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Sample records for generalized social phobia

  1. Working memory capacity in generalized social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Nader; Bomyea, Jessica

    2011-05-01

    Research suggests that understanding complex social cues depends on the availability of cognitive resources (e.g., Phillips, Channon, Tunstall, Hedenstrom, & Lyons, 2008). In spite of evidence suggesting that executive control functioning may impact anxiety (e.g., Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), relatively few studies have examined working memory in individuals with generalized social phobia. Moreover, few studies have examined the role of threat-relevant content in working memory performance in clinically anxious populations. To this end, the present study assessed working memory capacity (WMC) in individuals with generalized social phobia and nonanxious controls using an operation span task with threat-relevant and neutral stimuli. Results revealed that nonanxious individuals demonstrated better WMC than individuals with generalized social phobia for neutral words but not for social threat words. Individuals with generalized social phobia demonstrated better WMC performance for threat words relative to neutral words. These results suggest that individuals with generalized social phobia may have relatively enhanced working memory performance for salient, socially relevant information. This enhanced working memory capacity for threat-relevant information may be the result of practice with this information in generalized social phobia.

  2. Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Social Phobia KidsHealth / For Teens / Social Phobia What's in ... an anxiety condition called social phobia. What Is Social Phobia? Social phobia (also called social anxiety ) is ...

  3. Fearful imagery in social phobia: generalization, comorbidity, and physiological reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTeague, Lisa M; Lang, Peter J; Laplante, Marie-Claude; Cuthbert, Bruce N; Strauss, Cyd C; Bradley, Margaret M

    2009-03-01

    Social phobia has been characterized as a disorder of exaggerated fear of social threat and heightened sensitivity to imagery of social failure. To assess the physiological basis of this description, social phobia patients (n=75) and demographically matched control participants (n=75) imagined neutral and fearful events while acoustic startle probes were occasionally presented and eye-blink responses (orbicularis occuli) recorded. Changes in heart rate, skin conductance level, and facial expressivity were also indexed. In addition to comparing control participants and social phobia patients, the influences of diagnostic subtype (circumscribed, generalized), comorbid depression, and chronicity were assessed. Patients exceeded control participants in startle reflex and autonomic responding during imagery of social threat, whereas the groups evinced commensurate reactivity to contents depicting commonly shared fears (survival threat). Individuals with circumscribed performance phobia were similar to control participants, with the exception of more robust reactions to idiographic, performance fear imagery. In contrast, generalized phobic patients were characterized by longer disorder chronicity and demonstrated heightened sensitivity to a broader range of fear contents. Those with generalized phobia plus comorbid depression showed attenuation of fear-potentiated startle and reported the most protracted social anxiety. Subtypes of social phobia can be objectively distinguished in patterns of physiological reactivity. Furthermore, subtypes vary systematically in chronicity and defensive engagement with the shortest disorder duration (circumscribed phobia) associated with the most robust and focal physiological reactivity, followed by broader defensive sensitivity in more chronic generalized phobia, and finally attenuation of the formerly exaggerated fear potentiation in the comorbidly depressed, the most chronic form.

  4. Generalized social phobia versus avoidant personality disorder : Differences in psychopathology, personality traits, and social and occupational functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, CJM

    2000-01-01

    Four groups of patients with social phobia (SP) were compared with regard to psychopathologic characteristics, personality traits, and social and occupational functioning. Fifteen persons with discrete social phobia without any personality disorder (DSP), 28 persons with generalized social phobia

  5. Parental overprotection and interpersonal behavior in generalized social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Charles T; Alden, Lynn E

    2006-03-01

    Forty-one people with generalized social phobia (GSP) and 42 community controls completed a measure of social developmental experiences and then participated in a social interaction with an experimental assistant whose behavior was either friendly or ambiguous. Following the interaction, confederates rated participants' behavior and their desire to interact with their partner again. In people with social phobia, but not controls, perceptions of parental overprotection were associated with less responsiveness to partner behavior. Moreover, failure to reciprocate the friendly partner's behavior led to social rejection. The results support the value of incorporating social developmental concepts into cognitive-behavioral models of social phobia and highlight the contribution of social learning experiences to the development of maladaptive interpersonal behavior in these individuals.

  6. [Social phobia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, B; Wedekind, D

    2014-05-01

    With a lifetime prevalence of 13% social phobia (social anxiety disorder) is a common and serious condition that should not be played down because of the burden associated with the disorder, an increased suicide rate and the frequent comorbidity with substance abuse disorders. Social phobia is characterized by the excessive and unrealistic fear of being scrutinized or criticized by others. The disorder often begins in adolescence.Symptoms of social phobia can be effectively treated with evidence-based treatment, including cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and psychopharmacological medications. In the present paper, treatment recommendations are given, which are based on a systematic review of all available randomized trials for the treatment of social phobia. Among psychological therapies, variants of CBT have been proven to be effective in controlled studies. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) venlafaxine are among the drugs of first choice.

  7. Response to emotional expressions in generalized social phobia and generalized anxiety disorder: evidence for separate disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Karina; Shaywitz, Jonathan; Smith, Bruce W; Rhodes, Rebecca; Geraci, Marilla; Jones, Matthew; McCaffrey, Daniel; Vythilingam, Meena; Finger, Elizabeth; Mondillo, Krystal; Jacobs, Madeline; Charney, Dennis S; Blair, R J R; Drevets, Wayne C; Pine, Daniel S

    2008-09-01

    Generalized social phobia involves fear/avoidance, specifically of social situations, whereas generalized anxiety disorder involves intrusive worry about diverse circumstances. It remains unclear the degree to which these two, often comorbid, conditions represent distinct disorders or alternative presentations of a single, core underlying pathology. Functional magnetic resonance imaging assessed the neural response to facial expressions in generalized social phobia and generalized anxiety disorder. Individuals matched on age, IQ, and gender with generalized social phobia without generalized anxiety disorder (N=17), generalized anxiety disorder (N=17), or no psychopathology (N=17) viewed neutral, fearful, and angry expressions while ostensibly making a simple gender judgment. The patients with generalized social phobia without generalized anxiety disorder showed increased activation to fearful relative to neutral expressions in several regions, including the amygdala, compared to healthy individuals. This increased amygdala response related to self-reported anxiety in patients with generalized social phobia without generalized anxiety disorder. In contrast, patients with generalized anxiety disorder showed significantly less activation to fearful relative to neutral faces compared to the healthy individuals. They did show significantly increased response to angry expressions relative to healthy individuals in a lateral region of the middle frontal gyrus. This increased lateral frontal response related to self-reported anxiety in patients with generalized anxiety disorder. These results suggest that neural circuitry dysfunctions differ in generalized social phobia and generalized anxiety disorder.

  8. SOCIAL PHOBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabu Supramaniam

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Social Phobia is a condition characterized by a marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur. Exposure to the social or performance situation almost invariably provokes an immediate anxiety response. Although adolescents and adults with this disorder recognize that their fear is excessive or unreasonable, this may not be the case in children. Most often, the social or performance situation is avoided, although it is sometimes endured with dread. In individuals younger than 18, symptoms must have persisted for at least 6 months before is disorder is diagnosed. This diagnosis should not be given if the fear is reasonable given the context of the stimuli (e.g., fear of being called on in class when unprepared. The disturbance must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. This disorder is not due to a medical condition, medication, or abused substance. It is not better accounted for by another mental disorder.    

  9. Generalized social phobia and avoidant personality disorder: meaningful distinction or useless duplication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambless, Dianne L; Fydrich, Thomas; Rodebaugh, Thomas L

    2008-01-01

    Participants with generalized social phobia (GSP) with (n=36) and without (n=19) avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) were compared via contrasts of group means and classification analysis on purported core features of AVPD. GSP-AVPD participants proved to be more severely impaired or distressed on some group contrasts. Cluster analysis identified two groups in the sample, with group membership significantly correlated to AVPD diagnosis. However, almost all significant findings were nullified when severity of social phobia was statistically controlled. Thus, at least where participants with social phobia are concerned, it seems most parsimonious to consider AVPD a severe form of GSP rather than a separate diagnostic category.

  10. Differentiating Social Phobia from Shyness

    OpenAIRE

    Heiser, Nancy A.; Turner, Samuel M.; Beidel, Deborah C.; Roberson-Nay, Roxann

    2008-01-01

    To clarify the relationship between social phobia and shyness, this study examined the characteristics of highly shy persons with social phobia, highly shy persons without social phobia, and non-shy persons. Those with social phobia reported more symptomatology, more functional impairment, and a lower quality of life than those without social phobia. About one-third of the highly shy without social phobia reported no social fears, highlighting heterogeneity of the shy. The social phobia group...

  11. Attention Training in Individuals with Generalized Social Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Nader; Beard, Courtney; Taylor, Charles T.; Klumpp, Heide; Elias, Jason; Burns, Michelle; Chen, Xi

    2009-01-01

    The authors conducted a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial to examine the efficacy of an attention training procedure in reducing symptoms of social anxiety in 44 individuals diagnosed with generalized social phobia (GSP). Attention training comprised a probe detection task in which pictures of faces with either a threatening or…

  12. Internet treatment for social phobia reduces comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Nickolai; Gibson, Matthew; Andrews, Gavin; McEvoy, Peter

    2009-08-01

    Social phobia can be treated by brief Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). Most people with social phobia, however, meet criteria for another mental disorder; this comorbidity is associated with significant disability, and cases of comorbidity may be more difficult to treat. The present study examined the impact of the Shyness programme, an Internet-based treatment programme for social phobia, on comorbid symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Data from three randomized controlled trials using the Shyness programme to treat social phobia were reanalysed. The 211 subjects, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for social phobia, were divided into four groups: (i) social phobia only; (ii) social phobia with elevated symptoms of depression; (iii) social phobia with elevated symptoms of generalized anxiety; and (iv) social phobia with elevated symptoms of both generalized anxiety and depression. The improvement in social phobia, depression and anxiety following Internet-based treatment for social phobia was measured. Improvement in social phobia was seen in all groups, whether comorbid or not. Significant improvements in comorbid symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety occurred even though the treatment was focused on the social phobia. Brief Internet-based CBT can reduce both the target disorder as well as comorbid symptoms. These findings are consistent with evidence that unified or transdiagnostic programmes may reduce the severity of comorbid disorders and symptoms, indicating an important direction for future research.

  13. Social phobia in coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addolorato, Giovanni; Mirijello, Antonio; D'Angelo, Cristina; Leggio, Lorenzo; Ferrulli, Anna; Vonghia, Luisa; Cardone, Silvia; Leso, Veruscka; Miceli, Antonio; Gasbarrini, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    A high prevalence of anxiety and depression has been reported in coeliac disease (CD). Although social phobia is included among the anxiety disorders, its presence in CD has never been investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate social phobia in CD patients. A total of 40 CD patients were consecutively enrolled in the study. Fifty healthy subjects were studied as controls. Social phobia was assessed by the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and current depression by the modified version of the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (M-SDS). The percentage of subjects with social phobia was significantly higher in CD patients than in controls (70% versus 16%; psocial phobia was not statistically different between newly diagnosed subjects and patients on a gluten free diet (73.3% versus 68%; p: NS), nor considering its generalized form (7.0% versus 20%; p: NS). Current depression was present in a significantly higher percentage of CD patients in comparison with controls (52.5% versus 8%; psocial phobia and current depression was found in CD patients (r=0.582; psocial phobia in CD patients compared with in healthy subjects. Future studies are needed to clarify the possible social phobia-induced risks such as school and/or work failure in CD patients.

  14. Cognition about Cognition: Metacognitive Therapy and Change in Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Metacognitive theory and therapy views the persistence of negative beliefs and thoughts as a result of metacognitions controlling cognition. This paper describes, with reference to the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social phobia, how metacognition contributes to cognitive stability and to change. Metacognitive therapy offers…

  15. Differentiating social phobia from shyness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Nancy A; Turner, Samuel M; Beidel, Deborah C; Roberson-Nay, Roxann

    2009-05-01

    To clarify the relationship between social phobia and shyness, this study examined the characteristics of highly shy persons with social phobia, highly shy persons without social phobia, and non-shy persons. Those with social phobia reported more symptomatology, more functional impairment, and a lower quality of life than those without social phobia. About one-third of the highly shy without social phobia reported no social fears, highlighting heterogeneity of the shy. The social phobia group reported similar levels of anxiety as the shy without social phobia during analogue conversation tasks, but they reported more anxiety during a speech task. The social phobia group performed less effectively across tasks than those without social phobia. All groups' perceptions of anxiety and effectiveness during behavioral tasks were consistent with ratings of independent observers. None of the groups differed on psychophysiological measures. Results are discussed in the context of theoretical models of social phobia.

  16. Social phobia: epidemiology and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wancata, Johannes; Fridl, Marion; Friedrich, Fabian

    2009-12-01

    This paper gives an overview on the epidemiology of social phobia. About 4.5% of the adult general populations suffer from social phobia, i.e. it is the most frequent of all anxiety disorders. Social phobia is clearly more frequent among women than among men. About the half of all individuals with social phobia suffer from any comorbid mental disorders. Reviews show a large variability between single studies, probably due to methodological differences. Several population surveys indicate that a marked proportion of those with social phobia do not receive adequate treatment.

  17. The contribution of the therapist's competence in the treatment of adolescents with generalized social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, José; Olivares-Olivares, Pablo J; Rosa-Alcázar, Ana I; Montesinos, Luis; Macià, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore which of the outcomes attained by the application of the psychological program Intervención en Adolescentes con Fobia Social (Intervention in Adolescents with Social Phobia) can be attributed to the therapist's competence. The experimental study consists of three conditions: Waiting list control, Group treated by expert psychologists, and Group treated by inexperienced psychologists, with a sample of 110 Spanish adolescents whose mean age was 15.42 years (SD = 0.97, range: 14-18). All participants met the criteria for diagnosis of Generalized Social Phobia) and most of them were female (65.45%). (i) The effect size attributable to the therapist was low compared to the effect size associated with the manual-based treatment program in the dependent variables measured, and (ii) Expert therapists attained a much greater remission of the criteria for the diagnosis of Generalized Social Phobia among participants than did the inexperienced therapists. The IAFS Program was responsible for most of the change measured in participants.

  18. Comparison of automatical thoughts among generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder and generalized social phobia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, A I; Simsek, G; Karaaslan, Ö; Inanir, S

    2015-08-01

    Automatic thoughts are measurable cognitive markers of the psychopathology and coping styles of individuals. This study measured and compared the automatic thoughts of patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and generalized social phobia (GSP). Fifty-two patients with GAD, 53 with MDD, and 50 with GSP and 52 healthy controls completed the validated Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ) and a structured psychiatric interview. Patients with GAD, MDD, and GSP also completed the validated Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) to determine the severity of their illnesses. All scales were completed before treatment and after diagnosis. The ATQ scores of all pairs of groups were compared. The ATQ scores of the GAD, MDD, and GSP groups were significantly higher than were those of the control group. We also found significant correlations among scores on the GAD-7, BDI, and LSAS. The mean age of patients with GSP was lower than was that of the other groups (30.90 ± 8.35). The significantly higher ATQ scores of the MDD, GAD, and GSP groups, compared with the control group, underscore the common cognitive psychopathology characterizing these three disorders. This finding confirms that similar cognitive therapy approaches should be effective for these patients. This study is the first to compare GAD, MDD, and GSP from a cognitive perspective.

  19. Association between level of emotional intelligence and severity of anxiety in generalized social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Madeline; Snow, Joseph; Geraci, Marilla; Vythilingam, Meena; Blair, R J R; Charney, Dennis S; Pine, Daniel S; Blair, Karina S

    2008-12-01

    Generalized social phobia (GSP) is characterized by a marked fear of most social situations. It is associated with an anomalous neural response to emotional stimuli, and individuals with the disorder frequently show interpretation bias in social situations. From this it might be suggested that GSP involves difficulty in accurately perceiving, using, understanding and managing emotions. Here we applied the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) to medication-free GSP (n=28) and no pathology (n=21) individuals. Patients with GSP performed within the normal range on the measure however severity of social anxiety significantly correlated with emotional intelligence (EI). Specifically, there was a negative correlation between social anxiety severity and Experiential (basic-level emotional processing) EI. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between social anxiety severity and Strategic (higher-level conscious emotional processing) EI. These results suggest that EI may index emotional processing systems that mitigate the impact of systems causally implicated in GSP.

  20. Social phobia in Finnish general adolescent population: prevalence, comorbidity, individual and family correlates, and service use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Klaus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Rantanen, Päivi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the epidemiology of social phobia (SP) among early to middle adolescents, at the time of suggested mean onset of the disorder. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence, comorbidity, individual and familial correlates, and service use associated with SP among Finnish 12-17-year-old adolescents in general population. A sample of 784 adolescents was screened with the Social Phobia Inventory, and a sub-sample (n=350) was interviewed with a semi-structured clinical interview to identify SP, sub-clinical SP (SSP), and a range of other axis I DSM-IV disorders. Individual and familial correlates, and service use associated with SP were also inquired. We found a 12-month prevalence of 3.2% for SP, and 4.6% for SSP. The prevalence rose and the gender ratio shifted to female preponderance as age increased. SP was frequently comorbid with other anxiety disorders (41%) and depressive disorders (41%). Adolescents with SP/SSP were impaired in their academic and global functioning, and reported more parental psychiatric treatment contacts. Two thirds (68%) of adolescents with SP reported having been bullied by peers. Only one fifth of adolescents with non-comorbid SP had been in contact with a mental health professional. We conclude that adolescent SP is a relatively frequent, undertreated and highly comorbid condition, associated with educational impairment, depression and anxiety in parents, and peer victimization. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. The Mini-Social Phobia Inventory: psychometric properties in an adolescent general population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Klaus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Rantanen, Päivi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2012-07-01

    Onset of social phobia (SP) typically occurs in adolescence. Short screening instruments for its assessment are needed for use in primary health and school settings. The 3-item Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) has demonstrated effectiveness in screening for generalized SP (GSP) in adults. This study examined the psychometrics of the Mini-SPIN in an adolescent general population sample. Three hundred fifty adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were clinically interviewed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version for identification of SP and other Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Axis I disorders, blind to their Mini-SPIN status. Associations between SP; subclinical SP; other anxiety, depressive, and disruptive disorders; and Mini-SPIN scores were examined, and diagnostic efficiency statistics were calculated. The association between Mini-SPIN scores and the generalized subtype of SP was also examined. As in adults, the Mini-SPIN items differentiated subjects with SP from those without. A score of 6 points or greater was found optimal in predicting SP with a sensitivity of 86%, specificity of 84%, and positive and negative predictive values of 26% and 99%. The Mini-SPIN also possessed discriminative validity, as scores were higher for adolescents with SP than they were for those with depressive, disruptive, and other anxiety disorders. The Mini-SPIN was also able to differentiate adolescents with GSP from the rest of the sample. The Mini-SPIN has good psychometrics for screening SP in adolescents from general population and may have value in screening for GSP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Quality of life impairment in generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Terri L; Norton, Peter J

    2009-12-01

    Interest in the assessment of quality of life in the anxiety disorders is growing. The present study examined quality of life impairments in individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia, and panic disorder. Results showed that individuals with these disorders reported less satisfaction with their quality of life than non-anxious adults in the community. However, the degree of quality of life impairment is similar across these three disorders. Additionally, comorbid depression, but not anxiety, was found to negatively impact quality of life in these individuals. Finally, diagnostic symptom severity was not found to influence quality of life, indicating that subjective measures of quality of life offer unique information on the effects of anxiety disorders.

  3. Associations of social phobia and general anxiety with alcohol and drug use in a community sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröjd, Sari; Ranta, Klaus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri

    2011-01-01

    This study explores whether associations between anxiety and alcohol and other substance use are already evident in middle adolescence, and whether general anxiety or symptoms of social phobia affect continuity of frequent alcohol use, frequent drunkenness and cannabis use. Data from the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study, a school-based Finnish survey among adolescents aged 15-16 years at baseline, was utilized to assess prevalence, incidence and continuity of symptoms of social phobia, general anxiety, frequent alcohol use, frequent drunkenness and cannabis use (which in this context was smoked 'hashish' of unknown constituency), and the associations between the substance use variables and the anxiety variables in 2-year follow-up. Anxiety preceded substance use while no reciprocal associations were observed. Depression mediated the associations between anxiety and substance use. Symptoms of social phobia did not elevate the incidence of substance use, but general anxiety did. Frequent drunkenness was less significantly associated with anxiety than the other two substance use variables. Co-morbid general anxiety increased the persistence of frequent alcohol use while co-morbid social phobia decreased its persistence. Continuity of frequent drunkenness and cannabis use were unaffected by co-morbid anxiety. General anxiety in middle adolescence places adolescents at risk for concurrent and subsequent substance use. The risk may, however, be associated with co-morbid depression. Social phobia in middle adolescence may protect from substance use. Adolescents with internalizing symptoms may need guidance in coping with the symptoms even if the symptoms do not fulfil the criteria of mood or anxiety disorder.

  4. Social phobia and depression: prevalence and comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayon, Maurice M; Schatzberg, Alan F

    2010-03-01

    Social phobia may seriously impair the functioning of affected individuals. It is frequently associated with other mental disorders. To estimate the co-occurrence of social phobia with major depressive disorder (MDD) and to analyze their interaction. Subjects were 18,980 individuals, aged 15 years or older, representative of the general population of the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Spain and Portugal, who were interviewed by telephone. DSM-IV diagnoses were made with the Sleep-EVAL system. The point prevalence for social phobia was 4.4% (95% confidence interval: 4.1-4.7%) of the sample. It was higher in women (odds ratio: 1.6) and decreased with age. MDDs were found in 19.5% of participants with social phobia. Co-occurrence of another anxiety disorder was high and increased when a MDD was present (65.2%). The odds of developing a major depressive episode 2 years after the appearance of the social phobia was of 5.74. Social phobia is highly prevalent in the general population. It increases the risk of developing a MDD and has a high comorbidity with other mental disorders. Social phobia is often present in the course of depression, more obviously during remission period of MDD. Physicians must explore and treat more systematically this frequent pathology. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Social phobia and selective mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeton, Courtney P; Crosby Budinger, Meghan

    2012-07-01

    Social phobia (SOP) and selective mutism (SM) are related anxiety disorders characterized by distress and dysfunction in social situations. SOP typically onsets in adolescence and affects about 8% of the general population, whereas SM onsets before age 5 and is prevalent in up to 2% of youth. Prognosis includes a chronic course that confers risk for other disorders or ongoing social disability, but more favorable outcomes may be associated with young age and low symptom severity. SOP treatments are relatively more established, whereas dissemination of promising and innovative SM-treatment strategies is needed.

  6. Autonomic markers associated with generalized social phobia symptoms: heart rate variability and salivary alpha-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rubio, María J; Espín, Laura; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Salvador, Alicia; Gómez-Amor, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    The study of autonomic nervous system changes associated with generalized social phobia (GSP) disorder has increased in recent years, showing contradictory results. The present study aimed to evaluate how young people with GSP reacted before, during, and after exposure to the Trier Stress Social Test (TSST), focusing on their autonomic changes (heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA)) compared to a control group (non-GSP). Some psychological variables were also considered. Sex was specifically studied as a possible modulator of autonomic fluctuations and psychological state. Eighty young people were randomly distributed into two counterbalanced situations: stress condition (N = 18 and 21 for GSP and non-GSP, respectively) and control condition (N = 21 and 20 for GSP and non-GSP, respectively), where cardiovascular variables were continuously recorded. Psychological questionnaires about mood and perceived stress were filled out, and five saliva samples were collected to analyze sAA. GSP participants showed higher values on low- and high-frequency ratios (HR domains), compared to non-GSP people, during exposure to the TSST, but no differences were observed after the stressor. Furthermore, the two groups did not differ in sAA. Importantly, positive affect in GSP participants was modulated by sex. The present study suggests that the balance between high- and low-frequency domains of HRV is a key cardiovascular marker reflecting the stress response of GSP people, as well the importance of sex in positive affect when facing a stressful situation.

  7. Collaborative care for panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and social phobia in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curth, Nadja Kehler; Brinck-Claussen, Ursula Ødum; Davidsen, Annette Sofie

    2017-01-01

    such as cognitive behavioral therapy. A limited number of studies suggest that collaborative care has a positive effect on symptoms for people with anxiety disorders. However, most studies are carried out in the USA and none have reported results for social phobia or generalised anxiety disorder separately. Thus...... in this protocol and focus on panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and social phobia. The aim is to investigate whether treatment according to the Collabri model has a better effect than usual treatment on symptoms when provided to people with anxiety disorders. Methods: Three cluster-randomised, clinical...... practices located in the Capital Region of Denmark. For all trials, the primary outcome is anxiety symptoms (Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)) 6 months after baseline. Secondary outcomes include BAI after 15 months, depression symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) after 6 months, level of psychosocial...

  8. [Neurobiology and pharmacotherapy of social phobia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouizerate, B; Martin-Guehl, C; Tignol, J

    2004-01-01

    symptoms (eg, tachycardia, sweating and dry mouth). However, they are not effective in the generalized form of social phobia. Other pharmacologic alternatives seem helpful for the management of social phobia, including venlafaxine, gabapentin, bupropion, nefazodone or augmentation with buspirone. Preliminary studies point to promising effects of these agents. Larger controlled clinical trials are now needed to confirm their potential role in the treatment of social phobia.

  9. Aberrant reward center response to partner reputation during a social exchange game in generalized social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripada, Chandra; Angstadt, Michael; Liberzon, Israel; McCabe, Kevin; Phan, K Luan

    2013-04-01

    Generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) is characterized by excessive fear of public scrutiny and reticence in social engagement. Previous studies have probed the neural basis of GSAD often using static, noninteractive stimuli (e.g., face photographs) and have identified dysfunction in fear circuitry. We sought to investigate brain-based dysfunction in GSAD during more real-world, dynamic social interactions, focusing on the role of reward-related regions that are implicated in social decision-making. Thirty-six healthy individuals (healthy control [HC]) and 36 individuals with GSAD underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning while participating in a behavioral economic game ("Trust Game") involving iterative exchanges with fictive partners who acquire differential reputations for reciprocity. We investigated brain responses to reciprocation of trust in one's social partner, and how these brain responses are modulated by partner reputation for repayment. In both HC and GSAD, receipt of reciprocity robustly engaged ventral striatum, a region implicated in reward. In HC, striatal responses to reciprocity were specific to partners who have consistently returned the investment ("cooperative partners"), and were absent for partners who lack a cooperative reputation. In GSAD, modulation of striatal responses by partner reputation was absent. Social anxiety severity predicted diminished responses to cooperative partners. These results suggest abnormalities in GSAD in reward-related striatal mechanisms that may be important for the initiation, valuation, and maintenance of cooperative social relationships. Moreover, this study demonstrates that dynamic, interactive task paradigms derived from economics can help illuminate novel mechanisms of pathology in psychiatric illnesses in which social dysfunction is a cardinal feature. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Social phobia and perceived friendship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L

    2009-10-01

    Although it is clear that people with social phobia have interpersonal impairment, evidence that social phobia (as opposed to other mental disorders) affects friendship in particular is lacking. Two large epidemiological datasets were used to test whether diagnosis of social phobia is related to perceived friendship quality above and beyond perceived family relationship quality, diagnosis of other mental disorders, and a variety of demographic variables. After Bonferroni correction, social phobia was the only diagnosis related to perceived friendship quality above and beyond other factors, such that people with social phobia reported more impaired friendship quality. Social phobia's effect was similar in magnitude to demographic characteristics in both samples. The current study demonstrates that social phobia is specifically related to perceived friendship quality, suggesting that this aspect of social phobia's effects is worthy of further study.

  11. No effects of psychosocial stress on memory retrieval in non-treated young students with Generalized Social Phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espín, Laura; Marquina, Mónica; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Salvador, Alicia; Gómez-Amor, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    Generalized Social Phobia (GSP) is a common anxiety disorder that produces clear social life disruptions. There is no consensus on the specific processes involved in its development, but the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested. This study analyzed the effects of the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on the memory retrieval of pictures with different emotional valences in 45 non-treated young students with GSP and 50 non-anxious (NA) subjects (mean=19.35years, SD=0.18). No differences were found in the cortisol response of GSP and NA subjects to the TSST and control sessions. In addition, psychosocial stress impaired memory retrieval in both the GSP and NA groups, with no differences between them. Regarding the sex factor, no effects were found in the cortisol response to the TSST. However, during the encoding session, GSP men had higher cortisol levels than GSP women and NA subjects. There was also a significant interaction between sex and stress exposure on memory retrieval. Women recognized more unpleasant and neutral pictures than men; however, under stress, the women's advantage disappeared, and the men's performance improved. Sex also interacted with social phobia on positive mood, with GSP women exposed to the TSST showing the lowest positive mood. These results suggest that GSP subjects do not present an HPA axis sensitization to psychosocial stress, and they emphasize the importance of Sex in understanding stress effects on memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding and Treating Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Russell C.; Kimball, Amy; Stroup, Erin L.

    2004-01-01

    Social phobia, a relatively obscure disorder, is receiving increased attention due to evidence suggesting that it is more prevalent and debilitative than once thought. The purpose of this article is to help counselors better understand the nature of and treatments for this disorder. Effective behavioral and pharmacological approaches are reviewed,…

  13. SOCIAL PHOBIA PREVALENCE IN YOUNGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD REZA ZAMANI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The most common psychiatric disorder of new communities are the anxiety disorders. In this survey Isfahans' high school students' social phobia were assessed as an important part of anxiety disorders. Methods & Materials: In this cross sectional study, 500 high school students (250 male, 250 female whom selected by multi-stage cluster and simple random sampling, were enrolled into study. Data collection performed by multiple choice question are and analysis were done by SPSS software with 0.05 significance level. Results: 11 percents of selected students with mean age about 16 Yrs, have had Social Phobia (male=56.4%, female=43.6 % . Parents' education of affected group were higher than non-affected, and birth rank had significant relation with Social Phobia (P = 0.043. Conclusions: Unfortunately in spite of high prevalence of social phobia, It's remain unknown and affected students would have numerous educational and communicational problems because of this disorder, therefore for complications' prevention and on time treatment, its need to inform people and physicians about this disorder and its' diagnose.

  14. Psicoterapia psicodinâmica em grupo para fobia social generalizada Psychodynamic group treatment for generalized social phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Zippin Knijnik

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste estudo é verificar a efetividade do tratamento psicodinâmico em grupo de pacientes com fobia social generalizada. MÉTODOS: 30 pacientes foram incluídos em um estudo randomizado, simples-cego, comparando Terapia Psicodinâmica de Grupo (TPG com um Grupo de Controle Placebo com Credibilidade (CPC. A TPG foi conduzida em 12 sessões de terapia de orientação psicodinâmica em grupo. Os pacientes do grupo controle receberam um pacote de aulas-discussões e tratamento de apoio por 12 semanas, que foi comparado à TPG. Todos os participantes preencheram a Escala de Liebowitz para Ansiedade Social (LSAS, a Escala Hamilton de Ansiedade (HAM-A e a Escala de Impressão Clínica Global (CGI, na entrevista inicial e na 12ª semana de tratamento. Os dados foram analisados com uma ANOVA de medidas repetidas. Pacientes em vigência de tratamento farmacológico ou psicoterápico foram excluídos. RESULTADOS: Ambos os grupos apresentaram melhora na maioria das medidas. Na LSAS, os pacientes da TPG obtiveram melhora superior aos do grupo controle, ao cabo de 12 semanas (F1,28=4.84, p=0.036. Nas medidas basais dos sujeitos que completaram o estudo, não houve diferença entre os grupos em variáveis demográficas e de desfecho. CONCLUSÃO: Neste estudo, a TPG foi superior ao tratamento placebo com credibilidade no tratamento da fobia social generalizada, em um ensaio clínico randomizado, simples-cego, de 12 semanas.OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of psychodynamic group therapy in patients with generalized social phobia. METHODS: Thirty patients were included in a randomized single-blind clinical trial comparing psychodynamic group treatment (PGT with a credible placebo control group (CPC. PGT was carried out within a 12-session psychodynamically-oriented group psychotherapy. Control patients received a treatment package of lecture-discussion and support group for 12 weeks which was compared to PGT

  15. Specific and social phobias in ICD-11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the current status of research with respect to specific phobias and social phobia as defined in the ICD-10 and DSM-IV, and to provide op- tions for their classification in the ICD-11. Both ICD-10 and DSM-IV identify three main classes of phobias: specific

  16. Social phobia, anxiety, oppositional behavior, social skills, and self-concept in children with specific selective mutism, generalized selective mutism, and community controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles E; McHolm, Angela E; Boyle, Michael H

    2006-08-01

    We compared social phobia, anxiety, oppositional behavior, social skills, and self-concept in three groups: (1) 28 children with specific mutism (who did not speak to teachers but were more likely to speak to parents and peers at home and school); (2) 30 children with generalized mutism (whose speaking was restricted primarily to their homes); and (3) 52 community controls. Children with generalized mutism evidenced higher anxiety at school, and more separation anxiety, OCD, and depressive symptoms at home. Parents and teachers reported that the social phobia and anxiety scores of children in both the specific and generalized mutism subgroups were higher than controls. Children in both the specific and generalized mutism groups evidenced greater deficits in verbal and nonverbal social skills at home and school than controls. Teachers and parents did not report differences in nonverbal measures of social cooperation and conflict resolution and we found no evidence that selective mutism was linked to an increase in externalizing problems such as oppositional behavior or ADHD. Although children with specific mutism speak in a wider range of situations and appear less anxious to their teachers than children with generalized mutism, significant socially phobic behavior and social skills deficits are present in both groups.

  17. Social phobia: further evidence of dimensional structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crome, Erica; Baillie, Andrew; Slade, Tim; Ruscio, Ayelet Meron

    2010-11-01

    Social phobia is a common mental disorder associated with significant impairment. Current research and treatment models of social phobia rely on categorical diagnostic conceptualizations lacking empirical support. This study aims to further research exploring whether social phobia is best conceptualized as a dimension or a discrete categorical disorder. This study used three distinct taxometric techniques (mean above minus below a cut, maximum Eigen value and latent mode) to explore the latent structure of social phobia in two large epidemiological samples, using indicators derived from diagnostic criteria and associated avoidant personality traits. Overall, outcomes from multiple taxometric analyses supported dimensional structure. This is consistent with conceptualizations of social phobia as lying on a continuum with avoidant personality traits. Support for the dimensionality of social phobia has important implications for future research, assessment, treatment, and public policy.

  18. Social phobia with sudden onset--post-panic social phobia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ann Suhl; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Mors, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Overlap between social phobia (SP) and panic disorder (PD) has been observed in epidemiological, family, and challenge studies. One possible explanation is that some cases of SP develop as a consequence of a panic attack in a social situation. By definition, these cases of SP have sudden onset...... recruited as part of an etiological study. Patients with SP with sudden onset did, as hypothesized, differ from patients with SP without sudden onset with regard to age of onset and extraversion, but not with regard to symptoms. They did not differ markedly from patients with comorbid SP and PD. The concept...

  19. Sexual function and behavior in social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodinger, Liron; Hermesh, Haggai; Aizenberg, Dov; Valevski, Avi; Marom, Sofi; Shiloh, Roni; Gothelf, Doron; Zemishlany, Zvi; Weizman, Abraham

    2002-10-01

    Social phobia is a type of performance and interpersonal anxiety disorder and as such may be associated with sexual dysfunction and avoidance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate sexual function and behavior in patients with social phobia compared with mentally healthy subjects. Eighty subjects participated in the study: 40 consecutive, drug-free outpatients with social phobia (DSM-IV) attending an anxiety disorders clinic between November 1997 and April 1999 and 40 mentally normal controls. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale were used to quantitatively and qualitatively assess sexual function and behavior. Men with social phobia reported mainly moderate impairment in arousal, orgasm, sexual enjoyment, and subjective satisfaction domains. Women with social phobia reported severe impairment in desire, arousal, sexual activity, and subjective satisfaction. In addition, compared with controls, men with social phobia reported significantly more frequent paid sex (p social phobia reported a significant paucity of sexual partners (p social phobia exhibit a wide range of sexual dysfunctions. Men have mainly performance problems, and women have a more pervasive disorder. Patients of both genders show difficulties in sexual interaction. It is important that clinicians be aware of this aspect of social phobia and initiate open discussions of sexual problems with patients.

  20. Shyness versus social phobia in US youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Marcy; Ameli-Grillon, Leila; Merikangas, Kathleen R

    2011-11-01

    Scholars and the popular press have suggested that the diagnostic entity of social phobia "medicalizes" normal human shyness. In this study we examined the plausibility of this hypothesis by (1) determining the frequency of shyness and its overlap with social phobia in a nationally representative adolescent sample, (2) investigating the degree to which shyness and social phobia differ with regard to sociodemographic characteristics, functional impairment, and psychiatric comorbidity, and (3) examining differences in rates of prescribed medication use among youth with shyness and/or social phobia. The National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement is a nationally representative, face-to-face survey of 10,123 adolescents, aged 13 to 18 years, in the continental United States. Lifetime social phobia was assessed by using a modified version of the fully structured World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Adolescents and parents also provided information on youth shyness and prescribed medication use. Only 12% of the youth who identified themselves as shy also met the criteria for lifetime social phobia. Relative to adolescents who were characterized as shy, adolescents affected with social phobia displayed significantly greater role impairment and were more likely to experience a multitude of psychiatric disorders, including disorders of anxiety, mood, behavior, and substance use. However, those adolescents were no more likely than their same-age counterparts to be taking prescribed medications. The results of this study provide evidence that social phobia is an impairing psychiatric disorder, beyond normal human shyness. Such findings raise questions concerning the "medicalization" hypothesis of social phobia.

  1. Social phobia and PTSD in Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsillo, S M; Heimberg, R G; Juster, H R; Garrett, J

    1996-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the most prevalent psychological disorder experienced by Vietnam veterans. However, there are many other disorders and problems of adjustment, like social anxiety and social phobia, that have not been fully investigated in this population. This study examined the prevalence of social phobia and the comorbidity of social phobia and PTSD, and tested out a theory of the etiology of social anxiety in trauma victims. Forty one Vietnam combat veterans were interviewed and completed self-report measures assessing PTSD and social phobia. Adversity of homecoming was also assessed. Using a conservative multi-method assessment approach, 32% of the sample were found to be positive for both social phobia and PTSD. Veterans with PTSD were significantly more likely to carry an additional diagnosis of social phobia as compared to veterans without PTSD. Adversity of homecoming and shame about one's experience in Vietnam were significant predictors of current level of social anxiety over and above the effects of pre-military anxiety and severity of combat exposure. These observations suggest that social anxiety and social phobia may be significant problems among individuals with PTSD. Further, these findings offer preliminary support for the theory that posttrauma environment may impact upon the later development of social anxiety.

  2. Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enjoyment of life. Social anxiety disorder can cause: Low self-esteem Trouble being assertive Negative self-talk Hypersensitivity to criticism Poor social skills Isolation and difficult social relationships Low academic and employment achievement Substance abuse, such as ...

  3. Finding social phobia patients from the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Ting; Lin, Chao-Cheng; Wang, Sheng-Chang; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Chen, Jen-Yeu; Liu, Chia-Yih; Lee, Ming-Been

    2011-11-30

    Patients with social phobia commonly resist face-to-face assessments, and a number of alternative assessment methods based on the Internet are being developed. The aim of this study was to identify patients with social phobia on the Internet and characterize their condition, using the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN). In Stage I, this study recruited 1307 participants from the Internet, most of whom were well-educated young females, who had remained unmarried and unemployed. The Internet-based SPIN demonstrated excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.937) and good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.942). In Stage II, we examined the discriminant validity of the SPIN via structured telephone interviews. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve used to discriminate social phobia was 0.871 with an optimal cut-off point of 24 on the total score for the SPIN. According to the SPIN scores, 919 of Stage I participants (70.3%) reached the threshold of social phobia, 531 of which (57.8%) had never sought professional help. These results suggest that the Internet is a potential avenue through which to find untreated patients with social phobia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Virtual reality exposure therapy for social phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Herbelin, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents researches and experiments performed in collaboration with a psychiatrist in order to validate and improve the use of virtual reality in social phobia psychotherapy. Cognitive and behavioral therapies are strongly based on the exposure to anxiety provoking stimuli. Virtual reality seems to be appropriate for such exposures as it allows for on-demand reproduction of reality. The idea has been validated for the treatment of various phobias but is more delicate in the case o...

  5. Quality of life impairments among adults with social phobia: the impact of subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nina; Sarver, Dustin E; Beidel, Deborah C

    2012-01-01

    Social phobia is characterized by extreme fear in social or performance situations in which the individual may be exposed to embarrassment or scrutiny by others, which creates occupational, social and academic impairment. To date, there are few data examining the relationship of social phobia impairments to quality of life. In this investigation, we examined how demographic characteristics, comorbidity, and social competence are related to quality of life among patients with social phobia and normal controls. In addition, we examined the impact of social phobia subtype. Results indicated that individuals with generalized social phobia had significantly impaired quality of life when compared to individuals with no disorder or individuals with nongeneralized social phobia. Comorbid disorders decreased quality of life only for patients with nongeneralized social phobia. Hierarchical linear regression revealed that a diagnosis of social phobia and observer ratings of social effectiveness exerted strong and independent effects on quality of life scores. Results are discussed in terms of the role of social anxiety, social competence, and comorbidity on the quality of life for adults with social phobia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Processing of emotional faces in social phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Kristjansen Rosenberg

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has found that individuals with social phobia differ from controls in their processing of emotional faces. For instance, people with social phobia show increased attention to briefly presented threatening faces. However, when exposure times are increased, the direction of this attentional bias is more unclear. Studies investigating eye movements have found both increased as well as decreased attention to threatening faces in socially anxious participants. The current study investigated eye movements to emotional faces in eight patients with social phobia and 34 controls. Three different tasks with different exposure durations were used, which allowed for an investigation of the time course of attention. At the early time interval, patients showed a complex pattern of both vigilance and avoidance of threatening faces. At the longest time interval, patients avoided the eyes of sad, disgust, and neutral faces more than controls, whereas there were no group differences for angry faces.

  7. Collaborative care for panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and social phobia in general practice: study protocol for three cluster-randomised, superiority trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curth, Nadja Kehler; Brinck-Claussen, Ursula Ødum; Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht; Lundsteen, Merete; Mikkelsen, John Hagel; Csillag, Claudio; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Nordentoft, Merete; Eplov, Lene Falgaard

    2017-08-16

    People with anxiety disorders represent a significant part of a general practitioner's patient population. However, there are organisational obstacles for optimal treatment, such as a lack of coordination of illness management and limited access to evidence-based treatment such as cognitive behavioral therapy. A limited number of studies suggest that collaborative care has a positive effect on symptoms for people with anxiety disorders. However, most studies are carried out in the USA and none have reported results for social phobia or generalised anxiety disorder separately. Thus, there is a need for studies carried out in different settings for specific anxiety populations. A Danish model for collaborative care (the Collabri model) has been developed for people diagnosed with depression or anxiety disorders. The model is evaluated through four trials, of which three will be outlined in this protocol and focus on panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and social phobia. The aim is to investigate whether treatment according to the Collabri model has a better effect than usual treatment on symptoms when provided to people with anxiety disorders. Three cluster-randomised, clinical superiority trials are set up to investigate treatment according to the Collabri model for collaborative care compared to treatment-as-usual for 364 patients diagnosed with panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and social phobia, respectively (total n = 1092). Patients are recruited from general practices located in the Capital Region of Denmark. For all trials, the primary outcome is anxiety symptoms (Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)) 6 months after baseline. Secondary outcomes include BAI after 15 months, depression symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) after 6 months, level of psychosocial functioning (Global Assessment of Functioning) and general psychological symptoms (Symptom Checklist-90-R) after 6 and 15 months. Results will add to the limited pool of information about

  8. Sudden Gains during Therapy of Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Schultz, Stefan M.; Meuret, Alicia E.; Moscovitch, David A.; Suvak, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the phenomenon of sudden gains in 107 participants with social phobia (social anxiety disorder) who received either cognitive-behavioral group therapy or exposure group therapy without explicit cognitive interventions, which primarily used public speaking situations as exposure tasks. Twenty-two out of 967…

  9. Economic costs of social phobia: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acarturk, C.; Smit, H.F.E.; de Graaf, R.; van Straten, A.; ten Have, M.; Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Information about the economic costs of social phobia is scant. In this study, we examine the economic costs of social phobia and subthreshold social phobia. Methods: Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS) which is a population-based

  10. Depression and social phobia secondary to alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgiati, Paolo; Liappas, Ioannis; Malitas, Petros; Piperi, Christina; Politis, Antonis; Tzavellas, Elias O; Zisaki, Aikaterini; Ferrari, Barbara; De Ronchi, Diana; Kalofoutis, Anastasios; Serretti, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    According to the self-medication hypothesis, individuals with depression and anxiety disorders use alcohol to control their symptoms and subsequently become dependent. Conversely, alcohol dependence disorder (ADD) can cause or exacerbate psychiatric disorders. This study analyzed the characteristics of depression and social phobia secondary to ADD. (1) What is their functional impact? (2) Are they independent or associated conditions? (3) Do they completely remit in abstinent individuals? (4) Is the remission of one disorder associated with the remission of the other disorder? Sixty-four inpatients with ADD were evaluated with depression and anxiety disorder scales upon admission to hospital and after 5 weeks of detoxification. Baseline comparisons differentiated patients with a Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS) score > 35 (n = 50; 78%) from those with an HDRS score social phobia [Leibowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) score > 60: n = 20; 31.2%] were not distinguishable from those with an LSAS score depressive and anxiety disorder symptoms. In postdetoxification assessment, patients who remitted from depression (HDRS score or = 7). Patients who remitted from social phobia (LSAS score depressive and anxiety disorder symptoms. Generalized anxiety (Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety) and hypochondriasis (Whiteley Index) were the significant predictors of global functioning (Global Assessment Scale). Depression and social phobia secondary to ADD are independent conditions that do not completely remit after cessation of drinking. Specific treatments are needed to reduce residual depressive and anxiety symptoms in abstinent alcoholics. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. The prognosis and incidence of social phobia in an elderly population. A 5-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, B; Sigström, R; Waern, M; Ostling, S; Gustafson, D; Skoog, I

    2010-07-01

    To examine the prognosis and incidence of social fears and phobia in an elderly population sample followed for 5 years. A general population sample (N = 612) of non-demented men (baseline age 70) and women (baseline age 70 and 78-86) was investigated in 2000-2001 and in 2005-2006 with semi-structured psychiatric examinations including the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale, and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Social phobia was diagnosed according to the DSM-IV criteria. Among nine individuals with DSM-IV social phobia in 2000, 5 (55.6%) had no social fears in 2005, and 1 (11.1%) still met the criteria for DSM-IV social phobia. Among individuals without DSM-IV social phobia in 2000 (N = 603), 12 (2.0%) had DSM-IV social phobia in 2005. These findings challenge the notion that social phobia is a chronic disorder with rare occurrence in old age.

  12. Social phobia: research and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnaes, R

    2001-01-01

    Social phobia is a pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity, occurring in about 18% of the clinical population. Despite good results with cognitive-behavioural treatment, social phobia seems to be a chronic disorder with several complications. The author describes an analysis of a divorced woman who was exposed to an early premature sexual seduction by her father, abruptly terminated because of an accident. The loss of the father was repaired by a delusional system as defence against the re-emergence of a catastrophic situation. Her compulsion to repeat the traumatic situation was seen in symbolic attempts to reproduce the lost experience of forbidden pleasure with other men, ending in hopeless affairs. According to DSM-IV the patient had-besides social phobia-several personality disturbances, clinically manifested by weak ego boundaries, an unclear identity, and low self-esteem. Cognitive-behavioural therapy and psychopharmaca were without any effect. The childhood experiences were repeated in the context of the analysis and worked through, especially the pre-oedipal and oedipal conflicts. Important repeating themes were "crime", guilt, and punishment. After 3 years of analysis it was possible for the patient to expose herself to anxiety-producing situations with less symptoms. It was possible for her to withdraw the projections and take more responsibility for the unconscious sexual and aggressive impulses. At the 5-year follow-up her satisfactions had become more realistic and she became involved in a positive relationship.

  13. Relations among symptoms of social phobia subtypes, avoidant personality disorder, panic, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Shawn A; Wu, Kevin D

    2010-03-01

    This study's primary goal was to examine relations between symptoms of specific social phobia (SSP), generalized social phobia (GSP), avoidant personality disorder (APD), and panic and depression. Past research has suggested a single social phobia continuum in which SSP displays less symptom severity than GSP or APD. We found SSP symptoms correlated less strongly with depression but more strongly with panic relative to both GSP and APD symptoms. These findings challenge a unidimensional model of social phobia, suggesting a multidimensional model may be more appropriate. These findings also inform current research aimed at classifying mood and anxiety disorders more broadly by identifying that the different factors of fear versus distress appear to underlie different subtypes of social phobia. 2008. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The prevalence of social phobia, and its impact on quality of life, academic achievement, and identity formation in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gültekin, Bülent Kadri; Dereboy, I Ferhan

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of social phobia, and the sociodemographic variables, substance use patterns, and comorbid psychiatric disorders associated with it. The impact of social phobia on quality of life, academic achievement, and identity formation were also examined. The study was conducted between 01 March and 01 June 2008, and included 700 undergraduate students at Adnan Menderes University. A sociodemographic data form, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief Form, Turkish Version (WHOQoL-BREF-TR), and Instrument for Assessing Identity Confusion (IFAIC) were administered to the participants. In all, 20.9% of the participants had social phobia during the previous year and 21.7% had social phobia for a lifetime. In total, 74.6% of those that had social phobia during the previous year and 76.5% of those that had social phobia for their whole lives also had a specific social phobia. There was a significant difference between the participants with generalized social phobia or a specific social phobia, and those without social phobia, in terms of LSAS and IFAIC scores. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of social phobia was 1.7-fold higher among the females than males, 1.5-fold higher among those that lived in cities for the last 15 years than those that lived in towns, 1.9-fold higher among those that lived in cities for the last 15 years than those that lived in villages, and 1.8-fold higher among those that had relatives with a psychiatric illness than those that didn't. Higher socioeconomic status was negatively correlated with the prevalence of social phobia. Cigarette smoking was more prevalent among the students without social phobia and suicidal ideation was more prevalent among the students with social phobia. WHOQOL-BREF-TR scores showed that students without social phobia had significantly higher quality of life quality than those with social phobia. Self

  15. Depersonalization/derealization during acute social stress in social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Juergen; Braeuer, David; Crawcour, Stephen; Klumbies, Elisabeth; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2013-03-01

    The present study aimed at investigating how frequently and intensely depersonalization/derealization symptoms occur during a stressful performance situation in social phobia patients vs. healthy controls, as well as testing hypotheses about the psychological predictors and consequences of such symptoms. N=54 patients with social phobia and N=34 control participants without mental disorders were examined prior to, during, and after a standardized social performance situation (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). An adapted version of the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale was applied along with measures of social anxiety, depression, personality, participants' subjective appraisal, safety behaviours, and post-event processing. Depersonalization symptoms were more frequent in social phobia patients (92%) than in controls (52%). Specifically in patients, they were highly positively correlated with safety behaviours and post-event-processing, even after controlling for social anxiety. The role of depersonalization/derealization in the maintenance of social anxiety should be more thoroughly recognized and explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder. It is a strong, irrational fear of something that poses little or no real danger. There are many specific phobias. Acrophobia is a fear of heights. Agoraphobia is ...

  17. Issues in the Assessment of Social Phobia: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letamendi, Andrea M.; Chavira, Denise A.; Stein, Murray B.

    2010-01-01

    Since the emergence of social phobia in DSM nomenclature, the mental health community has witnessed an expansion in standardized methods for the screening, diagnosis, and measurement of the disorder. This article reviews formal assessment methods for social phobia, including diagnostic interview, clinician-administered instruments, and self report questionnaires. Frequently used tools for assessing constructs related to social phobia, such as disability and quality of life, are also briefly presented. This review evaluates each method by highlighting the assessment features recommended in social phobia literature, including method of administration, item content, coverage, length of scale, type of scores generated, and time frame. PMID:19728569

  18. The relationship between avoidant personality disorder and social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummelen, Benjamin; Wilberg, Theresa; Pedersen, Geir; Karterud, Sigmund

    2007-01-01

    The main explanatory hypothesis for the distinction between social phobia (SP) and avoidant personality disorder (APD) has been the severity continuum hypothesis, stating that APD only differs from SP in terms of severity of dysfunction and symptomatic distress, that is, social anxiety and depressive symptoms. This study aimed at a comprehensive evaluation of this hypothesis in a large sample (n = 2192) of thoroughly assessed patients, most of whom had a diagnosis of personality disorder. Social phobia was stronger associated with APD than with other personality disorders, and APD was stronger associated with SP than with other symptom disorders. Social phobia-pure patients had a higher level of global functioning and lower levels of general symptom distress and interpersonal problems than APD-pure patients. The 2 groups were similar on domains that pertain to social anxiety and introversion, but APD was associated with a broader array of symptoms and interpersonal problems and was substantially lower on the personality domain of conscientiousness. Avoidant personality disorder was stronger associated with eating disorders, and SP was stronger associated with panic disorder. The APD diagnosis seems to capture a broader constellation of symptoms and personality features pointing toward more severe personality dysfunction. Our findings suggest that the severity continuum hypothesis lacks specificity and exploratory power to account for both similarities and differences between SP and APD.

  19. [A psychological content of social phobia syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagalakova, O A; Truevtsev, D V; Stoyanova, I Ya

    2017-01-01

    To perform a psychological analysis of social phobia syndrome. The subject area of research is the structure of mental activity and behavior in social activity. The study included 32 patients with symptoms of social phobia (ICD-10 F40.1) and 29 healthy people (controls). A complex of psychological methods (questionnaires; pathopsychological experiment) was used. Early maladaptive schemes and a tendency to mental rigidity can be a premorbid basis of the syndrome. Primary violation is in organizational target component by type of distortion of goal-setting regulation. The mechanism is a reduction in the mediation of emotions and behavior (an influence of emotions on the process of activity, excess metacognitive anxiety control leading to multi-task and exhaustion of resources of voluntary activity). Fear of negative evaluation leads to the fact that a wide class of situations is interpreted as threatening. Secondary are changes in the system of goals and motives of activity (technically performing components of social behavior act as a focus of attention, along with the target, the target replaces the suprasituational meaning). Along with a strong motivation to succeed, the motive of avoiding failure is formed, which leads to a decrease in social activity. Tertiary symptoms of syndrome dynamics (ways to cope with maladaptation) are destructive forms of decompensation (substance abuse, learned helplessness and hopelessness, suicidal behavior, etc.), repeatedly reinforcing the primary and secondary disturbances.

  20. Economic costs of social phobia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acarturk, C; Smit, Filip; de Graaf, R; van Straten, A; Ten Have, M; Cuijpers, P

    2009-06-01

    Information about the economic costs of social phobia is scant. In this study, we examine the economic costs of social phobia and subthreshold social phobia. Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS) which is a population-based prospective study (n=4,789). Costs related to health service uptake, patients' out-of-pocket expenses, and costs arising from production losses were calculated for the reference year 2003. The costs for people with social phobia were compared with the costs for people with no mental disorder. The annual per capita total costs of social phobia were euro 11,952 (95% CI=7,891-16,013) which is significantly higher than the total costs for people with no mental disorder, euro 2957 (95% CI=2690-3224). When adjusting for mental and somatic co-morbidity, the costs decreased to euro 6,100 (95% CI=2681-9519), or 136 million euro per year per 1 million inhabitants, which was still significantly higher than the costs for people with no mental disorder. The costs of subthreshold social phobia were also significantly higher than the costs for people without any mental disorder, at euro 4,687 (95% CI=2557-6816). The costs presented here are conservative lower estimates because we only included costs related to mental health services. The economic costs associated with social phobia are substantial, and those of subthreshold social phobia approach those of the full-blown disorder.

  1. Social Phobia in College Students: A Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Donald W.; Mandrusiak, Michael

    2007-01-01

    We used the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) to identify self-reported social phobia symptoms in 59 students presenting for intake at our counseling center and 119 students meeting a course requirement for research participation. We expected that students presenting for clinical service would have higher scores than the students not seeking such…

  2. Social phobia in developmental period: From theory to therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolar Dušan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary integrative theoretical and therapeutic concepts of social phobia in developmental period have been presented in the study. Besides current neurobiological theories, a very important hypothesis about behavioral inhibition has been represented as a predisposition of social phobia. The cognitive-behavioral theories of social phobia are dominant among psychological theories. The integrative concept of social phobia is the most realistic approach to this disorder and the bridge between biological and psychological theories. The interaction between biological and psychological etiological factors is represented through different therapeutical approaches to social phobia. Therapy of social phobia is integrative and involves different therapeutical modalities in different phases of therapy. In integrative psychotherapy, we use cognitive-behavioral therapy, dynamic oriented supportive psychotherapy, psychodynamic psychotherapy and phenomenological-existential psychotherapy. The cognitive-behavioral therapy yields the best results. The medicaments in use are the following: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, mono-amine oxidase inhibitors, high-potency benzodiazepines, new antiepileptic drugs and rarely (3-blockers. The combination of integrative psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy is the most optimal therapeutic approach to social phobia. This integrative and to patient adapted treatment will produce the best results in management of children's and adolescent's social phobia.

  3. Terapia cognitivo-comportamental da fobia social Cognitive-behavioral therapy in social phobia

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    Lígia M Ito

    2008-10-01

    .3%. The main techniques used in cognitive-behavioral therapy for social phobia are described and exemplified in a case report. CONCLUSIONS: There is a general consensus in the literature that cognitive-behavioral therapy is efficacious in the treatment of youth and adults with social phobia. Because of the early onset associated with social phobia, the identification of children at high risk for the development of social phobia should be prioritized in future investigations.

  4. Changes in intolerance of uncertainty during cognitive behavior group therapy for social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Alison E J; McEvoy, Peter M

    2012-06-01

    Recent research suggests that intolerance of uncertainty (IU), most commonly associated with generalized anxiety disorder, also contributes to symptoms of social phobia. This study examines the relationship between IU and social anxiety symptoms across treatment. Changes in IU, social anxiety symptoms, and depression symptoms were examined following cognitive behavior group therapy (CBGT) for social phobia (N=32). CBGT led to significant improvements in symptoms of social anxiety and depression, as well as reductions in IU. Reductions in IU were associated with reductions in social anxiety but were unrelated to improvements in depression symptoms. Reductions in IU were predictive of post-treatment social phobia symptoms after controlling for pre-treatment social phobia symptoms and changes in depression symptoms following treatment. The relationship between IU and social anxiety requires further examination within experimental and longitudinal designs, and needs to take into account additional constructs that are thought to maintain social phobia. Current findings suggest that the enhancing tolerance of uncertainty may play a role in the optimal management of social phobia. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The impact of personality disorders on behavioral treatment outcome for social phobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, C.J.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Scholing, A.

