wake implementation cases are shown. The details of the atmospheric stability model are given and the comparison with the solution obtained for the original surface layer model and with the available data obtained by EWTW measurements are presented. Finally the conclusions are summarized.

  7. Light detection and ranging measurements of wake dynamics Part I: One-dimensional Scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingöl, Ferhat; Mann, Jakob; Larsen, Gunner Chr.


    at the same time widens gradually, primarily because of mixing caused by small-scale atmospheric eddies. In this first paper, we focus on our new measurement technique, and test if the wake meandering follows the wind direction fluctuations, i.e. if it is advected passively in the lateral direction......The vast majority of wind turbines are today erected in wind farms. As a consequence, wake-generated loads are becoming more and more important. In this first of two parts, we present a new experimental technique to measure the instantaneous wake deficit directly, thus allowing for quantification...... of the wake meandering, as well as the instantaneous wake expansion expressed in a meandering frame of reference. The experiment was conducted primarily to test the simple hypothesis that the wake deficit is advected passively by the larger-than-rotor-size eddies in the atmospheric flow, and that the wake...

  8. Rotating Wheel Wake (United States)

    Lombard, Jean-Eloi; Xu, Hui; Moxey, Dave; Sherwin, Spencer


    For open wheel race-cars, such as Formula One, or IndyCar, the wheels are responsible for 40 % of the total drag. For road cars, drag associated to the wheels and under-carriage can represent 20 - 60 % of total drag at highway cruise speeds. Experimental observations have reported two, three or more pairs of counter rotating vortices, the relative strength of which still remains an open question. The near wake of an unsteady rotating wheel. The numerical investigation by means of direct numerical simulation at ReD =400-1000 is presented here to further the understanding of bifurcations the flow undergoes as the Reynolds number is increased. Direct numerical simulation is performed using Nektar++, the results of which are compared to those of Pirozzoli et al. (2012). Both proper orthogonal decomposition and dynamic mode decomposition, as well as spectral analysis are leveraged to gain unprecedented insight into the bifurcations and subsequent topological differences of the wake as the Reynolds number is increased.

  9. Brain anatomical structure segmentation by hybrid discriminative/generative models. (United States)

    Tu, Z; Narr, K L; Dollar, P; Dinov, I; Thompson, P M; Toga, A W


    In this paper, a hybrid discriminative/generative model for brain anatomical structure segmentation is proposed. The learning aspect of the approach is emphasized. In the discriminative appearance models, various cues such as intensity and curvatures are combined to locally capture the complex appearances of different anatomical structures. A probabilistic boosting tree (PBT) framework is adopted to learn multiclass discriminative models that combine hundreds of features across different scales. On the generative model side, both global and local shape models are used to capture the shape information about each anatomical structure. The parameters to combine the discriminative appearance and generative shape models are also automatically learned. Thus, low-level and high-level information is learned and integrated in a hybrid model. Segmentations are obtained by minimizing an energy function associated with the proposed hybrid model. Finally, a grid-face structure is designed to explicitly represent the 3-D region topology. This representation handles an arbitrary number of regions and facilitates fast surface evolution. Our system was trained and tested on a set of 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes and the results obtained are encouraging.

  10. Formation mechanism of hairpin vortices in the wake of a truncated square cylinder in a duct

    CERN Document Server

    Dousset, Vincent


    We investigate the laminar shedding of hairpin vortices in the wake of a truncated square cylinder placed in a duct, for Reynolds numbers around the critical threshold of the onset of vortex shedding. We single out the formation mechanism of the hairpin vortices by means of a detailed analysis of the flow patterns in the steady regime. We show that unlike in previous studies of similar structures, the dynamics of the hairpin vortices is entwined with that of the counter-rotating pair of streamwise vortices, which we found to be generated in the bottom part of the near wake (these are usually referred to as base vortices). In particular, once the hairpin structure is released, the base vortices attach to it, forming its legs, so these are streamwise, and not spanwise as previously observed in unconfined wakes or behind cylinders of lower aspect ratios. We also single out a trail of Omega-shaped vortices, generated between successive hairpin vortices through a mechanism that is analogous to that active in near-...

  11. CIF2Cell: Generating geometries for electronic structure programs (United States)

    Björkman, Torbjörn


    The CIF2Cell program generates the geometrical setup for a number of electronic structure programs based on the crystallographic information in a Crystallographic Information Framework (CIF) file. The program will retrieve the space group number, Wyckoff positions and crystallographic parameters, make a sensible choice for Bravais lattice vectors (primitive or principal cell) and generate all atomic positions. Supercells can be generated and alloys are handled gracefully. The code currently has output interfaces to the electronic structure programs ABINIT, CASTEP, CPMD, Crystal, Elk, Exciting, EMTO, Fleur, RSPt, Siesta and VASP. Program summaryProgram title: CIF2Cell Catalogue identifier: AEIM_v1_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPL version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 12 691 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 74 933 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python (versions 2.4-2.7) Computer: Any computer that can run Python (versions 2.4-2.7) Operating system: Any operating system that can run Python (versions 2.4-2.7) Classification: 7.3, 7.8, 8 External routines: PyCIFRW [1] Nature of problem: Generate the geometrical setup of a crystallographic cell for a variety of electronic structure programs from data contained in a CIF file. Solution method: The CIF file is parsed using routines contained in the library PyCIFRW [1], and crystallographic as well as bibliographic information is extracted. The program then generates the principal cell from symmetry information, crystal parameters, space group number and Wyckoff sites. Reduction to a primitive cell is then performed, and the resulting cell is output to suitably named files along with documentation of the information source generated from any bibliographic information contained in the CIF

  12. Structured Reporting Method for ePR Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Ebrahimi


    Full Text Available Appropriate electronic medical report-making soft-wares help physicians to personally generate records for paper printing and ePR access. Flat data-sheets with check-boxes that have been already used in traditional medical paper reports, do not satisfy today's physician demands for more professional reports."nAlternatively, Structured Reporting (SR as the modified version of flat check-box based reporting method is being selected. In this method, items are nested in a hieratical tree so that each reporting item includes several substitutions. Hence, computer generates professional sentences with logical pre-defined combination of selected items. In our work, on the basis of SR method, we provided solution for reporting of Endoscopy procedures that is accepted by several Gastroenterologists as a proper software. In addi-tion, successful results in generation of ePRs using SR are newly achieved in Cardiology.

  13. Nanosecond pulsed laser generation of holographic structures on metals (United States)

    Wlodarczyk, Krystian L.; Ardron, Marcus; Weston, Nick J.; Hand, Duncan P.


    A laser-based process for the generation of phase holographic structures directly onto the surface of metals is presented. This process uses 35ns long laser pulses of wavelength 355nm to generate optically-smooth surface deformations on a metal. The laser-induced surface deformations (LISDs) are produced by either localized laser melting or the combination of melting and evaporation. The geometry (shape and dimension) of the LISDs depends on the laser processing parameters, in particular the pulse energy, as well as on the chemical composition of a metal. In this paper, we explain the mechanism of the LISDs formation on various metals, such as stainless steel, pure nickel and nickel-chromium Inconel® alloys. In addition, we provide information about the design and fabrication process of the phase holographic structures and demonstrate their use as robust markings for the identification and traceability of high value metal goods.

  14. Structural materials for the next generation of technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Van de Voorde, Marcel Hubert


    1. Overview of advanced technologies; i.e. aerospace-aeronautics; automobile; energy technology; accelerator engineering etc. and the need for new structural materials. 2. Familiarisation with polymers, metals and alloys, structural ceramics, composites and surface engineering. The study of modern materials processing, generation of a materials data base, engineering properties includind NDE, radiation damage etc. 3. Development of new materials for the next generation of technologies; including the spin-off of materials developed for space and military purposes to industrial applications. 4. Materials selection for modern accelerator engineering. 5. Materials research in Europe, USA and Japan. Material R & D programmes sponsored by the European Union and the collaboration of CERN in EU sponsored programmes.

  15. Harmonic and subharmonic acoustic wave generation in finite structures. (United States)

    Alippi, A; Bettucci, A; Germano, M; Passeri, D


    The generation of harmonic and subharmonic vibrations is considered in a finite monodimensional structure, as it is produced by the nonlinear acoustic characteristics of the medium. The equation of motion is considered, where a general function of the displacement and its derivatives acts as the forcing term for (sub)harmonic generation and a series of 'selection rules' is found, depending on the sample constrains. The localization of the nonlinear term is also considered that mimics the presence of defects or cracks in the structure, together with the spatial distribution of subharmonic modes. Experimental evidence is given relative to the power law dependence of the harmonic modes vs. the fundamental mode displacement amplitude, and subharmonic mode distribution with hysteretic effects is also reported in a cylindrical sample of piezoelectric material.

  16. SABATPG-A Structural Analysis Based Automatic Test Generation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠诚; 潘榆奇; 闵应骅


    A TPG system, SABATPG, is given based on a generic structural model of large circuits. Three techniques of partial implication, aftereffect of identified undetectable faults and shared sensitization with new concepts of localization and aftereffect are employed in the system to improve FAN algorithm. Experiments for the 10 ISCAS benchmark circuits show that the computing time of SABATPG for test generation is 19.42% less than that of FAN algorithm.

  17. Generating a 2D Representation of a Complex Data Structure (United States)

    James, Mark


    A computer program, designed to assist in the development and debugging of other software, generates a two-dimensional (2D) representation of a possibly complex n-dimensional (where n is an integer >2) data structure or abstract rank-n object in that other software. The nature of the 2D representation is such that it can be displayed on a non-graphical output device and distributed by non-graphical means.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamfil ŞOMOIAG


    Full Text Available The problem developed in this paper is encountered in airplane aerodynamics and concernsthe influence of long life longitudinal wake vortices generated by wing tips or by external obstaclessuch as reactors or landing gears. More generally it concerns 3D bodies of finite extension in crossflow. At the edge of such obstacles, longitudinal vortices are created by pressure differences inside theboundary layers and rotate in opposite senses. It can constitute a danger to another aircraft that fliesin this wake, especially during takeoff and landing. In this case the wake vortex trajectories andstrengths are altered by ground interactions. This study presents the results of a Large EddySimulation of wake vortex in ground effect providing the vorticity flux behavior.


    CERN Document Server

    Burov, A


    If inter-bunch wake fields are flat, i.e. their variations over a bunch length can be neglected, all coherent modes have the same coupled-bunch structure, provided the bunches can be treated as identical by their inner qualities (train theorem). If a flat feedback is strong enough, the transverse modes are single-bunch, provided the inter-bunch wakes are also flat (damper theorem).

  20. Wakes in inhomogeneous plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kompaneets, Roman; Nosenko, Vladimir; Morfill, Gregor E


    The Debye shielding of a charge immersed in a flowing plasma is an old classic problem in plasma physics. It has been given renewed attention in the last two decades in view of experiments with complex plasmas, where charged dust particles are often levitated in a region with strong ion flow. Efforts to describe the shielding of the dust particles in such conditions have been focused on the homogeneous plasma approximation, which ignores the substantial inhomogeneity of the levitation region. We address the role of the plasma inhomogeneity by rigorously calculating the point charge potential in the collisionless Bohm sheath. We demonstrate that the inhomogeneity can dramatically modify the wake, making it non-oscillatory and weaker.

  1. Atmospheric and Wake Turbulence Impacts on Wind Turbine Fatigue Loading: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.; Churchfield, M.; Moriarty, P.; Jonkman, J.; Michalakes, J.


    Large-eddy simulations of atmospheric boundary layers under various stability and surface roughness conditions are performed to investigate the turbulence impact on wind turbines. In particular, the aeroelastic responses of the turbines are studied to characterize the fatigue loading of the turbulence present in the boundary layer and in the wake of the turbines. Two utility-scale 5 MW turbines that are separated by seven rotor diameters are placed in a 3 km by 3 km by 1 km domain. They are subjected to atmospheric turbulent boundary layer flow and data is collected on the structural response of the turbine components. The surface roughness was found to increase the fatigue loads while the atmospheric instability had a small influence. Furthermore, the downstream turbines yielded higher fatigue loads indicating that the turbulent wakes generated from the upstream turbines have significant impact.

  2. Validation of the actuator line method using near wake measurements of the MEXICO rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Karl; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    generates significantly larger vortex cores than in the experimental cases, but predicts the expansion, the circulation and the velocity distributions with satisfying results. Additionally, the simulation and experimental data are used to test three different techniques to compute the average axial......The purpose of the present work is to validate the capability of the actuator line method to compute vortex structures in the near wake behind the MEXICO experimental wind turbine rotor. In the MEXICO project/MexNext Annex, particle image velocimetry measurements have made it possible to determine...... of tip speed ratios, have been simulated by large-eddy simulations using a Navier–Stokes code combined with the actuator line method. The flow field is analyzed in terms of wake expansion, vortex core radius, circulation and axial and radial velocity distributions. Generally, the actuator line method...

  3. Wake Mitigation Strategies for Optimizing Wind Farm Power Production (United States)

    Dilip, Deepu; Porté-Agel, Fernando


    Although wind turbines are designed individually for optimum power production, they are often arranged into groups of closely spaced turbines in a wind farm rather than in isolation. Consequently, most turbines in a wind farm do not operate in unobstructed wind flows, but are affected by the wakes of turbines in front of them. Such wake interference significantly reduces the overall power generation from wind farms and hence, development of effective wake mitigation strategies is critical for improving wind farm efficiency. One approach towards this end is based on the notion that the operation of each turbine in a wind farm at its optimum efficiency might not lead to optimum power generation from the wind farm as a whole. This entails a down regulation of individual turbines from its optimum operating point, which can be achieved through different methods such as pitching the turbine blades, changing the turbine tip speed ratio or yawing of the turbine, to name a few. In this study, large-eddy simulations of a two-turbine arrangement with the second turbine fully in the wake of the first are performed. Different wake mitigation techniques are applied to the upstream turbine, and the effects of these on its wake characteristics are investigated. Results for the combined power from the two turbines for each of these methods are compared to a baseline scenario where no wake mitigation strategies are employed. Analysis of the results shows the potential for improved power production from such wake control methods. It should be noted, however, that the magnitude of the improvement is strongly affected by the level of turbulence in the incoming atmospheric flow.

  4. First Lunar Wake Passage of ARTEMIS: Discrimination of Wake Effects and Solar Wind Fluctuations by 3D Hybrid Simulations (United States)

    Wiehle, S.; Plaschke, F.; Motschmann, U.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Auster, H. U.; Angelopoulos, V.; Mueller, J.; Kriegel, H.; Georgescu, E.; Halekas, J.; Sibeck, D. G.; McFadden, J. P.


    The spacecraft P1 of the new ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun) mission passed the lunar wake for the first time on February 13, 2010. We present magnetic field and plasma data of this event and results of 3D hybrid simulations. As the solar wind magnetic field was highly dynamic during the passage, a simulation with stationary solar wind input cannot distinguish whether distortions were caused by these solar wind variations or by the lunar wake; therefore, a dynamic real-time simulation of the flyby has been performed. The input values of this simulation are taken from NASA OMNI data and adapted to the P1 data, resulting in a good agreement between simulation and measurements. Combined with the stationary simulation showing non-transient lunar wake structures, a separation of solar wind and wake effects is achieved. An anisotropy in the magnitude of the plasma bulk flow velocity caused by a non-vanishing magnetic field component parallel to the solar wind flow and perturbations created by counterstreaming ions in the lunar wake are observed in data and simulations. The simulations help to interpret the data granting us the opportunity to examine the entire lunar plasma environment and, thus, extending the possibilities of measurements alone: A comparison of a simulation cross section to theoretical predictions of MHD wave propagation shows that all three basic MHD modes are present in the lunar wake and that their expansion governs the lunar wake refilling process.

  5. Wake patterns of the wings and tail of hovering hummingbirds (United States)

    Altshuler, Douglas L.; Princevac, Marko; Pan, Hansheng; Lozano, Jesse

    The flow fields of slowly flying bats and fasterflying birds differ in that bats produce two vortex loops during each stroke, one per wing, and birds produce a single vortex loop per stroke. In addition, the circulation at stroke transition approaches zero in bats but remains strong in birds. It is unknown if these difference derive from fundamental differences in wing morphology or are a consequence of flight speed. Here, we present an analysis of the horizontal flow field underneath hovering Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) to describe the wake of a bird flying at zero forward velocity. We also consider how the hummingbird tail interacts with the wake generated by the wings. High-speed image recording and analysis from three orthogonal perspectives revealed that the wing tips reach peak velocities in the middle of each stroke and approach zero velocity at stroke transition. Hummingbirds use complex tail kinematic patterns ranging from in phase to antiphase cycling with respect to the wings, covering several phase shifted patterns. We employed particle image velocimetry to attain detailed horizontal flow measurements at three levels with respect to the tail: in the tail, at the tail tip, and just below the tail. The velocity patterns underneath the wings indicate that flow oscillates along the ventral-dorsal axis in response to the down- and up-strokes and that the sideways flows with respect to the bird are consistently from the lateral to medial. The region around the tail is dominated by axial flows in dorsal to ventral direction. We propose that these flows are generated by interaction between the wakes of the two wings at the end of the upstroke, and that the tail actively defects flows to generate moments that contribute to pitch stability. The flow fields images also revealed distinct vortex loops underneath each wing, which were generated during each stroke. From these data, we propose a model for the primary flow structures of hummingbirds that more

  6. Structural materials issues for the next generation fission reactors (United States)

    Chant, I.; Murty, K. L.


    Generation-IV reactor design concepts envisioned thus far cater to a common goal of providing safer, longer lasting, proliferation-resistant, and economically viable nuclear power plants. The foremost consideration in the successful development and deployment of Gen-W reactor systems is the performance and reliability issues involving structural materials for both in-core and out-of-core applications. The structural materials need to endure much higher temperatures, higher neutron doses, and extremely corrosive environments, which are beyond the experience of the current nuclear power plants. Materials under active consideration for use in different reactor components include various ferritic/martensitic steels, austenitic stainless steels, nickel-base superalloys, ceramics, composites, etc. This article addresses the material requirements for these advanced fission reactor types, specifically addressing structural materials issues depending on the specific application areas.

  7. Bim Automation: Advanced Modeling Generative Process for Complex Structures (United States)

    Banfi, F.; Fai, S.; Brumana, R.


    The new paradigm of the complexity of modern and historic structures, which are characterised by complex forms, morphological and typological variables, is one of the greatest challenges for building information modelling (BIM). Generation of complex parametric models needs new scientific knowledge concerning new digital technologies. These elements are helpful to store a vast quantity of information during the life cycle of buildings (LCB). The latest developments of parametric applications do not provide advanced tools, resulting in time-consuming work for the generation of models. This paper presents a method capable of processing and creating complex parametric Building Information Models (BIM) with Non-Uniform to NURBS) with multiple levels of details (Mixed and ReverseLoD) based on accurate 3D photogrammetric and laser scanning surveys. Complex 3D elements are converted into parametric BIM software and finite element applications (BIM to FEA) using specific exchange formats and new modelling tools. The proposed approach has been applied to different case studies: the BIM of modern structure for the courtyard of West Block on Parliament Hill in Ottawa (Ontario) and the BIM of Masegra Castel in Sondrio (Italy), encouraging the dissemination and interaction of scientific results without losing information during the generative process.

  8. Parallel and Streaming Generation of Ghost Data for Structured Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isenburg, M; Lindstrom, P; Childs, H


    Parallel simulations decompose large domains into many blocks. A fundamental requirement for subsequent parallel analysis and visualization is the presence of ghost data that supplements each block with a layer of adjacent data elements from neighboring blocks. The standard approach for generating ghost data requires all blocks to be in memory at once. This becomes impractical when there are fewer processors - and thus less aggregate memory - available for analysis than for simulation. We describe an algorithm for generating ghost data for structured grids that uses many fewer processors than previously possible. Our algorithm stores as little as one block per processor in memory and can run on as few processors as are available (possibly just one). The key idea is to slightly change the size of the original blocks by declaring parts of them to be ghost data, and by later padding adjacent blocks with this data.

  9. Wake fields in SLAC Linac Collimators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novokhatski, Alexander [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Decker, F. -J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Smith, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Sullivan, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)


    When a beam travels near collimator jaws, it gets an energy loss and a transverse kick due to the backreaction of the beam field diffracted from the jaws. The effect becomes very important for an intense short bunch when a tight collimation of the background beam halo is required. In the Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC a collimation system is used to protect the undulators from radiation due to particles in the beam halo. The halo is most likely formed from gun dark current or dark current in some of the accelerating sections. However, collimators are also responsible for the generation of wake fields. The wake field effect from the collimators not only brings an additional energy jitter and change in the trajectory of the beam, but it also rotates the beam on the phase plane, which consequently leads to a degradation of the performance of the Free Electron Laser at the Linac Coherent Light Source. In this paper, we describe a model of the wake field radiation in the SLAC linac collimators. We use the results of a numerical simulation to illustrate the model. Based on the model, we derive simple formulas for the bunch energy loss and the average kick. In addition, we also present results from experimental measurements that confirm our model.

  10. Generation of nanometer structures on surfaces of ionic solids generated by laser and electron beam irradiation (United States)

    Dawes, M. L.; Langford, S. C.; Dickinson, J. Thomas


    Radiation effects on hydrated single crystals are poorly understood. We find that dense arrays of nanoscale conical structures, with aspect ratios on the order of 200, are produced when single crystal brushite (CaHPO_4^.2H_2O) is exposed to energetic electrons (2 keV). Other three dimensional nanostructures are generated by exposing brushite to excimer laser irradiation. We show that the mechanism involves: (a) photo/electron stimulated decomposition of the matrix, and (b) thermally stimulated migration of water (in this case, crystalline) and ionic material. We have isolated these factors to some extent and present plausible mechanisms for structure formation. In addition, we have recently exposed non-hydrated ionic crystals to radiation in the presence of background water (pp_water ~ 10-7 Torr), which produces exceedingly fine structures (sub-10 nm). The optical and luminescence properties of these features will be presented. An example of a “stealth surface” will be given with possible applications for the laser generation of x-rays.

  11. An Analytic Parameterization of Self-Gravity Wakes (United States)

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Perrine, R. P.; Richardson, D. C.; Hedman, M. M.; Burns, J. A.; Weiss, J. W.; Porco, C. C.


    Saturn's dense A and B rings are pervaded by a microstructure dubbed "self-gravity wakes," which arise due to a rough balance between the clumping together of particles under their mutual self-gravity and their shearing apart again due to tidal forces (Julian and Toomre 1966; Salo 1995). This effect causes azimuthal variations in the rings' brightness as seen in images (Franklin et al. 1987; Dones and Porco 1989; Salo et al. 2004; Porco et al. 2008) and in the optical depth as probed by occultations (Colwell et al. 2006; Hedman et al. 2007). The latter papers explain the occultation observations with models that assume widely separated elongated structures that have an optical-depth dichotomy, with nearly-opaque wakes (with optical depth κwake) and a low but relatively constant optical depth in the spaces between the wakes (κgap). However, it is not known whether simulated wakes (not to mention real ones) can be so characterized, nor, if they can, how κwake and κgap respond to environmental parameters such as optical depth and coefficient of restitution. What do observed values of κgap (Colwell et al. 2006; Hedman et al. 2007) tell us about the conditions under which wakes occur? To this end, we determine the distribution of densities in simulated wake cells. Our method uses an adaptive bin size to simultaneously accommodate low-density regions, where particles are sparse (large bins required), and the sharp boundaries between high- and low-density regions (small bins required). The result is a histogram of the local densities within simulated patches of the ring. We apply this method to a suite of simulated wake cells, and will present our results. We further plan to use our results to address the question of whether local disruption of self-gravity wakes can explain the observed brightness of "propeller" structures (Tiscareno et al. 2008, AJ).

  12. Automatic structures and growth functions for finitely generated abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Kamei, Satoshi


    In this paper, we consider the formal power series whose n-th coefficient is the number of copies of a given finite graph in the ball of radius n centred at the identity element in the Cayley graph of a finitely generated group and call it the growth function. Epstein, Iano-Fletcher and Uri Zwick proved that the growth function is a rational function if the group has a geodesic automatic structure. We compute the growth function in the case where the group is abelian and see that the denominator of the rational function is determined from the rank of the group.

  13. Effective theory for the cosmological generation of structure

    CERN Document Server

    Bojowald, Martin


    The current understanding of structure formation in the early universe is mainly built on a magnification of quantum fluctuations in an initial vacuum state during an early phase of accelerated universe expansion. One usually describes this process by solving equations for a quantum state of matter on a given expanding background space-time, followed by decoherence arguments for the emergence of classical inhomogeneities from the quantum fluctuations. Here, we formulate the coupling of quantum matter fields to a dynamical gravitational background in an effective framework which allows the inclusion of back-reaction effects. It is shown how quantum fluctuations couple to classical inhomogeneities and can thus manage to generate cosmic structure in an evolving background. Several specific effects follow from a qualitative analysis of the back-reaction, including a likely reduction of the overall amplitude of power in the cosmic microwave background, the occurrence of small non-Gaussianities, and a possible supp...

  14. Vortex wake, downwash distribution, aerodynamic performance and wingbeat kinematics in slow-flying pied flycatchers. (United States)

    Muijres, Florian T; Bowlin, Melissa S; Johansson, L Christoffer; Hedenström, Anders


    Many small passerines regularly fly slowly when catching prey, flying in cluttered environments or landing on a perch or nest. While flying slowly, passerines generate most of the flight forces during the downstroke, and have a 'feathered upstroke' during which they make their wing inactive by retracting it close to the body and by spreading the primary wing feathers. How this flight mode relates aerodynamically to the cruising flight and so-called 'normal hovering' as used in hummingbirds is not yet known. Here, we present time-resolved fluid dynamics data in combination with wingbeat kinematics data for three pied flycatchers flying across a range of speeds from near hovering to their calculated minimum power speed. Flycatchers are adapted to low speed flight, which they habitually use when catching insects on the wing. From the wake dynamics data, we constructed average wingbeat wakes and determined the time-resolved flight forces, the time-resolved downwash distributions and the resulting lift-to-drag ratios, span efficiencies and flap efficiencies. During the downstroke, slow-flying flycatchers generate a single-vortex loop wake, which is much more similar to that generated by birds at cruising flight speeds than it is to the double loop vortex wake in hovering hummingbirds. This wake structure results in a relatively high downwash behind the body, which can be explained by the relatively active tail in flycatchers. As a result of this, slow-flying flycatchers have a span efficiency which is similar to that of the birds in cruising flight and which can be assumed to be higher than in hovering hummingbirds. During the upstroke, the wings of slowly flying flycatchers generated no significant forces, but the body-tail configuration added 23 per cent to weight support. This is strikingly similar to the 25 per cent weight support generated by the wing upstroke in hovering hummingbirds. Thus, for slow-flying passerines, the upstroke cannot be regarded as inactive

  15. Flow structure and transport characteristics of feeding and exchange currents generated by upside-down Cassiopea jellyfish. (United States)

    Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Dollinger, Makani; Hamlet, Christina L; Colin, Sean P; Miller, Laura A


    Quantifying the flows generated by the pulsations of jellyfish bells is crucial for understanding the mechanics and efficiency of their swimming and feeding. Recent experimental and theoretical work has focused on the dynamics of vortices in the wakes of swimming jellyfish with relatively simple oral arms and tentacles. The significance of bell pulsations for generating feeding currents through elaborate oral arms and the consequences for particle capture are not as well understood. To isolate the generation of feeding currents from swimming, the pulsing kinematics and fluid flow around the benthic jellyfish Cassiopea spp. were investigated using a combination of videography, digital particle image velocimetry and direct numerical simulation. During the rapid contraction phase of the bell, fluid is pulled into a starting vortex ring that translates through the oral arms with peak velocities that can be of the order of 10 cm s(-1). Strong shear flows are also generated across the top of the oral arms throughout the entire pulse cycle. A coherent train of vortex rings is not observed, unlike in the case of swimming oblate medusae such as Aurelia aurita. The phase-averaged flow generated by bell pulsations is similar to a vertical jet, with induced flow velocities averaged over the cycle of the order of 1-10 mm s(-1). This introduces a strong near-horizontal entrainment of the fluid along the substrate and towards the oral arms. Continual flow along the substrate towards the jellyfish is reproduced by numerical simulations that model the oral arms as a porous Brinkman layer of finite thickness. This two-dimensional numerical model does not, however, capture the far-field flow above the medusa, suggesting that either the three-dimensionality or the complex structure of the oral arms helps to direct flow towards the central axis and up and away from the animal.