    1997-01-01

    The impact of personality disorders (PDs) on exposure in pipe treatment for social phobia was investigated in three groups of social phobics: social phobia without any PD (n = 30), social phobia with a single diagnosis of avoidant PD (n = 18) and social phobia with multiple PDs (n = 13). We

  6. Attentional mechanisms of social perception are biased in social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Sabrina; Bartholomaeus, Marie; Peter, Ulrike; Lupke, Ulrike; Gamer, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies of social phobia have reported an increased vigilance to social threat cues but also an avoidance of socially relevant stimuli such as eye gaze. The primary aim of this study was to examine attentional mechanisms relevant for perceiving social cues by means of abnormalities in scanning of facial features in patients with social phobia. In two novel experimental paradigms, patients with social phobia and healthy controls matched on age, gender and education were compared regarding their gazing behavior towards facial cues. The first experiment was an emotion classification paradigm which allowed for differentiating reflexive attentional shifts from sustained attention towards diagnostically relevant facial features. In the second experiment, attentional orienting by gaze direction was assessed in a gaze-cueing paradigm in which non-predictive gaze cues shifted attention towards or away from subsequently presented targets. We found that patients as compared to controls reflexively oriented their attention more frequently towards the eyes of emotional faces in the emotion classification paradigm. This initial hypervigilance for the eye region was observed at very early attentional stages when faces were presented for 150ms, and persisted when facial stimuli were shown for 3s. Moreover, a delayed attentional orienting into the direction of eye gaze was observed in individuals with social phobia suggesting a differential time course of eye gaze processing in patients and controls. Our findings suggest that basic mechanisms of early attentional exploration of social cues are biased in social phobia and might contribute to the development and maintenance of the disorder. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Tratamento da fobia social circunscrita por exposição ao vivo e reestruturação cognitiva Treatment of the non-generalized social phobia by in vivo exposure and cognitive restructuring

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    Gustavo J. Fonseca D'el Rey

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A fobia social é um grave transtorno de ansiedade que traz incapacitação e sofrimento. Apresentamos um relato de caso de uma mulher de 26 anos com diagnóstico de fobia social circunscrita (medo severo de assinar seu nome em público com três anos de duração, que foi tratada em oito semanas, usando-se a exposição ao vivo e a reestruturação cognitiva. O progresso do tratamento foi mantido em diversas áreas de sua vida e no follow-up de seis meses.Social phobia is a severe anxiety disorder that brings disability and distress. We present a case report of a 26 year-old woman with a diagnosis of non-generalized social phobia (severe fear of signing her name in public with 3 years of duration. She was treated in 8 weeks with in vivo exposure and cognitive restructuring. The treatment progress was maintained in all measures at the 6-month follow-up.

  8. Cognitive therapy for depressed adults with comorbid social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Jasper A J; Minhajuddin, Abu; Jarrett, Robin B

    2009-04-01

    Evidence suggests that comorbid depression influences the outcome of cognitive-behavioral treatment for patients presenting with social phobia. Little is known, however, about the influence of comorbid social phobia on the response to cognitive therapy (CT) for depression among adults presenting with recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD). These analyses seek to clarify this relationship. Patients (N=156) with recurrent DSM-IV MDD entered CT (20% also met DSM-IV criteria for social phobia). Every week during the course of CT, clinicians assessed depressive symptoms and patients completed self-report instruments measuring severity of depression and anxiety. At presentation, outpatients with comorbid social phobia reported greater levels of depressive symptoms and clinicians rated their impairment as more severe, compared to their counterparts without social phobia. Patients with or without comorbid social phobia did not differ significantly in (1) attrition rates; (2) response or sustained remission rates; (3) time to response or sustained remission; or (4) rate of improvement in symptoms of depression or anxiety. The lack of domain-specific measures limits inference with respect to the improvements in social anxiety that occur with CT of depression. These findings introduce the hypothesis that CT for depression may be flexible enough to treat the depressive symptoms of patients presenting with MDD who also suffer from social phobia.

  9. [Social phobia - the blind spot: infrequently diagnosed, highly complex, and a predictor for unfavourable therapy outcomes?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhlmann, Karin; Döbbel, Susanne; Löffler, Sabine; Israel, Matthias; Joraschky, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to examine (1) whether patients with social phobia report higher symptom load at the beginning and at the end of treatment and 1 year after treatment; and (2) whether the presence of social phobia is a factor that influences the course of treatment. 613 patients from a university hospital for psychosomatic medicine filled out questionnaires assessing symptom load (SCL 90-R, KOPS), physical symptoms, psychological and social impairment (KOPS), and depression (BDI). Social phobia was diagnosed based on a standardized diagnostic interview. 25%of the patients suffered from social phobia. They had significantly more concurrent mental disorders (4.18 vs. 2.41) and a higher symptom load than patients suffering from other mental disorders. They reported more physical complaints and depression and felt more impaired psychologically as well as socially. Even though both groups of patients profited from the treatment, compared to other patients, social phobia patients still had higher symptom load, impairment, and depression scores at the end of treatment and even at the follow-up 1 year after treatment. Social phobia is a severe disorder in which concurrent disorders frequently cause a high level of distress and impairment. These patients may benefit more from longer courses of treatment and/or disorder-specific treatment elements. Diagnostic and therapy approaches tailored to the generalized type of social anxiety are discussed.

  10. Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Others, such as choking, vomiting, loud noises or clowns Each specific phobia is referred to by its own term. Examples of more common terms include acrophobia for the fear of heights and claustrophobia for the fear of ...

  11. Social phobia and sexual problems: A comparison of social phobic, sexually dysfunctional and normal individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Valentina; Stravynski, Ariel

    2010-03-01

    This study sought to test the putative link between social phobia and sexual functioning. Three groups consisting of 106 social phobic, 164 sexually dysfunctional and 111 normal participants were assessed in terms of sexual functioning, social anxiety, social functioning and general psychopathology. Although social phobic men were less sexually active than normal men, they were as sexually satisfied. Social phobic women were alike their normal counterparts in all respects. Overall, social phobic individuals were not more prone to report sexual problems than normal individuals despite reporting the severest levels of social anxiety. Theoretically, our results are best understood as supporting an interpersonal conception of social phobia and a related socio-cultural perspective regarding sexual roles.

  12. Is there any influence of personality disorder on the short term intensive group cognitive behavioral therapy of social phobia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocilova, Jana; Prasko, Jan; Novak, Tomas; Pohlova, Libuse

    2011-03-01

    The treatment of personality disorder is repeatedly reported as less successful than the treatment of patients without personality disorder. Most clinicians believe that anxiety disorder in tandem with a personality disorder often leads to longer treatment, worsens the prognosis, and thus increases treatment costs. Our study was designed to compare the short-term effectiveness of therapy in patients suffering from social phobia with and without personality disorder. The specific aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of a 6 week therapeutic program designed for social phobia (SSRIs and CBT) in patients suffering from social phobia with comorbid personality disorder (17 patients) and social phobia without comorbid personality disorder (18 patients). The patients were regularly assessed in weeks 0, 2, 4 and 6 using the CGI (Clinical Global Improvement) for severity, LSAS (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale), and in self-assessments BAI (Beck Anxiety Inventory) and BDI (Beck Depression Inventory). Patients in both groups improved their scores in most of the assessment instruments used. A combination of CBT and pharmacotherapy proved to be the most effective treatment for patients suffering with social phobia with or without comorbid personality disorder. Treatment efficacy in patients with social phobia without personality disorder was significantly better than in the group with social phobia comorbid with personality disorder for CGI and specific inventory for social phobia - LSAS. The scores on the subjective depression inventory (BDI) also showed significantly greater decrease over the treatment in the group without personality disorder. The treatment effect between groups did not differ in subjective general anxiety scales BAI. Our study showed that patients suffering from social phobia and comorbid personality disorder showed a smaller decrease in specific social phobia symptomatology during treatment compared than patients with social phobia without personality

  13. [Social phobia in anorexia nervosa: evolution during the care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, N; Jeammet, P; Godart, N

    2009-12-01

    The links between anorexia nervosa (AN) and anxiety disorders, and particularly social phobia, are little known. However, social phobia occurs frequently in AN. Some studies have shown reduction in anxious and depressive symptomatology in AN with re-nutrition. But, to our knowledge, no work has examined the evolution of social phobia symptoms during re-nutrition in AN. To specify the links between AN, nutritional state, and social phobia. The population consisted of 2 samples and the analysis was conducted using the SPSS11.5. Sample 1 (N=24 AN) was evaluated on admission and on leaving the hospital. Our evaluation used the body mass index (BMI), the Liebowitz scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Eating Disorders scale (Y-BOCS-ED) respectively to evaluate or diagnose the state of malnutrition, social anxiety symptomatology, social phobia in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-4 (DSM-IV) and anorexic symptomatology. Sample 2 (N=60) was assessed at the end of the hospitalization and then 6, 12 and 18 months later. We used the BMI, Liebowitz scale, MINI, and Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) to assess anorexic symptomatology. In addition, the Morgan-Russell outcome assessment schedule (MR schedule) was used to assess the total clinical state of the patients. Social anxiety symptomatology and actual diagnosis decreased throughout the treatment. However, regardless of the point at which the patient received care, there was no correlation between social phobia and nutritional state, as indicated by BMI. A correlation existed between social phobia and AN symptomatology, and between social phobia and total clinical state, during the out-patient care. A component of AN-social phobia comorbidity is still questionable. Is it linked to the clinical state of the subjects (question of an additional effect of under nutrition and cognition), or even to AN? Others indicators of under nutrition are of interest

  14. A pilot study on sensitivity of outcome measures for treatments of generalized social phobia in Spanish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Joaquín García-López

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La traducción y adaptación al español de los instrumentos desarrollados en otros países para la medida de la ansiedad social requiere que se verifiquen sus propiedades psicométricas para la población a la que se va destinar su uso. El propósito de este estudio piloto es aportar indicios empíricos sobre la potencial sensibilidad, a los cambios generados por el tratamiento en una muestra de adolescentes españoles, de seis instrumentos de evaluación que han sido traducidos y adaptados para evaluar la ansiedad social en esta población. La muestra estuvo integrada por 44 adolescentes que cumplían los criterios para el diagnóstico del trastorno de ansiedad social de tipo generalizado. Los sujetos fueron asignados a tres condiciones experimentales, cada una de las cuales recibió un tratamiento cognitivo-conductual distinto. Fueron evaluados antes, después y en una medida de seguimiento realizada un año después de haber finalizado el tratamiento. Los resultados muestran que todas las escalas fueron sensibles al cambio terapéutico, lo que da apoyo empírico provisional a su utilidad para medir los cambios generados por los tratamientos en los adolescentes españoles con fobia social generalizada.

  15. Social phobia and quality of life in morbidly obese patients before and after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirijello, Antonio; D'Angelo, Cristina; Iaconelli, Amerigo; Capristo, Esmeralda; Ferrulli, Anna; Leccesi, Laura; Cossari, Anthony; Landolfi, Raffaele; Addolorato, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Morbidly obesity is characterized by physical and psychological comorbidities which are associated with reduced quality of life. Bariatric surgery has been linked to a reduction of psychopathology other than to a reduction of weight and improvement in physical functioning. Aim of the present study was to compare psychological features of two groups of morbidly obese patients, before and after bariatric surgery, assessing social phobia and quality of life. A total of 46 morbidly obese patients were enrolled in the study. Of them, 20 were waiting for bilio-pancreatic diversion (group A), while 26 had already undergone surgical procedure (group B). Psychometric evaluation assessed social phobia, fear for the body-shape and quality of life, using appropriate psychometric tests. The percentage of patients showing social phobia was significantly higher compared to a sample of healthy controls (p=0.004), both in group A (p=0.003) and in group B (p=0.029). No differences in percentage of patients affected by social phobia were found between groups. A significantly higher percentage of patients affected by distress about the body (psocial phobia in a population of morbidly obese patients, both before and after surgery. A general reduction of quality of life was also observed, with a partial improvement after surgery. Future studies are needed to clarify the relationship between social phobia and quality of life in surgically-treated morbidly obese patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Specificity of interpretation and judgemental biases in social phobia versus depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voncken, M J; Bögels, S M; Peeters, F

    2007-09-01

    A body of studies shows that social phobia is characterized by content specific interpretation and judgmental biases. That is, they show bias in social situations but not in non-social situations. Comorbid depression, one of the major comorbid disorders in social phobia, might account for these biases in social phobia since depression also is characterized by cognitive distortions in social situations. This study hypothesized that, despite comorbid depression, patients with social phobia would suffer from contentspecific biases. Participants filled out the Interpretation and Judgmental Questionnaire (IJQ) to assess interpretation bias (using open-ended responses and forced-interpretations) and judgmental bias in social and non-social situations. Four groups participated: social phobic patients with high (N=38) and low (N=47) depressive symptoms, depressed patients (N=22) and normal controls (N=33). We found both social phobic groups to interpret social situations more negatively and judge social situations as more threatening than non-social situations relative to depressed patients and normal controls. As expected, depressive symptoms related to increased general interpretation and judgmental biases across social and non-social situations. In contrast to expectations, we did not find these patterns for the open-ended measure of interpretation bias. The content-specific biases for social situations distinguished social phobic patients from depressive patients. This speaks for the importance of establishing the primary diagnosis in patients with mixed depression and social anxiety complaints.

  17. Nonverbal expressive behaviour in schizophrenia and social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Monte, Jonathan; Raffard, Stéphane; Salesse, Robin N; Marin, Ludovic; Schmidt, Richard C; Varlet, Manuel; Bardy, Benoît G; Philippe Boulenger, Jean; Christine Gély-Nargeot, Marie; Capdevielle, Delphine

    2013-11-30

    Expressive behaviour plays a crucial role in the success of social interactions. Abnormality of expressive behaviour has been reported in interpersonal interactions of patients suffering from schizophrenia and social phobia, two debilitating mental disorders with important social deficits. However, no study has compared the expressive behaviour in these two disorders. Thirty schizophrenia patients, 21 social phobia patients and 30 healthy controls were evaluated and compared on expressive, cognitive and clinical dimensions. Expressive behaviour was assessed using the Motor Affective subscale of the Motor-Affective-Social-Scale (MASS). Covariables include the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the anxiety level Liebowitz-Social-Anxiety-Scale (LSAS) and cognitive tasks. After controlling for depression, schizophrenia and social phobia patients both exhibited significantly fewer expressive behaviours compared to healthy controls. Moreover, our results showed specific signatures: schizophrenia patients performed fewer spontaneous gestures (hand gestures and smiles) whereas social phobia patients had an impaired ability to produce voluntary smiles in comparison to healthy controls. Interestingly, poor social functioning was significantly correlated with a decrease of expressive behaviour for schizophrenia patients. Expressive behaviour is impaired in different ways in social phobia and schizophrenia and is associated in schizophrenia with poorer social functioning. The Motor Affective subscale of the MASS is an interesting tool for assessing the dysfunction of interpersonal expressive behaviour in mental disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It's normal for kids to be afraid of things — like taking a hard test at school, passing a growling dog on the street, or hearing a huge clap of thunder. A phobia is different because it is an extremely strong fear of a situation or thing. It is also a kind of fear that ...

  19. Social phobia in Parkinson’s disease: Prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gultekin BK

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bulent Kadri Gultekin,1 Betul Ozdilek,2 Engin Emrem Bestepe1 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Neurology, Erenkoy Research and Training Hospital for Neurologic and Psychiatric Disorders, Istanbul, Turkey Objective: We aimed to investigate the frequency of social phobia in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. In addition, we explored the relationship between social phobia and the clinical characteristics of PD, and the frequency of comorbid psychiatric disorders in PD patients. Methods: This study included 80 consecutive patients with PD admitted to the Parkinson’s disease and Movement Disorders Clinic at the Erenkoy Research and Training Hospital for Neurologic and Psychiatric Disorders, Istanbul, Turkey and used demographic and clinical data. The PD patients were evaluated during the “on state”, using the Hoehn and Yahr scale, the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, and the Schwab England Activities of Daily Living Scale. Psychiatric evaluations were conducted using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition structured clinical interview, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS, and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results: Social phobia was diagnosed in 42.5% of PD patients. Social phobia was comorbid with depression in 20 patients (58.8%, generalized anxiety disorder in 18 patients (52.9%, and panic disorder in six patients (17.6%. Social phobia was more frequent in males, early-onset PD, patients with a long duration of disease, the presence of postural instability, and with the use of a high Levodopa equivalent daily dose. A logistic regression analysis revealed the predictive factors of social phobia to be the sex of the patient (more frequent in males and the presence of postural instability. There was a statistically significantly negative correlation between the LSAS score and the age of disease onset (r=–0.503; P=0.002 and a positive correlation between LSAS score and the

  20. Interpersonal subtypes in social phobia: diagnostic and treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Nicole M; Pincus, Aaron L; Grosse Holtforth, Martin

    2010-11-01

    Interpersonal assessment may provide a clinically useful way to identify subtypes of social phobia. In this study, we examined evidence for interpersonal subtypes in a sample of 77 socially phobic outpatients. A cluster analysis based on the dimensions of dominance and love on the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex Scales (Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 1990) found 2 interpersonal subtypes of socially phobic patients. These subtypes did not differ on pretreatment global symptom severity as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis, 1993) or diagnostic comorbidity but did exhibit differential responses to outpatient psychotherapy. Overall, friendly-submissive social phobia patients had significantly lower scores on measures of social anxiety and significantly higher scores on measures of well-being and satisfaction at posttreatment than cold-submissive social phobia patients. We discuss the results in terms of interpersonal theory and the clinical relevance of assessment of interpersonal functioning prior to beginning psychotherapy with socially phobic patients.

  1. Measurement Invariance of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, Brian E.; Joseph, Dana L.; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2012-01-01

    The Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI) is a commonly used self-report measure of social phobia that has demonstrated adequate reliability, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and criterion-related validity. However, research has yet to address whether this measure functions equivalently in (a) individuals with and without a diagnosis of social phobia and (b) males and females. Evaluating measurement equivalence is necessary in order to determine that the construct of social anxiety is conceptually understood invariantly across these populations. The results of the current investigation, using a series of nested factorial models proposed by Vandenberg and Lance (2000), provide evidence for strong equivalence across 420 individuals with and without diagnoses of social anxiety disorder and across male and female samples. Accordingly, these results provide psychometric justification for comparison of SPAI scores across the symptom continuum and sexes. PMID:23247204

  2. Time-course of attention biases in social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Casey A; Inhoff, Albrecht W; Coles, Meredith E

    2013-10-01

    Theoretical models of social phobia implicate preferential attention to social threat in the maintenance of anxiety symptoms, though there has been limited work characterizing the nature of these biases over time. The current study utilized eye-movement data to examine the time-course of visual attention over 1500ms trials of a probe detection task. Nineteen participants with a primary diagnosis of social phobia based on DSM-IV criteria and 20 non-clinical controls completed this task with angry, fearful, and happy face trials. Overt visual attention to the emotional and neutral faces was measured in 50ms segments across the trial. Over time, participants with social phobia attend less to emotional faces and specifically less to happy faces compared to controls. Further, attention to emotional relative to neutral expressions did not vary notably by emotion for participants with social phobia, but control participants showed a pattern after 1000ms in which over time they preferentially attended to happy expressions and avoided negative expressions. Findings highlight the importance of considering attention biases to positive stimuli as well as the pattern of attention between groups. These results suggest that attention "bias" in social phobia may be driven by a relative lack of the biases seen in non-anxious participants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Social phobia and other psychiatric problems in children with strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumurcu, Tongabay; Cumurcu, Birgul Elbozan; Ozcan, Ozlem; Demirel, Soner; Duz, Cem; Porgalı, Esra; Doganay, Selim

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the rate of social phobia, anxiety, depression, and other psychiatric problems in children with strabismus. Prospective, cross-sectional, case-control study. Forty-two children with strabismus and 47 control subjects 8-13 years of age were enrolled in this study. After the ophthalmologist's examination, all cases were assessed by a psychiatrist based on the structured interview technique of Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children-Present and Lifetime Version (Kiddie-SADS-PL). The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) was administered to each subject to evaluate social phobia. All participants completed the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Age as well as sex and income were comparable between the strabismus patients and control groups. Social phobia was diagnosed in 8 (19.04%) of the 42 strabismic children and in 1 (2.12%) of the control subjects. The CDI and SCARED (total score, social phobia, separation anxiety) scores of strabismus patients were significantly higher than the control group (p = 0.001, p = 0.004, p = 0.0001, p = 0.05, respectively). A relationship between strabismus in children and social phobia, depression, and anxiety on a symptom basis was underlined by our data. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Social phobia symptoms: prevalence, sociodemographic correlates, and overlap with specific phobia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Iulian; Levin, Jennifer; Hermesh, Haggai; Dannon, Pinhas; Poreh, Amir; Ben-Yehuda, Yoram; Kaplan, Zeev; Marom, Sofi; Kotler, Moshe

    2006-01-01

    Social phobia (SP) is a highly prevalent disorder in Western countries, but is rather rare in Eastern societies. Prevalence rates range from 0.5% in Eastern samples up to 16% in Western studies. Its prevalence in Israel, an Asian state characterized by Western culture, has not yet been studied. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of SP symptoms in a nonclinical sample of Israeli adolescents, to characterize sociodemographic correlates of SP symptoms and to evaluate comorbidity with specific phobia symptoms. Participants included 850 young soldiers from the Israel Defense Forces. Measures included the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS; self-report version), a questionnaire on specific fears and phobias, and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Clinical and demographic correlates of SP were also examined. Probable SP (LSAS >or=80) was present in 4.5% of the sample. Overall, SP symptoms were reported by a great percentage of the subjects, as displayed by the rather high mean LSAS scores (29; SD = 23.79) in this nonclinical sample. The following variables were accompanied by higher LSAS scores according to our regression model: inability to perform command activities, receiving psychotropic medication before army service, having less than two friends, shy family members, and treatment during military service. Subjects with probable SP had a rate of comorbidity with specific phobia symptoms of 44%. Our findings corroborate those from other studies in Western countries, both regarding the high prevalence of SP symptoms and its demographic and clinical correlates, as well as regarding the high overlap rate with specific phobia symptoms.

  5. Social Phobia in Youth: The Diagnostic Utility of Feared Social Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puliafico, Anthony C.; Comer, Jonathan S.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated the utility of parent- and child-reported social fears for reaching a diagnosis of social phobia in youth. The diagnostic utility of (a) the number of fears and (b) specific feared social situations was examined. The sample included 140 youth and their parents: youth diagnosed with social phobia (n = 50), youth…

  6. Social phobia : diagnosis and epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacology, comorbidity and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunello, N; den Boer, JA; Judd, LL; Kasper, S; Kelsey, JE; Lader, M; Lecrubier, Y; Lepine, JP; Lydiard, RB; Mendlewicz, J; Montgomery, SA; Racagni, G; Stein, MB; Wittchen, HU

    2000-01-01

    Social phobia is a common disorder associated with significant psychosocial impairment, representing a substantial public health problem largely determined by the high prevalence, and the lifelong chronicity. Social phobia starts in early childhood or adolescence and is often comorbid with

  7. Differentiating High-Functioning Autism and Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Katherine E.; Cruess, Dean G.

    2012-01-01

    Both high-functioning autism (HFA) and social phobia (SP) involve profound social interaction deficits. Although these disorders share some similar symptoms, they are conceptualized as distinct. Because both HFA and SP are defined behaviorally, the degree of overlap between the two disorders may result in misinterpretation of symptoms. However,…

  8. Imagery Rescripting of Early Traumatic Memories in Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Jennifer; Clark, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Negative self-images appear to play a role in the maintenance of social phobia and research suggests they are often linked to earlier memories of socially traumatic events. Imagery rescripting is a clinical intervention that aims to update such unpleasant or traumatic memories, and is increasingly being incorporated in cognitive behavioral therapy…

  9. Post-Event Processing in Children with Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Julian; Kramer, Martina; Blechert, Jens; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of a distressing social event, adults with social phobia (SP) engage in a review of this event with a focus on its negative aspects. To date, little is known about this post-event processing (PEP) and its relationship with perceived performance in SP children. We measured PEP in SP children (n = 24) and healthy controls (HC; n =…

  10. Cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of social phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyamvada, Richa; Kumari, Sapna; Prakash, Jai; Chaudhury, Suprakash

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy is probably the most well-known and the most practiced form of modern psychotherapy and has been integrated into highly structured package for the treatment of patients suffering from social phobia. The present case study is an attempt to provide therapeutic intervention program to a 27-year-old, unmarried Christian man suffering from social phobia. The patient was treated by using cognitive behavioral techniques. After 17 sessions of therapeutic intervention program, significant improvement was found. He was under follow-up for a period of 6 months and recovered to the premorbid level of functioning. PMID:21234166

  11. Solution-Focused Therapy: Strength-Based Counseling for Children with Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Cindy M.

    2008-01-01

    Solution-focused therapy is proposed as an effective strength-based model for children with social phobia. Social phobia is described along with the etiology and prevailing treatment approaches. A case illustration demonstrates the application of solution-focused therapy with a child who experienced social phobia. Implications for counseling and…

  12. Clinical distinctions between selective mutism and social phobia: an investigation of childhood psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeganeh, Robin; Beidel, Deborah C; Turner, Samuel M; Pina, Armando A; Silverman, Wendy K

    2003-09-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that children with selective mutism are more socially anxious than children with social anxiety disorder but who are not selectively mute. Twenty-three children with comorbid selective mutism and social phobia and 23 age-matched controls with social phobia alone and their parents participated in a comprehensive assessment of social anxiety and related aspects of psychopathology. The results do not uniformly support previous suggestions that children with selective mutism refuse speech because they are "frozen with fear." Although clinician and observer ratings for children with selective mutism revealed higher ratings of social distress than for children with social phobia alone, self-report data do not support this conclusion. Furthermore, although there were no group differences on measures of trait anxiety, general fears, or scores on the Child Behavior Checklist broadband Internalizing or Externalizing scales, children with selective mutism scored higher than children with social phobia alone on the Child Behavior Checklist Delinquency subscale, suggesting the presence of a broader clinical syndrome. It remains unclear whether children with selective mutism have extreme levels of social anxiety. Potential areas that might shed further light on this interesting disorder are discussed.

  13. The association between social phobia, social anxiety cognitions and paranoid symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutters, S I J; Dominguez, M-d-G; Knappe, S; Lieb, R; van Os, J; Schruers, K R J; Wittchen, H-U

    2012-03-01

    Previous research suggests high levels of comorbidity between social phobia and paranoid symptoms, although the nature of this association remains unclear. Data were derived from the Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology study, a 10-year longitudinal study in a representative German community sample of 3021 participants aged 14-24 years at baseline. The Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess social phobia and paranoid symptoms, along with data on social phobia features. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted. Differential associations with environmental risk factors and temperamental traits were investigated. Lifetime social phobia and paranoid symptoms were associated with each other cross-sectionally (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.31-2.47). Lifetime paranoid symptoms were associated specifically with social anxiety cognitions. Lifetime cognitions of negative evaluation predicted later onset of paranoid symptoms, whereas onset of social phobia was predicted by cognitions of loss of control and fear/avoidance of social situations. Lifetime social phobia and paranoid symptoms shared temperamental traits of behavioural inhibition, but differed in environmental risks. The present study showed that paranoid symptoms and social phobia share similarities in cognitive profile and inhibited temperament. Avoidance appears to be important in the development of social phobia, whereas cannabis use and traumatic experiences may drive paranoid thinking in vulnerable individuals. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Incidence of social phobia and identification of its risk indicators: A model for prevention.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acarturk, C.; Smit, H.F.E.; Graaf, de R.; Straten, van A.; Have, M. ten; Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study seeks to examine the incidence of social phobia in the general population and to establish a number of risk indicators. Method: Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS) which is a population based prospective study (n = 7076). A

  15. Screening for ADHD in an Adult Social Phobia Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortberg, Ewa; Tilfors, Kerstin; Bejerot, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies have suggested a link between a primary anxiety disorder and ADHD. Method: A total of 39 participants with a primary diagnosis of social phobia were compared with 178 patients with ADHD and 88 patients with other psychiatric disorders on measures for childhood and adult ADHD (the Wender Utah Rating Scale and the Adult…

  16. The beharvioral and cognitive therapy for social phobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mersch, Peter Paul Alois

    1994-01-01

    In this chapter the results of the studies decribed in the preceding chapters will be discussed in a broader perspective. Also, some critical remarks will be made about the clinical and diagnostic state of the art in social phobia. Finally, suggestions for future research will be made. ... Zie:

  17. The Effects of Maternal Social Phobia on Mother-Infant Interactions and Infant Social Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Schofield, Elizabeth; Sack, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    Background: Social phobia aggregates in families. The genetic contribution to intergenerational transmission is modest, and parenting is considered important. Research on the effects of social phobia on parenting has been subject to problems of small sample size, heterogeneity of samples and lack of specificity of observational frameworks. We…

  18. Psychometric properties of the social phobia and anxiety inventory-child version in a Swedish clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederlund, Rio; Ost, Lars-Göran

    2013-06-01

    The social phobia and anxiety inventory for children (SPAI-C) is a 26 item, empirically derived self-report instrument developed for assessing social phobic fears in children. Evidence for satisfactory psychometric properties of the SPAI-C has been found in multiple community studies. Since its development, however, no study has presented an extensive psychometric evaluation of SPAI-C in a sample of carefully diagnosed children with social phobia. The present study sought to replicate and expand previous studies by administrating the SPAI-C to a sample of 59 children that fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for social phobia, and 49 children with no social phobia diagnosis. An exploratory factor analysis resulted in a three factor solution reflecting: (1) fear of social interactions, (2) fear of public performance situations, and (3) physical and cognitive symptoms connected with social phobia. These factors appear to parallel domains of social phobia also evident in adults. The SPAI-C total scale and each factor was found to possess good internal consistency, good test-retest reliability and was generally strongly correlated with both self-report and clinician measures of anxiety and fears. The discriminative properties of the total scale were satisfactory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Specificity of cognitive structure in depression and social phobia: a comparison of interpersonal and achievement content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozois, David J A; Frewen, Paul A

    2006-02-01

    The comorbidity between the mood and anxiety is extensive and it is probable that individuals with these disorders share a number of cognitive characteristics. However, comorbidity rates with depression are not uniform among the various anxiety disorders. This study examined the common and distinguishing features of self-schematic structure in major depressive disorder and social anxiety compared to other anxiety disorders in general and to no psychiatric disturbance. Participants completed the Psychological Distance Scaling Task, which provided an index of the cognitive organization of positively and negatively valenced interpersonal and achievement self-referent content. The depression and social phobia groups were statistically equivalent on all indices of cognitive organization, and showed greater interconnectedness among interpersonal negative content than both control groups, and less interconnectedness among both positive interpersonal and achievement content than did nonpsychiatric controls. Psychiatric groups were equivalent on negative achievement content but showed greater interconnectedness than controls. This study had a modest sample size and the findings are constrained to females. Negative interpersonal content is more densely interconnected in individuals with social phobia and depression compared with both other anxiety disorder and nonpsychiatric controls. In addition, both social phobia and depression were associated with less interconnected positive content. These findings are indicative of similarities in the way self-schematic content may be organized in individuals with depression and social phobia. Theoretical explanations of these results and future research directions are discussed.

  20. Quality of Life Impairments among Adults with Social Phobia: The Impact of Subtype

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Nina; Sarver, Dustin E.; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2011-01-01

    Social phobia is characterized by extreme fear in social or performance situations in which the individual may be exposed to embarrassment or scrutiny by others, which creates occupational, social and academic impairment. To date, there are few data examining the relationship of social phobia impairments to quality of life. In this investigation, we examined how demographic characteristics, comorbidity, and social competence are related to quality of life among patients with social phobia and...

  1. Social phobia in Brazilian university students: prevalence, under-recognition and academic impairment in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Carlos Alberto; Loureiro, Sonia Regina; de Lima Osório, Flávia; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Magalhães, Pedro V; Kapczinski, Flávio; Filho, Alaor Santos; Freitas-Ferrari, Maria Cecília; Crippa, José Alexandre S

    2012-02-01

    Despite the fact that public speaking is a common academic activity and that social phobia has been associated with lower educational achievement and impaired academic performance, little research has examined the prevalence of social phobia in college students. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of social phobia in a large sample of Brazilian college students and to examine the academic impact of this disorder. The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) and the MINI-SPIN, used as the indicator of social phobia in the screening phase, were applied to 2319 randomly selected students from two Brazilian universities. For the second phase (diagnostic confirmation), four psychiatrists and one clinical psychologist administered the SCID-IV to subjects with MINI-SPIN scores of 6 or higher. The prevalence of social phobia among the university students was 11.6%. Women with social phobia had significantly lower grades than those without the disorder. Fear of public speaking was the most common social fear. Only two of the 237 students with social phobia (0.8%) had previously received a diagnosis of social phobia and were under treatment. Social phobia comorbidities were not evaluated in this study. The methods of assessment employed by the universities (written exams) may mask the presence of social phobia. This was not a population-based study, and thus the results are not generalizable to the entire population with social phobia. Preventive strategies are recommended to reduce the under-recognition and the adverse impact of social phobia on academic performance and overall quality of life of university students. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Dutch Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale: Reliability, Validity, and Clinical Utility

    OpenAIRE

    de Beurs, Edwin; Tielen, Deirdre; Wollmann, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The social interaction anxiety scale (SIAS) and the social phobia scale (SPS) assess anxiety in social interactions and fear of scrutiny by others. This study examines the psychometric properties of the Dutch versions of the SIAS and SPS using data from a large group of patients with social phobia and a community-based sample. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the SIAS is unidimensional, whereas the SPS is comprised of three subscales. The internal consistency of the scales and subsc...

  3. Low perceived social support predicts later depression but not social phobia in middle adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    V??n?nen, Juha-Matti; Marttunen, Mauri; Helminen, Mika; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2014-01-01

    Social phobia and depression are common and highly comorbid disorders in adolescence. There is a lack of studies on possible psychosocial shared risk factors for these disorders. The current study examined if low social support is a shared risk factor for both disorders among adolescent girls and boys. This study is a part of the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study's two-year follow-up. We studied cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of perceived social support with social phobia, ...

  4. Selective Mutism: The Fraternal Twin of Childhood Social Phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensthaler, Angelika; Maichrowitz, Verena; Kaess, Michael; Ligges, Marc; Freitag, Christine M; Schwenck, Christina

    Selective mutism (SM) is an anxiety disorder with a close link to childhood social phobia (SP). Our studies compare behavioral problem profiles in children and adolescents with SM and SP and control groups and assess the comorbidity patterns of SM and SP. Participants aged 3-18 years with SM (n = 95), SP (n = 74) and internalizing disorders (INT, n = 46) and a typically developing control group (CG, n = 119) were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL); adolescents were additionally assessed with the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Comorbidity was assessed in SM and SP participants with a diagnostic interview. SP was detected in 94% of children with SM. SM participants showed different behavioral and psychiatric symptoms than SP: they were more frequently affected by lifetime separation anxiety disorder (SM: 45%, SP: 26%) and oppositional defiant disorder (SM: 22%, SP: 5%), and less by generalized anxiety disorder (SM: 6%, SP: 20%) and major depression (SM: 12%, SP: 26%). Adolescents with SM showed high rates of agoraphobia (SM 27%; SP 10%) and more social problems (YSR), and were more withdrawn (CBCL, YSR) than those with SP alone. Specific behavioral problems of SM and SP compared to INT and CG were observed. SM and SP represent separate but closely related disorders, distinct from other INT and CG, with specific patterns of lifetime comorbidities. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. SET-C versus Fluoxetine in the Treatment of Childhood Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidel, Deborah C.; Turner, Samuel M.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Sallee, Floyd R.; Crosby, Lori A.; Pathak, Sanjeev

    2007-01-01

    A study examines the effectiveness of fluoxetine, pill placebo and Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children (SET-C) for children and adolescents with social phobia. The results conclude that both fluoxetine and SET-C are effective for social phobia but SET-C is better for enhancing social skills.

  6. Social phobia: diagnosis and epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacology, comorbidity and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Brunello, Nicoletta; den Boer, Johan A.; Judd, Lewis L.; Kasper, Siegfried; Kelsey, Jeffrey E.; Lader, Malcolm; Lecrubier, Yves; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Lydiard, R. B.; Mendlewicz, Julien; Montgomery, Stuart A.; Racagni, Giorgio; Stein, Murray B.; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Social phobia is a common disorder associated with significant psychosocial impairment, representing a substantial public health problem largely determined by the high prevalence, and the lifelong chronicity. Social phobia starts in early childhood or adolescence and is often comorbid with depression, other anxiety disorders, alcohol and substance abuse or eating disorders. This cascade of comorbidity, usually secondary to social phobia, increases the disability associated with the condition....

  7. Predictors of outcome in residential cognitive and interpersonal treatment for social phobia: do cognitive and social dysfunction moderate treatment outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borge, Finn-Magnus; Hoffart, Asle; Sexton, Harold

    2010-09-01

    The predictors of residential cognitive (RCT) and residential interpersonal Treatment (RIPT) for social phobia were explored. (1) Sotsky et al. (1991) found differential effects of CT and IPT for depression, suggesting that the level of cognitive or social dysfunction predicted differential outcome. We examined whether an analogous effect could be demonstrated in 10 weeks of residential treatment of 80 social phobia subjects. (2) We also included expectations, age of onset, severity of illness, concurrent anxiety, mood, avoidant personality disorder, and body dysmorphic disorder as predictors in this exploratory study. Main outcome was the social phobia subscale of Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI SP). DSM-IV axis I and II interviews were completed. (1) Sotsky et al. (1991) findings were not reproduced. However, RIPT subjects with poor general functioning were less improved following treatment. Subjects with concurrent agoraphobia responded better with RCT than subjects without agoraphobia. (2) Age of onset and expectations were the most powerful predictors of post treatment outcome. Some patient characteristics appear to impact outcome with RIPT and RCT differentially. The findings are discussed. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Brief CBT-I for insomnia comorbid with social phobia: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Nicole K Y

    2010-01-01

    Despite an obvious link between social anxiety and acute state of insomnia, chronic types of sleep disturbances in people with social phobia have so far received limited research/clinical attention. This case report aims to illustrate the possibility of rectifying sleep disturbances comorbid with social phobia, using a brief cognitive behaviour therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Treatment involved five sessions of CBT-I provided individually on a weekly basis. Major treatment components included psychoeducation, sleep restriction therapy, stimulus control and cognitive restructuring. Treatment effects were assessed using sleep diary and questionnaires over the course of the treatment and at ~9 month follow-up. The results were encouraging with all targeted sleep parameters demonstrating improvements that met dual criteria for clinical significance. The gains were well maintained even at ~9 months after treatment. These improvements in sleep were accompanied by a reduction in sleep-related anxiety and dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep. Whilst the patient also reported a corresponding improvement in daytime functioning and general anxiety, no gains were observed in depression and social anxiety. These findings highlight the potential benefits of incorporating brief CBT-I into existing treatments for social phobia and encourage further research on the intricate relationship between sleep, mood and social anxiety.

  9. Social fear and social phobia types among community youth: differential clinical features and vulnerability factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappe, Susanne; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Fehm, Lydia; Stein, Murray B; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    To compare different social fears and social phobia subtypes with regard to clinical (age of onset, avoidance, impairment, comorbidities) and vulnerability factors (behavioural inhibition (BI), parental psychopathology and parental rearing) among community youth. Fears of 6 social situations and Social Phobia (SP), along with their clinical features, were assessed using the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (DIA-X/M-CIDI) in a population-based sample of N = 3021 14-24 year olds that were followed up for 10 years. BI and parental rearing were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Parental psychopathology was assessed directly in parents via DIA-X/M-CIDI, supplemented by offsprings' family history reports. In the total sample, 20.0%, 11.6%, 11.7% reported fear of 1, 2, 3 or more social situations, respectively; rates were 24.2%, 18.7%, and 57.1% in SP-cases (6.6% of the total sample). Exploring the factorial structure indicated rather unidimensionality of social fears than mutual distinction of social fears by interaction vs. performance situations. Except for fear of taking tests and public speaking, social fears rarely occurred in isolation. Social fears of both interaction and performance situations were associated with severe avoidance (vs. fear of either situation; Odds Ratios, OR = 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1-1.9) and impairment (OR = 3.6, 95%CI: 2.6-4.9), and more comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders (OR range 3.2-5.8, p > .001). Fear of interaction situations was associated with higher BI (vs. performance-related fears, OR range 1.2-2.1, p social fears differ in their clinical and vulnerability factors from performance-related social fears. The current DSM-IV specifier of "generalized" SP may fall short of adequately denoting these differences. Fear of taking tests appears to be conceptually and, possibly, etiologically distinct from other social fears, and may be better placed in another category (e.g., as a type of specific phobia

  10. Virtual reality exposure in the treatment of social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Evelyne; Légeron, Patrick; Roy, Stéphane; Chemin, Isabelle; Lauer, Françoise; Nugues, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Social phobia is one of the most frequent psychiatric disorders and is accessible to two forms of scientifically validated treatments: anti-depressant drugs and cognitive-behavioral therapies. Graded exposure to feared social situations (either in vivo or by imagining the situations) is fundamental to obtain an improvement of the anxious symptoms. Virtual reality (VR) may be an alternative to these standard exposure techniques and seems to bring significant advantages by allowing exposures to numerous and varied situations. Moreover studies have shown that human subjects are appropriately sensitive to virtual environments. This chapter reports the definition of a VR-based clinical protocol and a study to treat social phobia using virtual reality techniques. The virtual environments used in the treatment reproduce four situations that social phobics feel the most threatening: performance, intimacy, scrutiny and assertiveness. With the help of the therapist, the patient learns adapted cognitions and behaviors when coping with social situations, with the aim of reducing her or his anxiety in the corresponding real life situations. Some studies have been carried out using virtual reality in the treatment of fear of public speaking, which is only a small part of the symptomatology of most of social phobic patients. The novelty of our work is to address a larger group of situations that the phobic patients experience with high anxiety. In our protocol, the efficacy of the virtual reality treatment is compared to well established and well validated group cognitive-behavioral treatment.

  11. Rescripting Early Memories Linked to Negative Images in Social Phobia: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Jennifer; Hackmann, Ann; Clark, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Negative self-images are a maintaining factor in social phobia. A retrospective study (Hackmann, A., Clark, D.M., McManus, F. (2000). Recurrent images and early memories in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 601-610) suggested that the images may be linked to early memories of unpleasant social experiences. This preliminary study…

  12. Performance Anxiety among African-American College Students: Racial Bias as a Factor in Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aleta Bok

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the etiology of social phobia, and proposes that the sensitivity to self-scrutiny common to social phobics can be exacerbated by the effects of longstanding racial bias. The impact of racism on identity and the importance of context are explored as salient factors in the onset of a case of social phobia for an…

  13. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Combined Social Phobia Scale and Social Interaction Anxiety Scale: Support for a Bifactor Model

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Rapson; Watson, Shaun D.

    2017-01-01

    For the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) together, this study examined support for a bifactor model, and also the internal consistency reliability and external validity of the factors in this model. Participants (N = 526) were adults from the general community who completed the SPS and SIAS. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of their ratings indicated good support for the bifactor model. For this model, the loadings for all but six items were higher o...

  14. Optimal treatment of social phobia: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott KM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available John Canton, Kate M Scott, Paul GlueDepartment of Psychological Medicine, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandAbstract: This article proposes a number of recommendations for the treatment of generalized social phobia, based on a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. An optimal treatment regimen would include a combination of medication and psychotherapy, along with an assertive clinical management program. For medications, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and dual serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are first-line choices based on their efficacy and tolerability profiles. The nonselective monoamine oxidase inhibitor, phenelzine, may be more potent than these two drug classes, but because of its food and drug interaction liabilities, its use should be restricted to patients not responding to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. There are other medication classes with demonstrated efficacy in social phobia (benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, alpha-2-delta ligands, but due to limited published clinical trial data and the potential for dependence and withdrawal issues with benzodiazepines, it is unclear how best to incorporate these drugs into treatment regimens. There are very few clinical trials on the use of combined medications. Cognitive behavior therapy appears to be more effective than other evidence-based psychological techniques, and its effects appear to be more enduring than those of pharmacotherapy. There is some evidence, albeit limited to certain drug classes, that the combination of medication and cognitive behavior therapy may be more effective than either strategy used alone. Generalized social phobia is a chronic disorder, and many patients will require long-term support and treatment.Keywords: social phobia, social anxiety disorder, psychotherapy, cognitive behavior therapy, antidepressant

  15. Visual search attentional bias modification reduced social phobia in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Voogd, E L; Wiers, R W; Prins, P J M; Salemink, E

    2014-06-01

    An attentional bias for negative information plays an important role in the development and maintenance of (social) anxiety and depression, which are highly prevalent in adolescence. Attention Bias Modification (ABM) might be an interesting tool in the prevention of emotional disorders. The current study investigated whether visual search ABM might affect attentional bias and emotional functioning in adolescents. A visual search task was used as a training paradigm; participants (n = 16 adolescents, aged 13-16) had to repeatedly identify the only smiling face in a 4 × 4 matrix of negative emotional faces, while participants in the control condition (n = 16) were randomly allocated to one of three placebo training versions. An assessment version of the task was developed to directly test whether attentional bias changed due to the training. Self-reported anxiety and depressive symptoms and self-esteem were measured pre- and post-training. After two sessions of training, the ABM group showed a significant decrease in attentional bias for negative information and self-reported social phobia, while the control group did not. There were no effects of training on depressive mood or self-esteem. No correlation between attentional bias and social phobia was found, which raises questions about the validity of the attentional bias assessment task. Also, the small sample size precludes strong conclusions. Visual search ABM might be beneficial in changing attentional bias and social phobia in adolescents, but further research with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The pathology of social phobia is independent of developmental changes in face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Karina S; Geraci, Marilla; Korelitz, Katherine; Otero, Marcela; Towbin, Ken; Ernst, Monique; Leibenluft, Ellen; Blair, R J R; Pine, Daniel S

    2011-11-01

    While social phobia in adolescence predicts the illness in adulthood, no study has directly compared the neural responses in social phobia in adults and adolescents. The authors examined neural responses to facial expressions in adults and adolescents with social phobia to determine whether the neural correlates of adult social phobia during face processing also manifest in adolescent social phobia. Blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses were compared in 39 medication-free participants with social phobia (25 adults and 14 adolescents) and 39 healthy comparison subjects (23 adults and 16 adolescents) matched on age, IQ, and gender. During fMRI scans, participants saw angry, fearful, and neutral expression stimuli while making a gender judgment. Significant diagnosis-by-emotion interactions were observed within the amygdala and the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, as has previously been hypothesized. In these regions, both the adolescent and adult social phobia patients showed significantly increased BOLD responses relative to their respective age-matched comparison subjects, and there was no evidence of age-related modulation of between-group differences. These enhanced responses occurred specifically when viewing angry (rostral anterior cingulate cortex) and fearful (amygdala and rostral anterior cingulate cortex) expressions but not when viewing neutral expressions. In addition, the severity of social phobia was significantly correlated with the enhanced rostral anterior cingulate cortex response in the adults. The neural correlates of adult social phobia during face processing also manifest in adolescents. Neural correlates that are observed in adult social phobia may represent the persistence of profiles established earlier in life rather than adaptive responses to such earlier perturbations or maturational changes. These cross-sectional observations might encourage longitudinal fMRI studies of adolescent social phobia.

  17. Psychometric evaluation of the Social Interaction Phobia Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Alison R; Carleton, R Nicholas; Weeks, Justin W

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the psychometric properties of a novel measure of social anxiety symptoms, the Social Interaction Phobia Scale (SIPS), as a stand-alone item set, using an undergraduate sample (N=512). The 14-item SIPS has three subscales assessing Social Interaction Anxiety, Fear of Overt Evaluation, and Fear of Attracting Attention. Confirmatory factor analyses replicated the three-factor structure for the SIPS originally reported by Carleton et al. All SIPS scores demonstrated good internal consistency. The convergent validity of the SIPS was supported by strong and positive correlations between all SIPS scores and measures of social anxiety and fear of evaluation; the finding that the relationships between all SIPS scores and a social anxiety measure were stronger than relationships between all SIPS scores and measures of other constructs supported the discriminant validity of the SIPS. Results suggest that the SIPS possesses excellent psychometric properties.

  18. [Validation of the portuguese version of the Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'El Rey, Gustavo José Fonseca; Matos, Cláudia Wilmor

    2009-01-01

    Social phobia (also known as social anxiety disorder) is a severe mental disorder that brings distress and disability. The aim of this study was validate to the Portuguese language the Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN) in a populational sample. We performed a discriminative validity study of the Mini-SPIN in a sample of 644 subjects (Mini-SPIN positive group: n = 218 and control/negative group: n = 426) of a study of anxiety disorders' prevalence in the city of Santo André-SP. The Portuguese version of the Mini-SPIN (with score of 6 points, suggested in the original English version) demonstrated a sensitivity of 95.0%, specificity of 80.3%, positive predictive value of 52.8%, negative predictive value of 98.6% and incorrect classification rate of 16.9%. With score of 7 points, was observed an increase in the specificity and positive predictive value (88.6% and 62.7%), while the sensitivity and negative predictive value (84.8% and 96.2%) remained high. The Portuguese version of the Mini-SPIN showed satisfactory psychometric qualities in terms of discriminative validity. In this study, the cut-off of 7, was considered to be the most suitable to screening of the generalized social phobia.

  19. Examination of the Correlation Between Internet Addiction and Social Phobia in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayan, Emriye Hilal; Arikan, Duygu; Saban, Fatma; Gürarslan Baş, Nazan; Özel Özcan, Özlem

    2017-09-01

    This was a descriptive and cross-sectional study conducted with adolescents to examine the correlation between Internet addiction and social phobia. The population of the study consisted of 24,260 students aged between 11 and 15 years. Sampling method was used from population with known number, and 1,450 students were calculated as sample of the study. In this study, 13.7% of the adolescents had an Internet addiction, and 4.2% spent more than 5 hr on the computer every day. There was a positive correlation between Internet addiction and social phobia. The form of time spent on Internet was examined in terms of addiction and social phobia; although Internet addiction was related to games, dating sites, and web surfing, social phobia was related to homework, games, and web surfing. It was hypothesized that adolescents with social phobia were Internet addicts, and the participants used the Internet to spend time rather than socialize.

  20. Competencia social y autoestima en adolescentes con fobia social (Social Competence and Self-Esteem in Adolescents with Social Phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vallés Arándiga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente trabajo se enmarca en un proyecto para la detección e intervención temprana de adolescentes con fobia social en el contexto comunitario, que ha mostrado reiteradamente ser eficaz en la reducción y eliminación de este problema en la población de adolescentes que cursan estudios de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO y postobligatoria. Se presentan los resultados de la investigación realizada con alumnos de 3º de ESO con fobia social generalizada en varios Institutos de Educación Secundaria de Alicante. Según Olivares y García-López (1998, la eficacia terapéutica del paquete de tratamiento Intervención en Adolescentes con Fobia Social (IAFS mostró el incremento de la competencia social y la mejora de la autoestima en adolescentes que fueron diagnosticados con el referido trastorno, frente a un grupo de control pasivo (sin tratamiento y un grupo de control activo (tratamiento con un programa de estrategias de aprendizaje que incluía contenidos de exposición a situaciones sociales. Todos los tratamientos fueron desarrollados en los centros educativos. Los resultados obtenidos a favor del grupo de tratamiento IAFS en las variables de competencia social (informados por el tutor y por los padres y de autoestima se mantuvieron en el seguimiento luego de 6 meses. ABSTRACT:This study is part of a project for the detection and early intervention of adolescents with social phobia in the community context that it has shown repeatedly to be effective in the reduction and elimination of this problem in the population of teenagers who are studying in a Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO and post-compulsory. It shows the results of the research conducted with students of 3rd of ESO with social phobia, generalized in several Secondary Education Institutes (IES of Alicante. According to Olivares and Garcia-Lopez (1998, the therapeutic efficacy of the treatment package Intervention in Adolescents with Social Phobia (IAFS

  1. The Treatment of Social Phobia in a Young Boy with Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleismann, Kelly D.; Gillis, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders, including social phobia, occur often in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; Gillott, Furniss, & Walter, 2001; Leyfer et al., 2006; Simonoff et al., 2008); however, little is known about the conceptualization and treatment of social phobia in this population. The current study presents the case of "James," a 6-year-old…

  2. Determining the Factors of Social Phobia Levels of University Students: A Logistic Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Hamit

    2016-01-01

    Experiencing social phobia is an important factor which can hinder academic success during university years. In this study, research of social phobia with several variables is conducted among university students. The research group of the study consists of total 736 students studying at various departments at universities in Turkey. Students are…

  3. Change Processes in Residential Cognitive and Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Social Phobia: A Process-Outcome Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffart, Asle; Borge, Finn-Magnus; Sexton, Harold; Clark, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test cognitive and interpersonal models for improving social phobia. Eighty patients with social phobia were randomized to 10-week residential cognitive (RCT) or residential interpersonal psychotherapy (RIPT). They completed process measures every Thursday and a sub-outcome measure every Monday. The ratings were…

  4. Differentiating among singular and comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder and social phobia symptomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Brittany M; May, Anna C; Whiting, Sara E; Davis, Thompson E; Jenkins, Whitney S; Reuther, Erin T

    2014-01-01

    Social phobia is a frequent co-occurring diagnosis with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); however, co-occurring OCD in those with social phobia is less common. Genetic, environmental, and cognitive traits are common risk factors for anxiety disorders broadly. It is plausible that shared variables related to OCD and/or social phobia could provide insight into the co-occurrence of these two disorders. The current study explored differences in fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and perfectionism among four groups: those with (1) elevated social phobia symptoms, (2) elevated OCD symptoms, (3) elevated symptoms of OCD and social phobia, and those who were (4) asymptomatic as a control group. A non-clinical sample of 196 participants completed several online questionnaires about social phobia and OCD symptomology. Results identified three cognitive variables (i.e., FNE, total perfectionism, and concern over mistakes) as differential variables in comorbid symptom presentation of OCD and social phobia. A fourth variable (i.e., doubts about actions) was identified as a potential dual risk factor, and four subsequent variables (i.e., parental criticism, personal standards, parental expectations, and organization) were not implicated in differential symptom presentation. Given the different rates of OCD and social phobia co-occurrence, identification of differentiating variables could aid in better understanding of potential risk factors, which may enhance preventative and therapeutic techniques. Study implications, limitations, and future recommendations are discussed.

  5. Testing the Efficacy of Theoretically Derived Improvements in the Treatment of Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapee, Ronald M.; Gaston, Jonathan E.; Abbott, Maree J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent theoretical models of social phobia suggest that targeting several specific cognitive factors in treatment should enhance treatment efficacy over that of more traditional skills-based treatment programs. In the current study, 195 people with social phobia were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 treatments: standard cognitive restructuring plus in…

  6. Clinical effects of buspirone in social phobia : A double-blind placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    denBoer, JA; Westenberg, HGM; Pian, KLH

    Background: The results of open pilot studies suggest that the serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptor agonist buspirone might be effective in social phobia. Method: In the present study, the efficacy of buspirone was investigated in patients with social phobia using a 12-week double-blind placebo-controlled

  7. What Is the Core Fear in Social Phobia? A New Model to Facilitate Individualized Case Conceptualization and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovitch, David A.

    2009-01-01

    What, exactly, do individuals with social phobia fear? Whereas fear of anxiety-related bodily sensations characterizes and defines panic disorder, is there a fundamental focus of anxiety that unifies individuals under the diagnostic category of social phobia? Current conceptualizations of social phobia suggest several possible candidates,…

  8. Social Phobia as a Predictor of Social Competence Perceived by Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Bünyamin

    2016-01-01

    In this research, it was analyzed to what extent the variables of social avoidance, concern for being criticized and sense of individual worthlessness as sub-dimensions of social phobia predicted the perceived social competence levels of teenagers. The study group of this study included totally 648 students including 301 (46.5%) female and 347…

  9. Appraisal of social concerns: A cognitive assessment instrument for social phobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telch, M.J.; Lucas, R.A.; Smits, J.A.J.; Powers, M.B.; Heimberg, R.G.; Hart, T.

    2004-01-01

    The current study describes the validation of a new cognitive assessment measure for social phobia, entitled the Appraisal of Social Concerns (ASC). Item content is relevant to a range of social situations. The ASC can be used to tailor interventions to patients' idiosyncratic concerns. Data are

  10. The moderating role of avoidance behavior on anxiety over time: Is there a difference between social anxiety disorder and specific phobia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudaz, Myriam; Ledermann, Thomas; Margraf, Jürgen; Becker, Eni S.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2017-01-01

    Theories of anxiety disorders and phobias have ascribed a critical role to avoidance behavior in explaining the persistence of fear and anxiety, but knowledge about the role of avoidance behavior in the maintenance of anxiety in social anxiety disorder relative to specific phobia is lacking. This study examined the extent to which avoidance behavior moderates the relationship between general anxiety at baseline and 18 months later in women with a diagnosed social anxiety disorder (n = 91) and women with a diagnosed specific phobia (n = 130) at baseline. Circumscribed avoidance of social and specific situations were clinician-rated using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Lifetime (ADIS-IV-L), and general anxiety was measured using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Moderated regression analyses revealed that (a) general anxiety at baseline predicted general anxiety at follow-up in both women with a specific phobia and women with a social anxiety disorder and (b) avoidance behavior moderated this relationship in women with a specific phobia but not in women with a social anxiety disorder. Specifically, high avoidance behavior was found to amplify the effect between general anxiety at baseline and follow-up in specific phobia. Reasons for the absence of a similar moderating effect of avoidance behavior within social anxiety disorder are discussed. PMID:28671977

  11. The moderating role of avoidance behavior on anxiety over time: Is there a difference between social anxiety disorder and specific phobia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Rudaz

    Full Text Available Theories of anxiety disorders and phobias have ascribed a critical role to avoidance behavior in explaining the persistence of fear and anxiety, but knowledge about the role of avoidance behavior in the maintenance of anxiety in social anxiety disorder relative to specific phobia is lacking. This study examined the extent to which avoidance behavior moderates the relationship between general anxiety at baseline and 18 months later in women with a diagnosed social anxiety disorder (n = 91 and women with a diagnosed specific phobia (n = 130 at baseline. Circumscribed avoidance of social and specific situations were clinician-rated using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Lifetime (ADIS-IV-L, and general anxiety was measured using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI. Moderated regression analyses revealed that (a general anxiety at baseline predicted general anxiety at follow-up in both women with a specific phobia and women with a social anxiety disorder and (b avoidance behavior moderated this relationship in women with a specific phobia but not in women with a social anxiety disorder. Specifically, high avoidance behavior was found to amplify the effect between general anxiety at baseline and follow-up in specific phobia. Reasons for the absence of a similar moderating effect of avoidance behavior within social anxiety disorder are discussed.