  16. The wake of falling disks at low Reynolds numbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Jie Zhong; Cun-Biao Lee


    We visualized the wake structure of circular disks falling vertically in quiescent water.The evolution of the wake was shown to be similar to the flow patterns behind a fixed disk.The Reynolds number,Re =Ud/v,is in the range of 40- 200.With the ascension of Reynolds numbers,a regular bifurcation occurred at the first critical Reynolds number Rec1,leading to a transition from an axisymmetric wake structure to a plane symmetric one; A Hopf bifurcation took place at the second critical Reynolds number Rec2,as the wake structure became unsteady.Plane symmetry of the wake structure was first lost as periodic voaex shedding appeared,but recovered at higher Reynolds number.The difference between the two critical Reynolds numbers was found to be shape-dependent,as we compared our results for thin discs with those for other falling bodies,such as spheres and cones.This observation could be understood in terms of the instability mechanism of the vortical structure.

  17. When wings touch wakes: understanding locomotor force control by wake wing interference in insect wings. (United States)

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf


    Understanding the fluid dynamics of force control in flying insects requires the exploration of how oscillating wings interact with the surrounding fluid. The production of vorticity and the shedding of vortical structures within the stroke cycle thus depend on two factors: the temporal structure of the flow induced by the wing's own instantaneous motion and the flow components resulting from both the force production in previous wing strokes and the motion of other wings flapping in close proximity. These wake-wing interactions may change on a stroke-by-stroke basis, confronting the neuro-muscular system of the animal with a complex problem for force control. In a single oscillating wing, the flow induced by the preceding half stroke may lower the wing's effective angle of attack but permits the recycling of kinetic energy from the wake via the wake capture mechanism. In two-winged insects, the acceleration fields produced by each wing may strongly interact via the clap-and-fling mechanism during the dorsal stroke reversal. Four-winged insects must cope with the fact that the flow over their hindwings is affected by the presence of the forewings. In these animals, a phase-shift between the stroke cycles of fore- and hindwing modulates aerodynamic performance of the hindwing via leading edge vortex destruction and changes in local flow condition including wake capture. Moreover, robotic wings demonstrate that phase-lag during peak performance and the strength of force modulation depend on the vertical spacing between the two stroke planes and the size ratio between fore- and hindwing. This study broadly summarizes the most prominent mechanisms of wake-wing and wing-wing interactions found in flapping insect wings and evaluates the consequences of these processes for the control of locomotor forces in the behaving animal.

  18. Managing ambiguity in reference generation: the role of surface structure. (United States)

    Khan, Imtiaz H; van Deemter, Kees; Ritchie, Graeme


    This article explores the role of surface ambiguities in referring expressions, and how the risk of such ambiguities should be taken into account by an algorithm that generates referring expressions, if these expressions are to be optimally effective for a hearer. We focus on the ambiguities that arise when adjectives occur in coordinated structures. The central idea is to use statistical information about lexical co-occurrence to estimate which interpretation of a phrase is most likely for human readers, and to avoid generating phrases where misunderstandings are likely. Various aspects of the problem were explored in three experiments in which responses by human participants provided evidence about which reading was most likely for certain phrases, which phrases were deemed most suitable for particular referents, and the speed at which various phrases were read. We found a preference for ''clear'' expressions to ''unclear'' ones, but if several of the expressions are ''clear,'' then brief expressions are preferred over non-brief ones even though the brief ones are syntactically ambiguous and the non-brief ones are not; the notion of clarity was made precise using Kilgarriff's Word Sketches. We outline an implemented algorithm that generates noun phrases conforming to our hypotheses.

  19. Axial electric wake field inside the induction gap exited by the intense electron beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Kai-Zhi; ZHANG Huang; LONG Ji-Dong; YANG Guo-Jun; HE Xiao-Zhong; WANG Hua-Cen


    While an intense electron beam passes through the accelerating gaps of a linear induction accelerator,a strong wake field will be excited.In this paper a relatively simple model is established based on the interaction between the transverse magnetic wake field and the electron beam,and the numerical calculation in succession generates a magnetic wake field distribution along the accelerator and along the beam pulse as well.The axial electric wake field is derived based on the relation between field components of a resonant mode.According to some principles in existence,the influence of this field on the high voltage properties of the induction gap is analyzed.The Dragon-I accelerator is taken as an example,and its maximum electric wake field is about 17 kV/cm,which means the effect of the wake field is noticeable.

  20. Generations. (United States)

    Chambers, David W


    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession.

  1. Turbulence characteristics in a supersonic cascade wake flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew, P.L.; Ng, W.F. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States))


    The turbulent character of the supersonic wake of a linear cascade of fan airfoils has been studied using a two-component laser-doppler anemometer. The cascade was tested in the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University intermittent wind tunnel facility, where the Mach and Reynolds numbers were 2.36 and 4.8 [times] 10[sup 6], respectively. In addition to mean flow measurements, Reynolds normal and shear stresses were measured as functions of cascade incidence angle and streamwise locations spanning the near-wake and the far-wake. The extremities of profiles of both the mean and turbulent wake properties were found to be strongly influenced by upstream shock-boundary-layer interactions, the strength of which varied with cascade incidence. In contrast, the peak levels of turbulence properties within the shear layer were found to be largely independent of incidence, and could be characterized in terms of the streamwise position only. The velocity defect turbulence level was found to be 23%, and the generally accepted value of the turbulence structural coefficient of 0.30 was found to be valid for this flow. The degree of similarity of the mean flow wake profiles was established, and those profiles demonstrating the most similarity were found to approach a state of equilibrium between the mean and turbulent properties. In general, this wake flow may be described as a classical free shear flow, upon which the influence of upstream shock-boundary-layer interactions has been superimposed.

  2. Wake flow control using a dynamically controlled wind turbine (United States)

    Castillo, Ricardo; Wang, Yeqin; Pol, Suhas; Swift, Andy; Hussain, Fazle; Westergaard, Carsten; Texas Tech University Team


    A wind tunnel based "Hyper Accelerated Wind Farm Kinematic-Control Simulator" (HAWKS) is being built at Texas Tech University to emulate controlled wind turbine flow physics. The HAWKS model turbine has pitch, yaw and speed control which is operated in real model time, similar to that of an equivalent full scale turbine. Also, similar to that of a full scale wind turbine, the controls are developed in a Matlab Simulink environment. The current diagnostic system consists of power, rotor position, rotor speed measurements and PIV wake characterization with four cameras. The setup allows up to 7D downstream of the rotor to be mapped. The purpose of HAWKS is to simulate control strategies at turnaround times much faster than CFD and full scale testing. The fundamental building blocks of the simulator have been tested, and demonstrate wake steering for both static and dynamic turbine actuation. Parameters which have been studied are yaw, rotor speed and combinations hereof. The measured wake deflections for static yaw cases are in agreement with previously reported research implying general applicability of the HAWKS platform for the purpose of manipulating the wake. In this presentation the general results will be introduced followed by an analysis of the wake turbulence and coherent structures when comparing static and dynamic flow cases. The outcome of such studies could ultimately support effective wind farm wake flow control strategies. Texas Emerging Technology Fund (ETF).

  3. Wind turbine wake characterization using long-range Doppler lidar (United States)

    Aitken, M.; Lundquist, J. K.; Hestmark, K.; Banta, R. M.; Pichugina, Y.; Brewer, A.


    Wind turbines extract energy from the freestream flow, resulting in a waked region behind the rotor which is characterized by reduced wind speed and increased turbulence. The velocity deficit in the wake diminishes with distance, as faster-moving air outside is gradually entrained. In a concentrated group of turbines, then, downwind machines experience very different inflow conditions compared to those in the front row. As utility-scale turbines rarely exist in isolation, detailed knowledge of the mean flow and turbulence structure inside wakes is needed to correctly model both power production and turbine loading at modern wind farms. To this end, the Turbine Wake and Inflow Characterization Study (TWICS) was conducted in the spring of 2011 to determine the reduction in wind speeds downstream from a multi-MW turbine located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) near Boulder, Colorado. Full-scale measurements of wake dynamics are hardly practical or even possible with conventional sensors, such as cup anemometers mounted on meteorological (met) masts. Accordingly, the High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL) developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Earth System Research Laboratory was employed to investigate the formation and propagation of wakes under varying levels of ambient wind speed, shear, atmospheric stability, and turbulence. HRDL remotely senses line-of-sight wind velocities and has been used in several previous studies of boundary layer aerodynamics. With a fully steerable beam and a maximum range up to about 5 km, depending on atmospheric conditions, HRDL performed a comprehensive survey of the wind flow in front of and behind the turbine to study the shape, meandering, and attenuation of wakes. Due in large part to limited experimental data availability, wind farm wake modeling is still subject to an unacceptable amount of uncertainty, particularly in complex terrain. Here, analytical

  4. Sandwich-structured hollow fiber membranes for osmotic power generation

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Feng Jiang


    In this work, a novel sandwich-structured hollow fiber membrane has been developed via a specially designed spinneret and optimized spinning conditions. With this specially designed spinneret, the outer layer, which is the most crucial part of the sandwich-structured membrane, is maintained the same as the traditional dual-layer membrane. The inner substrate layer is separated into two layers: (1) an ultra-thin middle layer comprising a high molecular weight polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) additive to enhance integration with the outer polybenzimidazole (PBI) selective layer, and (2) an inner-layer to provide strong mechanical strength for the membrane. Experimental results show that a high water permeability and good mechanical strength could be achieved without the expensive post treatment process to remove PVP which was necessary for the dual-layer pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) membranes. By optimizing the composition, the membrane shows a maximum power density of 6.23W/m2 at a hydraulic pressure of 22.0bar when 1M NaCl and 10mM NaCl are used as the draw and feed solutions, respectively. To our best knowledge, this is the best phase inversion hollow fiber membrane with an outer selective PBI layer for osmotic power generation. In addition, this is the first work that shows how to fabricate sandwich-structured hollow fiber membranes for various applications. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Analysis of the control structure of wind energy generation systems based on a permanent magnet synchronous generator


    Carranza Castillo, Oscar; Figueres Amorós, Emilio; Garcerá Sanfeliú, Gabriel; González Medina, Raul


    This paper presents the analysis of the two usual control structures for variable speed and fixed pitch wind energy generation systems, namely speed and torque control, to determine the most appropriate structure to improve both robustness and reliability of this kind of distributed generators. The study considers all the elements of a typical wind power generation system and it has been carried out in a general way, so that conclusions are independent of the kind of the AC/DC converter that ...

  6. Wind turbine wake visualization and characteristics analysis by Doppler lidar. (United States)

    Wu, Songhua; Liu, Bingyi; Liu, Jintao; Zhai, Xiaochun; Feng, Changzhong; Wang, Guining; Zhang, Hongwei; Yin, Jiaping; Wang, Xitao; Li, Rongzhong; Gallacher, Daniel


    Wind power generation is growing fast as one of the most promising renewable energy sources that can serve as an alternative to fossil fuel-generated electricity. When the wind turbine generator (WTG) extracts power from the wind, the wake evolves and leads to a considerable reduction in the efficiency of the actual power generation. Furthermore, the wake effect can lead to the increase of turbulence induced fatigue loads that reduce the life time of WTGs. In this work, a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar (PCDL) has been developed and deployed to visualize wind turbine wakes and to characterize the geometry and dynamics of wakes. As compared with the commercial off-the-shelf coherent lidars, the PCDL in this work has higher updating rate of 4 Hz and variable physical spatial resolution from 15 to 60 m, which improves its capability to observation the instantaneous turbulent wind field. The wind speed estimation method from the arc scan technique was evaluated in comparison with wind mast measurements. Field experiments were performed to study the turbulent wind field in the vicinity of operating WTGs in the onshore and offshore wind parks from 2013 to 2015. Techniques based on a single and a dual Doppler lidar were employed for elucidating main features of turbine wakes, including wind velocity deficit, wake dimension, velocity profile, 2D wind vector with resolution of 10 m, turbulence dissipation rate and turbulence intensity under different conditions of surface roughness. The paper shows that the PCDL is a practical tool for wind energy research and will provide a significant basis for wind farm site selection, design and optimization.

  7. Wake meandering statistics of a model wind turbine: Insights gained by large eddy simulations (United States)

    Foti, Daniel; Yang, Xiaolei; Guala, Michele; Sotiropoulos, Fotis


    Wind tunnel measurements in the wake of an axial flow miniature wind turbine provide evidence of large-scale motions characteristic of wake meandering [Howard et al., Phys. Fluids 27, 075103 (2015), 10.1063/1.4923334]. A numerical investigation of the wake, using immersed boundary large eddy simulations able to account for all geometrical details of the model wind turbine, is presented here to elucidate the three-dimensional structure of the wake and the mechanisms controlling near and far wake instabilities. Similar to the findings of Kang et al. [Kang et al., J. Fluid Mech. 744, 376 (2014), 10.1017/jfm.2014.82], an energetic coherent helical hub vortex is found to form behind the turbine nacelle, which expands radially outward downstream of the turbine and ultimately interacts with the turbine tip shear layer. Starting from the wake meandering filtering used by Howard et al., a three-dimensional spatiotemporal filtering process is developed to reconstruct a three-dimensional meandering profile in the wake of the turbine. The counterwinding hub vortex undergoes a spiral vortex breakdown and the rotational component of the hub vortex persists downstream, contributing to the rotational direction of the wake meandering. Statistical characteristics of the wake meandering profile, along with triple decomposition of the flow field separating the coherent and incoherent turbulent fluctuations, are used to delineate the near and far wake flow structures and their interactions. In the near wake, the nacelle leads to mostly incoherent turbulence, while in the far wake, turbulent coherent structures, especially the azimuthal velocity component, dominate the flow field.

  8. ARBUS: A FORTRAN tool for generating tree structure diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrero, C. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Hauptabteilung Ingenieurtechnik; Zanger, M.


    The FORTRAN77 stand-alone code ARBUS has been designed to aid the user by providing a tree structure diagram generating utility for computer programs written in FORTRAN language. This report is intended to describe the main purpose and features of ARBUS and to highlight some additional applications of the code by means of practical test cases. (orig.). [Deutsch] Das FORTRAN77-Rechenprogramm ARBUS wurde entwickelt, um dem Benutzer die graphische Darstellung des Aufrufbaumdiagramms bzw. der Aufrufstruktur der einzelnen Unterprogramme in einem beliebigen FORTRAN-Programm zu ermoeglichen. In diesem Bericht wird auf die Zielsetzung und die Hauptmerkmale von ARBUS eingegangen. Ausserdem werden einige Anwendungen des Codes anhand von praktischen Beispielen erlaeutert. (orig.).

  9. Rate Structures for Customers With Onsite Generation: Practice and Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, L.; Takahashi, K.; Weston, F.; Murray, C.


    Recognizing that innovation and good public policy do not always proclaim themselves, Synapse Energy Economics and the Regulatory Assistance Project, under a contract with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), undertook a survey of state policies on rates for partial-requirements customers with onsite distributed generation. The survey investigated a dozen or so states. These varied in geography and the structures of their electric industries. By reviewing regulatory proceedings, tariffs, publications, and interviews, the researchers identified a number of approaches to standby and associated rates--many promising but some that are perhaps not--that deserve policymakers' attention if they are to promote the deployment of cost-effective DG in their states.

  10. Generative Benchmark Models for Mesoscale Structures in Multilayer Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bazzi, Marya; Arenas, Alex; Howison, Sam D; Porter, Mason A


    Multilayer networks allow one to represent diverse and interdependent connectivity patterns --- e.g., time-dependence, multiple subsystems, or both --- that arise in many applications and which are difficult or awkward to incorporate into standard network representations. In the study of multilayer networks, it is important to investigate "mesoscale" (i.e., intermediate-scale) structures, such as dense sets of nodes known as "communities" that are connected sparsely to each other, to discover network features that are not apparent at the microscale or the macroscale. A variety of methods and algorithms are available to identify communities in multilayer networks, but they differ in their definitions and/or assumptions of what constitutes a community, and many scalable algorithms provide approximate solutions with little or no theoretical guarantee on the quality of their approximations. Consequently, it is crucial to develop generative models of networks to use as a common test of community-detection tools. I...

  11. Temporal characteristics of coherent flow structures generated over alluvial sand dunes, Mississippi River, revealed by acoustic doppler current profiling and multibeam echo sounding (United States)

    Czuba, John A.; Oberg, Kevin A.; Best, Jim L.; Parsons, Daniel R.; Simmons, S. M.; Johnson, K.K.; Malzone, C.


    This paper investigates the flow in the lee of a large sand dune located at the confluence of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, USA. Stationary profiles collected from an anchored boat using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) were georeferenced with data from a real-time kinematic differential global positioning system. A multibeam echo sounder was used to map the bathymetry of the confluence and provided a morphological context for the ADCP measurements. The flow in the lee of a low-angle dune shows good correspondence with current conceptual models of flow over dunes. As expected, quadrant 2 events (upwellings of low-momentum fluid) are associated with high backscatter intensity. Turbulent events generated in the lower lee of a dune near the bed are associated with periods of vortex shedding and wake flapping. Remnant coherent structures that advect over the lower lee of the dune in the upper portion of the water column, have mostly dissipated and contribute little to turbulence intensities. The turbulent events that occupy most of the water column in the upper lee of the dune are associated with periods of wake flapping.

  12. Effect of trailing edge shape on the wake and propulsive performance of pitching panels (United States)

    van Buren, Tyler; Floryan, Daniel; Brunner, Daniel; Senturk, Utku; Smits, Alexander


    We present the effects of the trailing edge shape on the wake and propulsive performance of a pitching panel with an aspect ratio of 1. The trailing edges are symmetric chevron shapes with convex and concave orientations of varying degree. Concave trailing edges delay the natural vortex bending and compression of the wake, and the streamwise velocity field contains a single jet-like structure. Conversely, convex trailing edges promote wake compression and produce a wake split into four jets. Deviation from the square trailing edge mostly reduces the thrust and efficiency. Supported by the Office of Naval Research under MURI Grant Number N00014-14-1-0533.

  13. A consistent turbulence formulation for the dynamic wake meandering model in the atmospheric boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, R.-E.


    This thesis describes the further development and validation of the dynamic meandering wake model for simulating the flow field and power production of wind farms operating in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The overall objective of the conducted research is to improve the modelling capability of the dynamics wake meandering model to a level where it is sufficiently mature to be applied in industrial applications and for an augmentation of the IEC-standard for wind turbine wake modelling. Based on a comparison of capabilities of the dynamic wake meandering model to the requirement of the wind industry, four areas were identified as high prioritizations for further research: 1. the turbulence distribution in a single wake. 2. multiple wake deficits and build-up of turbulence over a row of turbines. 3. the effect of the atmospheric boundary layer on wake turbulence and wake deficit evolution. 4. atmospheric stability effects on wake deficit evolution and meandering. The conducted research is to a large extent based on detailed wake investigations and reference data generated through computational fluid dynamics simulations, where the wind turbine rotor has been represented by an actuator line model. As a consequence, part of the research also targets the performance of the actuator line model when generating wind turbine wakes in the atmospheric boundary layer. Highlights of the conducted research: 1. A description is given for using the dynamic wake meandering model as a standalone flow-solver for the velocity and turbulence distribution, and power production in a wind farm. The performance of the standalone implementation is validated against field data, higher-order computational fluid dynamics models, as well as the most common engineering wake models in the wind industry. 2. The EllipSys3D actuator line model, including the synthetic methods used to model atmospheric boundary layer shear and turbulence, is verified for modelling the evolution of wind

  14. Wake vortex alleviation using rapidly actuated segmented Gurney flaps (United States)

    Matalanis, Claude G.

    All bodies that generate lift also generate circulation. The circulation generated by large commercial aircraft remains in their wake in the form of trailing vortices. These vortices can be hazardous to following aircraft due to their strength and persistence. To account for this, airports abide by spacing rules which govern the frequency with which aircraft can use their runways when operating in instrument flight rules. These spacing rules are the limiting factor on increasing airport capacity. We conducted an experimental and computational study to assess the potential for using rapidly actuated segmented Gurney flaps, also known as Miniature Trailing Edge Effectors (MiTEs), for active wake vortex alleviation. Wind tunnel tests were performed on a half-span model NACA 0012 wing equipped with an array of 13 independent MITE pairs. The chord-based Reynolds number was around 350,000. Each MiTE could extend 0.015 chord lengths perpendicular to the freestream on the pressure side of the wing. Pressure profiles and a five-hole probe survey in the near wake were used to examine the influence that the MiTEs had upon the wing aerodynamics and the vortex rollup process. Particle image velocimetry was used to measure the static and time-dependent response of the vortex in the intermediate wake to various MiTE actuation schemes. These results were used to form complete initial conditions for vortex filament computations of the far wake evolution. Results from these computations showed that the perturbations created by MiTEs could be used to excite a variety of three-dimensional inviscid vortex instabilities. Finally, the research performed on MiTEs led to the invention of a more practical wake alleviation device: the spanwise actuating Gurney flap. Prototype tests showed that this device could produce similar perturbations to the MiTEs.

  15. Effects of wake effect and time delay on output characteristics of doubly fed induction generators in wind power plant%尾流效应和时滞对双馈机组风电场输出特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


      由于双馈机组已成为国内主流机型且大型双馈机组风电场通常占地面积比较大,需要研究双馈风电机组间的尾流效应及时滞对双馈机组风电场的并网点输出特性的影响情况。通过搭建了30台2 MW双馈风电机组组成的风电场模型,对风速波动和电网故障下双馈机组风电场输出特性进行分析和比较。通过仿真表明,机组间的尾流效应导致双馈机组风电场的风能损失;风速时滞平缓了风电场输出功率。%Because doubly fed induction generator has become the mainstream type and a large wind power plant usually covers a larger area,the impacts of wake effects among wind turbines and time delay on output characteristics of wind power plant need to be studied. With a wind power plant model composed of thirty 2⁃MW double fed induction generator wind tur⁃bines,the output characteristic of wind power plant under the conditions of wind speed fluctuation and grid faults is analyzed and compared. The simulation results show that the wake effects among wind turbines can cause the wind energy loss of wind farm and the wind speed time delay will smooth the power output of wind farm;wake effects among wind turbines and wind speed time delays needs to be considered when the grid⁃connection stability of wind farms with double fed induction generator wind turbines is analyzed.

  16. Wakes in Dilatonic Current-Carrying Cosmic Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, A L N


    In this work, we present the gravitational field generated by a cosmic string carrying a timelike current in the scalar-tensor gravities. The mechanism of formation and evolution of wakes is fully investigated in this framework. We show that the inclusion of electromagnetic properties for the string induces logarithmic divergences in the accretion problem.

  17. Elastohydrodynamic wake and wave resistance

    CERN Document Server

    Arutkin, Maxence; Salez, Thomas; Raphaël, Elie


    The dynamics of a thin elastic sheet lubricated by a narrow layer of liquid is relevant to various situations and length scales. In the continuity of our previous work on viscous wakes, we study theoretically the effects of an external pressure disturbance moving at constant speed along the surface of a thin lubricated elastic sheet. In the comoving frame, the imposed pressure field creates a stationary deformation of the free interface that spatially vanishes in the far-field region. The shape of the wake and the way it decays depend on the speed and size of the external disturbance, as well as the rheological properties of both the elastic and liquid layers. The wave resistance, namely the force that has to be externally furnished in order to maintain the wake, is analyzed in detail.

  18. Linearised CFD Models for Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Søren; Berg, Jacob; Nielsen, Morten

    This report describes the development of a fast and reasonably accurate model for the prediction of energy production in oshore wind farms taking wake eects into account. The model has been implemented as a windows application called Fuga which can run in batch mode or as a graphical user interface....... Fuga is brie y described. The model is based on alinearization technique which is described in some detail, and linearized, governing equations are derived and written in a standard form based on a mixed{spectral formulation. A new solution method is used to solve the equations which involves intensive...... use of look{up tables for storage of intermediate results. Due to the linearity of the model, multiple wakes from many turbines can be constructed from the wake of a single, solitary turbine. These are in turn constructed from Fourier components by a fast Fourier integral transform of results derived...

  19. Harbor seal whiskers synchronize with upstream wake over a range of distances (United States)

    Beem, Heather; Triantafyllou, Michael


    Harbor seal whiskers have been shown to exhibit unique vibration properties as they encounter vortex wakes. Seals may use this information to detect hydrodynamic trails left by fish prey. A scaled model, which captures the undulatory morphology of the harbor seal whisker and is designed to freely vibrate, is tested here to explore these properties in more detail. This model is towed downstream of a larger cylinder, which generates a vortex wake. Effects of downstream distance, lateral distance, and diameter ratio between the two objects are explored. Frequency measurements are collected simultaneously through use of a pressure sensor placed in the wake. Cross-correlation of the whisker motion and cylinder wake pressure provides evidence that frequency synchronization holds for a range of separation distances and wake generator sizes.

  20. On the structure of finitely generated shift-invariant subspaces


    Kazarian, K. S.


    A characterization of finitely generated shift-invariant subspaces is given when generators are g-minimal. An algorithm is given for the determination of the coefficients in the well known representation of the Fourier transform of an element of the finitely generated shift-invariant subspace as a linear combination of Fourier transformations of generators. An estimate for the norms of those coefficients is derived. For the proof a sort of orthogonalization procedure for generators is used wh...

  1. Effects of Longitudinal Space Charge Wake at PAL-XFEL

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, E S; Huang, J Y; Park, S J


    Longitudinal space charge wake is an important source that can generate microbunching instability at accelerator systems for X-ray free-electron laser. We present investigation to minimize gain of energy modulation due to the longitudinal space charge wakes that are caused at RF photocathode gun, two bunch compressors and linac at the PAL-XFEL, which include optimization of parameters for two bunch compressors and consideration of a laser heater. These studies are performd by using integral equation and numerical simulation methods. Design studies of a system for the laser heater are presented. We also show simulation results on effects of interaction between electron beam and laser.

  2. Diffusive dynamics and stochastic models of turbulent axisymmetric wakes

    CERN Document Server

    Rigas, G; Brackston, R D; Morrison, J F


    A modelling methodology to reproduce the experimental measurements of a turbulent flow under the presence of symmetry is presented. The flow is a three-dimensional wake generated by an axisymmetric body. We show that the dynamics of the turbulent wake- flow can be assimilated by a nonlinear two-dimensional Langevin equation, the deterministic part of which accounts for the broken symmetries which occur at the laminar and transitional regimes at low Reynolds numbers and the stochastic part of which accounts for the turbulent fluctuations. Comparison between theoretical and experimental results allows the extraction of the model parameters.

  3. Linearised CFD models for wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, S.; Berg, J.; Nielsen, Morten


    This report describes the development of a fast and reasonably accurate model for the prediction of energy production in offshore wind farms taking wake effects into account. The model has been implemented as a windows application called Fuga which can run in batch mode or as a graphical user interface. Fuga is briefly described. The model is based on a linearization technique which is described in some detail, and linearized, governing equations are derived and written in a standard form based on a mixed-spectral formulation. A new solution method is used to solve the equations which involves intensive use of look-up tables for storage of intermediate results. Due to the linearity of the model, multiple wakes from many turbines can be constructed from the wake of a single, solitary turbine. These are in turn constructed from Fourier components by a fast Fourier integral transform of results derived from generic look-up tables. Three different models, based on three different closures, are examined: 1) the 'simple closure' using an unperturbed eddy viscosity kucentre dotz. 2) the mixing length closure. 3) the E-epsilon closure. Model results are evaluated against offshore wind farm production data from Horns Rev I and the Nysted wind farm, and a comparison with direct wake measurements in an onshore turbine (Nibe B) is also made. A very satisfactory agreement with data is found for the simple closure. The exception is the near wake, just behind the rotor, where all three linearized models fail. The mixing length closure underestimates wake effects in all cases. The E-epsilon closure overestimates wake losses in the offshore farms while it predicts a too shallow and too wide the wake in the onshore case. The simple closure performs distinctly better than the other two. Wind speed data from the the Horns rev met masts are used to further validate Fuga results with the 'simple' closure. Finally, Roedsand 1 and 2 are used as an example to illustrate

  4. Research on aircraft/vortex-wake interactions to determine acceptable level of wake intensity (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; Tinling, Bruce E.


    An evaluation of the literature on large aircraft wake-vortex encounters in flight and in flight simulators has furnished an estimate of the level to which the vortex-induced rolling moments must be reduced in order to be perceived as nonhazardous at a 2-n.mi. separation distance. The criteria are based on the ratio of the vortex-induced acceleration in roll to the aileron-induced roll acceleration. A wake is acceptably alleviated if the ratio of vortex-to-aileron rolling moments is less than about 0.5. When a satisfactory alleviation scheme is identified, the alleviated vortex structure should be inserted into a simulator to ascertain whether the maximum bank angles induced are within tolerable limits.

  5. Sleep and Sleep-wake Rhythm in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van de Wouw-Van Dijk (Ellen)


    textabstractEveryone who has experienced poor sleep knows how it affects daytime functioning and wellbeing. A good night’s rest and a stable sleep-wake rhythm are therefore very important. The sleep-wake rhythm is regulated by several brain structures. People with an intellectual disability (ID) all

  6. Notes on the path and wake of a gas bubble rising in pure water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.W.G.; Biesheuvel, A.; van Wijngaarden, L.; van Wijngaarden, L.


    This paper is concerned with the structure of the wake behind gas bubbles rising at high Reynolds numbers in highly purified water. It describes a schlieren optics technique to visualise the wake. The technique does not contaminate the water, and so does not affect the zero-stress condition at the

  7. Dynamic Loads and Wake Prediction for Large Wind Turbines Based on Free Wake Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Jiufa; Wang Tongguang; Long Hui; Ke Shitang; Xu Bofeng


    With large scale wind turbines ,the issue of aerodynamic elastic response is even more significant on dy-namic behaviour of the system .Unsteady free vortex wake method is proposed to calculate the shape of wake and aerodynamic load .Considering the effect of aerodynamic load ,inertial load and gravity load ,the decoupling dy-namic equations are established by using finite element method in conjunction of the modal method and equations are solved numerically by Newmark approach .Finally ,the numerical simulation of a large scale wind turbine is performed through coupling the free vortex wake modelling with structural modelling .The results show that this coupling model can predict the flexible wind turbine dynamic characteristics effectively and efficiently .Under the influence of the gravitational force ,the dynamic response of flapwise direction contributes to the dynamic behavior of edgewise direction under the operational condition of steady wind speed .The difference in dynamic response be-tween the flexible and rigid wind turbines manifests when the aerodynamics/structure coupling effect is of signifi-cance in both wind turbine design and performance calculation .

  8. Stratified wake of an accelerating hydrofoil

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Gida, Hadar; Gurka, Roi


    Wakes of towed and self-propelled bodies in stratified fluids are significantly different from non-stratified wakes. Long time effects of stratification on the development of the wakes of bluff bodies moving at constant speed are well known. In this experimental study we demonstrate how buoyancy affects the initial growth of vortices developing in the wake of a hydrofoil accelerating from rest. Particle image velocimetry measurements were applied to characterize the wake evolution behind a NACA 0015 hydrofoil accelerating in water and for low Reynolds number and relatively strong and stably stratified fluid (Re=5,000, Fr~O(1)). The analysis of velocity and vorticity fields, following vortex identification and an estimate of the circulation, reveal that the vortices in the stratified fluid case are stretched along the streamwise direction in the near wake. The momentum thickness profiles show lower momentum thickness values for the stratified late wake compared to the non-stratified wake, implying that the dra...

  9. PRESAGE: Protecting Structured Address Generation against Soft Errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Vishal C.; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram


    Modern computer scaling trends in pursuit of larger component counts and power efficiency have, unfortunately, lead to less reliable hardware and consequently soft errors escaping into application data ("silent data corruptions"). Techniques to enhance system resilience hinge on the availability of efficient error detectors that have high detection rates, low false positive rates, and lower computational overhead. Unfortunately, efficient detectors to detect faults during address generation have not been widely researched (especially in the context of indexing large arrays). We present a novel lightweight compiler-driven technique called PRESAGE for detecting bit-flips affecting structured address computations. A key insight underlying PRESAGE is that any address computation scheme that propagates an already incurred error is better than a scheme that corrupts one particular array access but otherwise (falsely) appears to compute perfectly. Ensuring the propagation of errors allows one to place detectors at loop exit points and helps turn silent corruptions into easily detectable error situations. Our experiments using the PolyBench benchmark suite indicate that PRESAGE-based error detectors have a high error-detection rate while incurring low overheads.

  10. Transition to bluff body dynamics in the wake of vertical axis turbines (United States)

    Araya, Daniel; Dabiri, John


    A unifying characteristic among bluff bodies is a similar wake structure independent of the shape of the body. We present experimental data to demonstrate that the wake of a vertical axis wind/water turbine (VAWT) shares similar features to that of a bluff body, namely a circular cylinder. For a fixed Reynolds number (Re ~ 104) and variable tip-speed ratio, 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to measure the velocity field in the wake of three different laboratory-scale turbines: a 2-bladed, 3-bladed, and 5-bladed VAWT, each with similar geometry. From the PIV measurements, the time-averaged and dynamic characteristics of the wake are evaluated. In all cases, we observe three distinct regions in the VAWT wake: (1) the near wake, where periodic blade shedding dominates; (2) a transition region, where blade vortices decay and growth of a shear layer instability occurs; (3) the far wake, where bluff body wake oscillations dominate. We further characterize this wake transition with regard to turbine solidity and examine its relation to the mean flow, an important metric for power production within a wind farm.

  11. Wake measurements for code validations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose


    As part of the EU-TOPFARM project a large number of datasets have been identified for verification of wind farm climate models, aeroelastic load and production models of turbines subjected to three dimensional dynamic wake wind field and the aeroelastic production modeling of a whole wind farm de...

  12. Cooling Signs in Wake Debate (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.


    More than a year after dismantling a student-assignment policy based on socioeconomic diversity and setting off a wave of reaction that drew national attention, the Wake County, North Carolina, school board took a step that may turn down the temperature of the intense debate. The board, which has been deeply split on an assignment plan for the…

  13. Irregular sleep-wake syndrome (United States)

    ... normal, but the body clock loses its normal circadian cycle. People with changing work shifts and travelers who ... Abbott SM, Reid KJ, Zee PC. Circadian disorders of the sleep-wake ... Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 40. ...

  14. Controlled oscillations of a cylinder: forces and wake modes (United States)

    Carberry, J.; Sheridan, J.; Rockwell, D.


    The wake states from a circular cylinder undergoing controlled sinusoidal oscillation transverse to the free stream are examined. As the frequency of oscillation passes through the natural Kármán frequency there is a transition between two distinctly different wake states: the low- and high-frequency states. The transition corresponds to a change in the structure of the near wake and is also characterized by a jump in the phase and amplitude of both the total and vortex lift. Over the range of flow and oscillation parameters studied the wake states exhibit a number of universal features. The phases of the vortex lift and drag forces have characteristic values for the low- and high-frequency states, which appear to be directly related to the phase of vortex shedding. A split force concept is employed, whereby instantaneous force traces and images allow discrimination between the actual loading and the physics, and their conventional time-averaged representations. The wake states for the forced oscillations show some remarkable similarities to the response branches of elastically mounted cylinders. The equivalence between forced and self-excited oscillations is addressed in detail using concepts of energy transfer.

  15. Recent NASA Wake-Vortex Flight Tests, Flow-Physics Database and Wake-Development Analysis (United States)

    Vicroy, Dan D.; Vijgen, Paul M.; Reimer, Heidi M.; Gallegos, Joey L.; Spalart, Philippe R.


    A series of flight tests over the ocean of a four engine turboprop airplane in the cruise configuration have provided a data set for improved understanding of wake vortex physics and atmospheric interaction. An integrated database has been compiled for wake characterization and validation of wake-vortex computational models. This paper describes the wake-vortex flight tests, the data processing, the database development and access, and results obtained from preliminary wake-characterization analysis using the data sets.

  16. Expert system for elucidation of structures of organic compounds——Structural generator of ESESOC-II

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡昌玉; 许禄


    An expert system for the elucidation of the structures of organic compounds--ESESOC-IIhas been designed. It is composed of three parts: spectroscopic data analysis, structure generator, and evaluation of the candidate structures. The heart of ESESOC is the structure generator, as an integral part, which accepts the specific types of information, e.g. molecular formulae, substructure constraints, and produces an exhaustive and irredundant list of candidate structures. The scheme for the structural generation is given, in which the depth-first search strategy is used to fill the bonding adjacency matrix (BAM) and a new method is introduced to remove the duplicates.

  17. Comparison of two LES codes for wind turbine wake studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak; Pierella, F.; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming


    are compared in terms of velocity deficit, turbulence kinetic energy and eddy viscosity. It is seen that both codes predict similar near-wake flow structures with the exception of OpenFoam's simulations without the subgrid-scale model. The differences begin to increase with increasing the distance from......For the third time a blind test comparison in Norway 2013, was conducted comparing numerical simulations for the rotor Cp and Ct and wake profiles with the experimental results. As the only large eddy simulation study among participants, results of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) using...... their in-house CFD solver, EllipSys3D, proved to be more reliable among the other models for capturing the wake profiles and the turbulence intensities downstream the turbine. It was therefore remarked in the workshop to investigate other LES codes to compare their performance with EllipSys3D. The aim...

  18. Analytical Formulas for Short Bunch Wakes in a Flat Dechirper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bane, Karl [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stupakov, Gennady [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Zagorodnov, Igor [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)


    We develop analytical models of the longitudinal and transverse wakes, on and off axis for realistic structures, and then compare them with numerical calculations, and generally find good agreement. These analytical "first order" formulas approximate the droop at the origin of the longitudinal wake and of the slope of the transverse wakes; they represent an improvement in accuracy over earlier, "zeroth order" formulas. In example calculations for the RadiaBeam/LCLS dechirper using typical parameters, we find a 16% droop in the energy chirp at the bunch tail compared to simpler calculations. With the beam moved to 200 m from one jaw in one dechiper section, one can achieve a 3 MV transverse kick differential over a 30 m length.

  19. An aeroelastic analysis with a generalized dynamic wake (United States)

    He, Cheng J.; Peters, David A.


    An aeroelastic model with generalized dynamic wake is developed for application in the integration of aerodynamic, dynamic, and structural optimization of a rotor blade. The investigation is carried out with special attention to efficiency and accuracy of aeroelastic modeling. Each blade is assumed to be an elastic beam undergoing flap bending, lead-lag bending, elastic twist and axial deflections. The nonuniform blade is discretized into finite beam elements, each of which consists of twelve degrees of freedom. Such important blade design variables as pretwist, and chordwise offsets of the blade center of gravity and of the aerodynamic center from the elastic axis have been included in the analysis. Aerodynamic loads are computed from unsteady blade element theory where the rotor three-dimensional unsteady wake is modeled using a generalized dynamic wake theory. The noncirculatory loads based on unsteady thin airfoil theory are also included.

  20. 2nd Generation RLV Airframe Structures and Materials (United States)

    Johnson, Theodore F.


    The goals and objectives of the project summarized in this viewgraph presentation are the following: (1) Develop and demonstrate verified airframe and cryotank structural design and analysis technologies, including damage tolerance, safety, reliability, and residual strength technologies, robust nonlinear shell and cryotank analysis technologies, high-fidelity analysis and design technologies for local structural detail features and joints, and high-fidelity analysis technologies for sandwich structures; (2) Demonstrate low cost, robust materials and processing, including polymeric matrix composite (PMC) and metallic materials and processing, and refractory composite and metallic hot structures materials and processing; (3) Develop and demonstrate robust airframe structures and validated integrated airframe structural concepts, including low cost fabrication and joining, operations efficient designs and inspection techniques (non-destructive evaluation), scale-up and integrated thermal structure tests, and airframe structures IVHM; (4) Demonstrate low cost, robust repair techniques; and (5) Develop verified integrated airframe structural concepts, including integrated structural concepts.

  1. Implementation of a Mixing Length Turbulence Formulation Into the Dynamic Wake Meandering Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keck, Rolf-Erik; Veldkamp, Dick; Aagaard Madsen, Helge


    The work presented in this paper focuses on improving the description of wake evolution due to turbulent mixing in the dynamic wake meandering (DWM) model. From wake investigations performed with high-fidelity actuator line simulations carried out in ELLIPSYS3D, it is seen that the current DWM...... description, where the eddy viscosity is assumed to be constant in each cross-section of the wake, is insufficient. Instead, a two-dimensional eddy viscosity formulation is proposed to model the shear layer generated turbulence in the wake, based on the classical mixing length model. The performance...... from 3 to 12 diameters behind the rotor, is reduced by 27% by using the new eddy viscosity formulation. ©2012 American Society of Mechanical Engineers...

  2. Sea Surface Wakes Observed by Spaceborne SAR in the Offshore Wind Farms (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Lehner, Susanne; Jacobsen, Sven


    In the paper, we present some X-band spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) TerraSAR-X (TS-X) images acquired at the offshore wind farms in the North Sea and the East China Sea. The high spatial resolution SAR images show different sea surface wake patterns downstream of the offshore wind turbines. The analysis suggests that there are major two types of wakes among the observed cases. The wind turbine wakes generated by movement of wind around wind turbines are the most often observed cases. In contrast, due to the strong local tidal currents in the near shore wind farm sites, the tidal current wakes induced by tidal current impinging on the wind turbine piles are also observed in the high spatial resolution TS-X images. The discrimination of the two types of wakes observed in the offshore wind farms is also described in the paper.

  3. Surface structure enhanced second harmonic generation in organic nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiutowski, Jacek; Maibohm, Christian; Kostiucenko, Oksana;

    Second-harmonic generation upon femto-second laser irradiation of nonlinearly optically active nanofibers grown from nonsymmetrically functionalized para-quarterphenylene (CNHP4) molecules is investigated. Following growth on mica templates, the nanofibers have been transferred onto lithography-d......-defined regular arrays of gold square nanostructures. These nanostructure arrays induce local field enhancement, which significantly lowers the threshold for second harmonic generation in the nanofibers.......Second-harmonic generation upon femto-second laser irradiation of nonlinearly optically active nanofibers grown from nonsymmetrically functionalized para-quarterphenylene (CNHP4) molecules is investigated. Following growth on mica templates, the nanofibers have been transferred onto lithography...

  4. Turbulence and turbulence-generated structural loading in wind turbine clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, Sten


    Turbulence, in terms of standard deviation of wind speed fluctuations, and other flow characteristics are different in the interior of wind farms relative to the free flow and action must be taken to ensure sufficient structural sustainability of the wind turbines exposed to 'wind farm flow'. The standard deviation of wind speed fluctuations is a known key parameter for both extreme- and fatigue loading, and it is argued and found to be justified that a model for change in turbulence intensity alone may account for increased fatigue loading in wind farms. Changes in scale of turbulence and horizontal flow-shear also influence the dynamic response and thus fatigue loading. However, these parameters are typically negatively or positively correlated with the standard deviation of wind speed fluctuations, which therefore can, if need be, represent these other variables. Thus, models for spatially averaged turbulence intensity inside the wind farm and direct-wake turbulence intensity are being devised and a method to combine the different load situations is proposed. The combination of the load cases implies a weighting method involving the slope of the considered material's Woehler curve. In the context, this is novel and necessary to avoid excessive safety for fatigue estimation of the structure's steel components, and non-conservatism for fibreglass components. The proposed model offers significant reductions in computational efforts in the design process. The status for the implementation of the model is that it became part of the Danish standard for wind turbine design DS 472 (2001) in August 2001 and it is part of the corresponding international standard, IEC61400-1 (2005). Also, extreme loading under normal operation for wake conditions and the efficiency of very large wind farms are discussed. (au)

  5. PIV Analysis of Wake Induced by Real Harbor Seal Whiskers (United States)

    Bunjevac, Joseph; Rinehart, Aidan; Flaherty, Justin; Zhang, Wei


    Harbor Seals are able to accurately detect minute disturbances in the ambient flow using their whiskers, which is attributed to the exceptional capability of the whiskers to suppress vortex-induced vibrations in the wake. To explore potential applications for designing smart devices, such as high-sensitivity underwater flow sensors and drag reduction components, research has studied the role of key parameters of the whisker morphology on wake structure. Due to the inherent variation in size and angle of incidence along the length of whiskers, it is not well understood how a real seal whisker changes wake structure, in particular the vortex shedding behavior. This work aims to understand the flow around a single real seal whisker using Particle Image Velocimetry at low Reynolds numbers (i.e. a few hundred) in a water channel. Variations in flow structure are inspected between several different real whiskers and whisker models. The results will provide insights of the effects of the natural geometry of the harbor seal whiskers on wake flow compared to idealized whisker-like models.

  6. Wake-induced vibrations in Tandem Cylinders (United States)

    Mysa, Ravi Chaithanya; Jaiman, Rajeev Kumar


    The upstream cylinder is fixed in the tandem cylinders arrangement. The downstream cylinder is placed at a distance of four diameters from the upstream cylinder in the free stream direction and is mounted on a spring. The dynamic response of the downstream cylinder is studied at Reynolds number of 10,000. The transverse displacement amplitude of the downstream cylinder is larger compared to that of single cylinder in the post-lock-in region. The transverse dynamic response of the downstream cylinder in the post-lock-in region is characterized by a dominant low frequency component compared to shed frequency, which is nearer to the structural natural frequency. The interaction of upstream wake with the downstream cylinder is carefully analyzed to understand the introduction of low frequency component in the transverse load along with the shed frequency. We found that the stagnation point moves in proportional to the velocity of the cylinder and is in-phase with the velocity. The low frequency component in the stagnation point movement on the downstream cylinder is sustained by the interaction of upstream wake. The frequencies in the movement of the stagnation point is reflected in the transverse load resulting in large deformation of the cylinder. The authors wish to acknowledge support from A*STAR- SERC and Singapore Maritime Institute.

  7. Automatic Structure-Based Code Generation from Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Westergaard, Michael


    Automatic code generation based on Coloured Petri Net (CPN) models is challenging because CPNs allow for the construction of abstract models that intermix control flow and data processing, making translation into conventional programming constructs difficult. We introduce Process-Partitioned CPNs....... The viability of our approach is demonstrated by applying it to automatically generate an Erlang implementation of the Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol specified by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)....

  8. Computer generation of structural models of amorphous Si and Ge (United States)

    Wooten, F.; Winer, K.; Weaire, D.


    We have developed and applied a computer algorithm that generates realistic random-network models of a-Si with periodic boundary conditions. These are the first models to have correlation functions that show no serious deiscrepancy with experiment. The algorithm provides a much-needed systematic approach to model construction that can be used to generate models of a large class of amorphous materials.

  9. Retargetable Code Generation based on Structural Processor Descriptions


    Leupers, Rainer; Marwedel, Peter


    Design automation for embedded systems comprising both hardware and software components demands for code generators integrated into electronic CAD systems. These code generators provide the necessary link between software synthesis tools in HW/SW codesign systems and embedded processors. General-purpose compilers for standard processors are often insufficient, because they do not provide flexibility with respect to different target processors and also suffer from inferior code quality....

  10. Experimental study on the near wake behind two side-by-side cylinders of unequal diameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Yangyang; Yu Dingyong [College of Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Tan, Soonkeat [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wang Xikun [Maritime Research Center, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Hao Zhiyong, E-mail: [Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 200135 (China)


    The wake structure behind two side-by-side circular cylinders with unequal diameter was investigated using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. This investigation focused on the asymmetrical flow within the subcritical Reynolds number regime. A comparison between the time-averaged mean flow field of one cylinder and that of two side-by-side cylinders of unequal diameter was made for elucidating the mean flow characteristics attributable to the latter. The distribution of mean velocity behind two side-by-side unequal cylinders was distinctly different from that behind one cylinder, and an asymmetric combination was observed behind the two cylinders. The present paper also presents the authors' interpretation of the generation mechanism of gap flow deflection based on the instantaneous vorticity contours and velocity distribution. The effect of Reynolds number on flow structure was studied by analyzing the mean velocity distribution and time-averaged wake structures. The results showed that vortex formation length decreases with Reynolds number.

  11. Interaction of a Boundary Layer with a Turbulent Wake (United States)

    Piomelli, Ugo


    The objective of this grant was to study the transition mechanisms on a flat-plate boundary layer interacting with the wake of a bluff body. This is a simplified configuration presented and designed to exemplify the phenomena that occur in multi-element airfoils, in which the wake of an upstream element impinges on a downstream one. Some experimental data is available for this configuration at various Reynolds numbers. The first task carried out was the implementation and validation of the immersed-boundary method. This was achieved by performing calculations of the flow over a cylinder at low and moderate Reynolds numbers. The low-Reynolds number results are discussed, which is enclosed as Appendix A. The high-Reynolds number results are presented in a paper in preparation for the Journal of Fluid Mechanics. We performed calculations of the wake-boundary-layer interaction at two Reynolds numbers, Re approximately equal to 385 and 1155. The first case is discussed and a comparison of the two calculations is reported. The simulations indicate that at the lower Reynolds number the boundary layer is buffeted by the unsteady Karman vortex street shed by the cylinder. This is shown: long streaky structures appear in the boundary layer in correspondence of the three-dimensionalities in the rollers. The fluctuations, however, cannot be self-sustained due to the low Reynolds-number, and the flow does not reach a turbulent state within the computational domain. In contrast, in the higher Reynolds-number case, boundary-layer fluctuations persist after the wake has decayed (due, in part, to the higher values of the local Reynolds number Re achieved in this case); some evidence could be observed that a self-sustaining turbulence generation cycle was beginning to be established. A third simulation was subsequently carried out at a higher Reynolds number, Re=3900. This calculation gave results similar to those of the Re=l155 case. Turbulence was established at fairly low

  12. Ship heading and velocity analysis by wake detection in SAR images (United States)

    Graziano, Maria Daniela; D'Errico, Marco; Rufino, Giancarlo


    With the aim of ship-route estimation, a wake detection method is developed and applied to COSMO/SkyMed and TerraSAR-X Stripmap SAR images over the Gulf of Naples, Italy. In order to mitigate the intrinsic limitations of the threshold logic, the algorithm identifies the wake features according to the hydrodynamic theory. A post-detection validation phase is performed to classify the features as real wake structures by means of merit indexes defined in the intensity domain. After wake reconstruction, ship heading is evaluated on the basis of turbulent wake direction and ship velocity is estimated by both techniques of azimuth shift and Kelvin pattern wavelength. The method is tested over 34 ship wakes identified by visual inspection in both HH and VV images at different incidence angles. For all wakes, no missed detections are reported and at least the turbulent and one narrow-V wakes are correctly identified, with ship heading successfully estimated. Also, the azimuth shift method is applied to estimate velocity for the 10 ships having route with sufficient angular separation from the satellite ground track. In one case ship velocity is successfully estimated with both methods, showing agreement within 14%.

  13. Three-dimensional Reciprocal Structures: Morphology, Concepts, Generative Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Pugnale, Alberto


    This paper present seven different three dimensional structures based on the principle of structural reciprocity with superimposition joint and standardized un-notched elements. Such typology could be regarded as being intrinsically three-dimensional because elements sit one of the top of the oth...

  14. Surface structure enhanced second harmonic generation in organic nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiutowski, Jacek; Maibohm, Christian; Kostiucenko, Oksana;

    Second-harmonic generation upon femto-second laser irradiation of nonlinearly optically active nanofibers grown from nonsymmetrically functionalized para-quarterphenylene (CNHP4) molecules is investigated. Following growth on mica templates, the nanofibers have been transferred onto lithography-d...

  15. Information Theoretic Secret Key Generation: Structured Codes and Tree Packing (United States)

    Nitinawarat, Sirin


    This dissertation deals with a multiterminal source model for secret key generation by multiple network terminals with prior and privileged access to a set of correlated signals complemented by public discussion among themselves. Emphasis is placed on a characterization of secret key capacity, i.e., the largest rate of an achievable secret key,…

  16. Second harmonic generation from photonic structured GaN nanowalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soya, Takahiro; Inose, Yuta; Kunugita, Hideyuki; Ema, Kazuhiro; Yamano, Kouji; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Kishino, Katsumi, E-mail: [Department of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Sophia University 7-1, Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan)


    We observed large enhancement of reflected second harmonic generation (SHG) using the one-dimensional photonic effect in regularly arranged InGaN/GaN single-quantum-well nanowalls. Using the effect when both fundamental and SH resonate with the photonic mode, we obtained enhancement of about 40 times compared with conditions far from resonance.

  17. Investigation of wake interaction using full-scale lidar measurements and large eddy simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machefaux, Ewan; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Troldborg, Niels;


    dynamics flow solver, using large eddy simulation and fully turbulent inflow. The rotors are modelled using the actuator disc technique. A mutual validation of the computational fluid dynamics model with the measurements is conducted for a selected dataset, where wake interaction occurs. This validation...... is based on a comparison between wake deficit, wake generated turbulence, turbine power production and thrust force. An excellent agreement between measurement and simulation is seen in both the fixed and the meandering frame of reference. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  18. Numerical Simulations of a VAWT in the Wake of a Moving Car


    Wenlong Tian; Zhaoyong Mao; Yukai Li


    Wind energy generated from the wake of moving cars has a large energy potential that has not yet been utilized. In this study, a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) was used to recover energy from the wakes of moving cars. The turbine was designed to be planted by the side of the car lane and driven by the wake produced by the car. Transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed to evaluate the performance of the VAWT. The influence of two main factors on the performance...

  19. Harbor seal whiskers synchronize with frequency of upstream wake (United States)

    Beem, Heather; Triantafyllou, Michael


    Harbor seals are able to use their whiskers to track minute water movements, such as those left in the wake of a fish. The current study is a simple representation of what the whiskers experience as the seal chases a fish. A scaled whisker model (average cross-flow diameter: dw) is first tested in a towing tank by itself and then towed behind a larger cylinder (dc = 2 . 5dw), which serves as a wake generator. A flexing plate attached to the model base allows the whisker to freely vibrate in response to the flow. Measurements from strain gages on the plate are calibrated to tip deflections. While in the cylinder wake, the whisker vibrates with an amplitude up to ten times higher than it does on its own (A /dw = 0 . 15). Also, the whisker synchronizes with the vortex shedding frequency (fs =0/. 2 U dc) of the upstream cylinder over the range of reduced velocities tested, whereas on its own, the whisker oscillates around its own natural frequency in water. Seals may use the difference in vibration amplitude and frequency between these two cases to help detect the presence of a vortex wake.

  20. An Online Structural Plasticity Rule for Generating Better Reservoirs


    Roy, Subhrajit; Basu, Arindam


    In this article, a novel neuro-inspired low-resolution online unsupervised learning rule is proposed to train the reservoir or liquid of Liquid State Machine. The liquid is a sparsely interconnected huge recurrent network of spiking neurons. The proposed learning rule is inspired from structural plasticity and trains the liquid through formation and elimination of synaptic connections. Hence, the learning involves rewiring of the reservoir connections similar to structural plasticity observed...

  1. Observing the Evolution of Typhoon Wakes (United States)


    the formation of a sufficiently intense typhoon to begin the cold-wake survey. 1 RESULTS The planning for the ...2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Observing the Evolution of Typhoon Wakes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Observing the Evolution of Typhoon Wakes Steven R. Jayne Woods Hole Oceanographic

  2. Effects of Solar Wind Conditions on the Plasma Wake Within a Polar Crater: Preliminary Results (United States)

    Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.