  12. The moderating role of avoidance behavior on anxiety over time: Is there a difference between social anxiety disorder and specific phobia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudaz, Myriam; Ledermann, Thomas; Margraf, Jürgen; Becker, Eni S; Craske, Michelle G

    2017-01-01

    Theories of anxiety disorders and phobias have ascribed a critical role to avoidance behavior in explaining the persistence of fear and anxiety, but knowledge about the role of avoidance behavior in the maintenance of anxiety in social anxiety disorder relative to specific phobia is lacking. This study examined the extent to which avoidance behavior moderates the relationship between general anxiety at baseline and 18 months later in women with a diagnosed social anxiety disorder (n = 91) and women with a diagnosed specific phobia (n = 130) at baseline. Circumscribed avoidance of social and specific situations were clinician-rated using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Lifetime (ADIS-IV-L), and general anxiety was measured using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Moderated regression analyses revealed that (a) general anxiety at baseline predicted general anxiety at follow-up in both women with a specific phobia and women with a social anxiety disorder and (b) avoidance behavior moderated this relationship in women with a specific phobia but not in women with a social anxiety disorder. Specifically, high avoidance behavior was found to amplify the effect between general anxiety at baseline and follow-up in specific phobia. Reasons for the absence of a similar moderating effect of avoidance behavior within social anxiety disorder are discussed.

  13. O tratamento farmacológico da fobia social Pharmacologic treatment of social phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Egidio Nardi

    1999-12-01

    . There are two specifiers for social phobia: the circumscribed, for those who just fear one situation; and generalized, for those who fear almost all social situations. The clinical features of social phobia are the anticipatory anxiety, the physical symptoms, the avoidance and the low self-esteem. Depending on diagnostic criteria, it is reported a lifetime prevalence ranging from 5% to 13% of the population resulting in different degrees of occupational and social limitations. The ideal treatment should use antidepressant drug and cognitive-behavior therapy. Beta-blocking drugs (atenolol, propranolol, monoamino oxidase inhibitors - MAOI (fenelzine, tanilcipromine, reversible monoamino oxidase-A inhibitors (moclobemide, brofaromine, benzodiazepines (clonazepam, bromazepam, alprazolam and serotonin selective recaptors inhibitors - SSRI (paroxetine, sertraline, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine and some other drugs (venlafaxine, nefazodone, gabapentin, clonidine have been shown efficacy in several studies with different methodology. The tricyclic antidepressants ( imipramine, clomipramine, valproic acid and buspirone have shown negative results. Paroxetine is the most studied substance in double-blind trials with good results and well tolerated. Nowadays the individuals with social phobia can have a efficacious treatment to get an assertive behavior in social situations.

  14. Selective attention in social phobia and the moderating effect of a concurrent depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, C; Lépine, J-P; Clark, D M; Mansell, W; Ehlers, A

    2003-09-01

    Studies using the modified Stroop colour naming task have provided results consistent with the hypothesis that social phobia is associated with an attentional bias towards negative social-evaluative words. However, these results could also have arisen as a consequence of non-attentional processes. For this reason, the present study uses a modified version of MacLeod et al.'s (J. Abnorm. Psychol. 95 (1986) 15) dot-probe task, which provides a more direct measure of attention. Patients with social phobia (n=28), patients with social phobia and a concurrent depressive disorder (n=33), and non-patients (n=40) were presented with word pairs each consisting of a neutral word and a threat word. The results indicated that patients with social phobia show an attentional bias towards social-threat words while non-patients tend to avoid social-threat words. Patients with social phobia and a concurrent depressive disorder behaved like non-patients, indicating that concurrent depression abolishes the attentional bias. Physical threat words were also included in the study. The main analysis indicated that social phobia is also associated with an attentional bias to physical threat. However, a post hoc analysis (which requires replication) suggested that the physical threat bias might have arisen because some social phobia patients also had another anxiety disorder in which physical concerns are likely to have been prominent. Overall, the results emphasise the importance of assessing comorbidity when investigating attentional biases.

  15. The moderating role of avoidance behavior on anxiety over time: Is there a difference between social anxiety disorder and specific phobia?

    OpenAIRE

    Rudaz, Myriam; Ledermann, Thomas; Margraf, J?rgen; Becker, Eni S.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2017-01-01

    Theories of anxiety disorders and phobias have ascribed a critical role to avoidance behavior in explaining the persistence of fear and anxiety, but knowledge about the role of avoidance behavior in the maintenance of anxiety in social anxiety disorder relative to specific phobia is lacking. This study examined the extent to which avoidance behavior moderates the relationship between general anxiety at baseline and 18 months later in women with a diagnosed social anxiety disorder (n = 91) and...

  16. The Moderating Role of Avoidance Behavior on Anxiety Over Time: Is There a Difference Between Social Anxiety Disorder and Specific Phobia?

    OpenAIRE

    Rudaz, Myriam; Ledermann, Thomas; Margraf, Jürgen; Becker, Eni S.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2017-01-01

    Theories of anxiety disorders and phobias have ascribed a critical role to avoidance behavior in explaining the persistence of fear and anxiety, but knowledge about the role of avoidance behavior in the maintenance of anxiety in social anxiety disorder relative to specific phobia is lacking. This study examined the extent to which avoidance behavior moderates the relationship between general anxiety at baseline and 18 months later in women with a diagnosed social anxiety disorder (n = 91) and...

  17. Quality of Life in College Students with and without Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, Gholam Hossein; Tavoli, Azadeh; Bakhtiari, Maryam; Melyani, Mahdieh; Sahragard, Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    Prior studies demonstrating quality of life impairment in phobia and anxiety disorders have relied upon epidemiological samples or clinical data. Using the same quality of life scale, the Short Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36), in Iranian college students allowed us to study the impact of social phobia (SP) on quality of life among the college…

  18. Combined Case of Blood-Injury-Injection Phobia and Social Phobia: Behavior Therapy Management and Effectiveness through Tilt Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini Ferenidou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of behavior therapy based mainly on real-life exposure situations as well as applied tension was examined for a combined case of blood-injury-injection (BII phobia and social anxiety disorder. Treatment involved 28 behavior therapy sessions, while applied tension technique was also described and practiced. The specific contribution of social skills techniques, fantasy, and real-life situations exposure was examined in a single case design. The subject was a 39-year-old male with anxiety symptoms when confronting an audience, as well as symptoms of the autonomic nervous system (bradycardia and syncope, which were better explained by BII. All self-report measures regarding fear, social phobia, and anxiety were reduced after behavior therapy and remained maintained at followup, while BII decreased further after applied tension techniques. The contribution of behavior therapy to the overall outcome of the case is considered significant for many reasons that are discussed in the pape.

  19. Subjective, Autonomic, and Endocrine Reactivity during Social Stress in Children with Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Martina; Seefeldt, Wiebke Lina; Heinrichs, Nina; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Schmitz, Julian; Wolf, Oliver Tobias; Blechert, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Reports of exaggerated anxiety and physiological hyperreactivity to social-evaluative situations are characteristic of childhood social phobia (SP). However, laboratory research on subjective, autonomic and endocrine functioning in childhood SP is scarce, inconsistent and limited by small sample sizes, limited breadth of measurements, and the use…

  20. Fobia social em uma amostra de adolescentes Social phobia in a sample of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo J. Fonseca D'El Rey

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo relata a prevalência e o impacto na escolaridade da fobia social em uma amostra de adolescentes da cidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. O Inventário de Fobia Social (SPIN foi administrado em 116 estudantes adolescentes de 5ª, 6ª, 7ª e 8ª séries de ambos os sexos. A prevalência da fobia social foi de 7,8% na amostra de adolescentes, com maior incidência entre estudantes do sexo feminino, com idade entre 12 e 15. O impacto negativo na escolaridade foi grande, aproximadamente 89% dos adolescentes com fobia social repetiram o ano na escola ao menos uma vez.This study reports the prevalence and the impact in the education of social phobia in a sample of adolescents of the city of São Paulo, SP, Brazil. The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN was administrated to 116 students of 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grades of both sexes. The prevalence of the social phobia was 7.8% in the sample of adolescents, with higher incidence among female students, between 12 and 15 years old. The negative impact on the education was great, approximately 89% of the adolescents with social phobia repeated the year in the school at least one time.

  1. Validation of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale across the Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elissa J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The psychometric adequacy of the Social Interaction Scale and the Social Phobia Scale (both by R. P. Mattick and J. C. Clark, 1989) was studied with 165 patients with anxiety disorders and 21 people without anxiety. Results support the usefulness of the scales for screening and treatment design and evaluation. (SLD)

  2. Refining and validating the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, R Nicholas; Collimore, Kelsey C; Asmundson, Gordon J G; McCabe, Randi E; Rowa, Karen; Antony, Martin M

    2009-01-01

    The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale are companion measures for assessing symptoms of social anxiety and social phobia. The scales have good reliability and validity across several samples, however, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses have yielded solutions comprising substantially different item content and factor structures. These discrepancies are likely the result of analyzing items from each scale separately or simultaneously. The current investigation sets out to assess items from those scales, both simultaneously and separately, using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in an effort to resolve the factor structure. Participants consisted of a clinical sample (n 5353; 54% women) and an undergraduate sample (n 5317; 75% women) who completed the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale, along with additional fear-related measures to assess convergent and discriminant validity. A three-factor solution with a reduced set of items was found to be most stable, irrespective of whether the items from each scale are assessed together or separately. Items from the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale represented one factor, whereas items from the Social Phobia Scale represented two other factors. Initial support for scale and factor validity, along with implications and recommendations for future research, is provided. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Comparison of attention training and cognitive therapy in the treatment of social phobia: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Juliet; Abbott, Maree J; Smith, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    Prominent models of social phobia highlight the role played by attentional factors, such as self-focused attention, in the development and maintenance of social phobia. Elevated self-focused attention is associated with increases in self-rated anxiety. Treatments that aim to modify and change attentional processes, specifically self-focused attention, will have a direct effect on social phobia symptoms. Thus, Attention Training targets attentional focus. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of Attention Training in comparison to an established treatment for social phobia, Cognitive Therapy. Participants (Intention-to-treat = 45; completers = 30) were allocated to either 6 weeks of Attention Training or Cognitive Therapy. It was hypothesized that both treatments would be effective in reducing social phobia symptoms, but that Attention Training would work primarily by reducing levels of self-focused attention. The results found an overall effectiveness of both treatment conditions in reducing social phobia symptoms. However, Attention Training significantly improved scores on the Self-Focused Attention questionnaire and the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation questionnaire compared to Cognitive Therapy. Attention Training seems to be a promising treatment for social phobia.

  4. [Self-esteem: a comparison study between eating disorders and social phobia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiber, R; Vera, L; Mirabel-Sarron, C; Guelfi, J-D

    2003-01-01

    Eating disorder patients evidenced very often a low self-esteem. Self-esteem in eating disorder patients is excessively based on body dissatisfaction. In eating disorders there seems to be a link between body image dissatisfaction and social anxiety. We hypothesised: self-esteem would be as low in eating disorder patients as in social phobia patients; self-esteem would be lower in eating disorder patients with social phobia than in patients with social phobia alone; self-esteem would be lower in eating disorder patients with depressive cognitions than in social phobia patients with depressive cognitions; self-esteem could have different characteristics in the two disorders; self-esteem would be as low in anorexia as in bulimia; 103 eating disorder patients (33 restrictive anorectics, 34 anorectics-bulimics, 36 bulimics) and 26 social phobia patients diagnosed according to DSM IV and ICD-10 criteria have been investigated by the Self-Esteem Inventory of Coopersmith, the Assertiveness Schedule of Rathus, the Fear Survey Schedule of Wolpe (FSS III) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Patients were free of medication and presented no episode of major depression according to DSM IV criteria. Evaluations took place before any psychotherapy. Self-esteem in eating disorder patients is reduced at the same level as in social phobia patients; 86.1% of the total sample and 84.5% of the eating disorder patients have a very low self-esteem (score 33 in the SEI). Eating disorder patients have significantly higher scores in the Social (p=0.016) and Professional (p=0.0225) sub-scales of the SEI than social phobia patients. Eating disorder patients show higher scores on the Assertiveness Schedule of Rathus (p=0.0013) than social phobia patients. Eating disorder patients disclose higher scores on the BDI (p=0.0003) but eating disorder patients with depressive cognitions do not differ from social phobia patients with depressive cognitions in the level of self-esteem. The FSS III

  5. [Short-term effects of a cognitive-behavioural group therapy in social phobia: evaluation of sixty patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camart, N; André, C; Trybou, V; Bourdel, M-C

    2006-01-01

    This study analyses the short term effects of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy with 60 patients suffering from social phobia according to the diagnostic criteria of the DSM IV. The therapeutic program is based on 12 sessions of 2 hours (for 6 to 9 subjects) and includes exposure, cognitive restructuring and social skills training. The sample included 34 women and 26 men, with an average age of 34.8 years (SD=9.3). Most patients presented generalized social phobia (n=42; not generalized social phobia: n=18), and 24 received at least one comorbid axis I diagnosis. Subjects were evaluated before and after the therapy with instruments measuring the intensity of social phobia (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale), the assertiveness (Rathus Assertiveness Schedule), the disability associated with the disorder (Sheehan Disability Scale), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale and Beck shortened Depression Inventory), and self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). The results show significant differences (pScale, total score) to 0.51 (Sheehan item 3), exhibiting patients' improvement on all variables. The highest effect sizes are observed with the instruments specifically designed for the assessment of social phobia (Liebowitz, Rathus and Sheehan scales). Our patients show the major improvements in the Liebowitz Scale (ES=1.29), the best indicator for social phobia, concerning the intensity of anxiety in social situations (ES=1.28) and concerning the frequency of avoidance (ES=1.16). Logically, the effect sizes are somehow lower on Sheehan (ES=1.06) and Rathus (ES=1.00) scales, which are less specifically centered on the score symptoms of social phobia. The improvement is also significant but less remarkable in the other measurements. The Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale reveals a reduction in the level of anxiety and depression, however more significant for anxiety (ES=0.88) than for depression (ES=0.60), that is consistent with the fact that social

  6. Avoidant personality disorder and its relationship to social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, James

    2009-02-01

    This review summarizes past and recent findings in the empiric literature and the evolution of the concepts of avoidant personality disorder (APD) and social phobia (SP). APD is an internally consistent dimensional personality pathology that causes dysfunction that appears to be dimensional rather than a sudden jump in impairment after a certain number of criteria have been met. It has state and trait personality components. Evidence indicates that symptoms are at least partially treatable with psychological or pharmacologic interventions. APD and SP have similar symptoms and treatment response and identical genetics. We can conclude from the empiric evidence that no dividing line exists between APD and SP, with APD merely being the more severe form of the disorder. The best conceptualization is that APD is a dimensional personality pathology that in its attenuated form (SP) resembles an anxiety disorder.

  7. The Efficacy of Self-Report Measures in Predicting Social Phobia in African American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, L Kevin; Petrie, Jenny M; Richards, Allyn

    2015-03-01

    Empirical literature pertaining to anxiety in African Americans has been relatively sparse. More recent studies indicate that the construct of social fear is different in African Americans than in non-Hispanic Whites. Although some of these studies have examined factor structure utilizing self-report measures of anxiety in African American samples, none to date have examined the clinical utility of these measures in predicting anxiety diagnoses, particularly social phobia. A total of sixty-five African American adults from the community completed the Fear Survey Schedule-Second Edition (FSS-II), Social Anxiety Interaction Scale (SIAS), Social Phobia Scale (SPS), and Albany Panic and Phobia Questionnaire (APPQ). The Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule-Fourth Edition (ADIS-IV) was administered to all participants to specify differential diagnoses of anxiety and related disorders. Twenty-three African American adults were diagnosed with social phobia leaving 42 diagnostic controls. Results suggest that the social anxiety factors were highly predictive of a social phobia diagnosis (AUC=.84 to .90; CI .73-.98, p<.01) and sensitivity and specificity rates revealed optimal cutoff scores for each measure. The optimal cutoff scores reveal the clinical utility of the social fear factor from these measures in screening for social phobia in African Americans. Future direction and implications are discussed. Psychinfo, PubMed, Medline. © 2015 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Left hemisphere dysfunction during verbal dichotic listening tests in patients who have social phobia with or without comorbid depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Gerard E; Schneier, Franklin R; Stewart, Jonathan W; McGrath, Patrick J; Quitkin, Frederic

    2004-01-01

    Behavioral, electrophysiological, and imaging studies have found evidence that anxiety disorders are associated with left hemisphere dysfunction or higher than normal activation of right hemisphere regions. Few studies, however, have examined hemispheric asymmetries of function in social phobia, and the influence of comorbidity with depressive disorders is unknown. The present study used dichotic listening tests to assess lateralized cognitive processing in patients with social phobia, depression, or comorbid social phobia and depression. The study used a two-by-two factorial design in which one factor was social phobia (present versus absent) and the second factor was depressive disorder (present versus absent). A total of 125 unmedicated patients with social phobia, depressive disorder, or comorbid social phobia and depressive disorder and 44 healthy comparison subjects were tested on dichotic fused-words, consonant-vowel syllable, and complex tone tests. Patients with social phobia with or without a comorbid depressive disorder had a smaller left hemisphere advantage for processing words and syllables, compared with subjects without social phobia, whereas no difference between groups was found in the right hemisphere advantage for processing complex tones. Depressed women had a larger left hemisphere advantage for processing words, compared with nondepressed women, but this difference was not seen among men. The results support the hypothesis that social phobia is associated with dysfunction of left hemisphere regions mediating verbal processing. Given the importance of verbal processes in social interactions, this dysfunction may contribute to the stress and difficulty experienced by patients with social phobia in social situations.

  9. [Clinical and therapeutic characteristics of social phobia in French psychiatry (Phoenix study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélissolo, A; Huron, C; Fanget, F; Servant, D; Stiti, S; Richard-Berthe, C; Boyer, P

    2006-01-01

    Only few clinical epidemiologic studies have been conducted on social phobia in France to date. It is however a frequent disorder, with often severe alteration of social adaptation and quality of life, and for which effective treatments exist. Thus, it seems really important to further explore how these patients are nowadays identified and treated in psychiatry. It was the objective of the Phoenix study. In this observational multi-center study, 952 psychiatric in- or out-patients, with a primary diagnosis of social phobia according to DSM IV criteria, were included. Numerous diagnostic and psychometric evaluations were carried out, in order to evaluate the comorbidity (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), the intensity of social anxiety (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale), and various aspects of the functional and emotional impact (Various Impact of Social Anxiety scale, Sheehan Disability Scale, SF-36, Positive and Negative Emotionality scale). The patients were in majority females (57.6%), with a mean age 37.5 years, and with a mean duration of social anxiety disorder 12.5 years. The mean scores of social anxiety on Liebowitz scale was 40.3 +/- 12.6 for the fear factor, and 38.3 +/- 13.6 for the avoidance factor. The generalized social anxiety subtype (anxiety in most social situations) was present in 67.8% of the patients. A major depressive disorder was found in 47.7% of the sample, and the prevalence of agoraphobia was even higher (49.2%). As known in clinical practice and in other studies, the prevalence rates of current alcohol dependence and substances abuse were also important in this population (respectively 10.6% and 12.7%). Mean scores of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) sub-scales were 13.9 +/-3.8 for anxiety and 9.1 +/-4.5 for depression. About 15% of the patients had a history of suicide attempt, and a suicidal risk was present in nearly 40% of the sample. The psychosocial impact and the

  10. Low perceived social support predicts later depression but not social phobia in middle adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Väänänen, Juha-Matti; Marttunen, Mauri; Helminen, Mika; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Social phobia and depression are common and highly comorbid disorders in adolescence. There is a lack of studies on possible psychosocial shared risk factors for these disorders. The current study examined if low social support is a shared risk factor for both disorders among adolescent girls and boys. This study is a part of the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study's two-year follow-up. We studied cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of perceived social support with so...

  11. Social phobia and self-concept: a correlational study with physical activity practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christi Noriko Sonoo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze social phobia in teenagers aged 14 to 20 years and its possiblerelationship with regular practice of physical activity and their self-concept. This study enrolled 191 students from privateand public schools and the measurement instruments used were a test of social phobia, a test of self-concept and a physicalactivity questionnaire. The results indicate that students from private schools are shyer than students from public schools. Inrelation to self-concept, there were significant differences in security factor for boys and moral factor for girls. This indicatesthat boys are more stable, brave and secure, while girls are more influenced by moral and ethical rules. These resultsdemonstrate that no relationship was detected between social phobia and physical activity, but it was possible to observea relationship between social phobia and some of the self-concept factors, and a relationship between physical activityand some of the self-concept factors. It is therefore concluded that the negative influence of high levels of social phobia onthe receptivity and security factors of men and women suggests a need for further studies in the area, which could help inthe prevention and treatment of social phobia, which could worsen over the years and compromise these young people’sability to socialize.

  12. Recovery from social phobia in the community and its predictors : data from a longitudinal epidemiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Vriends, N.; Becker, E. S.; Meyer, A. H.; Williams, S. L.; Lutz, R.; Margraf, J.

    2007-01-01

    The present longitudinal study aimed to determine rate of natural recovery from DSM-IV social phobia in the community and to examine predictors of recovery. Data were derived from the Dresden Predictor Study of a representative sample of 1396 young German women. The participants completed a diagnostic interview and self-report questionnaires at two survey points approximately 1.5 years apart. Of the 91 women with social phobia at baseline 64% were at least partially recovered and 36% showed f...

  13. Screening for social phobia in medical in- and outpatients with the German version of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosic, Z; Gieler, U; Stangier, U

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the German version of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) as a screening device and to report corresponding cut-off scores for different populations. In Study 1, 2043 subjects from a representative sample completed the SPIN. Cut-off values were established on the basis of means and standard deviations. In Study 2, different aspects of validity were examined in a clinical sample comprising 164 subjects, including social phobic individuals, individuals with other anxiety disorders and depression, and non-clinical control subjects. Internal consistency was evaluated. Convergent and divergent validity were explored using several established measures. Finally, the sensitivity and specificity of the German SPIN with regard to social anxiety classification were investigated by means of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses. In Study 1, mean scores and standard deviations were used to determine cut-off scores for the German SPIN. In Study 2, excellent internal consistency and good convergent and divergent validity were obtained. ROC analyses revealed that the German SPIN performed well in discriminating between social phobic individuals on the one hand and psychiatric and non-psychiatric controls on the other. A cut-off score of 25 represented the best balance between sensitivity and specificity. Comparable to the original version, the German SPIN demonstrates solid psychometric properties and shows promise as an economic, reliable, and valid screening device.

  14. Social phobia and avoidant personality disorder: similar but different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Lisa; Sunderland, Matthew

    2015-02-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) is regarded as a severe variant of social phobia (SP), consistent with a dimensional model. However, these conclusions are largely drawn from studies based on individuals with SP, with or without comorbid AvPD. The present study hypothesized that there are qualitative differences between AvPD and SP that are undermined by limiting research to participants with SP. The authors sought to test this hypothesis by comparing three groups-SP only, AvPD only, and SP+AvPD-using data extracted from an epidemiological sample of 10,641 adults aged 18 years and over. Screening questions were used in the epidemiological survey to identify ICD-10 personality disorders; from this the author developed a proxy measure for DSM-IV AvPD. Axis I diagnoses, including DSM-IV SP, were identified using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). In this sample, the majority of those with AvPD did not also have SP: The authors found 116 persons with AvPD only, 196 with SP only, and 69 with SP+AvPD. There was little difference between any of the groups on sex, marital status, employment, education, or impairment variables. The SP+AvPD group reported more distress and comorbidity than the SP only and AvPD only groups, which did not differentiate from each other. More feared social situations were endorsed in the SP only group compared to the AvPD only group. Although the finding of few differences between SP only and AvPD only groups among the variables measured in this epidemiological survey fails to provide support for the hypothesis of qualitative differences, the finding that the AvPD only group appears more similar to the SP only group than to the SP+AvPD group also fails to provide support for the alternative continuity hypothesis. The greater distress and additional comorbidity with depression associated with SP+AvPD may be due to the additional symptom load of a second disorder rather than simply representing a more severe variant of

  15. Brief strategic therapy in patients with social phobia with or without personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowska, Jadwiga Malgorzata

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effects of brief strategic therapy in people with social phobia distinguished by the presence or absence of DSM anxious personality disorder. A group of 120 outpatients with social phobia, 60 of them with comorbid DSM anxious personality disorder, were randomly assigned to 10 weeks of brief strategic therapy or minimal supportive therapy. Outcome analyses were conducted on the intent-to-treat sample at posttreatment and 3-month follow-up using self-report interpersonal sensitivity and phobic anxiety measures, and at 6-month follow-up using social phobia diagnostic status. Brief strategic therapy was superior to minimal supportive therapy in patients with social phobia only. It was not significantly better in patients with comorbid personality disorder. It was concluded that 10 weeks of brief strategic therapy shows promise as a cost-effective method for management of social phobia. It has limited value as a method for management of social phobia with personality disorder.

  16. Psychodynamic psychotherapy for social phobia: a treatment manual based on supportive-expressive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichsenring, Falk; Beutel, Manfred; Leibing, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Social phobia is a very frequent mental disorder characterized by an early onset, a chronic unremitting course, severe psychosocial impairments and high socioeconomic costs. To date, no manual for the psychodynamic treatment of social phobia exists. After a brief description of the disorder, a manual for a short-term psychodynamic treatment of social phobia is presented. The treatment is based on Luborsky s supportive-expressive (SE) therapy, which is complemented by treatment elements specific to social phobia. The treatment includes the characteristic elements of SE therapy, that is, setting goals, focus on the Core Conflictual Relationship Theme (CCRT) associated with the patient s symptoms, interpretive interventions to enhance insight into the CCRT, and supportive interventions, in particular fostering a helping alliance. In order to tailor the treatment more specifically to social phobia, treatment elements have been added, for example informing the patient about the disorder and the treatment, a specific focus on shame and on unrealistic demands, and encouraging the patient to confront anxiety-producing situations. More directive interventions are included as well, such as specific prescriptions to stop persisting self-devaluations. The treatment manual is presently being used in a large-scale randomized controlled multicenter study comparing short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of social phobia.

  17. The overlap of obsessive-compulsive disorder and social phobia and its treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, David S; Brandish, Emma K; Meron, Daniel

    2008-09-01

    Both obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and social phobia are common in community and clinical settings, and it should be expected that a proportion of patients with one of these conditions will also fulfill either current or lifetime criteria for the other condition. However, comorbid social phobia is more common among patients with a primary diagnosis of OCD than is comorbid OCD in patients with a primary diagnosis of social phobia. This article explores the extent of the association of OCD and social phobia in epidemiological studies, and examines the possible role of underlying depression and other disorders in mediating the appearance of the comorbid condition. Although there have been no published randomized controlled trials in patients with this particular pattern of co-morbidity, it seems sensible to adopt pharmacologic and psychologic treatment approaches which have been found efficacious in both OCD and social phobia. Pharmacologic management therefore centers on first-line treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Psychologic intervention should draw on the range of cognitive and behavioral approaches required for optimal outcomes in OCD and social phobia, as discrete conditions.

  18. Bruxism and oral parafunctional hyperactivity in social phobia outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermesh, H; Schapir, L; Marom, S; Skopski, R; Barnea, E; Weizman, A; Winocur, E

    2015-02-01

    Anxiety and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are considered aggravating factors for bruxism. We examined the influence of anxiety, depression and SSRI on bruxism in social phobia (SP). Twenty-three drug naïve, 17 SSRI-treated SP patients and 33 healthy controls underwent a psychiatric assessment and completed Leibowitz Social Anxiety Scale and Beck Depression Inventory. Oral parafunctional activity (PF) was evaluated by TM-dental examination and by a questionnaire. Drug- naïve and SSRI-treated SP patients did not differ on demographic and clinical measures. Awake bruxism, 'JAW PLAY' and at least one PF were more prevalent in SP than in controls. Severity of SP predicted the presence of PF. SP, but not depression, was associated with higher risk of oral PF and awake bruxism. Chronic SSRI treatment of SP did not affect sleep and awake bruxism. Dental and anxiety screening may improve the prognosis psychiatric and dental patients. Effective treatment of SP may mitigate bruxism. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The dutch social interaction anxiety scale and the social phobia scale: reliability, validity, and clinical utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beurs, Edwin; Tielen, Deirdre; Wollmann, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The social interaction anxiety scale (SIAS) and the social phobia scale (SPS) assess anxiety in social interactions and fear of scrutiny by others. This study examines the psychometric properties of the Dutch versions of the SIAS and SPS using data from a large group of patients with social phobia and a community-based sample. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the SIAS is unidimensional, whereas the SPS is comprised of three subscales. The internal consistency of the scales and subscales was good. The concurrent and discriminant validity was supported and the scales were well able to discriminate between patients and community-based respondents. Cut-off values with excellent sensitivity and specificity are presented. Of all self-report measures included, the SPS was the most sensitive for treatment effects. Normative data are provided which can be used to assess whether clinically significant change has occurred in individual patients.

  20. The Dutch Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale: Reliability, Validity, and Clinical Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin de Beurs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The social interaction anxiety scale (SIAS and the social phobia scale (SPS assess anxiety in social interactions and fear of scrutiny by others. This study examines the psychometric properties of the Dutch versions of the SIAS and SPS using data from a large group of patients with social phobia and a community-based sample. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the SIAS is unidimensional, whereas the SPS is comprised of three subscales. The internal consistency of the scales and subscales was good. The concurrent and discriminant validity was supported and the scales were well able to discriminate between patients and community-based respondents. Cut-off values with excellent sensitivity and specificity are presented. Of all self-report measures included, the SPS was the most sensitive for treatment effects. Normative data are provided which can be used to assess whether clinically significant change has occurred in individual patients.

  1. Co-morbid anxiety disorders in bipolar disorder and major depression: familial aggregation and clinical characteristics of co-morbid panic disorder, social phobia, specific phobia and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goes, F S; McCusker, M G; Bienvenu, O J; Mackinnon, D F; Mondimore, F M; Schweizer, B; Depaulo, J R; Potash, J B

    2012-07-01

    Co-morbidity of mood and anxiety disorders is common and often associated with greater illness severity. This study investigates clinical correlates and familiality of four anxiety disorders in a large sample of bipolar disorder (BP) and major depressive disorder (MDD) pedigrees. The sample comprised 566 BP families with 1416 affected subjects and 675 MDD families with 1726 affected subjects. Clinical characteristics and familiality of panic disorder, social phobia, specific phobia and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were examined in BP and MDD pedigrees with multivariate modeling using generalized estimating equations. Co-morbidity between mood and anxiety disorders was associated with several markers of clinical severity, including earlier age of onset, greater number of depressive episodes and higher prevalence of attempted suicide, when compared with mood disorder without co-morbid anxiety. Familial aggregation was found with co-morbid panic and OCD in both BP and MDD pedigrees. Specific phobia showed familial aggregation in both MDD and BP families, although the findings in BP were just short of statistical significance after adjusting for other anxiety co-morbidities. We found no evidence for familiality of social phobia. Our findings suggest that co-morbidity of MDD and BP with specific anxiety disorders (OCD, panic disorder and specific phobia) is at least partly due to familial factors, which may be of relevance to both phenotypic and genetic studies of co-morbidity.

  2. Cognition, imagery and coping among adolescents with social anxiety and phobia: testing the Clark and Wells model in the population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Klaus; Tuomisto, Martti T; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Rantanen, Päivi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2014-01-01

    The Clark and Wells' cognitive model of social phobia suggests that self-focused attention, negative observer-perspective images of oneself and safety behaviours maintain anxiety in subjects with SP. Empirical research among adults supports the model, but limited evidence for it has been obtained in other age groups or in the general population. We examined automatic thoughts, imagery, safety behaviours and general coping of adolescents with social anxiety and phobia. These were elicited by a thought listing procedure in a recalled, distressing social situation. The target variables were compared between adolescents with high versus normal self-reported social anxiety (HSA/NSA) and between adolescents with clinical/subclinical SP (SP/SSP) versus no diagnosis. Adolescents with HSA reported overall negative thoughts, negative observer-perspective images and safety behaviours more frequently than adolescents with NSA. The SP/SSP group displayed the same difference, and clearer, relative to the no diagnosis group, but additionally reported negative thoughts focused more often on self. Minor differences in coping were found between the groups. The study suggests that adolescents with SP already display the negative self-focused cognitions, observer-perspective imagery and behavioural pattern found among adults with SP. Social anxiety associates with observer-perspective imagery and safety behaviours in adolescence. Adolescents with clinical social phobia report frequent negative self-focused thoughts. However, such negative cognitions focused on self do not associate to self-reported social anxiety. The cognitive model of social phobia (Clark & Wells, 1995) is applicable to adolescents. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Combined Social Phobia Scale and Social Interaction Anxiety Scale: Support for a Bifactor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; Watson, Shaun D.

    2017-01-01

    For the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) together, this study examined support for a bifactor model, and also the internal consistency reliability and external validity of the factors in this model. Participants (N = 526) were adults from the general community who completed the SPS and SIAS. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of their ratings indicated good support for the bifactor model. For this model, the loadings for all but six items were higher on the general factor than the specific factors. The three positively worded items had negligible loadings on the general factor. The general factor explained most of the common variance in the SPS and SIAS, and demonstrated good model-based internal consistency reliability (omega hierarchical) and a strong association with fear of negative evaluation and extraversion. The practical implications of the findings for the utilization of the SPS and SIAS, and the theoretical and clinical implications for social anxiety are discussed. PMID:28210232

  4. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Combined Social Phobia Scale and Social Interaction Anxiety Scale: Support for a Bifactor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; Watson, Shaun D

    2017-01-01

    For the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) together, this study examined support for a bifactor model, and also the internal consistency reliability and external validity of the factors in this model. Participants ( N = 526) were adults from the general community who completed the SPS and SIAS. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of their ratings indicated good support for the bifactor model. For this model, the loadings for all but six items were higher on the general factor than the specific factors. The three positively worded items had negligible loadings on the general factor. The general factor explained most of the common variance in the SPS and SIAS, and demonstrated good model-based internal consistency reliability (omega hierarchical) and a strong association with fear of negative evaluation and extraversion. The practical implications of the findings for the utilization of the SPS and SIAS, and the theoretical and clinical implications for social anxiety are discussed.

  5. Interpretation of ambiguous social scenarios in social phobia and depression: evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Jason S; Huppert, Jonathan D; Foa, Edna B; Simons, Robert F

    2012-02-01

    In the current study, event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral responses were measured in individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for social phobia, depression, their combination, or neither in order to examine the unique and combined effects of social phobia and depression on the interpretation of ambiguous social scenarios. ERPs revealed a lack of positive interpretation bias and some suggestion of a negative bias in the semantic expectancy N4 component across all clinical groups. Furthermore, socially phobic and comorbid individuals showed reductions in baseline attention allocation to the task, as indexed by P6 amplitude. RT and accuracy likewise revealed a lack of positive interpretation bias across disordered groups. When considered on a continuum across all samples, social phobia and depression symptoms were related to the N4 interpretation bias effect whereas P6 amplitude reduction and RT interpretation bias appeared uniquely associated with social phobia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Early adolescent symptoms of social phobia prospectively predict alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahne, Jennifer; Banducci, Anne N; Kurdziel, Gretchen; MacPherson, Laura

    2014-11-01

    The current study examined whether social phobia (SP) symptoms in early adolescence prospectively predicted alcohol use through middle adolescence in a community sample of youth. Data from an ongoing longitudinal study (N = 277) of mechanisms of HIV-related risk behaviors in youth were used to assess the extent to which SP symptoms in early adolescence (mean [SD] age = 11.00 years [0.81]) would predict alcohol use across five annual assessment waves. Adolescents completed measures of SP symptoms, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use at each wave. Higher SP symptoms at baseline predicted higher average odds of alcohol consumption during subsequent waves but did not significantly predict an increase in the odds of alcohol use as a function of time. Within a lagged model, SP symptoms measured at a prior assessment point (1 year earlier) predicted greater odds of drinking alcohol at the following assessment point. Importantly, alcohol use did not significantly predict SP symptoms over time. These results suggest that early SP symptoms are an important risk factor for increased odds of subsequent alcohol use. The present findings highlight that elevated SP symptoms place adolescents at risk for early alcohol use. Early interventions targeting SP symptoms may be crucial for the prevention of problematic alcohol use in early to mid-adolescence. Implications for prevention and treatment approaches are discussed.

  7. Characterizing the association between parenting and adolescent social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappe, Susanne; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Fehm, Lydia; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-06-01

    For characterizing the association between parenting and offspring social phobia (SP), contrasting maternal vs. paternal contributions, putative predictors of unfavorable parenting behaviors and its specificity for SP are warranted to delineate targeted prevention and intervention strategies. A population-based sample of 1053 adolescents was followed-up using the M-CIDI. Parenting was assessed via questionnaire in offspring passing the high risk period for SP-onset. Natal complications and childhood serious health problems as assessed by maternal reports were hypothesized to relate to unfavorable parenting. The pattern of maternal overprotection, paternal rejection and lower emotional warmth was associated with SP, but not with other offspring anxiety disorders. Natal complications were related to overprotection and lower emotional warmth; trend-level associations emerged for serious health problems and unfavorable parenting. Paternal behavior appears particularly relevant for SP. The pattern of maternal overprotection, paternal rejection and lower emotional warmth was observed in SP only, suggesting that its detailed assessment provides a promising opportunity for targeted prevention and intervention in SP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Do Pharmacological and Behavioral Interventions Differentially Affect Treatment Outcome for Children with Social Phobia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfstein, Lindsay A.; Beidel, Deborah C.; Rendon Finnell, Laura; Distler, Aaron; Carter, Nathan T.

    2011-01-01

    In a randomized trial for children with social phobia (SP), Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children (SET-C; a treatment consisting of exposure and social skills training) and fluoxetine were more effective than pill placebo in reducing social distress and behavioral avoidance, but only SET-C demonstrated significantly improved overall social…

  9. Mediation of Changes in Anxiety and Depression During Treatment of Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovitch, David A.; Stefan G. Hofmann, Michael K.; Suvak, Michael K.; In-Albon, Tina

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the interactive process of changes in social anxiety and depression during treatment, the authors assessed weekly symptoms in 66 adult outpatients with social phobia (social anxiety disorder) who participated in cognitive- behavioral group therapy. Multilevel mediational analyses revealed that improvements in social anxiety mediated…

  10. [Prevalence of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence in Adults With Social Phobia in Medellin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Salas, Gabriel Felipe; Bareño, José; Berbesi Fernández, Dedsy Yajaira; Gaviria, Silvia L

    2014-01-01

    Having a social phobia may lead to consuming alcohol for greater social assertiveness, running the risk of leading to an abuse disorder or alcohol dependence. The aim of the study was to estimate prevalence of pathological comorbidity between social phobia and alcohol consumption in adults of the city of Medellin, and the behavior of comorbidity by gender, age, presence of a father figure in childhood, and education. Secondary analysis of the database of the first Mental Health Population Survey conducted in the city of Medellin in 2011 and 2012 based on the methodology of the World Mental Health Survey guidelines and coordinated by WHO-HARVARD. The lifetime prevalence of abuse and dependence in people with social phobia was 24.1% and 11.2%, respectively. For people with social phobia the prevalence was 13% for abuse and 4.4% for dependence (OR=2.11 for abuse, OR=2.46 for dependence). Annual prevalence of people with social phobia who abused or were dependent on alcohol was 7.8% and 5.9%, respectively, compared to those who do not suffer from this disorder, with a prevalence of 3.4% and 1.7%, respectively (OR=2.39 for abuse and OR=3.57 for dependence). There was significant correlation in the annual and lifetime prevalence between social phobia and the pathological consumption of alcohol. Statistically significant relationships were found for the variables associated with social phobia, however, more work is needed to confirm or refute these associations. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Cortisol levels in response to starting school in children at increased risk for social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Stephanie J; Herbert, Joe; Cooper, Peter; Gunnar, Megan R; Goodyer, Ian; Croudace, Tim; Murray, Lynne

    2012-04-01

    Research on depression has identified hyperactivity of the HPA axis as a potential contributory factor to the intergenerational transmission of affective symptoms. This has not yet been examined in the context of social phobia. The current study compared HPA axis activity in response to a universal social stressor (starting school) in children of 2 groups of women: one with social phobia and one with no history of anxiety (comparison group). To determine specificity of effects of maternal social phobia, a third group of children were also examined whose mothers had generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). Children provided salivary cortisol samples in the morning, afternoon and at bedtime across 3 time-blocks surrounding the school start: a month before starting school (baseline), the first week at school (stress response), and the end of the first school term (stress recovery). Child behavioural inhibition at 14 months was assessed to explore the influence of early temperament on later stress responses. All children displayed an elevation in morning and afternoon cortisol from baseline during the first week at school, which remained elevated until the end of the first term. Children in the social phobia group, however, also displayed an equivalent elevation in bedtime cortisol, which was not observed for comparison children or for children of mothers with GAD. Children in the social phobia group who were classified as 'inhibited' at 14 months displayed significantly higher afternoon cortisol levels overall. A persistent stress response to school in the morning and afternoon is typical for all children, but children of mothers with social phobia also display atypical elevations in evening cortisol levels when at school--signalling longer-term disruption of the circadian rhythm in HPA axis activity. This is the first study to report HPA axis disruption in children at increased risk of developing social phobia. Future research should determine whether this represents a

  12. Imagery rescripting as a stand-alone treatment for patients with social phobia: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frets, Petra G; Kevenaar, Ciska; van der Heiden, Colin

    2014-03-01

    The majority of patients with social phobia reports experiencing negative images, usually linked to memories of earlier aversive social experiences. Several studies have indicated that such negative self-imagery appears to have a causal role in maintaining social phobia, which suggests that interventions aimed at dealing with these images could be beneficial in the treatment of social phobia. One potentially powerful approach is imagery rescripting (IR), a clinical intervention that focuses on changing the meaning and impact of unpleasant memories. In the treatment of social phobia IR was only used as part of a broader cognitive-behavioral treatment package. However, we propose that IR alone might also be an effective treatment for this anxiety disorder. The present study reports an initial evaluation of the application of IR as a stand-alone treatment for six adult outpatients presenting with social phobia. A single case series using an A-B replication across patients design was employed. Following a no-treatment baseline period, IR was delivered weekly and patients were followed up for 3 and 6 months. For all patients, substantial reductions were obtained on all outcome measures at post-treatment, and gains were largely maintained at 6-months follow-up. The generalizability of the effects of IR for social phobia is limited by the small number of patients treated by only one therapist. The results of this preliminary case series suggest that IR as a stand alone treatment is an apparently effective intervention in the treatment of patients with social phobia, and indicate that controlled evaluation of its efficacy might be worthwhile. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comorbidity of schizophrenia and social phobia – impact on quality of life, hope, and personality traits: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrbova K

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Kristyna Vrbova,1 Jan Prasko,1 Marie Ociskova,1 Michaela Holubova1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore whether the comorbidity of social phobia affects symptoms severity, positive and negative symptoms, self-stigma, hope, and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study in which all participants completed the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale, Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q, Temperament and Character Inventory – Revised (TCI-R, and the demographic questionnaire. The disorder severity was assessed both by a psychiatrist (Clinical Global Impression Severity – the objective version [objCGI-S] scale and by the patients (Clinical Global Impression Severity – the subjective version [subjCGI-S] scale. The patients were in a stabilized state that did not require changes in the treatment. Diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or delusional disorder was determined according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10 research criteria. A structured interview by Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to confirm the diagnosis. Results: The study included 61 patients of both genders. Clinically, the patients with comorbid social phobia had the earlier onset of the illness, more severe current psychopathology, more intense anxiety (general and social, and higher severity of depressive symptoms. The patients with comorbid social phobia showed the significantly lower quality

  14. Childhood history of behavioral inhibition and comorbidity status in 256 adults with social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotge, Jean-Yves; Grabot, Denis; Aouizerate, Bruno; Pélissolo, Antoine; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Tignol, Jean

    2011-03-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI), a heritable temperament, predisposes one to an increased risk of social phobia. Recent investigations have reported that BI may also be a precursor to anxiety as well as depressive and alcohol-related disorders, which are frequently comorbid with social phobia. In the present study, we explored the relationship between BI and psychiatric disorders in 256 adults with a primary diagnosis of social phobia. BI severity was retrospectively assessed with the Retrospective Self-Report of Inhibition (RSRI). The severity of social phobia and the presence of comorbid diagnoses were evaluated with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, respectively. The RSRI score was significantly and positively correlated with both the LSAS score and the occurrence of a major depressive disorder. No significant association was found with other anxiety and substance-related disorders. The assessment of BI was retrospective and self-reported. A childhood history of BI was associated with an increased risk of depressive comorbidity in social phobia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Quality of web-based information on social phobia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Yasser; Fernandez, Sebastien; Cochand, Sophie; Reboh, Isabel; Zullino, Daniele

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the quality of web-based information on social phobia and to investigate particular quality indicators. Two keywords, "Social phobia" and "Social Anxiety Disorder", were entered into five popular World Wide Web search engines. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed to rate sites on the basis of accountability, presentation, interactivity, readability, and content quality. "Health On the Net" (HON) quality label and DISCERN scale scores aiding people without content expertise to assess quality of written health publication were used to verify their efficiency as quality indicators. This study evaluates the quality of web-based information on social phobia. On the 200 identified links, 58 were included. On the basis of outcome measures, the overall quality of the sites turned out to be poor. DISCERN and HON label were indicators of good quality indicators. Accountability criteria were poor indicators of site quality. Although social phobia education Websites for patients are common, educational material highly varies in quality and content. There is a need for better evidence-based information about social phobia on the Web and a need to reconsider the role of accountability criteria as indicators of site quality. Clinicians should advise patients of the HON label and DISCERN as useful indicators of site quality. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. ¿Trastorno de personalidad por evitación o fobia social generalizada? Un estudio piloto con población adolescente española (Personality Disorder by Avoidance or Generalized Social Phobia? A Pilot Study with Spanish Teenager Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo J. Olivares-Olivares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este estudio planteó como objetivo analizar en qué medida se presentan diferencias cualitativas y cuantitativas entre adolescentes con diagnóstico de Fobia social generalizada y los que cumplen los criterios para el diagnóstico de fobia social generalizada más Trastorno de personalidad por evitación, de acuerdo a los requisitos del Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales (DSM-IV-TR. La muestra estuvo integrada por 29 adolescentes españoles con una edad media de 15.22 años (DT = 1.08; rango = 14-17, en su mayoría del género femenino (66.7%. Los resultados muestran diferencias estadísticamente significativas solo en una de las nueve variables cuantitativas continuas medidas: el número de situaciones sociales temidas/evitadas. El diseño del estudio realizado fue correlacional y transversal. No se hallaron diferencias intergrupo en cuanto a comorbilidad excepto en la variable Trastorno obsesivo-compulsivo. Los resultados obtenidos avalan la posición que el trastorno de personalidad por evitación no debería ser considerado una entidad diagnóstica independiente, sino que debería formar parte del gradiente Ansiedad social situándose en el extremo de mayor gravedad del continuo. Abstract The objective of this study was to analyze to what extent are qualitative and quantitative differences among teenager with Generalized Social Phobia diagnosis and those, which meet the criteria for the diagnosis of generalized social phobia plus Personality Disorder by Avoidance, in accordance with the requirements of the Diagnostic, and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV-TR. The sample consisted of 29 Spanish teenagers with an average age of 15.22 (TD = 1.08; range = 14-17, most of them were female (66.7%. The results show statistically significant differences in only one of the nine quantitative variables continuous measures: the number of social situations Feared/Avoided. The design of the study was

  17. The relationship between avoidant personality disorder and social phobia: a population-based twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Torgersen, Svenn; Neale, Michael C; Ørstavik, Ragnhild E; Tambs, Kristian; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the sources of comorbidity for social phobia and dimensional representations of avoidant personality disorder by estimating to what extent the two disorders are influenced by common genetic and shared or unique environmental factors versus the extent to which these factors are specific to each disorder. Young adult female-female twin pairs (N=1,427) from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel were assessed at personal interview for avoidant personality disorder and social phobia using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Bivariate Cholesky models were fitted using the Mx statistical program. The best-fitting model included additive genetic and unique environmental factors only. Avoidant personality disorder and social phobia were influenced by the same genetic factors, whereas the environmental factors influencing the two disorders were uncorrelated. Within the limits of statistical power, these results suggest that there is a common genetic vulnerability to avoidant personality disorder and social phobia in women. An individual with high genetic liability will develop avoidant personality disorder versus social phobia entirely as a result of the environmental risk factors unique to each disorder. The results are in accordance with the hypothesis that psychobiological dimensions span the axis I and axis II disorders.

  18. [Maternal bonding and infant attachment in women with and without social phobia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Ariane; Knappe, Susanne; Petrowski, Katja; Petzoldt, Johanna; Martini, Julia

    2017-01-01

    To examine the association of maternal social phobia with maternal bonding and infant attachment in a prospective-longitudinal study (MARI study, N = 306). A subsample of 46 women with and without lifetime social phobia (Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women, CIDI-V) and their infants was investigated. Mothers reported antenatal and postnatal bonding (MAAS, MPAS). Infants’ attachment classifications/behavior were observed in the strange situation test at 16 months after delivery. The rate of insecure attachment was higher in infants of mothers with social phobia (45.4 % vs. 33.3 %), and infants needed significantly more time to reconnect with their mothers during reunion in the strange situation (U = 160.0, p = .019). There were no group differences with regard to maternal bonding during pregnancy (t = -.151, p = .881) and after delivery (t = .408, p = .685) and resistant (U = 262.5, p = .969), avoidant (U = 311.5, p = .258) as well as contact-keeping behaviors (U = 224.0, p = .373) of the infant in the strange situation. Mothers with social phobia may transmit their inhibited behavioral disposition to their infants or fail to encourage their infants to interact with other people. Mothers with social phobia should be informed about the possible link of maternal avoidance behavior with adverse infant development and should be provided with information on treatment options.

  19. Have we met before? Neural correlates of emotional learning in women with social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeger, Inga; Keuper, Kati; Heitmann, Carina; Kugel, Harald; Dobel, Christian; Eden, Annuschka; Arolt, Volker; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Dannlowski, Udo; Zwanzger, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Altered memory processes are thought to be a key mechanism in the etiology of anxiety disorders, but little is known about the neural correlates of fear learning and memory biases in patients with social phobia. The present study therefore examined whether patients with social phobia exhibit different patterns of neural activation when confronted with recently acquired emotional stimuli. Patients with social phobia and a group of healthy controls learned to associate pseudonames with pictures of persons displaying either a fearful or a neutral expression. The next day, participants read the pseudonames in the magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Afterwards, 2 memory tests were carried out. We enrolled 21 patients and 21 controls in our study. There were no group differences for learning performance, and results of the memory tests were mixed. On a neural level, patients showed weaker amygdala activation than controls for the contrast of names previously associated with fearful versus neutral faces. Social phobia severity was negatively related to amygdala activation. Moreover, a detailed psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed an inverse correlation between disorder severity and frontolimbic connectivity for the emotional > neutral pseudonames contrast. Our sample included only women. Our results support the theory of a disturbed cortico limbic interplay, even for recently learned emotional stimuli. We discuss the findings with regard to the vigilance-avoidance theory and contrast them to results indicating an oversensitive limbic system in patients with social phobia.

  20. Self-stigma in women with borderline personality disorder and women with social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Hölzer, Aurelia; Hermann, Christiane; Schramm, Elisabeth; Jacob, Gitta A; Bohus, Martin; Lieb, Klaus; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2006-10-01

    Little is known about how women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and women with social phobia react to mental illness stigma. The goal of this study was to assess empirically self-stigma and its correlates in these groups. Self-stigma and related constructs were measured by self-report questionnaires among 60 women with BPD and 30 women with social phobia. Self-stigma was inversely related to self-esteem, self-efficacy, and quality of life and predicted low self-esteem after controlling for depression and shame-proneness. Stereotype awareness was not significantly correlated with self-esteem or quality of life. While there was no difference in stereotype awareness between women with BPD and women with social phobia, women with BPD showed higher self-stigma than women with social phobia. Self-stigma is associated with low self-esteem and other indices of poor psychological well-being. In comparison to women with social phobia, women with BPD suffer from more self-stigma. This may reflect intense labeling processes as being mentally ill due to repeated hospitalizations, frequent interpersonal difficulties, and visible scars.

  1. Virtual reality exposure using three-dimensional images for the treatment of social phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. Gebara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To test a potential treatment for social phobia, which provides exposure to phobia-inducing situations via computer-generated, three-dimensional images, using an open clinical trial design.Methods:Twenty-one patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of social phobia took part in the trial. Treatment consisted of up to 12 sessions of exposure to relevant images, each session lasting 50 minutes.Results:Improvements in social anxiety were seen in all scales and instruments used, including at follow-up 6 months after the end of treatment. The average number of sessions was seven, as the participants habituated rapidly to the process. Only one participant dropped out.Conclusion:This study provides evidence that exposure to computer-generated three-dimensional images is relatively inexpensive, leads to greater treatment adherence, and can reduce social anxiety. Further studies are needed to corroborate these findings.

  2. [Symptoms of social phobia and their relationship to interpersonal characteristics in a sample of German medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Matthias; Thomas, Andrea; Strauß, Bernhard

    2014-02-01

    The study aimed to detect the frequency of social phobia symptoms in a sample of German medical students and to compare students with and without these symptoms related to interpersonal characteristics. 525 students filled out a battery of self-report questionnaires consisting of the LSAS (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale), the SPAI (Social Phobia Anxiety Inventory), the IIP-32 (Inventar of interpersonal problems) and the IIM (Inventar of interpersonal motives). Relevant social phobia symptoms were found in 12.2%. Students with symptoms of social phobia differed significantly in subscales of the IIP and the IIM. Students with symptoms of social phobia also had higher scores for interpersonal problems especially related to the main issue of being too "socially avoidant". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Interpersonal and Metacognitive Therapies for Social Phobia Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A shirazitehrani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Multidimensional and complex nature of social phobia disorder requires assessment, efficacy and comparison of treatment. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of interpersonal and metacognitive group therapy. in reducing symptoms of social phobia Method: This study is an experimental research and the design of study is pre-test- post-test in which 45 patients suffering from social phobia disorder were selected and randomly assigned to three groups of interpersonal , metacognitive and control . Therapy sessions in groups of 15 people in 8 meeting held .The tools used in this study included the Social Phobia Inventory(SPIN Social Interaction Anxiety Scale(SIAS and the Brief Fear Negative Evaluation Scale Revised Version(BFNE-II and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV(SCIDis that in the pre-test and post-test were completed by patients.Data was statically analyzed Multivariate Covariance analysis (MANCOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test to compare difference scale scores pre test-post test variables were used in the experimental and control groups. Results:The results showed that there is significant differences between experimental (interpersonal and metacognitive Therapy and control group( waiting list (P<0/001.Also results showed that both interpersonal and metacognitive group therapies were equally effective on the symptom of social phobia disorder, social interaction anxiety and fear of negative evaluation(P<0/001 and its effect size by order of was 0/49, 0/75,0/95. Conclusion: Given the effectiveness of both treatment on social phobia symptoms can be relevant option for clients who go to counseling centers for an effective treatment .

  4. Treating phobias or treating people? Of acronyms and the social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phobias are some of the most common disorders brought to the attention of treatment agents. Classically, the treatment of choice was SD (systematic desensitisation), sometimes combined with hypnosis. More recently, VR (virtual reality) procedures and EMDR (eye movement desensitisation reprocessing) emerged as ...

  5. The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for phobias in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, N; Kendler, K S; Tambs, K; Røysamb, E; Reichborn-Kjennerud, T

    2011-09-01

    To explore the genetic and environmental factors underlying the co-occurrence of lifetime diagnoses of DSM-IV phobia. Female twins (n=1430) from the population-based Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel were assessed at personal interview for DSM-IV lifetime specific phobia, social phobia and agoraphobia. Comorbidity between the phobias were assessed by odds ratios (ORs) and polychoric correlations and multivariate twin models were fitted in Mx. Phenotypic correlations of lifetime phobia diagnoses ranged from 0.55 (agoraphobia and social phobia, OR 10.95) to 0.06 (animal phobia and social phobia, OR 1.21). In the best fitting twin model, which did not include shared environmental factors, heritability estimates for the phobias ranged from 0.43 to 0.63. Comorbidity between the phobias was accounted for by two common liability factors. The first loaded principally on animal phobia and did not influence the complex phobias (agoraphobia and social phobia). The second liability factor strongly influenced the complex phobias, but also loaded weak to moderate on all the other phobias. Blood phobia was mainly influenced by a specific genetic factor, which accounted for 51% of the total and 81% of the genetic variance. Phobias are highly co-morbid and heritable. Our results suggest that the co-morbidity between phobias is best explained by two distinct liability factors rather than a single factor, as has been assumed in most previous multivariate twin analyses. One of these factors was specific to the simple phobias, while the other was more general. Blood phobia was mainly influenced by disorder specific genetic factors.

  6. Facial Emotion Recognition in Children with High Functioning Autism and Children with Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nina; Beidel, Deborah C.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Sims, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing facial affect is essential for effective social functioning. This study examines emotion recognition abilities in children aged 7-13 years with High Functioning Autism (HFA = 19), Social Phobia (SP = 17), or typical development (TD = 21). Findings indicate that all children identified certain emotions more quickly (e.g., happy [less…

  7. Pilot Study of Community-Based Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents with Social Phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Susan; Garland, E. Jane

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for adolescents with social phobia, simplified both in terms of time and labor intensity from a previously studied program (Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children and Adolescents) to be more appropriate for a community outpatient psychiatric…

  8. Somatic symptoms in social phobia : A treatment method based on rational emotive therapy and paradoxical interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MERSCH, PPA; HILDEBRAND, M; LAVY, EH; WESSEL, Ineke; VANHOUT, WJPJ

    Social phobia is often accompanied by somatic symptoms such as trembling, blushing, and sweating. In cases where these symptoms are predominant and, rather than the social situation, represent the feared stimulus, their unpredictable occurrence may reduce the effectiveness of an otherwise successful

  9. Personality functioning in patients with avoidant personality disorder and social phobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikenaes, I.; Hummelen, B.; Abrahamsen, G.; Andrea, H.; Wilberg, T.