    As the solar wind sweeps horizontally past a shadowed lunar crater it simultaneously diffuses toward the surface through an ambipolar process, forming a plasma wake (e.g., Figure 1). Importantly, the resulting electric field structure diverts solar wind protons toward the cold crater floor where they may represent a source of surficial hydrogen. We present a handful of two-dimensional kinetic simulations exploring the range of wake structures and surface particle fluxes possible under various background plasma conditions.

  3. Alternative similarity renormalization group generators in nuclear structure calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Dicaire, Nuiok M; Navratil, Petr


    The similarity renormalization group (SRG) has been successfully applied to soften interactions for ab initio nuclear calculations. In almost all practical applications in nuclear physics, an SRG generator with the kinetic energy operator is used. With this choice, a fast convergence of many-body calculations can be achieved, but at the same time substantial three-body interactions are induced even if one starts from a purely two-nucleon (NN) Hamiltonian. Three-nucleon (3N) interactions can be handled by modern many-body methods. However, it has been observed that when including initial chiral 3N forces in the Hamiltonian, the SRG transformations induce a non-negligible four-nucleon interaction that cannot be currently included in the calculations for technical reasons. Consequently, it is essential to investigate alternative SRG generators that might suppress the induction of many-body forces while at the same time might preserve the good convergence. In this work we test two alternative generators with oper...

  4. Wake field effects in APT linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurennoy, S.S.


    The 1.7-GeV 100-mA CW proton linac is now under design for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project. The high current leads to stringent restrictions on allowable beam losses (<1 nA/m), that requires analyzing carefully all possible loss sources. While wake-field effects are usually considered negligible in proton linacs, the author studies these effects for the APT to exclude potential problems at such a high current. Loss factors and resonance frequency spectra of various discontinuities of the vacuum chamber are investigated, both analytically and using 2-D and 3-D simulation codes with a single bunch as well as with many bunches. Here he concentrates on two features specific to the APT linac: loss factors for the design {beta} < 1 and CW beam structure.

  5. Revolutionary Wake Hazard Assessment Tool Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Continuum Dynamics, Inc. (CDI) has developed a Multiple Aircraft Simulation Tool (MAST) that revolutionizes the ability to predict and assess wake interactions...

  6. Modulation of continuous electron beams in plasma wake-fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenzweig, J.B.


    In this paper we discuss the interaction of a continuous electron beam with wake-field generated plasma waves. Using a one-dimensional two fluid model, a fully nonlinear analytical description of the interaction is obtained. The phenomena of continuous beam modulation and wave period shortening are discussed. The relationship between these effects and the two-stream instability is also examined. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Generation, structure and reactivity of arynes: A theoretical study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Peter G S Dkhar; R H Duncan Lyngdoh


    The semiempirical AM1 SCF-MO method is used to study the benzyne mechanism for aromatic nucleophilic substitution of various -substituted chlorobenzenes and 3-chloropyridine. The calculations predict that most of the fixed substituents studied here would induce the formation of 2,3-arynes through their electron-withdrawing resonance or inductive effects. The geometry and electronic structure of the 2,3- and 3,4-arynes investigated here, confirm the generally accepted -benzyne structure postulated for arynes. The sites of nucleophilic addition to arynes as predicted here are in fair agreement with expectation and experimental findings.

  8. Vortex Wakes of Conventional Aircraft (United States)


    Lewellen and Milton Teske , have developed, under the sponsorship of the United States Navy, a digital computer code which allows one to obtain such...178, June 1972. 67. Lewellen, W.S., M.E. Teske , and C.duP. Donaldson: Turbulent Wakes in a Stratified Fluid. Aeronautical Research Associates of...Princeton, Inc. Report No. 226, September 1974. 68. Lewellen, W.S., M.E. Teske , R.M. Contiliano, G.R. Hilst, and C.duP. Donaldson: Invariant Modeling

  9. Generating Counterexamples for Structural Inductions by Exploiting Nonstandard Models (United States)

    Blanchette, Jasmin Christian; Claessen, Koen

    Induction proofs often fail because the stated theorem is noninductive, in which case the user must strengthen the theorem or prove auxiliary properties before performing the induction step. (Counter)model finders are useful for detecting non-theorems, but they will not find any counterexamples for noninductive theorems. We explain how to apply a well-known concept from first-order logic, nonstandard models, to the detection of noninductive invariants. Our work was done in the context of the proof assistant Isabelle/HOL and the counterexample generator Nitpick.

  10. Simulating microinjection experiments in a novel model of the rat sleep-wake regulatory network. (United States)

    Diniz Behn, Cecilia G; Booth, Victoria


    This study presents a novel mathematical modeling framework that is uniquely suited to investigating the structure and dynamics of the sleep-wake regulatory network in the brain stem and hypothalamus. It is based on a population firing rate model formalism that is modified to explicitly include concentration levels of neurotransmitters released to postsynaptic populations. Using this framework, interactions among primary brain stem and hypothalamic neuronal nuclei involved in rat sleep-wake regulation are modeled. The model network captures realistic rat polyphasic sleep-wake behavior consisting of wake, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM (NREM) sleep states. Network dynamics include a cyclic pattern of NREM sleep, REM sleep, and wake states that is disrupted by simulated variability of neurotransmitter release and external noise to the network. Explicit modeling of neurotransmitter concentrations allows for simulations of microinjections of neurotransmitter agonists and antagonists into a key wake-promoting population, the locus coeruleus (LC). Effects of these simulated microinjections on sleep-wake states are tracked and compared with experimental observations. Agonist/antagonist pairs, which are presumed to have opposing effects on LC activity, do not generally induce opposing effects on sleep-wake patterning because of multiple mechanisms for LC activation in the network. Also, different agents, which are presumed to have parallel effects on LC activity, do not induce parallel effects on sleep-wake patterning because of differences in the state dependence or independence of agonist and antagonist action. These simulation results highlight the utility of formal mathematical modeling for constraining conceptual models of the sleep-wake regulatory network.

  11. Local structure of numerically generated worm hole spacetime. (United States)

    Siino, M.

    The author investigates the evolution of the apparent horizons in a numerically gererated worm hole spacetime. The behavior of the apparent horizons is affected by the dynamics of the matter field. By using the local mass of the system, he interprets the evolution of the worm hole structure.

  12. Local Structure of Numerically Generated Worm Hole Spacetime


    Nambu, Yasusada; Siino, Masaru


    We investigate the evolution of the apparent horizons in a numerically gererated worm hole spacetime. The behavior of the apparent horizons is affected by the dynamics of the matter field. By using the local mass of the system, we interpret the evolution of the worm hole structure. Figures are available by mail to author.

  13. Detailed requirements for a next generation nuclear data structure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    This document attempts to compile the requirements for the top-levels of a hierarchical arrangement of nuclear data such as found in the ENDF format. This set of requirements will be used to guide the development of a new data structure to replace the legacy ENDF format.

  14. Local Structure of Numerically Generated Worm Hole Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Nambu, Y; Nambu, Yasusada; Siino, Masaru


    We investigate the evolution of the apparent horizons in a numerically gererated worm hole spacetime. The behavior of the apparent horizons is affected by the dynamics of the matter field. By using the local mass of the system, we interpret the evolution of the worm hole structure. Figures are available by mail to author.

  15. Generative probabilistic models extend the scope of inferential structure determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Simon; Boomsma, Wouter; Frellsen, Jes


    rigorous approach was developed which treats structure determination as a problem of Bayesian inference. In this case, the forcefields are brought in as a prior distribution in the form of a Boltzmann factor. Due to high computational cost, the approach has been only sparsely applied in practice. Here, we...

  16. Generation of tripolar vortical structures on the beta plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesthaven, J.S.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Juul Rasmussen, J.


    and oscillation of the tripolar structure may lead to increased mixing near the boundary of the vortex core. The translation of strong monopoles is found to be well described, even for times longer than the linear Rossby wave period, by a recent approximate theory for the evolution of an azimuthal perturbation...

  17. Wing Kinematics and Wake Velocity Characteristics of Bat Flight (United States)

    Swartz, Sharon


    Bats demonstrate unequalled flight characteristics and are capable of highly efficient flight as well as extreme maneuverability at high speeds. They have morphological properties that are unique in the animal world including jointed wings skeletons, elastic wing membranes and very complex wing motions. We report on a series of experiments on bats flying in a flight cage along both a straight path and through a 90-degree turn. Measurements of their kinematic wing motion (using high speed photography) and wake velocity structures (using stereo PIV) are reported. The live animal measurements are also interpreted with the help of a series of companion wind tunnel experiments using model structures that mimic some key features of bat flight mechanics. The results reveal a complex vortex wake structure which is compared and contrasted to that found in bird and insect flight.

  18. Exploring the wake of a dust particle by a continuously approaching test grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hendrik, E-mail:; Greiner, Franko; Asnaz, Oguz Han; Piel, Alexander [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universität, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Carstensen, Jan [ABB Switzerland Ltd., CH-5405 Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)


    The structure of the ion wake behind a dust particle in the plasma sheath of an rf discharge is studied in a two-particle system. The wake formation leads to attractive forces between the negatively charged dust and can cause a reduction of the charge of a particle. By evaluating the dynamic response of the particle system to small external perturbations, these quantities can be measured. Plasma inherent etching processes are used to achieve a continuous mass loss and hence an increasing levitation height of the lower particle, so that the structure of the wake of the upper particle, which is nearly unaffected by etching, can be probed. The results show a significant modification of the wake structure in the plasma sheath to one long potential tail.

  19. Improving practical sensitivity of energy optimized wake-up receivers: proof of concept in 65nm CMOS


    Mazloum, Nafiseh Seyed; Rodrigues, Joachim Neves; Andersson, Oskar; Nejdel, Anders; Edfors, Ove


    We present a high performance low-power digital base-band architecture, specially designed for an energy optimized duty-cycled wake-up receiver scheme. Based on a careful wake-up beacon design, a structured wake-up beacon detection technique leads to an architecture that compensates for the implementation loss of a low-power wake-up receiver front-end at low energy and area costs. Design parameters are selected by energy optimization and the architecture is easily scalable to support various ...

  20. The influence of the wake of a flapping wing on the production of aerodynamic forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianghao Wu; Mao Sun; Xing Zhang


    The effect of the wake of previous strokes on the aerodynamic forces of a flapping model insect wing is studied using the method of computational fluid dynamics. The wake effect is isolated by comparing the forces and flows of the starting stroke (when the wake has not developed) with those of a later stroke (when the wake has developed). The following has been shown. (1) The wake effect may increase or decrease the lift and drag at the beginning of a half-stroke (downstroke or upstroke), depending on the wing kinematics at stroke reversal. The reason for this is that at the beginning of the half-stroke, the wing "impinges" on the spanwise vorticity generated by the wing during stroke reversal and the distribution of the vorticity is sensitive to the wing kinematics at stroke reversal. (2) The wake effect decreases the lift and increases the drag in the rest part of the half-stroke. This is because the wing moves in a downwash field induced by previous half-stroke's starting vortex, tip vortices and attached leading edge vortex (these vortices form a downwash producing vortex ring). (3) The wake effect decreases the mean lift by 6%-18% (depending on wing kinematics at stroke reversal) and slightly increases the mean drag. Therefore, it is detrimental to the aerodynamic performance of the flapping wing.

  1. Current Generation in Double-Matrix Structure: A Theoretical Simulation


    Bogdan Lukiyanets; Dariya Matulka; Ivan Grygorchak


    Peculiarities of kinetic characteristics in a supramolecular system, in particular, in a double‐matrix structure observed at change of the guest content in a matrix‐host are investigated. Results obtained within the framework of a time‐independent one‐dimensional Schrödinger equation with three barrier potential qualitatively explain experimental data. They indicate the importance of size quantization of a system, correlation between energy and geometric characteristics of both guest and hos...

  2. Residual Generation for the Ship Benchmark Using Structural Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cocquempot, V.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Staroswiecki, M


    The prime objective of Fault-tolerant Control (FTC) systems is to handle faults and discrepancies using appropriate accommodation policies. The issue of obtaining information about various parameters and signals, which have to be monitored for fault detection purposes, becomes a rigorous task wit...... with the growing number of subsystems. The structural approach, presented in this paper, constitutes a general framework for providing information when the system becomes complex. The methodology of this approach is illustrated on the ship propulsion benchmark....

  3. Turbulence and Vorticity in Galaxy Clusters Generated by Structure Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Vazza, F; Brüggen, M; Brunetti, G; Gheller, C; Porter, D; Ryu, D


    Turbulence is a key ingredient for the evolution of the intracluster medium, whose properties can be predicted with high resolution numerical simulations. We present initial results on the generation of solenoidal and compressive turbulence in the intracluster medium during the formation of a small-size cluster using highly resolved, non-radiative cosmological simulations, with a refined monitoring in time. In this first of a series of papers, we closely look at one simulated cluster whose formation was distinguished by a merger around $z \\sim 0.3$. We separate laminar gas motions, turbulence and shocks with dedicated filtering strategies and distinguish the solenoidal and compressive components of the gas flows using Hodge-Helmholtz decomposition. Solenoidal turbulence dominates the dissipation of turbulent motions ($\\sim 95\\%$) in the central cluster volume at all epochs. The dissipation via compressive modes is found to be more important ($\\sim 30 \\%$ of the total) only at large radii ($\\geq 0.5 ~r_{\\rm vi...

  4. Modeling the Lunar plasma wake

    CERN Document Server

    Holmstrom, M


    Bodies that lack a significant atmosphere and internal magnetic fields, such as the Moon and asteroids, can to a first approximation be considered passive absorbers of the solar wind. The solar wind ions and electrons directly impact the surface of these bodies due to the lack of atmosphere, and the interplanetary magnetic field passes through the obstacle relatively undisturbed because the bodies are assumed to be non-conductive. Since the solar wind is absorbed by the body, a wake is created behind the object. This wake is gradually filled by solar wind plasma downstream of the body, through thermal expansion and the resulting ambipolar electric field, along the magnetic field lines. Here we study this plasma expansion into a vacuum using a hybrid plasma solver. In the hybrid approximation, ions are treated as particles, and electrons as a massless fluid. We also derive corresponding one- and two-dimensional model problems that account for the absorbing obstacle. It is found that the absorbing obstacle crea...

  5. Experimental study of wind turbine wakes in a convective boundary layer (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Markfort, C. D.; Porte-Agel, F.


    Understanding the interaction of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flows with wind turbines is important for optimizing the design of wind farms (maximizing energy output and mitigating fatigue loads) and improving the parameterization of wind farms in weather and climate models. Field observations have suggested that atmospheric stability affects ABL flow and its interaction with wind turbines, which in turn affects wind farm performance. However, the fluid mechanics involved has not been fully understood, highlighting the need of acquiring high quality data in clearly defined conditions. Well-controlled wind tunnel experiments of the wake of wind turbines immersed in thermally stratified or convective boundary layers are very limited. In this study, we investigate the wake structure of a miniature three-blade wind turbine model placed in a convective boundary layer (CBL) in the Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory wind tunnel. The objectives of this study are: 1) to understand how the CBL flow affects the wake behind a wind turbine in terms of tip vortices distribution, mean velocity deficit, turbulence intensities, Reynolds shear stress and heat flux modification; 2) to provide reliable data sets for validating and developing new parameterizations of turbulent fluxes and turbine-induced forces in numerical models, such as large-eddy simulation (LES). The CBL was generated by cooling the free stream air flow to 13 οC and heating up the test section floor to 80 οC. The free stream speed was set at 2.5 m/s, resulting in the Obukhov stability of δ/L=-3.15 and the bulk Richardson number about -0.16. The wake of a wind turbine model, whose height is about 1/3 the boundary layer thickness, was systematically studied using Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV) and a hot-wire/cold-wire anemometer. Results revealed the top tip vortices (in Fig.1), noticeably degraded velocity deficit and significantly enhanced turbulence. Turbulent momentum and heat fluxes were also

  6. Detecting wind turbine wakes with nacelle lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Held, D. P.; Larvol, A.; Mann, Jakob


    variance is used as a detection parameter for wakes. A one month long measurement campaign, where a continuous-wave lidar on a turbine has been exposed to multiple wake situations, is used to test the detection capabilities. The results show that it is possible to identify situation where a downstream...

  7. Web matrices: structural properties and generating combinatorial identities

    CERN Document Server

    Dukes, Mark


    In this paper we present new results for the combinatorics of web diagrams and web worlds. These are discrete objects that arise in the physics of calculating scattering amplitudes in non-abelian gauge theories. Web-colouring and web-mixing matrices (collectively known as web matrices) are indexed by ordered pairs of web-diagrams and contain information relating the number of colourings of the first web diagram that will produce the second diagram. We introduce the black diamond product on power series and show how it determines the web-colouring matrix of disjoint web worlds. Furthermore, we show that combining known physical results with the black diamond product gives a new technique for generating combinatorial identities. Due to the complicated action of the product on power series, the resulting identities appear highly non-trivial. We present two results to explain repeated entries that appear in the web matrices. The first of these shows how diagonal web matrix entries will be the same if the comparab...

  8. Structural and leakage integrity assessment of WWER steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Splichal, K.; Otruba, J. [Nuclear Research Inst., Rez (Switzerland)


    The integrity of heat exchange tubes may influence the life-time of WWER steam generators and appears to be an important criterion for the evaluation of their safety and operational reliability. The basic requirement is to assure a very low probability of radioactive water leakage, preventing unstable crack growth and sudden tube rupture. These requirements led to development of permissible limits for primary to secondary leak evolution and heat exchange tubes plugging based on eddy current test inspection. The stress corrosion cracking and pitting are the main corrosion damage of WWER heat exchange tubes and are initiated from the outer surface. They are influenced by water chemistry, temperature and tube wall stress level. They take place under crevice corrosion condition and are indicated especially (1) under the tube support plates, where up to 90-95 % of defects detected by the ECT method occur, and (2) on free spans under tube deposit layers. Both the initiation and crack growth cause thinning of the tube wall and lead to part thickness cracks and through-wall cracks, oriented above all in the axial direction. 10 refs.

  9. Wake Measurements in ECN's Scaled Wind Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagenaar, J.W.; Schepers, J.G. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)


    In ECN's scaled wind farm the wake evolution is studied in two different situations. A single wake is studied at two different locations downstream of a turbine and a single wake is studied in conjunction with a triple wake. Here, the wake is characterized by the wind speed ratio, the turbulence intensity, the vertical wind speed and the turbulence (an)isotropy. Per situation all wake measurements are taken simultaneously together with the inflow conditions.

  10. Comparison of a Coupled Near and Far Wake Model With a Free Wake Vortex Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirrung, Georg; Riziotis, Vasilis; Aagaard Madsen, Helge


    This paper presents the integration of a near wake model for trailing vorticity, which is based on a prescribed wake lifting line model proposed by Beddoes, with a BEM-based far wake model and a 2D shed vorticity model. The resulting coupled aerodynamics model is validated against lifting surface...... computations performed using a free wake panel code. The focus of the description of the aerodynamics model is on the numerical stability, the computation speed and the accuracy of 5 unsteady simulations. To stabilize the near wake model, it has to be iterated to convergence, using a relaxation factor that has...... induction modeling at slow time scales. Finally, the unsteady airfoil aerodynamics model is extended to provide the unsteady bound circulation for the near wake model and to improve 10 the modeling of the unsteady behavior of cambered airfoils. The model comparison with results from a free wake panel code...

  11. Experimental hydrodynamics of fish locomotion: functional insights from wake visualization. (United States)

    Drucker, Eliot G; Lauder, George V


    Despite enormous progress during the last twenty years in understanding the mechanistic basis of aquatic animal propulsion-a task involving the construction of a substantial data base on patterns of fin and body kinematics and locomotor muscle function-there remains a key area in which biologists have little information: the relationship between propulsor activity and water movement in the wake. How is internal muscular force translated into external force exerted on the water? What is the pattern of fluid force production by different fish fins (e.g., pectoral, caudal, dorsal) and how does swimming force vary with speed and among species? These types of questions have received considerable attention in analyses of terrestrial locomotion where force output by limbs can be measured directly with force plates. But how can forces exerted by animals moving through fluid be measured? The advent of digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) has provided an experimental hydrodynamic approach for quantifying the locomotor forces of freely moving animals in fluids, and has resulted in significant new insights into the mechanisms of fish propulsion. In this paper we present ten "lessons learned" from the application of DPIV to problems of fish locomotion over the last five years. (1) Three-dimensional DPIV analysis is critical for reconstructing wake geometry. (2) DPIV analysis reveals the orientation of locomotor reaction forces. (3) DPIV analysis allows calculation of the magnitude of locomotor forces. (4) Swimming speed can have a major impact on wake structure. (5) DPIV can reveal interspecific differences in vortex wake morphology. (6) DPIV analysis can provide new insights into the limits to locomotor performance. (7) DPIV demonstrates the functional versatility of fish fins. (8) DPIV reveals hydrodynamic force partitioning among fins. (9) DPIV shows that wake interaction among fins may enhance thrust production. (10) Experimental hydrodynamic analysis can provide

  12. The role of turbulent mixing in wind turbine wake recovery and wind array performance (United States)

    Fruh, Wolf-Gerrit; Creech, Angus; Maguire, Eoghan


    The effect of wind turbine wakes in large offshore wind energy arrays can be a substantial factor in affecting the performance of turbines inside the array. Turbulent mixing plays a key role in the wake recovery, having a significant effect on the length over which the wake is strong enough to affect the performance other turbines significantly. We aim to highlight how turbulence affects wind turbine wakes, first by examining a high resolution CFD model of a single turbine wake validated by LIDAR measurements [1], and secondly with a much larger CFD simulation of Lillgrund offshore wind farm, validated with SCADA data [2]. By comparing the decay rates behind single turbines in environments of different surrounding surface features, ranging from ideal free-slip wind tunnels to mixed-vegetation hills, we suggest that the decay rate of turbine wakes are enhanced by free-stream turbulence, created by topography and ground features. In the context of Lillgrund wind farm, observations and computational results suggest that the wakes created by the turbines in the leading row facing the wind decay much slower than those in second row, or further into the turbine array. This observation can be explained by the diffusive action of upwind turbulence breaking up the wake generated by a turbine rotor. Angus CW Creech, Wolf-Gerrit Früh, Peter Clive (2012). Actuator volumes and hradaptive methods for threedimensional simulation of wind turbine wakes and performance. Wind Energy Vol.15, 847 - 863. Angus C.W. Creech, Wolf-Gerrit Früh, A. Eoghan Maguire (2013). High-resolution CFD modelling of Lillgrund Wind farm. Renewable Energies and Power Quality Journal, Vol. 11

  13. On the evolution of waking and sleeping. (United States)

    Rial, R; Nicolau, M C; Lopez-Garcia, J A; Almirall, H


    1. The aim of this paper is to present a new hypothesis to explain the evolution of the sleeping and waking states. 2. We propose that the reptilian waking state and the mammalian slow wave sleep are homologous states. 3. We also propose that instead of looking at the polygraphic sleep as a new evolutive acquisition of mammals and birds, it seems more convenient to look at the full waking state; the "advanced wakefulness" as the true new evolutionary acquisition of these animals. 4. These conclusions are reached after examining some available reports of slow wave electroencephalogram in waking reptiles, some other reports showing signs of rapid eye movement sleep in this same group and the coevolution between sleep states and thermoregulation. Finally, a clear parallelism between sleep ontogeny and phylogeny is shown under the light of the proposed hypothesis.

  14. Efficient Turbulence Modeling for CFD Wake Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Laan, Paul

    , that can accurately and efficiently simulate wind turbine wakes. The linear k-ε eddy viscosity model (EVM) is a popular turbulence model in RANS; however, it underpredicts the velocity wake deficit and cannot predict the anisotropic Reynolds-stresses in the wake. In the current work, nonlinear eddy...... viscosity models (NLEVM) are applied to wind turbine wakes. NLEVMs can model anisotropic turbulence through a nonlinear stress-strain relation, and they can improve the velocity deficit by the use of a variable eddy viscosity coefficient, that delays the wake recovery. Unfortunately, all tested NLEVMs show...... numerically unstable behavior for fine grids, which inhibits a grid dependency study for numerical verification. Therefore, a simpler EVM is proposed, labeled as the k-ε - fp EVM, that has a linear stress-strain relation, but still has a variable eddy viscosity coefficient. The k-ε - fp EVM is numerically...

  15. Transitions in the vortex wake behind the plunging profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozłowski, Tomasz; Kudela, Henryk, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Numerical Modelling of Flows, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)


    In this study we investigate numerically the vortex wake formation behind the profile performing simple harmonic motion known in the literature as plunging. This research was inspired by the flapping motion which is appropriate for birds, insects and fishes. We assume the two dimensional model of flow. Depending on the parameters such as plunging amplitude, frequency and the Reynolds number, we demonstrate many different types of vortex street behind the profile. It is well known that the type of vortex wake determines the hydrodynamic forces acting on the profile. Dependences of the plunging amplitude, the Strouhal number and various topology vortices are established by constructing the phase transition diagram. The areas in the diagram related to the drag, thrust, and lift force generation are captured. We notice also the areas where the vorticity field is disordered. The disordered vorticity field does not allow maintenance of the periodic forces on the profile. An increase in the Reynolds number leads to the transition of the vortex wake behind the profile. The transition is caused by the phenomenon of boundary layer eruption. Further increase of the Reynolds number causes the vortex street related to the generation of the lift force to vanish. (paper)

  16. Numerical Study of Wake Characteristics in a Horizontal-Axis Hydrokinetic Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Over the years most studies on wake characteristics have been devoted to wind turbines, while few works are related to hydrokinetic turbines. Among studies applied to rivers, depth and width are important parameters for a suitable design. In this work, a numerical study of the wake in a horizontal-axis hydrokinetic turbine is performed, where the main objective is an investigation on the wake structure, which can be a constraining factor in rivers. The present paper uses the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS flow simulation technique, in which the Shear-Stress Transport (SST turbulent model is considered, in order to simulate a free hydrokinetic runner in a typical river flow. The NREL-PHASE VI wind turbine was used to validate the numerical approach. Simulations for a 3-bladed axial hydrokinetic turbine with 10 m diameter were carried out, depicting the expanded helical behavior of the wake. The axial velocity, in this case, is fully recovered at 12 diameters downstream in the wake. The results are compared with others available in the literature and also a study of the turbulence kinetic energy and mean axial velocity is presented so as to assess the influence of proximity of river surface from rotor in the wake geometry. Hence, even for a single turbine facility it is still necessary to consider the propagation of the wake over the spatial domain.

  17. Aircraft Wake Vortex Measurement with Coherent Doppler Lidar (United States)

    Wu, Songhua; Liu, Bingyi; Liu, Jintao


    Aircraft vortices are generated by the lift-producing surfaces of the aircraft. The variability of near-surface conditions can change the drop rate and cause the cell of the wake vortex to twist and contort unpredictably. The pulsed Coherent Doppler Lidar Detection and Ranging is an indispensable access to real aircraft vortices behavior which transmitting a laser beam and detecting the radiation backscattered by atmospheric aerosol particles. Experiments for Coherent Doppler Lidar measurement of aircraft wake vortices has been successfully carried out at the Beijing Capital International Airport (BCIA). In this paper, the authors discuss the Lidar system, the observation modes carried out in the measurements at BCIA and the characteristics of vortices.

  18. Aircraft Wake Vortex Measurement with Coherent Doppler Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Songhua


    Full Text Available Aircraft vortices are generated by the lift-producing surfaces of the aircraft. The variability of near-surface conditions can change the drop rate and cause the cell of the wake vortex to twist and contort unpredictably. The pulsed Coherent Doppler Lidar Detection and Ranging is an indispensable access to real aircraft vortices behavior which transmitting a laser beam and detecting the radiation backscattered by atmospheric aerosol particles. Experiments for Coherent Doppler Lidar measurement of aircraft wake vortices has been successfully carried out at the Beijing Capital International Airport (BCIA. In this paper, the authors discuss the Lidar system, the observation modes carried out in the measurements at BCIA and the characteristics of vortices.