    2013-01-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (APD) and social phobia (SP) are closely related, such that they are suggested to represent different severity levels of one social anxiety disorder. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare patients with APD to patients with SP, with particular focus on personality

  10. Predicting Depression, Social Phobia, and Violence in Early Adulthood from Childhood Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W. Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lengua, Liliana J.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study examined childhood behavior problems at ages 10 and 11 years as predictors of young adult depression, social phobia, and violence at age 21 years. Method: Data were collected as part of the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal study of 808 elementary school students from high-crime neighborhoods of Seattle.…

  11. Social Skills Deficits and Vocal Characteristics of Children with Social Phobia or Asperger's Disorder: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfstein, Lindsay A.; Beidel, Deborah C.; Sims, Valerie K.; Finnell, Laura Rendon

    2011-01-01

    Social skills deficits are commonly reported among children with social phobia (SP) and children with Asperger's Disorder (AD); however, a lack of direct comparison makes it unclear whether these groups, both of which endorse the presence of social anxiety, have similar or unique skills deficits. In this investigation, the social behaviors of…

  12. Of 'disgrace' and 'pain'--corticolimbic interaction patterns for disorder-relevant and emotional words in social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeger, Inga; Dobel, Christian; Radenz, Britta; Kugel, Harald; Keuper, Kati; Eden, Annuschka; Arolt, Volker; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Dannlowski, Udo; Zwanzger, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Limbic hyperactivation and an impaired functional interplay between the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex are discussed to go along with, or even cause, pathological anxiety. Within the multi-faceted group of anxiety disorders, the highly prevalent social phobia (SP) is characterized by excessive fear of being negatively evaluated. Although there is widespread evidence for amygdala hypersensitivity to emotional faces in SP, verbal material has rarely been used in imaging studies, in particular with an eye on disorder-specificity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a block design consisting of (1) overall negative, (2) social-phobia related, (3) positive, and (4) neutral words, we studied 25 female patients with social phobia and 25 healthy female control subjects (HC). Results demonstrated amygdala hyperactivation to disorder-relevant but not to generally negative words in SP patients, with a positive correlation to symptom severity. A functional connectivity analysis revealed a weaker coupling between the amygdala and the left middle frontal gyrus in patients. Symptom severity was negatively related to connectivity strength between the amygdala and the ventromedial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 10 and 11). The findings clearly support the view of a hypersensitive threat-detection system, combined with disorder-related alterations in amygdala-prefrontal cortex connectivity in pathological anxiety.

  13. Early behavioral inhibition and increased error monitoring predict later social phobia symptoms in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahat, Ayelet; Lamm, Connie; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Pine, Daniel S; Henderson, Heather A; Fox, Nathan A

    2014-04-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an early childhood temperament characterized by fearful responses to novelty and avoidance of social interactions. During adolescence, a subset of children with stable childhood BI develop social anxiety disorder and concurrently exhibit increased error monitoring. The current study examines whether increased error monitoring in 7-year-old, behaviorally inhibited children prospectively predicts risk for symptoms of social phobia at age 9 years. A total of 291 children were characterized on BI at 24 and 36 months of age. Children were seen again at 7 years of age, when they performed a Flanker task, and event-related potential (ERP) indices of response monitoring were generated. At age 9, self- and maternal-report of social phobia symptoms were obtained. Children high in BI, compared to those low in BI, displayed increased error monitoring at age 7, as indexed by larger (i.e., more negative) error-related negativity (ERN) amplitudes. In addition, early BI was related to later childhood social phobia symptoms at age 9 among children with a large difference in amplitude between ERN and correct-response negativity (CRN) at age 7. Heightened error monitoring predicts risk for later social phobia symptoms in children with high BI. Research assessing response monitoring in children with BI may refine our understanding of the mechanisms underlying risk for later anxiety disorders and inform prevention efforts. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  14. Virtual reality therapy versus cognitive behavior therapy for social phobia: a preliminary controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, E; Bouchard, S; Légeron, P; Roy, S; Lauer, F; Chemin, I; Nugues, P

    2005-02-01

    Social phobia is one of the most frequent mental disorders and is accessible to two forms of scientifically validated treatments: anti-depressant drugs and cognitive behavior therapies (CBT). In this last case, graded exposure to feared social situations is one of the fundamental therapeutic ingredients. Virtual reality technologies are an interesting alternative to the standard exposure in social phobia, especially since studies have shown its usefulness for the fear of public speaking. This paper reports a preliminary study in which a virtual reality therapy (VRT), based on exposure to virtual environments, was used to treat social phobia. The sample consisted of 36 participants diagnosed with social phobia assigned to either VRT or a group-CBT (control condition). The virtual environments used in the treatment recreate four situations dealing with social anxiety: performance, intimacy, scrutiny, and assertiveness. With the help of the therapist, the patient learns adapted cognitions and behaviors in order to reduce anxiety in the corresponding real situations. Both treatments lasted 12 weeks, and sessions were delivered according to a treatment manual. Results showed statistically and clinically significant improvement in both conditions. The effect-sizes comparing the efficacy of VRT to the control traditional group-CBT revealed that the differences between the two treatments are trivial.

  15. Social phobia as a comorbid condition in sex offenders with paraphilia or impulse control disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, J; Kunst, H; Schmidt, A

    2001-07-01

    Studies on the prevalence of social anxiety in sex offenders show mixed results. This may be due to social anxiety being heightened only in diagnostic subgroups of sex offenders, namely in paraphiliacs. In study 1, 72 mentally disordered sexual delinquents and 30 controls were screened for social anxiety with the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale by Mattick and Clarke (German versions). In study 2, 55 mentally disordered sexual delinquents were diagnosed with a structured clinical interview. In both studies, sex offenders were categorized as either paraphilic or impulse control disordered (without paraphilia) according to research criteria. Study 1 showed markedly heightened scores for social anxiety in paraphiliacs, particularly for social interaction anxiety. Study 2 found a high lifetime and point prevalence of social phobia in paraphiliacs for which corroborating evidence was again found in questionnaire results. Implications for further research, diagnostic procedures, and therapy are discussed.

  16. Specific and social fears in children and adolescents: separating normative fears from problem indicators and phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Paola P; Pan, Pedro M; Hoffmann, Mauricio S; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Rohde, Luis A; Miguel, Euripedes C; Pine, Daniel S; Manfro, Gisele G; Salum, Giovanni A

    2017-01-01

    To distinguish normative fears from problematic fears and phobias. We investigated 2,512 children and adolescents from a large community school-based study, the High Risk Study for Psychiatric Disorders. Parent reports of 18 fears and psychiatric diagnosis were investigated. We used two analytical approaches: confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)/item response theory (IRT) and nonparametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. According to IRT and ROC analyses, social fears are more likely to indicate problems and phobias than specific fears. Most specific fears were normative when mild; all specific fears indicate problems when pervasive. In addition, the situational fear of toilets and people who look unusual were highly indicative of specific phobia. Among social fears, those not restricted to performance and fear of writing in front of others indicate problems when mild. All social fears indicate problems and are highly indicative of social phobia when pervasive. These preliminary findings provide guidance for clinicians and researchers to determine the boundaries that separate normative fears from problem indicators in children and adolescents, and indicate a differential severity threshold for specific and social fears.

  17. Behavioral treatment of social phobia in youth: does parent education training improve the outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öst, Lars-Göran; Cederlund, Rio; Reuterskiöld, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Social phobia is one of the most common anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, and it runs a fairly chronic course if left untreated. The goals of the present study were to evaluate if a parent education course would improve the outcome for children with a primary diagnosis of social phobia and if comorbidity at the start of treatment would impair the outcome of the social phobia. A total of 55 children, 8-14 years old, were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 1) Child is treated, 2) Child is treated and parent participates in the course, or 3) A wait-list for 12 weeks. The treatment consisted of individual exposure and group social skills training based on the Beidel, Turner, and Morris (2000) SET-C. Children and parents were assessed pre-, post-, and at one year follow-up with independent assessor ratings and self-report measures. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two active treatments and both were better than the wait-list. The treatment effects were maintained or furthered at the follow-up. Comorbidity did not lead to worse outcome of social phobia. Comorbid disorders improved significantly from pre-to post-treatment and from post-to follow-up assessment without being targeted in therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Specific and social fears in children and adolescents: separating normative fears from problem indicators and phobias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola P. Laporte

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To distinguish normative fears from problematic fears and phobias. Methods: We investigated 2,512 children and adolescents from a large community school-based study, the High Risk Study for Psychiatric Disorders. Parent reports of 18 fears and psychiatric diagnosis were investigated. We used two analytical approaches: confirmatory factor analysis (CFA/item response theory (IRT and nonparametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. Results: According to IRT and ROC analyses, social fears are more likely to indicate problems and phobias than specific fears. Most specific fears were normative when mild; all specific fears indicate problems when pervasive. In addition, the situational fear of toilets and people who look unusual were highly indicative of specific phobia. Among social fears, those not restricted to performance and fear of writing in front of others indicate problems when mild. All social fears indicate problems and are highly indicative of social phobia when pervasive. Conclusion: These preliminary findings provide guidance for clinicians and researchers to determine the boundaries that separate normative fears from problem indicators in children and adolescents, and indicate a differential severity threshold for specific and social fears.

  19. Tratamento cognitivo-comportamental de grupo na fobia social: resultados de 12 semanas Cognitive-behavioral group treatment in social phobia: 12-week outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo J. Fonseca D'El Rey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A fobia social é um dos transtornos mentais mais prevalentes na população geral. A terapia cognitivo-comportamental é o modelo não-farmacológico mais estudado nesse transtorno de ansiedade. OBJETIVOS: Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a efetividade da terapia cognitivo-comportamental de grupo em pacientes com fobia social generalizada. MÉTODOS: Trinta e um pacientes com diagnóstico de fobia social generalizada foram randomicamente distribuídos em dois grupos: um de terapia cognitivo-comportamental de grupo - TCCG (n = 15 e um grupo-controle na Lista de Espera - LE (n = 16. Os pacientes preencheram quatro escalas de avaliação (Inventário de Fobia Social, Escala de Medo de Avaliação Negativa, Inventário de Ansiedade Beck e Escala de Impressão Clínica Global na semana 1 de tratamento e na semana 12. RESULTADOS: Em todas as medidas de avaliações, ao final de 12 semanas, os pacientes que receberam TCCG apresentaram melhoras superiores aos da LE. CONCLUSÕES: Neste ensaio clínico randomizado, simples-cego, a terapia cognitivo-comportamental de grupo foi superior à Lista de Espera no tratamento da fobia social generalizada.BACKGROUND: Social phobia is a widespread mental disorder in the general population. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is the most thoroughly studied nonpharmacologic approach in this anxiety disorder. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy in patients with generalized social phobia. METHODS: Thirty one patients with diagnosis of generalized social phobia were randomly allocated in two groups. One group of cognitive-behavioral group therapy - CBGT (n = 15 and one Waiting List control group - WL (n = 16. The patients completed four rating scales (Social Phobia Inventory, Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Clinical Global Impression Scale in the weeks 1 and 12. RESULTS: In all rating scales in the week 12 of

  20. [Oxytocin: the hormone of love, trust and social bond. Clinical use in autism and social phobia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Du Pan, R C

    2012-03-21

    Oxytocin, an octapeptide synthesized in the hypothalamus, stimulates milk election and uterine contractions. In the brain this hormone acts as a neuropeptide. It could inhibit through the GABAergic system the activity of limbic amygdala, which is involved in the response to fear. Oxytocin could also induce the protective behaviour of the mother towards its offspring through the dopaminergic system. In mankind, oxytocin plays a role in trust, empathy, generosity, stress and sexuality. Clinical studies are testing potential benefits of oxytocin administration in autism, depression and social phobia. Results are still preliminary.

  1. Evaluation of Children with Selective Mutism and Social Phobia: A Comparison of Psychological and Psychophysiological Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brennan J.; Bunnell, Brian E.; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2012-01-01

    Although children with social phobia (SP) and selective mutism (SM) present similarly in a clinical setting, it remains unclear whether children with SM are unable to speak due to overwhelming anxiety, or whether withholding speech functions as an avoidance mechanism. A total of 35 children (ages 5-12 years) with either SM (n = 10), SP (n = 11),…

  2. The fear of others: a qualitative analysis of interpersonal threat in social phobia and paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopa, Luisa; Denton, Ruth; Wingfield, Megan; Taylor, Katherine Newman

    2013-03-01

    The cognitive models indicate that people with social phobia and paranoia share a common fear of others. While we recognize clinical differences, it is likely that some of the same psychological processes contribute to the maintenance of both presentations, yet the nature and extent of these similarities and differences are not yet clearly understood. This study explored threat experiences in people with social phobia and persecutory delusions in order to elucidate these aspects of the respective cognitive models. Accounts of interpersonal threat experiences were examined in nine people with social phobia and nine people with persecutory delusions. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Three major themes emerged from the data: participants' experience of threat, reactions while under threat, and subsequent reflections. Narrative coherence emerged as a superordinate theme. Typical fear responses were found in both groups, particularly in their reactions to threat. The key differences were in participants' perceptual experiences, ability to stand back from the threat following the event, and narrative coherence. The findings are discussed in relation to current cognitive models of social phobia and paranoia. Theoretical and clinical implications are drawn out, and highlight the need to examine attentional and metacognitive processes more closely if we are to understand the maintenance of perceived threat in these groups, and means of alleviating associated distress.

  3. Evidence Based Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Social Phobia: A Critical Review of Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulbure, Bogdan T.; Szentagotai, Aurora; Dobrean, Anca; David, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the empirical support of various assessment instruments, the evidence based assessment approach expands the scientific basis of psychotherapy. Starting from Hunsley and Mash's evaluative framework, we critically reviewed the rating scales designed to measure social anxiety or phobia in youth. Thirteen of the most researched social…

  4. [SOPHO-NET - a research network on psychotherapy for social phobia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichsenring, Falk; Salzer, Simone; Beutel, Manfred E; von Consbruch, Katrin; Herpertz, Stephan; Hiller, Wolfgang; Hoyer, Jürgen; Hüsing, Johannes; Irle, Eva; Joraschky, Peter; Konnopka, Alexander; König, Hans-Helmut; de Liz, Therese; Nolting, Björn; Pöhlmann, Karin; Ruhleder, Mirjana; Schauenburg, Henning; Stangier, Ulrich; Strauss, Bernhard; Subic-Wrana, Claudia; Vormfelde, Stefan V; Weniger, Godehard; Willutzki, Ulrike; Wiltink, Jörg; Leibing, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the Social Phobia Psychotherapy Research Network (SOPHO-NET). SOPHO-NET is among the five research networks on psychotherapy funded by "Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung". The research program encompasses a coordinated group of studies of social phobia. In the central project (Study A), a multi-center randomized controlled trial, refined models of manualized cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and manualized short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP) are compared in the treatment of social phobia. A sample of n=512 outpatients will be randomized to either CBT, STPP or wait list. For quality assurance and treatment integrity, a specific project has been established (Project Q). Study A is complemented by four interrelated projects focusing on attachment style (Study B1), cost-effectiveness (Study B2), polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (Study C1) and on structural and functional deviations of hippocampus and amygdala (Study C2). Thus, the SOPHO-NET program allows for a highly interdisciplinary research of psychotherapy in social phobia.

  5. Cognitive Therapy Versus Exposure and Applied Relaxation in Social Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David M.; Ehlers, Anke; Hackmann, Ann; McManus, Freda; Fennell, Melanie; Grey, Nick; Waddington, Louise; Wild, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    A new cognitive therapy (CT) program was compared with an established behavioral treatment. Sixty-two patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria for social phobia were randomly assigned to CT, exposure plus applied relaxation (EXP = AR), or wait-list (WAIT). CT…

  6. Social Phobia and Subtypes in the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement: Prevalence, Correlates, and Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Marcy; He, Jian-Ping; Kattan, Gabriela; Albano, Anne Marie; Avenevoli, Shelli; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Social phobia typically develops during the adolescent years, yet no nationally representative studies in the United States have examined the rates and features of this condition among youth in this age range. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) present the lifetime prevalence, sociodemographic and clinical correlates, and…

  7. Processing bias in children with separation anxiety disorder, social phobia and generalised anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, M.; Bögels, S.M.; Morren, M.

    2003-01-01

    The present study examined processing bias in children suffering from anxiety disorders. Processing bias was assessed using of the emotional Stroop task in clinically referred children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SP), and/or generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and normal

  8. SOCIAL PHOBIA AND PERSONALITY-DISORDER - SEVERITY OF COMPLAINT AND TREATMENT EFFECTIVENESS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MERSCH, PPA; JANSEN, MA; ARNTZ, A

    1995-01-01

    Thirty-four patients meeting the DSM-III-R criteria for social phobia participated in a study on the relationship between personality disorder, symptom pattern, and treatment outcome. Eight patients (23.5%) were diagnosed with a personality disorder; 26 patients did not receive an Axis II diagnosis.

  9. Assessment of determinants and quality of life of university students with social phobias in a coastal city of south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nitin; Rasheeka, V P; Nayar, Vhaishakh; Gupta, Purnima; Manjeswar, Mukund Pai; Mohandas, Anjali

    2018-03-01

    Social phobia is a common psychiatric disorder, and its onset happens usually around late adolescence period. Therefore, early diagnosis and its management is essential in any educational setting. To identify university students with social phobia, to find out its determinants and to observe its impact on their quality of life. The data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Social Phobia Inventory Questionnaire and Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire were used. The mean age of the 450 student participants was 20.6 ± 1.6 years. Majority [312(69.3%)] were males and majority [305(67.8%)] were native of urban areas. Of the total, 169(37.6%) were found to have social phobia. Among them, 114(67.5%) had mild, 47(27.8%) had moderate and 8(4.7%) had severe social phobia. Family history of anxiety disorders (P = 0.006), embarrassment with own socio-economic status (P = 0.001) and past history of failure in academic examinations (P social phobia among the participants. Preference of interaction using social media instead of face to face communication with people (P = 0.013), and by texting rather than calling the person (P = 0.002) were seen significantly more among those with social phobia. The mean quality of life scores was found to be deteriorating significantly with increasing intensity of social phobia among students (P Social phobia was seen among more than one-third of the participants. Counselling centers are therefore required to address this problem at universities. This will also help to improve the quality of life and the socializing skills of those affected. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Short forms of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Thomas A; Valentiner, David P; McGrath, Patrick B; Gier-Lonsway, Stephanie L; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Mattick and Clarke's (1998) Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and Social Phobia Scale (SPS) are commonly used self-report measures that assess 2 dimensions of social anxiety. Given the need for short, readable measures, this research proposes short forms of both scales. Item-level analyses of readability characteristics of the SIAS and SPS items led to the selection of 6 items from each scale for use in the short forms. The SIAS and SPS short forms had reading levels at approximately the 6th and 5th grade level, respectively. Results using nonclinical (Study 1: N = 469) and clinical (Study 2: N = 145) samples identified these short forms as being factorially sound, possessing adequate internal consistency, and having strong convergence with their full-length counterparts. Moreover, these short forms showed convergence with other measures of social anxiety, showed divergence from measures assessing related constructs, and predicted concurrent interpersonal functioning. Recommendations for the use of these short forms are discussed.

  11. Psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the Social Phobia Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Toshihiko; Nakajima, Takenori; Teo, Alan R; Yamada, Hisashi; Yoshimura, Chiho

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to study the psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN-J) among Japanese subjects with social anxiety disorder (SAD). The sample consisted of 86 subjects with SAD and 86 controls. Diagnosis was based on a modified version of the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV. In addition to the SPIN-J, clinician-administered and self-rating scales, including the Japanese versions of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Social Phobia Scale, and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, were used. The SPIN-J showed adequate internal consistency (0.82-0.96) for the total and subscales. Correlations between the SPIN-J and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Social Phobia Scale, and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale ranged from 0.83 to 0.89 and indicated adequate concurrent validity. A cut-off point of 22 between subjects with SAD and controls showed a sensitivity of 96.5% and specificity of 87.2%, indicating robust discriminant validity. The SPIN-J showed adequate reliability and validity for use as a screening tool for social anxiety disorder in Japanese clinical settings. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  12. Resistência ao tratamento nos transtornos de ansiedade: fobia social, transtorno de ansiedade generalizada e transtorno do pânico Treatment-resistant anxiety disorders: social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Bezerra de Menezes

    2007-10-01

    , and finally, some strategies to deal with anxiety disorders (including social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder that do not respond to standard therapeutic interventions. CONCLUSION: Treatment resistance in anxiety disorders remains a challenge to clinical practice going from non standardized concepts of response and resistance to a paucity of controlled studies concerning therapeutic strategies.

  13. The Management of Social Phobia Ýn Residual-Type Schizophrenia with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Þimþek Kaygusuz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Having negative symptoms is the basic feature of residual-type schizophrenia and there is a direct proportion between the neurocognitive impairments associated with negative symptoms. Among the approaches used for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, cognitive behaviour therapy is the one with the most evidence of efficacy. Cognitive behaviour therapy is considered to be beneficial for the residual symptoms after drug treatment. The social phobia leads among the anxiety disorders accompanying schizophrenia. According to the cognitive model, the impairment of social performance increases the severity of social phobia. The leading factor of this vicious circle is that the patients pay attention selectively to such cases in order to find evidence for their thoughts and beliefs that they are going to be evaluated negatively. In this paper, the cognitive behavioural therapy and formulation carried out with a patient, who has been followed for a long time with the diagnosis of residual-type schizophrenia and social phobia is reported. The purpose of the treatment is to interfere with the impaired functionality of the patient through cognitive and behavioural techniques by dealing with the medical treatment-resistant symptoms. To this end, firstly coping mechanisms are examined through the identification of avoidance and security providers, and then, the patient’s automatic thoughts and false beliefs are discussed depending on the cognitive perspective. The main part of the treatment has been completed by carrying out various investigations in order to increase the patients’ social performance via applying behavioural techniques. As a result, false beliefs are the indicators of the relationship between cognitive inability and negative symptoms and related to social functioning. By addressing these beliefs through cognitive behavioural therapy, the necessity of increasing the patient’s social activities and the relationship between social

  14. The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Based on Reducing Anxiety and Depression in Students with Social Phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Parviz Molavi; Niloufar Mikaeili; Neda Rahimi; Saeid Mehri

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives : Social phobia is one of the common anxiety disorders characterized by fear of social situations, shame and embarrassment in communicating with unfamiliar people. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy in reducing anxiety and depression in students with social phobia .   Methods: An experimental pretest-posttest with control group design was used to conduct the study. The population consists of all female students i...

  15. Impact of depression on treatment effectiveness and gains maintenance in social phobia: a naturalistic study of cognitive behavior group therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Sofi; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Aderka, Idan M; Weizman, Abraham; Hermesh, Haggai

    2009-01-01

    The impact of depression on cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) for social phobia (SP) in a naturalistic outpatient setting was examined after treatment termination and at 1-year follow-up. Consecutive SP outpatients (N=219) were diagnosed using a structured interview. CBGT was provided in 18 1.5-hr weekly sessions. At pretreatment and posttreatment questionnaires and clinician ratings were administered. Self-report measures were obtained at 1-year follow-up. The main outcome measure was the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. CBGT was found to be effective in reducing both social anxiety (effect size=1.23) as well as depression (effect size=0.94). Individuals with generalized social phobia (GSP) and individuals with specific social phobia (SSP) differed in their presenting psychopathology and in their response to CBGT. Among treatment completers, 44% GSPs and 37% SSPs achieved at least 50% improvement, and 44% GSPs and 87% SSPs reported distress and functioning within the normal range at the end of treatment. Among SPs diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) at the onset of treatment, SP symptoms aggravated during the follow-up period, whereas SPs not diagnosed with MDD experienced a further alleviation of SP symptoms during follow-up. CBGT provided in a public clinic to non-selected, mostly unmedicated and comorbid patients, is an effective treatment for the majority of SP sufferers. MDD at the onset of CBGT was not associated with poorer treatment response, but predicted exacerbation of SP symptoms following treatment termination. Depressed SPs may need additional intervention to maintain CBGT gains. SSPs may benefit from less intensive CBGT than GSPs. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Comparing short forms of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, R Nicholas; Thibodeau, Michel A; Weeks, Justin W; Teale Sapach, Michelle J N; McEvoy, Peter M; Horswill, Samantha C; Heimberg, Richard G

    2014-12-01

    The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS; Mattick & Clarke, 1998) are companion scales developed to measure anxiety in social interaction and performance situations, respectively. The measures have strong discriminant and convergent validity; however, their factor structures remain debated, and furthermore, the combined administration length (i.e., 39 items) can be prohibitive for some settings. There have been 4 attempts to assess the factor structures of the scales and reduce the item content: the 14-item Social Interaction Phobia Scale (SIPS; Carleton et al., 2009), the 12-item SIAS-6/SPS-6 (Peters, Sunderland, Andrews, Rapee, & Mattick, 2012), the 21-item abbreviated SIAS/SPS (ASIAS/ASPS; Kupper & Denollet, 2012), and the 12-item Readability SIAS and SPS (RSIAS/RSPS; Fergus, Valentiner, McGrath, Gier-Lonsway, & Kim, 2012). The current study compared the short forms on (a) factor structure, (b) ability to distinguish between clinical and non-clinical populations, (c) sensitivity to change following therapy, and (d) convergent validity with related measures. Participants included 3,607 undergraduate students (55% women) and 283 patients with social anxiety disorder (43% women). Results of confirmatory factor analyses, sensitivity analyses, and correlation analyses support the robust utility of items in the SIPS and the SPS-6 and SIAS-6 relative to the other short forms; furthermore, the SIPS and the SPS-6 and SIAS-6 were also supported by convergent validity analyses within the undergraduate sample. The RSIAS/RSPS and the ASIAS/ASPS were least supported, based on the current results and the principle of parsimony. Accordingly, researchers and clinicians should consider carefully which of the short forms will best suit their needs. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Social anxiety disorders in clinical practice: differentiating social phobia from avoidant personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Lisa

    2015-08-01

    To outline the problems around overlap between social phobia (SAD) and avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) and provide guidelines that may assist clinicians to differentiate these conditions. A constellation of symptoms can be identified that may distinguish AVPD from SAD, with key features being a strong and pervasively negative self-concept, a view of rejection as equating to a global evaluation of the individual as being of little worth and a sense of not fitting in socially that dates from early childhood. It is important to identify the presence of AVPD in order to anticipate potential problems with engagement and retention in therapy, to target treatment interventions and optimise outcome. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  18. Hypervigilance and avoidance in visual attention in children with social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Wiebke L; Krämer, Martina; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Heinrichs, Nina

    2014-03-01

    Attentional bias towards threat in socially anxious adults is well documented; however, research on this bias in children with social phobia is rather scarce. The present study investigates whether the hypervigilance-avoidance hypothesis also applies to children with social phobia. Thirty children (aged 8-12) with social phobia and 43 control children participated in an eye-tracking experiment while their attentional distribution was recorded. Social anxiety was induced in half of the children before the eye-tracking task. Stimuli were presented for 3000 ms, and bias scores for initial fixations and the time span of attention were assessed. Results indicated initial vigilance towards angry faces for all children independent of anxiety induction, while hypervigilance (but not avoidance) was only established in children with social phobia for angry-neutral face pairs and with social fears induced. Self-report measures of anxiety correlated with bias towards threat with more pronounced associations occurring in the anxiety induction condition. We did not record reaction times simultaneously which limits the opportunity to compare our results to some previous studies which focused on this variable as an indicator of attention. Cognitive biases in elementary school children (between 8 and 12 years) relate to hypervigilant rather than to avoidant information processing. Attentional distribution varies over time. Differences between clinical anxious and healthy children seem to be modified by anxiety induction, symptom severity and contextual stimuli, such as the emotional valence of a face and the context in which the threat stimulus appears. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Social phobia and avoidant personality disorder: are they separate diagnostic entities or do they reflect a spectrum of social anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillfors, Maria; Ekselius, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Axis I disorder social phobia and the Axis II disorder avoidant personality disorder were first introduced in the DSM nomenclature in 1980. Since then a major nosological theme in research has concerned whether or not social phobia and avoidant personality disorder represent distinct clinical categories. Our main aim was to summarize both the current situation regarding this conceptual debate, as well as what we still do not know. In the present review we describe the evolution of these disorders as they have been addressed over time, from their introduction in the DSM-III system to their current descriptions in the DSM-IV. Thereafter, earlier empirical literature concerning this conceptual debate is evaluated, with the main focus on comorbidity between social phobia and avoidant personality disorder. The PsycINFO and PubMed electronic databases were searched for studies, and complementary searches of references in articles and books were conducted. To conclude, the studies summarized provide support for the view that social phobia and avoidant personality disorder are more than arbitrary cutoffs along a continuum of social anxiety.

  20. The efficacy of imagery rescripting (IR) for social phobia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Won; Kwon, Jung-Hye

    2013-12-01

    There is a need for brief effective treatment of social phobia and Imagery Rescripting (IR) is a potential candidate. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of IR preceded by cognitive restructuring as a stand-alone brief treatment using a randomized controlled design. Twenty-three individuals with social phobia were randomly assigned to an IR group or to a control group. Participants in the IR group were provided with one session of imagery interviewing and two sessions of cognitive restructuring and Imagery Rescripting. Those in the control group had one session of clinical interviewing and two sessions of supportive therapy. Outcome measures including the Korean version of the social avoidance and distress scale (K-SADS) were administered before and after treatment, and at three-month follow-up. The short version of the Questionnaire upon Mental Imagery and the Traumatic Experience Scale were also administered before treatment. Participants in the IR group improved significantly on K-SADS and other outcome measures, compared to the control group. The beneficial effects of IR were maintained at three-month follow-up. It was also found that mental imagery ability and the severity of the traumatic experience did not moderate the outcome of IR. Further studies are needed to replicate the findings of our study using a large sample. The efficacy of IR as a stand-alone brief treatment was demonstrated for social phobia. The findings indicate that IR could be utilized as a cost-effective intervention for social phobia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Alcoholism And Social Phobia: Their Possible Liaisons With The Depression [alcoolismo E Fobia Social: Suas Possíveis Relações Com A Depressão

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes De Matos E.; Miranda De Souza A.; Gomes De Matos Jr. E.

    1997-01-01

    The association between Alcohol Dependence and Social Phobia was studied in 21 alcohol abusers patients, attended in a Psychiatrist Day-Hospital in Campinas, SP. From these, 3 (14.3%) have social phobia and 7 (33,3%) showed up a borderline condition for Social Phobia.

  2. The neuroanatomical basis of panic disorder and social phobia in schizophrenia: a voxel based morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picado, Marisol; Carmona, Susanna; Hoekzema, Elseline; Pailhez, Guillem; Bergé, Daniel; Mané, Anna; Fauquet, Jordi; Hilferty, Joseph; Moreno, Ana; Cortizo, Romina; Vilarroya, Oscar; Bulbena, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    It is known that there is a high prevalence of certain anxiety disorders among schizophrenic patients, especially panic disorder and social phobia. However, the neural underpinnings of the comorbidity of such anxiety disorders and schizophrenia remain unclear. Our study aims to determine the neuroanatomical basis of the co-occurrence of schizophrenia with panic disorder and social phobia. Voxel-based morphometry was used in order to examine brain structure and to measure between-group differences, comparing magnetic resonance images of 20 anxious patients, 20 schizophrenic patients, 20 schizophrenic patients with comorbid anxiety, and 20 healthy control subjects. Compared to the schizophrenic patients, we observed smaller grey-matter volume (GMV) decreases in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and precentral gyrus in the schizophrenic-anxiety group. Additionally, the schizophrenic group showed significantly reduced GMV in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, precentral gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex, temporal gyrus and angular/inferior parietal gyrus when compared to the control group. Our findings suggest that the comorbidity of schizophrenia with panic disorder and social phobia might be characterized by specific neuroanatomical and clinical alterations that may be related to maladaptive emotion regulation related to anxiety. Even thought our findings need to be replicated, our study suggests that the identification of neural abnormalities involved in anxiety, schizophrenia and schizophrenia-anxiety may lead to an improved diagnosis and management of these conditions.

  3. Associations between body weight and depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jia-In; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations between body weight and mental health indicators including depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents in Grades 7-12. The body mass index (BMI) of 5254 adolescents was calculated based on self-reported weight and height measurements. Body weight status was determined by the age- and gender-specific International Obesity Task Force reference tables. By using participants of average weight as the reference group, the association between body weight status (underweight, overweight, and obesity) and mental health indicators (depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem) were examined by using multiple regression analysis. The possible moderating effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the association were also examined. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic characteristics, both overweight (p self-esteem than did those of average weight; however, no significant differences in depression, social phobia, or insomnia were found between those who were overweight/obese and those of average weight. No significant differences in the four mental health indicators were found between those who were underweight and those of average weight. Sociodemographic characteristics had no moderating effect on the association between body weight and mental health indicators. In conclusion, mental health and school professionals must take the association between overweight/obesity and self-esteem into consideration when approaching the issue of mental health among adolescents. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  4. Social phobia, panic disorder and suicidality in subjects with pure and depressive mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilsaver, Steven C; Chen, Yuan-Who

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this study is to ascertain the rates of social phobia, panic disorder and suicidality in the midst of the manic state among subjects with pure and depressive mania. Subjects received evaluations entailing the use of serial standard clinical interviews, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) and a structured interview to determine whether they met the criteria for intra-episode social phobia (IESP) and panic disorder (IEPD). The diagnoses of major depressive disorder and mania were rendered using the Research Diagnostic Criteria. The diagnoses of IESP and IEPD were rendered using DSM-III-R criteria. Categorization as being suicidal was based on the SADS suicide subscale score. Twenty-five (56.8%) subjects had pure and 19 (43.2%) subjects had depressive mania. None of the subjects with pure and 13 (68.4%) with depressive mania had IESP (Pdepressive mania had IEPD (Pdepressive were suicidal. Twelve of 13 (92.3%) subjects with depressive mania met the criteria for IESP and IEPD concurrently (Pdepressive but not pure mania exhibited high rates of both IESP and IEPD. Concurrence of the disorders is the rule. The findings suggest that databases disclosing a relationship between panic disorder and suicidality merit, where possible, reanalysis directed at controlling for the effect of social phobia.

  5. Relationship between social phobia and depression differs between boys and girls in mid-adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Juha-Matti; Fröjd, Sari; Ranta, Klaus; Marttunen, Mauri; Helminen, Mika; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2011-09-01

    Earlier studies suggest that social phobia (SP) and depression (DEP) often have their onset in adolescence, and are highly comorbid, with SP mainly preceding depression. There is a lack of population-based prospective studies among adolescents vulnerable to both disorders, taking into account possible gender differences in the relationship between the two. This study is part of a prospective Adolescent Mental Health Cohort (AMHC) study. Subjects are 9th grade pupils (mean age 15.5 years (sd 0.39)) responding to a survey conducted 2002-2003 (T1) and a 2-year follow-up 2004-2005 (T2) (N=2038). Social phobia was measured by the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) and depression by the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13). Risk for depression at T2 by SP at T1 was elevated only among boys (OR 3.6, 95% C.I. 1.507-8.579, p=0.004), whereas among girls, risk for SP at T2 by DEP at T1 was elevated (OR 7.8, 95% CI 4.529-13.391, pdepression in adolescence seems different for boys and girls. Further studies are needed to explore factors explaining the different course of these disorders among boys and girls. Clinicians need to be alert to comorbidity when examining an adolescent with SP or depression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The factor structure of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Thomas; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Schramm, Elisabeth; Hofmann, Stefan G; Stangier, Ulrich

    2011-05-01

    The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) are two compendium measures that have become some of the most popular self-report scales of social anxiety. Despite their popularity, it remains unclear whether it is necessary to maintain two separate scales of social anxiety. The primary objective of the present study was to examine the factor analytic structure of both measures to determine the factorial validity of each scale. For this purpose, we administered both scales to 577 patients at the beginning of outpatient treatment. Analyzing both scales simultaneously, a CFA with two correlated factors showed a better fit to the data than a single factor model. An additional EFA with an oblique rotation on all 40 items using the WLSMV estimator further supported the two factor solution. These results suggest that the SIAS and SPS measure similar, but not identical facets of social anxiety. Thus, our findings provide support to retain the SIAS and SPS as two separate scales. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Latent dimensions of social anxiety disorder: A re-evaluation of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Sills, Laura; Espejo, Emmanuel; Ayers, Catherine R; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Stein, Murray B

    2015-12-01

    The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN; Connor et al., 2000) is a well-validated instrument for assessing severity of social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, evaluations of its factor structure have produced inconsistent results and this aspect of the scale requires further study. Primary care patients with SAD (N=397) completed the SPIN as part of baseline assessment for the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management study (Roy-Byrne et al., 2010). These data were used for exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the SPIN. A 3-factor model provided the best fit for the data and factors were interpreted as Fear of Negative Evaluation, Fear of Physical Symptoms, and Fear of Uncertainty in Social Situations. Tests of a second-order model showed that the three factors loaded strongly on a single higher-order factor that was labeled Social Anxiety. Findings are consistent with theories identifying Fear of Negative Evaluation as the core feature of SAD, and with evidence that anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty further contribute to SAD severity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Do autistic traits play a role in the bullying of obsessive-compulsive disorder and social phobia sufferers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerot, S; Mörtberg, E

    2009-01-01

    Social phobia and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share several similarities: both are categorized as anxiety disorders, avoidant personality disorder and depression are common in both, they have a similar age of onset and course, and both disorders respond to treatments with serotonin reuptake inhibitors and cognitive behavioural therapy. However, OCD and social phobia differ in respect to their relation to autism spectrum disorders (ASD; i.e. Asperger's syndrome, autism, pervasive disorder not otherwise specified). Findings that suggest a link between OCD and ASD have no parallel in social phobia. Moreover, obsessive-compulsive, paranoid and schizotypal personality disorders are prevalent in OCD and in ASD, but not in social phobia. Individuals with ASD are known to be frequent targets of bullying. We hypothesised that individuals with autistic traits would have been frequent targets for bullies during their childhood, as opposed to people without such traits. Adult patients with social phobia (n = 63) or OCD (n = 65) were assessed regarding autistic traits, and interviewed about being bullied at school. A reference group (n = 551) responded to questions about being bullied. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of being bullied between OCD (50%), social phobia patients (20%) and the reference group (27%). Autistic traits were more common in OCD than in social phobia. A history of being bullied was related to autistic traits among patients. Falling victim to bullying is not a random event. Autistic traits, i.e. low social skills, may be a predictor of being bullied in school. The high rate of bullying victims in persons who later develop OCD is suggested to be related to the overlap between OCD and ASD. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Health anxiety and fear of fear in panic disorder and agoraphobia vs. social phobia: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudaz, Myriam; Craske, Michelle G; Becker, Eni S; Ledermann, Thomas; Margraf, Jürgen

    2010-04-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate the role of two vulnerability factors, health anxiety and fear of fear, in the prediction of the onset of panic disorder/agoraphobia (PDA) relative to a comparison anxiety disorder. Young women, aged between 18 and 24 years, were investigated at baseline and, 17 months later, using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Lifetime and measures of health anxiety and fear of bodily sensations (subscale disease phobia of the Whiteley Index, and total score of the Body Sensations Questionnaire). First, 22 women with current PDA were compared to 81 women with current social phobia and 1,283 controls. Second, 24 women with an incidence of PDA were compared to 60 women with an incidence of social phobia and 1,036 controls. Multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for history of physical diseases, somatic symptoms, and other psychological disorders revealed that (a) fear of bodily sensations was elevated for women with PDA vs. controls as well as women with social phobia, and (b) health anxiety (and history of physical diseases) was elevated in women who developed PDA vs. controls and vs. women who developed social phobia. These results suggest that health anxiety, as well as history of physical diseases, may be specific vulnerability factors for the onset of PDA relative to social phobia. Whereas fear of bodily sensations was not found to be a risk factor for the onset of panic disorder/agoraphobia, it was a specific marker of existing PDA relative to social phobia. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. The reaction to social stress in social phobia: discordance between physiological and subjective parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumbies, Elisabeth; Braeuer, David; Hoyer, Juergen; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2014-01-01

    Research on the biopsychological background of social phobia (SP) is scarce and inconsistent. We investigated endocrine and autonomic markers along with subjective responses to a standardized stress situation (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) in SP patients and healthy controls (HC). We examined 88 patients with the primary diagnosis of SP as well as 78 age and sex comparable HCs with the TSST. Blood and saliva samples were obtained before and after the TSST for the assessment of salivary cortisol, plasma cortisol, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), and prolactin. Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were recorded continuously. Scalp-near hair samples were collected for the assessment of long-term cortisol secretion. The self-reported stress response was measured with different state and trait scales. While self-reported anxiety was elevated in SP before, during, immediately after, and one week after the TSST, no significant differences in biological stress responses were observed between SP and HC. There was a trend for SP to show higher baseline stress markers. Also long-term cortisol deposition in hair remained unaltered. Our results suggest that the excessive self-reported stress in SP is not reflected by a respective biological stress response. Patients with SP apparently show neither an extreme form of focused fear reactivity nor excessive defensive impairment.

  11. Definition of a VR-based protocol to treat social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S; Klinger, E; Légeron, P; Lauer, F; Chemin, I; Nugues, P

    2003-08-01

    Social phobia is an anxiety disorder that is accessible to two forms of treatment yielding scientifically validated results: drugs and cognitive-behavioral therapies. Graded exposure to feared social situations is fundamental to obtain an improvement of the anxious symptoms. Traditionally, exposure therapies are done either in vivo or by imagining the situations. In vivo exposure is sometimes difficult to control and many patients have some difficulties in using imagination. Virtual reality (VR) seems to bring significant advantages. It allows exposures to numerous and varied situations. This paper reports the definition of a clinical protocol whose purpose is to assess the efficiency of a VR therapy compared to a CBT and to the absence of treatment for social phobic patients. It explains the illness' diagnosis and its usual treatments. It exposes all the architecture of the study, the assessment tools, the content and unfold of the therapy sessions. It finally reports first results of a clinical trial in a between-group design in 10 patients suffering from social phobia. The virtual environments used in the treatment reproduce four situations that social phobics feel the most threatening: performance, intimacy, scrutiny and assertiveness. With the help of the therapist, the patient learns adapted cognitions and behaviors with the aim of reducing her or his anxiety in the corresponding real situations. The novelty of our work is to address a group of situations that the phobic patient is most likely to experience and to treat patients according to a precise protocol.

  12. Psychometric properties of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children in a Spanish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, José; Sánchez-García, Raquel; López-Pina, José Antonio; Rosa-Alcázar, Ana Isabel

    2010-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to adapt and analyze the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C; Beidel, Turner, & Morris, 1995) in a Spanish population. The SPAI-C was applied to a sample of 1588 children and adolescents with ages ranging from 10 to 17 years. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed a four-factor structure: Public performance, Assertiveness, Fear and avoidance/escape in social encounters, and Cognitive and psychophysiological interferences. Internal consistency was high (.90) and test-retest reliability was moderate (.56). Significant differences were found in the variables sex and age, although the effect size was small in both variables and their interaction. Overall, the increase of the age value was inversely proportional to that of social anxiety measured with the SPAI-C; in participants of the same age, values were higher for girls than for boys. Results suggest that the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory For Children is a valid and reliable instrument to assess social anxiety in Spanish children and adolescents.

  13. Shyness and social phobia in Israeli Jewish vs Arab students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Iulian; Sarel, Amiram; Avital, Avi; Abdo, Basheer; Joubran, Samia; Ram, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) has been repeatedly shown to be very prevalent in the Western society with prevalence rates of 10% or above. However, very few studies have been performed in the Middle East and in Arab countries. A total of 300 Israeli students participated in our study and were administered the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), the Cheek and Buss Shyness Questionnaire (CBSQ), and a sociodemographic questionnaire. A total of 153 Jewish and 147 Arab students participated in the survey. Social anxiety disorder was found in 12.33% of the sample, according to the LSAS cutoff score of more than 60. The 2 subsamples had similar LSAS and CBSQ scores and similar SAD-positive rates (LSAS >60). Females had higher scores on the LSAS, as were those without a spouse and those who had been in psychological treatment. Based on a regression analysis, the significant predictors of the LSAS score were the CBSQ score and female sex. A very high correlation was found between the LSAS and the CBSQ scores. Although our sample is not representative of the whole Israeli population, we conclude that SAD and shyness were similarly prevalent in Jewish and Arab students in Israel. Social anxiety disorder scores were higher among females, those without a spouse, and those who received psychological treatment. Further studies on the clinical and cultural characteristics of SAD in Israeli subcultures would add to the growing body of knowledge on SAD in various cultures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Visual search attentional bias modification reduced social phobia in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogd, E.L.; Wiers, R.W.; Prins, P.J.M.; Salemink, E.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: An attentional bias for negative information plays an important role in the development and maintenance of (social) anxiety and depression, which are highly prevalent in adolescence. Attention Bias Modification (ABM) might be an interesting tool in the prevention of

  15. Associations between body weight and depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-In Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations between body weight and mental health indicators including depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents in Grades 7–12. The body mass index (BMI of 5254 adolescents was calculated based on self-reported weight and height measurements. Body weight status was determined by the age- and gender-specific International Obesity Task Force reference tables. By using participants of average weight as the reference group, the association between body weight status (underweight, overweight, and obesity and mental health indicators (depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem were examined by using multiple regression analysis. The possible moderating effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the association were also examined. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic characteristics, both overweight (p < 0.05 and obese adolescents (p < 0.001 had a lower level of self-esteem than did those of average weight; however, no significant differences in depression, social phobia, or insomnia were found between those who were overweight/obese and those of average weight. No significant differences in the four mental health indicators were found between those who were underweight and those of average weight. Sociodemographic characteristics had no moderating effect on the association between body weight and mental health indicators. In conclusion, mental health and school professionals must take the association between overweight/obesity and self-esteem into consideration when approaching the issue of mental health among adolescents.

  16. Virtual Environments Using Video Capture for Social Phobia with Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard; Clarke, Timothy; Turner, Ruth; Fowler, David

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A novel virtual environment (VE) system was developed and used as an adjunct to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with six socially anxious patients recovering from psychosis. The novel aspect of the VE system is that it uses video capture so the patients can see a life-size projection of themselves interacting with a specially scripted and digitally edited filmed environment played in real time on a screen in front of them. Within-session process outcomes (subjective units of distress and belief ratings on individual behavioral experiments), as well as patient feedback, generated the hypothesis that this type of virtual environment can potentially add value to CBT by helping patients understand the role of avoidance and safety behaviors in the maintenance of social anxiety and paranoia and by boosting their confidence to carry out “real-life” behavioral experiments. PMID:23659722

  17. [Between anxiety and depression. The status of assertiveness disorders and social phobias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, B; Azais, F; Albercque, C; Debray, Q

    1995-05-01

    The authors try to answer the question of the nosological status of social phobias and assertiveness difficulties, which are usually included in the large group of anxious troubles. The correlation between Rathus Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and sub-scores of HDRS were studied in two populations; the first one was constituted by anxious and/or depressed patients, the second, extracted from the first one, by anxious patients only. The results show that lack of assertiveness has probably both affective and anxious components. These results are important from a nosological and therapeutic point of view.

  18. The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Based on Reducing Anxiety and Depression in Students with Social Phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Molavi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Social phobia is one of the common anxiety disorders characterized by fear of social situations, shame and embarrassment in communicating with unfamiliar people. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy in reducing anxiety and depression in students with social phobia .   Methods: An experimental pretest-posttest with control group design was used to conduct the study. The population consists of all female students in Ardabil city, 2013-2014 academic years. Using a multiple-stage cluster sampling method, a representative sample consists of 400 students was selected for the study. Then, among the students those with social phobia (based on the cut-off point, 34 participants were randomly selected and divided into two groups of 17 people (one experimental group and one control group . The participants in experimental group received acceptance and commitment therapy for 10 sessions of 90 minutes. The control group did not receive any intervention. Anxiety, depression and social phobia questionnaires were administered to the two groups before and after the intervention. Descriptive statistics and multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA were used for data analysis.   Results: The results of data analysis showed that treatment based on acceptance and commitment therapy reduces anxiety, depression and social phobia of students in the experimental group compared with the control group (p<0.001 .   Conclusion: The present study showed that acceptance and commitment therapy for students with social phobia can be used as a psychological intervention along with other intervention mechanisms.

  19. Perception of Threat in Children with Social Phobia: Comparison to Nonsocially Anxious Children before and after Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederlund, Rio; Ost, Lars-Goran

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated interpretation bias and reduced evidence for danger (RED) bias in 49 children with social phobia and 49 nonsocially anxious children between the ages of 8 and 14 years, using an ambiguous stories task. A posttreatment and follow-up measure was included for 26 of the socially phobic children to examine whether there…

  20. Peer victimization and social phobia: a follow-up study among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Klaus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri

    2013-04-01

    This study examined longitudinal associations between direct and relational peer victimization (DV/RV) and self-reported social phobia (SP) among adolescents from 15 to 17 years of age, controlling for depression and family socioeconomic covariates. A total of 3,278 Finnish adolescents with a mean age of 15.5 years were surveyed at baseline (T1), and followed up 2 years afterwards (T2) their mean age being 17.6 years. In all, 2,070 adolescents were reached for the follow-up. Both types of victimization were assessed with structured questions, SP with the Social Phobia Inventory, and depression with the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory. Socioeconomic covariates were assessed with items from the Life Events Checklist. Frequency of victimization and SP were assessed at T1 and T2, and incidence and persistence from T1 to T2. Longitudinal associations between victimization and SP were examined with three logistic regression analyses with depression and socioeconomic covariates controlled for, with SP, DV, and RV in turn as the dependent endpoint (T2) variables. Among boys a bidirectional association between DV and SP was found with DV both predicting SP [Odds Ratio (OR) 2.6] and being predicted by SP (OR 3.9). Among girls RV predicted SP (OR 2.8), but not vice versa, while depression in turn predicted DV (OR 4.3). Direct victimization and SP have a bidirectional association among boys, while among girls RV increases the risk of subsequent SP.

  1. The association between online gaming, social phobia, and depression: an internet survey

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    Wei Han-Ting

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Online gaming technology has developed rapidly within the past decade, and its related problems have received increasing attention. However, there are few studies on the psychiatric symptoms associated with excessive use of online games. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of online gamers, and the association between online gaming hours, social phobia, and depression using an internet survey. Methods An online questionnaire was designed and posted on a popular online game websites, inviting the online gamers to participate the survey. The content of the questionnaire included demographic data, profiles of internet usage and online gaming, and self-rating scales of Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS, Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN, and Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS. Results A total of 722 online gamers with a mean age of 21.8 ± 4.9 years completed the online survey within one month. 601 (83.2% participants were male, and 121 (16.8% were female. The mean weekly online gaming time was 28.2 ± 19.7 hours, which positively associated with history of online gaming (r = 0.245, p  Conclusion The online gamers with longer weekly gaming hours tended to have a longer history of online gaming, and more severe depressive, social phobic, and internet addiction symptoms. Female online gamers had fewer weekly online gaming hours and a shorter previous online gaming history, but tended to have more severe somatic, pain, and social phobic symptoms. The predictors for depression were higher social phobic symptom, higher internet addiction symptoms, longer online gaming hours, and female gender.

  2. Stable “Trait” Variance of Temperament as a Predictor of the Temporal Course of Depression and Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Gallagher, Matthew W.; Brown, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    A large body of research has found robust associations between dimensions of temperament (e.g., neuroticism, extraversion) and the mood and anxiety disorders. However, mood-state distortion (i.e., the tendency for current mood state to bias ratings of temperament) likely confounds these associations, rendering their interpretation and validity unclear. This issue is of particular relevance to clinical populations who experience elevated levels of general distress. The current study used the “trait-state-occasion” latent variable model (Cole, Martin, & Steiger, 2005) to separate the stable components of temperament from transient, situational influences such as current mood state. We examined the predictive power of the time-invariant components of temperament on the course of depression and social phobia in a large, treatment-seeking sample with mood and/or anxiety disorders (N = 826). Participants were assessed three times over the course of one year, using interview and self-report measures; most participants received treatment during this time. Results indicated that both neuroticism/behavioral inhibition (N/BI) and behavioral activation/positive affect (BA/P) consisted largely of stable, time-invariant variance (57% to 78% of total variance). Furthermore, the time-invariant components of N/BI and BA/P were uniquely and incrementally predictive of change in depression and social phobia, adjusting for initial symptom levels. These results suggest that the removal of state variance bolsters the effect of temperament on psychopathology among clinically distressed individuals. Implications for temperament-psychopathology models, psychopathology assessment, and the stability of traits are discussed. PMID:24016004

  3. Stable "trait" variance of temperament as a predictor of the temporal course of depression and social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Gallagher, Matthew W; Brown, Timothy A

    2013-08-01

    A large body of research has found robust associations between dimensions of temperament (e.g., neuroticism, extraversion) and the mood and anxiety disorders. However, mood-state distortion (i.e., the tendency for current mood state to bias ratings of temperament) likely confounds these associations, rendering their interpretation and validity unclear. This issue is of particular relevance to clinical populations who experience elevated levels of general distress. The current study used the "trait-state-occasion" latent variable model (D. A. Cole, N. C. Martin, & J. H. Steiger, 2005) to separate the stable components of temperament from transient, situational influences such as current mood state. We examined the predictive power of the time-invariant components of temperament on the course of depression and social phobia in a large, treatment-seeking sample with mood and/or anxiety disorders (N = 826). Participants were assessed 3 times over the course of 1 year, using interview and self-report measures; most participants received treatment during this time. Results indicated that both neuroticism/behavioral inhibition (N/BI) and behavioral activation/positive affect (BA/P) consisted largely of stable, time-invariant variance (57% to 78% of total variance). Furthermore, the time-invariant components of N/BI and BA/P were uniquely and incrementally predictive of change in depression and social phobia, adjusting for initial symptom levels. These results suggest that the removal of state variance bolsters the effect of temperament on psychopathology among clinically distressed individuals. Implications for temperament-psychopathology models, psychopathology assessment, and the stability of traits are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. An experimental investigation of the functional relationship between social phobia and cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahne, Jennifer; Hise, Leanne; Brenner, Misha; Lejuez, C W; MacPherson, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Individuals with social phobia (SP) represent a large group with elevated rates of cigarette smoking and cessation rates lower than that of individuals without psychopathology. For individuals with SP, cigarette smoking may be used to reduce social anxiety in anticipation of and during social situations. However, no study to date has experimentally examined this association. The aim of the current study was to experimentally examine the relationship between cigarette smoking and SP as a function of induced social stress. We recruited daily smokers ages 18-21 who scored in either a clinical or normative range on the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). Participants included 54 smokers (42.6% female, 77.8% White, age M(SD)=19.65(1.18), CPSD M(SD)=7.67(4.36), 46.30% high SP) who attended two sessions: one social stress session and one neutral session. Results indicated that high SP smokers experienced significant decreases in negative affect (NA) following smoking a cigarette when experiencing social stress. This effect was specific to high SP smokers under social stress and was not observed among individuals' average in SP or when examining changes in positive affect. For individuals with SP, cigarette smoking may be maintained due to changes in NA associated with smoking specifically in the context of social stress. These results speak to the importance of targeted cessation interventions that address the nature of smoking for individuals with SP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Personality functioning in patients with avoidant personality disorder and social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenaes, Ingeborg; Hummelen, Benjamin; Abrahamsen, Gun; Andrea, Helene; Wilberg, Theresa

    2013-12-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (APD) and social phobia (SP) are closely related, such that they are suggested to represent different severity levels of one social anxiety disorder. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare patients with APD to patients with SP, with particular focus on personality dysfunction. Ninety-one adult patients were examined by diagnostic interviews and self-report measures, including the Index of Self-Esteem and the Severity Indices of Personality Problems. Patients were categorized in three groups; SP without APD (n = 20), APD without SP (n = 15), and APD with SP (n = 56). Compared to patients with SP without APD, patients with APD reported more symptom disorders, psychosocial problems, criteria of personality disorders, and personality dysfunction regarding self-esteem, identity and relational problems. These results indicate that APD involves more severe and broader areas of personality dysfunction than SP, supporting the conceptualization of APD as a personality disorder as proposed for DSM-5.

  6. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of two short forms of the social interaction anxiety scale and the social phobia scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Blanc, Allura L; Bruce, Laura C; Heimberg, Richard G; Hope, Debra A; Blanco, Carlos; Schneier, Franklin R; Liebowitz, Michael R

    2014-06-01

    The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale are widely used measures of social anxiety. Using data from individuals with social anxiety disorder (n = 435) and nonanxious controls (n = 86), we assessed the psychometric properties of two independently developed short forms of these scales. Indices of convergent and discriminant validity, diagnostic specificity, sensitivity to treatment, and readability were examined. Comparisons of the two sets of short forms to each other and the original long forms were conducted. Both sets of scales demonstrated adequate internal consistency in the patient sample, showed expected patterns of correlation with measures of related and unrelated constructs, adequately discriminated individuals with social anxiety disorder from those without, and showed decreases in scores over the course of cognitive-behavioral therapy and/or pharmacotherapy. However, some significant differences in scale performance were noted. Implications for the clinical assessment of social anxiety are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. The moderating role of avoidance behavior on anxiety over time: Is there a difference between social anxiety disorder and specific phobia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudaz, M.; Ledermann, T.; Margraf, J.; Becker, E.S.; Craske, M.G.

    2017-01-01

    Theories of anxiety disorders and phobias have ascribed a critical role to avoidance behavior in explaining the persistence of fear and anxiety, but knowledge about the role of avoidance behavior in the maintenance of anxiety in social anxiety disorder relative to specific phobia is lacking. This

  8. A New Model to Facilitate Individualized Case Conceptualization and Treatment of Social Phobia: An Examination and Reaction to Moscovitch's Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimberg, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Moscovitch's (2009) model of social phobia is put forth as an integration and extension of previous cognitive-behavioral models. The author asserts that his approach overcomes a number of shortcomings of previous models and will serve to better guide case conceptualization, treatment planning, and intervention implementation for clients with…

  9. Is avoidant disorder part of the social phobia spectrum in a referred sample of Brazilian children and adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denardin D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of avoidant disorder was deleted from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders - fourth edition (DSM-IV based on a `committee decision' suggesting that avoidant disorder is part of the social phobia spectrum. The objective of the present study was to examine the nature of this clinical association in a referred sample of Brazilian children and adolescents. We assessed a referred sample of 375 youths using semi-structured diagnostic interview methodology. Demographic (age at admission to the study and sex and clinical (level of impairment, age at onset of symptoms and pattern of comorbidity data were assessed in subsamples of children with avoidant disorder (N = 7, social phobia (N = 26, and comorbidity between both disorders (N = 24. Although a significant difference in the male/female ratio was detected among groups (P = 0.03, none of the other clinical variables differed significantly among subjects that presented each condition separately or in combination. Most of the children with avoidant disorder fulfilled criteria for social phobia. Thus, our findings support the validity of the conceptualization of avoidant disorder as part of the social phobia spectrum in a clinical sample.

  10. Is avoidant disorder part of the social phobia spectrum in a referred sample of Brazilian children and adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Denardin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of avoidant disorder was deleted from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders - fourth edition (DSM-IV based on a `committee decision' suggesting that avoidant disorder is part of the social phobia spectrum. The objective of the present study was to examine the nature of this clinical association in a referred sample of Brazilian children and adolescents. We assessed a referred sample of 375 youths using semi-structured diagnostic interview methodology. Demographic (age at admission to the study and sex and clinical (level of impairment, age at onset of symptoms and pattern of comorbidity data were assessed in subsamples of children with avoidant disorder (N = 7, social phobia (N = 26, and comorbidity between both disorders (N = 24. Although a significant difference in the male/female ratio was detected among groups (P = 0.03, none of the other clinical variables differed significantly among subjects that presented each condition separately or in combination. Most of the children with avoidant disorder fulfilled criteria for social phobia. Thus, our findings support the validity of the conceptualization of avoidant disorder as part of the social phobia spectrum in a clinical sample.

  11. Responders and non-responders to drug treatment in social phobia : Differences at baseline and prediction of response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaap, BR; Westenberg, HGM; DenBoer, JA

    1996-01-01

    Differences between responders and non-responders to drug therapy were investigated in social phobia. Two previously published studies were pooled to obtain data of 30 patients who were treated for 12 weeks with brofaromine or fluvoxamine. Four criterion variables were used to divide patients in

  12. Amygdala activation and its functional connectivity during perception of emotional faces in social phobia and panic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demenescu, L.R.; Kortekaas, R.; Cremers, H.R.; Renken, R.J.; van Tol, M.J.; van der Wee, M.J.A.; Veltman, D.J.; den Boer, J.A.; Roelofs, K.; Aleman, A.

    Social phobia (SP) and panic disorder (PD) have been associated with aberrant amygdala responses to threat-related stimuli. The aim of the present study was to examine amygdala function and its connectivity with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during emotional face perception in PD and SP, and the

  13. Associations between Peer Victimization, Self-Reported Depression and Social Phobia among Adolescents: The Role of Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Klaus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    Associations of peer victimization with adolescent depression and social phobia (SP), while controlling for comorbidity between them, have not been sufficiently explored in earlier research. A total of 3156 Finnish adolescents aged 15-16 years participated in a survey study. Self-reported peer victimization, as well as self-reported depression…

  14. Homicidal/violent thoughts, suicidal ideation and violent behavior in adolescents with social phobia in Metropolitan Lima, Perú.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivar, Roxana; Morón, Giannina; Padilla, Martín; Alarcón, Renato D

    2014-09-01

    Social phobia and violent behavior are both important mental health problems among adolescent populations in different parts of the world. This study attempts to evaluate possible connections between social phobia, homicidal/violent thoughts, suicidal ideation, and subsequent violent behavior among adolescents living in the metropolitan area of Lima, Perú. A sample of 991 adolescents, part of the 2002 Epidemiological Study in Metropolitan Lima, conducted by the National Institute of Mental Health "Honorio Delgado-Hideyo Noguchi" (INSM "HD-HN") was studied. Social phobia was diagnosed on the basis of clinical assessment and the use of MINI, and suicidal ideation, homicidal/violent thoughts, and violent behavior were identified through the Mental Health Questionnaire. Odds ratio (OR) statistical analyses adjusted by logistic regression controlling for age and gender were performed. Variables associated with social phobia were homicidal thoughts in the last month (OR: 5.19, confidence interval [CI] at 95% 4.95-5.40), an impulse to hit known (OR: 1.56; 95% CI, 1.53-1.59) and unknown (OR: 3.98, 95% CI,3.89-4.07) persons, the wish to take revenge for a past offense (OR: 2.60, 95% CI 2.54-2.64), getting involved in fights with different kinds of weapons (OR: 1,78, 95% CI 1.70-1.87), suicidal ideation throughout lifetime (OR: 4.74, 95% CI 4.65-4.83), and life prevalence of suicidal attempt (OR: 5.39, 95% CI 5.23-5.55). Social phobia in adolescents of this Peruvian sample seems to be closely associated with both homicidal/violent thoughts, violent behavior, and suicidal ideation. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Fears and Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be more sensitive to fears because of personality traits they are born with, certain genes they' ... May 2013 More on this topic for: Teens Culture Shock Social Phobia About Serious Stress 5 Ways ...

  16. Symptom presentation and classroom functioning in a nonclinical sample of children with social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Gail A; Bernat, Debra H; Davis, Andrew A; Layne, Ann E

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates symptom presentation and school functioning in a nonclinical sample of children with social phobia (SP). Forty-five children with SP were identified via school-wide screenings and follow-up diagnostic interviews. Analyses examined types and intensity of fears, number of social situations avoided, interpersonal relationships, and classroom functioning. To identify characteristics unique to social phobic children, children with SP (n = 45) were compared to anxious children without SP (n = 56) on the above variables. Comorbidity in children with SP and factors associated with SP severity were also evaluated. Compared to anxious children without SP, children with SP feared and avoided a significantly greater number of social situations. In addition, they were significantly more likely to have trouble with making friends and to prefer being alone rather than with peers. All children with SP met criteria for at least one comorbid disorder. Significant factors explaining child-reported severity of SP were number of social situations avoided and intensity of fears. Greater severity of SP was significantly associated with poorer social skills, poorer leadership skills, greater attention difficulties, and greater learning problems in the classroom. It is important to understand the symptom presentation of SP so that children with SP are identified early and effective interventions are instituted. This is especially critical given the impact of SP on school functioning. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Self-Esteem, Social Phobia and Depression Status in Patients with Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Ayşe; Gökçe, Gökçen; Büyükburgaz, Ülkü; Selekler, Macit; KOMŞUOğLU, Sezer

    2013-12-01

    The increased risk for psychiatric disorders in epilepsy can be related to a number of clinical, psychosocial and biological factors. Due to the unpredictability of seizures and the possibility that they may occur at any time and in any place, patients with epilepsy may develop social phobia and may have feelings of worthlessness and stigma. These factors decrease their psychosocial function, self-efficacy, and quality of life and even increase the suicide rate. Considering the above-mentioned scientific data, the present study was designed to investigate phobia, self-esteem and depression status in patients with epilepsy. One hundred thirty-two patients (aged 21-52 years) and age- and gender-matched control group of 61 subjects (aged 25-60 years) were included in this study. All patients in both groups were administered the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The mean ages of the patient group and the healthy controls were 29.66±11.3 and 32.16±7.99, respectively. There was no statistical significance between the two groups in terms of age and sex (p>0.05). BDI, LSAS and CSEI scores in the patient group were statistically significantly different than in the control group (pself-esteem and depression are important comorbid conditions in epileptic patients. Psychiatric disorders are usually underrecognized and undertreated in patients with epilepsy. Therefore, it is very important to identify and treat the psychiatric comorbid conditions in epilepsy because of their significant burden on patients' quality of life.

  18. Phobias and their management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, I; Horder, J

    1987-01-01

    Disabling phobias and phobia like compulsive rituals are surprisingly common in the general population, though only a minority ask for help. Behavioural treatment (exposure) and antidepressants are the most helpful approaches. Most patients can help themselves if they use a self exposure approach systematically under the guidance of a clinician. The method seems well suited for use by general practitioners. Anti-depressants are a useful adjuvant, not a substitute, for exposure when there is evidence of depression complicating the phobias or rituals. PMID:3117246

  19. Psychometric properties of the social phobia and social interaction anxiety scales: evidence of construct equivalence in an African American sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Michele M; Sbrocco, Tracy; Tang, Dickson; Rekrut, Frances M; Condit, Caitlin

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Social Phobia Scale and Social Interaction Anxiety scale in a community sample of African Americans. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis of the combined scales comparing the data to 2- and 3-factor solutions commonly reported in the literature. The results indicated that neither solution produce an adequate fit to the data in this study. We then proceeded to conduct an exploratory factor analysis within a confirmatory framework of both scales. While we were able to extract a 2-factor solution from the data, the item composition of the factors was somewhat different for African Americans than what is typically reported in non-Hispanic White samples. While we conclude that use of the two social anxiety scales is warranted, we make recommendations regarding the interpretation of both scales with African Americans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The association between online gaming, social phobia, and depression: an internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Han-Ting; Chen, Mu-Hong; Huang, Po-Cheng; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2012-07-28

    Online gaming technology has developed rapidly within the past decade, and its related problems have received increasing attention. However, there are few studies on the psychiatric symptoms associated with excessive use of online games. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of online gamers, and the association between online gaming hours, social phobia, and depression using an internet survey. An online questionnaire was designed and posted on a popular online game websites, inviting the online gamers to participate the survey. The content of the questionnaire included demographic data, profiles of internet usage and online gaming, and self-rating scales of Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS), Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN), and Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS). A total of 722 online gamers with a mean age of 21.8 ± 4.9 years completed the online survey within one month. 601 (83.2%) participants were male, and 121 (16.8%) were female. The mean weekly online gaming time was 28.2 ± 19.7 hours, which positively associated with history of online gaming (r = 0.245, p online gaming (6.0 ± 3.1 vs. 7.2 ± 3.6 years, p = 0.001) and shorter weekly online gaming hours (23.2 ± 17.0 vs. 29.2 ± 20.2 hours, p = 0.002), but had higher DSSS (13.0 ± 9.3 vs. 10.9 ± 9.7, p = 0.032) and SPIN (22.8 ± 14.3 vs. 19.6 ± 13.5, p = 0.019) scores than the male players. The linear regression model showed that higher DSSS scores were associated with female gender, higher SPIN scores, higher CIAS scores, and longer weekly online gaming hours, with controlling for age and years of education. The online gamers with longer weekly gaming hours tended to have a longer history of online gaming, and more severe depressive, social phobic, and internet addiction symptoms. Female online gamers had fewer weekly online gaming hours and a shorter previous online gaming history, but tended to have

  1. Social Phobia in an Italian region: do Italian studies show lower frequencies than community surveys conducted in other European countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Osso Liliana

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lifetime prevalence of Social Phobia (SP in European countries other than Italy has been estimated to range from 3.5% to 16.0%. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of SP in Sardinia (Italy in order to verify the evidence of a lower frequency of SP in Italy observed in previous studies (from 1.0% to 3.1%. Methods A randomised cross sample of 1040 subjects, living in Cagliari, in rural areas, and in a mining district in Sardinia were interviewed using a Simplified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDIS. Diagnoses were made according to the 10th International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. Results Lifetime prevalence of SP was 2.2% (males: 1.5%, females: 2.8% whereas 6-month prevalence resulted in 1.5% (males: 0.9%, females: 2.1%. Mean age at onset was 16.2 ± 9.3 years. A statistically significant association was found with Depressive Episode, Dysthymia and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Conclusions The study is consistent with findings reported in several previous studies of a lower prevalence of SP in Italy. Furthermore, the results confirm the fact that SP, due to its early onset, might constitute an ideal target for early treatment aimed at preventing both the accumulation of social disabilities and impairments caused by anxiety and avoidance behaviour, as well as the onset of more serious, associated complications in later stages of the illness.

  2. Children with social phobia have lower quality friendships than children with other anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J R; Hudson, J L

    2015-01-01

    Whilst shy, socially anxious or socially withdrawn children in nonclinical community samples report lower friendship quality (FQ) than nonanxious children, no study has examined the FQ of clinically anxious children. The aim of the study was to examine the FQ of children with anxiety disorders; and whether it differs for clinical children with or without a diagnosis of social phobia (SP). The study design was cross-sectional self-report. Clinical children - 39 anxiety-disordered children with SP and 28 anxiety-disordered children without SP (No-SP) - presented for psychological treatment, and 29 nonclinical children were recruited from the community. Same-sex close friends were invited to participate using an unrestricted nomination procedure. All children were aged between 7 and 13 years. Both target child and friend completed the Friendship Quality Questionnaire and the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale. Using multilevel modeling within the framework of the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model, SP dyads were found to report lower overall FQ than No-SP dyads. SP dyads did not report lower overall FQ than nonclinical dyads. Children with SP in their diagnostic profile may be unique in their friendship experiences relative to children with other anxiety disorders.

  3. Scared to lose control? General and health locus of control in females with a phobia of vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Angela L; Boyle, Christopher; Lauchlan, Fraser

    2008-01-01

    The term emetophobia (i.e., a fear of vomiting) exists as rather an elusive predicament, often eluding conventional treatment. The present study involved 149 participants, consisting of 51 emetophobics, 48 phobic controls (i.e. those who suffered from a different phobia), and 50 nonphobic controls. Participants were administered the Rotter (1966) Locus of Control Scale and the Health Locus of Control Scale by B.S. Wallston, Wallston, Kaplan, and Maides (1976). Significant differences were found among the three groups; specifically, that emetophobics had a significantly higher internal Locus of Control Scale score with regard to both general and health-related issues than did the two control groups. It is suggested that vomiting phobics may have a fear of losing control, and that their vomiting phobia is reflective of this alternative, underlying problem. More research is required to explore the association between emetophobia and issues surrounding control; however, the current study suggests that it may be helpful for therapists to consider this aspect when treating a patient with vomiting phobia. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Avaliação de traços de personalidade em pacientes com fobia social Evaluation of personality traits in social phobia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela Gentil Savoia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Os sintomas de transtornos de personalidade (Eixo II comumente encontrados em pacientes com fobia social se sobrepõem com os sintomas que descrevem o transtorno pelo Eixo I. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar traços de personalidade em pacientes com diagnóstico de fobia social. MÉTODO: Cento e oito sujeitos com idade entre 18 e 65 anos foram avaliados pelo Inventário de Temperamento e Caráter de Cloninger. RESULTADO: Os pacientes com fobia social diferiram dos dados normativos nos seguintes traços de personalidade: Busca à Novidade, Fuga de Danos, Persistência, Autodirecionamento e Autotranscendência. CONCLUSÃO: Esses achados apontam para uma sobreposição entre a descrição dos traços de personalidade citados por Cloninger e a descrição dos sintomas de fobia social do DSM-IV, Eixo I.BACKGROUND: The symptoms of personality disorders (Axis II commonly found in social phobia patients overlap highly with the symptoms that typify the Axis I disorder and are thus linked to diagnostic process in symptomatic patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate personality traits of social phobia patients. METHOD: One hundred and eight subjects were selected, from 18 to 65 years of age, who fulfilled the criteria of social phobia. The Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI was applied. RESULTS: Social phobia patients differed in normalized data in the following personality traits: Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Persistence, Self Directedness, and Self-Transcendence. DISCUSSION: These findings point to a high overlap between Cloninger's description of the observed predominant personality traits and DSM-IV Axis I symptoms description for social phobia.

  5. A cognitive-behavior therapy applied to a social anxiety disorder and a specific phobia, case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George D. Tsitsas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available George, a 23-year-old Greek student, was referred by a psychiatrist for treatment to a University Counseling Centre in Athens. He was diagnosed with social anxiety disorder and specific phobia situational type. He was complaining of panic attacks and severe symptoms of anxiety. These symptoms were triggered when in certain social situations and also when travelling by plane, driving a car and visiting tall buildings or high places. His symptoms lead him to avoid finding himself in such situations, to the point that it had affected his daily life. George was diagnosed with social anxiety disorder and with specific phobia, situational type (in this case acrophobia and was given 20 individual sessions of cognitive-behavior therapy. Following therapy, and follow-up occurring one month post treatment, George no longer met the criteria for social phobia and symptoms leading to acrophobia were reduced. He demonstrated improvements in many areas including driving a car in and out of Athens and visiting tall buildings.

  6. Attachment styles in patients with avoidant personality disorder compared with social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenaes, Ingeborg; Pedersen, Geir; Wilberg, Theresa

    2016-09-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) and social phobia (SP) are common, closely related conditions. Little is known about the underlying processes related to the social discomfort of subjects with AvPD and SP. Both disorders are associated with interpersonal problems. An attachment perspective may shed light on similarities and differences in close relationships between the disorders. The aim of the study was to compare self-reported attachment styles in patients with AvPD and SP. We expected that patients with AvPD would have more attachment anxiety and avoidance and more often a Fearful attachment style, compared with SP. This is a cross-sectional multisite study of 90 adult patients with AvPD and SP. Patients with AvPD with and without SP (AvPD group) were compared with patients with SP without AvPD (SP group). Patients were assessed using structured diagnostic interviews and self-reporting questionnaires, including Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR). The ECR dimensions, Anxiety and Avoidance, and the new described five factors of the ECR were used. The AvPD group had higher levels of attachment anxiety than the SP group, especially for the sub-factors Anxiety for abandonment and Separation frustration. The diagnostic groups did not differ in levels of avoidance. Anxiety for abandonment was still associated with AvPD after controlling for symptom disorders and the criteria of other personality disorders. A Fearful attachment style was more frequent among patients with AvPD. The results indicate AvPD is associated with more attachment anxiety than SP. Fear of abandonment may play a significant role in the AvPD pathology. This is the first study to compare attachment styles in patients with avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) and social phobia (SP). The AvPD group had higher attachment-related anxiety than the SP group, and anxiety was most pronounced for the fear of abandonment. Fear of abandonment may play an important role in the AvPD pathology.

  7. The Prevalence and Comorbidity of Specific Phobias in College Students and Their Interest in Receiving Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Richard W.; Spates, C. Richard

    2010-01-01

    While the prevalence of specific phobias and social phobias is believed to be high in the general adult population, little data exists regarding the prevalence of these fears among college students. This paper describes an epidemiological study that surveyed 813 college students regarding the severity of fears experienced toward 12 objects and…

  8. Social phobia among long-term internally displaced persons: An epidemiological study of adults in two internally displaced person settlements in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Tarig Taha Mohamed; Ayazi, Touraj; Lien, Lars; Eide, Arne; Hauff, Edvard

    2015-09-01

    Despite the high worldwide prevalence and association with other mental disorders and disability, only few studies are available on social phobia in low-income countries. This study aims to assess the prevalence, socio-demographic correlates and comorbidity of social phobia and its association with disability among long-term internally displaced persons (IDPs) in one urban and one rural area in Central Sudan. This cross-sectional study was implemented in two IDP areas in Central Sudan. Data were collected during face-to-face interviews using structured questionnaires to assess socio-demographic factors and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to determine psychiatric diagnoses. A total of 1,876 adults were enrolled from both study areas. The overall lifetime prevalence of social phobia was 14.2%, with higher rates among IDPs in the rural area and among those who were less educated. Social phobia was associated with other mental disorders in both study areas. Disability and prolonged displacement increased the risk of having social phobia in the rural area. Further work needs to be done to improve our understanding and to establish proper interventions in dealing with social phobia, other common mental disorders and disability among long-term IDPs in these impoverished areas. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Intensive group-based CBT for child social phobia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Caroline L; Cobham, Vanessa; Waters, Allison M; Occhipinti, Stefano

    2015-05-01

    Although CBT has proven efficacious in the treatment of child social phobia (SP), most children do not present for treatment and child SP may be less responsive to treatment than other anxiety disorders. Intensive, group-based, SP-specific CBT may improve the efficacy of, and access to, treatment for child SP. The aim of this study was to provide a preliminary examination of such a program. Forty Australian children aged 7-12 years (15 male and 25 female) were allocated into treatment and waitlist groups. Clinical interviews to determine diagnostic status were conducted prior to treatment, following treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Parent and child questionnaire measures of child anxiety symptoms, internalizing symptoms, depression, social skills, social competence, and parental social anxiety were administered at the same time points. Treatment was delivered in 4 separate 3-hour sessions conducted over 3 consecutive weekends. At postassessment, 52.4% of children in the treatment group and 15.8% of children in the waitlist group were free of their SP diagnosis. At postassessment, compared to waitlist children, treatment group children demonstrated a greater drop in clinical severity, a greater increase in overall functioning, and held fewer clinical diagnoses. Treatment group children also reported a greater reduction in SP symptoms compared to waitlist children, and treatment group parents reported a greater reduction in child internalizing and anxiety symptoms, a greater increase in child social competence, and a greater decrease in parental SP symptoms, compared to parents of children in the waitlist group. By 6-month follow-up, 76.9% of the treatment group were free of their SP diagnosis and gains on all other measures were maintained. The results of this study are encouraging, and suggest that brief, intensive, group CBT for children with social anxiety is beneficial for many youngsters. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The relationship between computer gaming hours and depression or social phobia in adults. An international online survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias, Radeke

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the past decades, there was a worldwide increase in people playing video games. Researchers have started to conduct studies and identified positive and negative associations with video gaming. Comparable studies have been done.   Aim: The aim is to analyse, if there is an association between the average hours an adult participant has played computer games per day and depression or social phobia.   Methods: Data from 4,936 adults who voluntarily participated in an online survey ...

  11. Methylphenidate treatment in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and comorbid social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubchik, Pavel; Sever, Jonathan; Weizman, Abraham

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the response of social phobia (SP) symptoms to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Twenty-one ADHD patients with SP, aged between 8 and 18 years, received 12 weeks of MPH treatment. The severity of SP symptoms were assessed by the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents (LSAS-CA), and the severity of ADHD symptoms was assessed by the ADHD Rating Scale at baseline and at endpoint. MPH treatment was associated with a significant decrease in the ADHD Rating Scale scores (P<0.0001) and in the total LSAS-CA scores (P=0.013), as well as the school-related items of LSAS-CA (P=0.011). A significant correlation was found between the reductions in ADHD score and total LSAS-CA score (P=0.038), especially in school-related SP. The improvement in ADHD symptoms because of MPH treatment correlates with a parallel improvement in SP. MPH treatment appears to be safe and effective in ADHD/SP children.

  12. Avoidant personality disorder versus social phobia: the significance of childhood neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenaes, Ingeborg; Egeland, Jens; Hummelen, Benjamin; Wilberg, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) and social phobia (SP) are common disorders both in the community and in clinical settings. Whether the two disorders represent different severity levels of social anxiety disorder is currently in dispute. The relationship between AvPD and SP is probably more complex than previously assumed. Several environmental, temperamental, and constitutional factors may play a role in the etiology of AvPD and SP. Better knowledge about childhood experiences may shed light on similarities and differences between the two disorders. The aim of this study was to compare self-reported childhood experiences in AvPD and SP patients. This is a cross-sectional multi-site study of 91 adult patients with AvPD and/ or SP. We compared patients with AvPD with and without SP (AvPD group) to patients with SP without AvPD (SP group). The patients were examined using structured diagnostic interviews and self-report measures, including Child Trauma Questionnaire, Parental Bonding Instrument, and Adult Temperament Questionnaire. Both AvPD and SP were associated with negative childhood experiences. AvPD patients reported more severe childhood neglect than patients with SP, most pronounced for physical neglect. The difference between the disorders in neglect remained significant after controlling for temperamental factors and concurrent abuse. The study indicates that childhood neglect is a risk factor for AvPD and may be one contributing factor to phenomenological differences between AvPD and SP.

  13. Social phobia, depression and eating disorders during middle adolescence: longitudinal associations and treatment seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Klaus; Väänänen, Juha; Fröjd, Sari; Isomaa, Rasmus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri

    2017-11-01

    Longitudinal associations between social phobia (SP), depression and eating disorders (EDs), and the impact of antecedent SP and depression on subsequent treatment seeking for EDs have rarely been explored in prospective adolescent population studies. We aimed to examine these associations in a large-scale follow-up study among middle adolescents. We surveyed 3278 Finnish adolescents with a mean age of 15 years for these disorders. Two years later, 2070 were reached and again surveyed for psychopathology and treatment seeking. Longitudinal associations between the self-reported disorders and treatment-seeking patterns for self-acknowledged ED symptoms were examined in multivariate analyses, controlling for SP/depression comorbidity and relevant socioeconomic covariates. Self-reported anorexia nervosa (AN) at age 15 years predicted self-reported depression at age 17 years. Furthermore, self-reported SP at age 15 years predicted not seeking treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN) symptoms, while self-reported depression at age 15 years predicted not seeking treatment for AN symptoms during the follow-up period. Adolescents with AN should be monitored for subsequent depression. Barriers caused by SP to help seeking for BN, and by depression for AN, should be acknowledged by healthcare professionals who encounter socially anxious and depressive adolescents, especially when they present with eating problems.

  14. The comorbid psychiatric symptoms of Internet addiction: attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, social phobia, and hostility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ju-Yu; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Hsiu-Yueh; Yang, Ming-Jen

    2007-07-01

    To: (1) determine the association between Internet addiction and depression, self-reported symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), social phobia, and hostility for adolescents; and (2) evaluate the sex differences of association between Internet addiction and the above-mentioned psychiatric symptoms among adolescents. A total of 2114 students (1204 male and 910 female) were recruited for the study. Internet addiction, symptoms of ADHD, depression, social phobia, and hostility were evaluated by the self-report questionnaire. The results demonstrated that adolescents with Internet addiction had higher ADHD symptoms, depression, social phobia, and hostility. Higher ADHD symptoms, depression, and hostility are associated with Internet addiction in male adolescents, and only higher ADHD symptoms and depression are associated with Internet addiction in female students. These results suggest that Internet addiction is associated with symptoms of ADHD and depressive disorders. However, hostility was associated with Internet addiction only in males. Effective evaluation of, and treatment for ADHD and depressive disorders are required for adolescents with Internet addiction. More attention should be paid to male adolescents with high hostility in intervention of Internet addiction.

  15. Factor solutions of the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) in a Swedish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörtberg, Ewa; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Tillfors, Maria; Furmark, Tomas; Öst, Lars-Göran

    2017-06-01

    Culturally validated rating scales for social anxiety disorder (SAD) are of significant importance when screening for the disorder, as well as for evaluating treatment efficacy. This study examined construct validity and additional psychometric properties of two commonly used scales, the Social Phobia Scale and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, in a clinical SAD population (n = 180) and in a normal population (n = 614) in Sweden. Confirmatory factor analyses of previously reported factor solutions were tested but did not reveal acceptable fit. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA) of the joint structure of the scales in the total population yielded a two-factor model (performance anxiety and social interaction anxiety), whereas EFA in the clinical sample revealed a three-factor solution, a social interaction anxiety factor and two performance anxiety factors. The SPS and SIAS showed good to excellent internal consistency, and discriminated well between patients with SAD and a normal population sample. Both scales showed good convergent validity with an established measure of SAD, whereas the discriminant validity of symptoms of social anxiety and depression could not be confirmed. The optimal cut-off score for SPS and SIAS were 18 and 22 points, respectively. It is concluded that the factor structure and the additional psychometric properties of SPS and SIAS support the use of the scales for assessment in a Swedish population.

  16. Attentional bias and emotional reactivity as predictors and moderators of behavioral treatment for social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Andrea N; Mesri, Bita; Burklund, Lisa J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Craske, Michelle G

    2013-10-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a well-established treatment for anxiety disorders, and evidence is accruing for the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Little is known about factors that relate to treatment outcome overall (predictors), or who will thrive in each treatment (moderators). The goal of the current project was to test attentional bias and negative emotional reactivity as moderators and predictors of treatment outcome in a randomized controlled trial comparing CBT and ACT for social phobia. Forty-six patients received 12 sessions of CBT or ACT and were assessed for self-reported and clinician-rated symptoms at baseline, post treatment, 6, and 12 months. Attentional bias significantly moderated the relationship between treatment group and outcome with patients slow to disengage from threatening stimuli showing greater clinician-rated symptom reduction in CBT than in ACT. Negative emotional reactivity, but not positive emotional reactivity, was a significant overall predictor with patients high in negative emotional reactivity showing the greatest self-reported symptom reduction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Altered emotion regulation capacity in social phobia as a function of comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burklund, Lisa J; Craske, Michelle G; Taylor, Shelley E; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2015-02-01

    Social phobia (SP) has been associated with amygdala hyperreactivity to fear-relevant stimuli. However, little is known about the neural basis of SP individuals' capacity to downregulate their responses to such stimuli and how such regulation varies as a function of comorbid depression and anxiety. We completed an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study wherein SP participants without comorbidity (n = 30), with comorbid depression (n = 18) and with comorbid anxiety (n = 19) and healthy controls (n = 15) were scanned while completing an affect labeling emotion regulation task. Individuals with SP as a whole exhibited a reversal of the pattern observed in healthy controls in that they showed upregulation of amygdala activity during affect labeling. However, subsequent analyses revealed a more complex picture based on comorbidity type. Although none of the SP subgroups showed the normative pattern of amygdala downregulation, it was those with comorbid depression specifically who showed significant upregulation. Effects could not be attributed to differences in task performance, amygdala reactivity or right ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (RVLPFC) engagement, but may stem from dysfunctional communication between amygdala and RVLPFC. Furthermore, the particularly altered emotion regulation seen in those with comorbid depression could not be fully explained by symptom severity or state anxiety. Results reveal altered emotion regulation in SP, especially when comorbid with depression. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Recognition of irrationality of fear and the diagnosis of social anxiety disorder and specific phobia in adults: implications for criteria revision in DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Dalrymple, Kristy; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane; Galione, Janine N

    2010-11-01

    In DSM-IV, the diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and specific phobia in adults requires that the person recognize that his or her fear of the phobic situation is excessive or unreasonable (criterion C). The DSM-5 Anxiety Disorders Work Group has proposed replacing this criterion because some patients with clinically significant phobic fears do not recognize the irrationality of their fears. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services project we determined the number of individuals who were not diagnosed with SAD and specific phobia because they did not recognize the excessiveness or irrationality of their fear. We interviewed 3,000 psychiatric outpatients and 1,800 candidates for bariatric surgery with a modified version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. In the SAD and specific phobia modules we suspended the skip-out that curtails the modules if criterion C is not met. Patients who met all DSM-IV criteria for SAD or specific phobia except criterion C were considered to have "modified" SAD or specific phobia. The lifetime rates of DSM-IV SAD and specific phobia were 30.5 and 11.8% in psychiatric patients and 11.7 and 10.2% in bariatric surgery candidates, respectively. Less than 1% of the patients in both samples were diagnosed with modified SAD or specific phobia. Few patients were excluded from a phobia diagnosis because of criterion C. We suggest that in DSM-5 this criterion be eliminated from the SAD and specific phobia criteria sets. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Does engagement with exposure yield better outcomes? Components of presence as a predictor of treatment response for virtual reality exposure therapy for social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew; Mehta, Natasha; Tone, Erin B; Anderson, Page L

    2011-08-01

    Virtual reality exposure (VRE) has been shown to be effective for treating a variety of anxiety disorders, including social phobia. Presence, or the level of connection an individual feels with the virtual environment, is widely discussed as a critical construct both for the experience of anxiety within a virtual environment and for a successful response to VRE. Two published studies show that whereas generalized presence relates to fear ratings during VRE, it does not relate to treatment response. However, presence has been conceptualized as multidimensional, with three primary factors (spatial presence, involvement, and realness). These factors can be linked to other research on the facilitation of fear during exposure, inhibitors of treatment response (e.g., distraction), and more recent theoretical discussions of the mechanisms of exposure therapy, such as Bouton's description of expectancy violation. As such, one or more of these components of presence may be more strongly associated with the experience of fear during VRE and treatment response than the overarching construct. The current study (N=41) evaluated relations between three theorized components of presence, fear ratings during VRE, and treatment response for VRE for social phobia. Results suggest that total presence and realness subscale scores were related to in-session peak fear ratings. However, only scores on the involvement subscale significantly predicted treatment response. Implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Avoidant personality disorder versus social phobia: the significance of childhood neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Eikenaes

    Full Text Available Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD and social phobia (SP are common disorders both in the community and in clinical settings. Whether the two disorders represent different severity levels of social anxiety disorder is currently in dispute. The relationship between AvPD and SP is probably more complex than previously assumed. Several environmental, temperamental, and constitutional factors may play a role in the etiology of AvPD and SP. Better knowledge about childhood experiences may shed light on similarities and differences between the two disorders. The aim of this study was to compare self-reported childhood experiences in AvPD and SP patients.This is a cross-sectional multi-site study of 91 adult patients with AvPD and/ or SP. We compared patients with AvPD with and without SP (AvPD group to patients with SP without AvPD (SP group.The patients were examined using structured diagnostic interviews and self-report measures, including Child Trauma Questionnaire, Parental Bonding Instrument, and Adult Temperament Questionnaire.Both AvPD and SP were associated with negative childhood experiences. AvPD patients reported more severe childhood neglect than patients with SP, most pronounced for physical neglect. The difference between the disorders in neglect remained significant after controlling for temperamental factors and concurrent abuse.The study indicates that childhood neglect is a risk factor for AvPD and may be one contributing factor to phenomenological differences between AvPD and SP.

  1. Avoidant personality disorder and social phobia: Does mindreading make the difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellecchia, Giovanni; Moroni, Fabio; Colle, Livia; Semerari, Antonio; Carcione, Antonino; Fera, Teresa; Fiore, Donatella; Nicolò, Giuseppe; Pedone, Roberto; Procacci, Michele

    2018-01-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) is closely related to and partially overlaps with social phobia (SP). There is an ongoing debate as to whether AvPD and SP can be classified as separate and distinct disorders or whether these diagnoses rather reflect different degrees of severity of social anxiety. The hypothesis of this study is that in patients with AvPD and in those with AvPD and comorbid SP both interpersonal functioning and metacognitive abilities (the ability to understand mental states) are more severely impaired than they are in patients with SP only. We also hypothesise that the interpersonal and metacognitive functioning of these patients (both AvPD and AvPD+SP) is comparable to that of patients with other PD diagnoses. To test this hypothesis, we compared four groups (22 patients with SP, 32 patients with AvPD, 43 patients with both AvPD and SP and 50 patients with other personality disorders without SP and AvPD criteria) on metacognitive abilities, interpersonal functioning and global symptomatic distress. Metacognitive ability showed significant variation among the four groups, with the lowest score observed in the AvPD group. As far as the interpersonal functioning is concerned, the lack of sociability was more severe in the AvPD group compared with the SP group. These differences were maintained even after controlling for global symptomatic distress. Results are in line with the alternative model of PD, proposed in the DSM-5, as dysfunction of the self and relationships. They suggest that specific impairments in critical areas of self domains and interpersonal domains of personality functioning may serve as markers distinguishing AvPD from SP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a short form Social Interaction Anxiety (SIAS) and Social Phobia Scale (SPS) using nonparametric item response theory: the SIAS-6 and the SPS-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Lorna; Sunderland, Matthew; Andrews, Gavin; Rapee, Ronald M; Mattick, Richard P

    2012-03-01

    Shortened forms of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) were developed using nonparametric item response theory methods. Using data from socially phobic participants enrolled in 5 treatment trials (N = 456), 2 six-item scales (the SIAS-6 and the SPS-6) were developed. The validity of the scores on the SIAS-6 and the SPS-6 was then tested using traditional methods for their convergent validity in an independent clinical sample and a student sample, as well as for their sensitivity to change and diagnostic sensitivity in the clinical sample. The scores on the SIAS-6 and the SPS-6 correlated as well as the scores on the original SIAS and SPS, with scores on measures of related constructs, discriminated well between those with and without a diagnosis of social phobia, providing cutoffs for diagnosis and were as sensitive to measuring change associated with treatment as were the SIAS and SPS. Together, the SIAS-6 and the SPS-6 appear to be an efficient method of measuring symptoms of social phobia and provide a brief screening tool.

  3. The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS): a comparison of two short-form versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Thomas A; Valentiner, David P; Kim, Hyun-Soo; McGrath, Patrick B

    2014-12-01

    The widespread use of Mattick and Clarke's (1998) Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and Social Phobia Scale (SPS) led 2 independent groups of researchers to develop short forms of these measures (Fergus, Valentiner, McGrath, Gier-Lonsway, & Kim, 2012; Peters, Sunderland, Andrews, Rapee, & Mattick, 2012). This 3-part study examined the psychometric properties of Fergus et al.'s and Peters et al.'s short forms of the SIAS and SPS using an American nonclinical adolescent sample in Study 1 (N = 98), American patient sample with an anxiety disorder in Study 2 (N = 117), and both a South Korean college student sample (N = 341) and an American college student sample (N = 550) in Study 3. Scores on both sets of short forms evidenced adequate internal consistency, interitem correlations, and measurement invariance. Scores on Fergus et al.'s short forms, particularly their SIAS short form, tended to capture more unique variance in scores of criterion measures than did scores on Peters et al.'s short forms. Implications for the use of these 2 sets of short forms are discussed. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of a modified version of the Social Phobia Screening Questionnaire for use in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svedin Carl

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social phobia (social anxiety disorder - SAD is a rather common but often undetected and undertreated psychiatric condition in youths. Screening of SAD in young individuals in community samples is thus important in preventing negative outcomes. The present study is the first report on the psychometric properties of the Social Phobia Screening Questionnaire for Children and adolescents (SPSQ-C. Methods The SPSQ-C was administered to a community sample of high-school students. Test-retest reliability over three weeks was evaluated (n = 127 and internal consistency was calculated for items measuring level of fear in eight social situations. To measure concurrent validity, subjects who reported SAD on at least one occasion and randomly selected non-cases were blindly interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I, as gold standard (n = 51. Results A moderate test-retest reliability, r = .60 (P Conclusion The SPSQ-C is a short and psychometrically sound questionnaire for screening of SAD in adolescents, with the advantage of being based on the DSM-IV criteria.

  5. Is this happiness I see? Biases in the identification of emotional facial expressions in depression and social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joormann, Jutta; Gotlib, Ian H

    2006-11-01

    The present study was designed to examine the operation of depression-specific biases in the identification or labeling of facial expression of emotions. Participants diagnosed with major depression and social phobia and control participants were presented with faces that expressed increasing degrees of emotional intensity, slowly changing from a neutral to a full-intensity happy, sad, or angry expression. The authors assessed individual differences in the intensity of facial expression of emotion that was required for the participants to accurately identify the emotion being expressed. The depressed participants required significantly greater intensity of emotion than did the social phobic and the control participants to correctly identify happy expressions and less intensity to identify sad than angry expressions. In contrast, social phobic participants needed less intensity to correctly identify the angry expressions than did the depressed and control participants and less intensity to identify angry than sad expressions. Implications of these results for interpersonal functioning in depression and social phobia are discussed. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Associations in the longitudinal course of body dysmorphic disorder with major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katharine A; Stout, Robert L

    2006-06-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is an impairing and relatively common disorder that has high comorbidity with certain Axis I disorders. However, the longitudinal associations between BDD and comorbid disorders have not previously been examined. Such information may shed light on the nature of BDD's relationship to putative "near-neighbor" disorders, such as major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and social phobia. This study examined time-varying associations between BDD and these comorbid disorders in 161 participants over 1-3 years of follow-up in the first prospective longitudinal study of the course of BDD. We found that BDD had significant longitudinal associations with major depression--that is, change in the status of BDD and major depression was closely linked in time, with improvement in major depression predicting BDD remission, and, conversely, improvement in BDD predicting depression remission. We also found that improvement in OCD predicted BDD remission, but that BDD improvement did not predict OCD remission. No significant longitudinal associations were found for BDD and social phobia (although the results for analyses of OCD and social phobia were less numerically stable). These findings suggest (but do not prove) that BDD may be etiologically linked to major depression and OCD, i.e., that BDD may be a member of both the putative OCD spectrum and the affective spectrum. However, BDD does not appear to simply be a symptom of these comorbid disorders, as BDD symptoms persisted in a sizable proportion of subjects who remitted from these comorbid disorders. Additional studies are needed to elucidate the nature of BDD's relationship to commonly co-occurring disorders, as this issue has important theoretical and clinical implications.

  7. The effect of Interaction Anxiousness Scale and Brief Social Phobia Scale for screening social anxiety disorder in college students: a study on discriminative validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianqin; Yang, Jinwei; Zhou, Yuqiu; Chu, Fuliu; Zhao, Xiwu; Wang, Weiren; Wang, Yunlong; Peng, Tao

    2016-12-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most prevalent mental health problems, but there is little research concerning the effective screening instruments in practice. This study was designed to examine the discriminative validity of Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS) and Brief Social Phobia Scale (BSPS) for the screening of SAD through the compared and combined analysis. Firstly, 421 Chinese undergraduates were screened by the IAS and BSPS. Secondly, in the follow-up stage, 248 students were interviewed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used, and the related psychometric characters were checked. The results indicated that the ROC in these two scales demonstrated discrimination is in satisfactory level (range: 0.7-0.8). However, the highest agreement (92.17%) was identified when a cut-off point of 50 measured by the IAS and a cut-off point of 34 by the BSPS were combined, also with higher PPV, SENS, SPEC and OA than that reached when BSPS was used individually, as well as PPV, SPEC and OA in IAS. The findings indicate that the combination of these two scales is valid as the general screening instrument for SAD in maximizing the discriminative validity.

  8. Fobia social: estudo da prevalência em duas escolas em Porto Alegre Social phobia: a study of the prevalence in two schools in Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielly Cruvinel Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A fobia social é freqüente entre adolescentes, sendo importante a sua identificação e a determinação de potenciais prejuízos. OBJETIVOS: Relatar a prevalência e o impacto na escolaridade da fobia social em uma amostra de adolescentes. MÉTODOS: O inventário de fobia social (SPIN foi administrado em 525 alunos dos ensinos fundamental e médio, de ambos os sexos, em uma escola pública e em uma particular, na cidade de Porto Alegre, Brasil, porquanto 32 foram excluídos por respostas incompletas. Foi aplicado também um questionário para identificação das características sociodemográficas da amostra. RESULTADOS: De acordo com o SPIN, 114 dos 493 alunos (23,12% obtiveram escores iguais ou superiores a 19 pontos no referido inventário, indicando a presença de sintomas compatíveis com o diagnóstico de fobia social. As meninas tenderam a apresentar maior freqüência de transtorno de ansiedade social em relação aos meninos (p = 0,053. Não foi encontrada associação significativa entre repetência e fobia social. CONCLUSÕES: Os sintomas compatíveis com o diagnóstico de fobia social são prevalentes em adolescentes e, em virtude de seu curso crônico, podem causar sérios prejuízos nestes indivíduos. Neste estudo, não foi possível correlacionar fobia social com repetência escolar. No entanto, é de fundamental importância a identificação e o tratamento precoce deste transtorno de ansiedade.Social phobia is frequent among adolescents, and its identification and determination of potential impairments are of great importance. OBJECTIVES: To report the prevalence and impact of social phobia on education in a sample of adolescents. METHODS: The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN was administered to 525 students of primary and high school, of both genders, in one public and one private school in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, but 32 students were excluded from the study due to incomplete answers. A sociodemographic questionnaire

  9. Treating phobias or treating people of acronyms and the social context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Fourie

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Phobias are some of the most common disorders brought to the attention of treatment agents. Opsomming Fobies is van die mees algemene versteurings wat onder die aandag van terapeute en dokters kom. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  10. Internet-Based Self-Help with Therapist Feedback and in Vivo Group Exposure for Social Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per; Holmstrom, Annelie; Sparthan, Elisabeth; Furmark, Tomas; Nilsson-Ihrfelt, Elisabeth; Buhrman, Monica; Ekselius, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Sixty-four individuals with social phobia (social anxiety disorder) were assigned to a multimodal cognitive-behavioral treatment package or to a waiting list control group. Treatment consisted of a 9-week, Internet-delivered, self-help program that was combined with 2 group exposure sessions in real life and minimal therapist contact via e-mail.…

  11. Dreams In Jungian Psychology: The use of Dreams as an Instrument For Research, Diagnosis and Treatment of Social Phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodarahimi, Siamak

    2009-10-01

    The significance of dreams has been explained in psychoanalysis, depth psychology and gestalt therapy. There are many guidelines in analytic psychology for dream interpretation and integration in clinical practice. The present study, based on the Jungian analytic model, incorporated dreams as an instrument for assessment of aetiology, the psychotherapy process and the outcome of treatment for social phobia within a clinical case study. This case study describes the use of dream analysis in treating a female youth with social phobia. The present findings supported the three stage paradigm efficiency in the Jungian model for dream working within a clinical setting, i.e. written details, reassembly with amplification and assimilation. It was indicated that childhood and infantile traumatic events, psychosexual development malfunctions, and inefficient coping skills for solving current life events were expressed in the patient's dreams. Dreams can reflect a patient's aetiology, needs, illness prognosis and psychotherapy outcome. Dreams are an instrument for the diagnosis, research and treatment of mental disturbances in a clinical setting.

  12. Cross- cultural validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN): study of the items and internal consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Flávia de Lima; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2009-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to carry out the cross- cultural validation for Brazilian Portuguese of the Social Phobia Inventory, an instrument for the evaluation of fear, avoidance and physiological symptoms associated with social anxiety disorder. The process of translation and adaptation involved four bilingual professionals, appreciation and approval of the back- translation by the authors of the original scale, a pilot study with 30 Brazilian university students, and appreciation by raters who confirmed the face validity of the Portuguese version, which was named ' Inventário de Fobia Social' . As part of the psychometric study of the Social Phobia Inventory, analysis of the items and evaluation of the internal consistency of the instrument were performed in a study conducted on 2314 university students. The results demonstrated that item 11, related to the fear of public speaking, was the most frequently scored item. The correlation of the items with the total score was quite adequate, ranging from 0.44 to 0.71, as was the internal consistency, which ranged from 0.71 to 0.90. The authors conclude that the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Social Phobia Inventory proved to be adequate regarding the psychometric properties initially studied, with qualities quite close to those of the original study. Studies that will evaluate the remaining indicators of validity of the Social Phobia Inventory in clinical and non-clinical samples are considered to be opportune and necessary.

  13. Moclobemide and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Social Phobia. A Six-Month Controlled Study and 24 Months Follow Up

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Praško, J.; Dockery, C.; Horáček, J.; Houbová, P.; Kosová, J.; Klaschka, Jan; Pašková, B.; Prašková, H.; Seifertová, D.; Záleský, R.; Höschl, C.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2006), s. 473-481 ISSN 0172-780X Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : social phobia * moclobemide * cognitive behavioural therapy * placebo * controlled study * 6-months efficacy * 24-months follow up Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.924, year: 2006

  14. The Utility of the PAI and the MMPI-2 for Discriminating PTSD, Depression, and Social Phobia in Trauma-Exposed College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Weathers, Frank W.; Flood, Amanda M.; Eakin, David E.; Benson, Trisha A.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Revised (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) with regard to each instrument's utility for discriminating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from depression and social phobia in a…

  15. School Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Maureen

    2005-01-01

    School phobia is a serious disorder affecting up to 5% of elementary and middle school children. Long-term consequences include academic failure, diminished peer relationships, parental conflict, and development of additional psychiatric disorders. Hiding behind such common physical symptoms as headaches, stomachaches, and fatigue, school phobia…

  16. Predicting anxious response to a social challenge: the predictive utility of the social interaction anxiety scale and the social phobia scale in a college population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, K L; Carter, M M; Parker, S

    2002-06-01

    Trait anxiety is believed to be a hierarchical construct composed of several lower-order factors (Adv. Behav. Res. Therapy, 15 (1993) 147; J. Anxiety Disorders, 9 (1995) 163). Assessment devices such as the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, the Social Phobia Scale (SIAS and SPS; Behav. Res. Therapy, 36 (4) (1998) 455), and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI; Behav. Res. Therapy, 24 (1986) 1) are good measures of the presumably separate lower-order factors. This study compared the effectiveness of the SIAS, SPS, ASI-physical scale and STAI-T (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press (1970)) as predictors of anxious response to a social challenge (asking an aloof confederate out on a date). Consistent with the hierarchical model of anxiety, the measures of trait anxiety were moderately correlated with each other and each was a significant predictor of anxious response. The specific measures of trait social anxiety were slightly better predictors of anxious response to the social challenge than was either the ASI-physical scale or the STAI-T. The results provide evidence of the predictive validity of these social trait measures and some support for their specificity in the prediction of anxious response to a social challenge.

  17. Randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy for social phobia: outcomes and moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craske, Michelle G; Niles, Andrea N; Burklund, Lisa J; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B; Vilardaga, Jennifer C Plumb; Arch, Joanna J; Saxbe, Darby E; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an empirically supported treatment for social phobia. However, not all individuals respond to treatment and many who show improvement do not maintain their gains over the long-term. Thus, alternative treatments are needed. The current study (N = 87) was a 3-arm randomized clinical trial comparing CBT, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), and a wait-list control group (WL) in participants with a diagnosis of social phobia based on criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Participants completed 12 sessions of CBT or ACT or a 12-week waiting period. All participants completed assessments at baseline and posttreatment, and participants assigned to CBT and ACT also completed assessments 6 and 12 months following baseline. Assessments consisted of self-report measures, a public-speaking task, and clinician ratings. Multilevel modeling was used to examine between-group differences on outcomes measures. Both treatment groups outperformed WL, with no differences observed between CBT and ACT on self-report, independent clinician, or public-speaking outcomes. Lower self-reported psychological flexibility at baseline was associated with greater improvement by the 12-month follow-up in CBT compared with ACT. Self-reported fear of negative evaluation significantly moderated outcomes as well, with trends for both extremes to be associated with superior outcomes from CBT and inferior outcomes from ACT. Across treatment groups, higher perceived control and extraversion were associated with greater improvement, whereas comorbid depression was associated with poorer outcomes. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  18. Randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy for social phobia: outcomes and moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craske, Michelle G; Niles, Andrea N.; Burklund, Lisa J.; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Vilardaga, Jennifer C. Plumb; Arch, Joanna J.; Saxbe, Darby E.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an empirically supported treatment for social phobia. However, not all individuals respond to treatment and many who show improvement do not maintain their gains over the long-term. Thus, alternative treatments are needed. Method The current study (N=87) was a 3-arm randomized clinical trial comparing CBT, Acceptance and Commitment therapy (ACT), and a waitlist control group (WL) in participants with a DSM-IV diagnosis of social phobia. Participants completed 12 sessions of CBT or ACT or a 12-week waiting period. All participants completed assessments at baseline and post-treatment, and participants assigned to CBT and ACT also completed assessments at 6 and 12 months following baseline. Assessments consisted of self-report measures, a public speaking task, and clinician ratings. Results Multilevel modeling was used to examine between-group differences on outcomes measures. Both treatment groups outperformed WL, with no differences observed between CBT and ACT on self-report, independent clinician, or public speaking outcomes. Lower self-reported psychological flexibility at baseline was associated with greater improvement by the 12-mo follow-up in CBT compared to ACT. Self-reported fear of negative evaluation significantly moderated outcomes as well, with trends for both extremes to be associated with superior outcomes from CBT and inferior outcomes from ACT. Across treatment groups, higher perceived control, and extraversion were associated with greater improvement, whereas comorbid depression was associated with poorer outcomes. Conclusions Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:24999670

  19. Development of a brief version of the Social Phobia Inventory using item response theory: the Mini-SPIN-R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderka, Idan M; Pollack, Mark H; Simon, Naomi M; Smits, Jasper A J; Van Ameringen, Michael; Stein, Murray B; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2013-12-01

    The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) is a widely used measure in mental health settings and a 3-item version (mini-SPIN) has been developed as a screening instrument for social anxiety disorder. In the present study, we examined the psychometric properties of the SPIN and developed a brief version (mini-SPIN-R) designed to assess social anxiety severity using item response theory. Our sample included 569 individuals with social anxiety disorder who participated in 2 clinical trials and filled out a battery of self-report measures. Using a nonparametric kernel smoothing method we identified the most sensitive items of the SPIN. These 3 items comprised the mini-SPIN-R, which was found to have greater internal consistency, and to capture a greater range of symptoms compared to the mini-SPIN. The mini-SPIN-R evidenced superior convergent validity compared to the mini-SPIN and both measures had similar divergent validity. Thus, the mini-SPIN-R is a promising brief measure of social anxiety severity. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. The Social Interaction Phobia Scale: Continued support for the psychometric validity of the SIPS using clinical and non-clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menatti, Alison R; Weeks, Justin W; Carleton, R Nicholas; Morrison, Amanda S; Heimberg, Richard G; Hope, Debra A; Blanco, Carlos; Schneier, Franklin R; Liebowitz, Michael R

    2015-05-01

    The present study sought to extend findings supporting the psychometric validity of a promising measure of social anxiety (SA) symptoms, the Social Interaction Phobia Scale (SIPS; Carleton et al., 2009). Analyses were conducted using three samples: social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients, and healthy controls. SIPS scores of SAD patients demonstrated internal consistency and construct validity, and the previously demonstrated three-factor structure of the SIPS was replicated. Further, the SIPS total score uniquely predicted SA symptoms, and SIPS scores were significantly higher for SAD patients than GAD patients or controls. Two cut-off scores that discriminated SAD patients from GAD patients and from healthy controls were identified. The current study is the first to replicate the SIPS three-factor model in a large, treatment-seeking sample of SAD patients and establish a cut-off score discriminating SAD from GAD patients. Findings support the SIPS as a valid, SAD-specific assessment instrument. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Venereo Phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Dutta

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of venereo-phobia who was treated successfully with drug assisted systemic desensitization and electro convulsive therapy (ECT is reported. The patient was an old case of non-specific urefttis who developed fixated ideas to his genital organs in the form of worm-crawling sensation over his penis. The neurosis was associated with free-floating anxiety and masked depression.

  2. Validade e fidedignidade da escala de comportamento de segurança na ansiedade social Validity and reliability of the social phobia safety behaviour scale in social anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Regina Soares da Silva Burato

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A utilização dos comportamentos de segurança acentua a falha no processamento cognitivo e tende a distorcer a avaliação de experiências interpessoais. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a fidedignidade e a validade da escala autoaplicável Social Phobia Safety Behaviours Scale (ECSAS, visando a verificar a associação do transtorno de ansiedade social (TAS a processos cognitivos e a comportamentos de segurança. MÉTODO: Participou deste estudo uma amostra de 155 universitários, de ambos os sexos, sem história prévia de tratamento psiquiátrico, distribuídos em dois grupos (80 casos de TAS e 75 não casos, avaliados sistematicamente pelo Inventário de Fobia Social (SPIN e pela Entrevista Clínica Estruturada para o DSM-IV (SCID-IV, como recurso de confirmação diagnóstica e exclusão de outros transtornos psiquiátricos. RESULTADOS: A ECSAS apresentou consistência interna, medida pelo alfa de Cronbach, de 0,92, e, com base no método de teste e reteste, com um intervalo de duas semanas, atingiu níveis satisfatórios de estabilidade temporal, com Kappa ponderado de 0,73. Quanto à validade discriminante, apresentou valores de sensibilidade de 0,963 e de especificidade de 1. Na validade convergente apresentou correlação (r de 0,60. CONCLUSÃO: A ECSAS apresentou boas características psicométricas, contribuindo para a avaliação sistemática dos padrões de comportamentos de segurança e evitação associados ao TAS.CONTEXT: The use of safety behaviours stresses the cognitive failure and tends to distort the evaluation of interpersonal experiences. OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of the self-administered Social Phobia Safety Behaviors Scale (ECSAS in the Portuguese acronym in order to determine the association of social anxiety disorder (SAD with processes related to safety behaviors. METHOD: A total of 155 university students of both genders with no previous history of psychiatric treatment, divided into two groups (80 cases and

  3. The SPAI-18, a brief version of the social phobia and anxiety inventory: reliability and validity in clinically referred and non-referred samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vente, Wieke; Majdandžić, Mirjana; Voncken, Marisol J; Beidel, Deborah C; Bögels, Susan M

    2014-03-01

    We developed a new version of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI) in order to have a brief instrument for measuring social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD) with a strong conceptual foundation. In the construction phase, a set of items representing 5 core aspects of social anxiety was selected by a panel of social anxiety experts. The selected item pool was validated using factor analysis, reliability analysis, and diagnostic analysis in a sample of healthy participants (N = 188) and a sample of clinically referred participants diagnosed with SAD (N = 98). This procedure resulted in an abbreviated version of the Social Phobia Subscale of the SPAI consisting of 18 items (i.e. the SPAI-18), which correlated strongly with the Social Phobia Subscale of the original SPAI (both groups r = .98). Internal consistency and diagnostic characteristics using a clinical cut-off score > 48 were good to excellent (Cronbach's alpha healthy group = .93; patient group = .91; sensitivity: .94; specificity: .88). The SPAI-18 was further validated in a community sample of parents-to-be without SAD (N = 237) and with SAD (N = 65). Internal consistency was again excellent (both groups Cronbach's alpha = .93) and a screening cut-off of > 36 proved to result in good sensitivity and specificity. The SPAI-18 also correlated strongly with other social anxiety instruments, supporting convergent validity. In sum, the SPAI-18 is a psychometrically sound instrument with good screening capacity for social anxiety disorder in clinical as well as community samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Further development and validation of the Unhelpful Thoughts and Beliefs About Stuttering (UTBAS) scales: relationship to anxiety and social phobia among adults who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverach, Lisa; Menzies, Ross; Jones, Mark; O'Brian, Sue; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In an initial validation study, the Unhelpful Thoughts and Beliefs About Stuttering (UTBAS I) scale, demonstrated excellent psychometric properties as a self-report measure of the frequency of unhelpful cognitions associated with social anxiety for adults who stutter. The aim was to further validate the original UTBAS I scale, and to develop two additional scales to assess beliefs (UTBAS II) and anxiety (UTBAS III) associated with negative thoughts. A total of 140 adults seeking speech-restructuring treatment for stuttering completed the original UTBAS I scale, the newly developed UTBAS II and III scales, and self-report measures of psychological functioning. Participants also completed a first-stage screener for the presence of anxious personality disorder, and a diagnostic assessment to evaluate the presence of social phobia, according to criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The mean UTBAS I score for the present sample did not differ significantly from the mean score reported in the original UTBAS I validation study. Convergent validity was confirmed by significant correlations between the UTBAS Total score and all anxiety-related measures. Discriminant validity was established by the absence of strong correlations between the UTBAS Total score and some of the self-report measures of unrelated constructs, although it was found to tap into the negative cognitions associated with depression and life problems. Approximately one-quarter of participants met criteria for a diagnosis of DSM-IV or ICD-10 social phobia (23.5% and 27.2% respectively), and nearly one-third met first-stage screening criteria for anxious personality disorder (30%). The mean UTBAS scores for participants who met criteria for these disorders were significantly higher than scores for participants who did not, confirming known-groups validity. The present study demonstrates the validity and

  5. One session treatment for specific phobias in children: Comorbid anxiety disorders and treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sarah M; Strege, Marlene V; Oar, Ella L; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2017-03-01

    One-Session Treatment (OST) for specific phobias has been shown to be effective in reducing phobia severity; however, the effect of different types of co-occurring anxiety disorders on OST outcomes is unknown. The present study examined (1) the effects of co-occurring generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), or another non-targeted specific phobia (OSP) on the efficacy of OST for specific phobias, and (2) the effects of OST on these co-occurring disorders following treatment. Three groups of 18 youth (7-15 years) with a specific phobia and comorbid GAD, SAD, or OSP were matched on age, gender, and phobia type. Outcome measures included diagnostic status and severity, and clinician rated improvement. All groups demonstrated an improvement in their specific phobia following treatment. Treatment was equally effective regardless of co-occurring anxiety disorder. In addition, comorbid anxiety disorders improved following OST; however, this effect was not equal across groups. The SAD group showed poorer improvement in their comorbid disorder than the GAD group post-treatment. However, the SAD group continued to improve and this differential effect was not evident six-months following treatment. The current study sample was small, with insufficient power to detect small and medium effect sizes. Further, the sample only included a portion of individuals with primary GAD or SAD, which may have attenuated the findings. The current study demonstrated that co-occurring anxiety disorders did not interfere with phobia treatment. OST, despite targeting a single specific phobia type, significantly reduced comorbid symptomatology across multiple anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A meta-analysis and scoping review of social cognition performance in social phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder and other anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plana, India; Lavoie, Marie-Audrey; Battaglia, Marco; Achim, Amélie M

    2014-03-01

    Social cognition deficits are observed in a variety of psychiatric illnesses. However, data concerning anxiety disorders are sparse and difficult to interpret. This meta-analysis aims at determining if social cognition is affected in social phobia (SP) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to non-clinical controls and the specificity of such deficits relatively to other anxiety disorders. The scoping review aims to identify research gaps in the field. Forty studies assessing mentalizing, emotion recognition, social perception/knowledge or attributional style in anxiety disorders were included, totalizing 1417 anxious patients and 1321 non-clinical controls. Results indicate distinct patterns of social cognition impairments: people with PTSD show deficits in mentalizing (effect size d = -1.13) and emotion recognition (d = -1.6) while other anxiety disorders including SP showed attributional biases (d = -0.53 to d = -1.15). The scoping review identified several under investigated domains of social cognition in anxiety disorders. Some recommendations are expressed for future studies to explore the full range of social cognition in anxiety disorders and allow direct comparisons between different disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mediators and Moderators of Outcome in the Behavioral Treatment of Childhood Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Candica A.; Pina, Armando A.; Villalta, Ian K.; Beidel, Deborah C.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Crosby, Lori E.