  19. Towards Identifying Contribution of Wake Turbulence to Inflow Noise from Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Bharat Raj


    Full Text Available Downstream turbines in a wind farm often operate under the influence of wakes from upstream turbines. Aerodynamic losses and aeromechanical issues (stochastic loads associated with such wake-turbine interactions have been investigated before. However, the role such interactions play in the generation of aerodynamic noise has not been evaluated. This paper presents a two-step approach for predicting noise due to wake-turbine interaction. The first step involves an aerodynamic analysis of a wind farm using large eddy simulations. Time accurate data and turbulence statistics in the turbine wakes are obtained from this simulation just ahead of the downstream wind turbines. The second step uses the turbulence information with aeroacoustic models to predict radiated noise in the far field. Simulation results of two simplified model problems corresponding to these two steps are presented in this paper.

  20. Generating Free-Form Grid Truss Structures from 3D Scanned Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ding


    Full Text Available Reconstruction, according to physical shape, is a novel way to generate free-form grid truss structures. 3D scanning is an effective means of acquiring physical form information and it generates dense point clouds on surfaces of objects. However, generating grid truss structures from point clouds is still a challenge. Based on the advancing front technique (AFT which is widely used in Finite Element Method (FEM, a scheme for generating grid truss structures from 3D scanned point clouds is proposed in this paper. Based on the characteristics of point cloud data, the search box is adopted to reduce the search space in grid generating. A front advancing procedure suit for point clouds is established. Delaunay method and Laplacian method are used to improve the quality of the generated grids, and an adjustment strategy that locates grid nodes at appointed places is proposed. Several examples of generating grid truss structures from 3D scanned point clouds of seashells are carried out to verify the proposed scheme. Physical models of the grid truss structures generated in the examples are manufactured by 3D print, which solidifies the feasibility of the scheme.

  1. Vortex wake interactions and energy harvesting from tandem pitching and heaving hydrofoils (United States)

    Su, Yunxing; Cardona, Jennifer; Miller, Michael; Mandre, Shreyas; Breuer, Kenneth


    Measurements of flow structure and power extraction by tandem pitching and heaving hydrofoils are conducted in a flume. The leading and trailing hydrofoils are synchronized and aligned parallel to the oncoming flow. Force measurements and time-resolved PIV are used to characterize the system. The system efficiency of tandem foils with the same kinematics is quantified as a function of the phase difference between the foils and there exist favorable and unfavorable phase angles and that system efficiencies can be as large as 0.45. For unfavorable phase angles, PIV indicates that the leading edge vortex generated by the trailing foil, which is critical to good energy harvesting, is weakened by the oncoming wake from the leading foil. Conversely, at a favorable phase, the vortex shed from the leading foil enhances the performance of the trailing foil, compensating for the otherwise negative aspects of operating in the wake. A model, combining frequency, separation distance and a characteristic convection velocity, is introduced to predict the optimal phase region and is validated over a range of parameters. By changing the pitching amplitude and phase angle in trailing foil we show that relatively larger pitching amplitudes can further improve the system efficiency. ARPA-e.

  2. Linearized Unsteady Aerodynamic Analysis of the Acoustic Response to Wake/Blade-Row Interaction (United States)

    Verdon, Joseph M.; Huff, Dennis L. (Technical Monitor)


    The three-dimensional, linearized Euler analysis, LINFLUX, is being developed to provide a comprehensive and efficient unsteady aerodynamic scheme for predicting the aeroacoustic and aeroelastic responses of axial-flow turbomachinery blading. LINFLUX couples a near-field, implicit, wave-split, finite-volume solution to far-field acoustic eigensolutions, to predict the aerodynamic responses of a blade row to prescribed structural and aerodynamic excitations. It is applied herein to predict the acoustic responses of a fan exit guide vane (FEGV) to rotor wake excitations. The intent is to demonstrate and assess the LINFLUX analysis via application to realistic wake/blade-row interactions. Numerical results are given for the unsteady pressure responses of the FEGV, including the modal pressure responses at inlet and exit. In addition, predictions for the modal and total acoustic power levels at the FEGV exit are compared with measurements. The present results indicate that the LINFLUX analysis should be useful in the aeroacoustic design process, and for understanding the three-dimensional flow physics relevant to blade-row noise generation and propagation.

  3. [The role of histaminergic system of the brain in the regulation of sleep-wakefulness cycle]. (United States)

    Koval'zon, V M


    The structure, morphological and neurochemical bindings ofhistaminergic system of the brain as one of the most important mechanisms of waking maintenance, are regarded. The biochemistry of histamine turnover and histamine receptors are briefly described. The special role of the relation between histamine and orexin/hypocretin systems is stressed. Some examples of the responses on wakefulness-sleep cycle of the effects of experimental manipulations with the histaminergic system are given.

  4. Generating spatial precipitation ensembles: impact of temporal correlation structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Rakovec


    Full Text Available Sound spatially distributed rainfall fields including a proper spatial and temporal error structure are of key interest for hydrologists to force hydrological models and to identify uncertainties in the simulated and forecasted catchment response. The current paper presents a temporally coherent error identification method based on time-dependent multivariate spatial conditional simulations, which are conditioned on preceding simulations. A sensitivity analysis and real-world experiment are carried out within the hilly region of the Belgian Ardennes. Precipitation fields are simulated for pixels of 10 km × 10 km resolution. Uncertainty analyses in the simulated fields focus on (1 the number of previous simulation hours on which the new simulation is conditioned, (2 the advection speed of the rainfall event, (3 the size of the catchment considered, and (4 the rain gauge density within the catchment. The results for a sensitivity analysis show for typical advection speeds >20 km h−1, no uncertainty is added in terms of across ensemble spread when conditioned on more than one or two previous hourly simulations. However, for the real-world experiment, additional uncertainty can still be added when conditioning on a larger number of previous simulations. This is because for actual precipitation fields, the dynamics exhibit a larger spatial and temporal variability. Moreover, by thinning the observation network with 50%, the added uncertainty increases only slightly and the cross-validation shows that the simulations at the unobserved locations are unbiased. Finally, the first-order autocorrelation coefficients show clear temporal coherence in the time series of the areal precipitation using the time-dependent multivariate conditional simulations, which was not the case using the time-independent univariate conditional simulations. The presented work can be easily implemented within a hydrological calibration and data assimilation

  5. Direct numerical simulations and modeling of a spatially-evolving turbulent wake (United States)

    Cimbala, John M.


    Understanding of turbulent free shear flows (wakes, jets, and mixing layers) is important, not only for scientific interest, but also because of their appearance in numerous practical applications. Turbulent wakes, in particular, have recently received increased attention by researchers at NASA Langley. The turbulent wake generated by a two-dimensional airfoil has been selected as the test-case for detailed high-resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments. This same wake has also been chosen to enhance NASA's turbulence modeling efforts. Over the past year, the author has completed several wake computations, while visiting NASA through the 1993 and 1994 ASEE summer programs, and also while on sabbatical leave during the 1993-94 academic year. These calculations have included two-equation (K-omega and K-epsilon) models, algebraic stress models (ASM), full Reynolds stress closure models, and direct numerical simulations (DNS). Recently, there has been mutually beneficial collaboration of the experimental and computational efforts. In fact, these projects have been chosen for joint presentation at the NASA Turbulence Peer Review, scheduled for September 1994. DNS calculations are presently underway for a turbulent wake at Re(sub theta) = 1000 and at a Mach number of 0.20. (Theta is the momentum thickness, which remains constant in the wake of a two dimensional body.) These calculations utilize a compressible DNS code written by M. M. Rai of NASA Ames, and modified for the wake by J. Cimbala. The code employs fifth-order accurate upwind-biased finite differencing for the convective terms, fourth-order accurate central differencing for the viscous terms, and an iterative-implicit time-integration scheme. The computational domain for these calculations starts at x/theta = 10, and extends to x/theta = 610. Fully developed turbulent wake profiles, obtained from experimental data from several wake generators, are supplied at the computational inlet, along with


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devarakonda, Ranjeet [ORNL; Shrestha, Biva [ORNL; Palanisamy, Giri [ORNL; Hook, Leslie A [ORNL; Killeffer, Terri S [ORNL; Boden, Thomas A [ORNL; Cook, Robert B [ORNL; Zolly, Lisa [United States Geological Service (USGS); Hutchison, Viv [United States Geological Service (USGS); Frame, Mike [United States Geological Service (USGS); Cialella, Alice [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Lazer, Kathy [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)


    Nobody is better suited to describe data than the scientist who created it. This description about a data is called Metadata. In general terms, Metadata represents the who, what, when, where, why and how of the dataset [1]. eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is the preferred output format for metadata, as it makes it portable and, more importantly, suitable for system discoverability. The newly developed ORNL Metadata Editor (OME) is a Web-based tool that allows users to create and maintain XML files containing key information, or metadata, about the research. Metadata include information about the specific projects, parameters, time periods, and locations associated with the data. Such information helps put the research findings in context. In addition, the metadata produced using OME will allow other researchers to find these data via Metadata clearinghouses like Mercury [2][4]. OME is part of ORNL s Mercury software fleet [2][3]. It was jointly developed to support projects funded by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). OME s architecture provides a customizable interface to support project-specific requirements. Using this new architecture, the ORNL team developed OME instances for USGS s Core Science Analytics, Synthesis, and Libraries (CSAS&L), DOE s Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, and the international Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide ATlas (SOCAT). Researchers simply use the ORNL Metadata Editor to enter relevant metadata into a Web-based form. From the information on the form, the Metadata Editor can create an XML file on the server that the editor is installed or to the user s personal computer. Researchers can also use the ORNL Metadata Editor to modify existing XML metadata files. As an example, an NGEE Arctic scientist use OME to register

  7. Determination of real-time predictors of the wind turbine wake meandering (United States)

    Muller, Yann-Aël; Aubrun, Sandrine; Masson, Christian


    The present work proposes an experimental methodology to characterize the unsteady properties of a wind turbine wake, called meandering, and particularly its ability to follow the large-scale motions induced by large turbulent eddies contained in the approach flow. The measurements were made in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel. The wind turbine model is based on the actuator disc concept. One part of the work has been dedicated to the development of a methodology for horizontal wake tracking by mean of a transverse hot wire rake, whose dynamic response is adequate for spectral analysis. Spectral coherence analysis shows that the horizontal position of the wake correlates well with the upstream transverse velocity, especially for wavelength larger than three times the diameter of the disc but less so for smaller scales. Therefore, it is concluded that the wake is actually a rather passive tracer of the large surrounding turbulent structures. The influence of the rotor size and downstream distance on the wake meandering is studied. The fluctuations of the lateral force and the yawing torque affecting the wind turbine model are also measured and correlated with the wake meandering. Two approach flow configurations are then tested: an undisturbed incoming flow (modelled atmospheric boundary layer) and a disturbed incoming flow, with a wind turbine model located upstream. Results showed that the meandering process is amplified by the presence of the upstream wake. It is shown that the coherence between the lateral force fluctuations and the horizontal wake position is significant up to length scales larger than twice the wind turbine model diameter. This leads to the conclusion that the lateral force is a better candidate than the upstream transverse velocity to predict in real time the meandering process, for either undisturbed (wake free) or disturbed incoming atmospheric flows.

  8. The application of rhetorical structure theory to interactive news program generation from digital archives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindley, C.A.; Davis, J.R.; Nack, F.-M.; Rutledge, L.


    Rhetorical structure theory (RST) provides a model of textual function based upon rhetoric. Initially developed as a model of text coherence, RST has been used extensively in text generation research, and has more recently been proposed as a basis for multimedia presentation generation. This pap

  9. Wake Turbulence of Two NREL 5-MW Wind Turbines Immersed in a Neutral Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Bashioum, Jessica L; Schmitz, Sven; Duque, Earl P N


    The fluid dynamics video considers an array of two NREL 5-MW turbines separated by seven rotor diameters in a neutral atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The neutral atmospheric boundary-layer flow data were obtained from a precursor ABL simulation using a Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) framework within OpenFOAM. The mean wind speed at hub height is 8m/s, and the surface roughness is 0.2m. The actuator line method (ALM) is used to model the wind turbine blades by means of body forces added to the momentum equation. The fluid dynamics video shows the root and tip vortices emanating from the blades from various viewpoints. The vortices become unstable and break down into large-scale turbulent structures. As the wakes of the wind turbines advect further downstream, smaller-scale turbulence is generated. It is apparent that vortices generated by the blades of the downstream wind turbine break down faster due to increased turbulence levels generated by the wake of the upstream wind turbine.

  10. Spatial properties of entangled photon pairs generated in nonlinear layered structures

    CERN Document Server

    Perina, Jan


    A spatial quantum model of spontaneous parametric down-conversion in nonlinear layered structures is developed expanding the interacting vectorial fields into monochromatic plane waves. A two-photon spectral amplitude depending on the signal- and idler-field frequencies and propagation directions is used to derive transverse profiles of the emitted fields as well as their spatial correlations. Intensity spatial profiles and their spatial correlations are mainly determined by the positions of transmission peaks formed in these structures with photonic bands. A method for geometry optimization of the structures with respect to efficiency of the nonlinear process is suggested. Several structures composed of GaN/AlN layers are analyzed as typical examples. They allow the generation of photon pairs correlated in several emission directions. Photon-pair generation rates increasing better than the second power of the number of layers can be reached. Also structures efficiently generated photon pairs showing anti-bun...

  11. Imaging of the Space-time Structure of a Vortex Generator in Supersonic Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dengpan; XIA Zhixun; ZHAO Yuxin; WANG Bo; ZHAO Yanhui


    The fine space-time structure of a vortex generator (VG) in supersonic flow is studied with the nanoparticle-based planar laser scattering (NPLS) method in a quiet supersonic wind tunnel.The fine coherent structure at the symmetrical plane of the flow field around the VG is imaged with NPLS.The spatial structure and temporal evolution characteristics of the vortical structure are analyzed,which demonstrate periodic evolution and similar geometry,and the characteristics of rapid movement and slow change.Because the NPLS system yields the flow images at high temporal and spatial resolutions,from these images the position of a large scale structure can be extracted precisely.The position and velocity of the large scale structures can be evaluated with edge detection and correlation algorithms.The shocklet structures induced by vortices are imaged,from which the generation and development of shocklets are discussed in this paper.

  12. 5th International Conference on Jets, Wakes and Separated Flows

    CERN Document Server


    This volume collects various contributions from the 5th International Conference on Jets, Wakes and Separated Flows (ICJWSF2015) that took place in Stockholm during June 2015. Researchers from all around the world presented their latest results concerning fundamental and applied aspects of fluid dynamics. With its general character, the conference embraced many aspects of fluid dynamics, such as shear flows, multiphase flows and vortex flows, for instance. The structure of the present book reflects the variety of topics treated within the conference i.e. Jets, Wakes, Separated flows, Vehicle aerodynamics, Wall-bounded and confined flows, Noise, Turbomachinery flows, Multiphase and reacting flows, Vortex dynamics, Energy-related flows and a section dedicated to Numerical analyses.

  13. Collision of counterpropagating laser-excited wake bubbles. (United States)

    Deng, Z G; Yang, L; Zhou, C T; Yu, M Y; Ying, H P; Wang, X G


    The collision of wake bubbles behind two counterpropagating laser pulses in rarefied plasma is investigated using particle-in-cell simulation. Special attention is paid to the highly nonlinear dynamics of the electrons in the interaction region. It is found that, as the two bubbles approach each other and collide, the electrons in the interaction region first oscillate in a periodic fashion, forming a quasistationary dense electron density ripple with fairly regular spatial structure. At longer times, the electron motion becomes chaotic, and the density grating is gradually smeared. The electrons escape in the transverse direction, and eventually the two bubbles merge to form a single one. The transition of the electron motion from regular to chaotic is confirmed by analytical modeling using test electrons moving in counterpropagating planar electromagnetic waves. The findings shed light on the dynamics of wake-bubble collisions and the complex behavior induced by multiple laser pulses in plasmas.

  14. Experimental investigation of the wake behind a model of wind turbine in a water flume (United States)

    Okulov, V. L.; Naumov, I. N.; Kabardin, I.; Mikkelsen, R.; Sørensen, J. N.


    The flow behind the model of wind turbine rotor is investigated experimentally in a water flume using Particle Image Velocimetry. The study carried out involves rotors of three bladed wind turbine designed using Glauert's optimization. The transitional regime, generally characterized as in between the regime governed by stable organized vortical structures and the turbulent wake, develops from disturbances of the tip and root vorticies through vortex paring and further complex behaviour towards the fully turbulent wake. Our PIV measurements pay special attention to the onset of the instabilities. The near wake characteristics (development of expansion, tip vortex position, deficit velocity and rotation in the wake) have been measured for different tip speed ratio to compare with main assumptions and conclusions of various rotor theories.

  15. On the production of flat electron bunches for laser wake field acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Kando, M; Kotaki, H; Koga, J; Bulanov, S V; Tajima, T; Chao, A; Pitthan, R; Schüler, K P; Zhidkov, A G; Nemoto, K


    We suggest a novel method for injection of electrons into the acceleration phase of particle accelerators, producing low emittance beams appropriate even for the demanding high energy Linear Collider specifications. In this paper we work out the injection into the acceleration phase of the wake field in a plasma behind a high intensity laser pulse, taking advantage of the laser polarization and focusing. With the aid of catastrophe theory we categorize the injection dynamics. The scheme uses the structurally stable regime of transverse wake wave breaking, when electron trajectory self-intersection leads to the formation of a flat electron bunch. As shown in three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of the interaction of a laser pulse in a line-focus with an underdense plasma, the electrons, injected via the transverse wake wave breaking and accelerated by the wake wave, perform betatron oscillations with different amplitudes and frequencies along the two transverse coordinates. The polarization and focus...

  16. Effects of bupropion SR on anterior paralimbic function during waking and REM sleep in depression: preliminary findings using. (United States)

    Nofzinger, E A; Berman, S; Fasiczka, A; Miewald, J M; Meltzer, C C; Price, J C; Sembrat, R C; Wood, A; Thase, M E


    This study sought to clarify the effects of bupropion SR on anterior paralimbic function in depressed patients by studying changes in the activation of these structures from waking to REM sleep both before and after treatment. Twelve depressed patients underwent concurrent EEG sleep studies and [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scans during waking and during their second REM period of sleep before and after treatment with bupropion SR. Nine subjects completed pre- and post-treatment waking PET studies. Five subjects completed pre- and post-treatment waking and REM sleep PET studies. Bupropion SR treatment did not suppress electrophysiologic measures of REM sleep, nor did it alter an indirect measure of global metabolism during either waking or REM sleep. Bupropion SR treatment reversed the previously observed deficit in anterior cingulate, medial prefrontal cortex and right anterior insula activation from waking to REM sleep. In secondary analyses, this effect was related to a reduction in waking relative metabolism in these structures following treatment in the absence of a significant effect on REM sleep relative metabolism. The implications of these findings for the relative importance of anterior paralimbic function in REM sleep in depression and for the differential effects of anti-depressant treatment on brain function during waking vs. REM sleep are discussed.

  17. Conformer generation with OMEGA: algorithm and validation using high quality structures from the Protein Databank and Cambridge Structural Database. (United States)

    Hawkins, Paul C D; Skillman, A Geoffrey; Warren, Gregory L; Ellingson, Benjamin A; Stahl, Matthew T


    Here, we present the algorithm and validation for OMEGA, a systematic, knowledge-based conformer generator. The algorithm consists of three phases: assembly of an initial 3D structure from a library of fragments; exhaustive enumeration of all rotatable torsions using values drawn from a knowledge-based list of angles, thereby generating a large set of conformations; and sampling of this set by geometric and energy criteria. Validation of conformer generators like OMEGA has often been undertaken by comparing computed conformer sets to experimental molecular conformations from crystallography, usually from the Protein Databank (PDB). Such an approach is fraught with difficulty due to the systematic problems with small molecule structures in the PDB. Methods are presented to identify a diverse set of small molecule structures from cocomplexes in the PDB that has maximal reliability. A challenging set of 197 high quality, carefully selected ligand structures from well-solved models was obtained using these methods. This set will provide a sound basis for comparison and validation of conformer generators in the future. Validation results from this set are compared to the results using structures of a set of druglike molecules extracted from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD). OMEGA is found to perform very well in reproducing the crystallographic conformations from both these data sets using two complementary metrics of success.

  18. Wake-induced unsteady flows: Their impact on rotor performance and wake rectification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczyk, J.J. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Brook Park, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center; Celestina, M.L. [Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Brook Park, OH (United States). Dept. of Aeromechanics; Chen, J.P. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States). NSF Engineering Research Center


    The impact of wake-induced unsteady flows on blade row performance and the wake rectification process is examined by means of numerical simulation. The passage of a stator wake through a downstream rotor is first simulated using a three-dimensional unsteady viscous flow code. The results from this simulation are used to define two steady-state inlet conditions for a three-dimensional viscous flow simulation of a rotor operating in isolation. The results obtained from these numerical simulations are then compared to those obtained form the unsteady simulation both to quantify the impact of the wake-induced unsteady flow field on rotor performance and to identify the flow processes which impact wake rectification. Finally, the results from this comparison study are related to an existing model, which attempts to account for the impact of wake-induced unsteady flows on the performance of multistage turbomachinery.

  19. Wake interaction effects on the transition process on turbine blades (United States)

    Ainsworth, R. W.; Lagraff, J. E.


    The characterization of the nozzle guide vane inlet and exit conditions in the Oxford University Isentropic Light Piston Tunnel fully 3-D annular rotating stage has been undertaken. Measurements included hot wire anemometry and pressure/Mach number distributions. Preparations for the rotor heat transfer instrumentation/data acquisition hardware and software are also in progress. Further development of a numerical model to predict the effects of wake passing and transition is reported. The convection of the wake through the passage is predicted, allowing for estimations of the expected times for which the boundary layer is disturbed by the wake fluid. The new model for the random generation and subsequent growth and convection of the turbulent spots produces a time-resolved prediction of the intermittent heat transfer signals by use of a time-marching procedure. By superimposing the two numerical models it is possible to simulate the measured instantaneous heat transfer characteristics and to estimate the effective average intermittency along the blade surface and compare the results to the measured intermittency values.

  20. Mass flow and its pulsation measurements in supersonic wing wake (United States)

    Shmakov, A. S.; Shevchenko, A. M.; Yatskikh, A. A.; Yermolaev, Yu. G.


    The results of experimental study of the flow in the wing wake are presented. Experiments were carried out in supersonic wind tunnel T-325 of ITAM SB RAS. Rectangle half-wing with sharp edges with a chord length of 30 mm and semispan of 95 mm was used to generate vortex wake. Experimental data were obtained in the cross section located 6 chord length downstream of the trailing edge at Mach numbers of 2.5 and 4 and at wing angles of attack of 4 and 10 degrees. Constant temperature hot-wire anemometer was used to measure disturbances in supersonic flow. Hot-wire was made of a tungsten wire with a diameter of 10 μm and length of 1.5 mm. Shlieren flow visualization were performed. As a result, the position and size of the vortex core in the wake of a rectangular wing were determined. For the first time experimental data on the mass flow distribution and its pulsations in the supersonic longitudinal vortex were obtained.

  1. Generating a New Higher-Dimensional Ultra-Short Pulse System: Lie-Algebra Valued Connection and Hidden Structural Symmetries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hermann T. Tchokouansi; Victor K. Kuetche; Abbagari Souleymanou; Thomas B. Bouetou; Timoleon C. Kofane


    We carry out the hidden structural symmetries embedded within a system comprising ultra-short pulses which propagate in optical nonlinear media. Based upon the Wahlquist Estabrook approach, we construct the Lie-algebra valued connections associated to the previous symmetries while deriving their corresponding Lax-pairs, which are particularly useful in soliton theory. In the wake of previous results, we extend the above prolongation scheme to higher-dimensional systems from which a new (2 + l)-dimensional ultra-short pulse equation is unveiled along with its inverse scattering formulation, the application of which are straightforward in nonlinear optics where an additional propagating dimension deserves some attention.%We carry out the hidden structural symmetries embedded within a system comprising ultra-short pulses which propagate in optical nonlinear media.Based upon the Wahlquist Estabrook approach,we construct the Liealgebra valued connections associated to the previous symmetries while deriving their corresponding Lax-pairs,which are particularly useful in soliton theory.In the wake of previous results,we extend the above prolongation scheme to higher-dimensional systems from which a new (2+ 1)-dimensional ultra-short pulse equation is unveiled along with its inverse scattering formulation,the application of which are straightforward in nonlinear optics where an additional propagating dimension deserves some attention.

  2. Wake Vortex Inverse Model User's Guide (United States)

    Lai, David; Delisi, Donald


    NorthWest Research Associates (NWRA) has developed an inverse model for inverting landing aircraft vortex data. The data used for the inversion are the time evolution of the lateral transport position and vertical position of both the port and starboard vortices. The inverse model performs iterative forward model runs using various estimates of vortex parameters, vertical crosswind profiles, and vortex circulation as a function of wake age. Forward model predictions of lateral transport and altitude are then compared with the observed data. Differences between the data and model predictions guide the choice of vortex parameter values, crosswind profile and circulation evolution in the next iteration. Iterations are performed until a user-defined criterion is satisfied. Currently, the inverse model is set to stop when the improvement in the rms deviation between the data and model predictions is less than 1 percent for two consecutive iterations. The forward model used in this inverse model is a modified version of the Shear-APA model. A detailed description of this forward model, the inverse model, and its validation are presented in a different report (Lai, Mellman, Robins, and Delisi, 2007). This document is a User's Guide for the Wake Vortex Inverse Model. Section 2 presents an overview of the inverse model program. Execution of the inverse model is described in Section 3. When executing the inverse model, a user is requested to provide the name of an input file which contains the inverse model parameters, the various datasets, and directories needed for the inversion. A detailed description of the list of parameters in the inversion input file is presented in Section 4. A user has an option to save the inversion results of each lidar track in a mat-file (a condensed data file in Matlab format). These saved mat-files can be used for post-inversion analysis. A description of the contents of the saved files is given in Section 5. An example of an inversion input

  3. Parametric 'route structure' generation and analysis: An interactive design system application for urban design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beirao, J.N.; Nourian Ghadikolaee, P.; Van Walderveen, B.


    Marshall (2005) developed the concept of characteristic structure of a street network as a characteristic set of indicators extracted from the street network through a process which he called “route structure analysis”. In this paper we propose an integrated process for street network generation and

  4. Submicron hollow spot generation by solid immersion lens and structured illumination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, M.S.; Assafrao, A.C.; Scharf, T.; Wachters, A.J.H.; Pereira, S.F.; Urbach, H.P.; Brun, M.; Olivier, S.; Nicoletti, S.; Herzig, H.P.


    We report on the experimental and numerical demonstration of immersed submicron-size hollow focused spots, generated by structuring the polarization state of an incident light beam impinging on a micro-size solid immersion lens (μ-SIL) made of SiO2. Such structured focal spots are characterized by a

  5. Completely Integrable Hamiltonian Systems Generated by Poisson Structures in R3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI De-Chao; ZHANG Xiang


    @@ The completely integrable Hamiltonian systems have been applied to physics and mechanics intensively. We generate a family of completely integrable Hamiltonian systems from some kinds of exact Poisson structures in R3 by the realization of the Poisson algebra. Moreover, we prove that there is a Poisson algebra which cannot be realized by an exact Poisson structure.

  6. Submicron hollow spot generation by solid immersion lens and structured illumination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, M.S.; Assafrao, A.C.; Scharf, T.; Wachters, A.J.H.; Pereira, S.F.; Urbach, H.P.; Brun, M.; Olivier, S.; Nicoletti, S.; Herzig, H.P.


    We report on the experimental and numerical demonstration of immersed submicron-size hollow focused spots, generated by structuring the polarization state of an incident light beam impinging on a micro-size solid immersion lens (μ-SIL) made of SiO2. Such structured focal spots are characterized by a

  7. Parametric 'route structure' generation and analysis: An interactive design system application for urban design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beirao, J.N.; Nourian Ghadikolaee, P.; Van Walderveen, B.