    2009-01-01

    Data from a study involving 88 youths who participated in one of two randomized controlled treatment trials of Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children reveals that loneliness scores and social effectiveness predicted changes in social anxiety and overall functioning after the treatment. Child-reported loneliness mediated changes in social…

  8. Decrease in self-esteem mediates the association between symptoms of social phobia and depression in middle adolescence in a sex-specific manner: a 2-year follow-up of a prospective population cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Juha-Matti; Isomaa, Rasmus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari; Helminen, Mika; Marttunen, Mauri

    2014-03-19

    Social phobia and depression are common, highly comorbid disorders in middle adolescence. The mechanism underlying this comorbidity, however, is unclear. Decrease in self-esteem caused by the initial disorder might play a decisive role in the development of the subsequent disorder. The present study aimed to determine whether the association between symptoms of social phobia and depression is mediated by decrease in self-esteem in mid-adolescent girls and boys. As a part of the prospective Adolescent Mental Health Cohort (AMCH), subjects of this study were 9th grade pupils (mean age, 15.5) responding to a survey conducted in 2002-2003 (T1) and to a 2-year follow-up survey in 2004-2005 (T2) (N = 2070, mean age 17.6 years, 54.5% girls). Symptoms of social phobia without symptoms of depression at age 15 and symptoms of depression at age 17 were associated only among boys, and this association was mediated by decrease in self-esteem. Symptoms of depression without symptoms of social phobia at age 15 and symptoms of social phobia at age 17 were associated only among girls, and this association was partially mediated by decrease in self-esteem. Decrease in self-esteem plays a decisive role in the association between social phobia and depression. Self-esteem should be a key focus in interventions for adolescents suffering from social phobia or depression. Efficient intervention for the first disorder might help to prevent the decline in self-esteem and thus the incidence of the subsequent disorder. These findings are based on a sample of Finnish adolescents and should be confirmed in other jurisdictions or in more ethnically diverse samples.

  9. Decrease in self-esteem mediates the association between symptoms of social phobia and depression in middle adolescence in a sex-specific manner: a 2-year follow-up of a prospective population cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Social phobia and depression are common, highly comorbid disorders in middle adolescence. The mechanism underlying this comorbidity, however, is unclear. Decrease in self-esteem caused by the initial disorder might play a decisive role in the development of the subsequent disorder. The present study aimed to determine whether the association between symptoms of social phobia and depression is mediated by decrease in self-esteem in mid-adolescent girls and boys. Methods As a part of the prospective Adolescent Mental Health Cohort (AMCH), subjects of this study were 9th grade pupils (mean age, 15.5) responding to a survey conducted in 2002–2003 (T1) and to a 2-year follow-up survey in 2004–2005 (T2) (N = 2070, mean age 17.6 years, 54.5% girls). Results Symptoms of social phobia without symptoms of depression at age 15 and symptoms of depression at age 17 were associated only among boys, and this association was mediated by decrease in self-esteem. Symptoms of depression without symptoms of social phobia at age 15 and symptoms of social phobia at age 17 were associated only among girls, and this association was partially mediated by decrease in self-esteem. Conclusions Decrease in self-esteem plays a decisive role in the association between social phobia and depression. Self-esteem should be a key focus in interventions for adolescents suffering from social phobia or depression. Efficient intervention for the first disorder might help to prevent the decline in self-esteem and thus the incidence of the subsequent disorder. These findings are based on a sample of Finnish adolescents and should be confirmed in other jurisdictions or in more ethnically diverse samples. PMID:24641987

  10. Desenvolvimento da versão em português do Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI Desarrollo de la versión en portugués del Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI Development of the Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Picon

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo do estudo foi desenvolver a versão em português do Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI, adaptada à cultura brasileira. MÉTODOS: Após aprovação de seus autores, foram realizadas: a tradução, retrotradução e discussão entre os tradutores e os autores norte-americanos para elaboração de versão final do SPAI Português; b validade de face por avaliação de peritos; c equivalência lingüística através de estudo da correlação entre teste e o reteste dos escores das versões em português e inglês, aplicados alternadamente, em amostra de 18 voluntários bilíngües, ambos os gêneros e d estudo de praticidade (aceitabilidade e utilidade (aplicabilidade do SPAI Português através das taxas de adesão e de preenchimento inadequado em amostra populacional de 365 universitários, ambos os gêneros. RESULTADOS: A versão final do SPAI Português apresenta equivalência lingüística, semântica e técnica, e validade de face plenamente satisfatórias. A equivalência lingüística foi testada através dos coeficientes de correlação de Pearson e intraclasse para o escore diferencial (total de 0,87 (IC 95% 0,64-0,96 0,87 (IC 95% 0,63-0,95, respectivamente (p OBJETIVO: El objetivo del estudio ha sido desarrollar la versión en portugués, adaptada a la cultura brasileña, del Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI. MÉTODOS: Tras aprobación de sus autores, se realizaron: a la traducción, retrotraducción y discusión entre los traductores y autores estadounidenses para elaboración de la versión final del SPAI Portugués; b validez de cara por evaluación de peritos; c equivalencia lingüística a través de estudio de la correlación entre la prueba y la reprueba de los escores de las versiones en portugués e inglés, aplicados alternadamente, en muestra de 18 voluntarios bilingües de ambos géneros y d estudio de practicidad (aceptabilidad y utilidad (aplicabilidad del SPAI Portugués a través de

  11. Cross- cultural validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN: study of the items and internal consistency Validação transcultural da versão para o português do Brasil do Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN: estudo dos itens e da consistência interna

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    Flávia de Lima Osório

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to carry out the cross- cultural validation for Brazilian Portuguese of the Social Phobia Inventory, an instrument for the evaluation of fear, avoidance and physiological symptoms associated with social anxiety disorder. METHOD: The process of translation and adaptation involved four bilingual professionals, appreciation and approval of the back- translation by the authors of the original scale, a pilot study with 30 Brazilian university students, and appreciation by raters who confirmed the face validity of the Portuguese version, which was named " Inventário de Fobia Social" . As part of the psychometric study of the Social Phobia Inventory, analysis of the items and evaluation of the internal consistency of the instrument were performed in a study conducted on 2314 university students. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that item 11, related to the fear of public speaking, was the most frequently scored item. The correlation of the items with the total score was quite adequate, ranging from 0.44 to 0.71, as was the internal consistency, which ranged from 0.71 to 0.90. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: The authors conclude that the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Social Phobia Inventory proved to be adequate regarding the psychometric properties initially studied, with qualities quite close to those of the original study. Studies that will evaluate the remaining indicators of validity of the Social Phobia Inventory in clinical and non-clinical samples are considered to be opportune and necessary.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a validação transcultural para o português do Brasil do Social Phobia Inventory, um instrumento para avaliação e mensuração dos sintomas de medo, evitação e sintomas fisiológicos associados ao transtorno de ansiedade social. MÉTODO: O processo de tradução e adaptação envolveu quatro profissionais bilingües, apreciação e aprovação da back

  12. FAT PHOBIA IN MEXICAN NUTRITION STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacardía Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Bezares-Sarmiento, Vidalma Del Rosario; León-González, Juan Marcos

    2015-12-01

    Nutritionists play a major role in the prevention and treatment of obesity. Currently, fat phobia among nutrition students and health workers is resulting in health and social consequences. The aim of this study was to assess the fat phobia among nutrition college students of two schools from different regions in Mexico. Six hundred and thirty 18 to 25 yo nutrition students participated in the study. Fat phobia was assessed using the F-scale, containing 14 pairs of adjectives that described people with obesity. Participants achieved a mean F-scale score of 3.45, which could be considered a moderate amount of fat phobia. Only twelve per cent showed neutral or positive attitudes towards obesity (≤ 2.5), while negative attitude (≥ 2.5) was observed among 88% of all students showing a high prevalence of fat phobia towards obesity. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Morals, medicine and change: morality brokers, social phobias, and French psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Stephanie

    2008-06-01

    This paper will examine how French neurotics are being transformed into 'social phobics' and how the appearance of this group may be tied to new personal and social ideals. There are many people and factors that contribute to this changing definition of mental illness. Amongst these, I will focus on the role of three groups who are most vocally acting as morality brokers in the creation of these new subjects: psychiatrists, patients' groups and pharmaceutical companies.

  14. Relationship between adult social phobia and childhood anxiety Relação entre fobia social na vida adulta e ansiedade na infância

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    Gisele Gus Manfro

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of traumas and the presence of childhood anxiety disorders in adult patients with social phobia and investigate their influence on the presentation of the disorder. METHODS: Twenty-four adult patients with social phobia were asked about the presence of trauma before the age of 16. The K-SADS-E and the DICA-P interviews were used to assess these patients regarding childhood anxiety disorders. RESULTS: Twelve (50% patients reported a history of trauma before the age of 16. The presence of trauma did not influence the presentation of the disorder. Seventy-five percent of patients had a history of anxiety disorders in childhood. Patients with a history of at least 2 childhood anxiety disorders had an increased lifetime prevalence of major depression (10 vs. 3; p=.04 and family history of psychiatric disorders (13 vs. 6; p=.02. CONCLUSION: Anxiety disorder in childhood is associated with family history of psychiatric disorders. The presence of more than one diagnosis of anxiety disorder in childhood can be considered a risk factor for the development of depression in adult patients with social phobia.OBJETIVO: A meta desse estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de traumas e a presença de transtornos de ansiedade na infância em pacientes adultos com fobia social e investigar sua influência na apresentação do transtorno. MÉTODOS: Vinte e quatro pacientes adultos com fobia social foram questionados sobre a presença de trauma antes dos 16 anos. A presença de transtornos de ansiedade na infância foi avaliada por meio do K-SADS-E e DICA-P. RESULTADOS: Doze (50% pacientes relataram história de trauma antes dos 16 anos. A presença de trauma não influenciou a apresentação do transtorno de ansiedade social. Três quartos dos pacientes apresentavam história de transtorno de ansiedade na infância. Pacientes com história de dois ou mais transtornos de ansiedade na infância tinham uma

  15. A cross-sectional study of correlation of body image anxiety with social phobia and their association with depression in the adolescents from a rural area of Sangli district in India

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    Vivek Baliram Waghachavare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevailing socio-cultural influences lead females to desire a thin body and males a muscular body, especially in adolescents. This results in body image anxiety which may lead to social phobia. Together they can develop depression. The aim was to study the correlation of body image anxiety with social phobia and their association with depression, among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in randomly selected colleges from a rural area of Sangli district Maharashtra, India. Stratified random sampling technique used with sample size 805. Pretested self-administered questionnaire used. Percentage, Chi-square test, binary logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratio (OR and its 95% confidence intervals. Results: Of 997 study subjects body image anxiety, social phobia and depression were observed in 232 (23.3%, 193 (19.4% and 326 (32.7% participants, respectively. Binary logistic regression showed that body image anxiety (OR = 1.849 [1.22, 2.804]; P = 0.004 and social phobia (OR = 4.575 [2.952-7.09]; P < 0.001 were significant predictors for depression. Conclusions: Body image anxiety and social phobia are linked with the development of depression. This impresses the need for timely counseling and education among adolescents.

  16. Effects of corrective surgery on social phobia, psychological distress, disease-related disability and quality of life in adult strabismus patients.

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    Alpak, Gokay; Coskun, Erol; Erbagci, Ibrahim; Bez, Yasin; Okumus, Seydi; Oren, Burak; Gurler, Bulent

    2014-07-01

    Corrective surgery is done for ocular alignment and disrupted facial expression in some cases of adult strabismus patients. The effects of corrective surgery on the presence of social phobia (SP) diagnosis, the severity of social anxiety symptoms, the disease-related disability and the quality of life (QoL) among strabismus patients have not been thoroughly studied yet. The study sample was composed of patients who had undergone corrective surgery for strabismus. Preoperative and postoperative evaluations made by using standardised measures of social phobia diagnosis (DSM-IV-TR) and severity (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS)), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)), disability (Sheehan Disability Scale) and quality of life (short form-36). Preoperatively, SP diagnosis was detected in 17 of 31 (54.8%) patients, whereas postoperatively 6 of 31 (19.4%) patients had SP (p=0.001). Participants showed a significant decrease in all subscale scores and total score of both LSAS and HADS compared with their preoperative scores. Significant improvements were observed in QoL and disability scores as well. Adult strabismus patients seem to gain benefits from corrective surgery not only for their ocular misalignment but also for social anxiety levels that may be associated with improvements in their QoL and disability levels.

  17. Genetic and environmental influences on the comorbidity between depression, panic disorder, agoraphobia and social phobia: A twin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosing, Miriam A.; Gordon, Scott D.; Medland, Sarah E.; Statham, Dixie J.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wray, Naomi R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Major depression (MD) and anxiety disorders such as panic disorder (PD), agoraphobia (AG) and social phobia (SP) are heritable and highly comorbid. However, the relative importance of genetic and environmental aetiology of the covariation between these disorders, particularly the relationship between PD and AG is less clear. Methods The present study measured MD, PD and AG in a population sample of 5440 twin pairs and 1245 single twins, about 45% of whom were also scored for SP. Prevalences, within individual comorbidity and twin odds ratios for comorbidity are reported. A behavioural genetic analysis of the four disorders using the classical twin design was conducted. Results Odds ratios for MD, PD, AG, and SP in twins of individuals diagnosed with one of the four disorders were increased. Heritability estimates under a threshold-liability model for MD, PD, AG, and SP respectively were 0.33 (CI:0.30–0.42), 0.38 (CI:0.24–0.55), 0.48 (CI:0.37–0.65) of, and 0.39 (CI:0.16–0.65), with no evidence for any variance explained by the common environment shared by twins. We find that a common genetic factor explains a moderate proportion of variance in these four disorders. The genetic correlation between PD and AG was 0.83. Conclusion MD, PD, AG, and SP strongly co-aggregate within families and common genetic factors explain a moderate proportion of variance in these four disorders. The high genetic correlation between PD and AG and the increased odds ratio for PD and AG in siblings of those with AG without PD suggests a common genetic aetiology for PD and AG. PMID:19750555

  18. Genetic and environmental influences on the co-morbidity between depression, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and social phobia: a twin study.

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    Mosing, Miriam A; Gordon, Scott D; Medland, Sarah E; Statham, Dixie J; Nelson, Elliot C; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G; Wray, Naomi R

    2009-01-01

    Major depression (MD) and anxiety disorders such as panic disorder (PD), agoraphobia (AG), and social phobia (SP) are heritable and highly co-morbid. However, the relative importance of genetic and environmental etiology of the covariation between these disorders, particularly the relationship between PD and AG, is less clear. This study measured MD, PD, and AG in a population sample of 5,440 twin pairs and 1,245 single twins, about 45% of whom were also scored for SP. Prevalences, within individual co-morbidity and twin odds ratios for co-morbidity, are reported. A behavioral genetic analysis of the four disorders using the classical twin design was conducted. Odds ratios for MD, PD, AG, and SP in twins of individuals diagnosed with one of the four disorders were increased. Heritability estimates under a threshold-liability model for MD, PD, AG, and SP respectively were .33 (CI: 0.30-0.42), .38 (CI: 0.24-0.55), .48 (CI: 0.37-0.65), and .39 (CI: 0.16-0.65), with no evidence for any variance explained by the common environment shared by twins. We find that a common genetic factor explains a moderate proportion of variance in these four disorders. The genetic correlation between PD and AG was .83. MD, PD, AG, and SP strongly co-aggregate within families and common genetic factors explain a moderate proportion of variance in these four disorders. The high genetic correlation between PD and AG and the increased odds ratio for PD and AG in siblings of those with AG without PD suggests a common genetic etiology for PD and AG.

  19. Phobias, other psychiatric comorbidities and chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corchs, Felipe; Mercante, Juliane P P; Guendler, Vera Z; Vieira, Domingos S; Masruha, Marcelo R; Moreira, Frederico R; Bernik, Marcio; Zukerman, Eliova; Peres, Mario F P

    2006-12-01

    Comorbidity of chronic migraine (CM) with psychiatric disorders, mostly anxiety and mood disorders, is a well-recognized phenomenon. Phobias are one of the most common anxiety disorders in the general population. Phobias are more common in migraineurs than non-migraineurs. The clinical profile of phobias in CM has never been studied. We investigated the psychiatric profile in 56 patients with CM using the SCID I/P interview. Lifetime criteria for at least one mental disorder was found in 87.5% of the sample; 75% met criteria for at least one lifetime anxiety disorder and 60.7% of our sample fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for lifetime phobic avoidant disorders. Mood and anxiety scores were higher in phobic patients than in non-phobic CM controls. Number of phobias correlated with higher levels of anxiety and depression. Phobias are common in CM. Its recognition may influence its management. Early treatment may lead to better prognosis.

  20. EMDR therapy for specific fears and phobias: the phobia protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, A.; Luber, M.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter illustrates how EMDR Therapy can be applied in the treatment of fears and specific phobias. These conditions are highly prevalent in the general population, and are characterized by an unreasonable and severe fear related to exposure to specific objects or situations, which tend to

  1. Baseline Patient Characteristics Predicting Outcome and Attrition in Cognitive Therapy for Social Phobia: Results from a Large Multicentre Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Juergen; Wiltink, Joerg; Hiller, Wolfgang; Miller, Robert; Salzer, Simone; Sarnowsky, Stephan; Stangier, Ulrich; Strauss, Bernhard; Willutzki, Ulrike; Leibing, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We examined the role of baseline patient characteristics as predictors of outcome (end-state functioning, response and remission) and attrition for cognitive therapy (CT) in social anxiety disorder (SAD). Beyond socio-demographic and clinical variables such as symptom severity and comorbidity status, previously neglected patient characteristics (e.g., personality, self-esteem, shame, interpersonal problems and attachment style) were analysed. Data came from the CT arm of a multicentre RCT with n = 244 patients having DSM-IV SAD. CT was conducted according to the manual by Clark and Wells. Severity of SAD was assessed at baseline and end of treatment with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Multiple linear regression analyses and logistic regression analyses were applied. Up to 37% of the post-treatment variance (LSAS) could be explained by all pre-treatment variables combined. Symptom severity (baseline LSAS) was consistently negatively associated with end-state functioning and remission, but not with response. Number of comorbid diagnoses was negatively associated with end-state functioning and response, but not with remission. Self-esteem was positively associated with higher end-state functioning and more shame with better response. Attrition could not be significantly predicted. The results indicate that the initial probability for treatment success mainly depends on severity of disorder and comorbid conditions while other psychological variables are of minor importance, at least on a nomothetic level. This stands in contrast with efforts to arrive at an empirical-based foundation for differential indication and argues to search for more potent moderators of therapeutic change rather on the process level. Personality, self-esteem, shame, attachment style and interpersonal problems do not or only marginally moderate the effects of interventions in CT of social phobia. Symptom severity and comorbid diagnoses might affect treatment outcome negatively

  2. Mediating effects of bullying involvement on the relationship of body mass index with social phobia, depression, suicidality, and self-esteem and sex differences in adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Liu, Tai-Ling; Ko, Chih-Hung; Wu, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2014-03-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the mediating effect of bullying involvement on the relationships between body mass index (BMI) and mental health problems, including social phobia, depression, suicidality, and low self-esteem among adolescents in Taiwan. The moderation effect of sex on the mediating role of bullying involvement was also examined. Five thousand two hundred and fifty-two students of high schools completed the questionnaires. Victimization and perpetration of passive and active bullying were assessed using the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire. BMI was calculated from self-reported weight and height measurements. The Social Phobia Inventory, the Mandarin Chinese version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, the suicidality-related questionnaire from the epidemiological version of the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were applied to assess social phobia, depression, suicidality, and low self-esteem, respectively. The mediating effect of bullying involvement on the associations between increased BMI and mental health problems was examined by the Sobel test. The moderation effect of sex on the mediating role of bullying involvement was tested by the multiple-group structural equation model. Victimization of passive and active bullying and perpetration of passive bullying, but not perpetration of active bullying, had a mediating effect on the relationships between increased BMI and all four mental health problems. Sex did not have a significant moderation effect on the mediating role of bullying involvement. Bullying involvement should be a target of prevention and intervention in developing a strategy to improve mental health among adolescents with increased BMI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Social anxiety in the general population: introducing abbreviated versions of SIAS and SPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Nina; Denollet, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Social anxiety is characterized by the experience of stress, discomfort and fear in social situations, and is associated with substantial personal and societal burden. Two questionnaires exist that assess the aspects of social anxiety, i.e. social interaction anxiety (SIAS) and social phobia (SPS). There is no agreement in literature on the dimensionality of social anxiety. Further, the length of a questionnaire may negatively affect response rates and participation at follow-up occasions. To explore the structure of social anxiety in the general population, and to examine psychosocial and sociodemographic correlates. Our second aim was to construct abbreviated versions of SIAS and SPS that can be easily used and with minimal burden. A total of 1598 adults from the general Dutch population completed a survey asking information on social anxiety, mood and demographics. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses as well as reliability analysis with item-total statistics were performed. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a 3-factor structure for social phobia, and a 2-factor structure for the SIAS, with the second factor containing both reversely scored items. The abbreviated versions of SPS (11 items) and SIAS (10 items) show excellent discriminant and construct validity (Cronbach's α=.90 and .92), while specificity analysis showed that gender, marital status and educational level (SIAS(10): pSIAS, reducing the questionnaire burden for participants in epidemiological and biobehavioral research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Does individual attention improve the effect of group treatment of adolescents with social phobia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo José Olivares-Olivares

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio experimental es aportar evidencia empírica respecto de la relación eficacia-eficiencia de uno de los componentes (atención individualizada del programa de tratamiento psicológico estructurado Intervención en Adolescentes con Fobia Social (IAFS en jóvenes que presentan fobia social generalizada. Los cincuenta y siete sujetos participantes (63% mujeres, de edades comprendidas entre 14 y 18 años, fueron asignados al azar a tres condiciones experimentales: a IAFS sin atención individualizada, b IAFS con 6 sesiones de atención individualizada y c IAFS con 12 sesiones de atención individualizada. Los resultados muestran que los grupos que incluyen sesiones de atención individualizada alcanzan mejores resultados en la mayor parte de las medidas que evalúan la ansiedad y evitación social en el seguimiento a los 6 y 12 meses, constatándose también esta tendencia en las variables autoestima y adaptación. Se discuten estos resultados a la luz del incremento de los costes que conlleva el seguimiento individualizado de los participantes frente a la condición sin este componente.

  5. A case of choking phobia: towards a conceptual approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Rui; Melo, Raquel; Curral, Rosário; Coelho, Rui; Roma-Torres, António

    2014-03-01

    Choking phobia, also known as phagophobia or swallowing phobia is an uncommon clinical entity that has been underappreciated and is included in the new DSM-5 and upcoming ICD-11 diagnostic category of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder. Phenomenologically distinct from other eating disorders, it is characterized by the phobic stimulus of swallowing that results in the avoidance of food or drinks, and ultimately to low weight, social withdrawal, anxiety and depression states. Its prevalence and long-term course on the general population still needs to be determined, probably reflecting years of indefiniteness regarding its nosology and by the absence of a clear set of diagnostic criteria. We present a clinical case of choking phobia in a 32-year-old male patient after an episode of choke when eating chicken. An early diagnosis and distinction from other eating disorders is important for proper treatment and fundamental for prognosis. We also make a thorough revision on literature in clinical features, differential diagnosis and treatment approaches, suggesting a conceptual approach for choking phobia as a clinical spectrum settled by different degrees of phobic subtypes, which may depend on a varied number of clinical variables.

  6. The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for fears and phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loken, E K; Hettema, J M; Aggen, S H; Kendler, K S

    2014-08-01

    Although prior genetic studies of interview-assessed fears and phobias have shown that genetic factors predispose individuals to fears and phobias, they have been restricted to the DSM-III to DSM-IV aggregated subtypes of phobias rather than to individual fearful and phobic stimuli. We examined the lifetime history of fears and/or phobias in response to 21 individual phobic stimuli in 4067 personally interviewed twins from same-sex pairs from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Abuse Disorders (VATSPSUD). We performed multivariate statistical analyses using Mx and Mplus. The best-fitting model for the 21 phobic stimuli included four genetic factors (agora-social-acrophobia, animal phobia, blood-injection-illness phobia and claustrophobia) and three environmental factors (agora-social-hospital phobia, animal phobia, and situational phobia). This study provides the first view of the architecture of genetic and environmental risk factors for phobic disorders and their subtypes. The genetic factors of the phobias support the DSM-IV and DSM-5 constructs of animal and blood-injection-injury phobias but do not support the separation of agoraphobia from social phobia. The results also do not show a coherent genetic factor for the DSM-IV and DSM-5 situational phobia. Finally, the patterns of co-morbidity across individual fears and phobias produced by genetic and environmental influences differ appreciably.

  7. Is dental phobia a blood-injection-injury phobia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houtem, C.M.H.H.; Aartman, I.H.A.; Boomsma, D.I.; Ligthart, R.S.L.; Visscher, C.; de Jongh, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental phobia is part of the Blood-Injection-Injury (B-I-I) phobia subtype of specific phobia within DSM-IV-TR. To investigate the conceptual validity of this classification, the purpose of the present study was to determine the co-occurrence of dental phobia, typical dental (and B-I-I

  8. Type D personality is associated with social anxiety in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Nina; Denollet, Johan

    2014-06-01

    Research on the emotional processes associated with Type D personality is important for its further conceptualization. We examined the associations of Type D personality with social and general anxiety symptoms in a large community sample. The aim of the current study was to disentangle the associations of Type D personality and its components with social anxiety and general anxiety in a large sample from the general population. A random sample of 2,475 adults from the general population filled out questionnaires to assess Type D personality (DS-14), social anxiety (SIAS(10), SPS(11), BFNE-II), and general anxiety (HADS-A, GAD-7). Type D individuals were characterized by increased levels of both social and general anxiety. The social inhibition (SI) component of Type D personality was most strongly associated with social interaction anxiety (r = .63), while negative affectivity (NA) was strongly associated with general anxiety (GAD-7: r = .70; HADS-A: r = .66). Within social anxiety, SI was more strongly associated with facets of social interaction anxiety than with social phobia. Multiple regression analysis showed that the synergistic interaction of NA and SI was a predictor of social anxiety (SIAS(10): β = .32, p < .0005; SPS(11): β = .27, p < .0005; BFNE-II: β = .11, p = .007) independent of demographics and the scores on the individual Type D components. This interaction was not a significant predictor of general anxiety. Logistic regression using the dichotomous Type D classification demonstrated a 9.1-fold (95%CI, 7.0-11.8) increased odds of a score in the highest quartile of social interaction anxiety and a 7.6-fold (95%CI, 5.8-9.8) increased odds of high social phobia. Odds ratios for clinically relevant levels of general anxiety were 8.3 (95%CI, 5.5-12.5) for GAD-7 and 6.5 (95%CI, 3.4-12.6) for HADS-A. In the general population, Type D individuals were characterized by both social and general anxiety. The SI component of Type D is strongly associated

  9. Changing core beliefs with trial-based cognitive therapy may improve quality of life in social phobia: a randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Bitencourt Powell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine whether there are differences in quality of life (QoL improvement after treatment with the trial-based thought record (TBTR versus conventional cognitive therapy (CCT in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD. Method: A randomized trial comparing TBTR with a set of CCT techniques, which included the standard 7-column dysfunctional thought record (DTR and the positive data log (PDL in patients with SAD, generalized type. Results: Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed a significant time effect in the general health, vitality, social functioning, and mental health domains of the Short Form 36. It also indicated significant treatment effects on the bodily pain, social functioning, role-emotional, and mental health domains, with higher scores in the TBTR group. One-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA, using pretreatment values as covariates, showed that TBTR was associated with significantly better QoL post-treatment (bodily pain, social functioning and role-emotional and at follow-up (role-emotional. A significant treatment effect on the role-emotional domain at 12-month follow-up denoted a sustained effect of TBTR relative to CCT. Conclusion: This study provided preliminary evidence that TBTR is at least as effective as CCT in improving several domains of QoL in SAD, specifically when the standard 7-column DTR and the PDL are used.

  10. Changing core beliefs with trial-based cognitive therapy may improve quality of life in social phobia: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Vania Bitencourt; Oliveira, Olivia Haun de; Seixas, Camila; Almeida, Cláudia; Grangeon, Maria Conceição; Caldas, Milke; Bonfim, Thaís Delavechia; Castro, Martha; Galvão-de Almeida, Amanda; Galvão-de Almeida; Moraes, Roberta de Oliveira; Sudak, Donna; de-Oliveira, Irismar Reis

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether there are differences in quality of life (QoL) improvement after treatment with the trial-based thought record (TBTR) versus conventional cognitive therapy (CCT) in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). A randomized trial comparing TBTR with a set of CCT techniques, which included the standard 7-column dysfunctional thought record (DTR) and the positive data log (PDL) in patients with SAD, generalized type. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant time effect in the general health, vitality, social functioning, and mental health domains of the Short Form 36. It also indicated significant treatment effects on the bodily pain, social functioning, role-emotional, and mental health domains, with higher scores in the TBTR group. One-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), using pretreatment values as covariates, showed that TBTR was associated with significantly better QoL post-treatment (bodily pain, social functioning and role-emotional) and at follow-up (role-emotional). A significant treatment effect on the role-emotional domain at 12-month follow-up denoted a sustained effect of TBTR relative to CCT. This study provided preliminary evidence that TBTR is at least as effective as CCT in improving several domains of QoL in SAD, specifically when the standard 7-column DTR and the PDL are used.

  11. Needle phobia during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searing, Kimberly; Baukus, Mary; Stark, Mary Ann; Morin, Karen H; Rudell, Barb

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the experience of a pregnant woman with needle phobia and examine its impact on her antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum experience. A case study format was employed. A 21-year-old primiparous woman with diagnosed needle phobia was interviewed, and her prenatal and delivery records were reviewed. Three tasks during pregnancy were identified: seeking trusting relationships with health care providers; establishing and maintaining control and understanding; and coping with fear of needles, pain, and invasion. As frequent caregivers during childbearing, nurses with an understanding of needle phobia can help to establish trusting relationships with women with this phobia and support them and their families during childbearing and their encounters with needles. (c) 2006, AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses

  12. Predictors of Response to an Attention Modification Program in Generalized Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Nader; Taylor, Charles T.; Donohue, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: At least 3 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies have supported the efficacy of computerized attention modification programs (AMPs) in reducing symptoms of anxiety in patients diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. In this study we examined patient characteristics that predicted response to AMP in a large sample of…

  13. Using a hybrid model to investigate the comorbidity and symptom overlap between social phobia and the other anxiety disorders and unipolar mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Daniel F; McCabe, Randi E; Antony, Martin M

    2013-11-30

    New hybrid models of psychopathology have been proposed that combine the current categorical approach with symptom dimensions that are common across various disorders. The present study investigated the new hybrid model of social anxiety in a large sample of participants with anxiety disorders and unipolar mood disorders to improve understanding of the comorbidity and symptom overlap between social phobia (SOC) and the other anxiety disorders and unipolar mood disorders. Six hundred and eighty two participants from a specialized outpatient clinic for anxiety treatment completed a semi-structured diagnostic interview and the Multidimensional Assessment of Social Anxiety (MASA). A hybrid model symptom profile was identified for SOC and compared with each of the other principal diagnoses. Significant group differences were identified on each of the MASA scales. Differences also were identified when common sets of comorbidities were compared within participants diagnosed with SOC. The findings demonstrated the influence of both the principal diagnosis of SOC and other anxiety disorders and unipolar mood disorders as well as the influence of comorbid diagnoses with SOC on the six symptom dimensions. These findings highlight the need to shift to transdiagnostic assessment and treatment practices that go beyond the disorder-specific focus of the current categorical diagnostic systems. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. A dental phobia treatment within the Swedish National Health Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägglin, Catharina; Boman, Ulla Wide

    2012-01-01

    Severe dental fear/phobia (DF) is a problem for both dental care providers and for patients who often suffer from impaired oral health and from social and emotional distress.The aim of this paper was to present the Swedish model for DF treatment within the National Health Insurance System, and to describe the dental phobia treatment and its outcome at The Dental Fear Research and Treatment Clinic (DFRTC) in Gothenburg. A literature review was made of relevant policy documents on dental phobia treatment from the National Health Insurance System and for Västra Götaland region on published outcome studies from DFRTC. The treatment manual of DFRTC was also used. In Sweden, adult patients with severe DF are able to undergo behavioral treatment within the National Health Insurance System if the patient and caregivers fulfil defined criteria that must be approved for each individual case. At DFRTC dental phobia behavioral treatment is given by psychologists and dentists in an integrated model. The goal is to refer patients for general dental care outside the DFRTC after completing treatment. The DF treatment at DFRTC has shown positive effects on dental fear, attendance and acceptance of dental treatment for 80% of patients. Follow-up after 2 and 10 years confirmed these results and showed improved oral health. In addition, positive psychosomatic and psychosocial side-effects were reported, and benefits also for society were evident in terms of reduced sick-leave. In conlusion, in Sweden a model has been developed within the National Health Insurance System helping individuals with DF. Behavioral treatment conducted at DFRTC has proven successful in helping patients cope with dental care, leading to regular attendance and better oral health.

  15. Specific Phobia among U.S. Adolescents: Phenomenology and Typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Marcy; Georgiades, Katholiki; He, Jian-Ping; Schmitz, Anja; Feig, Emily; Khazanov, Gabriela Kattan; Merikangas, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Background Investigators have proposed the diagnostic value of a generalized subtype of specific phobia, with classification based upon the number of phobic fears. However, current and future typologies of specific phobia classify the condition by the nature of phobic fears. This study investigated the clinical relevance of these alternative typologies by: (1) presenting the prevalence and correlates of specific phobia separately by the number and nature of phobia types; and (2) examining the clinical and psychiatric correlates of specific phobia according to these alternative typologies. Methods The National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A) is a nationally representative face-to-face survey of 10,123 adolescents aged 13–18 years in the continental United States. Results Most adolescents with specific phobia met criteria for more than one type of phobia in their lifetime, however rates were fairly similar across DSM-IV/5 subtypes. Sex differences were consistent across DSM-IV/5 subtypes, but varied by the number of phobic types, with a female predominance observed among those with multiple types of phobias. Adolescents with multiple types of phobias exhibited an early age of onset, elevated severity and impairment, and among the highest rates of other psychiatric disorders. However, certain DSM-IV/5 subtypes (i.e. blood-injection-injury and situational) were also uniquely associated with severity and psychiatric comorbidity. Conclusions Results indicate that both quantitative and DSM-IV/5 typologies of specific phobia demonstrate diagnostic value. Moreover, in addition to certain DSM-IV/5 subtypes, a generalized subtype based on the number of phobias may also characterize youth who are at greatest risk for future difficulties. PMID:23108894

  16. Adaptação transcultural para o português do Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN para utilização entre estudantes adolescentes Adaptación transcultural al portugués del Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN para utilización entre estudiantes adolescentes Portuguese-language cross-cultural adaptation of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN to be used with adolescent students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Vilete

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: É crescente o interesse em estudar a Fobia Social, sobretudo em faixas etárias jovens, requerendo instrumentos de autopreenchimento para identificação do transtorno. Esse estudo consistiu na adaptação transcultural do Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN para sua utilização entre adolescentes estudantes brasileiros. MÉTODOS: O processo de adaptação envolveu quatro etapas: tradução; retroversão; apreciação das versões com elaboração de uma versão de consenso; e pré-teste comentado. RESULTADOS: Para cada item do instrumento, são apresentados os resultados das quatro etapas e a versão final do instrumento em português. DISCUSSÃO: É importante a utilização de mais de uma tradução e retroversão para possibilitar a comparação dos itens e a identificação de erros e assim permitir a escolha dos termos mais adequados. A realização do pré-teste comentado em um grupo semelhante à população alvo possibilita a melhor adequação do instrumento à população em que será utilizado. CONCLUSÃO: Instrumentos elaborados em língua estrangeira necessitam de processo cuidadoso de adaptação transcultural para sua utilização em uma realidade sociocultural distinta.INTRODUCCIÓN: Es creciente el interés en estudiar la Fobia Social, sobre todo en el franjas de la edad de los jóvenes, requiriendo instrumentos de auto relleno para la identificación del trastorno. Ese estudio consistió en la adaptación del Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN, para su utilización entre los adolescentes estudiantes brasileños. MÉTODOS: El proceso de adaptación abarca cuatro etapas: Traducción, Retroversión, apreciación de las Versiones, con elaboración de otra versión de Acuerdos y preteste comentado. RESULTADOS: Para cada ítem del instrumento, son presentados los resultados de las cuatro etapas y la versión final del instrumento en portugués. DISCUSIÓN: Es importante la utilización de más de una traducción y retraducci

  17. Social anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phobia - social; Anxiety disorder - social; Social phobia; SAD - social anxiety disorder ... People with social anxiety disorder fear and avoid situations in which they may be judged by others. It may begin in ...

  18. Blood Injury and Injection Phobia: The Neglected One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab Latif Wani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood injury and injection (BII phobia is a unique phobia associated with a diphasic cardiovascular response. The aim of this survey was to report the prevalence of BII phobia, its heritability, and clinical characteristics among the males and females in the Indian subcontinent. An interview and a survey were conducted using a developed BII phobia 21-item questionnaire among 3261 participant males (n=1648 and females (n=1613. Cronbach’ alpha (α of 0.972 of internal consistency was reported. The prevalence of BII phobia and associated fainting in females was slightly more than double in the males with a significant gender related effect. Similar avoidance behaviours involving hospital visits were reported for both males and females. The relative frequency of BII phobia among first and third degree relatives was found to be higher than among second degree relatives. Depression was found highly comorbid with BII phobia while a low rate of obsessive compulsion disorder (OCD and social anxiety disorder (SAD was reported. Morbidity associated with BII phobia may increase dramatically when other medical problems coincide with it.

  19. Blood Injury and Injection Phobia: The Neglected One

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Blood injury and injection (BII) phobia is a unique phobia associated with a diphasic cardiovascular response. The aim of this survey was to report the prevalence of BII phobia, its heritability, and clinical characteristics among the males and females in the Indian subcontinent. An interview and a survey were conducted using a developed BII phobia 21-item questionnaire among 3261 participant males (n = 1648) and females (n = 1613). Cronbach' alpha (α) of 0.972 of internal consistency was reported. The prevalence of BII phobia and associated fainting in females was slightly more than double in the males with a significant gender related effect. Similar avoidance behaviours involving hospital visits were reported for both males and females. The relative frequency of BII phobia among first and third degree relatives was found to be higher than among second degree relatives. Depression was found highly comorbid with BII phobia while a low rate of obsessive compulsion disorder (OCD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) was reported. Morbidity associated with BII phobia may increase dramatically when other medical problems coincide with it. PMID:25049451

  20. Social Engineering a General Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Valerica GREAVU-SERBAN; Oana SERBAN

    2014-01-01

    Social engineering is considered to be a taboo subject in nowadays society. It involves the use of social skills or to obtain usernames, passwords, credit card data, or to compromise or altering the information and systems of an entity. Social engineering methods are numerous and people using it are extremely ingenious and adaptable. This technique takes advantage of the intrinsic nature of mankind, to manipulate and obtain sensitive information, persuading people into divulge it, using excep...

  1. Generalized social anxiety disorder and avoidant personality disorder: structural analysis and treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Jonathan D; Strunk, Daniel R; Ledley, Deborah Roth; Davidson, Jonathan R T; Foa, Edna B

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable controversy about whether generalized social phobia (GSP) and avoidant personality disorder (APD) are redundant diagnostic categories. In light of the ongoing controversy, more data are needed to help determine whether GSP and APD are independent constructs. Data were obtained from 335 people seeking treatment for GSP at a two site clinical trial. Indicators of GSP and APD were obtained along with assessments of demographic factors, level of functioning, and indicators of related psychopathology. Confirmatory factor analyses of indicators of GSP and APD suggested a somewhat better fit for a two-factor solution. Comparisons of GSP patients with and without APD suggested that in addition to having more severe social phobia symptoms, patients with APD were more depressed on a self-report measure and had more functional impairment, thereby suggesting potential utility of the diagnostic category of APD. Furthermore, the presence of APD predicted treatment response, in that patients with APD had more change early in treatment than those without APD. APD and GSP remain highly related constructs, and different aspects of these data support and dispute the utility of the diagnosis of APD in GSP. Possible new directions in conceptualizing APD are discussed. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa; Chagas, Marcos Hortes Nisihara; de Oliveira, Danielle Chaves Gomes; De Martinis, Bruno Spinosa; Kapczinski, Flávio; Quevedo, João; Roesler, Rafael; Schröder, Nadja; Nardi, Antonio E; Martín-Santos, Rocio; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre S

    2011-01-01

    Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is one of the most common anxiety conditions with impairment in social life. Cannabidiol (CBD), one major non-psychotomimetic compound of the cannabis sativa plant, has shown anxiolytic effects both in humans and in animals. This preliminary study aimed to compare the effects of a simulation public speaking test (SPST) on healthy control (HC) patients and treatment-naïve SAD patients who received a single dose of CBD or placebo. A total of 24 never-treated patients with SAD were allocated to receive either CBD (600 mg; n=12) or placebo (placebo; n=12) in a double-blind randomized design 1 h and a half before the test. The same number of HC (n=12) performed the SPST without receiving any medication. Each volunteer participated in only one experimental session in a double-blind procedure. Subjective ratings on the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) and Negative Self-Statement scale (SSPS-N) and physiological measures (blood pressure, heart rate, and skin conductance) were measured at six different time points during the SPST. The results were submitted to a repeated-measures analysis of variance. Pretreatment with CBD significantly reduced anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort in their speech performance, and significantly decreased alert in their anticipatory speech. The placebo group presented higher anxiety, cognitive impairment, discomfort, and alert levels when compared with the control group as assessed with the VAMS. The SSPS-N scores evidenced significant increases during the testing of placebo group that was almost abolished in the CBD group. No significant differences were observed between CBD and HC in SSPS-N scores or in the cognitive impairment, discomfort, and alert factors of VAMS. The increase in anxiety induced by the SPST on subjects with SAD was reduced with the use of CBD, resulting in a similar response as the HC. PMID:21307846

  3. State Phobia and Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Mitchell; Villadsen, Kaspar

    State Phobia draws extensively upon the work of Michel Foucault to argue for the necessity of the concept of the state in political and social analysis. In so doing, it takes on not only the dominant view in the human sciences that the concept of the state is outmoded, but also the large...... interpretative literature on Foucault, which claims that he displaces the state for a de-centered analytics of power. Understanding Foucault means understanding all his interlocutors—whether Marxists, Maoists, neoliberals, or social democrats. It requires turning to Foucault's colleagues, including Deleuze...... with the exercise of political sovereignty, yet his work cannot make visible the concept of the state. Moving beyond Foucault, the authors outline new ways of conceiving the state's role in establishing social order and in mediating between an inequality-producing capitalist economy and the juridical equality...

  4. Pre-treatment predictors and in-treatment factors associated with change in avoidant and dependent personality disorder traits among patients with social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borge, Finn-Magnus; Hoffart, Asle; Sexton, Harold; Martinsen, Egil; Gude, Tore; Hedley, Liv Margaret; Abrahamsen, Gun

    2010-01-01

    We examined changes in avoidant and dependent personality disorder dimensions, and pre-treatment and in-treatment factors associated with such changes in 77 patients, randomized to medication-free residential cognitive (CT) or residential interpersonal therapy for social phobia. Personality disorders and personality dimensions according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) were assessed at pre-treatment and at one-year post-treatment. Both treatments were associated with a decrease in avoidant and dependent personality dimensions; dependent dimension decreased more in CT. Changes in cognitive factors predicted changes in both personality dimensions, whereas changes in symptoms or interpersonal factors did not. Change in the cognitive factor estimated cost was the most powerful predictor in the avoidant dimension, as it was the only predictor that remained significant in the forward regression analyses. Change in the cognitive factor estimated cost, and treatment were the most powerful predictors of change in the dependent dimension. Pre-treatment use of anxiolytics predicted larger changes in both PD dimensions.

  5. Social Engineering a General Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerica GREAVU-SERBAN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Social engineering is considered to be a taboo subject in nowadays society. It involves the use of social skills or to obtain usernames, passwords, credit card data, or to compromise or altering the information and systems of an entity. Social engineering methods are numerous and people using it are extremely ingenious and adaptable. This technique takes advantage of the intrinsic nature of mankind, to manipulate and obtain sensitive information, persuading people into divulge it, using exceptional communication skills. Thus, five models of persuasion were identified, based on: simplicity, interest, incongruity, confidence and empathy, exploiting key factors which predispose people to fall victim to attacks of social engineering such as greed, self-interest, guilt or ignorance. It is well known fact that security is as strong as the weakest link in its chain (individuals therefore, beyond technical measures, staff training is the key to success in defending against such attacks.

  6. Selective Mutism and Social Anxiety Disorder: All in the Family?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavira, Denise A.; Shipon-Blum, Elisa; Hitchcock, Carla; Cohan, Sharon; Stein, Murray B.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between a history of lifetime psychiatric disorders of parents with selective mutism (SM) in their children is examined. The results support earlier findings of a familial relationship between generalized social phobia and SM.

  7. Conditioning experiences and phobias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckelbach, H.; de Ruiter, C.; van den Hout, M.A.; Hoekstra, R.

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to examine the extent to which phobias are associated with a conditioning pathway to fear. The Phobic Origin Questionnaire (Öst and Hugdahl, Behav. Res. Ther. 19, 439-477, 1981) was administered to a sample of 91 phobic outpatients (patients with panic disorder

  8. Comorbidity in Emetophobia (Specific Phobia of Vomiting).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Mark; Boschen, Mark J; Conlon, Elizabeth G

    2016-07-01

    Emetophobia (fear of vomiting) is an anxiety disorder in which individuals report clinical levels of fear that they may vomit or be exposed to the vomit of others. The prevalence of comorbidity of emetophobia with other conditions has previously only been investigated using self-report instruments. Sixty-four adults with emetophobia participated in an online structured clinical diagnostic interview assessing the presence of emetophobia and other conditions. Higher comorbidity for depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder were found in participants compared with general population norms. Emetophobia is commonly comorbid with other anxiety and depressive disorders. Comorbidity rates, when assessed using a structured clinical interview, were lower than previously reported using self-report alone. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message Emetophobia (specific phobia of vomiting) is a clinical fear of vomiting. Individuals with emetophobia show high comorbidity with other anxiety and mood disorders. The most common comorbid conditions were generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, hypochondriasis and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clinicians should ensure that they assess for the presence of comorbid conditions when treating emetophobia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Specific Phobia in Youth: Phenomenology and Psychological Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollendick, Thomas H.; Raishevich, Natoshia; Davis, Thompson E.; Sirbu, Cristian; Öst, Lars-Göran

    2012-01-01

    Sociodemographic and psychological characteristics of 62 youth with animal and natural environment types of specific phobia were examined in a treatment-seeking sample. Differences due to age, sex, ethnicity, family structure, and family socioeconomic status were not found between youth with the two types of specific phobia. Moreover, differences were not obtained between the two groups in the clinical severity of their phobias, the perceived dangerousness of the feared outcomes associated with their phobias, the perceived levels of coping with their phobias, or overall fearfulness. However, differences between youth with the two types of specific phobias were found on somatic/anxious symptoms, depressive symptoms, and life satisfaction. In addition, differences were noted on withdrawn, somatic complaints, anxious/depressed symptoms, and social problems as reported by the mothers of these youngsters. Finally, differences in the percent of co-occurring anxiety disorders between youth with the two types of specific phobia were found. On all of the domains in which differences were found, youth with the natural environment type fared more poorly than those with the animal type. These findings converge with those obtained in treatment studies which indicate that youth with the natural environment type are more difficult to treat than youth with the animal type. PMID:20171334

  10. WAYS OF ACQUIRING FLYING PHOBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Bettina; Vriends, Noortje; Margraf, Jürgen; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-02-01

    The few studies that have explored how flying phobia is acquired have produced contradictory results. We hypothesized that classical conditioning plays a role in acquiring flying phobia and investigated if vicarious (model) learning, informational learning through media, and experiencing stressful life events at the time of onset of phobia also play a role. Thirty patients with flying phobia and thirty healthy controls matched on age, sex, and education were interviewed with the Mini-DIPS, the short German version of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) and the Fear-of-Flying History Interview. Fifty Percent of patients with flying phobia and 53% of healthy controls reported frightening events in the air. There was no significant difference between the two samples. Thus there were not more classical conditioning events for patients with flying phobia. There also was no significant difference between the two samples for vicarious (model) learning: 37% of flying phobia patients and 23% of healthy controls felt influenced by model learning. The influence of informational learning through media was significantly higher for the clinical sample (70%) than for the control group (37%). Patients with flying phobia experienced significantly more stressful life events in the period of their frightening flight experience (60%) than healthy controls (19%). Frightening experiences while flying are quite common, but not everybody develops a flying phobia. Stressful life events and other factors might enhance conditionability. Informational learning through negative media reports probably reinforces the development of flying phobia. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Radiation: facts, fallacies and phobias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigg, D. R.

    2007-01-01

    There is frequent debate in the media and the scientific published reports about the use of radiation for diagnosis and treatment, the benefits and risks of the nuclear industry, uranium mining and the storage of radioactive wastes. Driving this debate is increasing concern about reliance on fossil fuels for power generation for which alternatives are required. Unfortunately, there is generally a poor understanding of the relevant basic sciences compounded by widespread irrational fear of irradiation (radiation phobia). Radioactivity, with special reference to uranium and plutonium is simply described. How radiation affect tissues and the potential hazards to individuals and populations are explained. The origins of radiation phobia and its harmful consequences are examined. Whether we like it or not, Australia is heavily involved in the uranium industry by virtue of having one-third of the world's known reserves, exports of which are worth approximately $470m annually. As this paper has been written as simply as possible, it may also be of interest to readers who may have had little scientific training. It may be downloaded from the web using references provided in this article. It is concluded that ignorance and fear are major impediments to rational debate on radiation issues

  12. A pilot study on normative data for two social anxiety measures: The Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory and the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Olivares

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pese a que la fobia social es uno de los trastornos mentales más frecuentes en la adolescencia, existe poca investigación publicada sobre instrumentos de evaluación de la misma, bien hayan sido diseñados y/o adaptados para población adolescente. Este estudio piloto proporciona los primeros resultados sobre datos normativos en población adolescente de lengua española del Inventario de Ansiedad y Fobia Social (SPAI y la Escala de Ansiedad Social para Adolescentes (SAS-A. El SPAI y la SASA fueron cumplimentados por 303 adolescentes con y sin fobia social. Los resultados preliminares apoyan tanto a la subescala de Fobia Social del SPAI como a la puntuación Total de la SAS-A como las mejores medidas para minimizar los falsos positivos y negativos. No obstante, la mayor tasa de acuerdo se encontró cuando tanto el SPAI como la SAS-A se usaron conjuntamente, lo cual apoya la complementariedad de ambas escalas, ya que su uso conjunto incrementa la eficiencia en el diagnóstico de la fobia social, además de sugerir que estos instrumentos de evaluación parecen ser las medidas más apropiadas para su empleo como herramientas de muestreo

  13. Phobias and Preparedness - Republished Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E P

    2016-09-01

    Some inadequacies of the classical conditioning analysis of phobias are discussed: phobias are highly resistant to extinction, whereas laboratory fear conditioning, unlike avoidance conditioning, extinguishes rapidly; phobias comprise a nonarbitrary and limited set of objects, whereas fear conditioning is thought to occur to an unlimited range of conditioned stimuli. Furthermore, phobias, unlike laboratory fear conditioning, are often acquired in one trial and seem quite resistant to change by "cognitive" means. An analysis of phobias using a more contemporary model of fear conditioning is proposed. In this view, phobias are seen as instances of highly "prepared" learning (Seligman, 1970). Such prepared learning is selective, highly resistant to extinction, probably noncognitive and can be acquired in one trial. A reconstruction of the notion of symbolism is suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Glucocorticoids for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder and phobias: a novel therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Margraf, Jürgen

    2008-04-07

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and phobias belong to the most common anxiety disorders and to the most common psychiatric illnesses in general. In both disorders, aversive memories are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis and symptomatology. Previously, we have reported that elevated glucocorticoid levels inhibit memory retrieval in animals and healthy humans. We therefore hypothesized that the administration of glucocorticoids might also inhibit the retrieval of aversive memory, thereby reducing symptoms in patients with PTSD and phobias. In recent clinical studies, we found first evidence to support this hypothesis. In patients with PTSD, low-dose cortisol treatment for one month reduced symptoms of traumatic memories without causing adverse side effects. Furthermore, we found evidence for a prolonged effect of the cortisol treatment. Persistent retrieval and reconsolidation of traumatic memories is a process that keeps these memories vivid and thereby the disorder alive. By inhibiting memory retrieval, cortisol may weaken the traumatic memory trace, and thus reduce symptoms even beyond the treatment period. In patients with social phobia, we found that a single oral administration of cortisone 1 h before a socio-evaluative stressor significantly reduced self-reported fear during the anticipation-, exposure-, and recovery phase of the stressor. In subjects with spider phobia, repeated oral administration of cortisol 1 h before exposure to a spider photograph induced a progressive reduction of stimulus-induced fear. This effect was maintained when subjects were exposed to the stimulus again two days after the last cortisol administration, indicating that cortisol facilitated the extinction of phobic fear. In conclusion, by a common mechanism of reducing the retrieval of aversive memories, glucocorticoids may be suited for the treatment of PTSD as well as phobias. More studies are needed to further evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of

  15. Noise Phobia in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangle

    Full Text Available Fear of thunderstorms and other forms of noise phobia are common problems in dogs. Administering medications along with changing the pet’s environment, and using behavior modification techniques can help ease the fear. Above all, do not give your pet any attention or reward when he is showing signs of fear; this will only reinforce the fearful behavior. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(11.000: 351-352

  16. Prevalence of common phobias and their socio-demographic correlates in children and adolescents in a traditional developing society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, A; Ghuloum, S; Dafeeah, E E

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the most common phobias in children and adolescents and to determine the prevalence, age distribution, and socio-demographic correlates of phobias. This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted at public and private schools from July 2009 to February 2009. The questionnaire included socio-demographic information, extra-curricular activities and hobbies, behaviour at home and various phobic fears and it was distributed among children aged 6 to 18 years. Psychiatrists determined the definitive diagnosis for various phobias by checking and screening their symptoms. Of the studied subjects, 44% were males and 56% were females. The overall prevalence of phobia in children and adolescents was 19.7%. Among children with phobia, females had higher rates of phobias (62.4% vs 37.6%) than males. Nearly half of total sufferers were in the 12-15 year age group (46.3%). Social phobia (12.7%) was the commonest phobia found followed by agoraphobia (8.6%). Secondary school children were highly afflicted with social phobia (14.9%), agoraphobia (11.7%) and specific phobia (9.6%), while preparatory students (8.3%) were more likely to have 'medical' phobia (fear of physical illness, medical tests and procedures). A significant difference was observed between the age groups in children with agoraphobia (p=0.002). The overall prevalence of phobia in children and adolescents in Qatar was higher than rates found in other epidemiologic studies, with the most common phobias observed being social phobia, agoraphobia and specific phobia.

  17. Validação da versão em português do Mini-Inventário de Fobia Social (Mini-SPIN Validation of the portuguese version of the Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo José Fonseca D'El Rey

    2009-12-01

    value of 98.6% and incorrect classification rate of 16.9%. With score of 7 points, was observed an increase in the specificity and positive predictive value (88.6% and 62.7%, while the sensitivity and negative predictive value (84.8% and 96.2% remained high. The Portuguese version of the Mini-SPIN showed satisfactory psychometric qualities in terms of discriminative validity. In this study, the cut-off of 7, was considered to be the most suitable to screening of the generalized social phobia.

  18. An investigator-blinded, randomized study to compare the efficacy of combined CBT for alcohol use disorders and social anxiety disorder versus CBT focused on alcohol alone in adults with comorbid disorders: the Combined Alcohol Social Phobia (CASP) trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Andrew J; Sannibale, Claudia; Stapinski, Lexine A; Teesson, Maree; Rapee, Ronald M; Haber, Paul S

    2013-07-30

    Alcohol use disorders and social anxiety disorder are common and disabling conditions that frequently co-exist. Although there are efficacious treatments for each disorder, only two randomized controlled trials of interventions for these combined problems have been published. We developed a new integrated treatment for comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder and Alcohol Use Disorder based on established Motivational Interviewing (MI) and Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) interventions for the separate disorders. Compared to established MI/CBT for alcohol use disorders this new intervention is hypothesised to lead to greater reductions in symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol use disorder and to produce greater improvements in quality of life. Higher levels of alcohol dependence will result in relatively poorer outcomes for the new integrated treatment. A randomised controlled trial comparing 9 sessions of individual integrated treatment for alcohol and social phobia with 9 sessions of treatment for alcohol use problems alone is proposed. Randomisation will be stratified for stable antidepressant use. Post treatment clinical assessments of alcohol consumption and diagnostic status at 3 and 6 month follow-up will be blind to allocation. The proposed trial addresses a serious gap in treatment evidence and could potentially define the appropriate treatment for a large proportion of adults affected by these problems. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12608000228381.