    Marshall (2005) developed the concept of characteristic structure of a street network as a characteristic set of indicators extracted from the street network through a process which he called “route structure analysis”. In this paper we propose an integrated process for street network generation and

  8. Strategies for Inclusion of Structural Mass Estimates in the Direct-Drive Generator Optimization Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Matthew Lee; Jensen, Bogi Bech


    Usage of a lookup table containing the structural mass and air gap deformation for direct-drive wind turbines of various dimensions is demonstrated. The development of the table is described in detail. Optimal generator designs while both neglecting and considering the structural mass are also...

  9. CFD simulation on Kappel propeller with a hull wake field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Keun Woo; Andersen, Poul; Møller Bering, Rasmus


    -water characteristics. The hull wake field is simulated without the propeller flow to check whether it is preserved at the propeller plane or not. Propeller flow simulations are made with mean axial wake varying only along the radius (i.e. circumferentially uniform), whole axial wake and upstream transverse wake...

  10. Comparing satellite SAR and wind farm wake models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Vincent, P.; Husson, R.


    The aim of the paper is to present offshore wind farm wake observed from satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) wind fields from RADARSAT-1/-2 and Envisat and to compare these wakes qualitatively to wind farm wake model results. From some satellite SAR wind maps very long wakes are observed. Th...

  11. Generating a New Higher-Dimensional Coupled Integrable Dispersionless System:Algebraic Structures, B(a)cklund Transformation and Hidden Structural Symmetries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Souleymanou Abbagari; Thomas B.Bouetou; Timoleon C.Kofane


    The prolongation structure methodologies of Wahlquist-Estabrook [H.D.Wahlquist and F.B.Estabrook,J.Math.Phys.16 (1975) 1] for nonlinear differential equations are applied to a more general set of coupled integrable dispersionless system.Based on the obtained prolongation structure,a Lie-Algebra valued connection of a closed ideal of exterior differential forms related to the above system is constructed.A Lie-Algebra representation of some hidden structural symmetries of the previous system,its B(a)cklund transformation using the Riccati form of the linear eigenvalue problem and their general corresponding Lax-representation are derived.In the wake of the previous results,we extend the above prolongation scheme to higher-dimensional systems from which a new (2 + 1)-dimensional coupled integrable dispersionless system is unveiled along with its inverse scattering formulation,which applications are straightforward in nonlinear optics where additional propagating dimension deserves some attention.

  12. The sleep-wakefulness cycle of Wistar rats with spontaneous absence-like epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Sanfelice André


    Full Text Available Possible interactions between the sleep-wakefulness cycle and a new kind of spontaneous epilepsy, expressed as absence-like seizures and spike-wave bursts in FMUSP rats, are evaluated. The electro-oscillograms of some cortical and subcortical regions of the brain were recorded, as well as head, rostrum/vibrissae and eye movements. Recordings were performed uninterruptedly during 24 hours. The seizures were mostly concentrated in the wakefulness state but they could occur in any other phase, including paradoxical sleep. After the seizure, the rats usually returned to the same phase that was interrupted, although they often returned to wakefulness. There was an intense fragmentation of the sleep-wakefulness cycle. The incidence of each cycle phase was significantly reduced, except SIII of synchronized sleep and paradoxical sleep, thus maintaining the overall duration and architecture of the sleep-wakefulness cycle. The fragmentation of the cycle seems to be due to an impairment of the very processes that generate sleep and wakefulness. Electrophysiological and behavioral profiles of the FMUSP rats recommend accurate and comprehensive study of the animal model owing to its resemblance to seizures in humans and also to discrepancies with existing genetic or experimental epilepsy models.

  13. Time-resolved vortex wake of a common swift flying over a range of flight speeds. (United States)

    Henningsson, P; Muijres, F T; Hedenström, A


    The wake of a freely flying common swift (Apus apus L.) is examined in a wind tunnel at three different flight speeds, 5.7, 7.7 and 9.9 m s(-1). The wake of the bird is visualized using high-speed stereo digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). Wake images are recorded in the transverse plane, perpendicular to the airflow. The wake of a swift has been studied previously using DPIV and recording wake images in the longitudinal plane, parallel to the airflow. The high-speed DPIV system allows for time-resolved wake sampling and the result shows features that were not discovered in the previous study, but there was approximately a 40 per cent vertical force deficit. As the earlier study also revealed, a pair of wingtip vortices are trailing behind the wingtips, but in addition, a pair of tail vortices and a pair of 'wing root vortices' are found that appear to originate from the wing/body junction. The existence of wing root vortices suggests that the two wings are not acting as a single wing, but are to some extent aerodynamically detached from each other. It is proposed that this is due to the body disrupting the lift distribution over the wing by generating less lift than the wings.

  14. Large-eddy simulation of propeller wake at design operating conditions (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen; Mahesh, Krishnan


    Understanding the propeller wake is crucial for efficient design and optimized performance. The dynamics of the propeller wake are also central to physical phenomena such as cavitation and acoustics. Large-eddy simulation is used to study the evolution of the wake of a five-bladed marine propeller from near to far field at design operating condition. The computed mean loads and phase-averaged flow field show good agreement with experiments. The propeller wake consisting of tip and hub vortices undergoes streamtube contraction, which is followed by the onset of instabilities as evident from the oscillations of the tip vortices. Simulation results reveal a mutual induction mechanism of instability where instead of the tip vortices interacting among themselves, they interact with the smaller vortices generated by the roll-up of the blade trailing edge wake in the near wake. Phase-averaged and ensemble-averaged flow fields are analyzed to explain the flow physics. This work is supported by ONR.

  15. Molecular design chemical structure generation from the properties of pure organic compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Horvath, AL


    This book is a systematic presentation of the methods that have been developed for the interpretation of molecular modeling to the design of new chemicals. The main feature of the compilation is the co-ordination of the various scientific disciplines required for the generation of new compounds. The five chapters deal with such areas as structure and properties of organic compounds, relationships between structure and properties, and models for structure generation. The subject is covered in sufficient depth to provide readers with the necessary background to understand the modeling

  16. X-Ray Wakes in Abell 160

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, N; Sakelliou, I; Pinkney, J C; Drake, Nick; Merrifield, Michael R.; Sakelliou, Irini; Pinkney, Jason C.


    `Wakes' of X-ray emission have now been detected trailing behind a few (at least seven) elliptical galaxies in clusters. To quantify how widespread this phenomenon is, and what its nature might be, we have obtained a deep (70 ksec) X-ray image of the poor cluster Abell 160 using the ROSAT HRI. Combining the X-ray data with optical positions of confirmed cluster members, and applying a statistic designed to search for wake-like excesses, we confirm that this phenomenon is observed in galaxies in this cluster. The probability that the detections arise from chance is less than 0.0038. Further, the wakes are not randomly distributed in direction, but are preferentially oriented pointing away from the cluster centre. This arrangement can be explained by a simple model in which wakes arise from the stripping of their host galaxies' interstellar media due to ram pressure against the intracluster medium through which they travel.

  17. CRED REA Algal Assessments Wake Atoll, 2005 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 14 sites at Wake Atoll in October...

  18. Free wake models for vortex methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, K. [Technical Univ. Berlin, Aerospace Inst. (Germany)


    The blade element method works fast and good. For some problems (rotor shapes or flow conditions) it could be better to use vortex methods. Different methods for calculating a wake geometry will be presented. (au)

  19. Cockpit-based Wake Vortex Visualization Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To prevent aircraft accidents due to wake vortex hazards, FAA procedures specify the minimum separation required between different categories of aircraft. However, a...

  20. 2014 CERN Accelerator Schools: Plasma Wake Acceleration

    CERN Multimedia


    A specialised school on Plasma Wake Acceleration will be held at CERN, Switzerland from 23-29 November, 2014.   This course will be of interest to staff and students in accelerator laboratories, university departments and companies working in or having an interest in the field of new acceleration techniques. Following introductory lectures on plasma and laser physics, the course will cover the different components of a plasma wake accelerator and plasma beam systems. An overview of the experimental studies, diagnostic tools and state of the art wake acceleration facilities, both present and planned, will complement the theoretical part. Topical seminars and a visit of CERN will complete the programme. Further information can be found at:

  1. CRED REA Algal Assessments Wake Atoll, 2007 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Wake Atoll in April...

  2. Model of the Human Sleep Wake System

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, Lisa


    A model and analysis of the human sleep/wake system is presented. The model is derived using the known neuronal groups, and their various projections, involved with sleep and wake. Inherent in the derivation is the existence of a slow time scale associated with homeostatic regulation, and a faster time scale associated with the dynamics within the sleep phase. A significant feature of the model is that it does not contain a periodic forcing term, common in other models, reflecting the fact that sleep/wake is not dependent upon a diurnal stimulus. Once derived, the model is analyzed using a linearized stability analysis. We then use experimental data from normal sleep-wake systems and orexin knockout systems to verify the physiological validity of the equations.

  3. Optimal distribution of wind farm turbines using PSO considering the wake effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Ramírez Ramírez


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel algorithm for optimal location of the turbines of a wind farm, considering the wake effect and any provision of winds, using the metaheuristic technique for particle swarm optimization (PSO. Likewise, the provision that generates more energy for a proposed case is shown, taking into account the constraints of distances between the turbines, the wind farm area and the wake effect. The energy optimization generated by the park is realized for a compass rose over a period of time.

  4. Aircraft Wake Vortex Deformation in Turbulent Atmosphere


    Hennemann, Ingo; Holzaepfel, Frank


    Large-scale distortion of aircraft wake vortices appears to play a crucial role for aircraft safety during approach and landing. Vortex distortion is investigated based on large eddy simulations of wake vortex evolution in a turbulent atmosphere. A vortex identification method is developed that can be adapted to the vortex scales of interest. Based on the identified vortex center tracks, a statistics of vortex curvature radii is established. This statistics constitutes the basis for understan...

  5. Distributed chaos in turbulent wakes

    CERN Document Server

    Bershadskii, A


    Soft and hard spontaneous breaking of space translational symmetry (homogeneity) have been studied in turbulent wakes by means of distributed chaos. In the case of the soft translational symmetry breaking the vorticity correlation integral $\\int_{V} \\langle {\\boldsymbol \\omega} ({\\bf x},t) \\cdot {\\boldsymbol \\omega} ({\\bf x} + {\\bf r},t) \\rangle_{V} d{\\bf r}$ dominates the distributed chaos and the chaotic spectra $\\exp-(k/k_{\\beta})^{\\beta }$ have $\\beta =1/2$. In the case of the hard translational symmetry breaking, control on the distributed chaos is switched from one type of fundamental symmetry to another (in this case to Lagrangian relabeling symmetry). Due to the Noether's theorem the relabeling symmetry results in the inviscid helicity conservation and helicity correlation integral $I=\\int \\langle h({\\bf x},t)~h({\\bf x}+{\\bf r}, t)\\rangle d{\\bf r}$ (Levich-Tsinober invariant) dominates the distributed chaos with $\\beta =1/3$. Good agreement with the experimatal data has been established for turbulent ...

  6. Band-gap nonlinear optical generation: The structure of internal optical field and the structural light focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaytsev, Kirill I., E-mail:; Katyba, Gleb M.; Yakovlev, Egor V.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O., E-mail: [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2nd Baumanskaya str. 5, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Gorelik, Vladimir S. [P. N. Lebedev Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskiy Prospekt 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)


    A novel approach for the enhancement of nonlinear optical effects inside globular photonic crystals (PCs) is proposed and systematically studied via numerical simulations. The enhanced optical harmonic generation is associated with two- and three-dimensional PC pumping with the wavelength corresponding to different PC band-gaps. The interactions between light and the PC are numerically simulated using the finite-difference time-domain technique for solving the Maxwell's equations. Both empty and infiltrated two-dimensional PC structures are considered. A significant enhancement of harmonic generation is predicted owing to the highly efficient PC pumping based on the structural light focusing effect inside the PC structure. It is shown that a highly efficient harmonic generation could be attained for both the empty and infiltrated two- and three-dimensional PCs. We are demonstrating the ability for two times enhancement of the parametric decay efficiency, one order enhancement of the second harmonic generation, and two order enhancement of the third harmonic generation in PC structures in comparison to the nonlinear generations in appropriate homogenous media. Obviously, the nonlinear processes should be allowed by the molecular symmetry. The criteria of the nonlinear process efficiency are specified and calculated as a function of pumping wavelength position towards the PC globule diameter. Obtained criterion curves exhibit oscillating characteristics, which indicates that the highly efficient generation corresponds to the various PC band-gap pumping. The highest efficiency of nonlinear conversions could be reached for PC pumping with femtosecond optical pulses; thus, the local peak intensity would be maximized. Possible applications of the observed phenomenon are also discussed.

  7. Histamine in the regulation of wakefulness. (United States)

    Thakkar, Mahesh M


    The histaminergic system is exclusively localized within the posterior hypothalamus with projection to almost all the major regions of the central nervous system. Strong and consistent evidence exist to suggest that histamine, acting via H₁ and/or H₃ receptor has a pivotal role in the regulation of sleep-wakefulness. Administration of histamine or H₁ receptor agonists induces wakefulness, whereas administration of H₁ receptor antagonists promotes sleep. The H₃ receptor functions as an auto-receptor and regulates the synthesis and release of histamine. Activation of H₃ receptor reduces histamine release and promotes sleep. Conversely, blockade of H₃ receptor promotes wakefulness. Histamine release in the hypothalamus and other target regions is highest during wakefulness. The histaminergic neurons display maximal activity during the state of high vigilance, and cease their activity during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The cerebrospinal levels of histamine are reduced in diseased states where hypersomnolence is a major symptom. The histamine deficient L-histidine decarboxylase knockout (HDC KO) mice display sleep fragmentation and increased REM sleep during the light period along with profound wakefulness deficit at dark onset, and in novel environment. Similar results have been obtained when histamine neurons are lesioned. These studies strongly implicate the histaminergic neurons of the TMN to play a critical role in the maintenance of high vigilance state during wakefulness.

  8. Vortex wakes of a flapping foil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnipper, Teis; Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas


    and the shedding process at the sharp trailing edge in detail. This allows us to identify the origins of the vortices in the 2P wake, to understand that two distinct 2P regions are present in the phase diagram due to the timing of the vortex shedding at the leading edge and the trailing edge and to propose......We present an experimental study of a symmetric foil performing pitching oscillations in a vertically flowing soap film. By varying the frequency and amplitude of the oscillation we visualize a variety of wakes with up to 46 vortices per oscillation period, including von Karman vortex street......, inverted von Karman vortex street, 2P wake, 2P+2S wake and novel wakes ranging from 4P to 8P. We map out the wake types in a phase diagram spanned by the width-based Strouhal number and the dimensionless amplitude. We follow the time evolution of the vortex formation near the round leading edge...

  9. Investigation of Wake-Vortex Aircraft Encounters (United States)

    Smith, Sonya T.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions though the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. The major goal of the TAP program is to develop the technology that will allow air traffic levels during instrument meteorological condition to approach those achieved during visual operations. The Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement of TAP at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) will develop the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). The purpose of the AVOSS is to integrate current and predicted weather conditions, wake vortex transport and decay knowledge, wake vortex sensor data, and operational definitions of acceptable strengths for vortex encounters to produce dynamic wake vortex separation criteria. The proposed research is in support of the wake vortex hazard definition component of the LaRC AVOSS development research. The research program described in the next section provided an analysis of the static test data and uses this data to evaluate the accuracy vortex/wake-encounter models. The accuracy of these models has not before been evaluated using experimental data. The research results also presented the first analysis of the forces and moments imparted on an airplane during a wake vortex encounter using actual flight test data.

  10. [Testing results of telemechanic system controlling train operators wakefulness]. (United States)

    Serikov, V V; Zakrevskaia, A A; Zakharchenko, D V; Alpaev, D V; At'kova, E O


    Expert and instrumental assessment covered efficiency of telemechanic system controlling train operators wakefulness in simulation of real night travel, through special simulator complex "Locomotive operator cabin". The telemechanic system controlling train operators wakefulness, if exploited correctly, provides wakefulness of the train operators at the level sufficient for the effective work. That is supported by distribution of falling asleep cases in experiments with activated or deactivated telemechanic system controlling train operators wakefulness. The study proved efficiency of telemechanic system controlling train operators wakefulness.

  11. Characterization of the supersonic wake of a generic space launcher (United States)

    Schreyer, A.-M.; Stephan, S.; Radespiel, R.


    The wake flow of a generic axisymmetric space-launcher model is investigated experimentally for flow cases with and without propulsive jet to gain insight into the wake-flow phenomena at a supersonic stage of the flight trajectory which is especially critical with respect to dynamic loads on the structure. Measurements are performed at Mach 2.9 and a Reynolds number Re D = 1.3 × 106 based on model diameter D. The nozzle exit velocity of the jet is at Mach 2.5, and the flow is moderately underexpanded ( p e/ p ∞ = 5.7). The flow topology is described based on velocity measurements in the wake by means of particle image velocimetry and schlieren visualizations. Mean and fluctuating mass-flux profiles are obtained from hot-wire measurements, and unsteady wall-pressure measurements on the main-body base are performed simultaneously. This way, the evolution of the wake flow and its spectral content can be observed along with the footprint of this highly dynamic flow on the launcher main-body base. For the case without propulsive jet, a large separated zone is forming downstream of the main body shoulder, and the flow is reattaching further downstream on the afterbody. The afterexpanding propulsive jet (air) causes a displacement of the shear layer away from the wall, preventing the reattachment of the flow. In the spectral analysis of the baseline case, a dominant frequency around St D = 0.25 is found in the pressure-fluctuation signal at the main-body base of the launcher. This frequency is related to the shedding of the separation bubble and is less pronounced in the presence of the propulsive jet. In the shear layer itself, the spectra obtained from the hot-wire signal have a more broadband low-frequency content, which also reflects the characteristic frequency of turbulent structures convected in the shear layer, a swinging motion ( St D = 0.6), as well as the radial flapping motion of the shear layer ( St D = 0.85), respectively. Moving downstream along the

  12. WAKES: Wavelet Adaptive Kinetic Evolution Solvers (United States)

    Mardirian, Marine; Afeyan, Bedros; Larson, David


    We are developing a general capability to adaptively solve phase space evolution equations mixing particle and continuum techniques in an adaptive manner. The multi-scale approach is achieved using wavelet decompositions which allow phase space density estimation to occur with scale dependent increased accuracy and variable time stepping. Possible improvements on the SFK method of Larson are discussed, including the use of multiresolution analysis based Richardson-Lucy Iteration, adaptive step size control in explicit vs implicit approaches. Examples will be shown with KEEN waves and KEEPN (Kinetic Electrostatic Electron Positron Nonlinear) waves, which are the pair plasma generalization of the former, and have a much richer span of dynamical behavior. WAKES techniques are well suited for the study of driven and released nonlinear, non-stationary, self-organized structures in phase space which have no fluid, limit nor a linear limit, and yet remain undamped and coherent well past the drive period. The work reported here is based on the Vlasov-Poisson model of plasma dynamics. Work supported by a Grant from the AFOSR.

  13. Three-dimensional structural imaging of starch granules by second-harmonic generation circular dichroism. (United States)

    Zhuo, G-Y; Lee, H; Hsu, K-J; Huttunen, M J; Kauranen, M; Lin, Y-Y; Chu, S-W


    Chirality is one of the most fundamental and essential structural properties of biological molecules. Many important biological molecules including amino acids and polysaccharides are intrinsically chiral. Conventionally, chiral species can be distinguished by interaction with circularly polarized light, and circular dichroism is one of the best-known approaches for chirality detection. As a linear optical process, circular dichroism suffers from very low signal contrast and lack of spatial resolution in the axial direction. It has been demonstrated that by incorporating nonlinear interaction with circularly polarized excitation, second-harmonic generation circular dichroism can provide much higher signal contrast. However, previous circular dichroism and second-harmonic generation circular dichroism studies are mostly limited to probe chiralities at surfaces and interfaces. It is known that second-harmonic generation, as a second-order nonlinear optical effect, provides excellent optical sectioning capability when combined with a laser-scanning microscope. In this work, we combine the axial resolving power of second-harmonic generation and chiral sensitivity of second-harmonic generation circular dichroism to realize three-dimensional chiral detection in biological tissues. Within the point spread function of a tight focus, second-harmonic generation circular dichroism could arise from the macroscopic supramolecular packing as well as the microscopic intramolecular chirality, so our aim is to clarify the origins of second-harmonic generation circular dichroism response in complicated three-dimensional biological systems. The sample we use is starch granules whose second-harmonic generation-active molecules are amylopectin with both microscopic chirality due to its helical structure and macroscopic chirality due to its crystallized packing. We found that in a starch granule, the second-harmonic generation for right-handed circularly polarized excitation is

  14. Dynamic Hybrid Simulation of the Lunar Wake During ARTEMIS Crossing (United States)

    Wiehle, S.; Plaschke, F.; Angelopoulos, V.; Auster, H.; Glassmeier, K.; Kriegel, H.; Motschmann, U. M.; Mueller, J.


    The interaction of the highly dynamic solar wind with the Moon is simulated with the A.I.K.E.F. (Adaptive Ion Kinetic Electron Fluid) code for the ARTEMIS P1 flyby on February 13, 2010. The A.I.K.E.F. hybrid plasma simulation code is the improved version of the Braunschweig code. It is able to automatically increase simulation grid resolution in areas of interest during runtime, which greatly increases resolution as well as performance. As the Moon has no intrinsic magnetic field and no ionosphere, the solar wind particles are absorbed at its surface, resulting in the formation of the lunar wake at the nightside. The solar wind magnetic field is basically convected through the Moon and the wake is slowly filled up with solar wind particles. However, this interaction is strongly influenced by the highly dynamic solar wind during the flyby. This is considered by a dynamic variation of the upstream conditions in the simulation using OMNI solar wind measurement data. By this method, a very good agreement between simulation and observations is achieved. The simulations show that the stationary structure of the lunar wake constitutes a tableau vivant in space representing the well-known Friedrichs diagram for MHD waves.

  15. Simulation of spray dispersion in a simplified heavy vehicle wake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschkewitz, J S


    Simulations of spray dispersion in a simplified tractor-trailer wake have been completed with the goal of obtaining a better understanding of how to mitigate this safety hazard. The Generic Conventional Model (GCM) for the tractor-trailer was used. The impact of aerodynamic drag reduction devices, specifically trailer-mounted base flaps, on the transport of spray in the vehicle wake was considered using the GCM. This analysis demonstrated that base flaps including a bottom plate may actually worsen motorist visibility because of the interaction of fine spray with large vortex flows in the wake. This work suggests that to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to design and evaluate spray mitigation strategies the jet or sheet breakup processes can be modeled using an array of injectors of small (< 0.1 mm) water droplets; however the choice of size distribution, injection locations, directions and velocities is largely unknown and requires further study. Possible containment strategies would include using flow structures to 'focus' particles into regions away from passing cars or surface treatments to capture small drops.

  16. A numerical investigation of the role of the turbine rotor scale and the nacelle on wake meandering (United States)

    Foti, Daniel; Yang, Xiaolei; Shen, Lian; Sotiropoulos, Fotis


    Recent analysis of a hydrokinetic turbine and laboratory scale wind turbine reveal that the turbine nacelle has a considerable effect on the turbulence kinetic energy and wake meandering. However, the role of the nacelle on wake meandering for utility-scale wind turbines has not been fully investigated. In this work, a numerical investigation using large eddy simulations of four wind turbines with rotor diameters ranging from laboratory to utility scale reveals similar turbulent structures in the far wake and a comparable wake meandering Strouhal number regardless of rotor size. By reconstructing the wake meandering with three dimensional spatio-temporal filtering process, first proposed in Foti et al., the statistics of the dynamics of the wake meandering are quantified in terms of amplitude and wavelength. Results indicate that the wavelength of wake meandering can be properly scaled by rotor diameter of the turbines for both simulations with and without a nacelle model. The meandering amplitude, on the other hand, is larger for the simulation with a nacelle. This is further quantitative evidence that a nacelle model is imperative to accurately capturing wake meandering. This work was supported by Department of Energy (DE-EE0002980, DE-EE0005482 and DE-AC04-94AL85000), and Sandia National Laboratories.

  17. An experimental and analytical study of the stability of counter-rotating vortex pairs with applications for aircraft wake turbulence control (United States)

    Babie, Brian Matthew

    Aircraft trailing vortex wakes are commonly referred to as `wake turbulence' and may pose a flight safety hazard to other aircraft that may encounter the wake. This hazard is of critical interest during the take-off and landing stages of flight, where aircraft are in the closest proximity to one another. During these flight stages, it is common for transport aircraft to be in a high-lift, or flaps down, configuration. In an effort to study these wakes a generic four-vortex wake is generated experimentally, such that the results are independent of a specific wing loading condition. Three principle objectives served to focus the research project that is presented in this dissertation. The first two objectives were to develop an improved understanding of the wake configurations that were conducive to large instability growth rates and to subsequently use quantitative methods to identify the instability modes that dominate the far-field wake dynamic. With a clear understanding of the physics of an unstable aircraft wake, the third objective of the research project was to use this newly attained information to recommend methods for a reliable wake control strategy. A compilation of flow visualization results shows a design space of counter-rotating wake configurations, defined by the circulation and span ratios, where rapidly amplifying instabilities are consistently seen to exist. This design space is also seen to encompass rigidly-translating wake systems. A combination of quantitative flow visualization estimates, hot-wire anemometry and an analytical stability analysis was successful in identifying two forms of bending wave instability, namely the long and short-wavelength modes. Having identified two bending instability modes in the experimental wake, it was possible to suggest a strategy by which these modes could be exploited for the control of aircraft wakes.

  18. Vortex-wake interactions of a flapping foil that models animal swimming and flight. (United States)

    Lentink, David; Muijres, Florian T; Donker-Duyvis, Frits J; van Leeuwen, Johan L


    The fluid dynamics of many swimming and flying animals involves the generation and shedding of vortices into the wake. Here we studied the dynamics of similar vortices shed by a simple two-dimensional flapping foil in a soap-film tunnel. The flapping foil models an animal wing, fin or tail in forward locomotion. The vortical flow induced by the foil is correlated to (the resulting) thickness variations in the soap film. We visualized these thickness variations through light diffraction and recorded it with a digital high speed camera. This set-up enabled us to study the influence of foil kinematics on vortex-wake interactions. We varied the dimensionless wavelength of the foil (lambda*=4-24) at a constant dimensionless flapping amplitude (A*=1.5) and geometric angle of attack amplitude (A(alpha,geo)=15 degrees ). The corresponding Reynolds number was of the order of 1000. Such values are relevant for animal swimming and flight. We found that a significant leading edge vortex (LEV) was generated by the foil at low dimensionless wavelengths (lambda*wake dynamics evolved from a wavy von Kármán-like vortex wake shed along the sinusoidal path of the foil into a wake densely packed with large interacting vortices. We found that strongly interacting vortices could change the wake topology abruptly. This occurred when vortices were close enough to merge or tear each other apart. Our experiments show that relatively small changes in the kinematics of a flapping foil can alter the topology of the vortex wake drastically.

  19. The relationship between wingbeat kinematics and vortex wake of a thrush nightingale. (United States)

    Rosén, M; Spedding, G R; Hedenström, A


    The wingbeat kinematics of a thrush nightingale Luscinia luscinia were measured for steady flight in a wind tunnel over a range of flight speeds (5-10 m s(-1)), and the results are interpreted and discussed in the context of a detailed, previously published, wake analysis of the same bird. Neither the wingbeat frequency nor wingbeat amplitude change significantly over the investigated speed range and consequently dimensionless measures that compare timescales of flapping vs. timescales due to the mean flow vary in direct proportion to the mean flow itself, with no constant or slowly varying intervals. The only significant kinematic variations come from changes in the upstroke timing (downstroke fraction) and the upstroke wing folding (span ratio), consistent with the gradual variations, primarily in the upstroke wake, previously reported. The relationship between measured wake geometry and wingbeat kinematics can be qualitatively explained by presumed self-induced convection and deformation of the wake between its initial formation and later measurement, and varies in a predictable way with flight speed. Although coarse details of the wake geometry accord well with the kinematic measurements, there is no simple explanation based on these observed kinematics alone that accounts for the measured asymmetries of circulation magnitude in starting and stopping vortex structures. More complex interactions between the wake and wings and/or body are implied.