  19. Effect of quetiapine vs. placebo on response to two virtual public speaking exposures in individuals with social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Christopher B; Kushner, Matt G; Thuras, Paul D; Murphy, Tom G; Van Demark, Joani B; Adson, David E

    2009-04-01

    Clinical practice and open-label studies suggest that quetiapine (an atypical anti-psychotic) might improve symptoms for individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD). The purpose of this study was to provide a rigorous test of the acute impact of a single dose of quetiapine (25mg) on SAD symptoms. Individuals with SAD (N=20) were exposed to a 4-min virtual reality (VR) public speaking challenge after having received quetiapine or placebo (double-blind) 1h earlier. A parallel VR challenge occurred 1 week later using a counter-balanced cross-over (within subject) design for the medication-placebo order between the two sessions. There was no significant drug effect for quetiapine on the primary outcome measures. However, quetiapine was associated with significantly elevated heart rate and sleepiness compared with placebo. Study findings suggest that a single dose of 25mg quetiapine is not effective in alleviating SAD symptoms in individuals with fears of public speaking.

  20. Impact of alcohol intoxication and withdrawal syndrome on social phobia and panic disorder in alcoholic inpatients Impacto das fases de intoxicação e de abstinência de álcool sobre a fobia social e o transtorno de pânico em pacientes alcoolistas hospitalizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Barbosa Terra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of alcohol intoxication and withdrawal on the course of social phobia and panic disorder. METHOD: A group of 41 alcoholic inpatients undergoing detoxification therapy were interviewed using the SCID-I (DSM-IV and questions to detect fluctuations in the course of social phobia and panic disorder as a function of the different phases in alcohol dependence (intoxication, withdrawal, and lucid interval. RESULTS: Only 1 (2.4% patient presented panic disorder throughout life, and 9 (21.9% had panic attacks during alcohol intoxication or during the withdrawal syndrome. Sixteen (39% alcoholic patients showed social phobia with onset prior to drug use. However, drinking eventually became unable to alleviate social phobia symptoms or worsened such symptoms in 31.2% of social-phobic patients. While patients with social phobia reported a significant improvement in psychiatric symptoms during alcohol intoxication, patients experiencing panic attacks worsened significantly during intoxication. In the withdrawal phase, patients with social phobia tended to have more and more intense phobic symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the impact of alcohol intoxication is different for social phobia as compared to panic disorder, at first decreasing the social-phobic symptoms but later aggravating them. In panic disorder, the impact of intoxication by alcohol is more harmful, at least in the short term.OBJETIVO: Estudar o impacto das fases de intoxicação e de abstinência do uso de álcool sobre o curso da fobia social e do transtorno de pânico. MÉTODO: Um grupo de 41 pacientes hospitalizados por dependência de álcool foi entrevistado com o SCID-I (DSM-IV, adicionado de perguntas para detectar as flutuações no curso da fobia social e do transtorno do pânico em função das diferentes fases do uso da droga (intoxicação, abstinência e intervalo lúcido. RESULTADOS: Apenas um (2,4% paciente, apresentou transtorno

  1. Schumpeter's general theory of social evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    The recent neo-Schumpeterian and evolutionary economics appears to cover a much smaller range of topics than Joseph Schumpeter confronted. Thus, it has hardly been recognised that Schumpeter wanted to develop a general theory that served the analysis of evolution in any sector of social life...

  2. Panic and phobic anxiety: associations among neuroticism, physiological hyperarousal, anxiety sensitivity, and three phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, Susan L; Watson, David; Noyes, Russell; Yoder, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    A dimensional and psychometrically informed taxonomy of anxiety is emerging, but the specific and nonspecific dimensions of panic and phobic anxiety require greater clarification. In this study, confirmatory factor analyses of data from a sample of 438 college students were used to validate a model of panic and phobic anxiety with six content factors; multiple scales from self-report measures were indicators of each model component. The model included a nonspecific component of (1) neuroticism and two specific components of panic attack, (2) physiological hyperarousal, and (3) anxiety sensitivity. The model also included three phobia components of (4) classically defined agoraphobia, (5) social phobia, and (6) blood-injection phobia. In these data, agoraphobia correlated more strongly with both the social phobia and blood phobia components than with either the physiological hyperarousal or the anxiety sensitivity components. These findings suggest that the association between panic attacks and agoraphobia warrants greater attention.

  3. Social Anxiety Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Seedat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to epidemiological studies, rates of social anxiety disorder(SAD or social phobia range from 3% to 16% in the generalpopulation.[1,2]Social phobia and specific phobias have an earlier ageof onset than other anxiety disorders.

  4. Generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma eCameron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive avoidance behavior, in which an instrumental action prevents an upcoming aversive event, is a defining feature of anxiety disorders. Left unchecked, both fear and avoidance of potentially threatening stimuli may generalize to perceptually related stimuli and situations. The behavioral consequences of generalization mean that aversive learning experiences with specific threats may lead people to infer that classes of related stimuli are threatening, potentially dangerous, and need to be avoided, despite differences in physical form. Little is known about avoidance generalization in humans and the learning pathways by which it may be transmitted. In the present study, we compared two pathways to avoidance, instructions and social observation, on subsequent generalization of avoidance behavior, fear expectancy and physiological arousal. Participants first learned that one cue was a danger cue (conditioned stimulus, CS+ and another was a safety cue (CS-. Groups then were either instructed that a simple avoidance response in the presence of the CS+ cancelled upcoming shock presentations (instructed-learning group or observed a short movie showing a demonstrator performing the avoidance response to prevent shock (observational-learning group. During generalization testing, danger and safety cues were presented along with generalization stimuli that parametrically varied in perceptual similarity to the CS+. Reinstatement of fear and avoidance was also tested. Findings demonstrate, for the first time, generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance: both groups showed comparable generalization gradients in fear expectancy, avoidance behavior and arousal. Return of fear was evident, suggesting that generalized avoidance remains persistent following extinction testing. The utility of the present paradigm for research on avoidance generalization is discussed.

  5. Diagnostic comorbidity in adults with generalized anxiety disorder: impact of comorbidity on psychotherapy outcome and impact of psychotherapy on comorbid diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Michelle G; Przeworski, Amy; Fisher, Aaron J; Borkovec, Thomas D

    2010-03-01

    The current study examined the impact of comorbidity on cognitive and behavioral therapies for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as well as the impact of these therapies on diagnoses comorbid to GAD. Seventy-six treatment-seeking adults with principal diagnoses of GAD received 14 sessions of therapy. Most (n=46; 60.5%) of the sample had at least one comorbid diagnosis. Although the presence of comorbid diagnoses was associated with greater severity of GAD symptoms at pretreatment, greater severity of comorbid major depression, simple phobia, and social phobia was associated with greater change in symptoms of GAD in response to treatment, with no effect on maintenance of gains during a 2-year follow-up. Further, psychotherapy for principal GAD led to a reduction in number of comorbid diagnoses and in severity of social phobia, simple phobia, and major depression at posttreatment. At 2-year follow-up severity of social and simple phobia remained below pretreatment levels, whereas severity of depression was no longer significantly below pretreatment levels. These results suggest that although people with comorbid disorders enter treatment with more severe GAD symptomatology, they demonstrate greater change, and therefore such comorbidity does not diminish the efficacy of cognitive and behavioral therapies for GAD. In addition, the impact of these treatments for GAD may generalize to reduced severity of simple phobia, social phobia, and major depression; however, gains in severity of major depression are not maintained. 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Determinants of public phobia about infectious diseases in South Korea: effect of health communication and gender difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo; Choi, Mankyu; Lee, Tae-Ro

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the individual and social determinants of the public's phobia of infectious diseases in South Korea, where collective action was recently fueled by the public phobia over mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy [BSE]). Gender-specific multivariate regression was used to compare the public perception of BSE and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). The analysis results differentiated between the determinants of the phobia for the 2 diseases, BSE and HPAI (N = 1002). As with HIV/AIDS and leprosy, the public fear of HPAI was expressed as a disease phobia that seeks to ensure the social exclusion of infection sources, whereas the fear of BSE was influenced by social and communication factors. Therefore, BSE, unlike previous HPAI, can be rapidly amplified amid the growing distrust in health communication, in which case the social determinants of disease phobia are associated with communicator trust, social values, and political attitude toward diseases rather than disease perception. © 2013 APJPH.

  7. Finding gene-environment interactions for Phobias

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, Alice M.; Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; Eley, Thalia C.

    2008-01-01

    Phobias are common disorders causing a great deal of suffering. Studies of gene-environment interaction (G × E) have revealed much about the complex processes underlying the development of various psychiatric disorders but have told us little about phobias. This article describes what is already known about genetic and environmental influences upon phobias and suggests how this information can be used to optimise the chances of discovering G × Es for phobias. In addition to the careful concep...

  8. Recent trends in the study of specific phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pull, Charles B

    2008-01-01

    Specific phobias are prevalent and often disabling anxiety disorders. The present review examines relevant investigations that have been published during the last 2 years on major aspects of this group of disorders. Recent studies have come mainly from epidemiology, brain imagery and cognitive-behavioral therapy, including virtual reality exposure therapy. Studies published in the last 2 years confirm the high prevalence of specific phobias in the general population and provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the fear reaction after exposure to a phobic stimulus.

  9. Internet communication: an activity that appeals to shy and socially phobic people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madell, Dominic; Muncer, Steven

    2006-10-01

    Shyness (or social anxiety) and social phobia can be viewed as two distinct conditions, and this study investigates whether they are related to use of the Internet generally, and for communication purposes. 362 participants from two schools, a college and a university in the Teesside area in England were asked to complete Mattick and Clarke's (1998) Social Phobia (SPS) and Social Interaction Anxiety (SIAS) scales and also answer a questionnaire which asked them about their use of the Internet generally and for communication purposes. The findings from these suggested that social anxiety and social phobia are not highly associated with use of the Internet either in general, or for communication purposes, although minor associations with certain aspects of Internet use are discussed.

  10. Finding gene-environment interactions for phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alice M; Lau, Jennifer Y F; Eley, Thalia C

    2008-03-01

    Phobias are common disorders causing a great deal of suffering. Studies of gene-environment interaction (G x E) have revealed much about the complex processes underlying the development of various psychiatric disorders but have told us little about phobias. This article describes what is already known about genetic and environmental influences upon phobias and suggests how this information can be used to optimise the chances of discovering G x Es for phobias. In addition to the careful conceptualisation of new studies, it is suggested that data already collected should be re-analysed in light of increased understanding of processes influencing phobias.

  11. Fobia social e transtorno de pânico: relação temporal com dependência de substâncias psicoativas Fobia Social y trastorno de pánico: relación temporaria con dependencia de sustancias psicoactivas Social phobia and panic disorder: temporal relation with psychoactive substance dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Barbosa Terra

    2003-12-01

    sustancias psicoactivas. MÉTODO: los diagnósticos psiquiátricos fueron obtenidos a través de entrevista clínica semi-estructurada (SCID-I, basada en los criterios do DSM-IV. Un cuestionario fue desenvuelto por los autores, visando estudiar el relacionamiento temporáneo entre el inicio del trastorno del uso de sustancias, y el principio de trastorno de pánico y de la fobia social. RESULTADOS: apenas 1 (2.1 % paciente presentó trastorno de pánico antes del uso de sustancias psicoactivas. La mayoría de los pacientes con ataques de pánico, cumplían criterios para el diagnóstico de trastorno de ansiedad inducido por el uso de sustancias: 11 (22.9% de los pacientes tuvieron ataques de pánico apenas durante la intoxicación o en el síndrome de abstinencia, o sea, secundariamente al uso de drogas. Cuanto a la fobia social, 16 (33.3% pacientes presentaban este trastorno, siendo que, en todos, la fobia social se inició antes de comenzar el uso de sustancias psicoactivas. CONCLUSIONES: lo descubierto confirma la elevada frecuencia de fobia social en pacientes dependientes de sustancias psicoactivas, y refuerza la hipótesis de la auto-medicación en esta comorbidad, una vez que esta fobia tiende a preceder el uso de drogas. Cuanto al trastorno de pánico, en nuestra muestra, este parece derivar de una complicación del uso de sustancias psicoactivas.INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study is: 1 to determine the prevalence of panic disorder and social phobia in patients hospitalized due to the use of psychoactive substances; 2 to determine the temporal relation between the beginning of these anxiety disorders and the beginning of the use of psychoactive substances. METHODS: The psychiatric diagnoses were made by means of semi-structured clinical interviews (SCID-I, based on DSM-IV criteria. A questionnaire was developed by the authors for the purpose of studying the temporal relation between the beginning of the disorder due to psychoactive substances and the beginning

  12. Workplace phobia, workplace problems, and work ability among primary care patients with chronic mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschalla, Beate; Linden, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Work-related anxieties are frequent and have a negative effect on the occupational performance of patients and absence due to sickness. Most important is workplace phobia, that is, panic when approaching or even thinking of the workplace. This study is the first to estimate the prevalence of workplace phobia among primary care patients suffering from chronic mental disorders and to describe which illness-related or workplace-specific context factors are associated with workplace phobia. A convenience sample of 288 primary care patients with chronic mental disorders (70% women) seen by 40 primary care clinicians in Germany were assessed using a standardized diagnostic interview about mental disorders and workplace problems. Workplace phobia was assessed by the Workplace Phobia Scale and a structured Diagnostic and Statical Manual of Mental Disorders-based diagnostic interview. In addition, capacity and participation restrictions, illness severity, and sick leave were assessed. Workplace phobia was found in 10% of patients with chronic mental disorders, that is, approximately about 3% of all general practice patients. Patients with workplace phobia had longer durations of sick leave than patients without workplace phobia and were impaired to a higher degree in work-relevant capacities. They also had a higher degree of restrictions in participation in other areas of life. Workplace phobia seems to be a frequent problem in primary care. It may behoove primary care clinicians to consider workplace-related anxiety, including phobia, particularly when patients ask for a work excuse for nonspecific somatic complaints. © Copyright 2014 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  13. Consistência interna da versão em português do Mini-Inventário de Fobia Social (Mini-SPIN Internal consistency of the Portuguese version of the Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo J. Fonseca D'El Rey

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A fobia social é um grave transtorno de ansiedade que traz incapacitação e sofrimento. OBJETIVOS: Investigar a consistência interna da versão em português do Mini-Inventário de Fobia Social (Mini-SPIN. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo da consistência interna do Mini-SPIN em uma amostra de 206 estudantes universitários da cidade de São Paulo, SP. RESULTADOS: A consistência interna do instrumento, analisada pelo coeficiente alfa de Cronbach, foi de 0,81. CONCLUSÕES: Esses achados permitiram concluir que a versão em português do Mini-SPIN exibiu resultados de boa consistência interna, semelhantes aos da versão original em inglês.BACKGROUND: Social phobia is a severe anxiety disorder that brings disability and distress. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the internal consistency of the Portuguese version of the Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN. METHODS: We conducted a study of internal consistency of the Mini-SPIN in a sample of 206 college students of the city of São Paulo, SP. RESULTS: The internal consistency of the instrument, analyzed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient, was 0.81. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the Portuguese version of the Mini-SPIN has a good internal consistency, similar to those obtained with the original English version.

  14. FEARS AND PHOBIAS IN THE PERSON’S «ANXIETY ROW» PHENOMENA STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Astakhova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fear is determined as part of a sequence of so-called «number of anxiety» phenomena (fright – alarm – fear – horror – panics. Phobia isdetermined as alarming upsetting. The origin and development of fears and phobias are examined from the social viewpoint in terms of theinfluence of the «alarm raw» phenomena on the development of both an individual and the whole society.

  15. Incidence of Phobias in Iranian Psychiatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. DANESHMAND

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available During 1972 a study was undertaken in Roozbeh Mental Hospital of Tehran University to investigate the prevalence of phobias among the patients suffering from one type or another ofmental disorders. It was found that about 10 percent of the total patients visited in the hospital were suffering from phobia. Moreover, darkness, corpse, crowd, pet animals, fear from cancer and syphilis accounted for 79%of the most common phobias, among the 655 recorded cases.

  16. Anxiety disorders and onset of cardiovascular disease: the differential impact of panic, phobias and worry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batelaan, Neeltje M; ten Have, Margreet; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Tuithof, Marlous; de Graaf, Ron

    2014-03-01

    Anxiety has been linked to onset of cardiovascular disease. This study examines the differential impact of types of anxiety (panic, phobia and worry) on 3-year onset of non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD). By investigating anxiety disorders as opposed to anxiety symptoms and by using a reliable diagnostic instrument to assess anxiety, limitations of previous studies are considered. 5149 persons at risk for CVD were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The panic-type included panic disorder and panic attacks; the phobic-type included agoraphobia and social phobia, and the worry-type included generalized anxiety disorder. CVD was self-reported and required treatment or monitoring by a doctor. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographics, behavioral variables, and comorbid somatic and psychiatric disorders. During follow-up, 62 persons (1.2%) developed CVD. Baseline generalized anxiety disorder was strongly associated with onset of CVD (adjusted OR: 3.39). Further research should replicate findings and focus on biological underpinnings of this association. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ecological generalism facilitates the evolution of sociality in snapping shrimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Katherine C; Maia, Rafael; Duffy, J Emmett; Hultgren, Kristin M; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2017-12-01

    Evidence from insects and vertebrates suggests that cooperation may have enabled species to expand their niches, becoming ecological generalists and dominating the ecosystems in which they occur. Consistent with this idea, eusocial species of sponge-dwelling Synalpheus shrimps from Belize are ecological generalists with a broader host breadth and higher abundance than non-eusocial species. We evaluate whether sociality promotes ecological generalism (social conquest hypothesis) or whether ecological generalism facilitates the transition to sociality (social transition hypothesis) in 38 Synalpheus shrimp species. We find that sociality evolves primarily from host generalists, and almost exclusively so for transitions to eusociality. Additionally, sponge volume is more important for explaining social transitions towards communal breeding than to eusociality, suggesting that different ecological factors may influence the independent evolutionary origins of sociality in Synalpheus shrimps. Ultimately, our results are consistent with the social transition hypothesis and the idea that ecological generalism facilitates the transition to sociality. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  18. Comparing the prevalence rates of social phobia in a community according to ICD-10 and DSM-III-R Comparando estimativas de prevalência da fobia social na comunidade empregando-se a CID-10 e a DSM-III-R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Lopes Rocha

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This population-based study aimed to compare the prevalence rates of social phobia using DSM-III-R and CID-10, based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, in a Brazilian community. METHODS: This survey was carried out in a representative sample of 1,041 residents from Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brazil (attrition rate = 14.7%. The Brazilian version of the CIDI was used. One-month, one-year and lifetime social phobia prevalence rates were estimated, employing the DSM-III-R and ICD-10 classifications, using the CIDI computer program. RESULTS: One-month, one-year, and life prevalence rates of social phobia, based on the DSM-III-R (7.9, 9.0 and 11.7% respectively were higher than those based on the ICD-10 (4.7, 5.2 and 6.7% respectively; p OBJETIVO: Este estudo populacional visa comparar estimativas de prevalência de fobia social empregando-se a CID-10 e a DSM-III-R em uma comunidade brasileira. MÉTODOS: O levantamento foi realizado em uma amostra representativa de 1.041 residentes de Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brasil (perda = 14,7%. Foi utilizada a versão brasileira da Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. As prevalências de 1 mês, 1 ano e vida foram estimadas empregando-se as classificações CID-10 e DSM-III-R, utilizando-se o programa de computador da CIDI. RESULTADOS: As prevalências de 1 mês, 1 ano e vida da fobia social, baseadas na DSM-III-R (7,9, 9,0 e 11,7% respectivamente foram mais elevadas que aquelas baseadas na CID-10 (4,7, 5,2 e 6,7%, respectivamente; p < 0,01 para todos. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos resultados reforçam a hipótese de que as taxas de prevalência de fobia social são mais elevadas quando baseadas na DSM-III-R em comparação com a CID-10.

  19. Specific phobia predicts psychopathology in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trumpf, J.; Margraf, J.; Vriends, N.; Meyer, A.H.; Becker, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Although specific phobia is characterized by an early age at onset and by high rates of comorbidity, few studies have examined comorbid relationships prospectively. The present study investigated the association between specific phobia and the risk of a broad range of psychopathology among young

  20. Social environment and frequent attendance in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    2005-01-01

    inequalities in health or whether social factors in themselves determine the use of general practice. AIM: To examine if social factors are associated with frequent attendance in general practice after adjusting for physical and psychological health variables. DESIGN OF STUDY: Population-based cross......BACKGROUND: A lack of social support is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and a decreased effect of prevention. Frequent attenders to primary care are characterised by poorer social conditions than other patients in general practice, but we do not know whether this is due to social...... during the period November 1997-October 1998. A questionnaire about physical, psychological and social factors was sent to the patients. The associations between social factors and frequent attendance were adjusted for physical and psychological health and tendency towards somatisation. RESULTS: A total...

  1. An Examination of the MASC Social Anxiety Scale in a Non-referred sample of Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Emily R.; Jordan, Judith A.; Smith, Ashley J.; Inderbitzen-Nolan, Heidi M.

    2009-01-01

    Social phobia is prevalent during adolescence and is associated with negative outcomes. Two self-report instruments are empirically-validated to specifically assess social phobia symptomatology in youth: the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children and the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents. The Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children is a broad-band measure of anxiety containing a scale assessing the social phobia construct. The present study investigated the MASC Social Anxiet...

  2. [An examination of the determinants of social withdrawal and affinity for social withdrawal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Asami; Matsui, Yutaka; Takatsuka, Yusuke

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the determinants of social withdrawal using data from a survey by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Office for Youth Affairs and Public Safety (2008). In addition, this study identified young people who showed an affinity for social withdrawal although they were not in a state of withdrawal, and examined the determinants of an affinity for social withdrawal. The results of stepwise discriminant analysis showed that factors such as social phobia, depression, violence, and emotional bonds with family differentiated between the general youth group and the social withdrawal group and the "affinity group". Social phobia, violence, and refusal to be interfered in self-decision making differentiated between the social withdrawal group and the "affinity group". This study shows that an "affinity group" should be cared as well as an actual withdrawal group.

  3. Explaining Large-N Cooperation: Generalized Social Trust and the Social Exchange Heuristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a new argument that links generalized social trust and collective action in situations with a large number of actors, who do not have specific information on each other. Generalized social trust enhances large-N cooperation through the social exchange heuristic, which...... stimulate conditional cooperation in social dilemmas. Using data from a survey in four countries and recycling behavior as an indicator of collective action, this explanation is tested with individual level data. While the relationship between generalized social trust and large-N collective action is often...... hypothesized, there is scant micro level evidence as it has mainly been tested at the macro level. The results show that people holding generalized social trust cooperate more readily in large-N dilemmas, and that they most likely do so because of the social exchange heuristic....

  4. Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias KidsHealth / For Parents / Anxiety, Fears, ... unsettling experiences and challenging situations of life. Many Anxieties and Fears Are Normal Anxiety is defined as " ...

  5. Specific phobia predicts psychopathology in young women

    OpenAIRE

    Trumpf, Julia; Margraf, Jürgen; Vriends, Noortje; Meyer, Andrea Hans; Becker, Eni S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although specific phobia is characterized by an early age at onset and by high rates of comorbidity, few studies have examined comorbid relationships prospectively. Objectives The present study investigated the association between specific phobia and the risk of a broad range of psychopathology among young women in the community. Method Data came from the Dresden Predictor Study in which 1,538 German women (18?25?years) completed a diagnostic interview at two time points. Results W...

  6. Social Case-work in General Practice: An Alternative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratoff, L.; Pearson, Barbara

    1970-01-01

    During a two-year period a senior case-worker was seconded by a voluntary family case-work agency, the Liverpool Personal Service Society, to work with three general practitioners. The commonest reasons for referral of the 157 new patients to the social worker over this study period were extreme poverty; housing, matrimonial, and psychiatric problems; and problems of fatherless families. The successful and valuable co-operation between the general practitioners, case-worker, and various specialist professional and financial services of the Society have proved that a professional social worker has an important role in the general-practice team. PMID:5420213

  7. Comorbidity in youth with specific phobias: Impact of comorbidity on treatment outcome and the impact of treatment on comorbid disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollendick, Thomas H; Ost, Lars-Göran; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Costa, Natalie

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold. In an analysis of data from an existing randomized control trial of brief cognitive behavioral treatment on specific phobias (One-Session Treatment, OST; Ollendick et al., 2009), we examined 1) the effect of comorbid specific phobias and other anxiety disorders on treatment outcomes, and 2) the effect of treatment of the specific phobia on these co-occurring disorders. These relations were explored in 100 youth presenting with animal, natural environment, situational, and "other" types of phobia. Youth were reliably diagnosed with the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV: Child and Parent versions (Silverman & Albano, 1996). Clinician severity ratings at post-treatment and 6-month follow-up were examined as were parent and child treatment outcome satisfaction measures. Results indicated that the presence of comorbid phobias or anxiety disorders did not affect treatment outcomes; moreover, treatment of the targeted specific phobias led to significant reductions in the clinical severity of other co-occurring specific phobias and related anxiety disorders. These findings speak to the generalization of the effects of this time-limited treatment approach. Implications for treatment of principal and comorbid disorders are discussed, and possible mechanisms for these effects are commented upon. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of dental fear and phobia relative to other fear and phobia subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterink, F.M.D.; de Jongh, A.; Hoogstraten, J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to estimate the point prevalence of dental fear and dental phobia relative to 10 other common fears and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV-TR subtypes of specific phobia. Data were also analysed to examine differences with regard to

  9. Confiabilidade da versão em Português do Inventário de Fobia Social (SPIN entre adolescentes estudantes do Município do Rio de Janeiro Reliability of the Portuguese-language version of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN among adolescent students in the city of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Maria Pereira Vilete

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Acredita-se que a fobia social teria início na adolescência e que precederia outros transtornos mentais, sendo importante a sua investigação nos jovens. Até o momento, não há nenhuma escala de fobia social validada para a nossa população. Neste estudo investigou-se a confiabilidade da versão em Português do Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN entre escolares adolescentes da rede pública do Município do Rio de Janeiro. Após a versão do SPIN para o Português, conduziu-se um estudo de confiabilidade teste-reteste com 190 adolescentes de duas escolas, estimando-se os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse (CCIC, kappa ponderado (kw² e ajuste de modelos log-lineares. Foram ainda construídos gráficos Bland & Altman. Observou-se uma boa consistência interna (a de Cronbach = 0,88 e boa confiabilidade da pontuação total do instrumento (CCIC = 0,78. A confiabilidade das perguntas isoladas não foi tão boa (kw² variando de 0,32 a 0,65. O modelo log-linear de melhor ajuste aos dados na maior parte dos itens foi o de "semi-associação". Esses achados nos permitiram concluir que a versão em português do SPIN exibiu resultados de boa confiabilidade, semelhantes aos da versão original em Inglês.It is believed that social phobia has its onset during adolescence and precedes other mental disorders; it is thus important to investigate the condition among young people. To date there is no self-reported scale validated for the Brazilian population. The present study investigated the reliability of the Portuguese-language version of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN among adolescent students from public schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro. After SPIN was translated into Portuguese, a test-retest reliability study was carried out with 190 students. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC and weighted kappa (kw² were estimated, log-linear models were fitted, and Bland & Altman graphs were built. The Portuguese version showed good internal

  10. Workplace phobia--a first explorative study on its relation to established anxiety disorders, sick leave, and work-directed treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschalla, Beate; Linden, Michael

    2009-10-01

    Workplace phobia is defined as a phobic anxiety reaction with symptoms of panic occurring when thinking of or approaching the workplace. People suffering from workplace phobia regularly avoid confrontation with the workplace and are often on sick leave. The specific characteristics of workplace phobia are investigated empirically in comparison to established anxiety disorders. Two hundred thirty patients from an inpatient psychosomatic rehabilitation hospital were interviewed concerning workplace phobia and established anxiety disorders. Additionally, the patients filled in self-rating questionnaires on general and workplace phobic symptom load. Subjectively perceived degree of work load, sick leave, and therapy participation were assessed. Participants with workplace phobia reached significantly higher scores in workplace phobia self-rating than did participants with established anxiety disorders. A similar significant difference was not found concerning the general psychosomatic symptom load. Workplace phobics were more often on sick leave than patients with established anxiety disorders. Workplace phobia can occur as an alonestanding anxiety disorder. It has an own clinical value due to its specific consequences for work participation. Workplace phobia requires special therapeutic attention and treatment instead of purely 'sick leave' certification.

  11. Getting beyond "pandora-phobia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Robert A

    2014-03-01

    Clinicians, regardless of discipline, tend to prefer those areas of their practice in which they feel a sense of mastery, a confidence in their ability to manage the conditions being presented to them by their patients. In contrast, in clinical scenarios when the history and/or physical exam findings consist of vague and difficult-to-interpret elements, the resulting discordance may challenge some clinicians' sense of mastery. This common primary care scenario, the presentation of symptoms for which no "organic," pathologic, physical diagnosis can be discerned, is referred to as Medically Unexplained Symptoms. Clinical trainees experience "complicated" patients as particularly challenging, and may hesitate to ask about the patients' thoughts and feelings, resulting from a fear of getting entangled in a conversation from which the trainee cannot easily escape. The author refers to this as "Pandora-phobia," from Pandora in Greek mythology and the fear of opening Pandora's box. The task in the training environment is to help young clinicians gain experience in "lifting the lid" of Pandora's box. This is ideally achieved by trainees observing the role-modeling of accomplished mentors, and their working with capable, multidisciplinary teammates. This is the beauty of the collaborative, integrated care delivery team; there is a balanced set of skills and expertise brought by an expanded number of caring persons supporting those patients whose conditions most need a combination of biomedical and psychosocial expertise.

  12. Blood Injury and Injection Phobia: The Neglected One

    OpenAIRE

    Wani, Ab Latif; Ara, Anjum; Bhat, Sajad Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Blood injury and injection (BII) phobia is a unique phobia associated with a diphasic cardiovascular response. The aim of this survey was to report the prevalence of BII phobia, its heritability, and clinical characteristics among the males and females in the Indian subcontinent. An interview and a survey were conducted using a developed BII phobia 21-item questionnaire among 3261 participant males (n = 1648) and females (n = 1613). Cronbach' alpha (α) of 0.972 of internal consistency was rep...

  13. Treatment of specific phobia in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A Pachana

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Nancy A Pachana1, Rana M Woodward1, Gerard JA Byrne21School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia 2School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, AustraliaAbstract: Phobias are common in later life, yet treatment research in this population remains scant. The efficacy of exposure therapy, in combination with other Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT components, in the treatment of specific phobia with a middle and older aged sample was examined. Sixteen adults aged 45–68 with DSM-IV diagnosis of a specific phobia received a manualized intervention over ten weeks, and were compared with a control group. Results indicated significant time effects in the treatment group for the primary outcome variables of phobic severity and avoidance as well as secondary outcome variables including depression and anxiety. Symptom presence and severity also significantly declined in the treatment group. No significant changes in state anxiety were noted across the treatment period. Such results provide support for the efficacy of exposure combined with CBT treatment for specific phobia in middle to older aged adults.Keywords: anxiety, phobia, older adults, cognitive behavioral therapy

  14. Cognitive and social predictors of generalized anxiety disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cognitive and social predictors of generalized anxiety disorder symptoms among fresh undergraduates in Uganda. ... The prevalence of this common disorder and the associated factors in Ugandan students are unknown. ... Psychological interventions for undergraduate students may be needed to target these factors.

  15. General parenting, anti-smoking socialization and smoking onset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den

    2008-01-01

    A theoretical model was tested in which general parenting and parental smoking predicted anti-smoking socialization, which in turn predicted adolescent smoking onset. Participants were 4351 Dutch adolescents between 13 and 15 years of age. In the model, strictness and psychological autonomy granting

  16. The cyclical social choice of primary vs. general election candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    The manner in which US presidential elections are organized make them ripe for empirical manifestations of the “voting paradoxes” identified by social choice theorists. This note illustrates the general point with polling data involving the two leading Democrats and the three leading Republicans ...

  17. Mental exercising through simple socializing: social interaction promotes general cognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Oscar; Burnstein, Eugene; Winkielman, Piotr; Keller, Matthew C; Manis, Melvin; Chan, Emily; Rodriguez, Joel

    2008-02-01

    Social interaction is a central feature of people's life and engages a variety of cognitive resources. Thus, social interaction should facilitate general cognitive functioning. Previous studies suggest such a link, but they used special populations (e.g., elderly with cognitive impairment), measured social interaction indirectly (e.g., via marital status), and only assessed effects of extended interaction in correlational designs. Here the relation between mental functioning and direct indicators of social interaction was examined in a younger and healthier population. Study 1 using survey methodology found a positive relationship between social interaction, assessed via amount of actual social contact, and cognitive functioning in people from three age groups including younger adults. Study 2 using an experimental design found that a small amount of social interaction (10 min) can facilitate cognitive performance. The findings are discussed in the context of the benefits social relationships have for so many aspects of people's lives.

  18. Internal sensations as a source of fear: exploring a link between hypoxia and flight phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Vanden Bogaerde, Anouk; De Raedt, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    Although flight phobia is very common in the general population, knowledge of the underlying mechanisms is limited. The aim of the current study is to determine whether hypoxia is selectively associated with flight anxiety. We wanted to explore levels of oxygen saturation (SpO2) and the associated subjective somatic sensations in flight phobics and controls. The data collected in this study were obtained from 103 participants: 54 had flight phobia, 49 were controls. SpO2 as well as a subjecti...

  19. The Portuguese language version of social phobia and Anxiety Inventory: analysis of items and internal consistency in a Brazilian sample of 1,014 undergraduate students Versão para o português do Inventário de Fobia Social e Ansiedade: análise de itens e consistência interna numa amostra de 1.014 estudantes universitários brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Picon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Theoretical and empirical analysis of items and internal consistency of the Portuguese-language version of Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI-Portuguese. METHODS: Social phobia experts conducted a 45-item content analysis of the SPAI-Portuguese administered to a sample of 1,014 university students. Item discrimination was evaluated by Student's t test; interitem, mean and item-to-total correlations, by Pearson coefficient; reliability was estimated by Cronbach's alpha. RESULTS: There was 100% agreement among experts concerning the 45 items. On the SPAI-Portuguese 43 items were discriminative (p OBJETIVO: Análise teórica e empírica dos itens e da consistência interna da versão em português do Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI-Português e subescalas. MÉTODOS: Peritos em fobia social conduziram análise de conteúdo dos 45 itens do SPAI-Português, administrado a 1.014 estudantes universitários. A discriminação dos itens foi avaliada por teste t de Student; correlações interitens, médias e item/total por coeficientes de Pearson; fidedignidade pelo alfa de Cronbach. RESULTADOS: Concordância plena entre os peritos para os 45 itens. SPAI-Português com 43 itens discriminativos (p < 0,05. Alguns itens, entre as subescalas, apresentaram coeficientes abaixo de 0,2. As médias das correlações interitens foram: 0,41 na subescala fobia social; 0,32 na subescala agorafobia; e 0,32 no SPAI-Português. As correlações item/total foram maiores do que 0,3 (p < 0,001. Alfas de Cronbach foram: 0,95 no SPAI-Português; 0,96 na subescala de fobia social; 0,85 na subescala de agorafobia. CONCLUSÃO: O conteúdo dos itens foi relacionado aos constructos subjacentes (agorafobia e fobia social, com discriminabilidade de 43 itens do SPAI-Português. As correlações médias interitens e alfas revelaram consistência interna de SPAI-Português e subescalas, além de multidimensionalidade das mesmas. Nenhum item foi suprimido

  20. One-session treatment for specific phobias: a review of Öst's single-session exposure with children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollendick, Thomas H; Davis, Thompson E

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this brief paper is to review the current status of one-session treatment (OST) for specific phobias in children and adolescents. Following a brief historical overview and description of OST, we systematically describe eight studies that have examined its efficacy in children and adolescents aged between 7 and17 years. We also explore phobia subtypes, age, gender, and comorbidity as possible moderators of treatment outcome. Studies have been conducted in Australia, Austria, the Netherlands, the USA, and Sweden. Although there is limited evidence that OST works better for animal phobias than other subtypes of phobias and for girls than boys, across studies there is considerable evidence that it is generally effective across phobia subtypes and for both boys and girls. No age differences in outcomes were noted, nor were any differences noted due to comorbidity. OST was found to be equally effective with children and adolescents with co-occurring multiple phobias and other anxiety disorders. Moreover, in at least one study, it was found to reduce untreated phobic and anxiety disorders in addition to the treated phobias. It is concluded that OST is a highly effective intervention for the treatment of specific phobias in children and adolescents.

  1. Explaining Large-N Cooperation: Generalized Social Trust and the Social Exchange Heuristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    This paper argues that generalized social trust enhances collective action in situations with a large number of actors, who do not have specific information on each other. This effect comes about through the social exchange heuristic, which stimulate conditional cooperation in social dilemmas....... This paper tests this explanation in an individual level test. While the relationship between generalized social trust and large-N collective action is often hypothesized, there is scant micro level evidence as it has mainly been tested at the macro level. Using recycling behavior as an indicator...... of collective action, the paper shows that people holding generalized social trust cooperate more readily in large-N dilemmas. These results are based on a unique survey of respondents in four countries....

  2. Group cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with generalized social anxiety disorder in Japan: outcomes at 1-year follow up and outcome predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawaguchi A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Akiko Kawaguchi,1 Norio Watanabe,1 Yumi Nakano,2 Sei Ogawa,1 Masako Suzuki,1 Masaki Kondo,1 Toshi A Furukawa,3 Tatsuo Akechi11Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 2Sugiyama Jogakuen University School of Human Sciences, Nisshin, Japan; 3Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, JapanBackground: Social anxiety disorder (SAD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders worldwide. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT is an effective treatment option for patients with SAD. In the present study, we examined the efficacy of group CBT for patients with generalized SAD in Japan at 1-year follow-up and investigated predictors with regard to outcomes.Methods: This study was conducted as a single-arm, naturalistic, follow-up study in a routine Japanese clinical setting. A total of 113 outpatients with generalized SAD participated in group CBT from July 2003 to August 2010 and were assessed at follow-ups for up to 1 year. Primary outcome was the total score on the Social Phobia Scale/Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SPS/SIAS at 1 year. Possible baseline predictors were investigated using mixed-model analyses.Results: Among the 113 patients, 70 completed the assessment at the 1-year follow-up. The SPS/SIAS scores showed significant improvement throughout the follow-ups for up to 1 year. The effect sizes of SPS/SIAS at the 1-year follow-up were 0.68 (95% confidence interval 0.41–0.95/0.76 (0.49–1.03 in the intention-to-treat group and 0.77 (0.42–1.10/0.84 (0.49–1.18 in completers. Older age at baseline, late onset, and lower severity of SAD were significantly associated with good outcomes as a result of mixed-model analyses.Conclusions: CBT for patients with generalized SAD in Japan is effective for up to 1 year after treatment. The effect sizes were as large as those in

  3. Edith Wharton's threshold phobia and two worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Deanna; Kulish, Nancy

    2014-08-01

    The American novelist Edith Wharton suffered an unusual childhood neurotic symptom, a fear of crossing thresholds, a condition that might be called a "threshold phobia." This symptom is identified and examined in autobiographical material, letters, diaries, and selected literary fiction and nonfiction left by Wharton to arrive at a formulation not previously drawn together. A fascinating theme-living or being trapped between "two worlds"-runs through much of the writer's life and work. The phobia is related to this theme, and both can be linked more broadly to certain sexual conflicts in women. This understanding of Wharton's phobia, it is argued, throws new light on the developmental issues and conflicts related to the female "oedipal" or triadic phase, characterized by the need to negotiate the two worlds of mother and of father. © 2014 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.

  4. Social capital and frequent attenders in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Alexander A.; Mæhlisen, Maiken H.; Overgaard, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    weeks. RESULTS: Using multiple logistic regression, we found that frequent attendance was associated with a lower score in interpersonal trust [OR 0.86 (0.79-0.94)] and social network [OR 0.88 (0.79-0.98)] for women, when adjusted for age, education, income and SF12 health scores. Norms of reciprocity...... at the individual level, and includes cognitive (interpersonal trust and norms of reciprocity) as well as structural (social network and civic engagement) dimensions. Frequent attendance is defined as the upper-quartile of the total number of measured consultations with a general practitioner over a period of 148...... and civic engagement were not significantly associated with frequent attendance for women [OR 1.05 (0.99-1.11) and OR 1.01 (0.92-1.11) respectively]. None of the associations were statistically significant for men. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that for women, some aspects of social capital are associated...

  5. SOCIAL AUDIT OF THE MUNICIPAL SYSTEM OF GENERAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Zerchaninova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the theory and practice of social audit of the municipal system of general education. The authors have developed a conceptual model of social audit to accurately identify both the short- and long-term development prospects of the given system. The paper describes the social audit procedures in Berezovsky municipal district of Sverdlovsk region including four stages: the content analysis of municipal documents concerning the development strategy of the general education system, diagnosis of the current conditions and problems, effectiveness evaluation of the municipal system of general education, and practical  recommendations for improving the education quality. The above mentioned audit demonstrates that the indices of education development are unsystematically tracked, obstructing therefore the adjustment process. To solve the given problems the following measures are recommended: personnel policy development, creating the regional managerial reserve and organizing management workshops, informing the teachers about the modern educational tools, and updating the municipal program of the «Educational System Development of Berezovsky Municipal District for 20011–20015». However, the above suggestions target only the current problems disregarding the challenges of tomorrow which require the advancing strategy. In authors’ opinion, the main emphasis should be re-placed on the quality improvement of the municipal educational services instead of the infrastructure reinforcement. 

  6. SOCIAL AUDIT OF THE MUNICIPAL SYSTEM OF GENERAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Zerchaninova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the theory and practice of social audit of the municipal system of general education. The authors have developed a conceptual model of social audit to accurately identify both the short- and long-term development prospects of the given system. The paper describes the social audit procedures in Berezovsky municipal district of Sverdlovsk region including four stages: the content analysis of municipal documents concerning the development strategy of the general education system, diagnosis of the current conditions and problems, effectiveness evaluation of the municipal system of general education, and practical  recommendations for improving the education quality. The above mentioned audit demonstrates that the indices of education development are unsystematically tracked, obstructing therefore the adjustment process. To solve the given problems the following measures are recommended: personnel policy development, creating the regional managerial reserve and organizing management workshops, informing the teachers about the modern educational tools, and updating the municipal program of the «Educational System Development of Berezovsky Municipal District for 20011–20015». However, the above suggestions target only the current problems disregarding the challenges of tomorrow which require the advancing strategy. In authors’ opinion, the main emphasis should be re-placed on the quality improvement of the municipal educational services instead of the infrastructure reinforcement. 

  7. Relationship between needle phobia and dental anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majstorovic, M.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This cross-sectional study aimed to explain the nature of needle phobia and its relationship in dental phobic children with evidence on age-related differences. Methods: The study used 2,865 patients (52% boys, 48% girls), 4 to 11 years old (mean=7.18 years). The patient sample included

  8. An examination of the MASC Social Anxiety Scale in a non-referred sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emily R; Jordan, Judith A; Smith, Ashley J; Inderbitzen-Nolan, Heidi M

    2009-12-01

    Social phobia is prevalent during adolescence and is associated with negative outcomes. Two self-report instruments are empirically validated to specifically assess social phobia symptomatology in youth: the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children and the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents. The Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children is a broad-band measure of anxiety containing a scale assessing the social phobia construct. The present study investigated the MASC Social Anxiety Scale in relation to other well-established measures of social phobia and depression in a non-referred sample of adolescents. Results support the convergent validity of the MASC Social Anxiety Scale and provide some support for its discriminant validity, suggesting its utility in the initial assessment of social phobia. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROCs) calculated the sensitivity and specificity of the MASC Social Anxiety Scale. Binary logistic regression analyses determined the predictive utility of the MASC Social Anxiety Scale. Implications for assessment are discussed.

  9. Public reaction to radiation: fear, anxiety, or phobia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.-M.; Persson, L.

    1993-01-01

    Public fear reactions to ionizing radiation are discussed in a social psychological context. The common use of the terms fear, anxiety, panic, and phobia is related to their clinical meanings, and the authors stress the importance of caution when using certain psychiatric terms for interpreting public reactions to radiation. Differences related to existing knowledge and belief structures, trust, and preferences, create obstacles to effective communication; however, the study of such differences also offers explanations to different reactions and different viewpoints. More information and communication of radiation, clear behavioral guidelines in situations of increased radiation levels, and respect for citizens' concerns about radiation protection would counterbalance lay people's fears and feelings of vulnerability. Such measures may enhance familiarity with radiation, increase perceived personal control in anxiety-creating situations, and develop trust in authorities and their expertise. (author)

  10. Prolonged Exposure: a Rapid Treatment for Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J. P.; Gaind, R.; Marks, I. M.

    1971-01-01

    Ten adult patients with long-standing specific phobias were treated by prolonged continuous exposure to their phobic objects in fantasy and reality without avoidance. All patients were greatly helped by four to five hours' treatment in two or three sessions, and all improved more after practice than after imaginal sessions. The treatment method is more economical and efficient than other methods described so far. PMID:5539135

  11. Ideologies in conflict in XXI century: Islamophobia vs Western phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Bermejo Laguna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently started the new millennium, the West is witness a conflict between two ideologies that converge to use Islam as a weapon of choice with which declared opponents. To Islamophobia, that joins large sectors of the Western population and whose strategy involves systematically revile the Islamic civilization, with the purpose of ratting as Muslim enemies to men and women who reside in Western societies, opposes the Western phobia which is monopolized by native radical ideologies of the Islamic world. Identified these two philosophies, the aim of this research pursues the separately analysis from both to come to conclude as necessary the alteration of the foundations that are supporting, to avoid being affected as sensitive areas as the personal and social safety. The methodology, consisting in the exposition of causes that may be indicative of the mutual resentment that his followers profess themselves, comes to demostrate the impact that those speeches have the time to build an enemy; fed, on the one hand, of imaginary fears, the rejection of all meaning of multicultural theory of modern societies, and therefore, negative cultural concessions to people who do not promote them in their societies of origin. The Western phobia, sponsored by the Islamist ideology, comes to introduce Islam in the early stages as the resource with which to face the Western supremacy, and from there to promote violence against those who have usurped their land, and are reproaching their lano interest in addressing proposals for modern political, social or family. Only proposals of intercultural harmony and rejection of the discourses that make Islam a political and military ideology may prevent that these ideologies continue gaining accessions.

  12. Group cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with generalized social anxiety disorder in Japan: outcomes at 1-year follow up and outcome predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Akiko; Watanabe, Norio; Nakano, Yumi; Ogawa, Sei; Suzuki, Masako; Kondo, Masaki; Furukawa, Toshi A; Akechi, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    Background Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders worldwide. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment option for patients with SAD. In the present study, we examined the efficacy of group CBT for patients with generalized SAD in Japan at 1-year follow-up and investigated predictors with regard to outcomes. Methods This study was conducted as a single-arm, naturalistic, follow-up study in a routine Japanese clinical setting. A total of 113 outpatients with generalized SAD participated in group CBT from July 2003 to August 2010 and were assessed at follow-ups for up to 1 year. Primary outcome was the total score on the Social Phobia Scale/Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SPS/SIAS) at 1 year. Possible baseline predictors were investigated using mixed-model analyses. Results Among the 113 patients, 70 completed the assessment at the 1-year follow-up. The SPS/SIAS scores showed significant improvement throughout the follow-ups for up to 1 year. The effect sizes of SPS/SIAS at the 1-year follow-up were 0.68 (95% confidence interval 0.41–0.95)/0.76 (0.49–1.03) in the intention-to-treat group and 0.77 (0.42–1.10)/0.84 (0.49–1.18) in completers. Older age at baseline, late onset, and lower severity of SAD were significantly associated with good outcomes as a result of mixed-model analyses. Conclusions CBT for patients with generalized SAD in Japan is effective for up to 1 year after treatment. The effect sizes were as large as those in previous studies conducted in Western countries. Older age at baseline, late onset, and lower severity of SAD were predictors for a good outcome from group CBT. PMID:23450841

  13. Family Generated and Delivered Social Story Intervention: Acquisition, Maintenance, and Generalization of Social Skills in Youths with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcay-Gül, Seray; Tekin-Iftar, Elif

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether (a) family members were able to learn to write a social story and deliver social story intervention to teach social skills to their children (age 12 to 16) with ASD, (b) youths with ASD acquired and maintained the targeted social skills and generalized these skills across novel situations. Multiple…

  14. Repeated Strains, Social Control, Social Learning, and Delinquency: Testing an Integrated Model of General Strain Theory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wan-Ning; Haas, Ain; Chen, Xiaojin; Pi, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    In Agnew's general strain theory, repeated strains can generate crime and delinquency by reducing social control and fostering social learning of crime. Using a sample of 615 middle-and high-school students in China, this study examines how social control and social learning variables mediate the effect of repeated strains in school and at home on…

  15. Social Interpretation Bias in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders: Psychometric Examination of the Self-report of Ambiguous Social Situations for Youth (SASSY) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Araceli; Rozenman, Michelle; Langley, Audra K; Kendall, Philip C; Ginsburg, Golda S; Compton, Scott; Walkup, John T; Birmaher, Boris; Albano, Anne Marie; Piacentini, John

    2017-06-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental health problems in youth, and faulty interpretation bias has been positively linked to anxiety severity, even within anxiety-disordered youth. Quick, reliable assessment of interpretation bias may be useful in identifying youth with certain types of anxiety or assessing changes on cognitive bias during intervention. This study examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Self-report of Ambiguous Social Situations for Youth (SASSY) scale, a self-report measure developed to assess interpretation bias in youth. Participants (N=488, age 7 to 17) met diagnostic criteria for Social Phobia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and/or Separation Anxiety Disorder. An exploratory factor analysis was performed on baseline data from youth participating in a large randomized clinical trial. Exploratory factor analysis yielded two factors (Accusation/Blame, Social Rejection). The SASSY full scale and Social Rejection factor demonstrated adequate internal consistency, convergent validity with social anxiety, and discriminant validity as evidenced by non-significant correlations with measures of non-social anxiety. Further, the SASSY Social Rejection factor accurately distinguished children and adolescents with Social Phobia from those with other anxiety disorders, supporting its criterion validity, and revealed sensitivity to changes with treatment. Given the relevance to youth with social phobia, pre- and post-intervention data were examined for youth social phobia to test sensitivity to treatment effects; results suggested that SASSY scores reduced for treatment responders. Findings suggest the potential utility of the SASSY Social Rejection factor as a quick, reliable, and efficient way of assessing interpretation bias in anxious youth, particularly as related to social concerns, in research and clinical settings.

  16. Phobia and phobic memories: an old issue with new concept

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    Ab Latif Wani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is a short report on phobias and the recent study which shows that phobias act as the memories in the brain which can inherit from one generation to another generation to transfer experiences in the newly generation. [Dis Mol Med 2014; 2(4.000: 70-72

  17. Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Treatment of Dental Phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujjar, Kumar Raghav; Sharma, Ratika; Jongh, Ad De

    2017-05-01

    popularity as an effective treatment for anxiety disorders. The purpose of this article is to determine the applicability of VRET in the treatment of dental phobia of two patients. Two case examples of female dental patients, aged 56 and 24 years, who met the criteria for dental phobia according to the Phobia Checklist, illustrate the use of VRET in the dental setting. VRET that is used as a psychological treatment for dental fear and dental phobia can potentially be given by a non-specialist (for example dental assistant), thereby making it a cost-effective therapy for the treatment of dental phobia. Clinical relevance: This article is the first of its kind to demonstrate Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) in the treatment of dental anxiety.

  18. 15 Años del Sistema General de Seguridad Social

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    José Félix Patiño Restrepo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    (Documento modificado de la presentación ante el “1er Congreso Internacional Medicina y Salud”, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, DF, abril 23-24 de 2009

    La Comisión de Salud de la Academia Nacional de Medicina de Colombia desarrolla un análisis continuo y un estudio permanente de la profunda reforma de la seguridad social en salud de corte neoliberal que implantó la Ley 100 de diciembre 23 de 1993 mediante la creación del Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud (SGSSS.(1,2

    La reforma produjo una honda crisis en el sector y dio como resultado la privatización del sistema de salud, la desaparición del Instituto Colombiano de Seguros Sociales y una posición dominante oligopólica de las corporaciones intermediarias aseguradoras con efectos muy negativos sobre la medicina como profesión y como ciencia.

    Aunque motivo de controversia según quien informa, los indicadores de salud pública no mejoraron, y algunos se han deteriorado. Las tasas de mortalidad por SIDA siguen aumentando; el índice anual parasitario de malaria asciende. Tenemos ahora problema con enfermedades reemergentes. Los indicadores de salud materna, las tasas de complicaciones perinatales no muestran cambios significativos durante los últimos años; la tasa de embarazo en adolescentes es muy alta. Los programas de vacunación, que en una época dieron a Colombia una posición destacada en el continente, se deterioraron, y solo hasta ahora comienzan a repuntar.

    Sin embargo, algunos informes sí muestran mejoría en los indicadores de salud, tales como mortalidad materna, mortalidad infantil o mortalidad por enfermedad diarreica aguda; la tasa de mortalidad por tuberculosis no muestra mejoría significativa.(3

  19. An Evaluation of Multi-Component Exposure Treatment of Needle Phobia in an Adult with Autism and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jason J.; Symons, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fear of medical procedures in general and needles in particular can be a difficult clinical challenge to providing effective health care for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Methods: A changing criterion design was used to examine graduated exposure treatment for blood-injury-injection phobia in an adult…

  20. The spotlight effect and the illusion of transparency in social anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Michael A.; Stopa, Lusia

    2007-01-01

    [Clark, D. M., & Wells, A. (1995). A cognitive model of social phobia. In: R. G. Heimberg, M. R. Liebowitz, D. A. Hope, & F. R. Schneier (Eds.), Social phobia: diagnosis, assessment, and treatment (pp. 69–93). New York: Guildford Press] cognitive model of social phobia suggests that both public and private sources of information contribute to the construction of the self as a social object, which is thought to maintain the disorder. This study used two concepts developed i...

  1. Some considerations about ''philia'' and ''phobia'' in radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Checcucci, A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a radiation phobia as the negative issue of misinformation due to irresponsible behavior of some members of the scientific community and media. The author elaborates on that definition. Until the general public will not be an active political subject in health management irrationalist attitudes will predominate. Industry, armed forces and public services pay more attention to the expected benefits of new potentially dangerous agents such as technology products, drugs and even foods, and this causes a series of oscillating phases as regards general health, public concern, risk assessment and research. Alarm sets in on the general public. The following silent phase generally shows a serious commitment to research, regulation, and a more conscious public concern. An increasing health fanaticism and the increasing fear for the environment are two general trends which are present in all industrialized societies. The author advises avoiding conclusive statements in the early phases and to state tentative protection regulations which would supposedly be modified according to the results of compulsory check procedures. He also suggests promoting a serious program of research in all directions: environmental measurements and monitoring, biophysical and pathophysiological experiments, and epidemiologic investigations

  2. LA REFORMA DEL SISTEMA GENERAL DE SEGURIDAD SOCIAL EN SALUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Malagón Londoño

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    La Academia Nacional de Medicina de Colombia en repetidas ocasiones, desde el año 1998, ha denunciado las notables defi ciencias del Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud (SGSSS que implantó la Ley 100 de diciembre 23 de 1993. 

    El SGSSS, que debiera ser sistema de aseguramiento con propósito social, se ha convertido en negocio donde priman los intereses económicos con descuido en la calidad de los servicios; hizo profunda crisis, principalmente por causa de los excesivos costos que conlleva el modelo de intermediación comercial. Se ha creado una inaceptable posición oligopólica dominante de los aseguradores, que parece haber suplantado al estado en la defi nición de las políticas y en la orientación del SGSSS e interfiere la buena prestación de los servicios. Manifestación prominente de esto es la creciente y descontrolada integración vertical. 

    El sistema colombiano de intermediación comercial es costoso, inequitativo, ineficiente y va contra los principios constitucionales que definen la salud como derecho humano, en detrimento del bien común.

    El SGSSS, a los 18 años de su implantación, aún no cuenta con un sistema de información y las bases de datos existentes en las EPS, y también en el FOSYGA, distan de ser confiables. Se reconoce que un sistema de salud es en esencia un sistema de información. Los hospitales y clínicas de Colombia, especialmente las instituciones de carácter público, tienen una cartera que, se estima, es cinco o seis veces mayor que la cartera reclamada por las EPS, buena parte de la cual ya es de difícil cobro. Sin embargo, la prioridad ha sido resolver el problema económico de las EPS, no el de los hospitales.

    Son muchas las voces que claman por un riguroso control de la manera como las EPS invierten los recursos de la salud, de carácter público por ser recursos parafiscales. Las EPS muestran un grande y rápido crecimiento patrimonial y han

  3. Self-Management of Social Initiations by Kindergarten Students with Disabilities in the General Education Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Brooke M.; Gast, David L.; Luscre, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of a self-management intervention on social interaction behaviors was evaluated for students with disabilities and social deficits. Four students enrolled in a general education kindergarten classroom were taught to self-monitor social initiations during nonstructured social time via a digital wrist counter. The number of social…

  4. Reliability of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI Portuguese version in a heterogeneous sample of Brazilian university students Fidedignidade da versão em português do Inventário de Ansiedade e Fobia Social (SPAI em amostra heterogênea de estudantes universitários brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Picon

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate internal consistency and temporal stability trough test re-test reliability of the Portuguese version of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI in a heterogeneous Brazilian sample. METHODS: After informed consent, the translated and adapted version of the SPAI Portuguese was tested and re-tested at a 14-day interval in a sample of 225 university students, both genders, from 4 different undergraduate courses. After double data entry, statistical analysis included Cronbach's alphas, Pearson and intra-class correlation coefficients. RESULTS: The studied sample consisted of 213 students from 4 sub-samples: 95 law students, 31 social communication students, 54 civil engineering students and 33 dental medicine students. The mean age was 23 (±6 years and 110 (51.6% were female. The Cronbach' alpha was 0.96, no difference for both genders. The differential (total score of the SPAI Portuguese showed Pearson coefficient 0.83 (95% CI 0.78-0.87 and Intra-class coefficient 0.83 (95% CI 0.78-0.86. There was no statistical difference in Pearson coefficients between genders (p = 0.121 and the 4 sub-samples (p = 0.258. CONCLUSION: The results do not ensure validity, however, the SPAI Portuguese version presented a good content homogeneity with satisfactory level of internal consistency. The temporal stability evaluated was substantial. The results showed that the Portuguese SPAI presents perfectly acceptable reliability for both genders and suggest that it can be used in Brazilian populationsOBJETIVO: Avaliar consistência interna e estabilidade temporal, através de fidedignidade teste-reteste, da versão em português do Inventário de Ansiedade e Fobia Social (SPAI, em uma amostra brasileira heterogênea. MÉTODOS: Após consentimento informado, a versão traduzida e adaptada para o português do SPAI foi testada e re-testada, com 14 dias de intervalo, em uma amostra de 225 estudantes universitários de ambos os gêneros, de

  5. Social Desirability, Environmental Attitudes, and General Ecological Behaviour in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerke, Britta; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    Socially desirable responses have been widely discussed as potentially biasing self-reported measures of environmental attitude and behaviour assessment. The direct and moderating effect of social desirability on children has not been analysed before. By applying a Lie scale together with a two-factor environmental attitude set measure and a scale…

  6. A course in collaboration for social workers and general practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel, Oliver W.; Dodge, Dredagh

    1981-01-01

    Patients have overlapping social and medical needs, yet social workers and doctors often have problems in working together to help with them. We planned a short experimental course which was to look at this situation and to help members of both professions learn about each other. This was to encourage attitudes of mutual trust and respect in order to promote future collaboration.

  7. One Session Treatment for Specific Phobias: An Adaptation for Paediatric Blood-Injection-Injury Phobia in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oar, Ella L; Farrell, Lara J; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2015-12-01

    Blood-injection-injury (BII) phobia is a chronic and debilitating disorder, which has largely been neglected in the child literature. The present paper briefly reviews the aetiology of specific phobias with particular attention to BII and provides an integrated developmental model of this disorder in youth. Evidence-based treatments for child-specific phobias are discussed, and the development of a modified one session treatment (OST) approach to enhance treatment outcomes for BII phobia in children and adolescents is described. This approach is illustrated in two children with a primary diagnosis of BII phobia. The cases illustrate the unique challenges associated with treating BII in youth and the need for a modified intervention. Modifications included addressing the role of pain (e.g., psychoeducation, more graduated exposure steps) and disgust (e.g., disgust eliciting exposure tasks) in the expression of the phobia and fainting in the maintenance of this phobia. Moreover, it is recommended that parents be more actively involved throughout treatment (e.g., education session prior to OST, contingency management training, guidance regarding planning exposure tasks following treatment) and for families to participate in a structured e-therapy maintenance programme post-treatment.

  8. A general approach-avoidance hypothesis of oxytocin: accounting for social and non-social effects of oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari-Dahan, Osnat; Bernstein, Amit

    2014-11-01

    We critically reexamine extant theory and empirical study of Oxytocin. We question whether OT is, in fact, a "social neuropeptide" as argued in dominant theories of OT. We critically review human and animal research on the social and non-social effects of Oxytocin, including behavioral, psychophysiological, neurobiological, and neuroimaging studies. We find that extant (social) theories of Oxytocin do not account for well-documented non-social effects of Oxytocin. Furthermore, we find a range of evidence that social and non-social effects of Oxytocin may be mediated by core approach-avoidance motivational processes. We propose a General Approach-avoidance Hypothesis of Oxytocin (GAAO). We argue that the GAAO may provide a parsimonious account of established social and non-social effects of Oxytocin. We thus re-conceptualize the basic function(s) and mechanism(s) of action of Oxytocin. Finally, we highlight implications of the GAAO for basic and clinical research in humans

  9. High Magnitude of Social Anxiety Disorder in School Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindie Mekuria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Social phobia is the most prevalent and chronic type of anxiety disorder worldwide and it affects occupational, educational, and social affairs of the individual. Social phobia is also known for its association with depression and substance use disorder. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of social phobia among high school students in Ethiopia. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted among 386 randomly selected students. Data were collected using pretested and self-administered questionnaire. Social phobia was assessed by using Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data with 95% confidence interval and variables with p value less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results. From 386 study participants, 106 (27.5% of them were positive for social phobia. Being female (AOR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.82–5.27, current alcohol drinking (AOR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.03–2.98, poor social support (AOR = 2.40; 95% CI: 1.17–4.92, and living with single parent (AOR = 5.72; 95% CI: 2.98–10.99 were significantly associated with social phobia. Conclusion. The proportion of social phobia was higher compared to previous evidences. School-based youth-friendly mental health services might be helpful to tackle this problem.

  10. Emotion regulation in spider phobia: role of the medial prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Axel; Walter, Bertram; Stark, Rudolf; Vaitl, Dieter; Schienle, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Phobic responses are strong emotional reactions towards phobic objects, which can be described as a deficit in the automatic regulation of emotions. Difficulties in the voluntary cognitive control of these emotions suggest a further phobia-specific deficit in effortful emotion regulation mechanisms. The actual study is based on this emotion regulation conceptualization of specific phobias. The aim is to investigate the neural correlates of these two emotion regulation deficits in spider phobics. Sixteen spider phobic females participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which they were asked to voluntarily up- and down-regulate their emotions elicited by spider and generally aversive pictures with a reappraisal strategy. In line with the hypothesis concerning an automatic emotion regulation deficit, increased activity in the insula and reduced activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex was observed. Furthermore, phobia-specific effortful regulation within phobics was associated with altered activity in medial prefrontal cortex areas. Altogether, these results suggest that spider phobic subjects are indeed characterized by a deficit in the automatic as well as the effortful regulation of emotions elicited by phobic compared with aversive stimuli. These two forms of phobic emotion regulation deficits are associated with altered activity in different medial prefrontal cortex subregions. PMID:19398537

  11. The Legacy of Seligman's "Phobias and Preparedness" (1971).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Richard J

    2016-09-01

    Seligman's (1971) classic article, "Phobias and Preparedness," marked a break from traditional conditioning theories of the etiology of phobias, inspiring a line of research integrating evolutionary theory with learning theory. In this article, I briefly sketch the context motivating the preparedness theory of phobias before summarizing the initial wave of laboratory conditioning experiments pioneered by Öhman and conducted by his team and by others to test predictions derived from Seligman's theory. Finally, I review the legacy of Seligman's article, including theoretical developments embodied in Öhman and Mineka's fear module approach as well as alternatives for explaining "preparedness" phenomena, including the selective sensitization, expectancy, and nonassociative theories. Although Seligman himself soon moved on to other topics, his seminal article in Behavior Therapy continues to inspire research more than four decades later that has deepened our understanding of the etiology of phobias. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. GENERAL ISSUES CONCERNING THE ASSIGNMENT OF SOCIAL PARTS

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    Stela Mihăilescu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available By means of the present study, we try to offer a thorough image and an analysis concerning the assignment mode of social parts within a company having limited liability. The assignment of social parts is free and unrestricted except for the cases provided by article 202, paragraph 2 from Law no. 31/ 1990- the law of commercial companies with further modifications and completions and the ones provided in OUG no. 54/ 2010 concerning some measures for fighting fiscal evasion. By means of the assignment operation a transmission is made up by an assignment of social parts contract towards one or more already associated persons in the company or towards other individual or legal persons who are going to obtain the associate quality. The principle governing any assignment is the one of goods circulation freedom, a freedom restricted only by the public order and imperative judicial norms.

  13. SOCIAL NETWORK OPTIMIZATION A NEW METHAHEURISTIC FOR GENERAL OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS

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    Hassan Sherafat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years metaheuristics were studied and developed as powerful technics for hard optimization problems. Some of well-known technics in this field are: Genetic Algorithms, Tabu Search, Simulated Annealing, Ant Colony Optimization, and Swarm Intelligence, which are applied successfully to many complex optimization problems. In this paper, we introduce a new metaheuristic for solving such problems based on social networks concept, named as Social Network Optimization – SNO. We show that a wide range of np-hard optimization problems may be solved by SNO.

  14. Mirtazapine in generalized social anxiety disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutters, Sara I. J.; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; van Veen, Jantien Frederieke; Denys, Damiaan A. J. P.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.

    2010-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the efficacy and tolerability of mirtazapine in a generalized social anxiety disorder. Sixty patients with generalized social anxiety disorder were randomly allocated to receive mirtazapine (30-45 mg/day) (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) for 12 weeks in a

  15. Trends and Correlates of Consenting to Provide Social Security Numbers: Longitudinal Findings from the General Social Survey (1993-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jibum; Shin, Hee-Choon; Rosen, Zohn; Kang, Jeong-han; Dykema, Jennifer; Muennig, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Privacy and confidentiality are often of great concern to respondents answering sensitive questions posed by interviewers. Using the 1993-2010 General Social Survey, we examined trends in the provision of social security numbers (SSNs) and correlates of those responses. Results indicate that the rate of SSN provision has declined over the past…

  16. Single-session gamified virtual reality exposure therapy for spider phobia vs. traditional exposure therapy: study protocol for a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloff, Alexander; Lindner, Philip; Hamilton, William; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2016-02-02

    Traditional one-session exposure therapy (OST) in which a patient is gradually exposed to feared stimuli for up to 3 h in a one-session format has been found effective for the treatment of specific phobias. However, many individuals with specific phobia are reluctant to seek help, and access to care is lacking due to logistic challenges of accessing, collecting, storing, and/or maintaining stimuli. Virtual reality (VR) exposure therapy may improve upon existing techniques by facilitating access, decreasing cost, and increasing acceptability and effectiveness. The aim of this study is to compare traditional OST with in vivo spiders and a human therapist with a newly developed single-session gamified VR exposure therapy application with modern VR hardware, virtual spiders, and a virtual therapist. Participants with specific phobia to spiders (N = 100) will be recruited from the general public, screened, and randomized to either VR exposure therapy (n = 50) or traditional OST (n = 50). A behavioral approach test using in vivo spiders will serve as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures will include spider phobia questionnaires and self-reported anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Outcomes will be assessed using a non-inferiority design at baseline and at 1, 12, and 52 weeks after treatment. VR exposure therapy has previously been evaluated as a treatment for specific phobias, but there has been a lack of high-quality randomized controlled trials. A new generation of modern, consumer-ready VR devices is being released that are advancing existing technology and have the potential to improve clinical availability and treatment effectiveness. The VR medium is also particularly suitable for taking advantage of recent phobia treatment research emphasizing engagement and new learning, as opposed to physiological habituation. This study compares a market-ready, gamified VR spider phobia exposure application, delivered using consumer VR hardware, with

  17. Political Socialization Media of Selayar Islands General Election

    OpenAIRE

    Andi Gau Kadir; Nurlinah; Rahmatullah

    2017-01-01

    - This paper aims to identify the most influential political socialization media in shaping the political culture of maritime communities in the Selayar Islands District. The research method used is a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods with data collection methods in the form of surveys, interviews and document studies. Data analysis uses quantitative analysis in the form of cross-tabulation of data and qualitative analysis. The results showed that there was no significant...

  18. SOCIAL AND ETHIC INFLUENCE OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS ON GENERAL SOCIAL STATE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zova

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article the analysis of intercommunication of social and ethical aspects of the use of information networks is conducted and their influence on social development of the state is determined.

  19. A Multivariate Genetic Analysis of Specific Phobia, Separation Anxiety and Social Phobia in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Thalia C.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Perrin, Sean; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Bolton, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Background: Comorbidity amongst anxiety disorders is very common in children as in adults and leads to considerable distress and impairment, yet is poorly understood. Multivariate genetic analyses can shed light on the origins of this comorbidity by revealing whether genetic or environmental risks for one disorder also influence another. We…

  20. Differences in social relations between persons with type 2 diabetes and the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempler, Nana Folmann; Ekholm, Ola; Willaing, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three settings: a specialist diabetes clinic (SDC) (n = 1084), a web panel (WP) consisting.......08-1.41). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. From a public health point of view, special attention is needed with regards to strengthening existing networks and establishing alternative networks among persons with type 2 diabetes.......Aims: Poor social support and lack of social network are well-established risk factors for morbidity and mortality in general populations. Good social relations, such as social support and network contacts, are associated with better self-management and fewer psychosocial problems in persons...

  1. Does generalized social trust lead to associational membership? Unraveling a bowl of well-tossed spaghetti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2011-01-01

    Within the social capital literature it is often assumed that membership of voluntary associations causes generalized social trust and not the other way around. This study challenges this assumption by investigating if generalized social trust causes membership in a novel design that yields valid...... provide rare individual level evidence for a connection between generalized social trust and collective action in that generalized social trust in particular increases membership of associations producing public goods....... results despite possible feed-back effects from membership to trust. Using individual level data from several countries, the paper shows that trust does increase membership. Treating associational membership as exogenous to trust produces biased results, it is therefore concluded. Moreover, the study...

  2. Does generalized social trust lead to associational membership? Unraveling a bowl of well-tossed spaghetti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    Within the social capital literature it is often assumed that membership of voluntary associations causes generalized social trust and not the other way around. This study challenges this assumption by investigating if generalized social trust causes membership in a novel design that yields valid....... Moreover, the study provide rare individual level evidence for a connection between generalized social trust and collective action in that generalized social trust in particular increases membership of associations producing public goods....... results despite possible feed-back effects from membership to trust. Using both individual and country level data in a multilevel analysis, the paper shows that trust does increase membership. Treating associational membership as exogenous to trust produces biased results, it is therefore concluded...

  3. Toward a generalized theory of epidemic awareness in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingchu; Zhu, Wenfang

    We discuss the dynamics of a susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model with local awareness in networks. Individual awareness to the infectious disease is characterized by a general function of epidemic information in its neighborhood. We build a high-accuracy approximate equation governing the spreading dynamics and derive an approximate epidemic threshold above which the epidemic spreads over the whole network. Our results extend the previous work and show that the epidemic threshold is dependent on the awareness function in terms of one infectious neighbor. Interestingly, when a pow-law awareness function is chosen, the epidemic threshold can emerge in infinite networks.

  4. Harm beliefs and coping expectancies in youth with specific phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollendick, Thomas H; Öst, Lars-Göran; Ryan, Sarah M; Capriola, Nicole N; Reuterskiöld, Lena

    2017-04-01

    Catastrophic beliefs and lowered coping expectancies are often present in individuals with specific phobias (SPs). The current study examined these beliefs and expectancies in 251 youth who received One Session Treatment for one of the three most common types of SP in youth (animals, natural environment, and situational). We compared the children's subjective beliefs to objective ratings of the likelihood of occurrence and the dangerousness of the feared events. Results revealed pre-treatment differences in the youths' beliefs across phobia types and age. Specifically, children with animal phobias rated their beliefs as more likely to occur than did children with environmental and situational phobias. In addition, older children rated their beliefs as more dangerous than younger children. However, regardless of phobia type or child age, the beliefs improved following treatment. Changes in catastrophic beliefs and coping expectancies were related to changes in clinical severity following treatment but not 6-months following treatment. Moreover, at pre-treatment, children viewed their beliefs as significantly more catastrophic and likely to occur than did independent coders of these beliefs; however, these differences were no longer evident following treatment. Clinical implications are discussed, highlighting how changes in beliefs and expectancies might be associated with treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pure animal phobia is more specific than other specific phobias: epidemiological evidence from the Zurich Study, the ZInEP and the PsyCoLaus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Rodgers, Stephanie; Müller, Mario; Hengartner, Michael P; Aleksandrowicz, Aleksandra; Kawohl, Wolfram; Heekeren, Karsten; Rössler, Wulf; Angst, Jules; Castelao, Enrique; Vandeleur, Caroline; Preisig, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Interest in subtypes of mental disorders is growing in parallel with continuing research progress in psychiatry. The aim of this study was to examine pure animal phobia in contrast to other specific phobias and a mixed subtype. Data from three representative Swiss community samples were analysed: PsyCoLaus (n = 3720), the ZInEP Epidemiology Survey (n = 1500) and the Zurich Study (n = 591). Pure animal phobia and mixed animal/other specific phobias consistently displayed a low age at onset of first symptoms (8-12 years) and clear preponderance of females (OR > 3). Meanwhile, other specific phobias started up to 10 years later and displayed almost a balanced sex ratio. Pure animal phobia showed no associations with any included risk factors and comorbid disorders, in contrast to numerous associations found in the mixed subtype and in other specific phobias. Across the whole range of epidemiological parameters examined in three different samples, pure animal phobia seems to represent a different entity compared to other specific phobias. The etiopathogenetic mechanisms and risk factors associated with pure animal phobias appear less clear than ever.

  6. Distrust As a Disease Avoidance Strategy: Individual Differences in Disgust Sensitivity Regulate Generalized Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarøe, Lene; Osmundsen, Mathias; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2016-01-01

    pathogens influence people's propensity to interact and cooperate with others, as measured by individual differences in generalized social trust. While extant studies on pathogen avoidance have argued that such motivations should prompt people to avoid interactions with outgroups specifically, we argue...... social trust. We furthermore compare the effects of pathogen disgust sensitivity on generalized social trust and outgroup prejudice and explore whether generalized social trust to some extent constitutes a pathway between pathogen avoidance motivations and prejudice.......Throughout human evolutionary history, cooperative contact with others has been fundamental for human survival. At the same time, social contact has been a source of threats. In this article, we focus on one particular viable threat, communicable disease, and investigate how motivations to avoid...

  7. Social-cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: generalization of effects of the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölwer, Wolfgang; Frommann, Nicole

    2011-09-01

    In the last decade, several social cognitive remediation programs have been developed for use in schizophrenia. Though existing evidence indicates that such programs can improve social cognition, which is essential for successful social functioning, it remains unclear whether the improvements generalize to social cognitive domains not primarily addressed by the intervention and whether the improved test performance transfers into everyday social functioning. The present study investigated whether, beyond its known effects on facial affect recognition, the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR) has effects on prosodic affect recognition, theory of mind (ToM) performance, social competence in a role-play task, and more general social and occupational functioning. Thirty-eight inpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of treatment with the TAR--primarily targeted at facial affect recognition-or Cognitive Remediation Training (CRT)--primarily targeted at neurocognition. Intention-to-treat analyses found significantly larger pre-post improvements with TAR than with CRT in prosodic affect recognition, ToM, and social competence and a trend effect in global social functioning. However, the effects on ToM and social competence were no longer significant in the smaller group of patients who completed treatment according to protocol. Results suggest that TAR effects generalize to other social cognitive domains not primarily addressed. TAR may also enhance social skills and social functioning, although this has to be confirmed. Results are discussed with regard to the need to improve functional outcome in schizophrenia against the background of current evidence from other social cognitive remediation approaches.

  8. The Successful Treatment of Specific Phobia in a College Counseling Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Jonathan M.; Cook-Nobles, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Specific phobias are highly prevalent among college students and can be quite debilitating. However, students often do not present for treatment for phobias and, when they do, often do not receive effective treatment. This article will present a case study of the effective treatment of specific phobia using cognitive-behavioral therapy with an…

  9. Social relations and loneliness among older patients consulting their general practitioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Tina Drud; Sandholdt, Håkon; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Social relations are important for people and affect their quality of life, morbidity and mortality. This holds true especially for older persons. General practitioners (GPs) are in a unique position to address social relations and loneliness; however, no GP population-based studies...... have assessed older patients' social relations and loneliness. The aim of this study was to analyse the social relations and loneliness of patients aged 65 years and above consulting their GP. METHODS: This survey counted the participation of 12 general practices in the Capital Region of Denmark....... During a three-week period, the practices invited their patients to fill out a questionnaire on health, social relations and loneliness. RESULTS: Of 767 eligible patients, 474 were included and 461 answered one or more items about social participation or loneliness. A total of 36.2% had a high, 45.5% had...

  10. Social relations and loneliness among older patients consulting their general practitioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Tina Drud; Sandholdt, Håkon; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Social relations are important for people and affect their quality of life, morbidity and mortality. This holds true especially for older persons. General practitioners (GPs) are in a unique position to address social relations and loneliness; however, no GP population-based studies...... have assessed older patients’ social relations and loneliness. The aim of this study was to analyse the social relations and loneliness of patients aged 65 years and above consulting their GP. Methods: This survey counted the participation of 12 general practices in the Capital Region of Denmark....... During a three-week period, the practices invited their patients to fill out a questionnaire on health, social relations and loneliness. 
 Results: Of 767 eligible patients, 474 were included and 461 answered one or more items about social participation or loneliness. A total of 36.2% had a high, 45...

  11. Neighborhood-Specific and General Social Support: Which Buffers the Effect of Neighborhood Disorder on Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joongbaeck; Ross, Catherine E.

    2009-01-01

    Is neighborhood-specific social support the most effective type of social support for buffering the effect of neighborhood disorder on depression? Matching theory suggests that it is. The authors extend the research on neighborhood disorder and adult depression by showing that individuals who have higher levels of both general and…

  12. Developing a General Outcome Measure Off Growth in Social Skills for Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Judith; Greenwood, Charles; Luze, Gayle; Cline, Gabriel; Kuntz, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Proficiency in social interaction with adults and peers is an important outcome in early childhood. The development of an experimental measure for assessing growth in social skills in children birth to 3 years is described. Based on the general outcome measurement (GOM) approach (e.g., Deno, 1997), the measure is intended for use by early…

  13. Developing a General Outcome Measure of Growth in Social Skills for Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Judith; Greenwood, Charles; Luze, Gayle; Cline, Gabriel; Kuntz, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Proficiency in social interaction with adults and peers is an important outcome in early childhood. The development of an experimental measure for assessing growth in social skills in children birth to 3 years is described. Based on the general outcome measurement (GOM) approach (e.g., Deno, 1997), the measure is intended for use by early…

  14. How well do general practitioners know their elderly patients' social relations and feelings of loneliness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Tina Drud; Sandholdt, Håkon; Siersma, Volkert Dirk

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social relationships are important to people and affect their quality of life, morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between elderly patients' descriptions of their social relations and feelings of loneliness, and their general practitioners......' assessments of these. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in 12 general practices in the Capital Region of Denmark. During a three-week period each practice asked their patients aged 65 and older to fill out a questionnaire regarding health, social relations and loneliness; the general practitioner (GP) filled out...... a matching questionnaire regarding their perception of the patient's social relations and loneliness. Data were collected from February to September 2014. RESULTS: Of the 767 eligible patients 476 were included in the study. For 447 patients both GP and patient had answered at least one question...

  15. Exploring Predictors of Social Actions by General Education Students towards Peers with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpareke, Alicia Wyche; Salisbury, Christine L.

    2018-01-01

    This study deepens the field's understanding about factors that contribute to positive social engagement between students without disabilities and their peers with mild disabilities in general education classrooms. A sample of 68 seventh grade students with and without disabilities was drawn from general education classrooms in a suburban, Midwest…

  16. A measurement of social support in epidemiological research: the social experiences checklist tested in a general population in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, M. A.; Tijhuis, M. A.; de Haes, J. C.; Tempelaar, R.; Kromhout, D.

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine in a general population the psychometric qualities of an instrument designed to measure positive and negative social experiences that had been developed in a clinical setting. DESIGN: The Netherlands monitoring project on cardiovascular disease risk

  17. An Evaluation of the Instruction of Generalization in Elementary School Social Studies Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mükerrem AKBULUT TAŞ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Generalizations are important content materials that should be instructed in the Social Studies program. The instruction of generalizations and the causal relationships emphasized in generalizations are important for students to have meaningful learning experiences and to gain causal reasoning and critical thinking skills. Social Studies program emphasizes the acquisition of creating scientific generalization skill as a fundamental skill to be instructed directly, and the importance of generalization instruction is highlighted. Therefore, this study is important in that it draws attention to the importance of teaching generalization and creates basis for the future research in the field. In this regard, it aims at evaluating the instruction of the generalizations in the “Our Country and the World” unit in Social Studies program for 6th grades in Primary School. In line with this general purpose, the instruction of the generalizations in the unit was analyzed qualitatively. The study was conducted with three social studies teachers working in three different schools located in Seyhan, Adana. The data were collected through the observation technique with a view to obtaining in depth data about the instruction of generalization in social studies lesson. Semi-structured observation form, prepared in the light of the generalization content elements, was used as the data collection tool. These content elements consisted of four aspects: generalization statement, concepts related to generalization, cause-effect relationships between concepts, and facts about generalization. In addition to observation, document analysis was conducted with a view to supporting results and strengthening the implications. The documentary analysis was performed based on the generalizations and previously identified elements about the generalizations in the scope of the six topics in the “Our Country and the World” unit. The data collected from the observations were

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of HPV vaccination: comparing the general population with socially vulnerable individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Sun Jung; Lee, Seo Yoon; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    After the WHO recommended HPV vaccination of the general population in 2009, government support of HPV vaccination programs was increased in many countries. However, this policy was not implemented in Korea due to perceived low cost-effectiveness. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the cost-utility of HPV vaccination programs targeted to high risk populations as compared to vaccination programs for the general population. Each study population was set to 100,000 people in a simulation study to determine the incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR), then standard prevalence rates, cost, vaccination rates, vaccine efficacy, and the Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs) were applied to the analysis. In addition, sensitivity analysis was performed by assuming discounted vaccination cost. In the socially vulnerable population, QALYs gained through HPV vaccination were higher than that of the general population (General population: 1,019, Socially vulnerable population: 5,582). The results of ICUR showed that the cost of HPV vaccination was higher for the general population than the socially vulnerable population. (General population: 52,279,255 KRW, Socially vulnerable population: 9,547,347 KRW). Compared with 24 million KRW/QALYs as the social threshold, vaccination of the general population was not cost-effective. In contrast, vaccination of the socially vulnerable population was strongly cost-effective. The results suggest the importance and necessity of government support of HPV vaccination programs targeted to socially vulnerable populations because a targeted approach is much more cost-effective. The implementation of government support for such vaccination programs is a critical strategy for decreasing the burden of HPV infection in Korea.

  19. Social relations and loneliness among older patients consulting their general practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due, Tina Drud; Sandholdt, Håkon; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2017-03-01

    Social relations are important for people and affect their quality of life, morbidity and mortality. This holds true especially for older persons. General practitioners (GPs) are in a unique position to address social relations and loneliness; however, no GP population-based studies have assessed older patients' social relations and loneliness. The aim of this study was to analyse the social relations and loneliness of patients aged 65 years and above consulting their GP. This survey counted the participation of 12 general practices in the Capital Region of Denmark. During a three-week period, the practices invited their patients to fill out a questionnaire on health, social relations and loneliness. Of 767 eligible patients, 474 were included and 461 answered one or more items about social participation or loneliness. A total of 36.2% had a high, 45.5% had a medium and 18.3% had a low social participation; and 17.9% often or occasionally felt lonely. Higher social participation was associated with a lower degree of loneliness. However, several patients answered in a manner not fitting the expected association. Anxiety and depressive symptoms, living alone and low social participation were the most important predictive variables for loneliness. Only 15.2% of the lonely patients had talked to their GP about their loneliness. A total of 17.9% of older patients stated that they were lonely either often or occasionally. The most important predictors were: anxiety and depressive symptoms, living alone and low social participation. The lonely patients rarely shared these issues with their GP. The study also reveals a need to discuss the assessment of social participation and loneliness in both research and practice. Danish Agency for Culture and Palaces. The EGV Foundation. The Committee of Multipractice Studies in General Practice. not relevant.

  20. Specific phobias in older adults: characteristics and differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carlos M; Gonçalves, Daniela C; Purkis, Helena; Pocinho, Margarida; Pachana, Nancy A; Byrne, Gerard J

    2010-08-01

    Differential diagnosis implies identifying shared and divergent characteristics between clinical states. Clinical work with older adults demands not only the knowledge of nosological features associated with differential diagnosis, but also recognition of idiosyncratic factors associated with this population. Several factors can interfere with an accurate diagnosis of specific phobia in older cohorts. The goal of this paper is to review criteria for specific phobia and its differential diagnosis with panic disorder, agoraphobia, post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder, while stressing the specific factors associated with aging. A literature search regarding specific phobia in older adults was carried out using PubMed. Relevant articles were selected and scanned for further pertinent references. In addition, relevant references related to differential diagnosis and assessment were used. Etiologic factors, specificity of feared stimulus or situation, fear predictability and the nature of phobic situations are key points to be assessed when implementing a differential diagnosis of specific phobia. First, age-related sensory impairments are common and interfere both with information processing and communication. Second, medical illnesses create symptoms that might cause, interfere with, or mimic anxiety. Third, cohort effects might result in underreporting, through the inability to communicate or recognize anxiety symptoms, misattributing them to physical conditions. Finally, diagnostic criteria and screening instruments were usually developed using younger samples and are therefore not adapted to the functional and behavioral characteristics of older samples.

  1. Special Educators and Mathematics Phobia: An Initial Qualitative Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Michael; Hourcade, Jack J.

    2010-01-01

    Special educators are uniquely challenged to be content experts in all curricular areas, including mathematics, because students in their caseloads may require academic instruction in any area. However, special educators with math phobia may be limited in their ability to provide effective instruction to their students with mathematical deficits…

  2. Bibliotherapy and aging phobia among Covenant University staff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reading is one of life's greatest pleasures and opens the door to culture, knowledge and independence. It can be very therapeutic. This study examines the effect of bibliotherapy on aging phobia among Covenant University academic and senior staff. The result shows that reading of books has influenced positively their ...

  3. Fat phobia of university students: attitudes toward obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayran, Osman; Akan, Hülya; Özkan, Azru D; Kocaoglu, Bike

    2013-01-01

    This study examined attitudes about obesity among a sample of university students from the departments of Health Sciences and Fine Arts. This cross-sectional study was carried out among first- and second-year students of Health Sciences and Fine Arts Yeditepe between April and May 2011. The questionnaire surveyed sociodemographic characteristics, height, weight, and a short form of the "Fat Phobia" scale. A pilot study revealed that the test-retest reliability was r=0.71 and internal consistency (Cronbach alpha) was 0.8783. The mean and SD were computed for descriptive purposes, and a t-test was used for hypothesis testing; significance was considered for pstudents (86 men, 219 women) were included in the study. The mean score on the fat phobia scale was 3.57±0.69 among the whole group. Fat phobia of women was higher than of men (pstudents than in obese students, there was no statistically significant differences according to body structure (p>0.05). The adjectives about which the whole group was phobic were "likes food" (4.50), "overeats" (4.20), "slow" (3.90), "inactive" (3.82), "no will power" (3.71), and "shapeless" (3.66). Female students were more phobic than men in adjectives (overeats,) (no will power,) (shapeless.) Fat phobia is common among university students, and women are more fat phobic than men. Fat phobia and attitudes toward obesity should be examined and followed, and methods and messages directed to change negative attitudes should be included during training.

  4. Making Cooperation Work: Generalized Social Trust and Large-N Collective Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    It has often been argued that generalized social trust, the belief that most people are trustworthy, enhances cooperation in large-N collective action dilemmas. Large-N dilemmas are situations where an actor has to decide whether to contribute to the provision of public goods that benefit a large...... number of people. Modern societies abound with such dilemmas, and if generalized social trust does enhance voluntary contributions it would be a very valuable asset that would benefit every society. This dissertation digs into this frequently posited relationship. A series of empirical analyses drawing...... on survey and national level data from several countries is used to investigate if, how, and when generalized social trust leads to collective action. Specifically, citizens' behavior in relation to the environment is used as the indicator of voluntary public good provision. This indicator affords excellent...

  5. IT based social media impacts on Indonesian general legislative elections 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Abdillah, Leon Andretti

    2014-01-01

    The information technology applications in cyberspace (the internet) are currently dominated by social media. The author investigates and explores the advantages of social media implementation of any political party in Indonesian general legislative elections 2014. There are twelve national political parties participating in the election as contestants plus three local political parties in Aceh. In this research, author focus on national political parties only. The author visited, analyzed, a...

  6. Does Society Need Altruists? Coevolution of General Trust and Social Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    澁谷, 浩

    2013-01-01

    Most social scientists, especially economists, believe that altruists do not exist because they cannot survive exploitation by egoists. An agent-based model demonstrates, however, that altruists can survive natural selection if society comprises four types of individuals: altruists, reciprocal altruists, egoists and reciprocal egoists. These individuals are characterized by different combinations of two phenotypes: general trust and social intelligence. In a society of four types of individua...

  7. Differences in social relations between persons with type 2 diabetes and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempler, Nana Folmann; Ekholm, Ola; Willaing, Ingrid

    2013-06-01

    Poor social support and lack of social network are well-established risk factors for morbidity and mortality in general populations. Good social relations, such as social support and network contacts, are associated with better self-management and fewer psychosocial problems in persons with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three settings: a specialist diabetes clinic (SDC) (n = 1084), a web panel (WP) consisting of persons with type 2 diabetes (n = 1491) and a sample from the 2010 Danish Health and Morbidity Survey, representative of the general population (n = 15,165). We compared social relations using multivariate logistic regression. Compared to the general population, persons with type 2 diabetes more often lived without a partner (SDC, OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.49-2.06; WP, OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.43-1.87), met with family less than once a month (SDC, OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.40-2.27; WP, OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.94-2.84) and were less certain they could count on help from others in case of illness (WP, OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.41). Our findings suggest that persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. From a public health point of view, special attention is needed with regards to strengthening existing networks and establishing alternative networks among persons with type 2 diabetes.

  8. Distrust As a Disease Avoidance Strategy: Individual Differences in Disgust Sensitivity Regulate Generalized Social Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarøe, Lene; Osmundsen, Mathias; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2016-01-01

    Throughout human evolutionary history, cooperative contact with others has been fundamental for human survival. At the same time, social contact has been a source of threats. In this article, we focus on one particular viable threat, communicable disease, and investigate how motivations to avoid pathogens influence people's propensity to interact and cooperate with others, as measured by individual differences in generalized social trust. While extant studies on pathogen avoidance have argued that such motivations should prompt people to avoid interactions with outgroups specifically, we argue that these motivations should prompt people to avoid others more broadly. Empirically, we utilize two convenience samples and a large nationally representative sample of US citizens to demonstrate the existence of a robust and replicable effect of individual differences in pathogen disgust sensitivity on generalized social trust. We furthermore compare the effects of pathogen disgust sensitivity on generalized social trust and outgroup prejudice and explore whether generalized social trust to some extent constitutes a pathway between pathogen avoidance motivations and prejudice.

  9. Slang knowledge as an indicator of a general social deviancy subcultural factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haertzen, C A; Ross, F E; Hooks, N T

    1979-06-01

    Evidence for a general social deviancy subcultural factor was found using the Kulik, Sarbin, and Stein (1971) slang test on drugs, gangs, law enforcement, and general words. The slang scores of 68 confirmed opiate addicts exceeded those of normals and young delinquents reported by Kulik, et al. (1971), including delinquents who were recidivists. Addicts knew more drug and alcohol slang than slang in the three other categories. It was recommended that more attempts should be made to subdivide measures of social deviancy by means of slang as there is some evidence of possible further differentiation of subcultural types by means of slang.

  10. General practitioners’ assessment practices of patients' need for lifestyle intervention. A vignette study on the impact of social distance on general practitioners’ patient assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsvard, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    discretion, especially in preventive contexts with no clear-cut guidelines. However, despite its potential influence, few studies have focused on whether social distance has an impact on general practitioners’ assessment practices of patients, which thus seems to be a blind spot in the literature. To study...... the mechanisms facilitating the process of social distance systematically, I apply the vignette method. Drawing on Bourdieu’s theoretical framework of social distance, I examine how general practitioners assess different socially positioned patients as needy for preventive lifestyle intervention. I expect social...

  11. Social Phobia among Finnish Adolescents: Assessment, Epidemiology, Comorbidity, and Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Ranta, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Sosiaalisten tilanteiden pelko (STP) on ahdistuneisuushäiriö, jonka keskeisenä oireena on voimakas pelko joutua kielteisen arvioinnin kohteeksi sosiaalisessa tai esiintymistilanteessa. Häiriö johtaa kärsimykseen näissä tilanteissa ja usein sosiaalisten tilanteiden välttämiseen. Aiempi tutkimus viittaa siihen, että STP kliinisenä häiriönä kehittyy valtaosin nuoruusiän aikana, on kulultaan pitkäaikainen ja edeltää masennustilojen, myöhempien ahdistuneisuushäiriöiden ja päihteiden käytön puhkeam...

  12. Qualities and Inequalities in Online Social Networks through the Lens of the Generalized Friendship Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Momeni, Naghmeh; Rabbat, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The friendship paradox is the phenomenon that in social networks, people on average have fewer friends than their friends do. The generalized friendship paradox is an extension to attributes other than the number of friends. The friendship paradox and its generalized version have gathered recent attention due to the information they provide about network structure and local inequalities. In this paper, we propose several measures of nodal qualities which capture different aspects of their act...

  13. From the general to the specific: How social trust motivates relational trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Blaine G

    2016-01-01

    When people form beliefs about the trustworthiness of others with respect to particular matters (i.e., when individuals trust), theory suggests that they rely on preexistent cognitive schemas regarding the general cooperativeness of individuals and organizations (i.e., social trust). In spite of prior work, the impact of social trust on relational trust-or what Russell Hardin (2002) calls trust as a three-part relation where actor A trusts actor B with reference to matter Y-is not well established. Four vignette experiments were administered to Amazon.com Mechanical Turk workers (N = 1388 and N = 1419) and to public university undergraduate students (N = 995 and N = 956) in order to investigate the relationship between social trust and relational trust. Measures of general social trust and particular social trust produced statistically equivalent effects that were positively associated with relational trust. Political trust, however, was statistically unrelated to relational trust. These results support the idea that people rely on schemas and stereotypes concerned with the general cooperativeness and helpfulness of others when forming beliefs about another person's trustworthiness with respect to a particular matter at hand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Rethinking how health is promoted in the Colombian general health-related social security system (Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslava-Castañeda, Juan C

    2006-12-01

    This article takes stock of how promoting health (PH) (promoción de la salud - PS) has been understood within an international setting and gives three meanings for promotion: as general policy orientation, as a set of actions and as a special dimension of sanitary work. Interest expressed in giving it a specific basis distinguishing it from prevention, transcending educational work, has emerged from the subtle differences established from such different ways of coming to terms with PH. After recognising the challenge posed by PH in the field of health, the text succinctly describes how discourse regarding PH has been introduced in Colombia and discusses how an attempt has been made to be more precise regarding its place in the general health-related social security system. Efforts currently being made in Colombia regarding making PH become a reality within the Colombian health system are then mentioned.

  15. Psychological and social problems in primary care patients - general practitioners' assessment and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendal, Marianne; Vedsted, Peter; Christensen, Kaj Sparle; Moth, Grete

    2013-03-01

    To estimate the frequency of psychological and social classification codes employed by general practitioners (GPs) and to explore the extent to which GPs ascribed health problems to biomedical, psychological, or social factors. A cross-sectional survey based on questionnaire data from GPs. Setting. Danish primary care. 387 GPs and their face-to-face contacts with 5543 patients. GPs registered consecutive patients on registration forms including reason for encounter, diagnostic classification of main problem, and a GP assessment of biomedical, psychological, and social factors' influence on the contact. The GP-stated reasons for encounter largely overlapped with their classification of the managed problem. Using the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC-2-R), GPs classified 600 (11%) patients with psychological problems and 30 (0.5%) with social problems. Both codes for problems/complaints and specific disorders were used as the GP's diagnostic classification of the main problem. Two problems (depression and acute stress reaction/adjustment disorder) accounted for 51% of all psychological classifications made. GPs generally emphasized biomedical aspects of the contacts. Psychological aspects were given greater importance in follow-up consultations than in first-episode consultations, whereas social factors were rarely seen as essential to the consultation. Psychological problems are frequently seen and managed in primary care and most are classified within a few diagnostic categories. Social matters are rarely considered or classified.

  16. Intelligence Makes People Think like Economists: Evidence from the General Social Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Bryan; Miller, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    Education is by far the strongest predictor of whether a non-economist will share the economic beliefs of the average economist. (Caplan, 2001) Is the effect of education as large as it seems? Or is education largely a proxy for cognitive ability? Using data from the General Social Survey (GSS), we show that the estimated effect of education…

  17. A Reliability Generalization Study of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretvas, S, Natasha; Meyers, Jason L.; Leite, Walter L.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a reliability generalization study of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (D. Crowne and D. Marlowe, 1960). Analysis of 93 studies show that the predicted score reliability for male adolescents was 0.53, and reliability for men's responses was lower than for women's. Discusses the need for further analysis of the scale. (SLD)

  18. Defining Success for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Social Academic Behavior in Secondary General Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Elizabeth L. W.; Stachniak, Catherine; Albright, Jordan; Jewell, Jeremy D.; Dorencz, Julie M.

    2016-01-01

    An exploratory, observation-based study sought to strengthen understanding of the development of social communication skills that facilitate academic success, particularly within general education settings. Sixteen middle and high school students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), all of whom participated in at least one period per day of core…

  19. The Benchmarking Capacity of a General Outcome Measure of Academic Language in Science and Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Paul; Lastrapes, Renée E.

    2016-01-01

    The amount of research evaluating the technical merits of general outcome measures of science and social studies achievement is growing. This study targeted criterion validity for critical content monitoring. Questions addressed the concurrent criterion validity of alternate presentation formats of critical content monitoring and the measure's…

  20. The Social Profile of Students in Basic General Education in Ecuador: A Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Olga Elizabeth Minchala; Stefos, Efstathios

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the social profile of students who are enrolled in Basic General Education in Ecuador. Both a descriptive and multidimensional statistical analysis was carried out based on the data provided by the National Survey of Employment, Unemployment and Underemployment in 2015. The descriptive analysis shows the…

  1. The Effect of General Creative Personality and Freedom of Task Choice on Adolescents' Social Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chuanhua; Hu, Bi Ying; Ngwira, Flemmings Fishani; Jing, Zhi; Zhou, Zongkui

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of general creative personality and freedom of task choice on the social creativity of adolescents. The results indicated, first, that senior high school students scored higher than junior high school students. Second, girls scored higher than boys on originality, fluency, flexibility, appropriateness, and…

  2. The Social Effects of Advertising as Perceived by Advertising Executives, Businessmen, and the General Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlin, Stuart H.

    This study attempts to compare the perceptions and self-reported behavior of high, middle, and low authoritarian advertising executives, business executives, and members of the general public concerning the social effects of advertising. For the advertising sample, a total of 393 men and women were selected according to their executive positions…

  3. Tearing down the Berlin wall: social workers' perspectives on joint working with general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharicha, Kalpa; Iliffe, Steve; Levin, Enid; Davey, Barbara; Fleming, Cass

    2005-08-01

    The arrangements for delivering social work and primary health care to older people in England and Wales are currently subject to rapid re-configuration, with the development of integrated primary care and social services trusts. To investigate perceptions of joint working in social services and general practice. The study setting was two London boroughs covered by one health authority, one NHS Community Health Services Trust, four Primary Care Groups and two social services departments. All social work team managers in both areas were interviewed together with a purposive sample of social workers with a high number of older clients on their caseloads. A sample of GPs was sought using a sampling frame of practice size in each borough. Structured interviews with open and closed questions were used. Tape-recorded interviews were transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Analysis of emergent themes was aided by the use of Atlas-ti. Social workers and GPs agree on the need for joint working, but have different understandings of it, each profession wanting the other to change its organizational culture. Co-location of social and health care is seen as desirable, but threatening to social work. Concerns about differences in power and hierarchical authority are evident and explicit in social work perspectives. Conflict resolution strategies include risk minimization, adopting pragmatic, case-specific solutions rather than remaining consistent with policy, using nurses as mediators, and resorting to authority. Although this is a study from urban areas in England, its findings may have wider significance since we have found that resources and professional skills may be more important than organizational arrangements in collaborative working between disciplines. Primary Care Trusts in England and Wales should promote awareness of these different perspectives, perceived risks and conflict minimization strategies in their work on clinical governance and professional

  4. The therapeutic lamp: treating small-animal phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzesien, Maja; Alcañiz, Mariano; Botella, Cristina; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie; Bretón-López, Juana; Ortega, Mario; Brotons, Daniel Beneito

    2013-01-01

    We all have an irrational fear or two. Some of us get scared by an unexpected visit from a spider in our house; others get nervous when they look down from a high building. Fear is an evolutionary and adaptive function that can promote self-preservation and help us deal with the feared object or situation. However, when this state becomes excessive, it might develop into psychological disorders such as phobias, producing high anxiety and affecting everyday life. The Therapeutic Lamp is an interactive projection-based augmented-reality system for treating small-animal phobias. It aims to increase patient-therapist communication, promote more natural interaction, and improve the patient's engagement in the therapy.

  5. Virtual reality exposure therapy in the treatment of driving phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Thomaz da Costa

    Full Text Available A growing number of researches has appeared on virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET to treat anxiety disorders. The purpose of this article was to review some evidences that support the VRET efficacy to treat driving phobia. The studies were identified through computerized search (PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, and Scielo databases from 1984 to 2007. Some findings are promising. Anxiety/avoidance ratings declined from pre to post-treatment. VRET may be used as a first step in the treatment of driving phobia, as long as it may facilitate the in vivo exposure, thus reducing risks and high costs of such exposure. Notwithstanding, more randomized/controlled clinical trials are required to prove its efficacy.

  6. Fearful attention : Investigating event-related potentials in spider phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Norberg, Joakim

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed that emotional pictures capture attention. Further, this effect was decreased by manipulating spatial attention. In contrast, studies produced mixed findings for effects of perceptual load on attention to emotional pictures. Emotional pictures can be phobic or nonphobic. Because phobia might be an evolutionary adaption, it is possible that effects of phobic pictures on attention differ from effects of nonphobic emotional pictures. The present thesis aimed at investigat...

  7. Strategies to manage patients with dental anxiety and dental phobia: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appukuttan DP

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Deva Priya Appukuttan Department of Periodontics, Sri Ramakrishna Mission Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India Abstract: Dental anxiety and phobia result in avoidance of dental care. It is a frequently encountered problem in dental offices. Formulating acceptable evidence-based therapies for such patients is essential, or else they can be a considerable source of stress for the dentist. These patients need to be identified at the earliest opportunity and their concerns addressed. The initial interaction between the dentist and the patient can reveal the presence of anxiety, fear, and phobia. In such situations, subjective evaluation by interviews and self-reporting on fear and anxiety scales and objective assessment of blood pressure, pulse rate, pulse oximetry, finger temperature, and galvanic skin response can greatly enhance the diagnosis and enable categorization of these individuals as mildly, moderately, or highly anxious or dental phobics. Broadly, dental anxiety can be managed by psychotherapeutic interventions, pharmacological interventions, or a combination of both, depending on the level of dental anxiety, patient characteristics, and clinical situations. Psychotherapeutic interventions are either behaviorally or cognitively oriented. Pharmacologically, these patients can be managed using either sedation or general anesthesia. Behavior-modification therapies aim to change unacceptable behaviors through learning, and involve muscle relaxation and relaxation breathing, along with guided imagery and physiological monitoring using biofeedback, hypnosis, acupuncture, distraction, positive reinforcement, stop-signaling, and exposure-based treatments, such as systematic desensitization, “tell-show-do”, and modeling. Cognitive strategies aim to alter and restructure the content of negative cognitions and enhance control over the negative thoughts. Cognitive behavior therapy is a combination of behavior therapy and cognitive therapy

  8. Social capital and self-reported general and mental health in nine Former Soviet Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Suhrcke, Marc; Rocco, Lorenzo; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Social capital has been proposed as a potentially important contributor to health, yet most of the existing research tends to ignore the challenge of assessing causality in this relationship. We deal with this issue by employing various instrumental variable estimation techniques. We apply the analysis to a set of nine former Soviet countries, using a unique multi-country household survey specifically designed for this region. Our results confirm that there appears to be a causal association running from several dimensions of individual social capital to general and mental health. Individual trust appears to be more strongly related to general health, while social isolation- to mental health. In addition, social support and trust seem to be more important determinants of health than the social capital dimensions that facilitate solidarity and collective action. Our findings are remarkably robust to a range of different specifications, including the use of instrumental variables. Certain interaction effects are also found: for instance, untrusting people who live in communities with higher aggregate level of trust are even less likely to experience good health than untrusting people living in the reference communities.

  9. Virtual reality therapy: an effective treatment for phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, M M; North, S M; Coble, J R

    1998-01-01

    Behavioral therapy techniques for treating phobias often includes graded exposure of the patient to anxiety-producing stimuli (Systematic Desensitization). However, in utilizing systematic desensitization, research reviews demonstrate that many patients appear to have difficulty in applying imaginative techniques. This chapter describes the Virtual Reality Therapy (VRT), a new therapeutical approach that can be used to overcome some of the difficulties inherent in the traditional treatment of phobias. VRT, like current imaginal and in vivo modalities, can generate stimuli that could be utilized in desensitization therapy. Like systematic desensitization therapy, VRT can provide stimuli for patients who have difficulty in imagining scenes and/or are too phobic to experience real situations. As far as we know, the idea of using virtual reality technology to combat psychological disorders was first conceived within the Human-Computer Interaction Group at Clark Atlanta University in November 1992. Since then, we have successfully conducted the first known pilot experiments in the use of virtual reality technologies in the treatment of specific phobias: fear of flying, fear of heights, fear of being in certain situations (such as a dark barn, an enclosed bridge over a river, and in the presence of an animal [a black cat] in a dark room), and fear of public speaking. The results of these experiments are described.

  10. Brain systems underlying encounter expectancy bias in spider phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aue, Tatjana; Hoeppli, Marie-Eve; Piguet, Camille; Hofstetter, Christoph; Rieger, Sebastian W; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2015-06-01

    Spider-phobic individuals are characterized by exaggerated expectancies to be faced with spiders (so-called encounter expectancy bias). Whereas phobic responses have been linked to brain systems mediating fear, little is known about how the recruitment of these systems relates to exaggerated expectancies of threat. We used fMRI to examine spider-phobic and control participants while they imagined visiting different locations in a forest after having received background information about the likelihood of encountering different animals (spiders, snakes, and birds) at these locations. Critically, imagined encounter expectancies modulated brain responses differently in phobics as compared with controls. Phobics displayed stronger negative modulation of activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and visual cortex by encounter expectancies for spiders, relative to snakes or birds (within-participants analysis); these effects were not seen in controls. Between-participants correlation analyses within the phobic group further corroborated the hypothesis that these phobia-specific modulations may underlie irrationality in encounter expectancies (deviations of encounter expectancies from objective background information) in spider phobia; the greater the negative modulation a phobic participant displayed in the lateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and visual cortex, the stronger was her bias in encounter expectancies for spiders. Interestingly, irrationality in expectancies reflected in frontal areas relied on right rather than left hemispheric deactivations. Our data accord with the idea that expectancy biases in spider phobia may reflect deficiencies in cognitive control and contextual integration that are mediated by right frontal and parietal areas.

  11. Exposure-Focused Family-Based CBT for Youth With ASD and Comorbid Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-25

    Autism; Asperger's Syndrome; Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Social Phobia; Separation Anxiety Disorder; Obsessive-compulsive Disorder; Specific Phobia

  12. Psychotherapy for Anxiety in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-30

    Autism Spectrum Disorders; Autism; Asperger's Syndrome; Pervasive Developmental Disability - Not Otherwise Specified; Obsessive-compulsive Disorder; Social Phobia; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Specific Phobia; Separation Anxiety Disorder

  13. Social capital and frequent attenders in general practice: a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasgaard, Alexander A; Mæhlisen, Maiken H; Overgaard, Charlotte; Ejlskov, Linda; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Bøggild, Henrik

    2018-03-02

    Frequent attendance to primary care constitutes a large use of resources for the health care system. The association between frequent attendance and illness-related factors has been examined in several studies, but little is known about the association between frequent attendance and individual social capital. The aim of this study is to explore this association. The analysis is conducted on responders to the North Denmark Region Health Profile 2010 (n = 23,384), individually linked with information from administrative registers. Social capital is operationalized at the individual level, and includes cognitive (interpersonal trust and norms of reciprocity) as well as structural (social network and civic engagement) dimensions. Frequent attendance is defined as the upper-quartile of the total number of measured consultations with a general practitioner over a period of 148 weeks. Using multiple logistic regression, we found that frequent attendance was associated with a lower score in interpersonal trust [OR 0.86 (0.79-0.94)] and social network [OR 0.88 (0.79-0.98)] for women, when adjusted for age, education, income and SF12 health scores. Norms of reciprocity and civic engagement were not significantly associated with frequent attendance for women [OR 1.05 (0.99-1.11) and OR 1.01 (0.92-1.11) respectively]. None of the associations were statistically significant for men. This study suggests that for women, some aspects of social capital are associated with frequent attendance in general practice, and the statistically significant dimensions belonged to both cognitive and structural aspects of social capital. This association was not seen for men. This indicates a multifaceted and heterogeneous relationship between social capital and frequent attendance among genders.

  14. Diseño y Validación del Cuestionario de Autoesquemas Desadaptativos en Fobia Social cad-fs / Design and Validation of Maladaptive Self-Schemas Questionnaire for Social Phobia CAD-FS / Desenho e Validação do Questionário de Autoesquemas Desadaptativos em Fobia Social QAD-FS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Toro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Se diseñó y validó el Cuestionario de Autoesquemas Desadaptativos en la Fobia Social (CAD-FS para evaluar los contenidos cognitivos disfuncionales de estos trastornos. Se obtuvo la validez de contenido por medio de tres jurados expertos. Con una muestra de 1,413 participantes con edad promedio de 26.41 años (DE=8.51, la consistencia interna fue α=.86, con una adecuada validez de criterio con la escala de Temor a la Evaluación Negativa (r=656, p<.01. A su vez, según el análisis de la teoría de respuesta al ítem se ajustó a los parámetros del modelo de crédito parcial de Masters. Se recomienda este instrumento para la evaluación de la fobia social durante el tratamiento cognitivo conductual.

  15. Phobias, other psychiatric comorbidities and chronic migraine Fobias, outras comorbidades psiquiátricas e enxaqueca crônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Corchs

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Comorbidity of chronic migraine (CM with psychiatric disorders, mostly anxiety and mood disorders, is a well-recognized phenomenon. Phobias are one of the most common anxiety disorders in the general population. Phobias are more common in migraineurs than non-migraineurs. The clinical profile of phobias in CM has never been studied. METHOD: We investigated the psychiatric profile in 56 patients with CM using the SCID I/P interview. RESULTS: Lifetime criteria for at least one mental disorder was found in 87.5% of the sample; 75% met criteria for at least one lifetime anxiety disorder and 60.7% of our sample fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for lifetime phobic avoidant disorders. Mood and anxiety scores were higher in phobic patients than in non-phobic CM controls. Number of phobias correlated with higher levels of anxiety and depression. CONCLUSION: Phobias are common in CM. Its recognition may influence its management. Early treatment may lead to better prognosis.INTRODUÇÃO: As comorbidades psiquiátricas das enxaquecas crônicas são bem conhecidas. As fobias, transtorno ansioso mais comum, são mais prevalentes entre enxaquecosos do que entre não enxaquecosos. O perfil clínico de fobias em uma população enxaquecosa nunca foi estudado. MÉTODO: Estudamos aspectos psiquiátricos de uma população de 56 pacientes com enxaqueca crônica. RESULTADOS: Usando o SCID I/P para o DSM-IV, critérios diagnósticos para ao menos algum transtorno psiquiátrico durante a vida foram preenchidos por 87,5% de nossa amostra, 75% para ao menos um transtorno ansioso e 60,7% para condições fóbicas em algum momento de suas vidas. Os escores de ansiedade e humor foram maiores entre os fóbicos e o número de fobias teve correlação positiva com o grau de ansiedade e depressão. CONCLUSÃO: Fobias são comuns na enxaqueca crônica e seu reconhecimento poderia influenciar seu manejo e melhorar seu prognóstico.

  16. Relational Coordination and Organisational Social Capital Association with Characteristics of General Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke; Edwards, Kasper; Bøllingtoft Knudsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background. Relational coordination (RC) and organisational social capital (OSC) aremeasures of novel aspects of an organisation’s performance, which have not previously been analysed together, in general practice. Objectives.The aim of this studywas to analyse the associations between RC and OSC......, and characteristics of general practice. Methods. Questionnaire survey study comprising 2074 practices in Denmark. Results. General practitioners (GPs) rated both RC and OSC in their general practice higher than their secretaries and nurses. The practice form was statistically significantly associated with high RC...... and OSC. RC was positively associated with the number of patients listed with a practice per staff, where staff is defined as all members of a practice including both owners and employees. Conclusion. The study showed that RC and OSC were significantly associated with type of profession and practice type...

  17. Qualities and Inequalities in Online Social Networks through the Lens of the Generalized Friendship Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Naghmeh; Rabbat, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The friendship paradox is the phenomenon that in social networks, people on average have fewer friends than their friends do. The generalized friendship paradox is an extension to attributes other than the number of friends. The friendship paradox and its generalized version have gathered recent attention due to the information they provide about network structure and local inequalities. In this paper, we propose several measures of nodal qualities which capture different aspects of their activities and influence in online social networks. Using these measures we analyse the prevalence of the generalized friendship paradox over Twitter and we report high levels of prevalence (up to over 90% of nodes). We contend that this prevalence of the friendship paradox and its generalized version arise because of the hierarchical nature of the connections in the network. This hierarchy is nested as opposed to being star-like. We conclude that these paradoxes are collective phenomena not created merely by a minority of well-connected or high-attribute nodes. Moreover, our results show that a large fraction of individuals can experience the generalized friendship paradox even in the absence of a significant correlation between degrees and attributes.

  18. Qualities and Inequalities in Online Social Networks through the Lens of the Generalized Friendship Paradox.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Momeni

    Full Text Available The friendship paradox is the phenomenon that in social networks, people on average have fewer friends than their friends do. The generalized friendship paradox is an extension to attributes other than the number of friends. The friendship paradox and its generalized version have gathered recent attention due to the information they provide about network structure and local inequalities. In this paper, we propose several measures of nodal qualities which capture different aspects of their activities and influence in online social networks. Using these measures we analyse the prevalence of the generalized friendship paradox over Twitter and we report high levels of prevalence (up to over 90% of nodes. We contend that this prevalence of the friendship paradox and its generalized version arise because of the hierarchical nature of the connections in the network. This hierarchy is nested as opposed to being star-like. We conclude that these paradoxes are collective phenomena not created merely by a minority of well-connected or high-attribute nodes. Moreover, our results show that a large fraction of individuals can experience the generalized friendship paradox even in the absence of a significant correlation between degrees and attributes.

  19. Living with parents or grandparents increases social capital and survival: 2014 General Social Survey-National Death Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Muennig

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After nearly a century-long trend toward single-family living arrangements, people in wealthy nations are increasingly living in multi-generational households. Multi-generational living arrangements can, in theory, increase psychological, social, and financial capital—factors associated with improvements in health and longevity. Methods: We conducted a survival analysis using the 2014 General Social Survey-National Death Index, a prospective multi-year survey. We explored whether single generational living arrangements were associated with a higher risk of mortality than multi-generational living arrangements. Results: We explored this association for different groups (e.g., the foreign-born and those with high self-reported stress in family relationships. Healthy subjects who live in two-generation households were found to have lower premature mortality (hazard ratio 0.9, 95% confidence interval = 0.82, 0.99. Otherwise, we found little evidence that living arrangements matter for the respondents’ risk of premature mortality. Conclusions: Healthy people living in two-generation households have longer survival than healthy people living on their own. Keywords: Immigrant Health, Survival, Social capital and health

  20. An investigation of social class inequalities in general cognitive ability in two British birth cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Connelly, Roxanne; Gayle, Vernon

    2018-01-01

    The ‘Flynn effect’ describes the substantial and long-standing increase in average cognitive ability test scores, which has been observed in numerous psychological studies. Flynn makes an appeal for researchers to move beyond psychology’s standard disciplinary boundaries and to consider sociological contexts, in order to develop a more comprehensive understanding of cognitive inequalities. In this article we respond to this appeal and investigate social class inequalities in general cognitive...