  20. Flow past a circular cylinder with a permeable wake splitter plate (United States)

    Cardell, Gregory S.


    Measurements in the near wake region of a circular cylinder in a uniform flow in the Reynolds number range 2.5 x 10(exp 3) is approximately less than Re is approximately less than 1.8 x 10(exp 4) with permeable splitter plates spanning the wake center plane are presented. Permeability is defined by the pressure drop across the plates, and the relationship between permeability and plate solidity is determined for a set of plates constructed from woven wire mesh permitting unambiguous characterization of the splitter plates by the solidity. The effects of different solidities on the flow in the near wake are investigated using smoke wire flow visualization, hot-wire anemometry, and measurements of the mean pressure at the cylinder surface, and the results are related to cylinder flow without a splitter plate. Flow visualization results demonstrate that the introduction of low solidity splitter plates does not change the basic near wake structure, and that sufficiently high solidity uncouples the large-scale wake instability from the body, with the primary vortex formation occurring downstream of the separation bubble due to instability of the wake profile. Hot-wire and surface pressure measurements confirm and quantify the flow visualization results, showing that the permeable splitter plates reduce the drag and modify the primary wake frequency. When the solidity is high enough that the wake is convectively unstable, the base pressure is independent of the Reynolds number and solidity. For a wide range of solidities, the same asymptotic value of the Strouhal number is reached at high Reynolds numbers. The relationship between the Strouhal number and the base pressure is discussed.

  1. Optimal Control to Increase Energy Production of Wind Farm Considering Wake Effect and Lifetime Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Jie; Zhou, Dao; Su, Chi;


    In a wind farm, the upstream wind turbine may cause power loss to the downstream wind turbines due to the wake effect. Meanwhile, the energy production is determined by the power generation and the lifetime of the wind turbine. In this paper, an optimal active power control method is proposed...... to maximize the energy production of wind farms by considering the wake effect and the lifetime of wind turbine. It starts with the analysis of the pitch angle curve and active power curve seen from the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of individual wind turbines. Taking the wake effect into account......, the pitch angle curve and active power curve are optimized with the aim of Maximum Power Generation (MPG) of the wind farm. Afterwards, considering the lifetime of wind turbines, a comparison is offered between the MPPT method and the MPG method for energy production using a simplified two-turbine wind farm...

  2. Nonlinear dynamics of the wake of an oscillating cylinder (United States)

    Olinger, D. J.; Sreenivasan, K. R.


    The wake of an oscillating cylinder at low Reynolds numbers is a nonlinear system in which a limit cycle due to natural vortex shedding is modulated, generating in phase space a flow on a torus. It is experimentally shown that the system displays Arnol'd tongues for rational frequency ratios, and approximates the devil's staircase along the critical line. The 'singularity spectrum' as well as spectral peaks at various Fibonacci sequences accompanying quasi-periodic transition to chaos shows that the system belongs to the same universality class as the sine circle map.

  3. GenEx: A simple generator structure for exclusive processes in high energy collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kycia, R A; Staszewski, R; Turnau, J


    A simple C++ class structure for construction of a Monte Carlo event generators which can produce unweighted events within relativistic phase space is presented. The generator is self-adapting to the provided matrix element and acceptance cuts. The program is designed specially for exclusive processes and includes, as an example of such an application, implementation of the model for exclusive production of meson pairs $pp \\rightarrow p M^+M^- p $ in high energy proton-proton collisions.

  4. Stochastic generation of explicit pore structures by thresholding Gaussian random fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyman, Jeffrey D., E-mail: [Program in Applied Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0089 (United States); Computational Earth Science, Earth and Environmental Sciences (EES-16), and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Winter, C. Larrabee, E-mail: [Program in Applied Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0089 (United States); Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0011 (United States)


    We provide a description and computational investigation of an efficient method to stochastically generate realistic pore structures. Smolarkiewicz and Winter introduced this specific method in pores resolving simulation of Darcy flows (Smolarkiewicz and Winter, 2010 [1]) without giving a complete formal description or analysis of the method, or indicating how to control the parameterization of the ensemble. We address both issues in this paper. The method consists of two steps. First, a realization of a correlated Gaussian field, or topography, is produced by convolving a prescribed kernel with an initial field of independent, identically distributed random variables. The intrinsic length scales of the kernel determine the correlation structure of the topography. Next, a sample pore space is generated by applying a level threshold to the Gaussian field realization: points are assigned to the void phase or the solid phase depending on whether the topography over them is above or below the threshold. Hence, the topology and geometry of the pore space depend on the form of the kernel and the level threshold. Manipulating these two user prescribed quantities allows good control of pore space observables, in particular the Minkowski functionals. Extensions of the method to generate media with multiple pore structures and preferential flow directions are also discussed. To demonstrate its usefulness, the method is used to generate a pore space with physical and hydrological properties similar to a sample of Berea sandstone. -- Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •An efficient method to stochastically generate realistic pore structures is provided. •Samples are generated by applying a level threshold to a Gaussian field realization. •Two user prescribed quantities determine the topology and geometry of the pore space. •Multiple pore structures and preferential flow directions can be produced. •A pore space based on Berea sandstone is generated.

  5. The vortex wake of blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla L.) measured using high-speed digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). (United States)

    Johansson, L C; Hedenström, A


    Reconstructing the vortex wake of freely flying birds is challenging, but in the past few years, direct measurements of the wake circulation have become available for a number of species. Streamwise circulation has been measured at different positions along the span of the birds, but no measurements have been performed in the transverse plane. Recent findings from studies of bat wakes have pointed to the importance of transverse plane data for reconstructing the wake topology because important structures may be missed otherwise. We present results of high-speed DPIV measurements in the transverse plane behind freely flying blackcaps. We found novel wake structures previously not shown in birds, including wing root vortices of opposite as well as the same sign as the wing tip vortices. This suggests a more complex wake structure in birds than previously assumed and calls for more detailed studies of the flow over the wings and body, respectively. Based on measurements on birds with and without a tail we also tested hypotheses regarding the function of the tail during steady flight. We were unable to detect any differences in the wake pattern between birds with and without a tail. We conclude that the birds do not use their tail to exploit vortices shed at the wing root during the downstroke. Neither did we find support for the hypothesis that the tail should reduce the drag of the bird. The function of the tail during steady flight thus remains unclear and calls for further investigation in future studies.

  6. Structure Refinement for Vulnerability Estimation Models using Genetic Algorithm Based Model Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available In this paper, a method for model structure refinement is proposed and applied in estimation of cumulative number of vulnerabilities according to time. Security as a quality characteristic is presented and defined. Vulnerabilities are defined and their importance is assessed. Existing models used for number of vulnerabilities estimation are enumerated, inspecting their structure. The principles of genetic model generators are inspected. Model structure refinement is defined in comparison with model refinement and a method for model structure refinement is proposed. A case study shows how the method is applied and the obtained results.

  7. Generational influences in academic emergency medicine: structure, function, and culture (Part II). (United States)

    Mohr, Nicholas M; Smith-Coggins, Rebecca; Larrabee, Hollynn; Dyne, Pamela L; Promes, Susan B


    Strategies for approaching generational issues that affect teaching and learning, mentoring, and technology in emergency medicine (EM) have been reported. Tactics to address generational influences involving the structure and function of the academic emergency department (ED), organizational culture, and EM schedule have not been published. Through a review of the literature and consensus by modified Delphi methodology of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Aging and Generational Issues Task Force, the authors have developed this two-part series to address generational issues present in academic EM. Understanding generational characteristics and mitigating strategies can address some common issues encountered in academic EM. By understanding the differences and strengths of each of the cohorts in academic EM departments and considering simple mitigating strategies, faculty leaders can maximize their cooperative effectiveness and face the challenges of a new millennium.

  8. Direct CO(2) laser-based generation of holographic structures on the surface of glass. (United States)

    Wlodarczyk, Krystian L; Weston, Nicholas J; Ardron, Marcus; Hand, Duncan P


    A customized CO(2) laser micromachining system was used for the generation of phase holographic structures directly on the surface of fused silica (HPFS(®)7980 Corning) and Borofloat(®)33 (Schott AG) glass. This process used pulses of duration 10µs and nominal wavelength 10.59µm. The pulse energy delivered to the glass workpiece was controlled by an acousto-optic modulator. The laser-generated structures were optically smooth and crack free. We demonstrated their use as diffractive optical elements (DOEs), which could be exploited as anti-counterfeiting markings embedded into valuable glass-made components and products.

  9. Discontinuous space variant sub-wavelength structures for generating radially polarized light in visible region (United States)

    Ghadyani, Z.; Dmitriev, S.; Lindlein, N.; Leuchs, G.; Rusina, O.; Harder, I.


    A discontinuous space variant sub-wavelength dielectric grating is designed and fabricated for generating radially polarized light in visible region (l = 632.8 nm). The design is based on sub-wavelength silicon nitride structures introducing a retardation of p/2 by form birefringence, with space variant orientation of the optical axis. The pattern is divided into concentric ring segments with constant structural parameters, therefore reducing electron-beam writing time significantly. The design avoids the technological challenges encountered in the generation of a continuous space variant grating while maintaining good quality of the resulting polarization mode.

  10. Generation of Hierarchically Ordered Structures on a Polymer Film by Electrohydrodynamic Structure Formation. (United States)

    Tian, Hongmiao; Shao, Jinyou; Hu, Hong; Wang, Li; Ding, Yucheng


    The extensive applications of hierarchical structures in optoelectronics, micro/nanofluidics, energy conservation, etc., have led to the development of a variety of approaches for their fabrication, which can be categorized as bottom-up or top-down strategies. Current bottom-up and top-down strategies bear a complementary relationship to each other due to their processing characteristics, i.e., the advantages of one method correspond to the disadvantages of the other, and vice versa. Here we propose a novel method based on electrohydrodynamic structure formation, aimed at combining the main advantages of the two strategies. The method allows the fabrication of a hierarchically ordered structure with well-defined geometry and high mechanical durability on a polymer film, through a simple and low-cost process also suitable for mass-production. In this approach, upon application of an electric field between a template and a substrate sandwiching an air gap and a polymer film, the polymer is pulled toward the template and further flows into the template cavities, resulting in a hierarchical structure with primary and secondary patterns determined by electrohydrodynamic instability and by the template features, respectively. In this work, the fabrication of a hierarchical structure by electrohydrodynamic structure formation is studied using numerical simulations and experimental tests. The proposed method is then employed for the one-step fabrication of a hierarchical structure exhibiting a gradual transition in the periodicity of the primary structure using a slant template and a flat polymer film, which presents an excellent performance on controllable wettability.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The near-wake flow of a NACA0012 airfoils mounted above a water surface were experimentally studied in a wind/wave tunnel. The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of the free surface on the structure of the airfoil trailing wake. The flow structure was measured with different ride heights between the airfoil and free surface using a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. The Reynolds number based on the chord length of the airfoil was about 3.5×103. For each experimental condition, large amount of instantaneous velocity fields were captured and ensemble-averaged to get the spatial distributions of mean velocity and mean vorticity, as well as turbulence statistics. The results show that the flow structures of the airfoil wake varies remarkably with the change in the ride height.

  12. De Novo generation of molecular structures using optimization to select graphs on a given lattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bywater, R.P.; Poulsen, Thomas Agersten; Røgen, Peter;


    A recurrent problem in organic chemistry is the generation of new molecular structures that conform to some predetermined set of structural constraints that are imposed in an endeavor to build certain required properties into the newly generated structure. An example of this is the pharmacophore...... model, used in medicinal chemistry to guide de novo design or selection of suitable structures from compound databases. We propose here a method that efficiently links up a selected number of required atom positions while at the same time directing the emergent molecular skeleton to avoid forbidden...... positions. The linkage process takes place on a lattice whose unit step length and overall geometry is designed to match typical architectures of organic molecules. We use an optimization method to select from the many different graphs possible. The approach is demonstrated in an example where crystal...

  13. Generation of 3-Dimensional Polymer Structures in Liquid Crystalline Devices using Direct Laser Writing


    Tartan, CC; Salter, PS; Wilkinson, TD; Booth, M; Morris, S.; Elston, SJ


    Direct laser writing is a powerful nonlinear fabrication technique that provides high intensities in the focal plane of a sample to engineer multidimensional structures with submicron feature sizes. Dielectrically and optically anisotropic soft matter is of particular interest when considering a host medium in which exotic topological characteristics may be generated. In this manuscript, we adopt a novel approach for direct laser writing of polymeric structures, whereby the photo-sensitive re...

  14. An assessment of the geotemperature conditions of Bazhenov oil generation (Koltogor mezodepression and its framing structures) (United States)

    Stotskiy, V. V.; Isaev, V. I.; Fomin, M. A.


    The thermal history of oil source rocks of Bazhenov deposits was reconstructed in 8 cross-sections of representative wells of Koltogor mezodepression and the structures framing it. The tectonic history and geotemperature were reconstructed for well profiles, some located in the depression zone and others in the positive structures. A comparative analysis of the geotemperature conditions accompanying the generation of Bazhenov oils was performed.

  15. The Power Structure of 2-Generator 2-Groups of Class Two

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Friedrich L. Kluempen


    In 1934, Hall introduced regular p-groups. Any regular 2-group is abelian. A regular p-group is power closed, exponent closed, strongly semi-pabelian, and an exact power margin group. The study of these properties and relationships among them constitutes the investigation of the power structure of a p-group. In this paper, we classify 2-generator 2-groups of nilpotency class two according to their power structure.

  16. Homology Modeling: Generating Structural Models to Understand Protein Function and Mechanism (United States)

    Ramachandran, Srinivas; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.

    Geneticists and molecular and cell biologists routinely uncover new proteins important in specific biological processes/pathways. However, either the molecular functions or the functional mechanisms of many of these proteins are unclear due to a lack of knowledge of their atomic structures. Yet, determining experimental structures of many proteins presents technical challenges. The current methods for obtaining atomic-resolution structures of biomolecules (X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy) require pure preparations of proteins at concentrations much higher than those at which the proteins exist in a physiological environment. Additionally, NMR has size limitations, with current technology limited to the determination of structures of proteins with masses of up to 15 kDa. Due to these reasons, atomic structures of many medically and biologically important proteins do not exist. However, the structures of these proteins are essential for several purposes, including in silico drug design [1], understanding the effects of disease mutations [2], and designing experiments to probe the functional mechanisms of proteins. Comparative modeling has gained importance as a tool for bridging the gap between sequence and structure space, allowing researchers to build structural models of proteins that are difficult to crystallize or for which structure determination by NMR spectroscopy is not tractable. Comparative modeling, or homology modeling, exploits the fact that two proteins whose sequences are evolutionarily connected display similar structural features [3]. Thus, the known structure of a protein (template) can be used to generate a molecular model of the protein (query) whose experimental structure is notknown.

  17. Detailed field test of yaw-based wake steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, P.; Churchfield, M.; Scholbrock, A.


    This paper describes a detailed field-test campaign to investigate yaw-based wake steering. In yaw-based wake steering, an upstream turbine intentionally misaligns its yaw with respect to the inflow to deflect its wake away from a downstream turbine, with the goal of increasing total power...... production. In the first phase, a nacelle-mounted scanning lidar was used to verify wake deflection of a misaligned turbine and calibrate wake deflection models. In the second phase, these models were used within a yaw controller to achieve a desired wake deflection. This paper details the experimental...

  18. RandSpg: An open-source program for generating atomistic crystal structures with specific spacegroups (United States)

    Avery, Patrick; Zurek, Eva


    A new algorithm, RANDSPG, that can be used to generate trial crystal structures with specific space groups and compositions is described. The program has been designed for systems where the atoms are independent of one another, and it is therefore primarily suited towards inorganic systems. The structures that are generated adhere to user-defined constraints such as: the lattice shape and size, stoichiometry, set of space groups to be generated, and factors that influence the minimum interatomic separations. In addition, the user can optionally specify if the most general Wyckoff position is to be occupied or constrain select atoms to specific Wyckoff positions. Extensive testing indicates that the algorithm is efficient and reliable. The library is lightweight, portable, dependency-free and is published under a license recognized by the Open Source Initiative. A web interface for the algorithm is publicly accessible at RANDSPG has also been interfaced with the XTALOPT evolutionary algorithm for crystal structure prediction, and it is illustrated that the use of symmetric lattices in the first generation of randomly created individuals decreases the number of structures that need to be optimized to find the global energy minimum.

  19. Quasi-phase-matching bandwidth for second harmonic generation in crystals with a regular domain structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dmitriev, VG; Yur'ev, YV


    The question of the quasi-phase-matching bandwidth for second harmonic generation in crystals with a regular domain structure is considered in terms of the approximation of a constant field of the fundamental-frequency radiation and in the nonlinear conversion regime.

  20. A general protocol for the generation of Nanobodies for structural biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pardon, Els; Laeremans, Toon; Triest, Sarah


    There is growing interest in using antibodies as auxiliary tools to crystallize proteins. Here we describe a general protocol for the generation of Nanobodies to be used as crystallization chaperones for the structural investigation of diverse conformational states of flexible (membrane) proteins...

  1. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Structures, Systems, and Components Safety Classification White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pete Jordan


    This white paper outlines the relevant regulatory policy and guidance for a risk-informed approach for establishing the safety classification of Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant and sets forth certain facts for review and discussion in order facilitate an effective submittal leading to an NGNP Combined Operating License application under 10 CFR 52.

  2. Power law versus exponential state transition dynamics: application to sleep-wake architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Chu-Shore

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the common experience that interrupted sleep has a negative impact on waking function, the features of human sleep-wake architecture that best distinguish sleep continuity versus fragmentation remain elusive. In this regard, there is growing interest in characterizing sleep architecture using models of the temporal dynamics of sleep-wake stage transitions. In humans and other mammals, the state transitions defining sleep and wake bout durations have been described with exponential and power law models, respectively. However, sleep-wake stage distributions are often complex, and distinguishing between exponential and power law processes is not always straightforward. Although mono-exponential distributions are distinct from power law distributions, multi-exponential distributions may in fact resemble power laws by appearing linear on a log-log plot. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To characterize the parameters that may allow these distributions to mimic one another, we systematically fitted multi-exponential-generated distributions with a power law model, and power law-generated distributions with multi-exponential models. We used the Kolmogorov-Smirnov method to investigate goodness of fit for the "incorrect" model over a range of parameters. The "zone of mimicry" of parameters that increased the risk of mistakenly accepting power law fitting resembled empiric time constants obtained in human sleep and wake bout distributions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Recognizing this uncertainty in model distinction impacts interpretation of transition dynamics (self-organizing versus probabilistic, and the generation of predictive models for clinical classification of normal and pathological sleep architecture.

  3. A Study of the Development of Steady and Periodic Unsteady Turbulent Wakes Through Curved Channels at Positive, Zero, and Negative Streamwise Pressure Gradients, Part 1 (United States)

    Schobeiri, M. T.; John, J.


    The turbomachinery wake flow development is largely influenced by streamline curvature and streamwise pressure gradient. The objective of this investigation is to study the development of the wake under the influence of streamline curvature and streamwise pressure gradient. The experimental investigation is carried out in two phases. The first phase involves the study of the wake behind a stationary circular cylinder (steady wake) in curved channels at positive, zero, and negative streamwise pressure gradients. The mean velocity and Reynolds stress components are measured using a X-hot-film probe. The measured quantities obtained in probe coordinates are transformed to a curvilinear coordinate system along the wake centerline and are presented in similarity coordinates. The results of the steady wakes suggest strong asymmetry in velocity and Reynolds stress components. However, the velocity defect profiles in similarity coordinates are almost symmetrical and follow the same distribution as the zero pressure gradient straight wake. The results of Reynolds stress distributions show higher values on the inner side of the wake than the outer side. Other quantities, including the decay of maximum velocity defect, growth of wake width, and wake integral parameters, are also presented for the three different pressure gradient cases of steady wake. The decay rate of velocity defect is fastest for the negative streamwise pressure gradient case and slowest for the positive pressure gradient case. Conversely, the growth of the wake width is fastest for the positive streamwise pressure gradient case and slowest for the negative streamwise pressure gradient. The second phase studies the development of periodic unsteady wakes generated by the circular cylinders of the rotating wake generator in a curved channel at zero streamwise pressure gradient. Instantaneous velocity components of the periodic unsteady wakes, measured with a stationary X-hot-film probe, are analyzed by the

  4. Characterization of wake effects and loading status of wind turbine arrays under different inflow conditions (United States)

    Gao, Xiangyu

    The objective of the present work is to improve the accuracy of Actuator Line Modeling (ALM) in predicting the unsteady aerodynamic loadings on turbine blades and turbine wake by assessing different methods used to determine the relative velocity between the rotating blades and wind. ALM is incorporated into a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) solver in OpenFOAM (Open Field Operations and Manipulations). The aerodynamic loadings are validated by experiment results from National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Turbine wakes are validated by predictions of large eddy simulation using exact 3D blade geometries from a two-blade NREL Phase VI turbine. Three different relative velocity calculation methods are presented: iterative process in Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory, local velocity sampling, and Lagrange-Euler Interpolation (LEI). Loadings and wakes obtained from these three methods are compared. It is discovered that LEI functions better than the conventional BEM with iterative process in both loading and wake prediction. Then LES-ALM with LEI is performed on a small wind farm deploying five NREL Phase VI turbines in full wake setting. The power outputs and force coefficients of downstream turbines are evaluated. The LES-ALM with LEI is also performed on a small wind farm deploying 25 NREL Phase VI turbines with different inflow angles (from full wake setting to partial wake setting). The power outputs and force coefficients of each turbine are evaluated under different inflow angles (the angle the rotor has to turn to make the rotor plane face the incoming wind) (0, 5, 15, 30 and 45 degree). The power coefficient distributions and thrust coefficient distributions of the wind farm under each inflow angle are compared. The range of inflow angle which is best for power generation is also discussed. The results demonstrate that the LES-ALM with LEI has the potential to optimize wind farm arrangement and pitch angle of individual turbines.

  5. Experimental investigation about the effect of non-axisymmetric wake impact on a low speed axial compressor (United States)

    Liu, Jianyong; Lu, Yajun; Li, Zhiping


    Non-axisymmetric wake impact experiments were carried out after the best exciting frequency for a low speed axial compressor had been found by axisymmetric wake impact experiments. When the number and circumferential distribution of inlet guide vanes (IGV) are logical the wakes of non-axisymmetric IGVs can exert beneficial unsteady exciting effect on their downstream rotor flow fields and improve the compressor’s performance. In the present paper, four non-axisymmetric wake impact plans were found working better than the axisymmetric wake impact plan. Compared with the base plan, the best non-axisymmetric plan increased the compressor’s peak efficiency, and the total pressure rise by 1.1 and 2%, and enhanced the stall margin by 4.4%. The main reason why non-axisymmetric plans worked better than the axisymmetric plan was explained as the change of the unsteady exciting signal arising from IGV wakes. Besides the high-frequency components, the non-axisymmetric plan generated a beneficial low-frequency square-wave exciting signal and other secondary frequency components. Compared with the axisymmetric plan, multi-frequency exciting wakes arising from the non-axisymmetric plans are easier to get coupling relation with complex vortices such as clearance vortices, passage vortices and shedding vortices.

  6. Joyce the Deconstructionist: Finnegans Wake in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangouei J.


    Full Text Available Had Finnegans Wake not been written, some seminal post-1950s innovations in the field of modern literary theory and criticism would have been impossible. James Joyce, who seems to have inspiringly influenced the entire sphere of modern literary theory and criticism greatly, is a pioneer of deconstruction too. His last novel, which reflects his deconstructive tendencies, has played a seminal role in the formation of 20th century deconstruction, and comprises an inchoate mass of implicit ideas on the subject. It was perhaps not until Jacques Derrida and his deconstruction techniques that the theory implied by Finnegans Wake really came into focus. This article seeks to delineate Derrida’s theory of deconstruction as well as Joyce's deconstructive aesthetics; and taking a diachronic approach to literary theory and criticism it glances at Finnegans Wake in the light of deconstruction.

  7. Wakes in large offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelmie, Rebecca J.; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Rathmann, Ole


    Power losses due to wind turbine wakes are of the order of 10 and 20% of total power output in large wind farms. The focus of this research carried out within the EC funded UPWIND project is wind speed and turbulence modelling for large wind farms/wind turbines in complex terrain and offshore...... is for five turbines in flat terrain. Finally a complex terrain wind farm will be modelled and compared with observations. For offshore wind farms, the focus is on cases at the Horns Rev wind farm which indicate wind farm models require modification to reduce under-prediction of wake losses while CFD models...... in order to optimise wind farm layouts to reduce wake losses and loads. For complex terrain, a set of three evaluations is underway. The first is a model comparison for a Gaussian Hill where CFD models and wind farm models are being compared for the case of one hilltop wind turbine. The next case...

  8. Actuator Line Modeling of Wind Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Niels


    This thesis contains a comprehensive 3D Navier-Stokes computational study of the characteristics of wakes of wind turbines operating in various flow conditions including interacting wakes between a row of turbines. The computations were carried out using the actuator line technique combined...... and it is shown that the turbines are subject to rather severe yaw moments, even in situations where the mean wind is oriented along the row. This observation is indicative of large scale dynamics of the wakes....... with the 3D Navier Stokes solver EllipSys3D and a LES turbulence model. Simple models, based on applying body forces in the computational domain, are developed for imposing sheared and turbulent infow and their validity is discussed. A few computations on stand alone turbines are compared to measurements...

  9. Variable Structure Control of DFIG for Wind Power Generation and Harmonic Current Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper focuses on wind energy conversion system (WECS analysis and control for power generation along with problems related to the mitigation of harmonic pollution in the grid using a variable-speed structure control of the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG. A control approach based on the so-called sliding mode control (SMC that is both efficient and suitable is used for power generation control and harmonic-current compensation. The WECS then behaves as an active power filter (APF. The method aims at improving the overall efficiency, dynamic performance and robustness of the wind power generation system. Simulation results obtained on a 20-kW, 380-V, 50-Hz DFIG confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  10. Generation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on transparent material-fused silica (United States)

    Schwarz, Simon; Rung, Stefan; Hellmann, Ralf


    We report on a comparison between simulated and experimental results for the generation of laser-induced periodic surface structures with low spatial frequency on dielectrics. Using the established efficacy factor theory extended by a Drude model, we determine the required carrier density for the generation of low spatial frequency LIPSS (LSFL) and forecast their periodicity and orientation. In a subsequent calculative step, we determine the fluence of ultrashort laser pulses necessary to excite this required carrier density in due consideration of the pulse number dependent ablation threshold. The later calculation is based on a rate equation including photo- and avalanche ionization and derives appropriate process parameters for a selective generation of LSFL. Exemplarily, we apply this approach to the generation of LSFL on fused silica using a 1030 nm femtosecond laser. The experimental results for the orientation and spatial periodicity of LSFL reveal excellent agreement with the simulation.

  11. Combining photocatalytic hydrogen generation and capsule storage in graphene based sandwich structures (United States)

    Yang, Li; Li, Xiyu; Zhang, Guozhen; Cui, Peng; Wang, Xijun; Jiang, Xiang; Zhao, Jin; Luo, Yi; Jiang, Jun


    The challenge of safe hydrogen storage has limited the practical application of solar-driven photocatalytic water splitting. It is hard to isolate hydrogen from oxygen products during water splitting to avoid unwanted reverse reaction or explosion. Here we propose a multi-layer structure where a carbon nitride is sandwiched between two graphene sheets modified by different functional groups. First-principles simulations demonstrate that such a system can harvest light and deliver photo-generated holes to the outer graphene-based sheets for water splitting and proton generation. Driven by electrostatic attraction, protons penetrate through graphene to react with electrons on the inner carbon nitride to generate hydrogen molecule. The produced hydrogen is completely isolated and stored with a high-density level within the sandwich, as no molecules could migrate through graphene. The ability of integrating photocatalytic hydrogen generation and safe capsule storage has made the sandwich system an exciting candidate for realistic solar and hydrogen energy utilization.

  12. Development of Control Structure for Hybrid Wind Generators with Active Power Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Niroomand


    Full Text Available A hierarchical control structure is proposed for hybrid energy systems (HES which consist of wind energy system (WES and energy storage system (ESS. The proposed multilevel control structure consists of four blocks: reference generation and mode select, power balancing, control algorithms, and switching control blocks. A high performance power management strategy is used for the system. Also, the proposed system is analyzed as an active power filter (APF with ability to control the voltage, to compensate the harmonics, and to deliver active power. The HES is designed with parallel DC coupled structure. Simulation results are shown for verification of the theoretical analysis.

  13. Molecular dynamics simulations with replica-averaged structural restraints generate structural ensembles according to the maximum entropy principle. (United States)

    Cavalli, Andrea; Camilloni, Carlo; Vendruscolo, Michele


    In order to characterise the dynamics of proteins, a well-established method is to incorporate experimental parameters as replica-averaged structural restraints into molecular dynamics simulations. Here, we justify this approach in the case of interproton distance information provided by nuclear Overhauser effects by showing that it generates ensembles of conformations according to the maximum entropy principle. These results indicate that the use of replica-averaged structural restraints in molecular dynamics simulations, given a force field and a set of experimental data, can provide an accurate approximation of the unknown Boltzmann distribution of a system.

  14. Separation control in low pressure turbines using plasma actuators with passing wakes (United States)

    Burman, Debashish

    A Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuator is operated in flow over the suction surface of a Pack-B Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) airfoil at a Reynolds number of 50,000 (based on exit velocity and suction surface length) and inlet free-stream turbulence intensity of 2.5%. Preliminary characterization studies were made of the effect of varying actuator pulsing frequency and duty cycle, actuator edge effects, and orientation of the actuator with the flow. Flow control was demonstrated with the actuator imparting momentum opposite to the stream-wise flow direction, showing that it is possible to use disturbances alone to destabilize the flow and effect transition. No frequencies of strong influence were found over the range tested, indicating that a broad band of effective frequencies exists. Edge effects were found to considerably enhance separation control. Total pressure measurements of the flow without passing wakes were taken using a glass total-pressure tube. Corrections for streamline displacement due to shear and wall effects were made, and comparisons with previous hot-wire measurements were used to validate data. Performance features of conventional two-electrode and a novel three-electrode actuator configuration were compared. Hot-wire anemometry was used to take time-varying ensemble-averaged near-wall velocity measurements of the flow with periodic passing wakes. Corrections were made for near-wall effects, temperature effects, and interference of the electric field. The wakes were generated by a wake generator mechanism located upstream of the airfoil passage. The near-suction-surface total pressure field (flow without wakes) and velocity field (flow with wakes) in the trailing part of the airfoil passage, and the wall-normal gradient of these quantities, were used to demonstrate effective prevention of flow separation using the plasma actuator. Both flows (with and without passing wakes) showed fully attached flow (or very thin separation zones

  15. Calcium imaging of sleep-wake related neuronal activity in the dorsal pons. (United States)

    Cox, Julia; Pinto, Lucas; Dan, Yang


    The dorsal pons has long been implicated in the generation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, but the underlying circuit mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using cell-type-specific microendoscopic Ca(2+) imaging in and near the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, we found that many glutamatergic neurons are maximally active during REM sleep (REM-max), while the majority of GABAergic neurons are maximally active during wakefulness (wake-max). Furthermore, the activity of glutamatergic neurons exhibits a medio-lateral spatial gradient, with medially located neurons more selectively active during REM sleep.

  16. Study of large-scale vertical axis wind turbine wake through numerical modelling and fullscale experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immas, Alexandre; Kluczewska-Bordier, Joanna; Beneditti, Pascal

    Offshore wind capacity is increasing exponentially over the years in Europe, taking advantage of the strong winds available over the ocean and of the political incentives to reduce greenhouse gases. The technology is however not yet competitive when compared to fossil fuels or onshore wind. One key...... improvement that could make offshore wind more attractive is the reduction of the wake effect [1]. The latter corresponds to the velocity deficit generated by each wind turbine wake which affects the production of the others. This effect accounts for approximately 10% of the energy losses for a typical...

  17. Anisotropy of turbulence in wind turbine wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Elvira, Rafael [Comision Nacional de Energia (Spain); Crespo, Antonio; Migoya, Emilio; Manuel, Fernando [Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2. 28006 Madrid (Spain); Hernandez, Julio [Departamento de Mecanica, ETSII, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    This work is mainly dedicated to the study of non-isotropic characteristics of turbulence in wind turbine wakes, specifically the shear layer of the near wake. A calculation method based on an explicit algebraic model for the components of the turbulent stress tensor is proposed, and the results are found to be in acceptable agreement with experimental results. Analytical expressions for the estimation of an upper limit of the global turbulence kinetic energy, k, and the individual contributions of each diagonal term in the turbulent stress tensor are proposed. Their predictions are compared with experimental results.

  18. Non-linear Ion-wake Excitation by Ultra-relativistic Electron Wakefields

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, Aakash A


    The excitation of a non-linear ion-wake by a train of ultra-relativistic plasmons is modeled and its use for a novel regime of positron acceleration is explored. Its channel-like structure is independent of the energy-source driving the bubble-shaped slowly-propagating high phase-velocity electron density waves. The back of the bubble electron compression sucks-in the ions and the space-charge within the bubble expels them, forming a near-void channel with on-axis and bubble-edge density-spikes. The channel-edge density-spike is driven radially outwards as a non-linear ion acoustic-wave by the wake electron thermal pressure. OSIRIS PIC simulations are used to study the ion-wake structure, its evolution and its use for positron acceleration.

  19. Wind Turbine Wake Characterization with Remote Sensing and Computational Fluid Dynamics (United States)

    Aitken, Matthew Lawrence

    Because of the dense arrays at most wind farms, the region of disturbed flow downstream of an individual turbine leads to reduced power production and increased structural loading for its leeward counterparts. Currently, wind farm wake modeling, and hence turbine layout optimization, suffer from an unacceptable degree of uncertainty, largely because of a lack of adequate experimental data for model verification. Accordingly, wake measurements were taken in two separate experiments, (1) using the ground-based High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL) developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in the Turbine Wake and Inflow Characterization Study (TWICS) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and (2) using nacelle-based long-range lidar at a wind farm in the western United States. The vantage point from the nacelle is favorable in that scans can more consistently transect the central part of the wake. The work presented here outlines a set of quantitative procedures for determining critical parameters from these extensive datasets---such as the velocity deficit, the size of the wake boundary, and the location of the wake centerline---and the results are categorized by ambient wind speed, turbulence, and atmospheric stability. Despite specific reference to lidar, the methodology is general and can be applied to extract wake characteristics from other remote sensor datasets, as well as output from numerical simulations. In an effort to help advance computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of wind turbine wake dynamics, experimental results are compared to a large eddy simulation (LES) of a turbine operating in the stable boundary layer using the actuator disk parameterization in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. With the wake characteristics described above as metrics for model verification, the simulations show good agreement with the observations. Moreover, new features---namely rotor tilt and drag from the

  20. On the unsteady wake dynamics behind a circular disk using fully 3D proper orthogonal decomposition (United States)

    Yang, Jianzhi; Liu, Minghou; Wu, Guang; Gu, Hailin; Yao, Mengyun


    In the present work, the wakes behind a circular disk at various transitional regimes are numerically explored using fully 3D proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The Reynolds numbers considered in this study (Re = 152, 170, 300 and 3000) cover four transitional states, i.e. the reflectional-symmetry-breaking (RSB) mode, the standing wave (SW) mode, a weakly chaotic state, and a higher-Reynolds-number state. Through analysis of the spatial POD modes at different wake states, it is found that a planar-symmetric vortex shedding mode characterized by the first mode pair is persistent in all the states. When the wake develops into a weakly chaotic state, a new vortex shedding mode characterized by the second mode pair begins to appear and completely forms at the higher-Reynolds-number state of Re = 3000, i.e. planar-symmetry-breaking vortex shedding mode. On the other hand, the coherent structure at Re = 3000 extracted from the first two POD modes shows a good resemblance to the wake configuration in the SW mode, while the coherent structure reconstructed from the first four POD modes shows a good resemblance to the wake configuration in the RSB mode. The present results indicate that the dynamics or flow instabilities observed at transitional RSB and SW modes are still preserved in a higher-Reynolds-number regime.

  1. An LES study of vertical-axis wind turbine wakes aerodynamics (United States)

    Abkar, Mahdi; Dabiri, John O.


    In this study, large-eddy simulation (LES) combined with a turbine model is used to investigate the structure of the wake behind a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT). In the simulations, a recently developed minimum dissipation model is used to parameterize the subgrid-scale stress tensor, while the turbine-induced forces are modeled with an actuator-line technique. The LES framework is first tested in the simulation of the wake behind a model straight-bladed VAWT placed in the water channel, and then used to study the wake structure downwind of a full-scale VAWT sited in the atmospheric boundary layer. In particular, the self-similarity of the wake is examined, and it is found that the wake velocity deficit is well characterized by a two-dimensional elliptical Gaussian distribution. By assuming a self-similar Gaussian distribution of the velocity deficit, and applying mass and momentum conservation, an analytical model is developed and tested to predict the maximum velocity deficit downwind of the turbine.

  2. Detailed simulation of structural color generation inspired by the Morpho butterfly. (United States)

    Steindorfer, Michael A; Schmidt, Volker; Belegratis, Maria; Stadlober, Barbara; Krenn, Joachim R


    The brilliancy and variety of structural colors found in nature has become a major scientific topic in recent years. Rapid-prototyping processes enable the fabrication of according structures, but the technical exploitation requires a profound understanding of structural features and material properties regarding the generation of reflected color. This paper presents an extensive simulation of the reflectance spectra of a simplified 2D Morpho butterfly wing model by utilizing the finite-difference time-domain method. The structural parameters are optimized for reflection in a given spectral range. A comparison to simpler models, such as a plane dielectric layer stack, provides an understanding of the origin of the reflection behavior. We find that the wavelength of the reflection maximum is mainly set by the lateral dimensions of the structures. Furthermore small variations of the vertical dimensions leave the spectral position of the reflectance wavelength unchanged, potentially reducing grating effects.

  3. Structural Evaluation of a PGSFR Steam Generator for a Steady State Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang-Gyu; Kim, Jong-Bum; Kim, Hoe-Woong; Koo, Gyeong-Hoi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, design loads for design condition and normal operating steady state condition were classified and the structural analyses for each design loads were carried out. And, structural integrities under each service level were evaluated according to ASME design code. The structural analyses of a steam generator are carried out and its structural integrity under the given service levels is evaluated per ASME Code rule. The design loads according to design condition and normal operating steady condition are classified and stresses calculated from stress analyses are linearized and summarized in their stress components. As a result, the SG structure satisfies with design criteria for both service levels. Though the steam header is designed as a thick hemisphere, its design margin is not so high in spite of just steady state condition. Thus, additional evaluation by considering various operating events will be followed.

  4. Generation of arbitrary radially polarized array beams by modulating the correlation structure

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Shijun; Li, Zhenhua


    We demonstrate a convenient approach for simultaneously manipulating the amplitude and polarization of light beams by means of the modulation of the correlation structure. As an illustration, we constructed a periodic correlation structure that can generate an arbitrary radially polarized array (RPA) beam of a radial or rectangular symmetry array in the focal plane from a radially polarized (RP) beam. The physical realizability conditions for such source and the far-field beam condition are derived. It is illustrated that the beamlet shape and the state of polarization (SOP) can be effectively controlled by the initial correlation structure and the coherence width. Furthermore, by designing the source correlation structure, a tunable OK-shaped RPA beam and an optical cage are demonstrated, which can find widespread applications in non-destructive manipulation of particles and living biological cells. The arbitrariness in the design of correlation structure prompted us to find more convenient approaches for co...

  5. Wake effects characterization using wake oscillator model. Comparison on 2D response with experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gaurier, Benoît; Cébron, David


    A model using wake oscillators is developed to predict the 2D motion in a transverse plan of two rigid cylinders in tandem arrangement. This model of the wake dynamics is validated with experimental data from previous trials which took place at the Ifremer flume tank in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France. The agreement between the model and the experimental results allows using this model as a simple computational tool in the prediction of 2D Vortex-Induced Vibrations (VIV) and, after some futher developments, Wake-Induced Oscillations (WIO) effects.

  6. Similarity considerations for a turbulent axisymmetric wake with rotation subjected to a boundary layer flow (United States)

    Wosnik, Martin


    Recently an analytical and experimental investigation of the turbulent axisymmetric wake with rotation found a new asymptotic scaling function for the mean swirl, Wmax ~Uo3/ 2 ~x-1 (Dufresne and Wosnik, Mar Technol Soc J, 47, no.4, 193-205, 2013). An equilibrium similarity theory derived scaling functions from the conditions for the existence of similarity directly from the equations of motion. Axial and azimuthal (swirl) velocities were measured in the wake of a single 3-bladed wind turbine in a free stream up to 20 diameters downstream, and the data were found to support the theoretical results. The scaling implies that the mean swirl decays faster, with x-1, than the mean velocity deficit, with x - 2 / 3. Real wind turbines, however, operate in the atmospheric boundary layer. They are subjected to mean shear and turbulence, both have been observed to improve wake recovery. Similarity considerations are extended to place a turbulent axisymmetric wake with rotation in a boundary layer flow, and the scaling implications are examined. Corresponding experiments were carried out in the UNH Flow Physics Facility, using model wind turbines of various sizes as swirling wake generators. Supported by NSF CBET grant 1150797.

  7. Serotonergic integration of circadian clock and ultradian sleep-wake cycles. (United States)

    Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Hamada, Kozo; Hensch, Takao K


    In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus generates a 24 h rhythm of sleep and arousal. While neuronal spiking activity in the SCN provides a functional circadian oscillator that propagates throughout the brain, the ultradian sleep-wake state is regulated by the basal forebrain/preoptic area (BF/POA). How this SCN circadian oscillation is integrated into the shorter sleep-wake cycles remains unclear. We examined the temporal patterns of neuronal activity in these key brain regions in freely behaving rats. Neuronal activity in various brain regions presented diurnal rhythmicity and/or sleep-wake state dependence. We identified a diurnal rhythm in the BF/POA that was selectively degraded when diurnal arousal patterns were disrupted by acute brain serotonin depletion despite robust circadian spiking activity in the SCN. Local blockade of serotonergic transmission in the BF/POA was sufficient to disrupt the diurnal sleep-wake rhythm of mice. These results suggest that the serotonergic system enables the BF/POA to couple the SCN circadian signal to ultradian sleep-wake cycles, thereby providing a potential link between circadian rhythms and psychiatric disorders.

  8. Nonlinear wake amplification by an active medium in a cylindrical waveguide using a modulated trigger bunch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeev; Toroker; Miron; Voin; Levi; Schchter


    Cerenkov wake amplification can be used as an accelerating scheme,in which a trigger bunch of electrons propagating inside a cylindrical waveguide filled with an active medium generates an initial wake field.Due to the multiple reflections inside the waveguide,the wake may be amplified significantly more strongly than when propagating in a boundless medium.Sufficiently far away from the trigger bunch the wake,which travels with the same phase velocity as the bunch,reaches saturation and it can accelerate a second bunch of electrons trailing behind.For a CO2 gas mixture our numerical and analytical calculations indicate that a short saturation length and a high gradient can be achieved with a large waveguide radius filled with a high density of excited atoms and a trigger bunch that travels at a velocity slightly above the Cerenkov velocity.To obtain a stable level of saturated wake that will be suitable for particle acceleration,it is crucial to satisfy the single-mode resonance condition,which requires high accuracy in the waveguide radius and the ratio between the electron phase velocity and the Cerenkov velocity.For single-mode propagation our model indicates that it is feasible to obtain gradients as high as GV m-1 in a waveguide length of cm.

  9. Wind Speed Estimation and Wake model Re-calibration for Downregulated Offshore Wind Farms (United States)

    Göçmen Bozkurt, Tuhfe; Giebel, Gregor; Kjølstad Poulsen, Niels; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Mirzaei, Mahmood


    In recent years, the wind farm sizes have increased tremendously and with increasing installed capacity, the wind farms are requested to downregulate from their maximum possible power more frequently, especially in the offshore environment. Determination of the possible (or available) power is crucial not only because the reserve power has considerable market value but also for wind farm developers to be properly compensated for the loss during downregulation. While the available power calculation is straightforward for a single turbine, it gets rather complicated for the whole wind farm due to the change in the wake characteristics. In fact, the wake losses generated by the upstream turbine(s) decrease during downregulation and the downstream turbines therefore see more wind compared to the normal operation case. Currently, the Transmission System Operators (TSOs) have no real way to determine exactly the available power of a whole wind farm which is downregulated. Therefore, the PossPOW project aims to develop a verified and internationally accepted way to determine the possible power of a down-regulated offshore wind farm. The first phase of the project is to estimate the rotor effective wind speed. Since the nacelle anemometers are not readily available and are known to have reliability issues, the proposed method is to use power, pitch angle and rotational speed as inputs and combine it with a generic Cp model to estimate the wind speed. The performance of the model has been evaluated for both normal operation and downregulation periods using two different case studies: Horns Rev-I wind farm and NREL 5MW single turbine. During downregulation, the wake losses are not as severe and the velocity deficits at the downstream turbines are smaller as if also the wake is "downregulated". On the other hand, in order to calculate the available power, the wakes that would have been produced normally (if the turbines were not curtailed) are of importance, not the

  10. The effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talalaj, Izabela Anna, E-mail:; Walery, Maria, E-mail:


    Highlights: • An effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was presented. • The waste accumulation index is influenced by a number of unemployed women. • Greater share of women in society contributes to greater waste production. • A model describing the analyzed dependences was determined. - Abstract: In this study the effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was investigated. The data from 10-year period, from 2001 to 2010 year, were taken into consideration. The following parameters of gender and age structure were analyzed: men and woman quantity, female to male ratio, number of working, pre-working and post-working age men/women, number of unemployed men/women. The results have showed a strong correlation of annual per capita waste generation rate with number of unemployed women (r = 0.70) and female to male ratio (r = 0.81). This indicates that waste generation rate is more depended on ratio of men and women that on quantitative size of each group. Using the regression analysis a model describing the dependence between female to male ratio, number of unemployed woman and waste quantity was determined. The model explains 70% of waste quantity variation. Obtained results can be used both to improve waste management and to a fuller understanding of gender behavior.

  11. ProDaMa: an open source Python library to generate protein structure datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manconi Andrea


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The huge difference between the number of known sequences and known tertiary structures has justified the use of automated methods for protein analysis. Although a general methodology to solve these problems has not been yet devised, researchers are engaged in developing more accurate techniques and algorithms whose training plays a relevant role in determining their performance. From this perspective, particular importance is given to the training data used in experiments, and researchers are often engaged in the generation of specialized datasets that meet their requirements. Findings To facilitate the task of generating specialized datasets we devised and implemented ProDaMa, an open source Python library than provides classes for retrieving, organizing, updating, analyzing, and filtering protein data. Conclusion ProDaMa has been used to generate specialized datasets useful for secondary structure prediction and to develop a collaborative web application aimed at generating and sharing protein structure datasets. The library, the related database, and the documentation are freely available at the URL

  12. Coupling of electromagnetic and structural dynamics for a wind turbine generator (United States)

    Matzke, D.; Rick, S.; Hollas, S.; Schelenz, R.; Jacobs, G.; Hameyer, K.


    This contribution presents a model interface of a wind turbine generator to represent the reciprocal effects between the mechanical and the electromagnetic system. Therefore, a multi-body-simulation (MBS) model in Simpack is set up and coupled with a quasi-static electromagnetic (EM) model of the generator in Matlab/Simulink via co-simulation. Due to lack of data regarding the structural properties of the generator the modal properties of the MBS model are fitted with respect to results of an experimental modal analysis (EMA) on the reference generator. The used method and the results of this approach are presented in this paper. The MB S model and the interface are set up in such a way that the EM forces can be applied to the structure and the response of the structure can be fed back to the EM model. The results of this cosimulation clearly show an influence of the feedback of the mechanical response which is mainly damping in the torsional degree of freedom and effects due to eccentricity in radial direction. The accuracy of these results will be validated via test bench measurements and presented in future work. Furthermore it is suggested that the EM model should be adjusted in future works so that transient effects are represented.

  13. Stochastic generation of explicit pore structures by thresholding Gaussian random fields (United States)

    Hyman, Jeffrey D.; Winter, C. Larrabee


    We provide a description and computational investigation of an efficient method to stochastically generate realistic pore structures. Smolarkiewicz and Winter introduced this specific method in pores resolving simulation of Darcy flows (Smolarkiewicz and Winter, 2010 [1]) without giving a complete formal description or analysis of the method, or indicating how to control the parameterization of the ensemble. We address both issues in this paper. The method consists of two steps. First, a realization of a correlated Gaussian field, or topography, is produced by convolving a prescribed kernel with an initial field of independent, identically distributed random variables. The intrinsic length scales of the kernel determine the correlation structure of the topography. Next, a sample pore space is generated by applying a level threshold to the Gaussian field realization: points are assigned to the void phase or the solid phase depending on whether the topography over them is above or below the threshold. Hence, the topology and geometry of the pore space depend on the form of the kernel and the level threshold. Manipulating these two user prescribed quantities allows good control of pore space observables, in particular the Minkowski functionals. Extensions of the method to generate media with multiple pore structures and preferential flow directions are also discussed. To demonstrate its usefulness, the method is used to generate a pore space with physical and hydrological properties similar to a sample of Berea sandstone.

  14. Wake effects of large offshore wind farms on the mesoscale atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Patrick; Badger, Jake; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    to the fact that its typical horizontal grid spacing is on the order of 2km, the energy extracted by the turbine, as well as the wake development inside the turbine-containing grid-cells, are not described explicitly, but are parametrized as another sub-grid scale process. In order to appropriately capture...... the wind farm wake recovery and its direction, two properties are important, the total energy extracted by the wind farm and its velocity deficit distribution. In the considered parametrization the individual turbines apply a thrust dependent on a local sub grid scale velocity, which is influenced...... by the up-stream turbines. For the sub-grid scale velocity deficit, the entrainment from the free atmospheric flow into the wake region, is taken into account. Furthermore, since the model horizontal distance is several times larger then the turbine diameter, it has been assumed that the generated...

  15. Wind flow conditions in offshore wind farms. Validation and application of a CFD wake model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerhellweg, Annette; Canadillas, Beatriz; Kinder, Friederike; Neumann, Thomas [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut GmbH (DEWI), Wilhelmshaven (Germany)


    Since August 2009, the first German offshore wind farm 'alpha ventus' is operating close to the wind measurement platform FINO1. Within the research project RAVE-OWEA the wind flow conditions in 'alpha ventus' were assessed in detail, simulated with a CFD wake model and compared with the measurements. Wind data measured at FINO1 have been evaluated for wind speed reduction and turbulence increase in the wake. Additionally operational data were evaluated for the farm efficiency. The atmospheric stability has been evaluated by temperature measurements of air and water and the impact of atmospheric stability on the wind conditions in the wake has been assessed. As an application of CFD models the generation of power matrices is introduced. Power matrices can be used for the continual monitoring of the single wind turbines in the wind farm. A power matrix based on CFD simulations has been created for 'alpha ventus' and tested against the measured data. (orig.)

  16. Longitudinal Single Bunch Instability Caused by Wake Field of Electron Cloud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu-Dong; YU Cheng-Hui


    The electron cloud accumulated in the vicinity of positron beam generates longitudinal electric field during the passage of bunch. The longitudinal interaction between bunch and electron cloud can lead to the distortion of the bunch shape. We use a simple analytic formula to calculate the longitudinal electric field due to electron cloud. Based on the longitudinal wake field, the macro-particle tracking method is used to simulate the variation of bunch longitudinal profile in different electron cloud densities and the simulation also shows that the synchrotron oscillation tune is slightly shifted by the wake field. By comparing the simulation results and the analytical estimation from potential distortion theory, the longitudinal wake field from electron cloud can be seen as a potential well effect.

  17. TMCI threshold with space charge and different wake fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbekov, V. [Fermilab


    Transverse mode coupling instability of a bunch with space charge and wake field is considered within the frameworks of the boxcar model. Eigenfunctions of the bunch without wake are used as a basis for the solution of the equations with the wake field included. A dispersion equation for constant wake is presented in the form of an infinite continued fraction and also as the recursive relation with an arbitrary number of the basis functions. Realistic wake fields are considered as well including resistive wall, square, and oscillating wakes. It is shown that the TMCI threshold of the negative wake grows up in absolute value when the SC tune shift increases. Threshold of positive wake goes down at the increasing SC tune shift. The explanation is developed by an analysis of the bunch spectrum.

  18. TMCI threshold with space charge and different wake fields

    CERN Document Server

    Balbekov, V


    Transverse mode coupling instability of a bunch with space charge and wake field is considered within the frameworks of the boxcar model. Eigenfunctions of the bunch without wake are used as a basis for the solution of the equations with the wake field included. A dispersion equation for constant wake is presented in the form of an infinite continued fraction and also as the recursive relation with an arbitrary number of the basis functions. Realistic wake fields are considered as well including resistive wall, square, and oscillating wakes. It is shown that the TMCI threshold of the negative wake grows up in absolute value when the SC tune shift increases. Threshold of positive wake goes down at the increasing SC tune shift. The explanation is developed by an analysis of the bunch spectrum.

  19. Nonlinear Kinetic Development of the Weibel Instability and the generation of electrostatic coherent structures

    CERN Document Server

    Palodhi, L; Pegoraro, F; 10.1088/0741-3335/51/12/125006


    The nonlinear evolution of the Weibel instability driven by the anisotropy of the electron distribution function in a collisionless plasma is investigated in a spatially one-dimensional configuration with a Vlasov code in a two-dimensional velocity space. It is found that the electromagnetic fields generated by this instability cause a strong deformation of the electron distribution function in phase space, corresponding to highly filamented magnetic vortices. Eventually, these deformations lead to the generation of short wavelength Langmuir modes that form highly localized electrostatic structures corresponding to jumps of the electrostatic potential.

  20. Fluid-Structure Interaction Effects Modeling for the Modal Analysis of a Steam Generator Tube Bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrist, J.F. [DCNS Prop, Serv Tech et Sci, F-44620 La Montagne, (France); Broc, D. [CEA Saclay, Serv Etud Mecan et Sism, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)


    Seismic analysis of steam generator is of paramount importance in the safety assessment of nuclear installations. These analyses require, in particular, the calculation of frequency, mode shape, and effective modal mass of the system Eigenmodes. As fluid-structure interaction effects can significantly affect the dynamic behavior of immersed structures, the numerical modeling of the steam generator has to take into account FSI. A complete modeling of heat exchangers (including pressure vessel, tubes, and fluid) is not accessible to the engineer for industrial design studies. In the past decades, homogenization methods have been studied and developed in order to model tubes and fluid through an equivalent continuous media, thus avoiding the tedious task to mesh all structure and fluid sub-domains within the tube bundle. Few of these methods have nonetheless been implemented in industrial finite element codes. In a previous paper (Sigrist, 2007, 'Fluid-Structure Interaction Effects Modeling for the Modal Analysis of a Nuclear Pressure Vessel', J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 123, p. 1-6), a homogenization method has been applied to an industrial case for the modal analysis of a nuclear rector with internal structures and coupling effects modeling. The present paper aims at investigating the extension of the proposed method for the dynamic analysis of tube bundles with fluid-structure interaction modeling. The homogenization method is compared with the classical coupled method in terms of eigenfrequencies, Eigenmodes, and effective modal masses. (authors)